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Sample records for area level socioeconomic

  1. Do relationships between environmental attributes and recreational walking vary according to area-level socioeconomic status?

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Howard, Natasha J; Paquet, Catherine; Coffee, Neil T; Taylor, Anne W; Daniel, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Residents of areas with lower socioeconomic status (SES) are known to be less physically active during leisure time. Neighborhood walkability has been shown to be related to recreational walking equally in low and high SES areas. This cross-sectional study tested whether associations of specific environmental attributes, measured objectively and subjectively, with walking for recreation were moderated by area-level SES. The data of the North West Adelaide Health Study collected in 2007 (n = 1500, mean age 57) were used. Self-reported walking frequency was the outcome of the study. Environmental exposure measures included objectively measured walkability components (residential density, intersection density, land use mix, and net retail area ratio) and perceived attributes (access to destinations, neighborhood esthetics, walking infrastructure, traffic/barriers, and crime safety). Participants' suburbs were categorized into low and high SES areas using an indicator of socioeconomic disadvantage. Low SES areas had lower scores in residential density, neighborhood esthetics, walking infrastructure, traffic/barriers, and crime safety. Recreational walking was associated with residential density, access to destinations, esthetics, traffic/barriers, and crime safety. Effect modification was observed for two attributes (out of nine): residential density was associated with walking only in low SES areas, while walking infrastructure was associated with walking only in high SES areas. The associations of neighborhood environmental attributes with recreational walking were largely consistent across SES groups. However, low SES areas were disadvantaged in most perceived environmental attributes related to recreational walking. Improving such attributes in low SES neighborhoods may help close socioeconomic disparities in leisure time physical activity.

  2. Area-level socioeconomic characteristics, prevalence and trajectories of cardiometabolic risk.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Anh D; Paquet, Catherine; Howard, Natasha J; Coffee, Neil T; Taylor, Anne W; Adams, Robert J; Daniel, Mark

    2014-01-08

    This study examines the relationships between area-level socioeconomic position (SEP) and the prevalence and trajectories of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the count of its constituents (i.e., disturbed glucose and insulin metabolism, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension). A cohort of 4,056 men and women aged 18+ living in Adelaide, Australia was established in 2000-2003. MetS was ascertained at baseline, four and eight years via clinical examinations. Baseline area-level median household income, percentage of residents with a high school education, and unemployment rate were derived from the 2001 population Census. Three-level random-intercepts logistic and Poisson regression models were performed to estimate the standardized odds ratio (SOR), prevalence risk ratio (SRR), ratio of SORs/SRRs, and (95% confidence interval (CI)). Interaction between area- and individual-level SEP variables was also tested. The odds of having MetS and the count of its constituents increased over time. This increase did not vary according to baseline area-level SEP (ratios of SORs/SRRs ≈ 1; p ≥ 0.42). However, at baseline, after adjustment for individual SEP and health behaviours, median household income (inversely) and unemployment rate (positively) were significantly associated with MetS prevalence (SOR (95%CI) = 0.76 (0.63-0.90), and 1.48 (1.26-1.74), respectively), and the count of its constituents (SRR (95%CI) = 0.96 (0.93-0.99), and 1.06 (1.04-1.09), respectively). The inverse association with area-level education was statistically significant only in participants with less than post high school education (SOR (95%CI) = 0.58 (0.45-0.73), and SRR (95%CI) = 0.91 (0.88-0.94)). Area-level SEP does not predict an elevated trajectory to developing MetS or an elevated count of its constituents. However, at baseline, area-level SEP was inversely associated with prevalence of MetS and the count of its constituents, with the association of area-level education being

  3. Area-level socioeconomic deprivation, nitrogen dioxide exposure, and term birth weight in New York City.

    PubMed

    Shmool, Jessie L C; Bobb, Jennifer F; Ito, Kazuhiko; Elston, Beth; Savitz, David A; Ross, Zev; Matte, Thomas D; Johnson, Sarah; Dominici, Francesca; Clougherty, Jane E

    2015-10-01

    Numerous studies have linked air pollution with adverse birth outcomes, but relatively few have examined differential associations across the socioeconomic gradient. To evaluate interaction effects of gestational nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and area-level socioeconomic deprivation on fetal growth, we used: (1) highly spatially-resolved air pollution data from the New York City Community Air Survey (NYCCAS); and (2) spatially-stratified principle component analysis of census variables previously associated with birth outcomes to define area-level deprivation. New York City (NYC) hospital birth records for years 2008-2010 were restricted to full-term, singleton births to non-smoking mothers (n=243,853). We used generalized additive mixed models to examine the potentially non-linear interaction of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and deprivation categories on birth weight (and estimated linear associations, for comparison), adjusting for individual-level socio-demographic characteristics and sensitivity testing adjustment for co-pollutant exposures. Estimated NO2 exposures were highest, and most varying, among mothers residing in the most-affluent census tracts, and lowest among mothers residing in mid-range deprivation tracts. In non-linear models, we found an inverse association between NO2 and birth weight in the least-deprived and most-deprived areas (p-values<0.001 and 0.05, respectively) but no association in the mid-range of deprivation (p=0.8). Likewise, in linear models, a 10 ppb increase in NO2 was associated with a decrease in birth weight among mothers in the least-deprived and most-deprived areas of -16.2g (95% CI: -21.9 to -10.5) and -11.0 g (95% CI: -22.8 to 0.9), respectively, and a non-significant change in the mid-range areas [β=0.5 g (95% CI: -7.7 to 8.7)]. Linear slopes in the most- and least-deprived quartiles differed from the mid-range (reference group) (p-values<0.001 and 0.09, respectively). The complex patterning in air pollution exposure and deprivation

  4. Area-level socioeconomic context, total mortality and cause-specific mortality in Spain: Heterogeneous findings depending on the level of geographic aggregation.

    PubMed

    Regidor, Enrique; Vallejo, Fernando; Reques, Laura; Cea, Lucía; Miqueleiz, Estrella; Barrio, Gregorio

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the association between area-level socioeconomic context and mortality in Spain, using two different geographic aggregations. Nation-wide prospective study covering all persons living in Spain in 2001. Mortality was analysed in Spanish citizens by province of residence and in citizens of Madrid by neighbourhood of residence. Provinces and neighbourhoods were grouped into quartiles according to two socioeconomic indicators: percentage of the population with university education and unemployment rate. The measure of association was the rate ratio for total mortality and cause-specific mortality, by each socioeconomic indicator in two age groups, 25-64 years (adult population) and 65 years and over (elderly population). After adjustment for all individual socioeconomic variables, the rate ratio for total mortality among residents in the provinces with the worst versus best socioeconomic context was 0.92 (95% CI 0.88-0.97) when the indicator was percentage of university population and 0.89 (0.85-0.93) when it was unemployment rate in the adult population, and 1.05 (1.00-1.11) and 1.08 (1.03-1.13), respectively, in the elderly population. No significant differences in mortality were observed between adults residing in neighbourhoods with the worst versus best socioeconomic context, but in the elderly population the mortality rate ratios for the two socioeconomic indicators were 1.04 (1.01-1.07) and 1.06 (1.03-1.09), respectively. Residents in provinces with the worst socioeconomic context had the lowest mortality from cancer and external causes and the highest mortality from cardiovascular diseases, while residents in neighbourhoods with the worst socioeconomic context had the highest mortality from respiratory and digestive diseases. Further research should find out the reasons for the lower total mortality in adult population residing in the Spanish provinces with the most adverse socioeconomic context and the reasons for

  5. Composite Measures of Individual and Area-Level Socio-Economic Status Are Associated with Visual Impairment in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Wah, Win; Earnest, Arul; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Wong, Tien Y.; Lamoureux, Ecosse L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the independent relationship of individual- and area-level socio-economic status (SES) with the presence and severity of visual impairment (VI) in an Asian population. Methods Cross-sectional data from 9993 Chinese, Malay and Indian adults aged 40–80 years who participated in the Singapore Epidemiology of eye Diseases (2004–2011) in Singapore. Based on the presenting visual acuity (PVA) in the better-seeing eye, VI was categorized into normal vision (logMAR≤0.30), low vision (logMAR>0.30<1.00), and blindness (logMAR≥1.00). Any VI was defined as low vision/blindness in the PVA of better-seeing eye. Individual-level low-SES was defined as a composite of primary-level education, monthly income<2000 SGD and residing in 1 or 2-room public apartment. An area-level SES was assessed using a socio-economic disadvantage index (SEDI), created using 12 variables from the 2010 Singapore census. A high SEDI score indicates a relatively poor SES. Associations between SES measures and presence and severity of VI were examined using multi-level, mixed-effects logistic and multinomial regression models. Results The age-adjusted prevalence of any VI was 19.62% (low vision = 19%, blindness = 0.62%). Both individual- and area-level SES were positively associated with any VI and low vision after adjusting for confounders. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of any VI was 2.11(1.88–2.37) for low-SES and 1.07(1.02–1.13) per 1 standard deviation increase in SEDI. When stratified by unilateral/bilateral categories, while low SES showed significant associations with all categories, SEDI showed a significant association with bilateral low vision only. The association between low SES and any VI remained significant among all age, gender and ethnic sub-groups. Although a consistent positive association was observed between area-level SEDI and any VI, the associations were significant among participants aged 40–65 years and male. Conclusion In this

  6. Socio-economic benefits from protected areas in southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Heagney, E C; Kovac, M; Fountain, J; Conner, N

    2015-12-01

    International case studies of protected area performance increasingly report that conservation and socio-economic outcomes are interdependent. Effective conservation requires support and cooperation from local governments and communities, which in turn requires that protected areas contribute to the economic well-being of the communities in which they are sited. Despite increasing recognition of their importance, robust studies that document the socio-economic impacts of protected areas are rare, especially in the developed world context. We proposed 3 potential pathways through which protected areas might benefit local communities in the developed world: the improved local housing value, local business stimulus, and increased local funding pathways. We examined these pathways by undertaking a statistical longitudinal analysis of 110 regional and rural communities covering an area of approximately 600,000 km(2) in southeastern Australia. We compared trends in 10 socio-economic indicators describing employment, income, housing, business development and local government revenue from 2000 to 2010. New protected areas acquisitions led to an increased number of new dwelling approvals and associated developer contributions, increased local business numbers, and increased local government revenue from user-pays services and grants. Longer-term effects of established protected areas included increased local council revenue from a variety of sources. Our findings provide support for each of our 3 proposed benefit pathways and contribute new insights into the cycling of benefits from protected areas through the economy over time. The business and legislative models in our study are typical of those operating in many other developed countries; thus, the benefit pathways reported in our study are likely to be generalizable. By identifying and communicating socio-economic benefits from terrestrial protected areas in a developed world context, our findings represent an important

  7. Evaluating area-level spatial clustering of Salmonella Enteritidis infections and their socioeconomic determinants in the greater Toronto area, Ontario, Canada (2007 – 2009): a retrospective population-based ecological study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There have been only a few region-level ecological studies conducted in Canada investigating enteric infections in humans. Our study objectives were to 1) assess the spatial clustering of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) human infections in the Greater Toronto Area, and 2) identify underlying area-level associations between S. Enteritidis infection rates and socioeconomic status (SES) indicators that might explain the clustering of infections. Methods Retrospective data on S. Enteritidis infections from 2007 to 2009 were obtained from Ontario’s reportable disease surveillance database and were grouped at the forward sortation area (FSA) - level. A spatial scan statistic was employed to identify FSA-level spatial clusters of high infection rates. Negative binomial regression was used to identify FSA-level associations between S. Enteritidis infection rates and SES indicators obtained from the 2006 Census of Canada. Global Moran’s I statistic was used to evaluate the final model for residual spatial clustering. Results A spatial cluster that included nine neighbouring FSAs was identified in downtown Toronto. A significant positive curvilinear relationship was observed between S. Enteritidis infection rates and FSA-level average number of children at home per census family. Areas with high and areas with low average median family income had higher infection rates than FSAs with medium average median family income. Areas with a high proportion of visible minority population had lower infection rates than FSAs with a medium proportion of visible minority population. The Moran’s I statistic was not significant, indicating that no residual spatial autocorrelation was present after accounting for the SES variables in the final model. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that FSAs with high and low average median family income, medium proportion of visible minority population, and high average number of children at home per census

  8. Drivers and Socioeconomic Impacts of Tourism Participation in Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Vogt, Christine A.; Luo, Junyan; He, Guangming; Frank, Kenneth A.; Liu, Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Nature-based tourism has the potential to enhance global biodiversity conservation by providing alternative livelihood strategies for local people, which may alleviate poverty in and around protected areas. Despite the popularity of the concept of nature-based tourism as an integrated conservation and development tool, empirical research on its actual socioeconomic benefits, on the distributional pattern of these benefits, and on its direct driving factors is lacking, because relevant long-term data are rarely available. In a multi-year study in Wolong Nature Reserve, China, we followed a representative sample of 220 local households from 1999 to 2007 to investigate the diverse benefits that these households received from recent development of nature-based tourism in the area. Within eight years, the number of households directly participating in tourism activities increased from nine to sixty. In addition, about two-thirds of the other households received indirect financial benefits from tourism. We constructed an empirical household economic model to identify the factors that led to household-level participation in tourism. The results reveal the effects of local households' livelihood assets (i.e., financial, human, natural, physical, and social capitals) on the likelihood to participate directly in tourism. In general, households with greater financial (e.g., income), physical (e.g., access to key tourism sites), human (e.g., education), and social (e.g., kinship with local government officials) capitals and less natural capital (e.g., cropland) were more likely to participate in tourism activities. We found that residents in households participating in tourism tended to perceive more non-financial benefits in addition to more negative environmental impacts of tourism compared with households not participating in tourism. These findings suggest that socioeconomic impact analysis and change monitoring should be included in nature-based tourism management systems

  9. Drivers and socioeconomic impacts of tourism participation in protected areas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Vogt, Christine A; Luo, Junyan; He, Guangming; Frank, Kenneth A; Liu, Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Nature-based tourism has the potential to enhance global biodiversity conservation by providing alternative livelihood strategies for local people, which may alleviate poverty in and around protected areas. Despite the popularity of the concept of nature-based tourism as an integrated conservation and development tool, empirical research on its actual socioeconomic benefits, on the distributional pattern of these benefits, and on its direct driving factors is lacking, because relevant long-term data are rarely available. In a multi-year study in Wolong Nature Reserve, China, we followed a representative sample of 220 local households from 1999 to 2007 to investigate the diverse benefits that these households received from recent development of nature-based tourism in the area. Within eight years, the number of households directly participating in tourism activities increased from nine to sixty. In addition, about two-thirds of the other households received indirect financial benefits from tourism. We constructed an empirical household economic model to identify the factors that led to household-level participation in tourism. The results reveal the effects of local households' livelihood assets (i.e., financial, human, natural, physical, and social capitals) on the likelihood to participate directly in tourism. In general, households with greater financial (e.g., income), physical (e.g., access to key tourism sites), human (e.g., education), and social (e.g., kinship with local government officials) capitals and less natural capital (e.g., cropland) were more likely to participate in tourism activities. We found that residents in households participating in tourism tended to perceive more non-financial benefits in addition to more negative environmental impacts of tourism compared with households not participating in tourism. These findings suggest that socioeconomic impact analysis and change monitoring should be included in nature-based tourism management systems

  10. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Socioeconomics

    SciTech Connect

    Saulsbury, J.W.; Sorensen, B.M.; Reed, R.M.; Schexnayder, S.M.

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background information on socioeconomic resources collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3--4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The USDOE published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This document provides background information on socioeconomic resources in Hawaii County, with particular emphasis on the Puna District. Information is being made available for use by others in conducting future socioeconomic impact assessments in this area. this report describes existing socioeconomic resources in the areas studied and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. The socioeconomic resources described are primarily those that would be affected by employment and population growth associated with any future large-scale development. These resource categories are population, housing, land use, economic structure, infrastructure and public services, local government revenues and expenditures, and tourism and recreation.

  11. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Socioeconomics (DRAFT)

    SciTech Connect

    Saulsbury, J.W.; Sorensen, B.M.; Schexnayder, S.M.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background information on socioeconomic resources collected during the preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed. Regis. 5925638), withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed Regis. 57:5433), of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGPEIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This document provides background information on socioeconomic resources in Hawaii County, with particular emphasis on the Puna District (Fig. 1). Information is being made available for use by others in conducting future socioeconomic impact assessments in this area. This report describes existing socioeconomic resources in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. The socioeconomic resources described are primarily those that would be affected by employment and population growth associated with any future large-scale development. These resource categories are (1) population, (2) housing, (3) land use, (4) economic structure (primarily employment and income), (5) infrastructure and public services (education, ground transportation, police and fire protection, water, wastewater, solid waste disposal, electricity, and emergency planning), (6) local government revenues and expenditures, and (7) tourism and recreation.

  12. Regional Inequalities in Lung Cancer Mortality in Belgium at the Beginning of the 21st Century: The Contribution of Individual and Area-Level Socioeconomic Status and Industrial Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Hagedoorn, Paulien; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Willaert, Didier; Vanthomme, Katrien; Gadeyne, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Being a highly industrialized country with one of the highest male lung cancer mortality rates in Europe, Belgium is an interesting study area for lung cancer research. This study investigates geographical patterns in lung cancer mortality in Belgium. More specifically it probes into the contribution of individual as well as area-level characteristics to (sub-district patterns in) lung cancer mortality. Data from the 2001 census linked to register data from 2001–2011 are used, selecting all Belgian inhabitants aged 65+ at time of the census. Individual characteristics include education, housing status and home ownership. Urbanicity, unemployment rate, the percentage employed in mining and the percentage employed in other high-risk industries are included as sub-district characteristics. Regional variation in lung cancer mortality at sub-district level is estimated using directly age-standardized mortality rates. The association between lung cancer mortality and individual and area characteristics, and their impact on the variation of sub-district level is estimated using multilevel Poisson models. Significant sub-district variations in lung cancer mortality are observed. Individual characteristics explain a small share of this variation, while a large share is explained by sub-district characteristics. Individuals with a low socioeconomic status experience a higher lung cancer mortality risk. Among women, an association with lung cancer mortality is found for the sub-district characteristics urbanicity and unemployment rate, while for men lung cancer mortality was associated with the percentage employed in mining. Not just individual characteristics, but also area characteristics are thus important determinants of (regional differences in) lung cancer mortality. PMID:26760040

  13. Racial and Socioeconomic Variations in Preadolescent Area-Specific and General Self-esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Bruce R.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses a study of two hundred and ten fifth-grade students, noting indications that children of varying backgrounds differ in their levels of general and area-specific self-esteem across both racial and socioeconomic lines but not significantly by sex. For availability see CS 704 480. (MH)

  14. Agreement in measuring socio-economic status: area-based versus individual measures.

    PubMed

    Demissie, K; Hanley, J A; Menzies, D; Joseph, L; Ernst, P

    2000-01-01

    Area-based socio-economic status (SES) measures are frequently used in epidemiology. Such an approach assumes socio-economic homogeneity within an area. To quantify the agreement between area-based SES measures and SES assessed at the individual level, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 943 children who resided in 155 small enumeration areas and 117 census tracts from 18 schools in Montreal, Quebec. We used street address information together with 1986 census data and parental occupation to establish area-based and individual level SES indicators, respectively. As compared with the SES score determined at the level of the individual, 13 different area-based SES indices classified the children within the same quintile 28.7% (+/- 2.8%) of the time. The discrepancy was within one quintile in 35.3% (+/- 2.3%) of cases, two quintiles in 20.6% (+/- 3.6%), three quintiles in 11.3% (+/- 4.2%) and four quintiles in 4.1% (+/- 0.2%). In conclusion, we observed a substantial discrepancy between area- based SES measures and SES assessed at the individual level. Caution should therefore be used in designing or interpreting the results of studies in which area-based SES measures are used to test hypotheses or control for confounding.

  15. A multilevel analysis of socioeconomic (small area) differences in household food purchasing behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Turrell, G; Blakely, T; Patterson, C; Oldenburg, B

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: To examine the association between area and individual level socioeconomic status (SES) and food purchasing behaviour. Design: The sample comprised 1000 households and 50 small areas. Data were collected by face to face interview (66.4% response rate). SES was measured using a composite area index of disadvantage (mean 1026.8, SD = 95.2) and household income. Purchasing behaviour was scored as continuous indices ranging from 0 to 100 for three food types: fruits (mean 50.5, SD = 17.8), vegetables (61.8, 15.2), and grocery items (51.4, 17.6), with higher scores indicating purchasing patterns more consistent with dietary guideline recommendations. Setting: Brisbane, Australia, 2000. Participants: Persons responsible for their household's food purchasing. Main results: Controlling for age, gender, and household income, a two standard deviation increase on the area SES measure was associated with a 2.01 unit increase on the fruit purchasing index (95% CI -0.49 to 4.50). The corresponding associations for vegetables and grocery foods were 0.60 (-1.36 to 2.56) and 0.94 (-1.35 to 3.23). Before controlling for household income, significant area level differences were found for each food, suggesting that clustering of household income within areas (a composition effect) accounted for the purchasing variability between them. Conclusions: Living in a socioeconomically advantaged area was associated with a tendency to purchase healthier food, however, the association was small in magnitude and the 95% CI for area SES included the null. Although urban areas in Brisbane are differentiated on the basis of their socioeconomic characteristics, it seems unlikely that where you live shapes your procurement of food over and above your personal characteristics. PMID:14966233

  16. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in amenable mortality in urban areas of Spanish cities, 1996–2007

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While research continues into indicators such as preventable and amenable mortality in order to evaluate quality, access, and equity in the healthcare, it is also necessary to continue identifying the areas of greatest risk owing to these causes of death in urban areas of large cities, where a large part of the population is concentrated, in order to carry out specific actions and reduce inequalities in mortality. This study describes inequalities in amenable mortality in relation to socioeconomic status in small urban areas, and analyses their evolution over the course of the periods 1996–99, 2000–2003 and 2004–2007 in three major cities in the Spanish Mediterranean coast (Alicante, Castellón, and Valencia). Methods All deaths attributed to amenable causes were analysed among non-institutionalised residents in the three cities studied over the course of the study periods. Census tracts for the cities were grouped into 3 socioeconomic status levels, from higher to lower levels of deprivation, using 5 indicators obtained from the 2001 Spanish Population Census. For each city, the relative risks of death were estimated between socioeconomic status levels using Poisson’s Regression models, adjusted for age and study period, and distinguishing between genders. Results Amenable mortality contributes significantly to general mortality (around 10%, higher among men), having decreased over time in the three cities studied for men and women. In the three cities studied, with a high degree of consistency, it has been seen that the risks of mortality are greater in areas of higher deprivation, and that these excesses have not significantly modified over time. Conclusions Although amenable mortality decreases over the time period studied, the socioeconomic inequalities observed are maintained in the three cities. Areas have been identified that display excesses in amenable mortality, potentially attributable to differences in the healthcare system

  17. Socioeconomic studies of high-level nuclear waste disposal.

    PubMed Central

    White, G F; Bronzini, M S; Colglazier, E W; Dohrenwend, B; Erikson, K; Hansen, R; Kneese, A V; Moore, R; Page, E B; Rappaport, R A

    1994-01-01

    The socioeconomic investigations of possible impacts of the proposed repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have been unprecedented in several respects. They bear on the public decision that sooner or later will be made as to where and how to dispose permanently of the waste presently at military weapons installations and that continues to accumulate at nuclear power stations. No final decision has yet been made. There is no clear precedent from other countries. The organization of state and federal studies is unique. The state studies involve more disciplines than any previous efforts. They have been carried out in parallel to federal studies and have pioneered in defining some problems and appropriate research methods. A recent annotated bibliography provides interested scientists with a compact guide to the 178 published reports, as well as to relevant journal articles and related documents. PMID:7971963

  18. Spatial Relationship Quantification between Environmental, Socioeconomic and Health Data at Different Geographic Levels

    PubMed Central

    Saib, Mahdi-Salim; Caudeville, Julien; Carre, Florence; Ganry, Olivier; Trugeon, Alain; Cicolella, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Spatial health inequalities have often been analyzed in terms of socioeconomic and environmental factors. The present study aimed to evaluate spatial relationships between spatial data collected at different spatial scales. The approach was illustrated using health outcomes (mortality attributable to cancer) initially aggregated to the county level, district socioeconomic covariates, and exposure data modeled on a regular grid. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) was used to quantify spatial relationships. The strongest associations were found when low deprivation was associated with lower lip, oral cavity and pharynx cancer mortality and when low environmental pollution was associated with low pleural cancer mortality. However, applying this approach to other areas or to other causes of death or with other indicators requires continuous exploratory analysis to assess the role of the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP) and downscaling the health data on the study of the relationship, which will allow decision-makers to develop interventions where they are most needed. PMID:24705362

  19. The Association of Area Socioeconomic Status and Breast, Cervical, and Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Pruitt, Sandi L.; Shim, Matthew J.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Vernon, Sally W.; Amick, Benjamin C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Although numerous studies have examined the association of area socioeconomic status (SES) and cancer screening after controlling for individual SES, findings have been inconsistent. A systematic review of existing studies is timely in order to identify conceptual and methodologic limitations and to provide a basis for future research directions and policy. Objective The objectives were to: 1) describe the study designs, constructs, methods, and measures; 2) describe the independent association of area SES and cancer screening; and 3) identify neglected areas of research. Methods We searched 6 electronic databases and manually searched cited and citing articles. Eligible studies were published before 2008 in peer-reviewed journals in English, represented primary data on individuals aged ≥18 years from developed countries, and measured the association of area and individual SES with breast, cervical, or colorectal cancer screening. Results Of 19 eligible studies, most measured breast cancer screening. Studies varied widely in research design, definitions and measures of SES, cancer screening behaviors, and covariates. Eight employed multilevel logistic regression, the remainder analyzed data with standard single level logistic regression. The majority measured 1 or 2 indicators of area and individual SES; common indicators at both levels were poverty, income, and education. There was no consistent pattern in the association between area SES and cancer screening. Discussion The gaps and conceptual and methodologic heterogeneity in the literature to date limit definitive conclusions about an underlying association between area SES and cancer screening. We identify five areas of research deserving greater attention in the literature. PMID:19815634

  20. The Purdue Elementary Problem-Solving Inventory (PEPSI), Grade Level, and Socioeconomic Status: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, David W.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of grade level and socioeconomic status upon Purdue Elementary Problem-Solving Inventory (PEPSI) scores were investigated with 123 elementary students. It was concluded that the PEPSI is usable with most grade two through grade six pupils at both lower and middle socioeconomic levels, and has potential utility in teaching…

  1. Are some areas more equal than others? Socioeconomic inequality in potentially avoidable emergency hospital admissions within English local authority areas

    PubMed Central

    Asaria, Miqdad; Barratt, Helen; Raine, Rosalind; Cookson, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Reducing health inequalities is an explicit goal of England’s health system. Our aim was to compare the performance of English local administrative areas in reducing socioeconomic inequality in emergency hospital admissions for ambulatory care sensitive chronic conditions. Methods We used local authority area as a stable proxy for health and long-term care administrative geography between 2004/5 and 2011/12. We linked inpatient hospital activity, deprivation, primary care, and population data to small area neighbourhoods (typical population 1500) within administrative areas (typical population 250,000). We measured absolute inequality gradients nationally and within each administrative area using neighbourhood-level linear models of the relationship between national deprivation and age–sex-adjusted emergency admission rates. We assessed local equity performance by comparing local inequality against national inequality to identify areas significantly more or less equal than expected; evaluated stability over time; and identified where equity performance was steadily improving or worsening. We then examined associations between change in socioeconomic inequalities and change in within-area deprivation (gentrification). Finally, we used administrative area-level random and fixed effects models to examine the contribution of primary care to inequalities in admissions. Results Data on 316 administrative areas were included in the analysis. Local inequalities were fairly stable between consecutive years, but 32 areas (10%) showed steadily improving or worsening equity. In the 21 improving areas, the gap between most and least deprived fell by 3.9 admissions per 1000 (six times the fall nationally) between 2004/5 and 2011/12, while in the 11 areas worsening, the gap widened by 2.4. There was no indication that measured improvements in local equity were an artefact of gentrification or that changes in primary care supply or quality contributed to changes in

  2. Individual and School-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Physical Activity in Australian School children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lucy; Maher, Carol; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Olds, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background: We attempted to determine whether there was a socioeconomic gradient in 9- to 11-year-old Australian children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and whether school facilities or policies supporting physical activity were associated with school-level socioeconomic status (SES) and MVPA. Methods: Children (N = 528) from 26…

  3. Learning Strategies in Different Socioeconomic Levels. Final Report, June 27, 1968 - September 1, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Martin M.; And Others

    Learning behavior of young children of contrasting socioeconomic backgrounds is examined in this study, which poses the question: what are the necessary or sufficient environmental conditions for the establishment of identifiable patterns of behavior? Socioeconomic level (SEL), the principal independent variable, was defined in terms of parental…

  4. Demographic and socio-economic determinants of post-neonatal deaths in a special project area of rural northern India.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Zubair

    2003-07-01

    The demographic and socio-economic determinants of post-neonatal deaths (n = 475) in a special project area of rural northern India (Ballabgarh) were ascertained from 1991 to 1999 using the electronic database system of the project area for data extraction, and were compared with the eligible living children of the same age using a matched population-based case-control study design. Similar determinants were also ascertained in neonatal deaths (n = 212) using the same study design. After controlling for the potential confounders using conditional logistic regression analyses, lower caste (a proxy measure for low socio-economic conditions in rural India) was found to be significantly associated with higher post-neonatal deaths (OR = 2.21). Higher maternal age (>30 years) and fathers' lower educational levels were significantly associated with higher neonatal deaths, in addition to higher post-neonatal deaths in the same area.

  5. [Seroprevalence of helicobacter pylori infection in the republic of Argentina: influence of age, sex, socioeconomic level, geographical area, and health infrastructure. Multicenter study by the Club Argentino del Estomago y Duodeno].

    PubMed

    Pest, P S; Corti, R; Pedrana, R; Varela, A; Glanczpigel, R; Schraier, M

    1999-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection affects almost half of the world population, it is almost a pandemia, and has been associated to poverty in underdeveloped countries. The Club Argentino del Estómago y Duodeno decided to fulfill the lack of information upon this subject in Argentina designing a seroprevalence, multicentric, prospective study performed in voluntary adults donors in blood banks and in children seen during normal growth controls. Seven hundred and nineteen individuals were evaluated, 645 of them were included: 178 children (age 0-18 years) and 467 adults. In all cases a serological IgG Hp test (Flex-Pack Abbott) was performed and an epidemiological questionnaire was completed by a physician. General prevalence of Hp infection was 44.8% of individuals. In the paediatric population prevalence was 15.7% and in adults 55.9%. The highest prevalence was observed in the fifth decade: 64%. In concordance with other similar studies carried out in different countries, we may conclude that the risk of acquisition of Hp infection is directly related to age, area of residence, social-economical status, sanitary facilities, and educational level reached. Even though the prevalence of Hp infection in Argentina is intermediate between highly developed and underdeveloped countries, the number of people infected is very high and the incidence of Hp-associated pathologies in the future represents a formidable task for gastroenterologists and sanitary authorities.

  6. Socioeconomic baseline characterization for the Savannah River Plant area

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the social and economic characteristics of the environs of the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The characterization is keyed to those areas of the social and economic environment that could be impacted by the construction and operation of major facilities at SRP. The data consists of past trends and existing characteristics of the area's land use; its demographic, social, and economic profile; regional government; community services; housing, transportation; and historical, scenic, and archeological resources. Published documents, reports, and brochures were the primary sources of all the data presented in this document. When current published data was unavailable, representatives of federal, state, and local agencies were contacted by telephone. Conversations were followed by letters of verification, which were reviewed and verified by the agency representative.

  7. Socio-economic factors affecting the conservation of natural woodlands in Central Riyadh Area - Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Subaiee, Faisal Sultan

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to identify some socioeconomic factors affecting local people in central Riyadh area for the utilization of wood and other energy sources in cooking and heating in order to develop some recommendations for conserving woodlands. The study results revealed that gas is the most common energy source used for cooking with a mean usage level of 2.79 (SD = 0.58). On the other hand, wood ranked first for heating with the highest mean, usage level of 1.90 (SD = 1.06). However, electricity and gas as sources of energy for heating ranked second and third with mean usage level of 1.81 and 0.80 respectively. The study revealed that local people with the university education were significantly making higher use of electricity for both cooking and heating and those with no formal education ranked the highest on wood use for both cooking and heating. In addition, those living in traditional houses significantly used more wood for cooking than those living in villas and apartments. Also, local people with high income levels significantly were using more electricity for heating than others. The study recommended conducting extension and environmental awareness raising programs to enhance local residents' adoption of wood substitutes, promoting employment opportunities for unemployed locals, and subsidizing prices of alternative energy sources.

  8. The Association between Socio-economic Context at Individual and Neighbourhood Levels, Wellbeing and Lifestyle Behaviours of Young Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    SALEHI, Asiyeh; HARRIS, Neil; SEBAR, Bernadette; COYNE, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study explored the relationship between socio-economic characteristics at the individual and neighbourhood levels, and wellbeing and lifestyle behaviours of young Iranian women. Methods: Cluster convenience sampling was used to select 391 Iranian women participated in this cross-sectional survey in Shiraz, Iran in 2013. A scale adapted from the British General Household Social Capital questionnaire was used to assess neighbourhood socio-economic characteristics. The satisfaction with life scale, WHO quality of life scale, and the International Health and Behaviours Survey were used to measure wellbeing outcomes and lifestyle behaviours. Results: Findings showed participants were dissatisfied with their neighbourhood socio-economic conditions (M: 36.3±9.8, score range: 11–60) as well as the availability of leisure facilities (M: 1.8, score range: 1–5) in their local areas. Correlations and regression analysis revealed that better neighbourhood socio-economic characteristics were positively associated with better wellbeing outcomes as well as healthier lifestyle behaviours. Conclusion: These findings suggest the need for transitioning economies to be cognisant of the importance of social policy and strategies for enhancing neighbourhood socioeconomic status in order to enhance wellbeing outcomes for sub-populations, including young women. PMID:27957461

  9. Language and Disadvantage: A Comparison of the Language Abilities of Adolescents from Two Different Socioeconomic Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Sarah; Clegg, Judy; Stackhouse, Joy

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is recognized that children from areas associated with socioeconomic disadvantage are at an increased risk of delayed language development. However, so far research has focused mainly on young children and there has been little investigation into language development in adolescence. Aims: To investigate the language abilities of…

  10. Socioeconomic Determinants of Urban Poverty Area Workers' Labor Force Participation and Income.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkerton, James R.

    This study examined how the socioeconomic characteristics of male workers from poverty areas in Saint Louis, Missouri, San Antonio, Texas, and Chicago, Illinois, affect their incomes, hours of employment, unemployment, and labor force participation. The research was based on statistical analysis, using an interaction model, of data from the 1970…

  11. Preventable avoidable mortality: evolution of socioeconomic inequalities in urban areas in Spain, 1996-2003.

    PubMed

    Nolasco, Andreu; Melchor, Inmaculada; Pina, José A; Pereyra-Zamora, Pamela; Moncho, Joaquin; Tamayo, Nayara; García-Senchermes, Carmen; Zurriaga, Oscar; Martínez-Beneito, Miguel A

    2009-09-01

    This study describes the inequalities in preventable avoidable mortality in relation to socioeconomic levels and analyses their evolution during the period 1996-2003 in the cities of Alicante, Castellon and Valencia. Four causes of preventable avoidable mortality were analysed according to sex: malignant tumour of the trachea, bronchus and lung, cirrhosis and other chronic diseases of the liver, motor vehicle accidents and AIDS, which had caused the death of non-institutionalised residents in the three cities during the period 1996-2003. The different census tracts were grouped into three socioeconomic levels. In general, socioeconomic inequalities in preventable avoidable mortality remain constant in time, except the ones caused by AIDS in Valencia, where they increase for men. Some census tracts in the three cities where the study was carried out were found to have significantly higher preventable mortality rates, and therefore require intervention.

  12. The level of socioeconomic development of EU countries and the state of ISO 14001 certification.

    PubMed

    Fura, Barbara; Wang, Qingfang

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the level of socioeconomic development of the EU 28 countries and the adoption of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 environmental management system. First, through a multivariate comparative analysis of the secondary data obtained from the public statistics, a Hellwig's synthetic indicator is created to rank the level of socioeconomic development of the EU 28 countries. Then, using the total number of certificates issued in 2012 and the increase from 2011, this study has found a correlation between the level of national socioeconomic development and the adoption of ISO 14001 system in their businesses. Although there was no relationship between the number of ISO 14001 certificates in 2012 and the level of socioeconomic development at the national level, a weak negative correlation was observed between the increase of certification from 2011 to 2012 and the level of national socioeconomic development. The results suggest a higher interest in ISO 14001 adoption by the firms from the less developed countries than those from the more developed states.

  13. Presentation of Social and Academic Factors That Encourage Persistence in Secondary Schools in Rural, Low Socioeconomic Areas of Two Selected Southeastern States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Patricia C.; And Others

    This paper describes the development of a predictive model to determine potential high school dropouts and identify areas for intensified assistance at the individual or group level. V. Tinto's (1975, 1987) model of college attrition was validated for use with high school students in rural, low socioeconomic areas of the Southeast. Ex post facto…

  14. Assessment of Macro-Level Socioeconomic Factors That Impact Waterborne Diseases: The Case of Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Polimeni, John M.; Almalki, Ahmad; Iorgulescu, Raluca I.; Albu, Lucian-Liviu; Parker, Wendy M.; Chandrasekara, Ray

    2016-01-01

    The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is an example of a country that suffers from high water scarcity. Additionally, due to the economic drivers in the country, such as phosphate and potash extraction and pharmaceutical production, the little fresh water that remains is generally polluted. The infrastructure, often antiquated in urban areas and non-existent in rural areas, also contributes to poor water conditions and to the spread of waterborne diseases. This paper examines the socioeconomic factors that contribute to diarrhea and hepatitis A on a macro level in Jordan and discusses the public-policies that government officials could use to abate those problems. Ordinary least squares time series models are used to understand the macro-level variables that impact the incidence of these diseases in Jordan. Public health expenditure has a significant impact on reducing their incidence. Furthermore, investment in sanitation facilities in rural regions is likely to reduce the number of cases of hepatitis A. Perhaps the most surprising outcome is that importation of goods and services likely results in a decrease in cases of hepatitis A. However, income has little impact on the incidence of diarrhea and hepatitis A. PMID:27898017

  15. Serum retinol levels among preschool children in Central Java: demographic and socioeconomic determinants.

    PubMed

    Kjolhede, C L; Stallings, R Y; Dibley, M J; Sadjimin, T; Dawiesah, S; Padmawati, S

    1995-04-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a significant problem in many countries in the developing world. Reports have noted demographic and socioeconomic risk factors for vitamin A deficiency. As part of a population-based trial of vitamin A to prevent childhood morbidity, census data (n = 666), baseline socioeconomic data (n = 636) and sera (n = 666) were collected from children 6-48 months old in 25 adjacent villages in a rural area in Central Java, Indonesia. Participation amounted to more than 95%. The analyses used t tests, ANOVA, and a multiple variable linear regression model. The distribution of serum retinol levels (in mcmol/l) in males shifted to the left relative to females, resulting in a higher proportion of males with a level 0.70 mcmol/l (20 mcg/dl); 216/346 males versus 173/320 females (p = 0.03). However, there was no significant difference in the means by gender. Differences in mean retinol level were detected for the following variables: village (p 0.001); child's age (p = 0.03); size of sibship (p 0.001); mother's occupation (p 0.01); mother's education (p = 0.05); father's education (p = 0.03); monthly household earnings (p = 0.02); land ownership (p = 0.03); possession of ducks (p = 0.06), radio or tape player (p = 0.02), or a watch or clock (p = 0.07); and presence of a natural well (p = 0.09). There was no significant difference in mean serum retinol level for mother's marital status; father's occupation; monthly household expenditures; house ownership; composition of floors, walls, or roofs; or possession of buffaloes, cattle, goats, kerosene light fixtures, televisions, or motorcycles. The regression model verified the predictive value of village, age, sibship, land ownership, and earnings. Owning land and the highest and lowest categories of reported household income were associated with higher serum retinol levels. Also clustering of serum retinol levels was noted by village, and children from larger sibships and infants had significantly lower serum

  16. The Level of Shyness among Talented Students in Light of Socio-Economic Level of the Family in Riyadh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asi, Khaled Yousef

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify the level of shyness among talented students in the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and detect differences according to the variable of socio-economic level of the family. The sample consisted of (101) students, who randomly chosen from centers of talented students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Shyness scale utilized…

  17. Ethnic and Socioeconomic Comparisons of Fitness, Activity Levels, and Barriers to Exercise in High School Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane M.; Hall, Heather L.; Lock, Robyn

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if high school females differed in individual measures of health-related physical fitness, barriers to exercise, or activity level based on ethnicity or socioeconomic status. A cross-sectional sample consisting of African American (28%), Hispanic (23%), and white (49%) female high school students, 46%…

  18. The Relationship between Socioeconomic Characteristics and School-Level Performance Assessment Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    The relationship between selected contextual and socioeconomic variables and school-level results from a statewide performance-based student assessment system was studied using the Kentucky Instructional Results Information System (KIRIS). KIRIS uses portfolios of student work, scores from on-demand assessments, and student performance on…

  19. Socioeconomic Status, Higher-Level Mathematics Courses, Absenteeism, and Student Mobility as Indicators of Work Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folds, Lea D.; Tanner, C. Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relations among socioeconomic status, highest-level mathematics course, absenteeism, student mobility and measures of work readiness of high school seniors in Georgia. Study participants were 476 high school seniors in one Georgia county. The full regression model explained 27.5% of the variance in…

  20. Socio-economic and ecological impacts of global protected area expansion plans

    PubMed Central

    Visconti, Piero; Bakkenes, Michel; Smith, Robert J.; Joppa, Lucas; Sykes, Rachel E.

    2015-01-01

    Several global strategies for protected area (PA) expansion have been proposed to achieve the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi target 11 as a means to stem biodiversity loss, as required by the Aichi target 12. However, habitat loss outside PAs will continue to affect habitats and species, and PAs may displace human activities into areas that might be even more important for species persistence. Here we measure the expected contribution of PA expansion strategies to Aichi target 12 by estimating the extent of suitable habitat available for all terrestrial mammals, with and without additional protection (the latter giving the counterfactual outcome), under different socio-economic scenarios and consequent land-use change to 2020. We found that expanding PAs to achieve representation targets for ecoregions under a Business-as-usual socio-economic scenario will result in a worse prognosis than doing nothing for more than 50% of the world's terrestrial mammals. By contrast, targeting protection towards threatened species can increase the suitable habitat available to over 60% of terrestrial mammals. Even in the absence of additional protection, an alternative socio-economic scenario, adopting progressive changes in human consumption, leads to positive outcomes for mammals globally and to the largest improvements for wide-ranging species. PMID:26460136

  1. Socio-economic and ecological impacts of global protected area expansion plans.

    PubMed

    Visconti, Piero; Bakkenes, Michel; Smith, Robert J; Joppa, Lucas; Sykes, Rachel E

    2015-11-05

    Several global strategies for protected area (PA) expansion have been proposed to achieve the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi target 11 as a means to stem biodiversity loss, as required by the Aichi target 12. However, habitat loss outside PAs will continue to affect habitats and species, and PAs may displace human activities into areas that might be even more important for species persistence. Here we measure the expected contribution of PA expansion strategies to Aichi target 12 by estimating the extent of suitable habitat available for all terrestrial mammals, with and without additional protection (the latter giving the counterfactual outcome), under different socio-economic scenarios and consequent land-use change to 2020. We found that expanding PAs to achieve representation targets for ecoregions under a Business-as-usual socio-economic scenario will result in a worse prognosis than doing nothing for more than 50% of the world's terrestrial mammals. By contrast, targeting protection towards threatened species can increase the suitable habitat available to over 60% of terrestrial mammals. Even in the absence of additional protection, an alternative socio-economic scenario, adopting progressive changes in human consumption, leads to positive outcomes for mammals globally and to the largest improvements for wide-ranging species.

  2. Disparities in Children's Blood Lead and Mercury Levels According to Community and Individual Socioeconomic Positions.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sinye; Ha, Mina; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Son, Mia; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2015-05-29

    We aimed to examine the associations between blood lead and mercury levels and individual and community level socioeconomic positions (SEPs) in school-aged children. A longitudinal cohort study was performed in 33 elementary schools in 10 cities in Korea. Among a total of 6094 children included at baseline, the final study population, 2281 children followed-up biennially, were analyzed. The geometric mean (GM) levels of blood lead were 1.73 μg/dL (range 0.02-9.26) and 1.56 μg/dL (range 0.02-6.83) for male and female children, respectively. The blood lead levels were significantly higher in males, children living in rural areas, and those with lower individual SEP. The GM levels of blood mercury were 2.07 μg/L (range 0.09-12.67) and 2.06 μg/L (range 0.03-11.74) for males and females, respectively. Increased blood mercury levels were significantly associated with urban areas, higher individual SEP, and more deprived communities. The risk of high blood lead level was significantly higher for the lower individual SEP (odds ratio (OR) 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36-3.50 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship observed after adjusting for the community SEP. The association between high blood lead levels and lower individual SEP was much stronger in the more deprived communities (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.27-6.53) than in the less deprived communities (OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.76-2.59), and showed a significant decreasing trend during the follow-up only in the less deprived communities. The risk of high blood mercury levels was higher in higher individual SEP (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.40-1.03 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship noted. Significant decreasing trends were observed during the follow-up both in the less and more deprived communities. From a public health point-of-view, community level intervention with different approaches for different metals is

  3. Temporal trends in area socioeconomic disparities in breast-cancer incidence and mortality, 1988-2005.

    PubMed

    Schootman, Mario; Lian, Min; Deshpande, Anjali D; Baker, Elizabeth A; Pruitt, Sandi L; Aft, Rebecca; Jeffe, Donna B

    2010-07-01

    Since an overarching goal of Healthy People 2010 was to eliminate health disparities, we determined temporal trends in socioeconomic disparities in five breast-cancer indicators (in situ, stage I, lymph-node positive, and locally advanced breast-cancer incidence, and breast-cancer mortality) by county socioeconomic deprivation using 1988-2005 population-based breast-cancer data. Using 1988-2005 data from women aged 40 and older from 200 counties in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program, we examined trends in temporal disparities in the five breast-cancer indicators across quartiles of county socioeconomic deprivation. County-level trends were summarized using the estimated annual percentage change. Observed county rates were smoothed using Bayesian hierarchical spatiotemporal methods to calculate measures of absolute and relative disparity (using absolute and relative concentration indices) and their changes over time. Large increases in in situ breast cancer rates since 1988 were observed for each of the deprivation quartiles. Absolute and relative disparity both increased over time, suggesting increasing disparities across levels of county deprivation. Absolute and relative concentration indices were near zero for the other four breast-cancer indicators, suggesting no disparities among the four quartiles of county deprivation during 1988-2005. Efforts to target counties aimed at increasing breast-cancer screening based on their level of deprivation will not likely be beneficial.

  4. Calcium and magnesium concentrations in mature human milk: influence of calcium intake, age and socioeconomic level.

    PubMed

    Vítolo, M R; Valente Soares, L M; Carvalho, E B; Cardoso, C B

    2004-03-01

    Concentrations of calcium and magnesium were measured in mature milk, collected between 30 and 90 days after childbirth, from a group of 90 mothers between 14 and 39 years of age, exclusively breastfeeding. The group was divided into three sub-groups: low socioeconomic-level adolescents (LSAd), low socioeconomic-level adults (LSA), and high socioeconomic-level adults (HSA). Each mother's nutritional status was determined using the body-mass index (BMI) and her eating habits, obtained on the basis of a 24-h dietary recall. Adolescent and adult mothers in the low socioeconomic-level group had lower average calcium intake (LSAd = 618.4 +/- 555.2 mg and LSA = 679.4 +/- 411.4 mg) than adult mothers in the higher socioeconomic-level group (853.6 +/- 415.5 mg). The average concentration of calcium in the adolescent mothers' milk (LSAd) was significantly lower (5.30 +/- 1.42 mmol Ca/L, P = 0.01) than that of the two adult groups (LSA = 5.82 +/- 1.55 mmol Ca/L and HSA = 6.40 mmol Ca/L). The average magnesium concentrations for all groups did not show significant differences (LSAd = 1.06 +/- 0.18, LSA = 1.16 +/- 0.23 and HSA = 1.11 +/- 0.23 mmol Mg/L, for P= 0.16). These results indicate that magnesium concentrations in mature human milk do not seem to depend on maternal nutritional status. The condition of adolescence, however, associated with lower calcium intake by the mother, resulted in lower calcium concentrations in the milk secreted when compared to that of adult mothers.

  5. Association between individual-level and community-level socio-economic status and blood pressure among Inuit in Greenland

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Mylène; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite abundant evidence that socio-economic status (SES) is a fundamental determinant of health, there is a dearth of research examining association between SES, measured at the individual and community levels, and cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations. Objectives To examine the influence of individual-level and community-level SES on systolic and diastolic blood pressure among Greenlandic Inuit. Methods Multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from the Inuit Health in Transition – Greenland Survey, to which 3,108 Greenlandic Inuit aged 18 years and older participated. Blood pressure is measured using an automatic device, according to standardized protocol. Individual SES is measured by education. Community socio-economic conditions are measured using combined information on average disposable household income and settlement type. Results Education was not significantly associated with blood pressure. There was an inverse U-shape association between community socio-economic conditions and blood pressure with significantly lower SBP and DBP among participants living in remote traditional villages characterized by lower average disposable household income and in affluent more urbanized towns. Sex-stratified analyses demonstrate the salience of community conditions for men. Conclusions The association observed between blood pressure and community-level socio-economic conditions suggests that public health and social policies, programmes and interventions aiming to improve living conditions might improve cardiovascular health in Greenland. Studies are required to further examine social gradients in cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations using different measures of SES. PMID:27938632

  6. County-level socioeconomic status and cancer rates in Texas, 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    Risser, David R; Miller, Eric A; Williams, Melanie A; Foxhall, Lewis E

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that a person's socioeconomic status (SES) (a proxy measure that can incorporate income, wealth, education, and occupation) is associated with cancer incidence and mortality. Examining variation in cancer rates by SES can help identify health disparities and target areas for cancer control activities. The Texas Cancer Registry (TCR) collects data on every newly diagnosed case of cancer in Texas, including personal and demographic data, but does not collect data related directly to SES. Using a county-level measure of SES determined by the 2000 US Census, we compared cancer incidence and mortality rates for selected cancer sites by counties categorized into Low, Intermediate, and High SES. The cancers examined in this analysis included lung, colorectal, female breast, prostate, cervical, and all cancers collected by TCR combined. Consistent with other studies, most incidence and mortality rates were lowest in the High SES counties. However, in general, the highest incidence and mortality rates were found in counties categorized as Intermediate SES, but patterns differed by cancer site and by race and ethnicity. This study provides additional evidence that geographically related SES is associated with cancer incidence and mortality.

  7. Report summary - The Direct Economic Burden of Socioeconomic Health Inequalities in Canada: An Analysis of Health Care Costs by Income Level.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Canadian research indicates that individuals with lower incomes, less education or lower occupational skill levels tend to be less healthy than those who enjoy greater advantages in these areas. This uneven distribution of health across different socioeconomic status (SES) groups is referred to as "socioeconomic inequality in health." Evidence of the economic cost of health inequalities helps us understand the benefits of reducing these inequalities. However, the data needed to generate such evidence is difficult to obtain. A lack of Canadian data linking health costs and socioeconomic characteristics means that assessment of the degree to which health costs are associated with socioeconomic inequalities at the national level is limited. In order to build evidence on the cost of socioeconomic health inequalities, the Public Health Agency of Canada worked with Statistics Canada to test the feasibility of a "bottom-up" approach to compiling national health cost data. A bottom-up approach relies on individual-level data, which allows costs to be calculated by individual-level characteristics not always found in other data sources. This includes indicators of SES such as level of education or income. In this study, the population was divided into quintiles based on income, and the health care costs incurred by these five income groups were examined for a single year (2007-2008).

  8. Using GIS to develop socio-economic profiles of areas adjacent to DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.C.; Saraswatula, S.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of the research addressed in this paper is to identify and analyze the offsite effects of DOE activities at the Savannah River Site. The paper presents the socio-economic conditions of the areas surrounding the site in order to evaluate the possible effects of DOE activities. The study employed a geographic information system (GIS) in order to evaluate spatial relationships between otherwise unrelated factors. Socio-economic data used in the study are publicly available and were obtained mainly from the Bureau of the Census. The Department of Energy (DOE), currently dealing with the environmental management of a large number of sites throughout the United States, must consider the effects of its activities on surrounding populations and ensure compliance with the various federal regulations, such as the executive order on environmental justice. Environmental justice is the process of studying and achieving equal distribution of the effects of environmental pollution on populations across social and economic lines. An executive order signed by the President has directed federal agencies, including the Department of Energy, to make achieving environmental justice a part of the agency`s mission by identifying and addressing disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental effects of its programs, policies, and activities on minority and low-income populations.

  9. Socio-economic aspects of Gum Arabic production in Dalanj area, South Korodofan, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Koli, A O; Eltayeb, A M; Sanjak, E M; Mohammed, M H

    2013-11-01

    Acacia senegal (locally: Hashab tree) is one of the most important tree species in Sudan as it considers the main Gum Arabic producing tree. The objective of this study is to investigate the socio-economic aspects of gum Arabic production and to assess contribution of gum Arabic to sustainable livelihood of local people in Dalanj Locality, South Kordofan State-Sudan. Social survey was carried out by using structured questionnaire for 80 respondents (gum producers) on random sample basis in eight villages, 10 respondents from each village. Issues pertaining to socio-economic factors affecting gum Arabic production and contribution of gum Arabic to sustainable livelihood of local people, in Dalanj Locality, were assessed. Results of the study revealed that expansion of agriculture lands at the expense of hashab trees, fires and illegal felling are the most important factors constraining gum production in the area. The results also indicated that agriculture is the main source of income and gum Arabic is a supplementary source of income. The importance of gum Arabic becomes apparent during (off farm season) the period between crops harvest and the preparation of the next agricultural season. Establishment of producers' associations and provision of loans to producers are highly recommended to ensure sustainability of gum production.

  10. Profiling of Alzheimer’s disease patients in Puerto Rico: A comparison of two distinct socioeconomic areas

    PubMed Central

    Camacho-Mercado, Clara L; Figueroa, Raúl; Acosta, Heriberto; Arnold, Steven E; Vega, Irving E

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The Latino/Hispanic community in the United States is at higher risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease than other ethnic groups. Specifically, Caribbean Hispanics showed a more severe Alzheimer’s disease symptomatology than any other ethnic group. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the mortality rate associated with Alzheimer’s disease in Puerto Rico is higher than that reported in the United States. Moreover, the mortality rate associated with Alzheimer’s disease was higher among Puerto Rican living in Puerto Rico than those in the mainland United States. There is also a differential geographical distribution of mortality rate associated with Alzheimer’s disease in Puerto Rico, which may be associated with differential socioeconomic status and/or access to healthcare. However, there is no information regarding the clinical profile of Alzheimer’s disease patients in Puerto Rico. Methods: Here, we present the results of a retrospective study directed to profile Alzheimer’s disease patients clustered into two groups based on areas previously determined with low (Metro Region) and high (Northwest-Central Region) mortality rate associated with Alzheimer’s disease in Puerto Rico. Results: Significant difference in the age-at-diagnosis and years of education was found among patients within the two studied regions. Despite these differences, both regions showed comparable levels of initial and last Mini Mental State Examination scores and rate of cognitive decline. Significant difference was also observed in the occurance of co-morbidities associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Conclusions: The differential profile of Alzheimer’s disease patients correlated with differences in socioeconomic status between these two regions, suggesting that covariant associated with social status may contribute to increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Further studies should be conducted to determine the role of socioeconomic factors and

  11. Are associations between socio-economic characteristics and exposure to air pollution a question of study area size? An example from Scania, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Stroh, Emilie; Oudin, Anna; Gustafsson, Susanna; Pilesjö, Petter; Harrie, Lars; Strömberg, Ulf; Jakobsson, Kristina

    2005-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have shown that exposure to air pollutants in the area of residence and the socio-economic status of an individual may be related. Therefore, when conducting an epidemiological study on the health effect of air pollution, socio-economy may act as a confounding factor. In this paper we examine to what extent socio-economic status and concentrations of NO2 in the county/region of Scania, southern Sweden, are associated and if such associations between these factors differ when studying them at county or city level. To perform this study we used high-resolution census data and modelled the annual exposure to NO2 using an emission database, a dispersion modelling program and a geographical information system (GIS). Results The results from this study confirm that socio-economic status and the levels of NO2 in the area of residence are associated in some cities. The associations vary considerably between cities within the same county (Scania). Even for cities of similar sizes and population bases the associations observed are different. Studying the cities together or separately yields contradictory results, especially when education is used as a socio-economic indicator. Conclusion Four conclusions have been drawn from the results of this study. 1) Adjusting for socio-economy is important when investigating the health effects of air pollution. 2) The county of Scania seems to be heterogeneous regarding the association between air pollution and socio-economy. 3) The relationship between air pollution and socio-economy differs in the five cities included in our study, depending on whether they are analysed separately or together. It is therefore inadvisable to determine and analyse associations between socio-economy and exposure to air pollutants on county level. This study indicates that the size and choice of study area is of great importance. 4) The selection of socio-economic indices (in this study: country of birth and education level) is

  12. Area-based socioeconomic characteristics of industries at high risk for violence in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Ta, Myduc L; Marshall, Stephen W; Kaufman, Jay S; Loomis, Dana; Casteel, Carri; Land, Kenneth C

    2009-12-01

    This study examined socioeconomic factors associated with the presence of workplaces belonging to industries reported to be at high risk for worker homicide. The proportion of 2004 North Carolina workplaces in high-risk industries was computed following spatial linkage of individual workplaces to 2000 United States Census Block Groups (n = 3,925). Thirty census-derived socioeconomic variables (selected a priori as potentially predictive of violence) were summarized using exploratory factor analysis into poverty/deprivation, human/economic capital, and transience/instability. Multinomial logistic regression models indicate associations between higher proportion of workplaces belonging to high-risk industries and Block Groups with more poverty/deprivation or transience/instability and less human/economic capital. The relationship between human/economic capital and Block Groups proportion of high-risk industry workplaces was modified by levels of transience/instability. Community characteristics therefore contribute to the potential for workplace violence, and future research should continue to understand the relationship between social context and workplace violence risk.

  13. Introduction of an Area Deprivation Index Measuring Patient Socioeconomic Status in an Integrated Health System: Implications for Population Health

    PubMed Central

    Knighton, Andrew J; Savitz, Lucy; Belnap, Tom; Stephenson, Brad; VanDerslice, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Intermountain Healthcare is a fully integrated delivery system based in Salt Lake City, Utah. As a learning healthcare system with a mission of performance excellence, it became apparent that population health management and our efforts to move towards shared accountability would require additional patient-centric metrics in order to provide the right care to the right patients at the right time. Several European countries have adopted social deprivation indices in measuring the impact that social determinants can have on health. Such indices provide a geographic, area-based measure of how socioeconomically deprived residents of that area are on average. Intermountain’s approach was to identify a proxy measure that did not require front-line data collection and could be standardized for our patient population, leading us to the area deprivation index or ADI. This paper describes the specifications and calculation of an ADI for the state of Utah. Results are presented along with introduction of three use cases demonstrating the potential for application of an ADI in quality improvement in a learning healthcare system. Case Description: The Utah ADI shows promise in providing a proxy for patient-reported measures reflecting key socio-economic indicators useful for tailoring patient interventions to improve health care delivery and patient outcomes. Strengths of this approach include a consistent standardized measurement of social determinants, use of more granular block group level measures and a limited data capture burden for front-line teams. While the methodology is generalizable to other communities, results of this index are limited to block groups within the state of Utah and will differ from national calculations or calculations for other states. The use of composite measures to evaluate individual characteristics must also be approached with care. Other limitations with the use of U.S. Census data include use of estimates and missing data

  14. [Tuberculosis in a primary care center in a socioeconomically depressed area: variables associated with giving up treatment].

    PubMed

    Solá, M; Gardella, A; Llauger, M A; Muñoz, J; Birulés, M; Foz, G

    1990-06-01

    We report the features of 72 patients with tuberculosis of a low socioeconomical level, seen at the primary care center of Perecamps (Barcelona). We identify the factors associated with giving up therapy. We found a predominance of males and of the 40-59 years age group. In 1988 we found an increased rate of young patients (20-39 years) and PDA/HIV+. Twenty-five patients (35%) had had previous episodes of tuberculosis. 19 had had inadequate chemotherapy because of abandonment. The rate of follow-up losses was high (36%). A history of previous PDA/HIV+ were associated with giving up therapy. We indicate the several measures to be applied in our area to improve compliance with chemotherapy in patients with tuberculosis.

  15. Access to primary care for socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas: a realist review

    PubMed Central

    Ford, John A; Wong, Geoff; Jones, Andy P; Steel, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this review is to identify and understand the contexts that effect access to high-quality primary care for socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas. Design A realist review. Data sources MEDLINE and EMBASE electronic databases and grey literature (from inception to December 2014). Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Broad inclusion criteria were used to allow articles which were not specific, but might be relevant to the population of interest to be considered. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were assessed for rigour and relevance and coded for concepts relating to context, mechanism or outcome. Analysis An overarching patient pathway was generated and used as the basis to explore contexts, causal mechanisms and outcomes. Results 162 articles were included. Most were from the USA or the UK, cross-sectional in design and presented subgroup data by age, rurality or deprivation. From these studies, a patient pathway was generated which included 7 steps (problem identified, decision to seek help, actively seek help, obtain appointment, get to appointment, primary care interaction and outcome). Important contexts were stoicism, education status, expectations of ageing, financial resources, understanding the healthcare system, access to suitable transport, capacity within practice, the booking system and experience of healthcare. Prominent causal mechanisms were health literacy, perceived convenience, patient empowerment and responsiveness of the practice. Conclusions Socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas face personal, community and healthcare barriers that limit their access to primary care. Initiatives should be targeted at local contextual factors to help individuals recognise problems, feel welcome, navigate the healthcare system, book appointments easily, access appropriate transport and have sufficient time with professional staff to improve their experience of healthcare; all of which

  16. [Adiposity and fat distribution in preschool children from low socioeconomic levels in Caracas].

    PubMed

    Pérez, B M; Vásquez, M; Landaeta-Jiménez, M; Rámirez, G; Ledezma, T

    1997-03-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that body fat distribution in adults is associated with chronical nontransmissible diseases, less is known during the growing years. The current study was undertaken to explore the relationship between level of fatness, fat patterning and some socioenvironmental variables in a group of 449 children aged 3 to 6, living in Caracas, who belong to the poorest Venezuelan socio-economic stratum. Data was analyzed taking nutritional status (weight-for-age), an index of socioeconomic conditions (ICSA), sex and age, as control variables. Using a multivariate analysis we derived first, two groups of households (G1 and G2) as determined by socioeconomic variables, to which principal component analysis was applied to elicited fatness and relative fat patterning through six skinfolds. First component identify level of adiposity, second extremity/trunk fatness, and third upper/lower pattern. Comparison of normal children with those of low weight-for-age showed differences in adiposity and in the upper/lower patterning as detected by the skinfolds involved in the differences: subscapular (-0.53) and supraspinale (0.32) in children with low weight-for-age; triceps (-0.46) and thigh (0.29) in those classified as normal. We found that gender, nutritional condition, environmental variables and age, were significant predictors of the differences in adiposity level; while age and households conditions, appear to be related to upper/lower patterning. The data equally suggests that body fat is more centrally distributed in boys with low weight-for-age. Since these patterns are indicators of risk in the ongoing years, we call tha attention about environmental circumstances.

  17. Socioeconomic context in area of living and risk of myocardial infarction: results from Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program (SHEEP)

    PubMed Central

    Kolegard, S; Diderichsen, F; Reuterwall, C; Hallqvist, J

    2002-01-01

    Study objective: To analyse if socioeconomic characteristics in area of living affect the risk of myocardial infarction in a Swedish urban population, and to evaluate to what extent the contextual effect is confounded by the individual exposures. Design: A population based case-referent study (SHEEP). Setting: Cases (n=1631) were all incident first events of myocardial infarction during 1992–1994. The study base included all Swedish citizens aged 45–70 years, living in Stockholm metropolitan area during these years. The social context of all metropolitan parishes (n=89) was determined by routine statistics on 21 socioeconomic indicators. A factor analysis of the socioeconomic indicators resulted in three dimensions of socioeconomic deprivation, which were analysed separately as three different contextual exposures. Main results: The main characteristics of the extracted factors were; class structure, social exclusion and poverty. Among men, there were increased relative risks of similar magnitudes (1.28 to 1.33) in the more deprived areas according to all three dimensions of the socioeconomic context. However, when adjusting for individual exposures, the poverty factor had the strongest contextual impact. The contextual effects among women showed a different pattern. In comparison with women living the most affluent areas according to the class structure index, women in the rest of Stockholm metropolitan area had nearly 70% higher risk of myocardial infarction after adjustment for individual social exposures. Conclusions: The results suggest that the socioeconomic context in area of living increases the risk of myocardial infarction. The increased risk in only partially explained by individual social factors (the compositional effect). PMID:11801617

  18. Blood lead levels in pregnant women of high and low socioeconomic status in Mexico City.

    PubMed Central

    Farias, P; Borja-Aburto, V H; Rios, C; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Rojas-Lopez, M; Chavez-Ayala, R

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the determinants of blood lead (BPb) in 513 pregnant women in Mexico City: 311 from public hospital prenatal clinics, representing primarily women of low socioeconomic status (SES), and 202 from private hospitals, primarily women of high SES. Overall, BPb levels ranged from 1.38 to 29 micrograms/dl, with geometric means of 6.7 and 11.12 micrograms/dl for women from private and public hospitals, respectively. The crude geometric means difference obtained by t-test was 4.42 (p < 0.001). BPb was measured from January 1994 to August 1995 and showed higher levels during fall and winter and lower levels during spring and summer. The main BPb determinants were the use of lead-glazed ceramics in women from public hospitals and season of the year in women from private hospitals. Consumption of tortillas (corn bread rich in calcium) decreased BPb levels in the lower SES group, but the relationship was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Consumption of milk products significantly (p < 0.05) reduced BPb levels in the higher SES group. In 112 women whose diets were deficient in calcium, taking calcium supplements lowered their blood lead levels about 7 micrograms/dl. A predictive model fitted to these data, using the strongest predictors plus gestational age, showed a difference of 14 micrograms/dl between the best and worst scenarios in women from public hospitals. Avoiding use of lead-glazed ceramics, consuming diets rich in calcium, and, if needed, taking calcium supplements, would be expected to result in substantial lowering of BPb, especially in pregnant women of low socioeconomic status. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:8930548

  19. [Nutritional knowledge and its association with overweight and obesity in Mexican women with low socioeconomic level].

    PubMed

    Galindo Gómez, Carlos; Juárez Martínez, Liliana; Shamah Levy, Teresa; García Guerra, Armando; Avila Curiel, Abelardo; Quiroz Aguilar, Marco Antonio

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the association between knowledge about nutrition with the presence of obesity or overweight in women with low income in Mexico City. Data was obtained with the Urban Food and Nutrition Survey 2002 in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (ENURBAL 2002), a stratified multistage and clustered design survey. An ordinal logistic regression model was used in order to estimate the probability to present obesity and overweight or obesity, in relation to nutritional knowledge, age, education, employment, socioeconomic status, and total fat consumption. The variables that were related to overweight or obesity: correct or regular nutrition knowledge (OR = 2,00; CI95% = 1,13-3,54) and (OR = 1,54; CI 95%= 1,03-2,30), respectively; age 30 years (OR = 3,00; CI 95% = 1,94-4,64), belonging to a medium- low socioeconomic status (OR = 2,04; CI 95% = 1,33-3,15), and high fat consumption (OR = 1,65; CI 95% = 1,07-2,55). For obesity was age 30 years (OR = 2,42; IC 95% = 1,48-3,94) and high fat consumption (OR = 1,67; IC 95% = 1,05-2,66). Our results helped to identify associated factors in women with obesity and overweight from low income households, mainly those concerning with nutrition knowledge. This emphasizes the importance of improving knowledge about nutrition, in planning the strategy for interventions aimed to prevent overweight and obesity.

  20. Availability of Recreational Resources in Minority and Low Socioeconomic Status Areas

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Latetia V.; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Evenson, Kelly R.; McGinn, Aileen P.; Brines, Shannon J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Differences in availability of recreational resources may contribute to racial and SES disparities in physical activity. Variations in the location and density of recreational resources were examined by SES and racial composition of neighborhoods. Methods Densities of resources available in recreational facilities and parks were estimated for census tracts between April 2003 and June 2004 in North Carolina, New York, and Maryland using kernel estimation. The probability of not having a facility or park was modeled by tract racial composition and SES, adjusting for population and area, using binomial regression in 2006. Mean densities of tract resources were modeled by SES and racial composition using linear regression. Results Minority neighborhoods were significantly more likely than white neighborhoods not to have recreational facilities (relative probability (RP)=3.27 (95% CI=2.11–5.07) and 8.60 (95% CI=4.48–16.51), for black and Hispanic neighborhoods, respectively). Low-income neighborhoods were 4.5 times more likely to not have facilities than high-income areas (95% CI=2.87–7.12). Parks were more equitably distributed. Most resources located in recreational facilities required a fee and were less dense in minority and low-income areas. Those located inside parks were usually free to use, sports-related, and denser in poor and minority neighborhoods. Conclusions Recreational facilities and the resources they offer are not equitably distributed. The presence of parks in poor and minority areas suggest that improving the types and quality of resources in parks could be an important strategy to increase physical activity and reduce racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities. PMID:18083446

  1. Socio-economic factors affecting the conservation of natural woodlands in Central Riyadh Area – Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Subaiee, Faisal Sultan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify some socioeconomic factors affecting local people in central Riyadh area for the utilization of wood and other energy sources in cooking and heating in order to develop some recommendations for conserving woodlands. The study results revealed that gas is the most common energy source used for cooking with a mean usage level of 2.79 (SD = 0.58). On the other hand, wood ranked first for heating with the highest mean, usage level of 1.90 (SD = 1.06). However, electricity and gas as sources of energy for heating ranked second and third with mean usage level of 1.81 and 0.80 respectively. The study revealed that local people with the university education were significantly making higher use of electricity for both cooking and heating and those with no formal education ranked the highest on wood use for both cooking and heating. In addition, those living in traditional houses significantly used more wood for cooking than those living in villas and apartments. Also, local people with high income levels significantly were using more electricity for heating than others. The study recommended conducting extension and environmental awareness raising programs to enhance local residents’ adoption of wood substitutes, promoting employment opportunities for unemployed locals, and subsidizing prices of alternative energy sources. PMID:27081355

  2. Risk factor frequency for learning disabilities in low socioeconomic level preschool children in Mexico city.

    PubMed

    Zambrano-Sánchez, Elizabeth; del Consuelo Martínez-Wbaldo, María; Poblano, Adrián

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to identify the frequency of risk factors for Learning Disabilities (LD) in low socioeconomic level children in Mexico City. We studied children by means of: Wechsler, Bender-Gestalt, and Human drawing tests. Average age of male subjects was 5.6±0.9 years, while that of the female group was 5.4±0.5 years. In male subjects, average Total intelligence quotient (T-IQ) score was 98±12.2 while, in the female group, this was 99±12.2. On the Bender-Gestalt test, male subjects had a mental and visual-motor average age of <1 year under chronological age. Female subjects had a mental and visual-motor age 8-7 months under the norm. On the Human drawing test, in male and female subjects, the most frequent at-risk features comprised: self-isolation in 25% of subjects, shyness in 22.4%, and poor internal controls in 22%. In conclusion, we found a high at-risk factor frequency for LD in children of low socioeconomic strata. We highlight the importance of screening children before they attain school age.

  3. Promoting Low Socio-Economic Participation in Higher Education: A Comparison of Area-Based and Individual Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockery, Alfred M.; Seymour, Richard; Koshy, Paul

    2016-01-01

    As with other countries, Australia has been grappling with the identification, measurement and impact of disadvantage in higher education. In particular, the measurement of socio-economic status (SES) has been of central concern. The immediate solution in Australia has been the introduction of an "area" measure in which students' SES is…

  4. Understanding high traffic injury risks for children in low socioeconomic areas: a qualitative study of parents' views

    PubMed Central

    Christie, N; Ward, H; Kimberlee, R; Towner, E; Sleney, J

    2007-01-01

    Objective To gain an in‐depth qualitative understanding of parents' views about their children's exposure to road traffic injury risk in low socioeconomic areas. Design Focus groups facilitated by a moderator with content analysis of data. Setting Focus groups were conducted in 10 low socioeconomic English districts that also have high rates of child pedestrian injury. Research was conducted in community venues within each area. Subjects Parents of children aged 9–14 years living in low socioeconomic areas. Results Parents believe that children play in their local streets for the following reasons: they like playing out with friends near home; there are few safe, secure, and well‐maintained public spaces for children; children are excluded from affordable leisure venues because of their costs; insufficient parental responsibility. For children that play in the street, the key sources of risk identified by parents were: illegal riding and driving around estates and on the pavements; the speed and volume of traffic; illegal parking; drivers being poorly informed about where children play; children's risk‐taking behavior. Conclusions Intervention programs need to take into account multiple reasons why children in low socioeconomic areas become exposed to hazardous environments thereby increasing their risk of injury. Multi‐agency partnerships involving the community are increasingly needed to implement traditional road safety approaches, such as education, engineering, and enforcement, and provide safe and accessible public space, affordable activities for children, and greater support for parents. PMID:18056316

  5. A Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluation of an After-School Prosocial Behavior Program in an Area of Socioeconomic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, Liam; Biggart, Andy; Kerr, Karen; Connolly, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate the effects of a prosocial behavior after-school program called Mate-Tricks for 9- and 10-year-old children and their parents living in an area of significant socioeconomic disadvantage. The children were randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 220) or a control group (n = 198). Children were…

  6. Learning to (Dis)Engage? The Socialising Experiences of Young People Living in Areas of Socio-Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Carolynne; Cremin, Hilary; Warwick, Paul; Harrison, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Young people are increasingly required to demonstrate civic engagement in their communities and help deliver the aspirations of localism and Big Society. Using an ecological systems approach this paper explores the experiences of different groups of young people living in areas of socio-economic disadvantage. Using volunteering as an example of…

  7. Does school social capital modify socioeconomic inequality in mental health? A multi-level analysis in Danish schools.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Line; Koushede, Vibeke; Vinther-Larsen, Mathilde; Bendtsen, Pernille; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2015-09-01

    It seems that social capital in the neighbourhood has the potential to reduce socioeconomic differences in mental health among adolescents. Whether school social capital is a buffer in the association between socioeconomic position and mental health among adolescents remains uncertain. The aim of this study is therefore to examine if the association between socioeconomic position and emotional symptoms among adolescents is modified by school social capital. The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Methodology Development Study 2012 provided data on 3549 adolescents aged 11-15 in two municipalities in Denmark. Trust in the school class was used as an indicator of school social capital. Prevalence of daily emotional symptoms in each socioeconomic group measured by parents' occupational class was calculated for each of the three categories of school classes: school classes with high trust, moderate trust and low trust. Multilevel logistic regression analyses with parents' occupational class as the independent variable and daily emotional symptoms as the dependent variable were conducted stratified by level of trust in the school class. The prevalence of emotional symptoms was higher among students in school classes with low trust (12.9%) compared to school classes with high trust (7.2%) (p < 0.01). In school classes with low level of trust, the odds ratio for daily emotional symptoms was 1.89 (95% CI 1.25-2.86) in the low socioeconomic group compared to the high socioeconomic group. In school classes characterised by high and moderate trust, there were no statistically significant differences in emotional symptoms between high and low socioeconomic groups. Although further studies are needed, this cross-sectional study suggests that school social capital may reduce mental health problems and diminish socioeconomic inequality in mental health among adolescents.

  8. Integrated conservation and development: evaluating a community-based marine protected area project for equality of socioeconomic impacts.

    PubMed

    Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Cinner, Joshua E; Pollnac, Richard; Campbell, Stuart J

    2015-11-05

    Despite the prevalence of protected areas, evidence of their impacts on people is weak and remains hotly contested in conservation policy. A key question in this debate is whether socioeconomic impacts vary according to social subgroup. Given that social inequity can create conflict and impede poverty reduction, understanding how protected areas differentially affect people is critical to designing them to achieve social and biological goals. Understanding heterogeneous responses to protected areas can improve targeting of management activities and help elucidate the pathways through which impacts of protected areas occur. Here, we assessed whether the socioeconomic impacts of marine protected areas (MPAs)-designed to achieve goals for both conservation and poverty alleviation-differed according to age, gender or religion in associated villages in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using data from pre-, mid- and post-implementation of the MPAs for control and project villages, we found little empirical evidence that impacts on five key socioeconomic indicators related to poverty differed according to social subgroup. We found suggestive empirical evidence that the effect of the MPAs on environmental knowledge differed by age and religion; over the medium and long terms, younger people and Muslims showed greater improvements compared with older people and Christians, respectively.

  9. Integrated conservation and development: evaluating a community-based marine protected area project for equality of socioeconomic impacts

    PubMed Central

    Gurney, Georgina G.; Pressey, Robert L.; Cinner, Joshua E.; Pollnac, Richard; Campbell, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of protected areas, evidence of their impacts on people is weak and remains hotly contested in conservation policy. A key question in this debate is whether socioeconomic impacts vary according to social subgroup. Given that social inequity can create conflict and impede poverty reduction, understanding how protected areas differentially affect people is critical to designing them to achieve social and biological goals. Understanding heterogeneous responses to protected areas can improve targeting of management activities and help elucidate the pathways through which impacts of protected areas occur. Here, we assessed whether the socioeconomic impacts of marine protected areas (MPAs)—designed to achieve goals for both conservation and poverty alleviation—differed according to age, gender or religion in associated villages in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using data from pre-, mid- and post-implementation of the MPAs for control and project villages, we found little empirical evidence that impacts on five key socioeconomic indicators related to poverty differed according to social subgroup. We found suggestive empirical evidence that the effect of the MPAs on environmental knowledge differed by age and religion; over the medium and long terms, younger people and Muslims showed greater improvements compared with older people and Christians, respectively. PMID:26460130

  10. How Does the Choice of A-level Subjects Vary with Students' Socio-Economic Status in English State Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilnot, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The reasons why students from lower socio-economic groups are under-represented at high status universities are not yet entirely understood, but evidence suggests that part of the gap may be a consequence of differential choice of A-levels by social background. The Russell Group of universities has since 2011 published guidance on A-level subject…

  11. Socioeconomic status affects mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitat type availability and infestation level.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Zara; Ladeau, Shannon L; Armbruster, Peter; Biehler, Dawn; Leisnham, Paul T

    2013-07-01

    Mosquito populations are largely regulated by processes occurring at the larval stage. We sampled mosquito larval microhabitats (mostly water-holding containers) in six neighborhoods in the Washington, DC, area that varied in socioeconomic status (SES) and housing structure (row houses vs. stand-alone houses) to test associations among these neighborhood characteristics, microhabitat abundance and parameters, and mosquito occurrence and densities. Thirty-four percent (33.9%) of sampled microhabitats contained mosquito larvae, and 93.1% of larvae were Aedes albopictus Skuse or Culex pipiens L. Five specific container types (drains, corrugated flexible drainpipes, planters, garbage cans, and buckets) accounted for the majority of water-holding (56.0%) and mosquito-positive (50.6%) microhabitats sampled. We found no associations between SES or housing structure with total microhabitat abundance per yard, mosquito occurrence or mosquito densities per microhabitat. In contrast, container purpose varied with SES, with low SES neighborhoods having greater numbers of disused containers and lower numbers of functional containers than low and medium SES neighborhoods. Ae. albopictus were 83% more abundant in disused containers, whereas Cx. pipiens were more abundant in structural and functional containers, possibly owing to species-specific oviposition and development related to water quality. Ae. albopictus densities increased over the summer, whereas Cx. pipiens densities remained constant. Ae. albopictus is usually the dominant pest in urban areas in the eastern United States; therefore, integrated mosquito management programs should incorporate the elimination of disused containers to reduce its infestation and adult production, especially in low SES neighborhoods where they occur most frequently.

  12. Climate change and socio-economic scenarios, land use modelling implications on water resources in an inner alpine area, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Emmanuel; Schneider, Flurina; Liniger, Hanspeter; Weingartner, Rolf; Herweg, Karl

    2014-05-01

    The MontanAqua project aims to study the water resources management in the region Sierre-Montana (Valais, Switzerland). Land use is known to have an influence on the water resources (soil moisture dynamic, soil sealing, surface runoff and deep percolation). Thus land use modelling is of importance for the water resources management. An actual land use map was produced using infrared imagery (Niklaus 2012, Fig.1). Land use changes are known to be mainly drived by socio-economic factors as well as climatic factors (Dolman et al. 2003). Potential future Land uses was separatly predicted according to 1-. socio-economic and 2-. climatic/abiotic drivers : 1. 4 socio-economic scenarios were developped with stakeholders (Schneider et al. 2013) between 2010 and 2012. We modeled those socio-economic scenarios into a GIS application using Python programming (ModelBuilder in ArcGIS 10) to get a cartographic transcription of the wishes of the stakeholders for their region in 2050. 2. Uncorrelated climatic and abiotic drivers were used in a BIOMOD2 (Georges et al. 2013) framework. 4 models were used: Maximum Entropy (MAXENT), Multiple Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), Classification Tree Analysis (CTA) and the Flexible Discriminant Analysis (FDA) to predict grassland, alpine pasture, vineyards and forest in our study region. Climatic scenarios were then introduced into the models to predict potential land use in 2050 driven only by climatic and abiotic factors The comparison of all the outputs demonstrates that the socio-economic drivers will have a more important impact in the region than the climatic drivers (e.g. -70% grassland surface for the worst socio-economic scenario vs. -40% of grassland surface for the worst climatic models). Further analysis also brings out the sensitivity of the grassland/alpine pasture system to the climate change and to socio-economic changes. Future work will be to cross the different land use maps obtained by the two model types and to use

  13. A Connected Generation? Digital Inequalities in Elementary and High School Students According to Age and Socioeconomic Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin, Simon; Karsenti, Thierry; Ndimubandi, Alexis; Saffari, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article was to better understand the relationship between students' age and socioeconomic level, and its influence on students' digital uses. We conducted a quantitative study of 401 elementary and high school students in Quebec. Four independent variables were initially selected: two related to age (actual age and education…

  14. Elementary Students' Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Science: Role of Grade Level, Gender, and Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaarslan, Guliz; Sungur, Semra

    2011-01-01

    This study examined grade level and gender difference with respect to elementary students' science and technology self-efficacy. Additionally, relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and self-efficacy was examined. A total of 145 elementary students participated in the study. Self efficacy towards Science and Technology Scale was used to…

  15. Enteropathogens Associated with Acute Diarrhea in Children from Households with High Socioeconomic Level in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Batthyány, Lara; Bianco, María Noel; Pérez, Walter; Pardo, Lorena; Algorta, Gabriela; Robino, Luciana; Suárez, Ramón; Navarro, Armando; Pírez, María Catalina; Schelotto, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diarrhea, a common disease of children, deserves permanent monitoring in all social groups. To know the etiology and clinical manifestations of acute diarrhea in children up to 5 years of age from high socioeconomic level households, we conducted a descriptive, microbiological, and clinical study. Stools from 59 children with acute community-acquired diarrhea were examined, and their parents were interviewed concerning symptoms and signs. Rotavirus, adenovirus, and norovirus were detected by commercially available qualitative immunochromatographic lateral flow rapid tests. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, and Shigella were investigated by standard bacteriological methods and diarrheagenic E. coli by PCR assays. We identified a potential enteric pathogen in 30 children. The most frequent causes of diarrhea were enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), viruses, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Only 2 patients showed mixed infections. Our data suggest that children with viral or Campylobacter diarrhea were taken to the hospital earlier than those infected with EPEC. One child infected with STEC O26 developed “complete” HUS. The microbiological results highlight the importance of zoonotic bacteria such as atypical EPEC, Campylobacter, STEC, and Salmonella as pathogens associated with acute diarrhea in these children. The findings also reinforce our previous communications about the regional importance of non-O157 STEC strains in severe infant food-borne diseases. PMID:25861274

  16. [Comparative study of height and age at menarche according to the socioeconomic level in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    López Contreras, M; Tovar Escobar, G; Farid Coupal, N; Landaeta Jiménez, M; Méndez Castellano, H

    1981-12-01

    This is a retrospective study based on growth and development data published in Venezuela by various authors in the period 1936-1978. The data on height for males of the middle and high socioeconomic strata show growth curves which are very similar to the standards for British children. Likewise, the girls of the same socioeconomic condition follow the British standards, but only up to about 10-12 years of age. After that age, the girls studied by the Venezuelan authors, show a pattern of early maturation with a corresponding lower adult height compared with their British counterparts. There were differences in the growth curves according to the socioeconomic strata. These differences were more marked in the girls data. A secular increase for height was discerned, from the published data, in all socioeconomic strata and in both sexes. The data on sexual maturation showed a tendency for progressively early menarche in Venezuelan girls. These changes in growth in height and age of menarche were more notorious and came about at an earlier age in the upper socioeconomic strata. They were less marked, not constant, and came about later in the lower socioeconomic groups. The secular changes in height and sexual maturation apparent from these data, could be explained by an improvement in the environmental conditions, especially nutrition and hygiene of the population, and also be genetic heterosis from European immigration and with improvement in communications.

  17. [Social inequalities and health. Socioeconomic level and infant mortality in Chile in 1985-1995].

    PubMed

    Hollstein, R D; Vega, J; Carvajal, Y

    1998-03-01

    Birth and death statistics from Chile¿s National Institute of Statistics were used to determine the influence of socioeconomic status as measured through maternal educational level on infant mortality from 1990-95 and to assess trends since 1985. The rates of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality were calculated for 6 educational groups for the mother and father: 0, 1-3, 4-6,7-9, 10-12, and 13 or more years. The deaths were classified by cause according to the International Classification of Diseases and to Taucher¿s classification into avoidable, difficult to avoid, poorly defined, and other causes. A clear association was observed in levels of infant mortality according to maternal education. Infant mortality rates ranged from 38.2/1000 live births for children of illiterate mothers to 7.8/1000 for children of mothers with higher education. A child of an illiterate mother had a risk of death in the first year 4.9 times higher than the child of a mother with higher education. The same trend was observed for neonatal mortality and for paternal education. The mortality gradient by maternal education was maintained for all causes of death and both classifications studied. Diseases of the respiratory system had a relative risk (RR) of 14.3 and a population attributable risk (PAR) of 73%, trauma had an RR of 11.3 and PAR of 69%, and infectious diseases had an RR of 10.8 and PAR of 62%. Infant mortality rates declined between 1985-95 in all maternal educational groups, but the inequalities remained.

  18. [Individual social factors and their association with environmental socioeconomic factors--a descriptive small-area analysis in the city of Dortmund].

    PubMed

    Neuner, B; Berger, K

    2010-11-01

    Apart from individual resources and individual risk factors, environmental socioeconomic factors are determinants of individual health and illness. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the association of small-area environmental socioeconomic parameters (proportion of 14-year-old and younger population, proportion of married citizens, proportion of unemployed, and the number of private cars per inhabitant) with individual socioeconomic parameters (education, income, unemployment, social class and the country of origin) in Dortmund, a major city in Germany. After splitting the small-area environmental socioeconomic parameters of 62 statistical administration units into quintiles, differences in the distribution of individual social parameters were evaluated using adjusted tests for trend. Overall, 1,312 study participants (mean age 53.6 years, 52.9% women) were included. Independently of age and gender, individual social parameters were unequally distributed across areas with different small-area environmental socioeconomic parameters. A place of birth abroad and social class were significantly associated with all small-area environmental socioeconomic parameters. If the impact of environmental socioeconomic parameters on individual health or illness is determined, the unequal small-area distribution of individual social parameters should be considered.

  19. Association between mortality among women and socioeconomic factors in general practices in Edinburgh: an application of small area statistics.

    PubMed

    Alexander, F E; O'Brien, F; Hepburn, W; Miller, M

    1987-09-26

    Women aged 45-64 in 78 general practices in the city of Edinburgh were followed up for five to seven years and all cause mortality noted. Standardised mortality ratios were calculated for the individual practices. Postcodes were available for a 20% sample of these women and were used to retrieve relevant measures of social class and deprivation from the 1981 census for the smallest division, the enumeration district. Weighted averages gave socioeconomic variables at the level of the general practice. High positive correlations were found between standardised mortality ratios and the socioeconomic variables, with the highest being for percentage overcrowding. This study established that the relation between deprivation and excess mortality can be shown in general practices in one large city and gave a direct relation for women without reference to their husbands' occupations, thus obviating problems of assigning social class. The data also partially refute the "social drift" hypothesis as an explanation of the association between mortality and social class.

  20. Local modelling techniques for assessing micro-level impacts of risk factors in complex data: understanding health and socioeconomic inequalities in childhood educational attainments.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shang-Ming; Lyons, Ronan A; Bodger, Owen G; John, Ann; Brunt, Huw; Jones, Kerina; Gravenor, Mike B; Brophy, Sinead

    2014-01-01

    Although inequalities in health and socioeconomic status have an important influence on childhood educational performance, the interactions between these multiple factors relating to variation in educational outcomes at micro-level is unknown, and how to evaluate the many possible interactions of these factors is not well established. This paper aims to examine multi-dimensional deprivation factors and their impact on childhood educational outcomes at micro-level, focusing on geographic areas having widely different disparity patterns, in which each area is characterised by six deprivation domains (Income, Health, Geographical Access to Services, Housing, Physical Environment, and Community Safety). Traditional health statistical studies tend to use one global model to describe the whole population for macro-analysis. In this paper, we combine linked educational and deprivation data across small areas (median population of 1500), then use a local modelling technique, the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy system, to predict area educational outcomes at ages 7 and 11. We define two new metrics, "Micro-impact of Domain" and "Contribution of Domain", to quantify the variations of local impacts of multidimensional factors on educational outcomes across small areas. The two metrics highlight differing priorities. Our study reveals complex multi-way interactions between the deprivation domains, which could not be provided by traditional health statistical methods based on single global model. We demonstrate that although Income has an expected central role, all domains contribute, and in some areas Health, Environment, Access to Services, Housing and Community Safety each could be the dominant factor. Thus the relative importance of health and socioeconomic factors varies considerably for different areas, depending on the levels of each of the other factors, and therefore each component of deprivation must be considered as part of a wider system. Childhood educational achievement could

  1. Local Modelling Techniques for Assessing Micro-Level Impacts of Risk Factors in Complex Data: Understanding Health and Socioeconomic Inequalities in Childhood Educational Attainments

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shang-Ming; Lyons, Ronan A.; Bodger, Owen G.; John, Ann; Brunt, Huw; Jones, Kerina; Gravenor, Mike B.; Brophy, Sinead

    2014-01-01

    Although inequalities in health and socioeconomic status have an important influence on childhood educational performance, the interactions between these multiple factors relating to variation in educational outcomes at micro-level is unknown, and how to evaluate the many possible interactions of these factors is not well established. This paper aims to examine multi-dimensional deprivation factors and their impact on childhood educational outcomes at micro-level, focusing on geographic areas having widely different disparity patterns, in which each area is characterised by six deprivation domains (Income, Health, Geographical Access to Services, Housing, Physical Environment, and Community Safety). Traditional health statistical studies tend to use one global model to describe the whole population for macro-analysis. In this paper, we combine linked educational and deprivation data across small areas (median population of 1500), then use a local modelling technique, the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy system, to predict area educational outcomes at ages 7 and 11. We define two new metrics, “Micro-impact of Domain” and “Contribution of Domain”, to quantify the variations of local impacts of multidimensional factors on educational outcomes across small areas. The two metrics highlight differing priorities. Our study reveals complex multi-way interactions between the deprivation domains, which could not be provided by traditional health statistical methods based on single global model. We demonstrate that although Income has an expected central role, all domains contribute, and in some areas Health, Environment, Access to Services, Housing and Community Safety each could be the dominant factor. Thus the relative importance of health and socioeconomic factors varies considerably for different areas, depending on the levels of each of the other factors, and therefore each component of deprivation must be considered as part of a wider system. Childhood educational

  2. Socioeconomic variation in the burden of chronic conditions and health care provision – analyzing administrative individual level data from the Basque Country, Spain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases are posing an increasing challenge to society, with the associated burden falling disproportionally on more deprived individuals and geographical areas. Although the existence of a socioeconomic health gradient is one of the main concerns of health policy across the world, health information systems commonly do not have reliable data to detect and monitor health inequalities and inequities. The objectives of this study were to measure the level of socioeconomic-related inequality in prevalence of chronic diseases and to investigate the extent and direction of inequities in health care provision. Methods A dataset linking clinical and administrative information of the entire population living in the Basque Country, Spain (over 2 million individuals) was used to measure the prevalence of 52 chronic conditions and to quantify individual health care costs. We used a concentration-index approach to measure the extent and direction of inequality with respect to the deprivation of the area of residence of each individual. Results Most chronic diseases were found to be disproportionally concentrated among individuals living in more deprived areas, but the extent of the imbalance varies by type of disease and sex. Most of the variation in health care utilization was explained by morbidity burden. However, even after accounting for differences in morbidity, pro-poor horizontal inequity was present in specialized outpatient care, emergency department, prescription, and primary health care costs and this fact was more apparent in females than males; inpatient costs exhibited an equitable distribution in both sexes. Conclusions Analyses of comprehensive administrative clinical information at the individual level allow the socioeconomic gradient in chronic diseases and health care provision to be measured to a level of detail not possible using other sources. This frequently updated source of information can be exploited to monitor trends and evaluate

  3. Moral Judgment among Black Adolescents and White Adolescents from Different Socioeconomic Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Edward D.; Hambright, Jerold E.

    1984-01-01

    Major findings were (1) White subjects and males in this investigation were reared in an ideologically nondirectional situation, making them relativistic in their moral judgments; (2) Black subjects and females followed a directional process resulting in a moral realistic orientation; and (3) socioeconomic factors did not bear strongly on the type…

  4. The Effect of Technology and Socioeconomic Status on Parental Involvement at the Elementary School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsamo, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that parents who extensively use technology and have a high socioeconomic status (SES) may become overly involved with their elementary school-aged children's education and school-related activities, an involvement which can create a lasting dependence of the children on their parents. The literature indicates high…

  5. Incorporation of Socio-Economic Features' Ranking in Multicriteria Analysis Based on Ecosystem Services for Marine Protected Area Planning

    PubMed Central

    Portman, Michelle E.; Shabtay-Yanai, Ateret; Zanzuri, Asaf

    2016-01-01

    Developed decades ago for spatial choice problems related to zoning in the urban planning field, multicriteria analysis (MCA) has more recently been applied to environmental conflicts and presented in several documented cases for the creation of protected area management plans. Its application is considered here for the development of zoning as part of a proposed marine protected area management plan. The case study incorporates specially-explicit conservation features while considering stakeholder preferences, expert opinion and characteristics of data quality. It involves the weighting of criteria using a modified analytical hierarchy process. Experts ranked physical attributes which include socio-economically valued physical features. The parameters used for the ranking of (physical) attributes important for socio-economic reasons are derived from the field of ecosystem services assessment. Inclusion of these feature values results in protection that emphasizes those areas closest to shore, most likely because of accessibility and familiarity parameters and because of data biases. Therefore, other spatial conservation prioritization methods should be considered to supplement the MCA and efforts should be made to improve data about ecosystem service values farther from shore. Otherwise, the MCA method allows incorporation of expert and stakeholder preferences and ecosystem services values while maintaining the advantages of simplicity and clarity. PMID:27183224

  6. The Potential of Solar as Alternative Energy Source for Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Rural Areas, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Rashidah Zainal; Siwar, Chamhuri; Ludin, Norasikin Ahmad

    Malaysia's energy sector is highly dependent on fossil fuels as a primary energy source. Economic growth and socio-economic wellbeing also rely on the utilization of energy in daily life routine. Nevertheless, the increasing cost for electricity and declining fossil fuels resources causes various negative impacts to the people and environment especially in rural areas. This prompted Malaysia to shift towards alternative energy sources such as solar energy to ensure social, economic and environmental benefits. The solar energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources in tropical countries particularly in Malaysia. The paper attempts to analyze the benefits and advantages related to energy efficiency of solar for sustainable energy use and socio economic wellbeing in rural areas, Malaysia. The paper uses secondary sources of data such as policies, regulations and research reports from relevant ministries and agencies to attain the objectives. As a signatory country to the UN Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, Malaysia has taken initiatives for decreasing energy dependence on oil to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) for sustainable development. The paper shows solar energy becomes one of the promising alternative energy sources to alleviate energy poverty in Malaysia for rural areas. Finally, solar energy has increased socio-economic wellbeing and develops green potential and toward achieving energy efficiency in energy sector of Malaysia by preserving environment as well as reducing carbon emission.

  7. Social Structural Influences on Healthy Aging: Community-Level Socioeconomic Conditions and Survival Probability of Becoming a Centenarian for Those Aged 65 to 69 in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin

    2015-10-01

    This study estimated the associations between community-level socioeconomic conditions and survival probability of becoming a centenarian (SPBC) for those aged 65 to 69 in South Korea to determine the social structural influences on healthy aging. The indicators of socioeconomic and data of centenarians were obtained from Statistics Korea database 2014: population census and social survey. Significant positive correlations were found between SPBC and community-level socioeconomic conditions (minimum cost of living and economically active population, water supply and sewerage, pave a road with asphalt, and urbanization). SPBC male and female predictors had higher economic level and base facilities (R2)=0.578, p<.001). The study provides evidence that community-level socioeconomic conditions are important correlates of SPBC for those aged 65 to 69 in South Korea. These strategies should include social structural influences on successful aging in the overall socioeconomic conditions.

  8. Tipping Points towards Regional Forest or Urban Transition in Stressed Rural Areas: An Agent-based Modelling Application of Socio-Economic Shifts in Rural Vermont US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Y.; Turnbull, S.; Zia, A.

    2015-12-01

    In rural areas where farming competes with urban development and environmental amenities, urban and forest transitions occur simultaneously at different locales with different rates due to the underlying socio-economic shifts. Here we develop an interactive land use transition agent-based model (ILUTABM) in which farmers' land use decisions are made contingent on expansion and location choices of urban businesses and urban residences, as well as farmers' perceived ecosystem services produced by their land holdings. The ILUTABM simulates heterogeneity in land use decisions at parcel levels by differentiating decision making processes for agricultural and urban landowners. Landowners are simulated to make land-use transition decisions as bounded rational agents that maximize their partial expected utility functions under different underlying socio-economic conditions given the category of a landowner and the spatial characteristics of the landowner's landholdings. The ILUTABM is parameterized by spatial data sets such as National Land Cover Database (NLCD), zoning, parcels, property prices, US census, farmers surveys, building/facility characteristics, soil, slope and elevation. We then apply the ILUTABM to the rural Vermont landscape, located in the Northeast Arm District of Lake Champlain and the downstream sub-watersheds of Missisquoi River, to generate phase transitions of rural land towards urban land near peri-urban areas and towards forest land near financially stressed farmlands during 2001-2051. Possible tipping point trajectories of rural land towards regional forest or urban transition are simulated under three socio-economic scenarios: business as usual (ILUTABM calibrated to 2011 NLCD), increased incentives for conservation easements, and increased incentives for attracting urban residences and businesses.

  9. Implementation of the Port Hope Area Initiative Biophysical and Socioeconomic Environmental Assessment Follow-up Programs - 13209

    SciTech Connect

    Baba, Nina; Friedmann, Karyn; Groulx, Charles

    2013-07-01

    The Port Hope Initiative (PHAI) involves the cleanup of historic low-level radioactive waste in various locations throughout the communities of Port Hope and Clarington, Ontario, as well as the construction of two engineered aboveground mounds for safe long-term management. The PHAI is comprised of two major projects - the Port Hope Project and the Port Granby Project. An Environmental Assessment (EA) was undertaken for each project and as a result EA Follow-up Programs were developed and are being implemented addressing both biophysical and socioeconomic aspects. This paper provides insight on elements of the EA Follow-up Program development, and its implementation. (authors)

  10. What socioeconomic factors are associated with different levels of antenatal care visits in Bangladesh? A behavioral model.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sanjib; Mubarak, Mahfuza; Jarl, Johan

    2017-01-01

    We identify the socioeconomic determinants of three levels of antenatal care (ANC) visits (no, intermediate [1-3], and recommended [≥4]) in Bangladesh using a behavior model framework for health care utilization. Using multinomial logistic regression, we found that different levels of visits had different determinants; for example, media exposure increased the likelihood of intermediate compared with no visits while desire for pregnancy increased the likelihood of recommended compared with intermediate visits. We therefore highlight that ANC policies or interventions should be target-group specific because determinants differ depending on level of ANC visits.

  11. Early life socioeconomic conditions in rural areas and old-age mortality in twentieth-century Quebec.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Alain; Bohnert, Nora

    2012-10-01

    This study examines the effects of early life socioeconomic and residential conditions on adult mortality. The family and residential details of children living in rural areas of Quebec, Canada, in 1901 were linked to their subsequent ages at death using a database compiling information from the 1901 Canadian Census and Quebec vital statistics registers. Survival analysis results suggest that males raised on a farm and in a household owned by their father had lower mortality after the age of fifty than other males from rural areas. Chances for survival at older ages were not equal, however, among males whose father was a farmer. Most notably, males raised on a larger farmstead, an indicator of a higher socioeconomic status, experienced lower risk of mortality than those raised by farmers owning fewer acres. Results were widely different for females, who did not gain an advantage from being raised on a farm, wealthy or not, regardless of homeownership, but instead from having a literate father. Accounting for selection bias and shared frailty among brothers served to enhance the significance and effect size of acreage wealth and of other early life factors in the prediction of male adult mortality risk. This study provides evidence that early life effects on later life health and mortality could often be underestimated, due to a failure to account for selection and unobserved heterogeneity.

  12. District-level variations in childhood immunizations in India: The role of socio-economic factors and health infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Rammohan, Anu; Awofeso, Niyi

    2015-11-01

    Routine childhood immunizations against measles and DPT are part of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) set up in 1974, with the aim of reducing childhood morbidity and mortality. Despite this, immunization rates are sub-optimal in developing countries such as India, with wide heterogeneity observed across districts and socio-economic characteristics. The aim of this paper is to examine district-level variations in the propensity to vaccinate a child in India for measles and DPT3, and analyse the extent to which these immunizations are given age-inappropriately, either prematurely or delayed. The present study uses data from the Indian District Level Household Survey (DLHS-3) collected in 2008, and the final sample contains detailed information on 42157 children aged between 12 and 60 months, across 549 Indian districts for whom we have complete information on immunization history. Our empirical study analyses: (i) the district-level average immunization rates for measles and DPT3, and (ii) the extent to which these immunizations have been given age-appropriately. A key contribution of this paper is that we link the household-level data at the district level to data on availability and proximity to health infrastructure and district-level socio-economic factors. Our results show that after controlling for an array of socio-economic characteristics, across all our models, the district's income per capita is a strong predictor of better immunization outcomes for children. Mother's education level at the district-level has a statistically significant and positive influence on immunization outcomes across all our models.

  13. Predicting later life health status and mortality using state-level socioeconomic characteristics in early life.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Rita; Rehkopf, David H; Kuan, Kai Y; Cullen, Mark R

    2016-12-01

    Studies extending across multiple life stages promote an understanding of factors influencing health across the life span. Existing work has largely focused on individual-level rather than area-level early life determinants of health. In this study, we linked multiple data sets to examine whether early life state-level characteristics were predictive of health and mortality decades later. The sample included 143,755 U.S. employees, for whom work life claims and administrative data were linked with early life state-of-residence and mortality. We first created a "state health risk score" (SHRS) and "state mortality risk score" (SMRS) by modeling state-level contextual characteristics with health status and mortality in a randomly selected 30% of the sample (the "training set"). We then examined the association of these scores with objective health status and mortality in later life in the remaining 70% of the sample (the "test set") using multivariate linear and Cox regressions, respectively. The association between the SHRS and adult health status was β=0.14 (95%CI: 0.084, 0.20), while the hazard ratio for the SMRS was 0.96 (95%CI: 0.93, 1.00). The association between the SHRS and health was not statistically significant in older age groups at a p-level of 0.05, and there was a statistically significantly different association for health status among movers compared to stayers. This study uses a life course perspective and supports the idea of "sensitive periods" in early life that have enduring impacts on health. It adds to the literature examining populations in the U.S. where large linked data sets are infrequently available.

  14. Socio-economic, health and nutritional status of the villagers in the Nong Wai irrigation area, Khon Kaen, Northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Harinasuta, C; Sornamani, S; Migasena, P; Vivatanasesth, P; Pongpaew, P; Intarakao, C; Vudhivai, N

    1976-12-01

    Studies were carried out from June 1974 to May 1975 on the socio-economic status, health and nutritional status of the people in 4 villages, in the irrigation area of the Nong Wai Pioneer Agricultural Project of Khon Kaen Province, Northeast Thailand. The result obtained were compared with those in 2 non-irrigated villages in the same province, in order to identify the health and nutritional problems which might arise during the water resource development in the irrigation area. It was found that in the irrigated villages 90% of the peoples were farmers, while in the non-irrigated villages all were farmers. The socio-economic status of the people in the irrigated villages was much better than those in the non-irrigated ones. The income per family in the former was about three times greater than that in the latter. In the study of the health conditions of the villagers, the vulnerable age group including pre-school children under 7 years of age and school children in the elementary school class 1 and class 2, aged 7-9 years old, served as subjects for investigation. Haematological and physical examinations revealed many children with mild to moderate anaemia, vitamin B2 deficiency and a few cases of hepatomegaly. Anaemic children were found to be more prevalent in the non-irrigated villages than in the irrigated area. The overall parasitic infection rates in children in the irrigated and non-irrigated villages were similar with respect to severity of the infection. Hookworm infection, opisthorchiasis, strongyloidiasis and giardiasis were the leading parasitic infections, while amoebiasis was rare. Ascariasis and trichuriasis were not found. However, the first two helminthic infections had a low grade of intensity. The nutritional status of pre-school children, showed that there were more children with good growth in the irrigated villages than in the non-irrigated one. Serum proteins, albumin and globulin, and urinary urea nitrogen-creatinine ratio revealed normal

  15. [Relation of socioeconomic levels and life style to fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor in healthy Venezuelans and those with ischemic cardiopathy].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Larralde, Alvaro; Mijares, Mercedes E; Nagy, Elena; Espinosa, Raul; Ryder, Elena; Diez-Ewald, María P; Torres, Enrique; Coll-Sangrona, Enriqueta; Rodríguez-Roa, Elsy; Carvajal, Zoila; Lundberg, Ulf; Campos, Gilberto; Gill, Amparo; Arocha-Piñango, Carmen L

    2005-06-01

    Previous studies in Europe, U.S.A and Japan have revealed an inverse relationship between socioeconomic levels and fibrinogen concentration. Similar results have been reported in a smaller number of studies for concentrations of von Willebrand factor. In this opportunity we present results on the relationship between smoking, drinking, physical activity, age and socioeconomic level on fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor concentrations in a Venezuelan sample. The control population consisted of 978 men and 968 women. Patients with coronary heart disease were 172 males and 78 females. The presence of one or more of the following conditions: smoking or less than 5 years of having quit, non drinkers or drinking in excess, and a reduced physical activity, was considered a health related risk factor for high levels of these two haemostatic variables. Our results indicate that in Controls, the socioeconomic level had a significant effect on fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor levels, only in women: those of lower socioeconomic levels had the highest concentrations. This difference was maintained when age was taken into account. Health related behaviors had no significant effect on either variable. In patients, age had no effect on either variable. The health behavior risk factor had a significant effect only on fibrinogen of male patients, and socioeconomic level had a significant effect only on the fibrinogen of female patients. More studies in Venezuela are recommended, in order to increase our knowledge on the relationship between socioeconomic levels, haemostatic markers and the occurrence of coronary heart disease.

  16. Serum Retinol Levels in Pregnant Adolescents and Their Relationship with Habitual Food Intake, Infection and Obstetric, Nutritional and Socioeconomic Variables.

    PubMed

    Spíndola Garcêz, Laís; de Sousa Paz Lima, Geania; de Azevedo Paiva, Adriana; Maria Rebêlo Sampaio da Paz, Suzana; Lázaro Gomes, Erica Ivana; Nunes, Valéria Sutti; Cotta de Faria, Eliana; de Barros-Mazon, Sílvia

    2016-10-25

    Globally, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects about 19.1 million pregnant women. Its occurrence is classically associated with inadequate food intake and may also be associated with socioeconomic factors and the presence of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to serum retinol levels among pregnant teenagers. The sample consisted of 89 pregnant adolescents, from whom socioeconomic, obstetric, anthropometric, and food consumption data were collected. Serum concentrations of retinol and the supposed presence of infection were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and C-reactive protein quantification, respectively. The serum retinol concentrations were classified according to the criteria of the World Health Organization. We adopted a 5% significance level for all statistical tests. Serum retinol levels were significantly and positively associated with sanitation (p = 0.008) and pre-gestational nutritional status (p = 0.002), and negatively with the trimester (p = 0.001). The appropriate sanitation conditions and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) were shown to have a protective effect against VAD. Conversely, serum retinol levels were reduced with trimester progression, favoring VAD occurrence.

  17. Serum Retinol Levels in Pregnant Adolescents and Their Relationship with Habitual Food Intake, Infection and Obstetric, Nutritional and Socioeconomic Variables

    PubMed Central

    Spíndola Garcêz, Laís; de Sousa Paz Lima, Geania; de Azevedo Paiva, Adriana; Maria Rebêlo Sampaio da Paz, Suzana; Lázaro Gomes, Erica Ivana; Nunes, Valéria Sutti; Cotta de Faria, Eliana; de Barros-Mazon, Sílvia

    2016-01-01

    Globally, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects about 19.1 million pregnant women. Its occurrence is classically associated with inadequate food intake and may also be associated with socioeconomic factors and the presence of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to serum retinol levels among pregnant teenagers. The sample consisted of 89 pregnant adolescents, from whom socioeconomic, obstetric, anthropometric, and food consumption data were collected. Serum concentrations of retinol and the supposed presence of infection were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and C-reactive protein quantification, respectively. The serum retinol concentrations were classified according to the criteria of the World Health Organization. We adopted a 5% significance level for all statistical tests. Serum retinol levels were significantly and positively associated with sanitation (p = 0.008) and pre-gestational nutritional status (p = 0.002), and negatively with the trimester (p = 0.001). The appropriate sanitation conditions and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) were shown to have a protective effect against VAD. Conversely, serum retinol levels were reduced with trimester progression, favoring VAD occurrence. PMID:27792135

  18. Does car ownership reflect socio-economic disadvantage in rural areas? A cross-sectional geographical study in Wales, UK.

    PubMed

    Christie, S M; Fone, D L

    2003-03-01

    It is widely believed that area-based deprivation indices that include the car ownership census variable are poor indicators of deprivation in rural areas since car ownership is a necessity of rural life. In this cross-sectional geographical study, we assess whether the relation between lack of car ownership and socio-economic deprivation varies between urban and rural enumeration districts of Wales, UK. We classified the 6376 census enumeration districts in Wales into rural (1636, 26%) and urban (4740, 74%), using the Office for National Statistics' classification based on land use. Rank correlation coefficients between the proportion of households with no car and a range of other proxy deprivation census variables were strongly positive in urban and the most densely populated rural enumeration districts. However, these correlations were weaker in sparsely populated rural enumeration districts, with a declining trend across deciles of population density. Exclusion of the car ownership variable from the Townsend index of deprivation re-categorized rural enumeration districts as more deprived and urban enumeration districts as less deprived compared with the standard Townsend index. Our results suggest that lack of car ownership is a poor proxy for social deprivation in the most sparsely populated rural areas of Wales, and therefore, deprivation indices that include the car ownership variable are less valid for use in rural areas.

  19. Socioeconomic issues for the Bear River Watershed Conservation Land Area Protection Plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Catherine Cullinane; Huber, Christopher; Gascoigne, William; Koontz, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    The Bear River Watershed Conservation Area is located in the Bear River Watershed, a vast basin covering fourteen counties across three states. Located in Wyoming, Utah, and Idaho, the watershed spans roughly 7,500 squares miles: 1,500 squares miles in Wyoming; 2,700 squares miles in Idaho; and 3,300 squares miles in Utah (Utah Division of Water Resources, 2004). Three National Wildlife Refuges are currently contained within the boundary of the BRWCA: the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge in Utah, the Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Idaho, and the Cokeville Meadows National Wildlife Refuge in Wyoming. In 2010, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted a Preliminary Project Proposal and identified the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area as having high-value wildlife habitat. This finding initiated the Land Protection Planning process, which is used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to study land conservation opportunities including adding lands to the National Wildlife Refuge System. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to include part of the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area in the Refuge System by acquiring up to 920,000 acres of conservation easements from willing landowners to maintain landscape integrity and habitat connectivity in the region. The analysis described in this report provides a profile of the social and economic conditions in the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area and addresses social and economic questions and concerns raised during public involvement in the Land Protection Planning process.

  20. Association of Allergic Rhinitis in Female University Students with Socio-economic Factors and Markers of Estrogens Levels.

    PubMed

    Wronka, I; Kliś, K; Jarzebak, K

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the association of allergic rhinitis in female university students with socio-economic factors and sex-hormone markers, including age at menarche, menstrual disorders, and selected anthropometrics indexes. The research was conducted among 640 female university students, aged 19-25 years. The measurements of body height, body mass, waist and hip circumference were taken. Each person completed a questionnaire. The occurrence of allergy was determined on the basis of answers to the questions whether the allergy and its allergens were defined on the basis of medical workup. We found that a significantly larger number of cases of allergic rhinitis were recorded in the university students coming from families of high socio-economic level than those from lower level. Allergic rhinitis also was more frequent in the students who spent their childhood in cities than in those who lived in the countryside. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis was inversely correlated to the number of siblings. There were no differences in the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in relation to the birth order. The estrogen level seemed unassociated with rhinitis. However, there were slightly more allergic among females with an earlier age of menarche.

  1. Impact of Dental Fluorosis, Socioeconomic Status and Self-Perception in Adolescents Exposed to a High Level of Fluoride in Water.

    PubMed

    Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Nevarez-Rascón, Martina; Nevarez-Rascón, Alfredo; González-González, Rogelio; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Sánchez-Pérez, Leonor; López-Verdin, Sandra; Bologna-Molina, Ronell

    2017-01-12

    Objective: To identify adolescents' self-perception of dental fluorosis from two areas with different socioeconomic levels. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with 15-year-old youths by applying a questionnaire designed and validated to assess self-perceptions of dental fluorosis in two areas with different socioeconomic statuses (SESs). Fluorosis was clinically evaluated by applying the Thylstrup and Fejerkov (TF) index on the upper front teeth. Results: A total of 308 adolescents were included in the study. The medium-SES population, which was exposed to 2.5 ppm of fluoride in water, and the low-SES population, which was exposed to 5.1 ppm, presented the following levels of dental fluorosis: TF 2-3 (50%), TF 4-5 (45.6%) and TF 6-7 (4.4%) for medium SES and TF 2-3 (12.3%), TF 4-5 (67.1%) and TF 67 (20.6%) for low SES. A significant association was found between self-perception and dental fluorosis in those with medium and low SESs (p < 0.05). The multiple regression model found differences between TF levels and self-perception, with a 6-7 TF level for concerns about color (OR = 1.6), smile (OR = 1.2) and appearance (OR = 3.36). Conclusions: Self-perceptions of dental fluorosis affect adolescents such that adolescents with a medium SES have more negative perceptions than those with a low SES. Such perceptions increase as the TF index increases.

  2. Impact of Dental Fluorosis, Socioeconomic Status and Self-Perception in Adolescents Exposed to a High Level of Fluoride in Water

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Nevarez-Rascón, Martina; Nevarez-Rascón, Alfredo; González-González, Rogelio; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Sánchez-Pérez, Leonor; López-Verdin, Sandra; Bologna-Molina, Ronell

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To identify adolescents’ self-perception of dental fluorosis from two areas with different socioeconomic levels. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with 15-year-old youths by applying a questionnaire designed and validated to assess self-perceptions of dental fluorosis in two areas with different socioeconomic statuses (SESs). Fluorosis was clinically evaluated by applying the Thylstrup and Fejerkov (TF) index on the upper front teeth. Results: A total of 308 adolescents were included in the study. The medium-SES population, which was exposed to 2.5 ppm of fluoride in water, and the low-SES population, which was exposed to 5.1 ppm, presented the following levels of dental fluorosis: TF 2–3 (50%), TF 4–5 (45.6%) and TF 6–7 (4.4%) for medium SES and TF 2–3 (12.3%), TF 4–5 (67.1%) and TF 67 (20.6%) for low SES. A significant association was found between self-perception and dental fluorosis in those with medium and low SESs (p < 0.05). The multiple regression model found differences between TF levels and self-perception, with a 6–7 TF level for concerns about color (OR = 1.6), smile (OR = 1.2) and appearance (OR = 3.36). Conclusions: Self-perceptions of dental fluorosis affect adolescents such that adolescents with a medium SES have more negative perceptions than those with a low SES. Such perceptions increase as the TF index increases. PMID:28085102

  3. Cesarean section and increased body mass index in school children: two cohort studies from distinct socioeconomic background areas in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies have raised controversy regarding the association between cesarean section and later obesity in the offspring. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of cesarean section with increased body mass index (BMI) and obesity in school children from two Brazilian cities with distinct socioeconomic backgrounds. Methods Two birth cohorts respectively born in 1994 in Ribeirao Preto, a wealthy city in Southeast, and in 1997/98 in Sao Luis, a less wealthy city in Northeast of Brasil, were evaluated. After birth, 2,846 pairs of mothers-newborns were evaluated in Ribeirao Preto and 2,542 in Sao Luis. In 2004/05, 790 children aged 10/11 years were randomly reassessed in Ribeirao Preto and 673 at 7/9 years in Sao Luis. Information on type of delivery, maternal and child characteristics, socioeconomic position and anthropometric measurements were collected after birth and at school age. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 95th percentile at school age. Results Obesity rate was 13.0% in Ribeirao Preto and 2.1% in Sao Luis. Cesarean section was associated with obesity and remained significant after adjustment only in Ribeirao Preto [OR = 1.74 (95% CI: 1.04; 2.92)]. The association between cesarean section and BMI remained significant after adjustment for maternal schooling, maternal smoking during pregnancy, duration of breastfeeding, gender, birth weight and gestational age, type of school and, only in Sao Luis, pre-pregnancy maternal weight. In Ribeirao Preto children born by cesarean section had BMI 0.31 kg/m2 (95%CI: 0.11; 0.51) higher than those born by vaginal delivery. In Sao Luis BMI of children born by cesarean section was 0.28 kg/m2 higher (95%CI: 0.08; 0.49) than those born by vaginal delivery. Conclusion A positive association between cesarean section and increased BMI z-score was demonstrated in areas with different socioeconomic status in a middle-income country. PMID:23886115

  4. Influence of demographic, socioeconomic and environmental variables on childhood diarrhoea in a rural area of Zaire.

    PubMed

    Manun'ebo, M N; Haggerty, P A; Kalengaie, M; Ashworth, A; Kirkwood, B R

    1994-02-01

    There have been very few longitudinal studies of diarrhoea morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. This longitudinal study of children aged 3-35 months from 18 clusters of villages reports an annual incidence rate of 6.3 episodes per child in a rural area of Zaire, which is higher than a cross-sectional estimate previously obtained in the same district. The study confirms that a child's risk of diarrhoeal attack is associated with age, water quality and sanitation, parental education and household size. The findings suggest also that birth interval may be an important risk factor for diarrhoeal morbidity.

  5. Statistical Assessment of Neighborhood Socioeconomic Deprivation Environment in Spatial Epidemiologic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Min; Struthers, James; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation has been associated with health behaviors and outcomes. However, neighborhood socioeconomic status has been measured inconsistently across studies. It remains unclear whether appropriate socioeconomic indicators vary over geographic areas and geographic levels. The aim of this study is to compare the composite socioeconomic index to six socioeconomic indicators reflecting different aspects of socioeconomic environment by both geographic areas and levels. Using 2000 U.S. Census data, we performed a multivariate common factor analysis to identify significant socioeconomic resources and constructed 12 composite indexes at the county, the census tract, and the block group levels across the nation and for three states, respectively. We assessed the agreement between composite indexes and single socioeconomic variables. The component of the composite index varied across geographic areas. At a specific geographic region, the component of the composite index was similar at the levels of census tracts and block groups but different from that at the county level. The percentage of population below federal poverty line was a significant contributor to the composite index, regardless of geographic areas and levels. Compared with non-component socioeconomic indicators, component variables were more agreeable to the composite index. Based on these findings, we conclude that a composite index is better as a measure of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation than a single indicator, and it should be constructed on an area- and unit-specific basis to accurately identify and quantify small-area socioeconomic inequalities over a specific study region. PMID:27413589

  6. Individual- and Area-level Unemployment Influence Smoking Cessation Among African Americans Participating in a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kendzor, Darla E.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M.; Cao, Yumei; Ji, Lingyun; Costello, Tracy J.; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Businelle, Michael S.; Li, Yisheng; Castro, Yessenia; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

    2012-01-01

    African Americans suffer disproportionately from the adverse health consequences of smoking, and also report substantially lower socioeconomic status than Whites and other racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. Although socioeconomic disadvantage is known to have a negative influence on smoking cessation rates and overall health, little is known about the influence of socioeconomic status on smoking cessation specifically among African Americans. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to characterize the impact of several individual- and area-level indicators of socioeconomic status on smoking cessation among African Americans. Data were collected as part of a smoking cessation intervention study for African American smokers (N = 379) recruited from the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area, who participated in the study between 2005 and 2007. The separate and combined influences of individual-level (insurance status, unemployment, education, and income) and area-level (neighborhood unemployment, education, income, and poverty) indicators of socioeconomic status on continuous smoking abstinence were examined across time intervals using continuation ratio logit modeling. Individual-level analyses indicated that unemployment was significantly associated with reduced odds of smoking abstinence, while higher income was associated with greater odds of abstinence. However, only unemployment remained a significant predictor of abstinence when unemployment and income were included in the model together. Area-level analyses indicated that greater neighborhood unemployment and poverty were associated with reduced odds of smoking abstinence, while greater neighborhood education was associated with higher odds of abstinence. However, only neighborhood unemployment remained significantly associated with abstinence status when individual-level income and unemployment were included in the model. Overall, findings suggest that individual- and area-level unemployment have a negative

  7. Wildlife population trends in protected areas predicted by national socio-economic metrics and body size

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Megan D.; Craigie, Ian D.; Harrison, Luke B.; Geldmann, Jonas; Collen, Ben; Whitmee, Sarah; Balmford, Andrew; Burgess, Neil D.; Brooks, Thomas; Hockings, Marc; Woodley, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Ensuring that protected areas (PAs) maintain the biodiversity within their boundaries is fundamental in achieving global conservation goals. Despite this objective, wildlife abundance changes in PAs are patchily documented and poorly understood. Here, we use linear mixed effect models to explore correlates of population change in 1,902 populations of birds and mammals from 447 PAs globally. On an average, we find PAs are maintaining populations of monitored birds and mammals within their boundaries. Wildlife population trends are more positive in PAs located in countries with higher development scores, and for larger-bodied species. These results suggest that active management can consistently overcome disadvantages of lower reproductive rates and more severe threats experienced by larger species of birds and mammals. The link between wildlife trends and national development shows that the social and economic conditions supporting PAs are critical for the successful maintenance of their wildlife populations. PMID:27582180

  8. Wildlife population trends in protected areas predicted by national socio-economic metrics and body size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Megan D.; Craigie, Ian D.; Harrison, Luke B.; Geldmann, Jonas; Collen, Ben; Whitmee, Sarah; Balmford, Andrew; Burgess, Neil D.; Brooks, Thomas; Hockings, Marc; Woodley, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    Ensuring that protected areas (PAs) maintain the biodiversity within their boundaries is fundamental in achieving global conservation goals. Despite this objective, wildlife abundance changes in PAs are patchily documented and poorly understood. Here, we use linear mixed effect models to explore correlates of population change in 1,902 populations of birds and mammals from 447 PAs globally. On an average, we find PAs are maintaining populations of monitored birds and mammals within their boundaries. Wildlife population trends are more positive in PAs located in countries with higher development scores, and for larger-bodied species. These results suggest that active management can consistently overcome disadvantages of lower reproductive rates and more severe threats experienced by larger species of birds and mammals. The link between wildlife trends and national development shows that the social and economic conditions supporting PAs are critical for the successful maintenance of their wildlife populations.

  9. Spatio-Temporal Pattern and Socio-Economic Factors of Bacillary Dysentery at County Level in Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yue; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Lei; Lv, Qiang; Yin, Fei

    2015-10-15

    Bacillary dysentery (BD) remains a big public health problem in China. Effective spatio-temporal monitoring of BD incidence is important for successful implementation of control and prevention measures. This study aimed to examine the spatio-temporal pattern of BD and analyze socio-economic factors that may affect BD incidence in Sichuan province, China. Firstly, we used space-time scan statistic to detect the high risk spatio-temporal clusters in each year. Then, bivariate spatial correlation and Bayesian spatio-temporal model were utilized to examine the associations between the socio-economic factors and BD incidence. Spatio-temporal clusters of BD were mainly located in the northern-southern belt of the midwest area of Sichuan province. The proportion of primary industry, the proportion of rural population and the rates of BD incidence show statistically significant positive correlation. The proportion of secondary industry, proportion of tertiary Industry, number of beds in hospitals per thousand persons, medical and technical personnel per thousand persons, per capital GDP and the rate of BD incidence show statistically significant negative correlation. The best fitting spatio-temporal model showed that medical and technical personnel per thousand persons and per capital GDP were significantly negative related to the risk of BD.

  10. Activity levels in pregnant New Zealand women: relationship with socioeconomic factors, well-being, anthropometric measures, and birth outcome.

    PubMed

    Watson, Patricia E; McDonald, Barry W

    2007-08-01

    Activity during pregnancy has health implications for mother and child. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to examine changes in activity levels during pregnancy; the influence of socioeconomic factors and well-being on activity, and the influence of activity on maternal anthropometric measures and birth outcome. Twenty-four hour activity diaries were collected for 3 d in months 4 and 7 of pregnancy in 197 volunteers. Anthropometric measures and questionnaires to determine personal details were collected at these times and 2 months post-partum. Health records were used to supply infant measures. The time spent on each activity category was calculated, and used to calculate overall daily metabolic equivalents (METs). Low socioeconomic (SES) group 24 h activity levels were significantly higher than for high SES or welfare groups (p = 0.013). Activity declined throughout pregnancy in all groups (p = 0.002). Women with children had higher 24 h activity, spending 41% more time walking and (or) on housework than nulliparous women (p = 0.013). Reduced well-being was associated with lower levels of activity. Sleep and lying down time influenced 2 month post-partum body mass (upper quartile gained 2.54 kg, lower quartile lost 0.24 kg, p < 0.001). Mean infant gestational age increased with increasing 24 h activity (p = 0.047). No infants were born prematurely to mothers who spent more than 190 min/d walking or doing housework activities in month 4. Probability of infant admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) declined with time spent walking or doing housework in month 4 (p = 0.007). Mean (SE) birth weight was 3883 (+/-165) g in the 10% of women spending less than 530 min sleeping or lying down per day, compared with 3413 (+/-104) g in the 10% of women spending 725 min or more sleeping or lying down. Socioeconomic factors were therefore important influences on activity levels during pregnancy. Inactivity, especially in early pregnancy, was associated

  11. Childhood Socioeconomic Position and Objectively Measured Physical Capability Levels in Adulthood: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Richard M.; Kuh, Diana; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Alvarado, Beatriz E.; Bayer, Antony; Christensen, Kaare; Cho, Sung-il; Cooper, Cyrus; Corley, Janie; Craig, Leone; Deary, Ian J.; Demakakos, Panayotes; Ebrahim, Shah; Gallacher, John; Gow, Alan J.; Gunnell, David; Haas, Steven; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Inskip, Hazel; Jang, Soong-nang; Noronha, Kenya; Osler, Merete; Palloni, Alberto; Rasmussen, Finn; Santos-Eggimann, Brigitte; Spagnoli, Jacques; Starr, John; Steptoe, Andrew; Syddall, Holly; Tynelius, Per; Weir, David; Whalley, Lawrence J.; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Hardy, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Background Grip strength, walking speed, chair rising and standing balance time are objective measures of physical capability that characterise current health and predict survival in older populations. Socioeconomic position (SEP) in childhood may influence the peak level of physical capability achieved in early adulthood, thereby affecting levels in later adulthood. We have undertaken a systematic review with meta-analyses to test the hypothesis that adverse childhood SEP is associated with lower levels of objectively measured physical capability in adulthood. Methods and Findings Relevant studies published by May 2010 were identified through literature searches using EMBASE and MEDLINE. Unpublished results were obtained from study investigators. Results were provided by all study investigators in a standard format and pooled using random-effects meta-analyses. 19 studies were included in the review. Total sample sizes in meta-analyses ranged from N = 17,215 for chair rise time to N = 1,061,855 for grip strength. Although heterogeneity was detected, there was consistent evidence in age adjusted models that lower childhood SEP was associated with modest reductions in physical capability levels in adulthood: comparing the lowest with the highest childhood SEP there was a reduction in grip strength of 0.13 standard deviations (95% CI: 0.06, 0.21), a reduction in mean walking speed of 0.07 m/s (0.05, 0.10), an increase in mean chair rise time of 6% (4%, 8%) and an odds ratio of an inability to balance for 5s of 1.26 (1.02, 1.55). Adjustment for the potential mediating factors, adult SEP and body size attenuated associations greatly. However, despite this attenuation, for walking speed and chair rise time, there was still evidence of moderate associations. Conclusions Policies targeting socioeconomic inequalities in childhood may have additional benefits in promoting the maintenance of independence in later life. PMID:21297868

  12. Cost-analysis of an oral health outreach program for preschool children in a low socioeconomic multicultural area in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Wennhall, Inger; Norlund, Anders; Matsson, Lars; Twetman, Svante

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to calculate the total and the net costs per child included in a 3-year caries preventive program for preschool children and to make estimates of expected lowest and highest costs in a sensitivity analysis. The direct costs for prevention and dental care were applied retrospectively to a comprehensive oral health outreach project for preschool children conducted in a low-socioeconomic multi-cultural urban area. The outcome was compared with historical controls from the same area with conventional dental care. The cost per minute for the various dental professions was added to the cost of materials, rental facilities and equipment based on accounting data. The cost for fillings was extracted from a specified per diem list. Overhead costs were assumed to correspond to 50% of salaries and all costs were calculated as net present value per participating child in the program and expressed in Euro. The results revealed an estimated total cost of 310 Euro per included child (net present value) in the 3-year program. Half of the costs were attributed to the first year of the program and the costs of manpower constituted 45% of the total costs. When the total cost was reduced with the cost of conventional care and the revenue of avoided fillings, the net cost was estimated to 30 Euro. A sensitivity analysis displayed that a net gain could be possible with a maximal outcome of the program. In conclusion, the estimated net costs were displayed and available to those considering implementation of a similar population-based preventive program in areas where preschool children are at high caries risk.

  13. A cohort study evaluating the implications of biology, weight status and socioeconomic level on global self-esteem competence among female African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Powell-Young, Yolanda M; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Velasco-Gonzalez, Cruz; Sothern, Melinda S

    2013-07-01

    The link between obesity and self-esteem among minority youth has received minimal empirical evaluation. This study aims to describe the magnitude of risk that body mass index, household income, and transitional age have on global self-esteem levels among African-American adolescents. These analyses were conducted on cross-sectional data obtained from 264 urban-dwelling African-American females between 14 and 18 years of age. Survey data on global self-esteem levels, transitory age, and socioeconomic levels were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Measured height and weight values were used to calculate and categorize weight status according to body mass index. Logistic regression models examined the probability of reporting less than average levels of global self-esteem. Adolescent African-American females residing in low-income households were 10 times more likely to report lower global self-esteem scores than those individuals from more affluent households (95% CI: 1.94, 60.19, p < .001). Neither weight status (95% CI: 0.81, 2.55; p = .26) nor age (95% CI: 0.05, 1.87; p = .82) were significant risk indicators for lower than average levels of global self-esteem among participants in this study. Household income appears to be the greatest predictor of global self-esteem levels. Further research in this area is needed to fully elucidate precursors for psychological health vulnerability and facilitate intervention development.

  14. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN BODY COMPOSITION, SOMATOTYPE AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS IN CHILEAN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS AT DIFFERENT SCHOOL LEVELS.

    PubMed

    Lizana, Pablo A; González, Sofia; Lera, Lydia; Leyton, Bárbara

    2017-02-27

    This study examined the association between body composition, somatotype and socioeconomic status (SES) in Chilean children and adolescents by sex and school level (grade). The cross-sectional study was conducted on 1168 schoolchildren aged 6-18 years (572 males) from Valparaíso, Chile. Body composition, as assessed by percentage body fat (BF%) and somatotype, was evaluated using Ellis equations and the Heath-Carter method, respectively. The socioeconomic status of respondents was assessed using the ESOMAR survey. Obesity was defined as BF% ≥25 for boys and ≥30 for girls; 'high endomorph' somatotype was defined as a somatotype endomorph component (EC) of at least 5.5. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between high adiposity and SES, potential confounding factors and school level. In females, the results indicated that the groups with lower SES had higher EC. At the 1st (youngest) school level (1-4th grades), males exhibited similar trends in their BF% and EC. High adiposity was associated with the female sex (BF%: OR=3.39; 95% CI 2.60, 4.41; high EC: OR=2.31; 95% CI 1.80, 2.98). In addition, low SES increased the risk of high adiposity compared with high SES (BF%: OR=2.25; 95% CI 1.40, 3.61; high EC: OR=2.19; 95% CI 1.37, 3.47). An association was observed between increased adiposity and lower SES, mainly in females, which indicates that females with low SES might be at greater risk of obesity.

  15. Seasonal variations of all-cause and cause-specific mortality by age, gender, and socioeconomic condition in urban and rural areas of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mortality exhibits seasonal variations, which to a certain extent can be considered as mid-to long-term influences of meteorological conditions. In addition to atmospheric effects, the seasonal pattern of mortality is shaped by non-atmospheric determinants such as environmental conditions or socioeconomic status. Understanding the influence of season and other factors is essential when seeking to implement effective public health measures. The pressures of climate change make an understanding of the interdependencies between season, climate and health especially important. Methods This study investigated daily death counts collected within the Sample Vital Registration System (VSRS) established by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS). The sample was stratified by location (urban vs. rural), gender and socioeconomic status. Furthermore, seasonality was analyzed for all-cause mortality, and several cause-specific mortalities. Daily deviation from average mortality was calculated and seasonal fluctuations were elaborated using non parametric spline smoothing. A seasonality index for each year of life was calculated in order to assess the age-dependency of seasonal effects. Results We found distinctive seasonal variations of mortality with generally higher levels during the cold season. To some extent, a rudimentary secondary summer maximum could be observed. The degree and shape of seasonality changed with the cause of death as well as with location, gender, and SES and was strongly age-dependent. Urban areas were seen to be facing an increased summer mortality peak, particularly in terms of cardiovascular mortality. Generally, children and the elderly faced stronger seasonal effects than youths and young adults. Conclusion This study clearly demonstrated the complex and dynamic nature of seasonal impacts on mortality. The modifying effect of spatial and population characteristics were highlighted. While tropical regions have been, and still are

  16. The Contribution of Biogeographic Ancestry and Socioeconomic Status to Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Type 2 Diabetes: Results from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey

    PubMed Central

    Piccolo, Rebecca S.; Pearce, Neil; Araujo, Andre B.; McKinlay, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Racial/ethnic disparities in the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are well documented and many researchers have proposed that biogeographical ancestry (BGA) may play a role in these disparities. However, studies examining the role of BGA on T2DM have produced mixed results to date. Therefore, the objective of this research is to quantify the contribution of BGA to racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM incidence controlling for the mediating influences of socioeconomic factors. Methods We analyzed data from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey, a prospective cohort with approximately equal numbers of Black, Hispanic, and White participants. We used Ancestry Informative Markers to calculate the percentages of West African and Native American ancestry of participants. We used logistic regression with g-computation to analyze the contribution of BGA and socioeconomic factors to racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM incidence. Results We found that socioeconomic factors accounted for 44.7% of the total effect of T2DM attributed to Black race and 54.9% of the effect attributed to Hispanic ethnicity. We found that BGA had almost no direct association with T2DM and was almost entirely mediated by self-identified race/ethnicity and socioeconomic factors. Conclusions It is likely that non-genetic factors, specifically socioeconomic factors, account for much of the reported racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM incidence. PMID:25088753

  17. Correlates of Creativity in Children from Two Socioeconomic Levels. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasi, Anne

    The two studies reported here investigate the role of experiential factors in the development of creative thinking of children and adolescents. The first assigned 400 male students from six high schools in the New York metropolitan area to four criterion groups of 100 each: (1) Creative Art or Writing, (2) Creative/ Scientific, (3) Control Art or…

  18. [Fatty acids in mature breast milk from low socioeconomic levels of Venezuelan women: influence of temperature and time of storage].

    PubMed

    Bosch, Virgilio; Golfetto, Iván; Alonso, Hilda; Laurentin, Zuly; Materan, Mercedes; García, Ninoska

    2009-03-01

    Fatty acids in mature breast milk from low socioeconomic levels of Venezuelan women: influence of temperature and time of storage. Breast milk is the main food in infants from birth until six months old. It is important to know if precarious life conditions could limit some nutrients in mother's milk. The objective of this study is to evaluate the total fat and essential long chain fatty acids in mature breast milk from low socioeconomic levels in Venezuelan women. The values of total fat (3.56 +/- 1.18 g/%) are similar that reported in the literature, however the sume of LC-PUFA n-3 was 0.3 +/- 0.04% which is related whith low n-3 fatty acid maternal diet.The sume LC-PUFA n-3 contained in this study is below most of the reviewed publications. The average amount of 22:6 n-3 in breast milk offered to newborn one month old (750 ml/day) is below estimated requirements (70 mg/day). The majority of these samples provide to the infants, the amount of DHA estimated as convenient to sustain normal growth. Also it was explored how the time (8h to 24 h) and temperatura (+4 degrees C, +15 degrees C, and +25 degrees C) can affect its composition. This data will permit to select the best condiitions of sampling and storage of mother's milk in future investigations in different regions of Venezuela. Most of the breast milk fatty acids tolerate some hours at room temperature (25 degrees C) but essential long chain fatty acids are very vulnerable. We propose that, in consequence, that samples should be transported in sterile conditions in dry ice to the laboratory in a few hours and should be kept at -70 degrees C until their analysis.

  19. [Socio-economic impact at the household level of the health consequences of toxic waste discharge in Abidjan in 2006].

    PubMed

    Koné, B A; Tiembré, I; Dongo, K; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J; Cissé, G

    2011-02-01

    In August 2006, toxic wastes were discharged in the district of Abidjan, causing important health consequences in many households in the area. In order to appreciate the socio-economic impact of the consequences of toxic waste discharge on the households and of the measures taken by the authorities to deal with this catastrophe, and to appreciate the spatial extent of the pollution, we undertook a multidisciplinary transversal investigation at the sites of discharge of oxic waste, from October the 19th to December the 8th, 2006, using a transect sampling methodology. This paper presents the results related to the socio-economic aspects of the survey while the environmental and epidemiological results are presented in two other published papers. The socioeconomics investigation, conducted using a questionnaire, concerned 809 households across the various sites of discharge of toxic waste. More than 62% of households had at least one person who had been affected by toxic waste (affected households). 62.47% of these households were in Cocody district (with 2 sites and 4 points of discharge), 30.14% in Abobo district (with 2 sites and 3 points) and 7.39% in Koumassi district (with 1 site and 1 point). To escape the bad smell and the nuisance, 22.75% of the 501 "affected" households had left their houses. To face the health consequences generated by the toxic waste, 30.54% of the "affected" households engaged expenses. Those were on average of 92 450 FCFA (€141), with a minimum of 1 000 FCFA (€1.5) and a maximum of 1500000 FCFA (€2.287), in spite of the advertisement of the exemption from payment treatment fees made by the government. The decision of destroying cultures and farms near the points of discharge of the toxic products in a radius of 200 meters, taken by the authorities, touched 2.22% of the households. For these households, it did nothing but worsen their state of poverty, since the zone of influence of the toxic waste went well beyond the 200 meters

  20. The Role of Curricular Approach, Rural-Urban Background, and Socioeconomic Status in Second Language Learning: The Cornwall Area Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, M.; Barik, H. C.

    1978-01-01

    Presenting evaluation results of a kindergarten bilingual education program and followup program, this article indicates French immersion can be effective among rural and urban students of both middle-upper and low socioeconomic status. (JC)

  1. Geo-statistical modeling to evaluate the socio-economic impacts of households in the context of low-lying areas conversion in Colombo metropolitan region-Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemakumara, GPTS; Rainis, Ruslan

    2015-02-01

    Living in Low-lying areas is a challenging task, but due to the lack of suitable land at affordable prices, thousands of householders have been establishing their own houses on Low-lying areas. Manipulation and conversion of low lying areas have led to an increase in the frequency and severity of micro disasters because the cumulative effect of these settlements is very high. Therefore, it is needed to examine how individual households have been emerging in Low-lying areas. This process is primarily influenced and controlled by Socio-economic factors. In the field survey conducted for this study, 388 householders were interviewed face to face to obtain the primary data. Collected data were applied to the Multivariate binary logistic Model. The Dependent variable of the model was set as Stable Houses and Non-Stable Houses based on the weighted values that were obtained from the field observations. Independent variables of this study are nine key aspects of the socio-economic conditions in these areas. Units of analysis of the study were taken as individual housing plots in the study area. The particular combination of Socio-Economic factors that exerted influence on each housing plot was measured using predicted probability value of logistic model and linked it with GIS land plot's map. Accuracy of Final Model is 86.9 % and probability level of influencing factors given a clear idea about household distribution and status while providing guidance about how the planning authorities should monitor and manage low lying areas, taking into consideration the present housing condition of these areas.

  2. Relationship Between Locus of Control Scores and Reading Achievement of Black and White Second Grade Children from Two Socio-Economic Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ralph L.; Uhl, Norman P.

    This study investigates the effect of socio-economic level (lower and upper-middle), race (black and white), and sex on locus of control of reinforcement scores, and the relationship between the latter scores and reading achievement in a sample of 211 second grade children. A stratified random sampling technique insured adequate levels of each…

  3. Integration of data from censuses and remote sensing to measure the socio-economic and environmental evolution in urban areas: case of the city of Sherbrooke (1981-2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dari, Ouassini

    The urban environment is complex, heterogeneous and temporally changeable. Man is the main actor in the transformation of urban areas where he interacts with intensity. Spatial differentiation is a result of human occupation in the urban environment. This occupation may vary according to land use, population density, social and economic characteristics and environment. This leads us to say that the socio-economic and environmental indicators change according to the various locations in the urban area and through time. Our goal is to measure the socio-economic and environmental changes in the urban area of the city of Sherbrooke using remote sensing data synchronized with the censuses and that we will then integrate into the geographic information system (GIS). We have used data from the 1981 and 2006 censuses, 1983 aerial photos, 2007 orthophotos and 1983 MSS and 2006 Ikons satellite images to measure the socio-economic and environmental changes in the city of Sherbrooke. We have used spatial analysis tools to integrate image data with census data. The methods uses such as global indices, principal component analysis combined with the variation between the two dates have yielded interesting results. The first factor in principal component analysis with orthogonal rotation (Varimax) justified a substantial percentage of the variance in global indices. The use of dissemination areas resulted in detailed information on the change in the city. From the perspective of spatial distribution, we noted a major difference between the central areas and the peripheral areas in 1981 and 2006. From the perspective of evolution between 1981 and 2006, we observed that are positive and negative changes at various levels took place. We also observed the evolution of ethnicity in the Sherbrooke city and Lennoxville municipality. The study showed that the French population is prevalent in the old city of Sherbrooke as the English population is prevalent in Lennoxville. The European

  4. Outdoor NOx and stroke mortality: adjusting for small area level smoking prevalence using a Bayesian approach.

    PubMed

    Maheswaran, Ravi; Haining, Robert P; Pearson, Tim; Law, Jane; Brindley, Paul; Best, Nicola G

    2006-10-01

    There is increasing evidence, mainly from daily time series studies, linking air pollution and stroke. Small area level geographical correlation studies offer another means of examining the air pollution-stroke association. Populations within small areas may be more homogeneous than those within larger areal units, and census-based socioeconomic information may be available to adjust for confounding effects. Data on smoking from health surveys may be incorporated in spatial analyses to adjust for potential confounding effects but may be sparse at the small area level. Smoothing, using data from neighbouring areas, may be used to increase the precision of smoking prevalence estimates for small areas. We examined the effect of modelled outdoor NOx levels on stroke mortality using a Bayesian hierarchical spatial model to incorporate random effects, in order to allow for unmeasured confounders and to acknowledge sampling error in the estimation of smoking prevalence. We observed an association between NOx and stroke mortality after taking into account random effects at the small area level. We found no association between smoking prevalence and stroke mortality at the small area level after modelling took into account imprecision in estimating smoking prevalence. The approach we used to incorporate smoking as a covariate in a single large model is conceptually sound, though it made little difference to the substantive results.

  5. Socioeconomic Status and the Health of Youth: A Multi-level, Multi-domain Approach to Conceptualizing Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Schreier, Hannah M. C.; Chen, Edith

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has clearly established associations between low socioeconomic status (SES) and poor youth physical health outcomes. This article provides an overview of the main pathways through which low SES environments come to influence youth health. We focus on two of the most prevalent chronic health problems in youth today, asthma and obesity. We review and propose a model that encompasses (1) multiple levels of influence, including the neighborhood, family and person level, (2) both social and physical domains in the environment, and finally (3) dynamic relationships between these factors. A synthesis of existing research and our proposed model draw attention to the notion of adverse physical and social exposures in youth’s neighborhood environments altering family characteristics and youth psychosocial and behavioral profiles, thereby increasing youth’s risk for health problems. We also note the importance of acknowledging reciprocal influences across levels and domains (e.g., between family and child) that create self-perpetuating patterns of influence that further accentuate the impact of these factors on youth health. Finally, we document that factors across levels can interact (e.g., environmental pollution levels with child stress) to create unique, synergistic effects on youth health. Our model stresses the importance of evaluating influences on youth’s physical health not in isolation but in the context of the broader social and physical environments in which youth live. Understanding the complex relationships between the factors that link low SES to youth’s long-term health trajectories is necessary for the creation and implementation of successful interventions and policies to ultimately reduce health disparities. PMID:22845752

  6. Strategic Analysis of Sustainable Socioeconomic Situation of Rural Areas in the Samara Region of the Russian Federation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belyaeva, Galina I.; Ermoshkina, Ekaterina N.; Kosyakova, Inessa V.; Pankratova, Larisa E.; Zotova, Anna S.

    2016-01-01

    On the one hand, the relevance of this problem is primarily determined by a growing gap of rural territorial entities in socioeconomic development, and on the other hand, due to their significance in such prominent aspects for the country as food security, maintaining the existing land, industrial, ecological, demographic and human potential. The…

  7. Effects of socioeconomic status on brain development, and how cognitive neuroscience may contribute to levelling the playing field.

    PubMed

    Raizada, Rajeev D S; Kishiyama, Mark M

    2010-01-01

    THE STUDY OF SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS (SES) AND THE BRAIN FINDS ITSELF IN A CIRCUMSTANCE UNUSUAL FOR COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE: large numbers of questions with both practical and scientific importance exist, but they are currently under-researched and ripe for investigation. This review aims to highlight these questions, to outline their potential significance, and to suggest routes by which they might be approached. Although remarkably few neural studies have been carried out so far, there exists a large literature of previous behavioural work. This behavioural research provides an invaluable guide for future neuroimaging work, but also poses an important challenge for it: how can we ensure that the neural data contributes predictive or diagnostic power over and above what can be derived from behaviour alone? We discuss some of the open mechanistic questions which Cognitive Neuroscience may have the power to illuminate, spanning areas including language, numerical cognition, stress, memory, and social influences on learning. These questions have obvious practical and societal significance, but they also bear directly on a set of longstanding questions in basic science: what are the environmental and neural factors which affect the acquisition and retention of declarative and nondeclarative skills? Perhaps the best opportunity for practical and theoretical interests to converge is in the study of interventions. Many interventions aimed at improving the cognitive development of low SES children are currently underway, but almost all are operating without either input from, or study by, the Cognitive Neuroscience community. Given that longitudinal intervention studies are very hard to set up, but can, with proper designs, be ideal tests of causal mechanisms, this area promises exciting opportunities for future research.

  8. Health and Socioeconomic Status of the Elderly People Living in Hilly Areas of Pakhribas, Kosi Zone, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ankit Amar; Lall, Amrit Kumar; Das, Aditi; Saurav, Anshu; Nandan, Abnish; Shah, Deepa; Agrahari, Anand; Yadav, Deepak Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: The rising geriatric population is facing significant health and social problems in the developing world that are impacting the quality of their lives. Objective: The study describes the general health status and the socioeconomic characteristics of the elderly people of Pakhribas village development committee (VDC) of Eastern Nepal. Materials and Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out targeting the people aged 60 years and above in the sample area using a semi-structured questionnaire and convenient sampling to get the required sample size. A total of 189 elderly people who consented were interviewed in May 2010. Result: The major part of the elderly population was in the age group of 60-69 years. Seventy-two percent were illiterate and 75% were still earning with the majority involved in farming. Nine out of ten were living with their families and still made decisions for the household, Eighty-two percent did not feel lonely and 88.4% did not report any misbehavior by the house members. Regarding health, 69% had some diagnosed health issue with 36% suffering from gastritis and 20.4% from chronic lung disease. Using the ICD 10 criteria, depression was found among 18%. The most prevalent geriatric problem was a dental problem as found in 61% even though 87% claimed to brush their teeth regularly. More than half were suffering from visual difficulty and the proportions suffering from memory and hearing issues were also substantive. Smoking habit was found in 60%, and the relation between smoking and chronic respiratory diseases had a statistical association (P = <0.05). The geriatric cases who were misbehaved with felt depressed or neglected in the family (P = <0.0001). Conclusions: The results of the study show that employment, family support, and pension schemes have a positive impact on the social status of the elderly. Health screening clinics should be established in the community to detect health-related disorders. Elderly

  9. Factor Structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire in Turkish Children and Gender, Grade-Level, and Socioeconomic Status Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uz Bas, Asli; Yurdabakan, Irfan

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the factor structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ) with Turkish children, and to investigate gender, grade-level, and socioeconomic status (SES) differences in reactive and proactive aggression. Participants consisted of 1,081 Turkish children (544 boys and 537 girls) aged 9 to 14…

  10. Demographic, behavioral, dietary, and socioeconomic characteristics related to persistent organic pollutants and mercury levels in pregnant women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Chihiro; Sasaki, Seiko; Saijo, Yasuaki; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Baba, Toshiaki; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Todaka, Takashi; Iwasaki, Yusuke; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Hachiya, Noriyuki; Yasutake, Akira; Murata, Katsuyuki; Kishi, Reiko

    2015-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants and mercury are known environmental chemicals that have been found to be ubiquitous in not only the environment but also in humans, including women of reproductive age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between personal lifestyle characteristics and environmental chemical levels during the perinatal period in the general Japanese population. This study targeted 322 pregnant women enrolled in the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health. Each participant completed a self-administered questionnaire and a food-frequency questionnaire to obtain relevant information on parental demographic, behavioral, dietary, and socioeconomic characteristics. In total, 58 non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, 17 dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofuran, and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls congeners, perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and mercury were measured in maternal samples taken during the perinatal period. Linear regression models were constructed against potential related factors for each chemical concentration. Most concentrations of environmental chemicals were correlated with the presence of other environmental chemicals, especially in the case of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibezofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls which had similar exposure sources and persistence in the body. Maternal smoking and alcohol habits, fish and beef intake and household income were significantly associated with concentrations of environmental chemicals. These results suggest that different lifestyle patterns relate to varying exposure to environmental chemicals.

  11. Socioeconomical and sociopolitical correlates of interpersonal forgiveness: a three-level meta-analysis of the Enright Forgiveness Inventory across 13 societies.

    PubMed

    Hanke, Katja; Fischer, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    We report a meta-analysis on the country-level correlates of the Enright Forgiveness Inventory (EFI), to address (1) whether there are differences in forgiveness between societies, (2) what society-level context variables can account for these differences, and (3) whether conceptual relationships of forgiveness found at the individual level can be replicated at the societal level. We found sizeable differences between societies that are associated with democracy, peacefulness, socioeconomic development, and postmaterialism indices of a society. Replicating individual-level results, subjective wellbeing was positively related to forgiveness. We discuss the importance of macro-level contextual variables for understanding levels of forgiveness.

  12. Final Systems Development Report for the Clark County Socioeconomic Impact Assessment of the Proposed High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV

    SciTech Connect

    1992-06-18

    The Systems Development Report represents the third major step in the Clark County Socioeconomic Impact Assessment of the Proposed High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mound Nevada. The first of these steps was to forge a Research Design that would serve as a guide for the overall research process. The second step was the construction of the Base Case, the purpose of which was to describe existing conditions in Clark County in the specified analytic areas of Economic-Demographic/Fiscal, Emergency Planning and Management, Transportation and Sociocultural analysis. The base case description will serve as a basis for assessing changes in these topic areas that might result from the Yucca Mountain project. These changes will be assessed by analyzing conditions with and without repository development in the county. Prior to performing such assessments, however, the snapshot type of data found in the base case must be operationalized or systematized to allow for more dynamic data utilization. In other words, a data system that can be used to analyze the consequences of the introduction of different variables (or variable values) in the Clark County context must be constructed. Such a system must be capable of being updated through subsequent data collection and monitoring efforts to both provide a rolling base case and supply information necessary to construct trend analyses. For example, during the Impact Assessment phase of the study process, the without repository analysis is accomplished by analyzing growth for the county given existing conditions and likely trends. These data are then compared to the with Yucca Mountain project conditions anticipated for the county. Similarly, once the emergency planning management and response needs associated with the repository are described, these needs will be juxtaposed against existing (and various future) capacity(ies) in order to determine the nature and magnitude of impacts in this analytic area. Analogous tasks

  13. Gender, socio-economic status, migration origin and neighbourhood of residence are barriers to HIV testing in the Paris metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Massari, Veronique; Lapostolle, Annabelle; Cadot, Emmanuelle; Parizot, Isabelle; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Chauvin, Pierre

    2011-12-01

    In France, numerous HIV patients still discover their HIV status as a result of AIDS-related symptoms. We investigated factors related to the absence of any HIV testing in men and women separately, using the data from the SIRS cohort, which includes 3023 households representative of the Paris metropolitan area in 2005. The failure to use HIV testing services was studied in relation to individual socio-economic and demographic factors as well as some psychosocial characteristics. The effect of the characteristics of the residential neighbourhood was also analysed using multilevel models. In multivariate analysis, the factors associated with no history of HIV testing in women were an age >44 years, the absence of any pregnancy during the previous 15 years, a low education level, unemployment, to have had no or only one steady relationship in one's lifetime, to have a religious affiliation and to live in a poor neighbourhood. In men, factors were age <30 or >44 years, to have had no or only one steady relationship during one's lifetime, to have a religious affiliation and to perceive oneself as being at low risk of HIV infection. An association according to the "migration origin" was observed among men: foreigners and French men born to (at least) one foreign parent were more likely not to have been tested than French men born to two French parents. We conclude that gender, social and territorial differences exist in HIV testing among people living in the Paris area. More systematic proposals of HIV test in primary care would be an effective policy to overcome these persistent social stratifications.

  14. 7. Level 7 conveyor area. Stub shoring under bin to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Level 7 conveyor area. Stub shoring under bin to apron feeder. - Kennecott Copper Corporation, Concentration Mill, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  15. School- and Family-Level Socioeconomic Status and Health Behaviors: Multilevel Analysis of a National Survey in Wales, United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Graham F.; Littlecott, Hannah J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Interventions to address inequalities in adolescent health behaviors often target children from less affluent families, or schools in poorer areas. Few studies have examined whether school- or family-level affluence predicts health behaviors independently, or in combination. Methods: This article reports secondary analysis of the Welsh…

  16. Socioeconomic environment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This portion of the Energy vision 2020 draft report discusses the socioeconomic environment of the Tennessee Valley region. It describes the region and mentions geographical factors, current economy, the agricultural sector, and future trends in the economy of the region.

  17. Life-course socioeconomic environment and health risk behaviours. A multilevel small-area analysis of young-old persons in an urban neighbourhood in Lausanne, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Cornaz, Sarah; Taffé, Patrick; Santos-Eggimann, Brigitte

    2009-03-01

    With a life expectancy at the age of 65 of around 20 years, damaging health risk behaviours of young-old adults have become a target for preventive actions. Such risk factors necessitate an accurate understanding of the present and past socioeconomic conditions associated with health risk behaviours. The aim of our study is to assess the impact of certain life events as well as economic and environmental factors on health risk behaviours. We included 1309 participants of the Lausanne Cohort Lc65+ aged 65-70 years and employed logistic regression analyses, with individuals nested within areas. The results illustrate the influences of socioeconomic factors from childhood to young-old age. Life experiences in adulthood and economic resources in young-old age are both associated with unfavourable health behaviours. Neighbourhood is a modest determinant as well, particularly regarding alcohol consumption. Therefore, prevention against health risk behaviours should focus on population subgroups defined on the basis of their socioeconomic and living contexts.

  18. [Socioeconomic variables and fertility].

    PubMed

    Arguello, O

    1980-08-01

    While making comparative analyses of data collected by the World Fertility Survey regarding Latin America, a group of investigators of CELADE (Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia) realized that the selection of economic variables for the study of fertility had serious limitations. Such limitations did not allow the elaboration of a theory which took into account the complicated process of fertility, in all its socioeconomic, cultural, and psychological manifestations. Thus, this paper intends to lay the theoretical basis for the selection of all relevant variables, distinguishing, for example, the average fertility of women according to area of residence, place of early socialization, migrant status, social status, occupation of husband, level of instruction, occupation, and all changes in occupational activities of women in fertile age.

  19. Do the Predictors of Child Conduct Problems Vary by High- and Low-Levels of Socioeconomic and Neighborhood Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonberg, Michael A.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2007-01-01

    This review seeks to examine whether the existing literature on child conduct problems (CP) supports the notion that certain CP risk factors vary in their importance across disadvantaged and better-off environments. Disadvantaged environments are represented by socioeconomic and/or neighborhood risk (SN risk) in this review. Three types of studies…

  20. A systematic review of the effectiveness of individual, community and societal-level interventions at reducing socio-economic inequalities in obesity among adults

    PubMed Central

    Hillier-Brown, F C; Bambra, C L; Cairns, J-M; Kasim, A; Moore, H J; Summerbell, C D

    2014-01-01

    Background: Socioeconomic inequalities in obesity are well established in high-income countries. There is a lack of evidence of the types of intervention that are effective in reducing these inequalities among adults. Objectives: To systematically review studies of the effectiveness of individual, community and societal interventions in reducing socio-economic inequalities in obesity among adults. Methods: Nine electronic databases were searched from start date to October 2012 along with website and grey literature searches. The review examined the best available international evidence (both experimental and observational) of interventions at an individual, community and societal level that might reduce inequalities in obesity among adults (aged 18 years or over) in any setting and country. Studies were included if they reported a body fatness-related outcome and if they included a measure of socio-economic status. Data extraction and quality appraisal were conducted using established mechanisms and narrative synthesis was conducted. Results: The ‘best available' international evidence was provided by 20 studies. At the individual level, there was evidence of the effectiveness of primary care delivered tailored weight loss programmes among deprived groups. Community based behavioural weight loss interventions and community diet clubs (including workplace ones) also had some evidence of effectiveness—at least in the short term. Societal level evaluations were few, low quality and inconclusive. Further, there was little evidence of long term effectiveness, and few studies of men or outside the USA. However, there was no evidence to suggest that interventions increase inequalities. Conclusions: The best available international evidence suggests that some individual and community-based interventions may be effective in reducing socio-economic inequalities in obesity among adults in the short term. Further research is required particularly of more complex, multi

  1. Temporal Variation and Association of Aflatoxin B₁ Albumin-Adduct Levels with Socio-Economic and Food Consumption Factors in HIV Positive Adults.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Pauline E; Akinyemiju, Tomi F; Jha, Megha; Aban, Inmaculada; Gonzalez-Falero, Andrea; Joseph, Dnika

    2015-11-30

    The association between aflatoxin exposure and alteration in immune responses observed in humans suggest that aflatoxin could suppress the immune system and work synergistically with HIV to increase disease severity and progression to AIDS. No longitudinal study has been conducted to assess exposure to aflatoxin (AF) among HIV positive individuals. We examined temporal variation in AFB₁ albumin adducts (AF-ALB) in HIV positive Ghanaians, and assessed the association with socioeconomic and food consumption factors. We collected socioeconomic and food consumption data for 307 HIV positive antiretroviral naive adults and examined AF-ALB levels at recruitment (baseline) and at six (follow-up 1) and 12 (follow-up 2) months post-recruitment, by age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES) and food consumption patterns. Generalized linear models were used to examine the influence of socioeconomic and food consumption factors on changes in AF-ALB levels over the study period, adjusting for other covariates. AF-ALB levels (pg/mg albumin) were lower at baseline (mean AF-ALB: 14.9, SD: 15.9), higher at six months (mean AF-ALB: 23.3, SD: 26.6), and lower at 12 months (mean AF-ALB: 15.3, SD: 15.4). Participants with the lowest SES had the highest AF-ALB levels at baseline and follow up-2 compared with those with higher SES. Participants who bought less than 20% of their food and who stored maize for less than two months had lower AF-ALB levels. In the adjusted models, there was a statistically significant association between follow up time and season (dry or rainy season) on AF-ALB levels over time (p = 0.04). Asymptomatic HIV-positive Ghanaians had high plasma AF-ALB levels that varied according to season, socioeconomic status, and food consumption patterns. Steps need to be taken to ensure the safety and security of the food supply for the population, but in particular for the most vulnerable groups such as HIV positive people.

  2. Temporal Variation and Association of Aflatoxin B1 Albumin-Adduct Levels with Socio-Economic and Food Consumption Factors in HIV Positive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Pauline E.; Akinyemiju, Tomi F.; Jha, Megha; Aban, Inmaculada; Gonzalez-Falero, Andrea; Joseph, Dnika

    2015-01-01

    The association between aflatoxin exposure and alteration in immune responses observed in humans suggest that aflatoxin could suppress the immune system and work synergistically with HIV to increase disease severity and progression to AIDS. No longitudinal study has been conducted to assess exposure to aflatoxin (AF) among HIV positive individuals. We examined temporal variation in AFB1 albumin adducts (AF-ALB) in HIV positive Ghanaians, and assessed the association with socioeconomic and food consumption factors. We collected socioeconomic and food consumption data for 307 HIV positive antiretroviral naive adults and examined AF-ALB levels at recruitment (baseline) and at six (follow-up 1) and 12 (follow-up 2) months post-recruitment, by age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES) and food consumption patterns. Generalized linear models were used to examine the influence of socioeconomic and food consumption factors on changes in AF-ALB levels over the study period, adjusting for other covariates. AF-ALB levels (pg/mg albumin) were lower at baseline (mean AF-ALB: 14.9, SD: 15.9), higher at six months (mean AF-ALB: 23.3, SD: 26.6), and lower at 12 months (mean AF-ALB: 15.3, SD: 15.4). Participants with the lowest SES had the highest AF-ALB levels at baseline and follow up-2 compared with those with higher SES. Participants who bought less than 20% of their food and who stored maize for less than two months had lower AF-ALB levels. In the adjusted models, there was a statistically significant association between follow up time and season (dry or rainy season) on AF-ALB levels over time (p = 0.04). Asymptomatic HIV-positive Ghanaians had high plasma AF-ALB levels that varied according to season, socioeconomic status, and food consumption patterns. Steps need to be taken to ensure the safety and security of the food supply for the population, but in particular for the most vulnerable groups such as HIV positive people. PMID:26633502

  3. A novel approach to measuring residential socioeconomic factors associated with cardiovascular and metabolic health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Individual-level characteristics, including socioeconomic status, have been associated with poor metabolic and cardiovascular health; however, residential area-level characteristics may also independently contribute to health status. In the current study, we used a novel applica...

  4. Variation of radon levels in U. S. homes correlated with house characteristics, location, and socio-economic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.L. )

    1991-05-01

    Data are analyzed on measurements of Rn levels in numerous U.S. homes, accompanied by responses to questionnaires. Substantial (but far from complete) bias reduction was accomplished using questionnaire responses, leaving 37,000 measurements in living areas and 33,000 in basements for the analysis. Variables studied included: level with respect to ground where measurement was made, room type, age of house, recent weatherization actions, draftiness, location (urban, suburban, rural), air pollution, market value of house, annual household income, educational attainment of head of household, cigarette smoking, whether the house is rented or owner occupied, and geographic section of U.S. Geometric mean Rn levels were determined for each response to questionnaire items (correlations) and for each pair of responses (cross correlations). Many interesting correlations and cross correlations were found, and their explanation and consequences are discussed.

  5. The influence of urban development and social mobility on socioeconomic level: The application of GIS on urban ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaili Mansor, Nur; Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Helmi; Mansor, Shattri; Paradhan, Biswajeet

    2014-06-01

    Specifically, the integration between social sciences and natural science are fundamental in our understanding of the economic, social and technological transformations that have drastically changed the society. This study will be based on the municipality of Sungai Petani, Kedah as it has been most influenced by urbanization and urban development. Urban development in Sungai Petani is closely associated with a tremendous increase in demand for land, which is highly related to population growth, human movement and their social mobility. The qualitative case study taken will rely on the visual interpretation technique that would allow the researcher to develop a map of urban changes detection. The potential application of GIS information to estimate socioeconomic indicators and the modelling of socio-economic activities that are explored in this study is hoped to increase further our understanding of the impacts of development and urbanization on social life.

  6. 16. VIEW OF ROAD AND LEVELED AREA IN FRONT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF ROAD AND LEVELED AREA IN FRONT OF HATCH ADIT (FEATURE B-28) WHICH IS ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTOGRAPH. (OCTOBER, 1995) - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  7. NORTHWEST ELEVATION SHOWING THE THREE LEVEL EQUIPMENT AREA. VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHWEST ELEVATION SHOWING THE THREE LEVEL EQUIPMENT AREA. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Theater, Hornet Avenue between Enterprise & Pokomoke Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. 7. Ball mill area and second level entry with overhead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Ball mill area and second level entry with overhead crane in background - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Ore Dressing Pilot Plant, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  9. Area-level risk factors for adverse birth outcomes: trends in urban and rural settings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Significant and persistent racial and income disparities in birth outcomes exist in the US. The analyses in this manuscript examine whether adverse birth outcome time trends and associations between area-level variables and adverse birth outcomes differ by urban–rural status. Methods Alabama births records were merged with ZIP code-level census measures of race, poverty, and rurality. B-splines were used to determine long-term preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) trends by rurality. Logistic regression models were used to examine differences in the relationships between ZIP code-level percent poverty or percent African-American with either PTB or LBW. Interactions with rurality were examined. Results Population dense areas had higher adverse birth outcome rates compared to other regions. For LBW, the disparity between population dense and other regions increased during the 1991–2005 time period, and the magnitude of the disparity was maintained through 2010. Overall PTB and LBW rates have decreased since 2006, except within isolated rural regions. The addition of individual-level socioeconomic or race risk factors greatly attenuated these geographical disparities, but isolated rural regions maintained increased odds of adverse birth outcomes. ZIP code-level percent poverty and percent African American both had significant relationships with adverse birth outcomes. Poverty associations remained significant in the most population-dense regions when models were adjusted for individual-level risk factors. Conclusions Population dense urban areas have heightened rates of adverse birth outcomes. High-poverty African American areas have higher odds of adverse birth outcomes in urban versus rural regions. These results suggest there are urban-specific social or environmental factors increasing risk for adverse birth outcomes in underserved communities. On the other hand, trends in PTBs and LBWs suggest interventions that have decreased adverse

  10. Comparing the socioeconomic status--health gradient among adults 50 and older across rural and urban areas of Thailand in 1994 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Zachary; Prachuabmoh, Vipan

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines associations between three indicators of socioeconomic status, education, income and bank savings, as well as one composite of these three measures, and self-assessed health for adults aged 50+ across rural and urban Thailand, comparing 1994 and 2007. Between 1994 and 2007 Thailand experienced rapid social changes that could impact on health overall and across groups, including population aging, socioeconomic development and changes in health policy. This led us to test whether overall health has improved as a result and whether the SES health gradient has changed. The data come from comparable survey sources from over seventy-thousand respondents, collected by Thailand's National Statistical Office. Generalized proportional ordered logit models were run that include up to three-way interactions of SES by year by rural versus urban location of residence are run. The three-way interactions allow for testing and of whether changes over time are due to complex intertwined effects. Results indicate that a) there has been improvement in health among the population aged 50 years and older in Thailand; b) there has been a flattening in the SES - health gradient in rural areas, and c) there has been little change in the gradient in urban areas, and if anything, there has been a widening of the relationship between income and health in urban Thailand. Divergence in the way the gradient has changed across rural and urban Thailand may point to the impact of social policy that has been aimed at poorer rural residents.

  11. Quality in general practice consultations; a qualitative study of the views of patients living in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Stewart W; Cawston, Peter G; Bikker, Annemieke P

    2007-01-01

    Background Inequality in health and health care services is an important policy issue internationally as well as in the UK, and is closely linked to socio-economic deprivation, which in Scotland is concentrated in and around Glasgow. Patients views on primary care in deprived areas are not well documented. In the present study we explore the views of patients living in a high deprivation area on the quality of consultations in general practice. Methods Qualitative focus group study set in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in a large peripheral housing estate in Glasgow, Scotland. 11 focus groups were conducted; 8 with local community groups and 3 with other local residents. In total 72 patients took part. Grounded theory was used to analyse the data. Results Patients' perceptions of the quality of the consultation with GPs consisted of two broad, inter-relating themes; (1) the GPs' competence, and (2) the GPs empathy or ' caring'. Competence was often assumed but many factors coloured this assumption, in particular whether patients had experienced (directly or indirectly with a close family member) 'successful' outcomes with that doctor previously or not. 'Caring' related to patients feeling (a) listened to by the doctor and being able to talk; (b) valued as an individual by the doctor (c) that the doctor understood 'the bigger picture', and (d) the doctors' explanations were clear and understandable. Relational continuity of care (being able to see the same GP and having a good relationship), and having sufficient time in the consultation were closely linked with perceptions of consultation quality. Conclusion Patients from deprived areas want holistic GPs who understand the realities of life in such areas and whom they can trust as both competent and genuinely caring. Without this, they may judge doctors as socially distant and emotionally detached. Relational continuity, empathy and sufficient time in consultations are key factors in achieving this

  12. [Infant mortality by cause of death in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, 1976-1986: association with socioeconomic, climatic and air pollution variables].

    PubMed

    Duchiade, M P; Beltrao, K I

    1992-01-01

    The Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro (RMR) consists of the capital (the city of Rio de Janeiro) and 13 surrounding cities. The city of Rio de Janeiro itself was divided into 24 rather heterogeneous administrative regions (RAS) based on the income level of their inhabitants, the supply of public services such as water and sewerage, and population density or air pollution. Three different socioeconomic covariables were selected in three residential zones (ZONA) or subareas: the central rich nucleus, the intermediary zone of transition, and the distant periphery. As dependent variables the specific rate of infant, neonatal, or postneonatal mortality were considered for causes. The RMRJ Civil Register mortality data were utilized. A factor of correction was estimated according to the technique of Brass using the fertility rate and the rate of delivery for specific 5-year age groups of mothers. A multivariate analysis, the adjusted generalized linear model (MLG), was used for studying associations between socioeconomic, climatic, and air pollution variables and the levels of mortality. The MLG was formulated by means of the statistical package, GLIM or Generalized Linear Interactive Modelling. Analysis of infant mortality trends during 1976-1986 for the large subareas of RMRJ and the outlying region showed that the peak months of total neonatal and perinatal mortality were March and February, while the lowest months were November and October. May and June represented maximum rates of postneonatal mortality for pneumonia, diarrhea, other respiratory infections, malnutrition, and other diseases. MLG indicated that there was a statistically significant association between the annual mortality rate for selected causes and socioeconomic indicators (INS, FS and Zona); the rates of mortality also varied depending on time (ANO and ANOQ); and the mortality rates also appeared to be associated with the variations of the log of average pollution (LPM).

  13. The coastal area of Togo: A space vulnerable to sea level rise hotly disputed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adjoussi, P. D.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract Erosion caused in the coastal area of Togo especially in the cell to the east of the harbor of Lomé some reorganization of space and a reallocation of tasks functions of the importance of existing issues. This reorganization is an important race against time between the various stakeholders which paradoxically make this area a very dynamic environment. In spite of the disaster situation in the area, it is changing. This mutation has been observed for a decade in many ways. Fishing is a traditional activity disappears causing the emergence of new activities such as the extraction of gravel, the gardening, the informal trade of any kind, installing hotels, etc.. At the socio-economic transformation is associated with a beach in state of deficit causing the decline of the coastline that reaches approximately 500 m over a few kilometers according to the old marks missing. The decline of the coastline is by undermining the beach by the waves at high tide. These issues are reshaping the land use map that passes a distribution of fishing villages on the coast in 1980 to a suburban area exposed to sea level rise corollary to anticipated climate change. Keywords: Space, Reorganization, Vulnerability, Stakeholders, Sea Level, Fishing

  14. Access to eye health services among indigenous Australians: an area level analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This project is a community-level study of equity of access to eye health services for Indigenous Australians. Methods The project used data on eye health services from multiple sources including Medicare Australia, inpatient and outpatient data and the National Indigenous Eye Health Survey. The analysis focused on the extent to which access to eye health services varied at an area level according to the proportion of the population that was Indigenous (very low = 0-1.0%, low = 1.1-3.0%, low medium = 3.1-6.0%, high medium = 6.1-10.0%, high = 10.1-20.0%, very high = 20 + %). The analysis of health service utilisation also took into account age, remoteness and the Socioeconomic Indices for Areas (SEIFA). Results The rate of eye exams provided in areas with very high Indigenous populations was two-thirds of the rate of eye exams for areas with very low indigenous populations. The cataract surgery rates in areas with high medium to very high Indigenous populations were less than half that reference areas. In over a third of communities with very high Indigenous populations the cataract surgery rate fell below the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines compared to a cataract surgery rate of 3% in areas with very low Indigenous populations. Conclusions There remain serious disparities in access to eye health service in areas with high Indigenous populations. Addressing disparities requires a co-ordinated approach to improving Indigenous people’s access to eye health services. More extensive take-up of existing Medicare provisions is an important step in this process. Along with improving access to health services, community education concerning the importance of eye health and the effectiveness of treatment might reduce reluctance to seek help. PMID:22998612

  15. [Enterobiasis among schoolchildren in a rural population from Estado Falcón, Venezuela, and its relation with socioeconomic level].

    PubMed

    Acosta, María; Cazorla, Dalmiro; Garvett, María

    2002-09-01

    Between may and july 2001, a survey was conducted in order to investigate the prevalence and symptoms of Enterobius vermicularis infection and its relationship with the socio-economic status and household crowding of 154 schoolchildren aged 6-12 years from a rural village in Falcon State, Venezuela. The Graham technique (perianal swabs with an adhesive cellulose tape) was used to perform the parasitological diagnosis. The overall prevalence was high (57.79%). There was no difference in the prevalence between sexes (X2 = 0.005; d.f. = 1) or ages (X2 = 3.63; d.f. = 6) (p > 0.05), suggesting similar risk conditions for all individuals. Anal pruritus was the most common clinical finding (53.9%). Other less frequent manifestations were the following: perianal lesions (34.8%) and vulvovaginitis (32.6%). Graffar analysis revealed that the majority of schoolchildren belong to the poorer socioeconomic strata: IV (55.9%) and V (29.87%), with overcrowded living conditions. The correlation between E. vermicularis infection and crowding rates was found to be statistically significant (r = 0.98; p < 0.001). In the light on these results, it can be concluded that poverty, overcrowding, anal pruritus, scarcity of water, inadequate personal and community hygiene play a relevant role on the transmission dynamics and endemic maintenance of enterobiasis among schoolchildren from Sabaneta.

  16. Municipal solid waste generation in growing urban areas in Africa: current practices and relation to socioeconomic factors in Jimma, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getahun, T; Mengistie, E; Haddis, A; Wasie, F; Alemayehu, E; Dadi, D; Van Gerven, T; Van der Bruggen, B

    2012-10-01

    As one of cities in the developing countries, a rapid population growth and industrial activities pose many environmental challenges for Jimma city, Ethiopia. One aspect of urban growth posing a threat on sustainable development is poor solid waste management, which results in environmental pollution. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the quantity, composition, sources of waste generated, their current disposal practices, and to recommend appropriate management technologies. The total waste generated daily in Jimma city was ca. 88,000 kg, and the average per capita generation rate was 0.55 ± 0.17 kg/capita/day. Eighty-seven percent of the waste was produced by households and 13% by institutions, and a negligible fraction (0.1%) was generated by street sweepings. During the rainy season, 40% more waste was generated than in the dry season because of the increased availability of agricultural food product. Further analysis showed that biodegradable organic waste constitutes 54% by weight with an average moisture content of 60% that falls within the required limits for composting. The nonbiodegradable components constitute 46% of which 30% of it was nonrecyclable material. Only 25% of the community uses municipal containers for disposal at the selected landfill site. Fifty-one percent of the households disposed their waste in individually chosen spots, whereas 22% burned their waste. Finally 2% of households use private waste collectors. The socioeconomic analysis showed that higher family income and educational status is associated more with private or municipal waste collection and less with the application of backyard or open dumping. These insights into generated waste and management practice in Jimma city allow making suggestions for improved collection, treatment, and disposal methods. A primary conclusion is that the biodegradable waste is a major fraction having suitable properties for recycling. As such an economic benefit can be obtained from

  17. Area-level poverty and preterm birth risk: A population-based multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    DeFranco, Emily A; Lian, Min; Muglia, Louis A; Schootman, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is a complex disease with etiologic influences from a variety of social, environmental, hormonal, genetic, and other factors. The purpose of this study was to utilize a large population-based birth registry to estimate the independent effect of county-level poverty on preterm birth risk. To accomplish this, we used a multilevel logistic regression approach to account for multiple co-existent individual-level variables and county-level poverty rate. Methods Population-based study utilizing Missouri's birth certificate database (1989–1997). We conducted a multilevel logistic regression analysis to estimate the effect of county-level poverty on PTB risk. Of 634,994 births nested within 115 counties in Missouri, two levels were considered. Individual-level variables included demographics factors, prenatal care, health-related behavioral risk factors, and medical risk factors. The area-level variable included the percentage of the population within each county living below the poverty line (US census data, 1990). Counties were divided into quartiles of poverty; the first quartile (lowest rate of poverty) was the reference group. Results PTB < 35 weeks occurred in 24,490 pregnancies (3.9%). The rate of PTB < 35 weeks was 2.8% in counties within the lowest quartile of poverty and increased through the 4th quartile (4.9%), p < 0.0001. High county-level poverty was significantly associated with PTB risk. PTB risk (< 35 weeks) was increased for women who resided in counties within the highest quartile of poverty, adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) 1.18 (95% CI 1.03, 1.35), with a similar effect at earlier gestational ages (< 32 weeks), adjOR 1.27 (95% CI 1.06, 1.52). Conclusion Women residing in socioeconomically deprived areas are at increased risk of preterm birth, above other underlying risk factors. Although the risk increase is modest, it affects a large number of pregnancies. PMID:18793437

  18. Cutaneous onchocerciasis in Dumbu, a pastoral area in the North-West region of Cameroon: diagnostic challenge and socio-economic implications.

    PubMed

    Njim, Tsi; Ngum, Joel Mbigha; Aminde, Leopold Ndemnge

    2015-01-01

    Onchocerciasis is a severe parasitic infestation caused by Onchocerca volvulus which causes disabling skin and subcutaneous tissue changes and ultimately leads to blindness. It has a huge public health impact due to its socioeconomic burden and the vast number of people it affects in developing countries. In this case, a 60 years old woman was encountered with leopard skin like changes, rashes and pruritus on the left leg; which had been managed as cutaneous mycosis for over a period of 8 years. A diagnosis of onchocerciasis was finally made after a skin snip identified onchocercal microfilariae. The above case shows that onchocerciasis is still a neglected tropical disease (NTD) in Cameroon. This emphasizes the need for more expansive outreach programs in remote areas in Cameroon, a change in health policies to ensure the eradication of this disabling disease and health promotion amongst vulnerable populations.

  19. COUNTRY-LEVEL SOCIOECONOMIC INDICATORS ASSOCIATED WITH SURVIVAL PROBABILITY OF BECOMING A CENTENARIAN AMONG OLDER EUROPEAN ADULTS: GENDER INEQUALITY, MALE LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION AND PROPORTIONS OF WOMEN IN PARLIAMENTS.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin

    2017-03-01

    This study confirms an association between survival probability of becoming a centenarian (SPBC) for those aged 65 to 69 and country-level socioeconomic indicators in Europe: the gender inequality index (GII), male labour force participation (MLP) rates and proportions of seats held by women in national parliaments (PWP). The analysis was based on SPBC data from 34 countries obtained from the United Nations (UN). Country-level socioeconomic indicator data were obtained from the UN and World Bank databases. The associations between socioeconomic indicators and SPBC were assessed using correlation coefficients and multivariate regression models. The findings show significant correlations between the SPBC for women and men aged 65 to 69 and country-level socioeconomic indicators: GII (r=-0.674, p=0.001), MLP (r=0.514, p=0.002) and PWP (r=0.498, p=0.003). The SPBC predictors for women and men were lower GIIs and higher MLP and PWP (R 2=0.508, p=0.001). Country-level socioeconomic indicators appear to have an important effect on the probability of becoming a centenarian in European adults aged 65 to 69. Country-level gender equality policies in European counties may decrease the risk of unhealthy old age and increase longevity in elders through greater national gender equality; disparities in GII and other country-level socioeconomic indicators impact longevity probability. National longevity strategies should target country-level gender inequality.

  20. Level area surrounding Facility 314 showing the planted ring that ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Level area surrounding Facility 314 showing the planted ring that contains the radial ground wires, note the ring beneath the antenna circles is cleared of vegetation and covered with gravel, view facing southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Radio Station, AF/FRD-10 Circularly Disposed Antenna Array, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  1. Service bay area, pump room level, showing ventilation fans and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Service bay area, pump room level, showing ventilation fans and ducts association with evaporative-cooling system. Note battery bank at far right. View to the east - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 3, South of Interstate 8, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  2. Looking southwest in the service bay area, pump room level, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking southwest in the service bay area, pump room level, at the ventilation fan ducts associated with the evaporative cooling system. Stairs to the operating deck above the intakes are at the far left - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  3. Pump room level, looking north in service bay area. Visible ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pump room level, looking north in service bay area. Visible from left to right are the direct current breaker panel, battery bank, door to stairwell, and hanging tools. - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  4. DETAIL OF THE THREE LEVEL EQUIPMENT AREA SHOWING ACCESS STAIRS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THE THREE LEVEL EQUIPMENT AREA SHOWING ACCESS STAIRS AND RAILING, CAST CONCRETE LOUVERS AT THE FIRST FLOOR, AND WOOD LOUVERS ABOVE. IN THE FOREGROUND IS THE BALUSTRADE AT THE NORTHWEST END OF THE PROMENADE. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Theater, Hornet Avenue between Enterprise & Pokomoke Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. Hair cortisol levels, perceived stress and body mass index in women and children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods: the READI study.

    PubMed

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Ball, Kylie; Wright, Craig; Abbott, Gavin; Brown, Erin; Turner, Anne Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Disadvantaged communities provide adverse psychosocial exposures that have been linked to high levels of stress, and this may provide one explanatory pathway linking socioeconomic disadvantage to obesity. This study used hair cortisol analysis to quantify associations between stress and body mass index (BMI), and between hair cortisol and perceived psychological stress levels, in women and children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Participants were a volunteer sample of 70 women from the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study, including 30 maternal-child pairs. Women self-reported body weight, height and perceived psychological stress using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and provided hair samples for themselves and their child. Children's body weight and height were measured. Following extraction, hair cortisol levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multiple linear regression models examined associations between stress and BMI, and between hair cortisol and perceived stress levels in women and children. Women's hair cortisol levels were not associated with their BMI or PSS scores. Women's PSS scores were positively associated with their BMI (p = 0.015). Within maternal-child pairs, mothers and children's hair cortisol levels were strongly positively associated (p = 0.006). Maternal hair cortisol levels and PSS scores were unrelated to their child's zBMI. Children's hair cortisol levels were not associated with their zBMI or with their mother's PSS score. Findings suggest that cortisol-based and perceived psychological measures of stress may be distinct among women and children living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Perceived psychological measures may be more important predictors of weight-related risk.

  6. Impact of vaccination uptake on hospitalizations due to rotavirus acute gastroenteritis in 2 different socioeconomic areas of Spain

    PubMed Central

    Giménez Sánchez, Francisco; Nogueira, Esperanza Jiménez; Sánchez Forte, Miguel; Ibáñez Alcalde, Mercedes; Cobo, Elvira; Angulo, Raquel; Garrido Fernández, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rotavirus is the leading cause of hospitalization due to acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in infants and toddlers. However, rotavirus vaccination has been associated with a decline in hospitalization rates due to rotavirus AGE. A descriptive retrospective study was conducted to analyze the impact of rotavirus vaccination on the rate of hospitalizations due to AGE among children ≤2 years old in 2 areas of the province of Almería, Spain. After eight years of rotavirus vaccination, rates of hospitalizations due to rotavirus AGE are diminished. This decline is closely related to vaccine coverage in the studied areas. PMID:26810147

  7. Impact of vaccination uptake on hospitalizations due to rotavirus acute gastroenteritis in 2 different socioeconomic areas of Spain.

    PubMed

    Giménez Sánchez, Francisco; Nogueira, Esperanza Jiménez; Sánchez Forte, Miguel; Ibáñez Alcalde, Mercedes; Cobo, Elvira; Angulo, Raquel; Garrido Fernández, Pablo

    2016-04-02

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of hospitalization due to acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in infants and toddlers. However, rotavirus vaccination has been associated with a decline in hospitalization rates due to rotavirus AGE. A descriptive retrospective study was conducted to analyze the impact of rotavirus vaccination on the rate of hospitalizations due to AGE among children ≤2 years old in 2 areas of the province of Almería, Spain. After eight years of rotavirus vaccination, rates of hospitalizations due to rotavirus AGE are diminished. This decline is closely related to vaccine coverage in the studied areas.

  8. Report card on low level ozone in urban areas

    SciTech Connect

    Onischak, M.

    1994-12-31

    It has been four years since the Clean Air Act was amended in November of 1990. Much work has been done in this time, and the country is beginning to see real air quality benefits. Although these changes have not completely licked the urban ozone problem yet, they have made a lot of progress. All of the urban areas which have been required to reduce their ozone levels have done a good job of lowering their emissions. While the urban areas have not all been able to meet every federal deadline, the areas have all been able to achieve the control milestones before the mandatory Clean Air Act sanctions have taken effect. Some areas are even ready to declare their ozone problems solved.

  9. [Comparison between nutritional status of school children of low socioeconomic level from Santiago, Chile and Sao Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Amigo, H; Leone, C; Bustos, P; Gallo, P

    1995-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine and compare the anthropometric profiles of schoolchildren from low income household from Santiago, Chile and Sao Paulo, Brasil. A total of 1779 children from Santiago and 2210 from Sao Paulo were evaluated. Z-score distribution of the height/age (H/A), weight/age (W/A) and weight/height (W/H) indicators were utilized to assess the children. As a reference, the pattern recommended by WHO was used. The distribution of the H/A curves from both cities were deviated to the left. This deviation was more evident in Santiago. This situation points out the existence of a greater prevalence of growth retardation of the children from this city. In relation to the W/A indicator, both groups showed a similar distribution curves, Sao Paulo group however, had an increment of cases in the left extreme of the curve, under -2 . According to the W/H indicator the profile of both groups are different; one-Santiago-is deviated to the excess and Sao Paulo to the deficit. The differences observed in both groups of children studied indicated higher deficit of height, but lower current undernutrition in Santiago and increased wasting with conservated height in Sao Paulo. The observed situation suggests that the distinct patterns are consequences of socioeconomic factors at different stages of the growing process of the children and/or etnic differences of the population.

  10. Land use pattern, socio-economic development, and assessment of their impacts on ecosystem service value: study on natural wetlands distribution area (NWDA) in Fuzhou city, southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yuan-Bin; Zhang, Hao; Pan, Wen-Bin; Chen, Yan-Hong; Wang, Xiang-Rong

    2013-06-01

    This paper quantifies the allocation of ecosystem services value (ESV) associated with land use pattern and qualitatively examined impacts of land use changes and socio-economic factors on spatiotemporal variation of ESV in the Natural Wetland Distribution Area (NWDA), Fuzhou city, China. The results showed that total ESV of the study area decreased from 4,332.16 × 10(6) RMB Yuan in 1989 to 3,697.42 × 10(6) RMB Yuan in 2009, mainly due to the remarkable decreases in cropland (decreased by 55.3 %) and wetland (decreased by 74.2 %). Forest, water, and wetland played major roles in providing ecosystem services, accounting for over 90 % of the total ESV. Based on time series Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery, geographic information system, and historical data, analysis of the spatiotemporal variation of ESV from 1989 to 2009 was performed. It indicated that rapid expansion of urban areas along the Minjiang River resulted in significant changes in land use types, leading to a dramatic decline in ecosystem services. Meanwhile, because of land scarcity and unique ecosystem functions, the emergency of wetland and cropland protection in built-up area has become an urgent task of local authorities to the local government. Furthermore, there was still a significant negative correlation between ESV of cropland and wetland and the GDP. The results suggest that future planning of land use pattern should control encroachment of urban areas into cropland and wetland in addition to scientific and rational policies towards minimizing the adverse effects of urbanization.

  11. 5. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG DRESSING AREA ON LEVEL 4; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG DRESSING AREA ON LEVEL 4; LOOKING WEST; WORKERS STOOD ON RAISED PLATFORMS TO EVISCERATE AND WASH CARCASSES; EXPANDED STEEL GRATING PROVIDED NON-SLIP WORKING SURFACE; STAINLESS-STEEL BAFFLES BETWEEN PLATFORMS HELPED TO CONTAIN STEAM AND WATER SPRAY; METAL TROUGHS BELOW PLATFORMS AND CONCRETE GUTTERS IN FLOOR HELPED CHANNEL WASTE WATER TO DRAINS - Rath Packing Company, Hog Dressing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  12. Pump room level, looking west in the service bay area. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pump room level, looking west in the service bay area. Cable trays and two ventilation fans (part of the evaporative-cooling system) are visible at right. The vacuum pump is in the center in front of a concrete partition, and a water discharge pipe is visible beyond the partition at left - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  13. Sleep Duration and Area-Level Deprivation in Twins

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Horn, Erin; Duncan, Glen E.; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Turkheimer, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether area-level deprivation as indicated by the Singh Index predicts shorter sleep duration and modifies its underlying genetic and environmental contributions. Methods: Participants were 4,218 adult twin pairs (2,377 monozygotic and 1,841 dizygotic) from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration. The Singh Index was determined by linking geocoding addresses to 17 indicators at the census-tract level using data from Census of Washington State and Census Tract Cartographic Boundary Files from 2000 and 2010. Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate genetic decomposition and quantitative genetic interaction models that assessed A (additive genetics), C (common environment), and E (unique environment) main effects of the Singh Index on sleep duration and allowed the magnitude of residual ACE variance components in sleep duration to vary with the Index. Results: The sample had a mean age of 38.2 y (standard deviation [SD] = 18), and was predominantly female (62%) and Caucasian (91%). Mean sleep duration was 7.38 h (SD = 1.20) and the mean Singh Index score was 0.00 (SD = 0.89). The heritability of sleep duration was 39% and the Singh Index was 12%. The uncontrolled phenotypic regression of sleep duration on the Singh Index showed a significant negative relationship between area-level deprivation and sleep length (b = −0.080, P < 0.001). Every 1 SD in Singh Index was associated with a ∼4.5 min change in sleep duration. For the quasi-causal bivariate model, there was a significant main effect of E (b0E = −0.063; standard error [SE] = 0.30; P < 0.05). Residual variance components unique to sleep duration were significant for both A (b0Au = 0.734; SE = 0.020; P < 0.001) and E (b0Eu = 0.934; SE = 0.013; P < 0.001). Conclusions: Area-level deprivation has a quasi-causal association with sleep duration, with greater deprivation being related to

  14. Moving forward socio-economically focused models of deforestation.

    PubMed

    Dezécache, Camille; Salles, Jean-Michel; Vieilledent, Ghislain; Hérault, Bruno

    2017-01-05

    Whilst high-resolution spatial variables contribute to a good fit of spatially explicit deforestation models, socio-economic processes are often beyond the scope of these models. Such a low level of interest in the socio-economic dimension of deforestation limits the relevancy of these models for decision-making and may be the cause of their failure to accurately predict observed deforestation trends in the medium term. This study aims to propose a flexible methodology for taking into account multiple drivers of deforestation in tropical forested areas, where the intensity of deforestation is explicitly predicted based on socio-economic variables. By coupling a model of deforestation location based on spatial environmental variables with several sub-models of deforestation intensity based on socio-economic variables, we were able to create a map of predicted deforestation over the period 2001-2014 in French Guiana. This map was compared to a reference map for accuracy assessment, not only at the pixel scale but also over cells ranging from 1 to approximately 600 sq. km. Highly significant relationships were explicitly established between deforestation intensity and several socio-economic variables: population growth, the amount of agricultural subsidies, gold and wood production. Such a precise characterization of socio-economic processes allows to avoid overestimation biases in high deforestation areas, suggesting a better integration of socio-economic processes in the models. Whilst considering deforestation as a purely geographical process contributes to the creation of conservative models unable to effectively assess changes in the socio-economic and political contexts influencing deforestation trends, this explicit characterization of the socio-economic dimension of deforestation is critical for the creation of deforestation scenarios in REDD+ projects.

  15. Interface Surface Area Tracking for the Conservative Level Set Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firehammer, Stephanie; Desjardins, Olivier

    2015-11-01

    One key question in liquid-gas flows is how to model the interface between phases in a way that is mass, momentum, and energy conserving. The accurate conservative level set (ACLS) method of Desjardins et al. provides a tool for tracking a liquid-gas interface with minimal mass conservation issues; however, it does not explicitly compute the interface surface area and thus nothing can be said a priori about the balance between kinetic energy and surface energy. This work examines an equation for the transport of interface surface area density, which can be written in terms of the gradient of the volume fraction. Furthermore this presentation will outline a numerical method for jointly transporting a conservative level set and surface area density. Finally, we will explore oppportunities for energy conservation via the accurate exchange of energy between the flow field and the interface through surface tension, with test cases to show the results of our extended ACLS method. Funding from the National Science Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.

  16. Area-Level and Individual-Level Factors for Teenage Motherhood: A Multilevel Analysis in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Sachiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    Background Teenage motherhood is strongly associated with a range of disadvantages for both the mother and the child. No epidemiological studies have examined related factors for teenage motherhood at both area and individual levels among Japanese women. Therefore, we performed a multilevel analysis of nationwide data in Japan to explore the association of area- and individual-level factors with teenage motherhood. Methods The study population comprised 21,177 mothers living in 47 prefectures who had their first, singleton baby between 10 and 17 January or between 10 and 17 July, 2001. Information on the prefecture in which the mothers resided was linked to prefecture-level variables. Primary outcomes were area-level characteristics (single-mother households, three-generation households, college enrollment, abortions, juvenile crime, and per capita income) and individual-level characteristics, and divided into tertiles or quintiles based on their variable distributions. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was then performed. Results There were 440 teenage mothers (2.1%) in this study. In addition to individual low level of education [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 7.40; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.59–9.78], low income [4.23 (2.95–6.08)], and smoking [1.65 (1.31–2.07)], high proportions of single-mother households [1.72 (1.05–2.80)] and three-generation household [1.81 (1.17–2.78)], and per capita income [2.19 (1.06–3.81)] at an area level were positively associated, and high level of college enrollment [0.46 (0.25–0.83)] and lower crime rate [0.62 (0.40–0.98)] at area level were inversely associated with teenage motherhood compared with the corresponding women living in prefectures with the lowest levels of these variables. Conclusions Our findings suggest that encouraging the completion of higher education and reducing the number of single-mother household at an area level may be important public health strategies to reduce teenage motherhood

  17. Positive impact of a weekly iron-folic acid supplement delivered with social marketing to Cambodian women: compliance, participation, and hemoglobin levels increase with higher socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Crape, Byron L; Kenefick, Eric; Cavalli-Sforza, Tommaso; Busch-Hallen, Jennifer; Milani, Silvano; Kanal, Koum

    2005-12-01

    A social marketing program promoting weekly iron-folic acid supplementation improved hemoglobin levels in women of reproductive age in Cambodia. Supplementation was increasingly effective among women of higher socioeconomic status (SES). Among higher SES schoolgirls, 58% took the supplements, compared with 49% for lower SES (P = 0.07). Garment factory workers with an 11th- or 12th-grade education had a mean improvement in hemoglobin of 0.72 g/dL over those with a 5th-grade education or less (P = 0.04). The percentage of rural village women taking supplements increased with increasing SES (linear trend P = 0.046). These results suggest that women with lower SES be given special attention for future programs.

  18. Influence of socio-economic factors on street litter generation in the middle east: effects of education level, age, and type of residence.

    PubMed

    Arafat, Hassan A; Al-Khatib, Issam A; Daoud, Raeda; Shwahneh, Hadeel

    2007-08-01

    Street littering is considered an important environmental health issue in the Middle East. This problem is growing steadily and is attracting great concerns within the communities. The purpose of this paper, which focuses on Nablus district (Palestinian Territory), is to measure the perception and opinion of residents toward littering, in addition to studying prevailing attitudes and practices on littering. This was achieved using an interview survey approach. The influence of three socio-economic factors; level of education, age, and type of residence, on the littering behaviour of individuals was studied. As a result, possible remedial actions have been suggested. The data presented in this work can be considered as one piece of information, which can be compiled with other future data to design an effective litter control programrhe for Middle Eastern countries.

  19. Low-level waste disposal in highly populated areas

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalski, E.; McCombie, C.; Issler, H.

    1989-11-01

    Nuclear-generated electricity supplies almost 40% of the demand in Switzerland (the rest being hydro-power). Allowing for a certain reserve and assuming an operational life-time of 40 years for each reactor, and taking into account wastes from decommissioning and from medicine, industry and research, the total amount of low-level radioactive waste to be disposed of is about 175,000 m{sup 3}. Since there are no unpopulated areas in Switzerland, and since Swiss Federal Law specifies that the safety of disposal may not depend upon supervision of the repository, no shallow-land burial has been foreseen, even for short-lived low-level waste. Instead, geological disposal in a mined cavern system with access through a horizontal tunnel was selected as the best way of meeting the requirements and ensuring the necessary public acceptance.

  20. Variability among hospitals and staff in collection of race, ethnicity, birthplace, and socioeconomic information in the greater San Francisco Bay Area.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Scarlett L; Satariano, William; Le, Gem M; Weeks, Patricia; McClure, Laura; West, Dee W

    2009-01-01

    Hospital data on race, ethnicity, birthplace, and socioeconomic status (SES) are important for identifying health disparities; however, little is known about the consistency across and within hospitals in the collection of these data. This study examined hospital practices and policies for the collection of these data and the variability across hospital staff and hospital characteristics. Surveys were mailed to selected hospital staff in all 59 hospitals in the San Francisco Bay Area, and completed questionnaires were received from 141 (of 367) staff from 41 hospitals. While most hospitals collect race/ethnicity (83% always collect) and birthplace (60% always or sometimes collect), few hospitals collect patient information on education (75% never collect) and income (55% never collect). There is vast variability in reported practices and policies across staff within hospitals, and variability across hospitals with regards to certain hospital characteristics. Nationally standardized policies, including standards for where, what, and when these data should be collected, are necessary for accurate and uniform data collection, and for effectively addressing health disparities.

  1. Geographical and socioeconomic factors relating to the distribution of Schistosoma mansoni infection in an urban area of north-east Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, M. L.

    1991-01-01

    A study was carried out in Santo Antonio de Jesus, a town in Bahia State, north-east Brazil, to determine the relationship between various biological, socioeconomic, behavioural, and geographical factors and the prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma mansoni infection. The town's population was around 45,000 and the study was targeted at all children born in 1970-71 who were living in the town at the time of the survey (August-November 1984). An extensive questionnaire was used to collect information on each child and on family and household conditions; samples of stools were also taken for examination (Kato-Katz method). A survey of water snails was also carried out and information on the distribution of their breeding sites was plotted on a map of the area. The overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 31.0%. Several variables that reflected different aspects of the population's way of life were strongly associated with the prevalence and the intensity of infection. Some of the findings are valuable for understanding the mechanisms involved in the occurrence of schistosomiasis and its distribution in urban locations as well as for defining high-risk groups, all of which are important for planning control strategies. PMID:1905208

  2. Interactive and Independent Associations between the Socioeconomic and Objective Built Environment on the Neighbourhood Level and Individual Health: A Systematic Review of Multilevel Studies

    PubMed Central

    Schüle, Steffen Andreas; Bolte, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Background The research question how contextual factors of neighbourhood environments influence individual health has gained increasing attention in public health research. Both socioeconomic neighbourhood characteristics and factors of the built environment play an important role for health and health-related behaviours. However, their reciprocal relationships have not been systematically reviewed so far. This systematic review aims to identify studies applying a multilevel modelling approach which consider both neighbourhood socioeconomic position (SEP) and factors of the objective built environment simultaneously in order to disentangle their independent and interactive effects on individual health. Methods The three databases PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science were systematically searched with terms for title and abstract screening. Grey literature was not included. Observational studies from USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Western European countries were considered which analysed simultaneously factors of neighbourhood SEP and the objective built environment with a multilevel modelling approach. Adjustment for individual SEP was a further inclusion criterion. Results Thirty-three studies were included in qualitative synthesis. Twenty-two studies showed an independent association between characteristics of neighbourhood SEP or the built environment and individual health outcomes or health-related behaviours. Twenty-one studies found cross-level or within-level interactions either between neighbourhood SEP and the built environment, or between neighbourhood SEP or the built environment and individual characteristics, such as sex, individual SEP or ethnicity. Due to the large variation of study design and heterogeneous reporting of results the identification of consistent findings was problematic and made quantitative analysis not possible. Conclusions There is a need for studies considering multiple neighbourhood dimensions and applying multilevel

  3. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in ischemic heart disease mortality in small areas of nine Spanish cities from 1996 to 2007 using smoothed ANOVA.

    PubMed

    Marí-Dell'olmo, Marc; Gotsens, Mercè; Borrell, Carme; Martinez-Beneito, Miguel A; Palència, Laia; Pérez, Glòria; Cirera, Lluís; Daponte, Antonio; Domínguez-Berjón, Felicitas; Esnaola, Santiago; Gandarillas, Ana; Lorenzo, Pedro; Martos, Carmen; Nolasco, Andreu; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the evolution of socioeconomic inequalities in mortality due to ischemic heart diseases (IHD) in the census tracts of nine Spanish cities between the periods 1996-2001 and 2002-2007. Among women, there are socioeconomic inequalities in IHD mortality in the first period which tended to remain stable or even increase in the second period in most of the cities. Among men, in general, no socioeconomic inequalities have been detected for this cause in either of the periods. These results highlight the importance of intra-urban inequalities in mortality due to IHD and their evolution over time.

  4. Neighbourhood socioeconomic inequalities in food access and affordability.

    PubMed

    Ball, Kylie; Timperio, Anna; Crawford, David

    2009-06-01

    This study investigated whether the availability and accessibility of supermarkets and fruit and vegetable stores, and the availability, variety and price of foods within these stores, varied across areas of different levels of socioeconomic disadvantage in Melbourne, Australia. Data on food store locations, and food variety and price within stores were obtained through objective audits of 45 neighbourhoods of varying socioeconomic disadvantage. Geographical accessibility of healthy food stores was mostly better amongst those living in more advantaged neighbourhoods. Availability of healthy foods within stores only slightly favoured those in advantaged neighbourhoods. However food prices favoured those living in disadvantaged areas.

  5. Bla g 1 allergen levels in Zagreb area household dust.

    PubMed

    Prester, Ljerka; Macan, Jelena

    2011-03-01

    Cockroach allergy is a health problem in many parts of the world. In urban environments, indoor exposure to cockroach allergens involves a risk of asthma. The aim of this study was to measure the mass fraction of Bla g 1, a major allergen of the German cockroach (Blatella germanica) in 30 house samples, collected at random from Zagreb area households, Croatia. Dust samples were collected on cellulose filters by vacuuming living rooms floors. After extraction, Bla g 1 was detected using the commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only four of the thirty households had detectable Bla g 1 levels, and only in one was its concentration higher than 2.0 U g(-1), the threshold associated with sensitisation. The Bla g 1 ELISA proved highly sensitive, with the detection limit of 0.12 U g(-1). The within- and between-assay imprecision was 8.9 % and 14.4 %, respectively, and accuracy 85 % to 120 %. Low Bla g 1 levels in the household dust support previously reported low prevalence of skin sensitisation to B. germanica among Zagreb residents. Further monitoring should reveal if there are differences in cockroach allergen exposure and sensitisation between households from other geographic areas in Croatia.

  6. Influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic position on the transition to type II diabetes in older Mexican Americans: the Sacramento Area Longitudinal Study on Aging

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Lorena; Lee, Anne; Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina; Neuhaus, John M; Aiello, Allison; Elfassy, Tali; Haan, Mary N

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic position (NSEP) on development of diabetes over time. Design A longitudinal cohort study. Setting The data reported were from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging, a longitudinal study of the health of 1789 older Latinos. Participants Community-dwelling older Mexican Americans residing in the Sacramento Metropolitan Statistical Area. Main outcome Multistate Markov regression were used to model transitions through four possible states over time: 1=normal; 2=pre-diabetic; 3=diabetic; and 4=death without diabetes. Results At baseline, nearly 50% were non-diabetic, 17.5% were pre-diabetic and nearly 33% were diabetic. At the end of follow-up, there were a total of 824 people with type 2 diabetes. In a fully adjusted MSM regression model, among non-diabetics, higher NSEP was not associated with a transition to pre-diabetes. Among non-diabetics, higher NSEP was associated with an increased risk of diabetes (HR=1.66, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.42) and decreased risk of death without diabetes (HR: 0.56, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.96). Among pre-diabetics, higher NSEP was significantly associated with a transition to non-diabetic status (HR: 1.22, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.50). Adjusting for BMI, age, education, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, medical insurance and nativity did not affect this relationship. Conclusions Our findings show that high NSEP poses higher risk of progression from normal to diabetes compared with a lower risk of death without diabetes. This work presents a possibility that these associations are modified by nativity or culture. PMID:27515749

  7. Tobacco Use and Influencing Factors Among Iranian Children and Adolescents at National and Subnational Levels, According to Socioeconomic Status: The Caspian-IV Study

    PubMed Central

    Kelishadi, Roya; Shahsanai, Armindokht; Qorbani, Mostafa; Esmaeil Motlagh, Mohammad; Jari, Mohsen; Ardalan, Gelayol; Ansari, Hossein; Asayesh, Hamid; Heshmat, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Background Iran is facing an epidemiologic transition, with one of its features being the tendency towards smoking by adolescents. The findings of previous studies in Iran have shown that the pervasiveness of tobacco products among school students is high. No previous study has reported the prevalence and determinants of smoking in various socioeconomic statuses (SESs) and at the subnational level in Iran. Objectives To compare the prevalence of smoking and the factors that influence the initiation and continuation of tobacco use in a nationally representative sample of Iranian adolescents living in different regions with diverse socio-demographic patterns. Patients and Methods This nationwide, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 - 2012 among 14,880 students, aged 6 - 18 years, selected by cluster sampling from 30 provinces. Anonymous questionnaires were completed about tobacco use and the main psychological determinants of initiation and continuation to smoke. The questionnaire was modeled on the world health organization global school-based student health survey (WHO-GSHS). The sub-national regions were defined by the criteria of geography combined with SES. According to this classification, the lowest to highest SESs were considered for the southeast, north-northeast, west, and central regions, respectively. Data were analyzed using the STATA statistical software package. Results Overall, 13,486 students completed this survey (participation rate of 90.6%). They consisted of 50.8% boys, 75.6% urban residents, with a mean age of 12.47 ± 3.36 years. According to the self-report of students, 2.6 % (3.5% of boys and 1.7% of girls) were current smokers, and5.9% (7.5% of boys and 4.2% of girls) had ever been smokers. The current use of tobacco was higher in participants aged 14 - 18 years (6.11%) than in those aged 10 - 13.9 years (1.18%) and 6 - 9.9 years (0.51%). Current and past tobacco use, respectively, had the lowest prevalence in the region with the

  8. A primary care lifestyle programme suitable for socioeconomically vulnerable groups – an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Maria; Blomstrand, Ann; Högberg, Tine; Ariai, Nashmil; Thorn, Jörgen; Hange, Dominique; Björkelund, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore whether a primary health care (PHC) health promotion programme reaches and engages socioeconomically vulnerable groups in a community to the same extent as higher socioeconomic groups. Design Comparison of level of engagement and lifestyle improvements stratified by socioeconomic vulnerability level. Setting Hisingen PHC catchment area (130,000 inhabitants) Gothenburg, Sweden. Participants Men and women aged 18–79, visiting any of the eight public PHC centres during an eight-month period 2007–2008, were presented with a short intervention health questionnaire and offered a health dialogue with a nurse, including a health profile, p-glucose and blood pressure check. Participants were classified according to four socioeconomic vulnerability factors: education, employment, ethnicity and living situation. Results Out of 3691 participants, 27% had low education (Hisingen community level 23%), 18% were unemployed (community level 22%), and 16% were born outside Scandinavia (community level 22%). At the one-year follow-up, 2121 (57%) attended. At baseline, 3% of the individuals in the sample had three out of four socioeconomic vulnerability factors, 17% had two vulnerability factors, 43% had one vulnerability factor, and 37% had no vulnerability factors. Improved biological markers were seen in all vulnerability groups (1–3) and odds ratios for improvement were significantly higher in the most socioeconomically vulnerable group for smoking and stress compared to the group with no vulnerability factors. Conclusion Socioeconomically vulnerable groups were reached and lifestyle changes were accomplished to the same extent as in the higher socioeconomic groups in a PHC lifestyle intervention programme. KEY POINTSPrimary care plays a major part in prevention of chronic diseases. However, non-pharmacological primary and secondary prevention is often less successful, especially concerning socioeconomically vulnerable groups.The health promoting

  9. Hydrogeochemical characterization and Natural Background Levels in urbanized areas: Milan Metropolitan area (Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Caro, Mattia; Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Although aquifers in densely populated and industrialized areas are extremely valuable and sensitive to contamination, an estimate of the groundwater quality status relative to baseline conditions is lacking for many of them. This paper provides a hydrogeochemical characterization of the groundwater in the Milan metropolitan area, one of the most densely populated areas in Europe. First, a conceptual model of the study area based on the analysis of the spatial distribution of natural chemical species and indicator contaminants is presented. The hydrochemical facies of the study area depend on the lithology of catchments drained by the main contributing rivers and on the aquifer settings. The anthropogenic influence on the groundwater quality of superficial aquifers is studied by means of probability plots, concentration versus depth plots and spatial-temporal plots for nitrate, sulfate and chloride. These allow differentiation of contaminated superficial aquifers from deep confined aquifers with baseline water quality. Natural Background Levels (NBL) of selected species (Cl, Na, NH4, SO4, NO3, As, Fe, Mn and Zn) are estimated by means of the pre-selection (PS) and the component separation (CS) statistical approaches. The NBLs depend on hydrogeological settings of the study area; sodium, chloride, sulfate and zinc NBL values never exceed the environmental water quality standards. NBL values of ammonium, iron, arsenic and manganese exceed the environmental water quality standards in the anaerobic portion of the aquifers. On the basis of observations, a set of criteria and precautions are suggested for adoption with both PS and CS methods in the aquifer characterization of highly urbanized areas.

  10. Does the level of wealth inequality within an area influence the prevalence of depression amongst older people?

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Alan; Jivraj, Stephen; Nazroo, James; Tampubolon, Gindo; Vanhoutte, Bram

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers whether the extent of inequality in house prices within neighbourhoods of England is associated with depressive symptoms in the older population using the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. We consider two competing hypotheses: first, the wealth inequality hypothesis which proposes that neighbourhood inequality is harmful to health and, second, the mixed neighbourhood hypothesis which suggests that socially mixed neighbourhoods are beneficial for health outcomes. Our results are supportive of the mixed neighbourhood hypothesis, we find a significant association between neighbourhood inequality and depression with lower levels of depression amongst older people in neighbourhoods with greater house price inequality after controlling for individual socio-economic and area correlates of depression. The association between area inequality and depression is strongest for the poorest individuals, but also holds among the most affluent. Our results are in line with research that suggests there are social and health benefits associated with economically mixed communities. PMID:24662528

  11. Closing the gap between socioeconomic and financial implications of residential and community level hydrogen-based energy systems: Incentives needed for a bridge to the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verduzco, Laura E.

    The use of hydrogen as an energy carrier has the potential to decrease the amount of pollutants emitted to the atmosphere, significantly reduce our dependence on imported oil and resolve geopolitical issues related to energy consumption. The current status of hydrogen technology makes it prohibitive and financially risky for most investors to commit the money required for large-scale hydrogen production. Therefore, alternative strategies such as small and medium-scale hydrogen applications should be implemented during the early stages of the transition to the hydrogen economy in order to test potential markets and technology readiness. While many analysis tools have been built to estimate the requirements of the transition to a hydrogen economy, few have focused on small and medium-scale hydrogen production and none has paired financial with socioeconomic costs at the residential level. The computer-based tool (H2POWER) presented in this study calculates the capacity, cost and socioeconomic impact of the systems needed to meet the energy demands of a home or a community using home and neighborhood refueling units, which are systems that can provide electricity and heat to meet the energy demands of either (1) a home and automobile or (2) a cluster of homes and a number of automobiles. The financial costs of the production, processing and delivery sub-systems that conform the refueling units are calculated using cost data of existing technology and normalizing them to calculate capital and net present cost. The monetary value of the externalities (socioeconomic analysis) caused by each system is calculated by H2POWER through a statistical analysis of the cost associated to various externalities. Additionally, H2POWER calculates the financial impact of different penalties and incentives (such as net metering, low interest loans, fuel taxes, and emission penalties) on the cost of the system from the point of view of a developer and a homeowner. In order to assess the

  12. A comparative study of fluoride ingestion levels, serum thyroid hormone & TSH level derangements, dental fluorosis status among school children from endemic and non-endemic fluorosis areas.

    PubMed

    Singh, Navneet; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Verma, Pradhuman; Sidhu, Gagandeep Kaur; Sachdeva, Suresh

    2014-01-03

    The study was undertaken to determine serum/urinary fluoride status and comparison of free T4, free T3 and thyroid stimulating hormone levels of 8 to 15 years old children with and without dental fluorosis living in an endemic and non-endemic fluorosis area. A sample group of 60 male and female school children, with or without dental fluorosis, consuming fluoride-contaminated water in endemic fluoride area of Udaipur district, Rajasthan were selected through a school dental fluorosis survey. The sample of 10 children of same age and socio-economic status residing in non endemic areas who did not have dental fluorosis form controls. Fluoride determination in drinking water, urine and blood was done with Ion 85 Ion Analyzer Radiometer with Hall et al. method. The thyroid gland functional test was done by Immonu Chemiluminiscence Micropartical Assay with Bayer Centaur Autoanalyzer. The significantly altered FT3, FT4 and TSH hormones level in both group1A and 1B school children were noted. The serum and urine fluoride levels were found to be increased in both the groups. A significant relationship of water fluoride to urine and serum fluoride concentration was seen. The serum fluoride concentration also had significant relationship with thyroid hormone (FT3/FT4) and TSH concentrations. The testing of drinking water and body fluids for fluoride content, along with FT3, FT4, and TSH in children with dental fluorosis is desirable for recognizing underlying thyroid derangements and its impact on fluorosis.

  13. The influence of neighbourhood-level socioeconomic deprivation on cardiovascular disease mortality in older age: longitudinal multilevel analyses from a cohort of older British men

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, S E; Morris, R W; Whincup, P H; Subramanian, S V; Papacosta, A O; Lennon, Lucy T; Wannamethee, S G

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence from longitudinal studies on the influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic factors in older age on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is limited. We aimed to investigate the prospective association of neighbourhood-level deprivation in later life with CVD mortality, and assess the underlying role of established cardiovascular risk factors. Methods A socially representative cohort of 3924 men, aged 60–79 years in 1998–2000, from 24 British towns, was followed up until 2012 for CVD mortality. Quintiles of the national Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), a composite score of neighbourhood-level factors (including income, employment, education, housing and living environment) were used. Multilevel logistic regression with discrete-time models (stratifying follow-up time into months) were used. Results Over 12 years, 1545 deaths occurred, including 580 from CVD. The risk of CVD mortality showed a graded increase from IMD quintile 1 (least deprived) to 5 (most deprived). Compared to quintile 1, the age-adjusted odds of CVD mortality in quintile 5 were 1.71 (95% CI 1.32 to 2.21), and 1.62 (95% CI 1.23 to 2.13) on further adjustment for individual social class, which was attenuated slightly to 1.44 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.89), but remained statistically significant after adjustment for smoking, body mass index, physical activity and use of alcohol. Further adjustment for blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and prevalent diabetes made little difference. Conclusions Neighbourhood-level deprivation was associated with an increased risk of CVD mortality in older people independent of individual-level social class and cardiovascular risk factors. The role of other specific neighbourhood-level factors merits further research. PMID:26285580

  14. Peer-mentoring for first-time mothers from areas of socio-economic disadvantage: A qualitative study within a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Christine A; Cupples, Margaret E; Percy, Andrew; Halliday, Henry L; Stewart, Moira C

    2008-01-01

    Background Non-professional involvement in delivering health and social care support in areas of socio-economic deprivation is considered important in attempting to reduce health inequalities. However, trials of peer mentoring programmes have yielded inconsistent evidence of benefit: difficulties in implementation have contributed to uncertainty regarding their efficacy. We aimed to explore difficulties encountered in conducting a randomised controlled trial of a peer-mentoring programme for first-time mothers in socially disadvantaged areas, in order to provide information relevant to future research and practice. This paper describes the experiences of lay-workers, women and health professionals involved in the trial. Methods Thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with women (n = 11) who were offered peer mentor support, lay-workers (n = 11) who provided mentoring and midwives (n = 2) who supervised the programme, which provided support, from first hospital antenatal visit to one year postnatal. Planned frequency of contact was two-weekly (telephone or home visit) but was tailored to individuals' needs. Results Despite lay-workers living in the same locality, they experienced difficulty initiating contact with women and this affected their morale adversely. Despite researchers' attempts to ensure that the role of the mentor was understood clearly it appeared that this was not achieved for all participants. Mentors attempted to develop peer-mentor relationships by offering friendship and sharing personal experiences, which was appreciated by women. Mentors reported difficulties developing relationships with those who lacked interest in the programme. External influences, including family and friends, could prevent or facilitate mentoring. Time constraints in reconciling flexible mentoring arrangements with demands of other commitments posed major personal difficulties for lay-workers. Conclusion Difficulties in initiating contact, developing peer

  15. Identification of areas with high levels of untreated dental caries.

    PubMed

    Ellwood, R P; O'Mullane, D M

    1996-02-01

    In order to examine the geographical variation of dental health within 10 county districts in North Wales, 3538 children were examined. The associations between three demographic indicators, based on the 1981 OPCS census, and dental health outcomes were assessed for electoral wards within the county districts. The Townsend and Jarman indices were the first two indicators employed and the third was based on a mathematical model representing the variation in the mean number of untreated decayed surfaces per person for the wards. This model was developed using the children examined in the five most westerly county districts. Using the data derived from the five most easterly county districts, the three indicators were assessed. All three showed strong correlations (r > or = 0.88) with dental health. These results indicate that measures of dental health based on large administrative units may obscure variation within them. It is concluded that geographical methods of this type may be useful for targeting dental resources at small areas with high levels of need.

  16. In situ rainwater harvesting using dead level contours in semi-arid southern Zimbabwe: Insights on the role of socio-economic factors on performance and effectiveness in Gwanda District

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munamati, Muchaneta; Nyagumbo, Isaiah

    Droughts and dry spells which have characterised the past decade in Zimbabwe have seen a marked increase in the promotion and use of in situ rainwater harvesting technologies (RWHTs) as a drought mitigating strategy. A number of these technologies have been tried in recent years which include dead level contours with infiltration pits and deepened contours. Although in situ RWHTs are known to increase food security in drought prone areas, the role of socio-economic factors on their performance in terms of crop yield and scaling out is still not well understood. This study sought to investigate the socio-economic factors which influence the effectiveness of dead level contours for in situ rainwater harvesting and consequently on crop yield. The study involved 14 key informants interviews and questionnaire administration to a total of 55 respondent farmers practising in situ rainwater harvesting with dead level contours. A statistical package (Statistical Package for Social Scientists, SPSS) was used to analyse relationships between performance of RWHTs and attributes such as labour, resources, gender, experience and education. The results show a strong correlation between performance and resource status ( p = 0.004). For example, within the wealthy category, 42.1% were successful, while 14.3% and 13.8% were average and poor performers respectively. Thus within the successful category, 42.1% were wealthy, while 42.1% and 15.8% were medium-rich and resource-constrained respectively. Performance rating was also significantly correlated ( p = 0.007) to gender of household head e.g., within the most successful group 94.7% were men compared to 5.3% women. There was also a significant correlation between resource status and gender ( p = 0.039) such that within the wealthy category, 69.2% of the respondents were men compared to 30.8% women. Labour was found to have no significance on performance ( p > 0.05) even though the majority of key informants (93%) alluded that the

  17. The human core of the shared socioeconomic pathways: Population scenarios by age, sex and level of education for all countries to 2100.

    PubMed

    Kc, Samir; Lutz, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    This paper applies the methods of multi-dimensional mathematical demography to project national populations based on alternative assumptions on future, fertility, mortality, migration and educational transitions that correspond to the five shared socioeconomic pathways (SSP) storylines. In doing so it goes a significant step beyond past population scenarios in the IPCC context which considered only total population size. By differentiating the human population not only by age and sex-as is conventionally done in demographic projections-but also by different levels of educational attainment the most fundamental aspects of human development and social change are being explicitly addressed through modeling the changing composition of populations by these three important individual characteristics. The scenarios have been defined in a collaborative effort of the international Integrated Assessment Modeling community with the medium scenario following that of a major new effort by the Wittgenstein Centre for Demography and Global Human Capital (IIASA, OEAW, WU) involving over 550 experts from around the world. As a result, in terms of total world population size the trajectories resulting from the five SSPs stay very close to each other until around 2030 and by the middle of the century already a visible differentiation appears with the range between the highest (SSP3) and the lowest (SSP1) trajectories spanning 1.5 billion. The range opens up much more with the SSP3 reaching 12.6 billion in 2100 and SSP1 falling to 6.9 billion which is lower than today's world population.

  18. Evidence-based policies on school nutrition and physical education: Associations with state-level collaboration, obesity, and socio-economic indicators.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Jennifer E; Laska, Melissa N; MacLehose, Richard; Nelson, Toben F; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2017-02-13

    Despite calls for more cross-sector collaboration on obesity prevention, little is known about the role of collaborative partnerships, or groups of organizations from different sectors working together toward a shared goal, in state policy activities. This study examined associations between competitive food/beverage and physical education policies and state-level collaboration and state characteristics (obesity, socioeconomic indicators, public health funding levels) for all 50 states and the District of Columbia, USA, in 2012. We examined cross-sectional associations between evidence-based competitive food/beverage and physical education policies from the Classification of Laws Associated with School Students and state characteristics from the School Health Policies and Practices Study and other national data sources using prevalence ratios and generalized linear models. Analyses were conducted in 2016. Cross-sector collaboration (i.e., state staff reports of working together on school nutrition or physical education activities) between state-level nutrition and physical education staff and ten types of organizations was not significantly associated with having state policies. Childhood obesity (RR=1.78, 95% CI[1.11,2.85]), high-school non-completion (RR=2.35, 95% CI[1.36,4.06]), poverty (RR=1.89, 95% CI[1.16,3.09]) and proportion non-white or Hispanic residents (RR=1.75, 95% CI[1.07, 2.85]) were positively associated with the presence of elementary school competitive food/beverage policies. Fewer indicators were associated with policies for middle and high schools. The large investment of time and resources required for cross-sector collaboration demands greater research evidence on how to structure and manage collaborative partnerships for the greatest impact.

  19. Knowledge of Food Production Methods Informs Attitudes toward Food but Not Food Choice in Adults Residing in Socioeconomically Deprived Rural Areas within the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Maria; Kearney, John; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Understand food choice, from the perspective of people residing in socioeconomically deprived rural neighborhoods. Methods: Focus groups (n = 7) were undertaken within a community setting involving 42 adults (2 males and 40 females) recruited through voluntary action groups. Data were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and content…

  20. An overview of methods for monitoring social disparities in cancer with an example using trends in lung cancer incidence by area-socioeconomic position and race-ethnicity, 1992-2004.

    PubMed

    Harper, Sam; Lynch, John; Meersman, Stephen C; Breen, Nancy; Davis, William W; Reichman, Marsha E

    2008-04-15

    The authors provide an overview of methods for summarizing social disparities in health using the example of lung cancer. They apply four measures of relative disparity and three measures of absolute disparity to trends in US lung cancer incidence by area-socioeconomic position and race-ethnicity from 1992 to 2004. Among females, measures of absolute and relative disparity suggested that area-socioeconomic and race-ethnic disparities increased over these 12 years but differed widely with respect to the magnitude of the change. Among males, the authors found substantial disagreement among summary measures of relative disparity with respect to the magnitude and the direction of change in disparities. Among area-socioeconomic groups, the index of disparity increased by 47% and the relative concentration index decreased by 116%, while for race-ethnicity the index of disparity increased by 36% and the Theil index increased by 13%. The choice of a summary measure of disparity may affect the interpretation of changes in health disparities. Important issues to consider are the reference point from which differences are measured, whether to measure disparity on the absolute or relative scale, and whether to weight disparity measures by population size. A suite of indicators is needed to provide a clear picture of health disparity change.

  1. Community and household socioeconomic factors associated with pesticide-using, small farm household members' health: a multi-level, longitudinal analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies using multi-level models to examine health inequalities in lower and middle income countries (LMICs) are rare. We explored socio-economic gradients in health among small farm members participating in a pesticide-related health and agriculture program in highland Ecuador. Methods We profiled 24 communities through key informant interviews, secondary data (percent of population with unsatisfied basic needs), and intervention implementation indicators. Pre (2005) and post (2007) surveys of the primary household and crop managers included common questions (education, age, and the health outcome - digit span scaled 0-10)) and pesticide-related practice questions specific to each. Household assets and pesticide use variables were shared across managers. We constructed multi-level models predicting 2007 digit span for each manager type, with staged introduction of predictor variables. Results 376 household managers (79% of 2005 participants) and 380 crop managers (76% of 2005 participants) had complete data for analysis. The most important predictor of 2007 digit span was 2005 digit span: β (Standard Error) of 0.31(0.05) per unit for household and 0.17(0.04) for crop managers. Household asset score was next most important: 0.14(0.06) per unit for household and 0.14(0.05) for crop managers. Community percent with unsatisfied basic needs was associated with reductions in 2007 digit span: -0.04(0.01) per percent for household and -0.03(0.01) for crop managers. Conclusions The important roles of life endowments and/or persistent neurotoxicity were exemplified by limited change in the health outcome. Gradients by household assets and community deprivation were indicative of ongoing, structural inequities within this LMIC. PMID:22094171

  2. Final base case community analysis: Indian Springs, Nevada for the Clark County socioeconomic impact assessment of the proposed high- level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1992-06-18

    This document provides a base case description of the rural Clark County community of Indian Springs in anticipation of change associated with the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. As the community closest to the proposed site, Indian Springs may be seen by site characterization workers, as well as workers associated with later repository phases, as a logical place to live. This report develops and updates information relating to a broad spectrum of socioeconomic variables, thereby providing a `snapshot` or `base case` look at Indian Springs in early 1992. With this as a background, future repository-related developments may be analytically separated from changes brought about by other factors, thus allowing for the assessment of the magnitude of local changes associated with the proposed repository. Given the size of the community, changes that may be considered small in an absolute sense may have relatively large impacts at the local level. Indian Springs is, in many respects, a unique community and a community of contrasts. An unincorporated town, it is a small yet important enclave of workers on large federal projects and home to employees of small- scale businesses and services. It is a rural community, but it is also close to the urbanized Las Vega Valley. It is a desert community, but has good water resources. It is on flat terrain, but it is located within 20 miles of the tallest mountains in Nevada. It is a town in which various interest groups diverge on issues of local importance, but in a sense of community remains an important feature of life. Finally, it has a sociodemographic history of both surface transience and underlying stability. If local land becomes available, Indian Springs has some room for growth but must first consider the historical effects of growth on the town and its desired direction for the future.

  3. Individual, social and environmental factors influencing physical activity levels and behaviours of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged urban mothers in Canada: A mixed methods approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Existing data provide little insight into the physical activity context of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged mothers in Canada. Our primary objectives were: (1) to use focus group methodology to develop tools to identify the individual, social, and environmental factors influencing utilitarian and leisure time physical activities (LTPA) of multiethnic SED mothers; and (2) to use a women specific physical activity survey tool to assess psychosocial barriers and supports and to quantify individual physical activity (PA) levels of multi-ethnic SED mothers in Canada. Methods Qualitative focus group sessions were conducted in West, Central and Eastern Canada with multiethnic SED mothers (n = 6 focus groups; n = 42 SED mothers) and with health and recreation professionals (HRPs) (n = 5 focus groups; n = 25 HRPs) involved in community PA programming for multiethnic SED mothers. Administration of the women specific Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) tool was completed by consenting SED mothers (n = 59). Results More than half of SED mothers were employed and had higher total PA scores with occupation included than unemployed mothers. However, nearly 60% of both groups were overweight or obese. Barriers to LTPA included the lack of available, affordable and accessible LTPA programs that responded to cultural and social needs. Concerns for safety, nonsupportive cultural and social norms and the winter climate were identified as key barriers to both utilitarian and LTPA. Conclusions Findings show that multiethnic SED mothers experience many barriers to utilitarian and LTPA opportunities within their communities. The varying LTPA levels among these multi-ethnic SED mothers and the occurrence of overweight and obesity suggests that current LTPA programs are likely insufficient to maintain healthy body weights. PMID:22500882

  4. Do socioeconomic gradients in subclinical atherosclerosis vary according to acculturation level? Analyses of Mexican-Americans in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Linda C.; Espinosa de los Monteros, Karla; Allison, Matthew; Roux, Ana Diez; Polak, Joseph F.; Watson, Karol E.; Morales, Leo S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Although socioeconomic position (SEP) shows a consistent, inverse relationship with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in westernized non-Hispanic white populations, the relationship in ethnic minorities, including Hispanics, is often weak or even reversed (i.e., worse health with higher SEP). In the current study, we examined whether the association between SEP and subclinical atherosclerosis in Mexican Americans would be moderated by acculturation. Methods Participants were 801 Hispanics of Mexican origin (49.6% female; average age 60.47 years) from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cohort who underwent computed tomography of the chest for coronary artery calcium (CAC) and thoracic aortic calcium (TAC). SEP was represented by a composite of self-reported education and income. Acculturation was a composite score including language spoken at home, generation, and years of “exposure” to U.S. culture. Results Small, but statistically significant SEP by acculturation interaction effects were identified in relation to prevalent CAC, prevalent TAC, and extent of TAC (all p < .05). Follow-up analyses revealed that the direction of the SEP gradient on detectable CAC changed as individuals progressed from low to high acculturation. Specifically, the association between SEP and calcification was positive at low levels of acculturation (i.e., a “reversed” gradient), and negative in circumstances of high acculturation (i.e., the expected, protective effect of higher SEP). Conclusions The findings support the utility of examining SEP and acculturation simultaneously, and of disaggregating large ethnic groupings (e.g., “Hispanic”) into meaningful subgroups to better understand health risks. PMID:19661194

  5. Wildland-Urban Interface Fires and Socioeconomic Conditions: A Case Study of a Northwestern Patagonia City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Torres Curth, Monica; Biscayart, Carolina; Ghermandi, Luciana; Pfister, Gabriela

    2012-04-01

    In many regions of the world, fires are primarily of anthropogenic origin. In northwestern Patagonia, the number of fires is not correlated with meteorological variables, but is concentrated in urban areas. This study was conducted in the wildland-urban interface (WUI) area of San Carlos de Bariloche (Patagonia, Argentina), within the Nahuel Huapi National Park. WUI fires are particularly problematic because, besides people and goods, they represent a danger to protected areas. We studied the relationship between fire records and socioeconomic indicators within the WUI of San Carlos de Bariloche. We conducted a Multiple Correspondence Factorial Analysis and an Ascendant Hierarchical Classification of the city neighborhoods. The results show that the neighborhoods in Bariloche can be divided into three classes: High Socioeconomic Fire Risk neighborhoods, including neighborhoods with the highest fire rates, where people have low instruction level, high levels of unsatisfied basic needs and high unemployment levels; Low Socioeconomic Fire Risk neighborhoods, that groups neighborhoods which present the opposite characterization, and Moderate Socioeconomic Fire Risk neighborhoods, which are more heterogeneous. Once neighborhoods were classified, a Socioeconomic Fire Risk map was generated, supplementing the existing WUI Fire Danger map. Our results emphasize the relevance of socioeconomic variables to fire policies.

  6. Wildland-urban interface fires and socioeconomic conditions: a case study of a northwestern Patagonia city.

    PubMed

    de Torres Curth, Monica; Biscayart, Carolina; Ghermandi, Luciana; Pfister, Gabriela

    2012-04-01

    In many regions of the world, fires are primarily of anthropogenic origin. In northwestern Patagonia, the number of fires is not correlated with meteorological variables, but is concentrated in urban areas. This study was conducted in the wildland-urban interface (WUI) area of San Carlos de Bariloche (Patagonia, Argentina), within the Nahuel Huapi National Park. WUI fires are particularly problematic because, besides people and goods, they represent a danger to protected areas. We studied the relationship between fire records and socioeconomic indicators within the WUI of San Carlos de Bariloche. We conducted a Multiple Correspondence Factorial Analysis and an Ascendant Hierarchical Classification of the city neighborhoods. The results show that the neighborhoods in Bariloche can be divided into three classes: High Socioeconomic Fire Risk neighborhoods, including neighborhoods with the highest fire rates, where people have low instruction level, high levels of unsatisfied basic needs and high unemployment levels; Low Socioeconomic Fire Risk neighborhoods, that groups neighborhoods which present the opposite characterization, and Moderate Socioeconomic Fire Risk neighborhoods, which are more heterogeneous. Once neighborhoods were classified, a Socioeconomic Fire Risk map was generated, supplementing the existing WUI Fire Danger map. Our results emphasize the relevance of socioeconomic variables to fire policies.

  7. Estimation of stand-level leaf area for boreal bryophytes.

    PubMed

    Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Gower, Stith T

    2007-04-01

    Bryophytes dominate the carbon and nitrogen cycling of many poorly drained terrestrial ecosystems and are important in the vegetation-atmosphere exchange of carbon and water, yet few studies have estimated their leaf area at the stand scale. This study quantified the bryophyte-specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf area index (LAI) in a group of different-aged boreal forest stands in well and poorly drained soils. Species-specific SLA (for three feather mosses, four Sphagnum spp. and Aulacomnium palustre mixed with Tomentypnum nitens) was assessed by determining the projected area using a flatbed scanner and cross-sectional geometry using a dissecting microscope. The hemisurface leaf area was computed as the product of SLA and live biomass and was scaled by coverage data collected at all stands. Pleurozium schreberi dominated the spatial coverage, biomass and leaf area in the well-drained stands, particularly the oldest, while S. fuscum and A. palustre were important in the poorly drained stands. Live moss biomass ranged from 47 to 230 g m(-2) in the well-drained stands dominated by feather mosses and from 102 to 228 g m(-2) in the poorly drained stands. Bryophyte SLA varied between 135 and 473 cm(2) g(-1), for A. palustre and S. capillifolium, respectively. SLA was strongly and significantly affected by bryophyte species, but did not vary between stands; in general, there was no significant difference between the SLA of non-Sphagnum mosses. Bryophyte LAI increased with stand age, peaking at 3.1 and 3.7 in the well and poorly drained stands, respectively; this represented approximately 40% of the overstory LAI in the well-drained stands and 100-1,000% in the poorly drained stands, underscoring the important role bryophytes play in the water and carbon budgets of these boreal forests.

  8. Association between socio-economic status and hemoglobin A1c levels in a Canadian primary care adult population without diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hgb A1c levels may be higher in persons without diabetes of lower socio-economic status (SES) but evidence about this association is limited; there is therefore uncertainty about the inclusion of SES in clinical decision support tools informing the provision and frequency of Hgb A1c tests to screen for diabetes. We studied the association between neighborhood-level SES and Hgb A1c in a primary care population without diabetes. Methods This is a retrospective study using data routinely collected in the electronic medical records (EMRs) of forty six community-based family physicians in Toronto, Ontario. We analysed records from 4,870 patients without diabetes, age 45 and over, with at least one clinical encounter between January 1st 2009 and December 31st 2011 and one or more Hgb A1c report present in their chart during that time interval. Residential postal codes were used to assign neighborhood deprivation indices and income levels by quintiles. Covariates included elements known to be associated with an increase in the risk of incident diabetes: age, gender, family history of diabetes, body mass index, blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting blood glucose. Results The difference in mean Hgb A1c between highest and lowest income quintiles was -0.04% (p = 0.005, 95% CI -0.07% to -0.01%), and between least deprived and most deprived was -0.05% (p = 0.003, 95% CI -0.09% to -0.02%) for material deprivation and 0.02% (p = 0.2, 95% CI -0.06% to 0.01%) for social deprivation. After adjustment for covariates, a marginally statistically significant difference in Hgb A1c between highest and lowest SES quintile (p = 0.04) remained in the material deprivation model, but not in the other models. Conclusions We found a small inverse relationship between Hgb A1c and the material aspects of SES; this was largely attenuated once we adjusted for diabetes risk factors, indicating that an independent contribution of SES

  9. Socioeconomic assessment: issues, status, and plans

    SciTech Connect

    Boryczka, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    Numerous public meetings and hearings have been held in Texas, Mississippi, Louisiana and Utah on the issue of siting a nuclear waste repository in salt. Citizens in these potential site areas have raised many questions about how this facility will affect their quality of life. Questions about population and economic changes have been of particular concern. In developing a socioeconomic program, these issues and others have been an integral part of Battelle's socioeconomic studies. The three elements of Battelle's socioeconomic program are comprised of three elements: impact assessment, impact mitigation and community development, and impact monitoring. In addition, our approach to assessing socioeconomic impacts for the environmental assessment (EA) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 are described. Since the EA analysis will address many of the issues raised in the site areas, these concerns will be elaborated on. Finally, various techniques for managing socioeconomic impacts will be presented. 6 references, 1 figure.

  10. Level 1 remedial investigation work plan, 300 Area Process Ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    This report discusses the objectives of the site characterization for the 300 Area Process Ponds which are to identify and quantify contamination at the ponds and to estimate their potential impact on human health and the environment. The results of the site characterization will be used to identify any future actions related to contamination at the site and to identify any additional data requirements needed to support selection of a remedial action. 9 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Heavy metal levels of pasture grasses in metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luilo, G. B.; Othman, O. C.

    2003-05-01

    Urban agriculture is becoming an important lucrative activity in Dar es Salaam City even though the city is subject to traffic and industrial pollution pressures. Poor planning has left only limited spaces, particularly road reserves, for cultivation and foraging animals. While there is increasing road traffic no study bas been conducted determine levels of trace metals in pasture grasses. This study, therefore, reports on the levels of cadmium, manganese, lead and zinc of cynodon grasses in road vicinity in the city. Results show that the trace metal levels (ppm ± SDE) in Cynodon grass species were: Cd (0.24 ± 0.06-2.58 ± 0.15), Mn (41.5 ± 13.6-345.0 ± 124.3), Pb (1.15 ± 0.64-25.53 ± 1.29) and Zn (25.97 ± 3.69-95.36 ± 19.61). The mean levels of lead and zinc varied exponentially with distance off the road up to 15 m distance. Lead and zinc levels correlated with average daily traffic in the roads while cadmium and manganese did not. This suggests that lead and zinc in grasses owe their sources from the passing motor vehicles in agreement with other reported studies. It is recommended that pasture grasses in road vicinities must not be used for foraging dairy cattle and goats for public health reasons.

  12. Contributions of neuroscience to the study of socioeconomic health disparities.

    PubMed

    Gianaros, Peter J; Hackman, Daniel A

    2013-09-01

    Socioeconomic disadvantage confers risk for ill health. Historically, the pathways by which socioeconomic disadvantage may affect health have been viewed from epidemiological perspectives emphasizing environmental, behavioral, and biopsychosocial risk factors. Such perspectives, however, have yet to integrate findings from emerging neuroscience studies demonstrating that indicators of socioeconomic disadvantage relate to patterns of brain morphology and functionality that have been associated with aspects of mental, physical, and cognitive health over the lifecourse. This commentary considers findings from one such study appearing in the current issue of Psychosomatic Medicine. It reports that an area-level indicator of socioeconomic disadvantage relates to cortical morphology in brain regions important for language, executive control, and other cognitive and behavioral functions-possibly via a systemic inflammatory pathway. These findings are put into context by discussing broader questions and challenges that need to be addressed in order for neuroscience approaches to a) become better integrated with existing epidemiological perspectives and b) more fully advance our understanding of the pathways by which socioeconomic disadvantage becomes embodied by the brain in relation to health.

  13. An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Mindfulness on Perceived Levels of Stress among School-Children from Lower Socioeconomic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Elizabeth; Lawler, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds are at increased risk of experiencing stress and associated social-emotional difficulties and behavioural problems, which can undermine academic performance and lead to school drop-out. Previous studies investigating the effects of mindfulness have evidenced positive outcomes among children pertaining…

  14. Socioeconomic Studies of Schistosomiasis in Brazil: a Review

    PubMed Central

    Kloos, Helmut; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Quites, Humberto Ferreira; Souza, Márcia Christina; Gazzinelli, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This review finds considerable evidence that socioeconomic status has significantly influenced the transmission, spread and treatment of schistosomiasis in Brazil. High infection rates persist among both the rural and urban poor. Rural living, poor housing and water supplies and low educational level were major factors in schistosomiasis occurrence among agricultural populations. In urban areas, prevailing living conditions in shantytowns and labor migrations from and periodic return movements to rural areas were predictive of schistosomiasis. The risk of the establishment of new transmission foci exists in both rural and urban areas, conferred by and affecting poorer people. Associations between schistosomiasis and socioeconomic parameters, persisting inequities in health services accessibility, prevailing health impacts of schistosomiasis, and the ongoing decentralization of health services point to opportunities and strategies for focused interventions aimed at promoting health-enhancing behavior and living conditions and improving access to health care. The authors call for multidisciplinary studies to better examine the complexities of the socioeconomic environment in relation to schistosomiasis and for economic programs to reduce prevailing socioeconomic inequalities. PMID:18694715

  15. Objective sea level pressure analysis for sparse data areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druyan, L. M.

    1972-01-01

    A computer procedure was used to analyze the pressure distribution over the North Pacific Ocean for eleven synoptic times in February, 1967. Independent knowledge of the central pressures of lows is shown to reduce the analysis errors for very sparse data coverage. The application of planned remote sensing of sea-level wind speeds is shown to make a significant contribution to the quality of the analysis especially in the high gradient mid-latitudes and for sparse coverage of conventional observations (such as over Southern Hemisphere oceans). Uniform distribution of the available observations of sea-level pressure and wind velocity yields results far superior to those derived from a random distribution. A generalization of the results indicates that the average lower limit for analysis errors is between 2 and 2.5 mb based on the perfect specification of the magnitude of the sea-level pressure gradient from a known verification analysis. A less than perfect specification will derive from wind-pressure relationships applied to satellite observed wind speeds.

  16. Analysis of urban residential environments using color infrared aerial photography: An examination of socioeconomic variables and physical characteristics of selected areas in the Los Angeles basin, with addendum: An application of the concepts of the Los Angeles residential environment study to the Ontario-Upland region of California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullens, R. H., Jr.; Senger, L. W.

    1969-01-01

    Aerial photographs taken with color infrared film were used to differentiate various types of residential areas in the Los Angeles basin, using characteristics of the physical environment which vary from one type of residential area to another. Residential areas of varying quality were classified based on these characteristics. Features of the physical environment, identifiable on CIR aerial photography were examined to determine which of these are the best indicators of quality of residential areas or social areas, as determined by the socioeconomic characteristics of the inhabitants of the selected areas. Association between several physical features and the socioeconomic variables was found to exist.

  17. A process-based land use/land cover change assessment on a mountainous area of Greece during 1945-2009: Signs of socio-economic drivers.

    PubMed

    Xystrakis, Fotios; Psarras, Thomas; Koutsias, Nikos

    2017-06-01

    In the Mediterranean region, natural vegetation has been strongly affected by human activities for thousands of years. During the last decades, there has been a notable tendency for abandonment of marginal agricultural land that is further associated with a number of ecological consequences. In this study we recorded and mapped the temporal changes of land use/land cover (LULC) classes that were further aggregated into major process-based changes for the period 1945-2009 in Aetoloakarnania prefecture, Greece. LULC mapping was based on aerial photographs acquired in 1945, 1960, 1985-1986 and 2007-2009. Object-based image analysis allowed the classification of the region's LULC classes and, consecutively, the assessment of process-based LULC changes for each time period. The results indicated that agricultural land increased during the first post-war years while abandonment of agricultural land took place during more recent decades, especially after the period 1960-1985. The observed land abandonment is combined with a simultaneous densification of shrublands and forests. Radical socio-economic changes that took place in the 1960's include the migration of rural populations towards big cities and the beginning of the development of the tourist industry. We argue that these socio-economic changes play an important role in shaping the observed LULC changes.

  18. Levels of radioactivity in fish from streams near F-Area and H-Area seepage basins

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Loehle, C.

    1991-05-01

    This report summarizes results of recent analyses of radioactivity in fish from SRS streams near the F-Area and H-Area seepage basins. Fish were collected from headwater areas of Four Mile Creek and Pen Branch, from just below the H-Area seepage basin, and from three sites downstream in Four Mile Creek. These fish were analyzed for gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity using standard EPA methods. Levels of gross alpha and nonvolatile beta radioactivity in fish were found to be comparable to levels previously reported for these sites. Gross alpha activity was not found to be influenced by Separations Area discharges. Nonvolatile beta activity was higher in the nonvolatile beta activity was attributable to Cs-137 and K-40. The dosimetric consequences of consuming fish from this area were found to be well below DOE guidelines.

  19. Socioeconomic Disparities and Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Delobel-Ayoub, Malika; Ehlinger, Virginie; Klapouszczak, Dana; Maffre, Thierry; Raynaud, Jean-Philippe; Delpierre, Cyrille; Arnaud, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Study of the impact of socioeconomic status on autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and severe intellectual disabilities (ID) has yielded conflicting results. Recent European studies suggested that, unlike reports from the United States, low socioeconomic status is associated with an increased risk of ASD. For intellectual disabilities, the links with socioeconomic status vary according to the severity. We wished to clarify the links between socioeconomic status and the prevalence of ASD (with or without ID) and isolated severe ID. Methods 500 children with ASD and 245 children with severe ID (IQ <50) aged 8 years, born 1995 to 2004, were recruited from a French population-based registry. Inclusions were based on clinical diagnoses reported in medical records according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision. Socioeconomic status was measured by indicators available at block census level which characterize the population of the child’s area of residence. Measures of deprivation, employment, occupation, education, immigration and family structure were used. Prevalences were compared between groups of census units defined by the tertiles of socioeconomic level in the general population. Results Prevalence of ASD with associated ID was higher in areas with the highest level of deprivation and the highest percentage of unemployed adults, persons with no diploma, immigrants and single-parent families. No association was found when using occupational class. Regarding ASD without associated ID, a higher prevalence was found in areas with the highest percentage of immigrants. No association was found for other socioeconomic indicators. The prevalence of isolated severe ID was likely to be higher in the most disadvantaged groups defined by all indicators. Conclusion The prevalence of ASD with associated ID and of severe isolated ID is more likely to be higher in areas with the highest level of deprivation. PMID:26540408

  20. [Research on the socioeconomic risk factors in pregnancy and delivery].

    PubMed

    Bompiani, A; Arduini, D; Marchetti, P; Matarazzo, C

    1980-01-01

    The effects of various socioeconomic factors on the outcome of pregnancy and delivery in Italy are investigated. Variables considered include marital status, area of residence, educational level, occupation, income, and attitude toward pregnancy. Methods for accurate evaluation of risk factors are discussed. The need for physicians to consider the social and psychological aspects of pregnancy and delivery is emphasized. Data are for women interviewed at the Obstetrical and Gynaecological Clinic of the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart in Rome.

  1. A comparative study of noise pollution levels in some selected areas in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyedepo, Olayinka S; Saadu, Abdullahi A

    2009-11-01

    The noise pollution is a major problem for the quality of life in urban areas. This study was conducted to compare the noise pollution levels at busy roads/road junctions, passengers loading parks, commercial, industrial and residential areas in Ilorin metropolis. A total number of 47-locations were selected within the metropolis. Statistical analysis shows significant difference (P < 0.05) in noise pollution levels between industrial areas and low density residential areas, industrial areas and high density areas, industrial areas and passengers loading parks, industrial areas and commercial areas, busy roads/road junctions and low density areas, passengers loading parks and commercial areas and commercial areas and low density areas. There is no significant difference (P > 0.05) in noise pollution levels between industrial areas and busy roads/road junctions, busy roads/road junctions and high density areas, busy roads/road junctions and passengers loading parks, busy roads/road junctions and commercial areas, passengers loading parks and high density areas, passengers loading parks and commercial areas and commercial areas and high density areas. The results show that Industrial areas have the highest noise pollution levels (110.2 dB(A)) followed by busy roads/Road junctions (91.5 dB(A)), Passengers loading parks (87.8 dB(A)) and Commercial areas (84.4 dB(A)). The noise pollution levels in Ilorin metropolis exceeded the recommended level by WHO at 34 of 47 measuring points. It can be concluded that the city is environmentally noise polluted and road traffic and industrial machineries are the major sources of it. Noting the noise emission standards, technical control measures, planning and promoting the citizens awareness about the high noise risk may help to relieve the noise problem in the metropolis.

  2. The Effect of Price and Socio-Economic Level on the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages (SSB): The Case of Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Paraje, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to estimate the own-price, cross-price and income elasticities of demand for SSB in Ecuador, as an indispensable step for predicting a reduction in the consumption of said beverages caused by the potential implementation of taxes in Ecuador. In addition, the own-price, cross-price and income elasticities of sugar-free substitutes like mineral water and diet soft drinks and juices are also estimated. The data from the 2011–2012 ENIGHUR, which contains detailed information on household consumption and socioeconomic variables, was used. The estimates are done using Deaton’s Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) which accounts for differences in the quality of goods purchased. This demand system is estimated for different socio-economic groups, according to total household expenditure. The results reveal own-price elasticities for SSB between –1.17 and –1.33 depending on the socio-economic group, in line with the existing evidence for developed countries. Own-price elasticity for non-SSB is between -1 and -1.24. Income elasticities reveal that both SSB and non-SSB are normal goods with elasticities decreasing for higher socio-economic groups. These results show that the consumption of SSB is sensitive to price changes, meaning that the implementation of taxes on said beverages could be effective in reducing their consumption. The fact that non-SSB are also sensitive to price changes would indicate that subsidies could be implemented for the production of some of them. PMID:27028608

  3. The Effect of Price and Socio-Economic Level on the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages (SSB): The Case of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Paraje, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to estimate the own-price, cross-price and income elasticities of demand for SSB in Ecuador, as an indispensable step for predicting a reduction in the consumption of said beverages caused by the potential implementation of taxes in Ecuador. In addition, the own-price, cross-price and income elasticities of sugar-free substitutes like mineral water and diet soft drinks and juices are also estimated. The data from the 2011-2012 ENIGHUR, which contains detailed information on household consumption and socioeconomic variables, was used. The estimates are done using Deaton's Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) which accounts for differences in the quality of goods purchased. This demand system is estimated for different socio-economic groups, according to total household expenditure. The results reveal own-price elasticities for SSB between -1.17 and -1.33 depending on the socio-economic group, in line with the existing evidence for developed countries. Own-price elasticity for non-SSB is between -1 and -1.24. Income elasticities reveal that both SSB and non-SSB are normal goods with elasticities decreasing for higher socio-economic groups. These results show that the consumption of SSB is sensitive to price changes, meaning that the implementation of taxes on said beverages could be effective in reducing their consumption. The fact that non-SSB are also sensitive to price changes would indicate that subsidies could be implemented for the production of some of them.

  4. Mixing layer height and air pollution levels in urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Wagner, Patrick; Emeis, Stefan; Jahn, Carsten; Muenkel, Christoph; Suppan, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Ceilometers are applied by KIT/IMK-IFU to detect layering of the lower atmosphere continuously. This is necessary because not only wind speed and direction but also atmospheric layering and especially the mixing layer height (MLH) influence exchange processes of ground level emissions. It will be discussed how the ceilometer monitoring information is used to interpret the air pollution near the ground. The information about atmospheric layering is continuously monitored by uninterrupted remote sensing measurements with the Vaisala ceilometer CL51 which is an eye-safe commercial mini-lidar system. Special software for this ceilometer provides routine retrievals of lower atmosphere layering from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. An intensive measurement period during the winter 2011/2012 is studied. The meteorological influences upon air pollutant concentrations are investgated and the correlations of air pollutant concentrations with ceilometer MLH are determined. Benzene was detected by department of Applied Climatology and Landscape Ecology, University of Duisburg-Essen (UDE) with a gas chromatograph during the measurement period. The meteorological data are collected by UDE and the monitoring station Essen of the German national meteorological service DWD. The concentrations of the air pollutants NO, NO2 and PM10 are provided by the national air pollution network LANUV.

  5. Who Can Afford Health Care? Evaluating the Socio-Economic Conditions and the Ability to Contribute to Health Care in a Post-Conflict Area in DR Congo

    PubMed Central

    Gerstl, Sibylle; Sauter, Justin; Kasanda, Joseph; Kinzelbach, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Democratic Republic of the Congo is today one of the poorest countries in the world; the health status of the population ranks among the worst in Sub-Saharan Africa. Public health services charge user fees and drug prices. Since 2008, north-eastern Congo is facing a guerrilla war. Malteser International is assisting with free health care for internally displaced persons as well as the general population. Before the incursion the health system was based on user fees. The aim of this study was to determine the socio-economic conditions of the population and to assess their ability to contribute to health care. Methodology Heads of 552 randomly selected households in 23 clusters in two health zones were interviewed using a standardised questionnaire. Findings The demographic description and socio-economic conditions of the study population were homogenous. Major source of income was agriculture (57%); 47% of the households earned less than US$ 5.5/week. Ninety-two percent of the interviewed households estimated that they would be able to contribute to consultation fees (maximum amount of US$ 0.27) and 79% to the drug prices (maximum amount of US$ 1.10). Six percent opted for free consultations and 19% for free drugs. Conclusions Living conditions were very basic; the estimated income of the study population was low. Almost half of the population perceived their current living situation as fairly good/good. More than 90% of the study population estimated to be able to contribute to consultation fees and 80% to drug prices. As a result Malteser International suggested introducing flat-rates for health care services. Once the project ends, the population will have to pay again for their health service. One solution would be the introduction of a health care financing system with the goal to reach universal coverage to health care. PMID:24204819

  6. Feeding practices of young children aged 12-23 months in different socio-economic settings: a study from an urban area of Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Santika, Otte; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Ariawan, Iwan

    2016-07-01

    Poor feeding practices among young children lead to malnutrition, and the poor are at a greater risk than the better off groups. Child-feeding practices in various socio-economic strata, especially in urban settings, have not yet been well studied in Indonesia. This study aims to explore the feeding practices of 12-23 months old children from different socio-economic status (SES) groups. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, which included low (n 207), medium-high (n 205), medium-low (n 208) and high SES households (n 194) in forty-three villages within thirty-three sub-districts of Bandung city. Two non-consecutive 24 h recall and eight core indicators of child-feeding practices were assessed through interviews. The results showed that children from the high SES group were more likely to be exclusively breast-fed and to continue breast-feeding up to 1 year of age, met minimum dietary diversity and minimum acceptable diet, and also consumed Fe-rich or Fe-fortified foods. In contrast, children from low SES consumed more energy-rich food (grain) but fewer foods from the other food groups. Consumption of major nutrients differed across the SES groups. Inadequate nutrition was higher among children from the lower SES groups. Fortified foods were consumed by a larger proportion of children from the high SES group and contributed considerably to their overall nutrient intake. This study shows that young children's feeding practices were not adequate, most notably among the low SES households. However, after adjusting with potential confounders, there was not enough evidence to conclude SES as a risk factor for feeding practice.

  7. Characterising socio-economic inequalities in exposure to air pollution: a comparison of socio-economic markers and scales of measurement.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Anna; Wilkinson, Paul; Stafford, Mai; Tonne, Cathryn

    2011-05-01

    This study examines traffic-related air pollution in London in relation to area- and individual-level socio-economic position (SEP). Mean air pollution concentrations were generally higher in postcodes of low SEP as classified by small-area markers of deprivation (Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) domains) and by the postcode-level ACORN geodemographic marker. There were exceptions, however, including reversed directions of associations in central London and for SEP markers relating to education. ACORN predicted air pollution independently of IMD and explained additional variation at the postcode level, indicating the potential value of using both markers in air pollution epidemiology studies. By contrast, after including IMD and ACORN there remained little relationship between air pollution and individual-level SEP or smoking, suggesting limited residual socio-economic confounding in epidemiological studies with comprehensive area-level adjustment.

  8. Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauchenschwandtner, H.; Pachel, M.

    2012-04-01

    Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply Within the project CC-WaterS the participating researchers of the Vienna University of Economics and B.A. have been responsible for the analysis of the socioeconomic aspects related to water supply and climate change, the assessment of future water demands in the City of Vienna, as well as an estimation of economic consequences of possible water shortages and possible scope for the introduction of new legal guidelines. The institutional and socioeconomic dimensions of drinking water and sanitation systems are being examined by utilisation of different prognostic scenarios in order to assess future costs of water provisioning and future demands of main water users, thus providing an information basis and recommendations for policy and decision makers in the water sector. These dimensions, for example, include EU legislation - especially the Water Framework Directive -, national legislations and strategies targeted at achieving sustainability in water usage, best practices and different forms of regulating water markets, and an analysis of the implications of demographic change. As a basis this task encompasses research of given institutional, social, and legal-political structures in the area of water supply. In this course we provide an analysis of the structural characteristics of water markets, the role of water prices, the increasing perception of water as an economic good as well as implications thereof, the public awareness in regard to climate change and water resources, as well as related legal aspects and involved actors from regional to international level; and show how water resources and the different systems of water provisioning are affected by (ideological) conflicts on various levels. Furthermore, and in order to provide a solid basis for management recommendations related to climate change and water supply, an analytical risk-assessment framework based on the concepts of new institutional

  9. TILTING TABLE AREA, PDP ROOM, LEVEL +27’, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TILTING TABLE AREA, PDP ROOM, LEVEL +27’, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING TILTING TABLE, MARKED BY WHITE ELECTRICAL CORD - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  10. TILTING TABLE AREA, PDP ROOM, LEVEL +27’, LOOKING NORTHWEST. TILTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TILTING TABLE AREA, PDP ROOM, LEVEL +27’, LOOKING NORTHWEST. TILTING TABLE MARKED BY WHITE ELECTRICAL CORD IN LOWER LEFT CENTER - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  11. Use of Mosquito Preventive Measures Is Associated with Increased RBC CR1 Levels in a Malaria Holoendemic Area of Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    King, Christine; Du, Ping; Otieno, Walter; Stoute, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is responsible for close to 1 million deaths each year, mostly among African children. Red blood cells (RBCs) of children with severe malarial anemia show loss of complement regulatory proteins such as complement receptor 1 (CR1). We carried out this study to identify socio-economic, environmental, and biological factors associated with the loss of RBC CR1. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a malaria holoendemic area of western Kenya. Twelve socioeconomic, environmental, and biological factors were examined for a relationship with RBC CR1 level using bivariate linear regression followed by creation of a multivariate linear regression model. A significant positive relationship between RBC CR1 level and use of mosquito countermeasures was found. However, there was no evidence of a significant relationship between RBC CR1 level and malaria infection or parasitemia level. Reducing mosquito exposure may aid in the prevention of severe malarial anemia by reducing the number of infections and thus preserving RBC CR1. PMID:25385855

  12. Socioeconomic status accounts for rapidly increasing geographic variation in the incidence of poor fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Ball, Stephen J; Jacoby, Peter; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2013-06-25

    Fetal growth is an important risk factor for infant morbidity and mortality. In turn, socioeconomic status is a key predictor of fetal growth; however, other sociodemographic factors and environmental effects may also be important. This study modelled geographic variation in poor fetal growth after accounting for socioeconomic status, with a fixed effect for socioeconomic status and a combination of spatially-correlated and spatially-uncorrelated random effects. The dataset comprised 88,246 liveborn singletons, aggregated within suburbs in Perth, Western Australia. Low socioeconomic status was strongly associated with an increased risk of poor fetal growth. An increase in geographic variation of poor fetal growth from 1999-2001 (interquartile odds ratio among suburbs = 1.20) to 2004-2006 (interquartile odds ratio = 1.40) indicated a widening risk disparity by socioeconomic status. Low levels of residual spatial patterns strengthen the case for targeting policies and practices in areas of low socioeconomic status for improved outcomes. This study indicates an alarming increase in geographic inequalities in poor fetal growth in Perth which warrants further research into the specific aspects of socioeconomic status that act as risk factors.

  13. The Impact of the Parcel-Level Land Architecture on Land Surface Temperature in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, X.; Ouyang, Y.; Turner, B. L., II; Harlan, S.; Brazel, A.

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between land surface temperature (LST) and characteristics of the urban land system has received increasing attention in urban heat island research, especially for desert cities. The relationship between the land composition and LST has been widely studied. Such researches generally employ medium or coarser spatial resolution remotely sensed data and primarily focuses on the effects of one land cover type on the LST. In this study, we explore the effects of land system architecture - composition and configuration of different land-cover classes - on LST in the central Arizona-Phoenix metropolitan area at a fine-scale resolution, focused on the composition and configuration of single family residential parcels. A 1 m resolution land-cover map is used to calculate landscape metrics at the parcel level, and 6.8 m resolution data from the MODIS/ASTER are employed to retrieve LST. We introduce the socio-economic factors at neighborhood level as explanatory variables to help control for potential neighborhood effects. Multiple linear regression models examine the effects of landscape configuration on LST at the parcel scale, controlling for the effects of landscape composition and neighborhood characteristics. Results show that the configuration of parcels affects LST, revealing significant variable relationships between that architecture and LST at nighttime and daytime, and the role of the neighborhood effects on the outcomes.

  14. The independent contribution of individual-, neighbourhood-, and country-level socioeconomic position on attitudes towards intimate partner violence against women in sub-Saharan Africa: a multilevel model of direct and moderating effects.

    PubMed

    Uthman, Olalekan Abdulrahman; Moradi, Tahereh; Lawoko, Stephen

    2009-05-01

    We examined associations between country, neighbourhood, and individual socioeconomic position (SEP) and attitudes towards intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW). We applied multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data for 165,983 women and 68,501 men nested within 7465 communities from 17 countries in sub-Saharan Africa collected between 2003 and 2007. Contrary to expectation women were 34% more likely to justify IPVAW than men. We found that sex moderates associations of individual-, neighbourhood-, and country-level SEP with attitudes towards IPVAW. There was a significant positive interaction effect between sex and education attainment; women with no education were more likely to justify IPVAW than men with no education. Negative sex interaction with household wealth status indicates that differences in attitude are less pronounced among women. Unemployed men were more likely to justify IPVAW. Interaction effects indicate that the association of neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage with attitudes was more pronounced among women than among men. The association of country-level SEP with attitudes towards IPVWA was inconclusive. There was some evidence that neighbourhood modified the association between individual SEP and attitudes towards IPV. Also, there was cross-level interaction between country and neighbourhood SEP. Neighbourhood and individual SEP were independently associated with attitudes towards IPVAW. The relationship with country-level SEP was inconclusive. The findings underscore the need to implement public health prevention/intervention strategies not only at the level of individual SEP but also at the neighbourhood level.

  15. [The evolution over time of the in-vitro resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to antimalarial drugs in 2 areas of the Brazilian Amazonia with distinct socioeconomic and geographic characteristics].

    PubMed

    Couto, A A; Calvosa, V S; Santos, M A; de Souza, J M

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated the temporal progression of in vitro P. falciparum resistance to chloroquine, amodiaquine, quinine and mefloquine in two areas with distinct socioeconomical and geographical characteristics: Lourenço, in Amapá state and Paragominas, in Pará state. The former region is essentially an "open" gold mining camp, whereas the latter is one currently undergoing a colonization settlement process, in addition to expanding economical activities which mainly include cattle raising and wood exploitation. Our results show high resistance rates to chloroquine in the two study areas: 79.8% and 68.4% in Lourenço and Paragominas, respectively. Variations in the response of P. falciparum to both amodiaquine and quinine were recorded throughout the study period. On the other hand, no mefloquine P. falciparum resistant strains could be identified, despite the tact we had noted a decrease in sensitivity to this antimalarial drug throughout the study period.

  16. Urban effects on low-level clouds around the Tokyo metropolitan area on clear summer days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Tadao; Kimura, Fujio

    2004-03-01

    The frequency distribution of low-level clouds was estimated around the Tokyo metropolitan area on summer days without regional-scale cloud cover using NOAA satellite images from 1200 to 1500 LST during an 11-year period. The urban area is determined by the NDVI obtained by the same satellite. The low-level cloud frequency is higher over this large urban area than over rural areas in the early afternoon, especially over the radially extending urban areas along major highways or railways from the metropolis. We can conclude that the frequency of the low-level clouds is enhanced over the urban area, since the cloud frequency is negatively well correlated with the NDVI and their peaks fit well within a shift of about 2 km. The frequency of low-level clouds, however, is quite low in the coastal zone, even in the urban area, because of sea breezes.

  17. Interventions for physical activity promotion applied to the primary healthcare settings for people living in regions of low socioeconomic level: study protocol for a non-randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Regular physical activity practice has been widely recommended for promoting health, but the physical activity levels remain low in the population. Therefore, the study of interventions to promote physical activity is essential. Objective: To present the methodology of two physical activity interventions from the “Ambiente Ativo” (“Active Environment”) project. Methods 12-month non-randomized controlled intervention trial. 157 healthy and physically inactive individuals were selected: health education (n = 54) supervised exercise (n = 54) and control (n = 49). Intervention based on health education: a multidisciplinary team of health professionals organized the intervention in group discussions, phone calls, SMS and educational material. Intervention based on supervised exercise program: consisted of offering an exercise program in groups supervised by physical education professionals involving strength, endurance and flexibility exercises. The physical activity level was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long version), physical activities recalls, pedometers and accelerometers over a seven-day period. Result This study described two different proposals for promoting physical activity that were applied to adults attended through the public healthcare settings. The participants were living in a region of low socioeconomic level, while respecting the characteristics and organization of the system and its professionals, and also adapting the interventions to the realities of the individuals attended. Conclusion Both interventions are applicable in regions of low socioeconomic level, while respecting the social and economic characteristics of each region. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01852981 PMID:24624930

  18. Decomposing socioeconomic inequalities in self assessed health in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed to measure socioeconomic inequalities in Self Assessed Health (SAH) and evaluate the determinants of such inequalities in terms of their contributions amongst the Turkish population. Methods We used data from the Turkish part of World Health Survey 2003 with 10,287 respondents over 18 years old. Concentration index (CI) of SAH was calculated as a measure of socioeconomic inequalities in health, and contributions of each determinant to inequality were evaluated using a decomposition method. Results In total 952 participants (9.3%) rated their health status as either bad or very bad. The CI for SAH was −0.15, suggesting that suboptimal SAH was reported more by those categorised as poor. The multiple logistic regression results indicated that having secondary, primary or less than primary school education, not being married and being in the lowest wealth quintile, significantly increased the risk of having poor SAH. The largest contributions to inequality were attributed to education level (70.7%), household economic status (9.7%) and geographical area lived in (8.4%). Conclusion The findings indicate that socioeconomic inequalities measured by SAH are apparent amongst the Turkish population. Education and household wealth were the greatest contributing factors to SAH inequality. These inequalities need to be explicitly addressed and vulnerable subgroups should be targeted to reduce the socioeconomic disparities. PMID:23217368

  19. Development of the Oxford Hills Healthy Moms Project using a social marketing process: a community-based physical activity and nutrition intervention for low-socioeconomic-status mothers in a rural area in Maine.

    PubMed

    Dharod, Jigna M; Drewette-Card, Rebecca; Crawford, David

    2011-03-01

    A physical activity and nutrition community intervention called the Oxford Hills Healthy Moms (OHHM) Project was developed using a multifaceted social marketing process, including review of state surveillance results, key informant interviews, and a survey and focus group discussions with low-socioeconomic-status (low-SES) mothers. This formative work was used to make key decisions on the selection of the intervention region, segmentation of the audience, and design of intervention strategies addressing multiple levels of the socioecological model. The OHHM Project aims to increase fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity levels among low-SES mothers in the Oxford Hills region of Maine. The OHHM Project includes five components: (a) physical activity buddy program, (b) cooking club with education, (c) fruit and vegetable discount buying club with education, (d) increased access to produce vendors, and (e) increased access to places for physical activity.

  20. Associations between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors in an urban population in China.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Z.; Nissinen, A.; Vartiainen, E.; Song, G.; Guo, Z.; Zheng, G.; Tuomilehto, J.; Tian, H.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In developed countries socioeconomic status has been proven to be an important factor in the progression of cardiovascular disease. The present article reports the results of a cross-sectional assessment to investigate the association between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors in a Chinese urban population. METHODS: In 1996, a behavioural risk factor survey was carried out in Tianjin, the third largest city in China. A sample of 4000 people aged 15-69 years, stratified by sex and 10-year age groups, was drawn randomly from urban areas of the city. The present study covers respondents aged 25-69 years (1615 men and 1592 women). Four socioeconomic indicators (education, occupation, income, and marital status), blood pressure, body mass index, and cigarette smoking were determined in the survey. RESULTS: Educational level seemed to be the most important measure of the four socioeconomic indicators in relation to the cardiovascular risk factors in the study population. People with lower socioeconomic status had higher levels of cardiovascular risk factors. The association between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors was more consistent among women than men. DISCUSSION: Our findings do not seem to differ from those observed in developed countries. PMID:11143189

  1. How socio-economic status contributes to participation in leisure-time physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify individual, social, and environmental contributors (mediators) to individual- and area-level differences in leisure-time physical activity across socio-economic groups. A two-stage stratified sampling design was used to recruit 20– to 65-year-old...

  2. Socioeconomic status during lifetime and cognitive impairment no-dementia in late life: the population-based aging in the Chianti Area (InCHIANTI) Study.

    PubMed

    Marengoni, Alessandra; Fratiglioni, Laura; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Thousand and twelve dementia-free elderly (60–98 years old) enrolled in the InChianti Study (Italy) were evaluated at baseline (1998–2000) and at 3-year follow-up (2001–2003) with the aim of analyzing the association of lifetime socioeconomic status (SES) with prevalent and incident cognitive impairment no-dementia (CIND). SES was defined from information on formal education, longest held occupation, and financial conditions through life. CIND was defined as age-adjusted Mini-Mental State Examination score one standard deviation below the baseline mean score of participants without dementia. Logistic regression and Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate the association of SES with CIND. Demographics,occupation characteristics (i.e., job stress and physical demand), cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, apolipoprotein E (APOE)genotype, smoking, alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, and C-reactive protein were considered potential confounders.Prevalence of CIND was 17.7%. In the fully adjusted model, low education (OR = 2.1; 95% confidence intervals, CI = 1.4 to 3.2)was associated with prevalent CIND. Incidence rate of CIND was 66.0 per 1000 person-years. Low education (HR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.04 to 2.6) and manual occupation (HR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.0 to 3.6) were associated with incident CIND. Among covariates,high job-related physical demand was associated with both prevalent and incident CIND (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1 to 2.4 and HR= 1.5; 95% CI = 1.0 to 2.3). After stratification for education, manual occupation was still associated with CIND among participants with high education (HR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.2 to 4.3 versus HR= 1.4; 95% CI = 0.2 to 10.4 among those with low education). Proxy markers of lifetime SES (low education, manual occupation and high physical demand) are cross-sectional correlates of CIND and predict incident CIND over a three-year follow-up.

  3. Water-level altitudes in the Jasper Aquifer, greater Houston area, Texas, January-February 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplin, L.S.; Lanning-Rush, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the Harris-Galveston Coastal Subsidence District, is the second annual report that depicts water-level altitudes in the Jasper aquifer in the greater Houston area (Montgomery County and parts of Harris, Grimes, Walker, and Waller Counties). The first water-level-altitude map for the Jasper aquifer in the area published by the U.S. Geological Survey (Coplin, 2001) depicts water levels in wells measured in spring 2000.

  4. Levels of five metals in male hair from urban and rural areas of Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    He, Ming-Jing; Wei, Shi-Qiang; Sun, Yu-Xin; Yang, Ting; Li, Qi; Wang, Deng-Xiang

    2016-11-01

    Heavy metals were measured by flame atomic absorption in male hair from residents in urban and rural areas in Chongqing. The median values of the Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were 2.90, 23.9, 9.31, 39.3 and 203 μg/g in urban areas and 0.84, 13.4, 5.56, 14.5 and 169 μg/g in rural area, respectively. The levels of Cd, Ni and Pb both in urban and rural areas lie at the high end of the worldwide figures. The differences in heavy metal distribution pattern indicated that there were more sources of Cd and Pb in urban areas. The levels of Cd were increasing along with the growth of age except for the aged people in urban areas, and no significant relationship was observed between the levels of the heavy metal and the age. It is noticed that the hair of smokers exhibited more heavy metal levels than that of non-smokers both in urban and rural areas. In addition, the hair metal levels of the smokers and non-smokers in urban areas were significantly higher than those in rural area, respectively. Significant pairwise correlations (p < 0.01) were observed among Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb in rural area and only between Cu and Ni and between Pb and Ni in urban areas, indicating the elements in these two areas might originate from different sources. The elevated levels of Cd, Pb and Ni implied that the residents both in urban and rural areas might be at high risk of toxic metal exposure, especially for the children.

  5. Impact of socioeconomic status on municipal solid waste generation rate.

    PubMed

    Khan, D; Kumar, A; Samadder, S R

    2016-03-01

    The solid waste generation rate was expected to vary in different socioeconomic groups due to many environmental and social factors. This paper reports the assessment of solid waste generation based on different socioeconomic parameters like education, occupation, income of the family, number of family members etc. A questionnaire survey was conducted in the study area to identify the different socioeconomic groups that may affect the solid waste generation rate and composition. The average waste generated in the municipality is 0.41 kg/capita/day in which the maximum waste was found to be generated by lower middle socioeconomic group (LMSEG) with average waste generation of 0.46 kg/capita/day. Waste characterization indicated that there was no much difference in the composition of wastes among different socioeconomic groups except ash residue and plastic. Ash residue is found to increase as we move lower down the socioeconomic groups with maximum (31%) in lower socioeconomic group (LSEG). The study area is a coal based city hence application of coal and wood as fuel for cooking in the lower socioeconomic group is the reason for high amount of ash content. Plastic waste is maximum (15%) in higher socioeconomic group (HSEG) and minimum (1%) in LSEG. Food waste is a major component of generated waste in almost every socioeconomic group with maximum (38%) in case of HSEG and minimum (28%) in LSEG. This study provides new insights on the role of various socioeconomic parameters on generation of household wastes.

  6. The development and optimisation of a primary care-based whole system complex intervention (CARE Plus) for patients with multimorbidity living in areas of high socioeconomic deprivation

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Rosaleen; Fitzpatrick, Bridie; Higgins, Maria; Guthrie, Bruce; Watt, Graham; Wyke, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To develop and optimise a primary care-based complex intervention (CARE Plus) to enhance the quality of life of patients with multimorbidity in the deprived areas. Methods Six co-design discussion groups involving 32 participants were held separately with multimorbid patients from the deprived areas, voluntary organisations, general practitioners and practice nurses working in the deprived areas. This was followed by piloting in two practices and further optimisation based on interviews with 11 general practitioners, 2 practice nurses and 6 participating multimorbid patients. Results Participants endorsed the need for longer consultations, relational continuity and a holistic approach. All felt that training and support of the health care staff was important. Most participants welcomed the idea of additional self-management support, though some practitioners were dubious about whether patients would use it. The pilot study led to changes including a revised care plan, the inclusion of mindfulness-based stress reduction techniques in the support of practitioners and patients, and the stream-lining of the written self-management support material for patients. Discussion We have co-designed and optimised an augmented primary care intervention involving a whole-system approach to enhance quality of life in multimorbid patients living in the deprived areas. CARE Plus will next be tested in a phase 2 cluster randomised controlled trial. PMID:27068113

  7. Socioeconomic differentials in selected causes of death.

    PubMed Central

    Yeracaris, C A; Kim, J H

    1978-01-01

    The areal approach utilized in mortality analysis for cities in the past is argued to be fruitful for suburban mortality analysis as well. Through factor analysis of four Census Tract indicators, weighted scores were computed and socioeconomic groups were constructed for each central city and each suburban area for three selected metropolitan areas: Birmingham, AL, Buffalo, NY, and Indianapolis, IN. Mortality rates from Heart Diseases, Malignant Neoplasms, and All Other Causes of death were found to be inversely associated with socioeconomic status in both the central cities and the suburban communities of these selected metropolitan areas. Evidence points to increasing socioeconomic differentials between 1960 and 1970 especially for males for the central cities and for suburban rings in spite of reductions in mortality during this period. PMID:645980

  8. Prediction of forest fires occurrences with area-level Poisson mixed models.

    PubMed

    Boubeta, Miguel; Lombardía, María José; Marey-Pérez, Manuel Francisco; Morales, Domingo

    2015-05-01

    The number of fires in forest areas of Galicia (north-west of Spain) during the summer period is quite high. Local authorities are interested in analyzing the factors that explain this phenomenon. Poisson regression models are good tools for describing and predicting the number of fires per forest areas. This work employs area-level Poisson mixed models for treating real data about fires in forest areas. A parametric bootstrap method is applied for estimating the mean squared errors of fires predictors. The developed methodology and software are applied to a real data set of fires in forest areas of Galicia.

  9. Assessing baseline levels of coral health in a newly established marine protected area in a global scuba diving hotspot.

    PubMed

    Hein, Margaux Y; Lamb, Joleah B; Scott, Chad; Willis, Bette L

    2015-02-01

    While coral reefs are increasingly threatened worldwide, they are also increasingly used for recreational activities. Given the environmental and socio-economic significance of coral reefs, understanding the links between human activities and coral health and evaluating the efficacy of marine protected areas (MPAs) as a management regime to prevent further deterioration are critically important. The aim of this study was to quantify indicators of coral health at sites inside and outside a newly rezoned MPA framework in the dive tourism hotspot of Koh Tao, Thailand. We found that patterns in the health and diversity of coral communities one year on did not reflect the protected status conferred by newly zoned MPAs, but instead reflected past history of recreational use around the island. Sites characterised as past high-use sites had lower mean percent cover of hard corals overall and of corals in the typically disease- and disturbance-susceptible family Acroporidae, but higher mean cover of species in the more weedy family Agariciidae. Past high use sites also had higher mean prevalence of infectious diseases and other indicators of compromised health. Sites within the newly established MPAs are currently subjected to higher levels of environmental and anthropogenic pressures, with sedimentation, algal overgrowth, feeding scars from Drupella snails, and breakage particularly prevalent compared to sites in non-MPA areas. Given the greater prevalence of these factors within protected sites, the capacity of the MPA framework to effectively prevent further deterioration of Koh Tao's reefs is unclear. Nevertheless, our study constitutes a strong baseline for future long-term evaluations of the potential of MPAs to maintain coral health and diversity on highly threatened reefs.

  10. Determination of the optimal level for combining area and yield estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator); Hixson, M. M.; Jobusch, C. D.

    1981-01-01

    Several levels of obtaining both area and yield estimates of corn and soybeans in Iowa were considered: county, refined strata, refined/split strata, crop reporting district, and state. Using the CCEA model form and smoothed weather data, regression coefficients at each level were derived to compute yield and its variance. Variances were also computed with stratum level. The variance of the yield estimates was largest at the state and smallest at the county level for both crops. The refined strata had somewhat larger variances than those associated with the refined/split strata and CRD. For production estimates, the difference in standard deviations among levels was not large for corn, but for soybeans the standard deviation at the state level was more than 50% greater than for the other levels. The refined strata had the smallest standard deviations. The county level was not considered in evaluation of production estimates due to lack of county area variances.

  11. Estimating Differences in Area-Level Impacts of Various Recruiting Resources: Can Different Recruiting Areas and Years by Pooled?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    Local Leads (Qualified and Interested) from LAMS Advertising (Based on FY82 Experience) Table 7 - Long Term Elasticities for Navy-Sourced NOIC Leads...Area Level Elasticities for Total NOIC Leads (Regardless of Source of Advertising ) for FY79, FY80 (FY80: 146,465) Appendix - Table la - Comparison of...of national .1*S leads (e.g., NOIC leads from a Navy source or from Joint DOD advertising (JADOR) sources), and for local leads. An Appendix

  12. Family Allowances and Fertility: Socioeconomic Differences

    PubMed Central

    SCHELLEKENS, JONA

    2009-01-01

    This article explores socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances on fertility. Although several studies have examined the relationship between cash benefits and fertility, few studies have addressed the possible differential effects of cash benefits on families of different income or education levels. I reconstructed the birth histories of women in the past two Israeli censuses of 1983 and 1995 to study socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances up to the seventh parity. The results indicate that family allowances have a significant effect at every parity. Using female education as an indicator of socioeconomic status, I find that socioeconomic status is a significant modifier of the effect of family allowances. Family allowances seem to have a relatively large impact on more-educated women. PMID:19771939

  13. Investigation of dust levels in different areas of underground coal mines.

    PubMed

    Onder, Mustafa; Onder, Seyhan; Akdag, Tuncay; Ozgun, Firat

    2009-01-01

    Dust concentration levels in underground coal mines are of primary importance and have to be controlled to prevent pulmonary disease in miners. Different mining areas are exposed to different dust levels and to minimize the probability of occupational respiratory disease of coal miners, it is necessary to evaluate dust concentration in the different working areas. This study aimed to evaluate dust concentration levels in different areas of underground coal mines. Data obtained from the measurements in 1978-2006 were evaluated with the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey-Kramer procedure. It was concluded that production areas had higher dust concentration levels; thus, production workers may have respiratory disorders related to exposure to coal dust in their work environment.

  14. Assessment of heavy metal levels in surface sediments of estuaries and adjacent coastal areas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianbin; Li, Deliang; Song, Guisheng

    2017-03-01

    This article investigates the variations of contamination levels of heavy metals such as copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, zinc, arsenic, and mercury over time in surface sediments of the Changjiang River Estuary (CRE), Yellow River Estuary (YRE), Pearl River Estuary (PRE), and their adjacent coastal areas in China. The contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geoaccumulation index ( I geo) are used to evaluate the quality of the surface sediments in the study areas. The results showed that the CRE, YRE, and their adjacent coastal areas were at a low risk of contamination in terms of heavy metals, while the PRE and its adjacent coastal area were at a moderate level. By comparison, the concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the YRE and its adjacent coastal area were relatively lower than those in the CRE, PRE, and their adjacent coastal areas.

  15. Assessment of heavy metal levels in surface sediments of estuaries and adjacent coastal areas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianbin; Li, Deliang; Song, Guisheng

    2016-05-01

    This article investigates the variations of contamination levels of heavy metals such as copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, zinc, arsenic, and mercury over time in surface sediments of the Changjiang River Estuary (CRE), Yellow River Estuary (YRE), Pearl River Estuary (PRE), and their adjacent coastal areas in China. The contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geoaccumulation index (I geo) are used to evaluate the quality of the surface sediments in the study areas. The results showed that the CRE, YRE, and their adjacent coastal areas were at a low risk of contamination in terms of heavy metals, while the PRE and its adjacent coastal area were at a moderate level. By comparison, the concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the YRE and its adjacent coastal area were relatively lower than those in the CRE, PRE, and their adjacent coastal areas.

  16. How structurally stable are global socioeconomic systems?

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra, Serguei; Rohr, Rudolf P.; Gilarranz, Luis J.; Bascompte, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The stability analysis of socioeconomic systems has been centred on answering whether small perturbations when a system is in a given quantitative state will push the system permanently to a different quantitative state. However, typically the quantitative state of socioeconomic systems is subject to constant change. Therefore, a key stability question that has been under-investigated is how strongly the conditions of a system itself can change before the system moves to a qualitatively different behaviour, i.e. how structurally stable the systems is. Here, we introduce a framework to investigate the structural stability of socioeconomic systems formed by a network of interactions among agents competing for resources. We measure the structural stability of the system as the range of conditions in the distribution and availability of resources compatible with the qualitative behaviour in which all the constituent agents can be self-sustained across time. To illustrate our framework, we study an empirical representation of the global socioeconomic system formed by countries sharing and competing for multinational companies used as proxy for resources. We demonstrate that the structural stability of the system is inversely associated with the level of competition and the level of heterogeneity in the distribution of resources. Importantly, we show that the qualitative behaviour of the observed global socioeconomic system is highly sensitive to changes in the distribution of resources. We believe that this work provides a methodological basis to develop sustainable strategies for socioeconomic systems subject to constantly changing conditions. PMID:25165600

  17. How structurally stable are global socioeconomic systems?

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Serguei; Rohr, Rudolf P; Gilarranz, Luis J; Bascompte, Jordi

    2014-11-06

    The stability analysis of socioeconomic systems has been centred on answering whether small perturbations when a system is in a given quantitative state will push the system permanently to a different quantitative state. However, typically the quantitative state of socioeconomic systems is subject to constant change. Therefore, a key stability question that has been under-investigated is how strongly the conditions of a system itself can change before the system moves to a qualitatively different behaviour, i.e. how structurally stable the systems is. Here, we introduce a framework to investigate the structural stability of socioeconomic systems formed by a network of interactions among agents competing for resources. We measure the structural stability of the system as the range of conditions in the distribution and availability of resources compatible with the qualitative behaviour in which all the constituent agents can be self-sustained across time. To illustrate our framework, we study an empirical representation of the global socioeconomic system formed by countries sharing and competing for multinational companies used as proxy for resources. We demonstrate that the structural stability of the system is inversely associated with the level of competition and the level of heterogeneity in the distribution of resources. Importantly, we show that the qualitative behaviour of the observed global socioeconomic system is highly sensitive to changes in the distribution of resources. We believe that this work provides a methodological basis to develop sustainable strategies for socioeconomic systems subject to constantly changing conditions.

  18. Evaluating Secondary School Students' Levels of Five Mind Areas in Terms of Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelen, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Gardner's "Five Minds for the Future" approach is focused on disciplined, synthesizing, creative, respectful, and ethical minds. Based on this approach, the purpose of this research is to determine senior secondary school students' levels of five mind areas, and investigate the relationship between these mind areas and the students'…

  19. Coastal vulnerability assessment with the use of environmental and socio-economic indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrakis, George; Petrakis, Stelios; Vousdoukas, Mixalis; Ghionis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2014-05-01

    Climate change has significant repercussions on the natural environment, triggering obvious changes in the natural processes that have a severe socio-economic impact on the coastal zone; where a great number of human activities are concentrated. So far, the estimation of coastal vulnerability was based primarily on the natural processes and less on socio-economic variables, which would assist in the identification of vulnerable areas. The present investigation proposes a methodology to examine the vulnerability of a highly touristic area in the Island of Crete to an expected sea level rise of up to ~40 cm by the year 2100, according to the A1B scenario of IPCC 2007. The methodology includes the combination of socio-economic indicators into a GIS-based coastal vulnerability index for wave-induced erosion. This approach includes three sub-indices that contribute equally to the overall index. The sub-indices refer to coastal forcing, socio-economic and coastal characteristics. All variables are ranked on a 1-5 scale with 5 indicating higher vulnerability. The socio-economic sub-index includes, as indicators, the population of the study area, cultural heritage sites, transport networks, land use and protection measures. The coastal forcing sub-index includes the frequency of extreme events, while the Coastal Vulnerability Index includes the geological variables (coastal geomorphology, historical coastline changes, and regional coastal slope) and the variables representing the marine processes (relative sea level rise, mean significant wave height, and tidal range). The main difficulty for the estimation of the index lies in assessing and ranking the socio-economic indicators. The whole approach was tested and validated through field and desktop studies, using as a case study the Elouda bay, Crete Isl., an area of high cultural and economic value, which combines monuments from ancient and medieval times, with a very high touristic development since the 1970s.

  20. A novel approach to measuring residential socioeconomic ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Individual-level characteristics, including socioeconomic status, have been associated with poor metabolic and cardiovascular health; however, residential area-level characteristics may also independently contribute to health status. In the current study, we used a novel application of hierarchical clustering to aggregate 444 US Census block groups in Durham, Orange, and Wake Counties, NC, USA into six homogenous clusters of similar characteristics based on 12 demographic factors. We assigned 2254 cardiac catheterization patients to these clusters based on residence at first catheterization. After controlling for individual age, sex, smoking status, and race, there were elevated odds of patients being obese (OR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.39, 2.67), and having diabetes (OR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.57, 3.04) and hypertension (OR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.38, 3.11) in a cluster that was urban, impoverished, and unemployed, compared to a cluster that was urban with a low percentage of people that were impoverished or unemployed. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of applying hierarchical clustering to an assessment of area-level characteristics and that living in impoverished, urban residential clusters may have an adverse impact on health. This abstract does not necessarily reflect U.S. EPA policy. This is an abstract of a presentation to be presented at the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE) 2016 Conference. Reactions to this presentation will guid

  1. Vulnerability of the Nile Delta coastal areas to inundation by sea level rise.

    PubMed

    Hassaan, M A; Abdrabo, M A

    2013-08-01

    Sea level changes are typically caused by several natural phenomena, including ocean thermal expansion, glacial melt from Greenland and Antarctica. Global average sea level is expected to rise, through the twenty-first century, according to the IPCC projections by between 0.18 and 0.59 cm. Such a rise in sea level will significantly impact coastal area of the Nile Delta, consisting generally of lowland and is densely populated areas and accommodates significant proportion of Egypt's economic activities and built-up areas. The Nile Delta has been examined in several previous studies, which worked under various hypothetical sea level rise (SLR) scenarios and provided different estimates of areas susceptible to inundation due to SLR. The paper intends, in this respect, to identify areas, as well as land use/land cover, susceptible to inundation by SLR based upon most recent scenarios of SLR, by the year 2100 using GIS. The results indicate that about 22.49, 42.18, and 49.22 % of the total area of coastal governorates of the Nile Delta would be susceptible to inundation under different scenarios of SLR. Also, it was found that 15.56 % of the total areas of the Nile Delta that would be vulnerable to inundation due to land subsidence only, even in the absence of any rise in sea level. Moreover, it was found that a considerable proportion of these areas (ranging between 32.32 and 53.66 %) are currently either wetland or undeveloped areas. Furthermore, natural and/or man-made structures, such as the banks of the International Coastal Highway, were found to provide unintended protection to some of these areas. This suggests that the inundation impact of SLR on the Nile Delta is less than previously reported.

  2. Inequalities in US Life Expectancy by Area Unemployment Level, 1990–2010

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gopal K.; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between unemployment and life expectancy in the United States during 1990–2010. Census-based unemployment rates were linked to US county-level mortality data. Life expectancies were calculated by age, sex, race, and unemployment level during 1990–2010. Differences in life expectancy were decomposed by age and cause of death. Life expectancy was consistently lower in areas with higher unemployment rates. In 2006–2010, those in areas with high unemployment rates (≥9%) had a life expectancy of 76.9 years, compared with 80.7 years for those in areas with low unemployment rates (<3%). The association between unemployment and life expectancy was stronger for men than for women. Life expectancy ranged from 69.9 years among black men in high unemployment areas to 90.0 years among Asian/Pacific Islander women in low unemployment areas. Disparities persisted over time. In 1990–1992, life expectancy was 4.7 years shorter in high unemployment than in low unemployment areas. In 2006–2010, the life expectancy difference between the lowest and highest unemployment areas decreased to 3.8 years. Heart disease, cancer, homicide, unintentional injuries, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and liver cirrhosis contributed most to the lower life expectancy in high unemployment areas. High unemployment areas recorded larger gains in life expectancy than low unemployment areas, contributing to the narrowing gap during 1990–2010. PMID:27073716

  3. Socio-economic effect on socially-deprived communities of developing drinking water quality problems in arid and semi-arid area of central Rajasthan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, I.; Husain, J.; Arif, M.

    2014-09-01

    Rajasthan is well known for its Great Thar desert. Central Rajasthan has an arid to semi-arid environment. The area faces either scarcity of water or poor quality of drinking water. In some areas water is transported 2 km or more, which uses time, energy and money. Rich people have their own sources, which is restricted for use by others. Such conditions are affecting socially-deprived communities, both socially and economically. Groundwater is a major source of drinking water due to the unavailability of surface water. There is a lack of groundwater quality knowledge in the community and the data available is hard to understand by consumers. The CCME Water Quality Index is a tool to simplify the water quality report by rating the water on quality standards. It provides meaningful summaries of overall water quality and trends, which is accessible to non-technical lay people. In the present study the objective is to examine the groundwater quality of six districts (Ajmer, Bhilwara, Pali, Rajasamand, Nagaur and Jodhpur), centrally located in Rajasthan, with arid and semi-arid conditions. CCME WQI is also evaluated to produce quality data in a form to be understood by the community. A total of 4369 groundwater sources in 1680 villages from six districts (76 546 km2) were collected and examined. Results are outlined in the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS: 10500, 2012) and 2952 sources are unsafe for drinking. According to CCME WQI groundwater of 93 villages is poor, 343 villages are marginal, and 369 villages are fair in quality. Toxicological studies of unsafe drinking water and their remedial measures are also discussed. A tentative correlation between prevailing water-borne diseases and quality parameter has also been shown

  4. Air pollution critical levels in central México protected natural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Suarez, L.; Andraca Ayala, G.; Mar Morales, B.; Garcia-reynoso, J.; Torres-JArdon, R.

    2013-05-01

    All the Natural Protected Areas (NPA) within the Central Mexico City Belt comprising five metropolitan areas including MCMA are under strong impact from air pollution. Ozone, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide exceed critical levels for several types of vegetation. In this work we show the critical level maps for ozone, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide for Sierra of Chichinautzin, the mountain that acts as the physical barrier to air pollution dispersion south of Mexico City Metropolitan Area, what makes of it a receptor area to MCMA pollution. Maps were made combining model outputs from WRF-Chem and passive samplers. We also describe a proposal to extend the observation network to all natural protected areas within the Central Mexico City Belt.

  5. Database of groundwater levels and hydrograph descriptions for the Nevada Test Site area, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Peggy E.; Fenelon, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    A database containing water levels measured from wells in and near areas of underground nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site was developed. The water-level measurements were collected from 1941 to 2016. The database provides information for each well including well construction, borehole lithology, units contributing water to the well, and general site remarks. Water-level information provided in the database includes measurement source, status, method, accuracy, and specific water-level remarks. Additionally, the database provides hydrograph narratives that document the water-level history and describe and interpret the water-level hydrograph for each well.Water levels in the database were quality assured and analyzed. Multiple conditions were assigned to each water-level measurement to describe the hydrologic conditions at the time of measurement. General quality, temporal variability, regional significance, and hydrologic conditions are attributed to each water-level measurement.

  6. Ecological and physiological factors affecting brood patch area and prolactin levels in arctic-nesting geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Bluhm, C.K.; El Halawani, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated effects of ecological and physiological factors on brood patch area and prolactin levels in free-ranging Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter "Snow Geese") and Ross's Geese (C. rossii). On the basis of the body-size hypothesis, we predicted that the relationships between prolactin levels, brood patch area, and body condition would be stronger in Ross's Geese than in the larger Snow Geese. We found that brood patch area was positively related to clutch volume and inversely related to prolactin levels in Ross's Geese, but not in Snow Geese. Nest size, nest habitat, and first egg date did not affect brood patch area in either species. Prolactin levels increased as incubation progressed in female Snow Geese, but this relationship was not significant in Ross's Geese. Prolactin levels and body condition (as indexed by size-adjusted body mass) were inversely related in Ross's Geese, but not in Snow Geese. Our findings are consistent with the prediction that relationships between prolactin levels, brood patch area, and body condition are relatively stronger in Ross's Geese, because they mobilize endogenous reserves at faster rates than Snow Geese. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2006. Printed in USA.

  7. Vulnerable assessment by sea level rise in San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, C. J.; Suzuki, T.; Itoigawa, E.; Park, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    The San Francisco South Bay Area in California is home to approximately seven million people that consist of nine counties and the prosperous core area of IT technology industry in the West Coast of America, well known as Silicon Valley. Sea level rising due to Global Warming is becoming the main issue in this area. Furthermore, the extreme weather events including flash flooding are observing more frequently. Urban infrastructures are faced vulnerable at risk of long-term flooding. Sea level rise by global warming in this area is estimated that it could rise by up to 16 inches (40 cm) by mid of this century and 55 inches (140 cm) by the end of this century. By the impact of 55 inches of sea level rise, there could be 62 billion dollars loss and 270,000 people could be faced at risk of flooding. Nevertheless, urban areas are expecting to extend approximately 5,063.71 km2 by 2020 and 6,098.20 km2 by year 2050. Thus, the land use legislation need to be discussed following that the 213,000 acres that could be vulnerable to flooding by the end of this century. Adaptation strategies should be considered from various aspects including policy, empirical observations and academic approaches. In this paper, for promoting further discussions, vulnerable areas and its characteristics by flooding is assessed and the finding potential urban growth areas for urban rezoning is implemented using Geographic Information System.

  8. Estimating Radiological Doses to Predators Foraging in a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Area

    SciTech Connect

    L.Soholt; G.Gonzales; P.Fresquez; K.Bennett; E.Lopez

    2003-03-01

    Since 1957, Los Alamos National Laboratory has operated Area G as its low-level, solid radioactive waste management and disposal area. Although the waste management area is developed, plants, small mammals, and avian and mammalian predators still occupy the less disturbed and revegetated portions of the land. For almost a decade, we have monitored the concentrations of selected radionuclides in soils, plants, and small mammals at Area G. The radionuclides tritium, plutonium-238, and plutonium-239 are regularly found at levels above regional background in all three media. Based on radionuclide concentrations in mice collected from 1994 to 1999, we calculated doses to higher trophic levels (owl, hawk, kestrel, and coyote) that forage on the waste management area. These predators play important functions in the regional ecosystems and are an important part of local Native American traditional tales that identify the uniqueness of their culture. The estimated doses are compared to Department of Energy's interim limit of 0.1 rad/day for the protection of terrestrial wildlife. We used exposure parameters that were derived from the literature for each receptor, including Environmental Protection Agency's exposure factors handbook. Estimated doses to predators ranged from 9E-06 to 2E-04 rad/day, assuming that they forage entirely on the waste management area. These doses are greater than those calculated for predators foraging exclusively in reference areas, but are still well below the interim dose limit. We believe that these calculated doses represent upper-bound estimates of exposure for local predators because the larger predators forage over areas that are much greater than the 63-acre waste management area. Based on these results, we concluded that predators foraging on this area do not face a hazard from radiological exposure under current site conditions.

  9. "Geography of suicide in Hong Kong: spatial patterning, and socioeconomic correlates and inequalities".

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia-Yueh; Chang, Shu-Sen; Lee, Esther S T; Yip, Paul S F

    2015-04-01

    Past urban research on Western nations tends to show high suicide rates in inner city and socioeconomically deprived areas. However, little is known about geographic variations in suicide in non-Western cities. We used Bayesian hierarchical models to estimate smoothed standardised mortality ratios (2005-2010) for suicide in people aged 10 years or above in each geographic unit in Hong Kong at two levels, i.e. large street block (n = 1639; median population = 1860) and small tertiary planning unit group (n = 204; median population = 14,850). We further analysed their associations with a range of area socioeconomic characteristics and a deprivation index. The "city centre" of Hong Kong, a generally non-deprived area, showed mostly below average suicide rates. However, there were high rates concentrating in some socioeconomically deprived, densely populated areas, including some inner city areas, across the city. Males had greater geographic variations in rates than females, except the elderly group. The use of smaller geographic units revealed finer detailed suicide distribution than the use of larger units, and showed that suicide rates were associated with indicators of socioeconomic deprivation (population with non-professional jobs and low median household income), and social fragmentation (proportions of unmarried adults and divorced/separated adults), but not with Gini coefficient. Sex/age groups had different associations with suicide rates. Areas in the most deprived quintile had a suicide rate more than two times higher than the least deprived. The association between suicide and deprivation was stronger in males than females and more marked in the younger populations compared to the elderly. The spatial distribution of suicide in Hong Kong showed distinct patterning and a stronger association with income compared to findings from Western countries. Suicide prevention strategies should consider tackling the marked socioeconomic gradient in suicide and high

  10. Landscape level analysis of disturbance regimes in protected areas of Rajasthan, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, P. Hari; Reddy, C. Sudhakar; Singh, Randeep; Jha, C. S.

    2014-04-01

    There is an urgent need to identify the human influence on landscape as disturbance regimes was realized for prioritization of the protected areas. The present study has attempted to describe the landscape level assessment of fragmentation and disturbance index in protected areas of Rajasthan using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Geospatial analysis of disturbance regimes indicates 61.75% of the total PAs are under moderate disturbance index followed by 28.64% and 9.61% under low and high respectively. Among the 28 protected areas- National Chambal WLS, Jaisamand WLS, Kumbhalgarh WLS, Sawai Man Singh WLS, Kailadevi WLS and Bandh Baratha WLS are representing high level of disturbance. The present study has emphasized the moderate to low disturbance regimes in protected areas, which infer low biotic pressure and conservation effectiveness of PA network in Rajasthan. The spatial information generated on PAs is of valuable use for forest management and developing conservation strategies.

  11. Water levels in continuously monitored wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1985--88

    SciTech Connect

    Luckey, R.R.; Lobmeyer, D.H.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1993-07-01

    Water levels have been monitored hourly in 15 wells completed in 23 depth intervals in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada. Water levels were monitored using pressure transducers and were recorded by data loggers. The pressure transducers were periodically calibrated by raising and lowering them in the wells. The water levels were normally measured at approximately the same time that the transducers were calibrated. Where the transducer output appeared reasonable, it was converted to water levels using the calibrations and manual water- level measurements. The amount of transducer output that was converted to water levels ranged from zero for several intervals to about 98 percent for one interval. Fourteen of the wells were completed in Tertiary volcanic rocks and one well was completed in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Each well monitored from one to four depth intervals. Water-level fluctuation caused by barometric pressure changes and earth tides were observed.

  12. Racial and Socioeconomic Disparities in Nutrition Behaviors: Targeted Interventions Needed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane M.; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey; Shen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare dietary knowledge, behaviors and self-efficacy of black middle school students of low socioeconomic status with their white counterparts of higher socioeconomic status. Design: Cross-sectional, school-based survey. Setting: Large metropolitan area in the United States. Participants: Middle school students (1,208 of low…

  13. Analysis of water levels in the Frenchman Flat area, Nevada Test Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bright, D.J.; Watkins, S.A.; Lisle, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of water levels in 21 wells in the Frenchman Flat area, Nevada Test Site, provides information on the accuracy of hydraulic-head calculations, temporal water-level trends, and potential causes of water-level fluctuations. Accurate hydraulic heads are particularly important in Frenchman Flat where the hydraulic gradients are relatively flat (less than 1 foot per mile) in the alluvial aquifer. Temporal water-level trends with magnitudes near or exceeding the regional hydraulic gradient may have a substantial effect on ground-water flow directions. Water-level measurements can be adjusted for the effects of barometric pressure, formation water density (from water-temperature measurements), borehole deviation, and land-surface altitude in selected wells in the Frenchman Flat area. Water levels in one well were adjusted for the effect of density; this adjustment was significantly greater (about 17 feet) than the adjustment of water levels for barometric pressure, borehole deviation, or land-surface altitude (less than about 4 feet). Water-level measurements from five wells exhibited trends that were statistically and hydrologically significant. Statistically significant water-level trends were observed for three wells completed in the alluvial aquifer (WW-5a, UE-5n, and PW-3), for one well completed in the carbonate aquifer (SM-23), and for one well completed in the quartzite confining unit (Army-6a). Potential causes of water-level fluctuations in wells in the Frenchman Flat area include changes in atmospheric conditions (precipitation and barometric pressure), Earth tides, seismic activity, past underground nuclear testing, and nearby pumping. Periodic water-level measurements in some wells completed in the carbonate aquifer indicate cyclic-type water-level fluctuations that generally correlate with longer term changes (more than 5 years) in precipitation. Ground-water pumping fromthe alluvial aquifer at well WW-5c and pumping and discharge from well RNM-2s

  14. Impact of heterogeneity and socioeconomic factors on individual behavior in decentralized sharing ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Gavaldà-Miralles, Arnau; Choffnes, David R.; Otto, John S.; Sánchez, Mario A.; Bustamante, Fabián E.; Amaral, Luís A. N.; Duch, Jordi; Guimerà, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Tens of millions of individuals around the world use decentralized content distribution systems, a fact of growing social, economic, and technological importance. These sharing systems are poorly understood because, unlike in other technosocial systems, it is difficult to gather large-scale data about user behavior. Here, we investigate user activity patterns and the socioeconomic factors that could explain the behavior. Our analysis reveals that (i) the ecosystem is heterogeneous at several levels: content types are heterogeneous, users specialize in a few content types, and countries are heterogeneous in user profiles; and (ii) there is a strong correlation between socioeconomic indicators of a country and users behavior. Our findings open a research area on the dynamics of decentralized sharing ecosystems and the socioeconomic factors affecting them, and may have implications for the design of algorithms and for policymaking. PMID:25288755

  15. Impact of heterogeneity and socioeconomic factors on individual behavior in decentralized sharing ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Gavaldà-Miralles, Arnau; Choffnes, David R; Otto, John S; Sánchez, Mario A; Bustamante, Fabián E; Amaral, Luís A N; Duch, Jordi; Guimerà, Roger

    2014-10-28

    Tens of millions of individuals around the world use decentralized content distribution systems, a fact of growing social, economic, and technological importance. These sharing systems are poorly understood because, unlike in other technosocial systems, it is difficult to gather large-scale data about user behavior. Here, we investigate user activity patterns and the socioeconomic factors that could explain the behavior. Our analysis reveals that (i) the ecosystem is heterogeneous at several levels: content types are heterogeneous, users specialize in a few content types, and countries are heterogeneous in user profiles; and (ii) there is a strong correlation between socioeconomic indicators of a country and users behavior. Our findings open a research area on the dynamics of decentralized sharing ecosystems and the socioeconomic factors affecting them, and may have implications for the design of algorithms and for policymaking.

  16. The development and construct validation of a Spanish version of an Academic Self-Concept scale for middle school Hispanic students from families of low socioeconomic levels.

    PubMed

    Menjares, P C; Michael, W B; Rueda, R

    2000-05-01

    For a sample of 305 6th, 7th and 8th grade students, of whom 95% was from economically disadvantaged Hispanic families and for whom English was their second language, evidence was sought regarding the reliability and construct validity of scores on a Spanish version of an academic self-concept measure entitled Dimensions of Self-Concept (DOSC), comprising five subscales bearing the same names as those of the five hypothesized constructs that they were intended to operationalize: Level of Aspiration, Anxiety, Academic Interest and Satisfaction, Leadership and Initiative, and Identification versus Alienation. Reliability estimates varying between .72 and .80 were judged to be reasonably satisfactory. Results from oblique factor analysis lent empirical support for the hypothesized constructs of Anxiety, Leadership and Initiative, and Identification versus Alienation. Scores associated with the subscales of Level of Aspiration and Academic Interest and Satisfaction generated a factor interpreted as a fusion of the two constructs of Level of Aspiration and Academic Interest and Satisfaction.

  17. Water-level data for the industrial area northwest of Delaware City, Delaware, 1993-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnelly, C.A.; Hinaman, K.C.

    1996-01-01

    Water-level data for 171 wells and one surface-water site on Red Lion Creek in the industrial area northwest of Delaware City, Delaware, are presented for 1993 and 1994. Eight sets of synoptic ground- water-level measurements collected between April 1993 and September 1994, and locations and field notes for the 171 wells are presented. A hydrograph from December 19, 1993 through November 8, 1994 is presented for one surface-water site on Red Lion Creek in the industrial area. Hydrographs from October 15, 1993 through November 8, 1994 are presented for eight wells screened in the water- table aquifer. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers collected the synoptic ground-water-level measurements. The U.S. Geological Survey collected the continuously recorded water-level data.

  18. Assessment of thermal comfort level at pedestrian level in high-density urban area of Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, J.; Ng, E.; Yuan, C.; Lai, A.

    2015-12-01

    Hong Kong is a subtropical city which is very hot and humid in the summer. Pedestrians commonly experience thermal discomfort. Various studies have shown that the tall bulky buildings intensify the urban heat island effect and reduce urban air ventilation. However, relatively few studies have focused on modeling the thermal load at pedestrian level (~ 2 m). This study assesses the thermal comfort level, quantified by PET (Physiological Equivalent Temperature), using a GIS - based simulation approach. A thermal comfort level map shows the PET value of a typical summer afternoon in the high building density area. For example, the averaged PET in Sheung Wan is about 41 degree Celsius in a clear day and 38 degree Celsius in a cloudy day. This map shows where the walkways, colonnades, and greening is most needed. In addition, given a start point, a end point, and weather data, we generate the most comfort walking routes weighted by the PET. In the simulation, shortwave irradiance is calculated using the topographic radiation model (Fu and Rich, 1999) under various cloud cover scenarios; longwave irradiance is calculated based the radiative transfer equation (Swinbank, 1963). Combining these two factors, Tmrt (mean radiant temperature) is solved. And in some cases, the Tmrt differ more than 40 degree Celsius between areas under the sun and under the shades. Considering thermal load and wind information, we found that shading from buildings has stronger effect on PET than poor air ventilation resulted from dense buildings. We predict that pedestrians would feel more comfortable (lower PET) in a hot summer afternoon when walking in the higher building density area.

  19. Dietary patterns of children and socioeconomical, behavioral and maternal determinants

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Julia Khéde Dourado; Santos, Thanise Sabrina Souza; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Silva, Angélica Ribeiro e; da Rocha Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira; Pessoa, Milene Cristine

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To identify dietary patterns of children and to verify their association with socio-economical, behavioral and maternal determinants. Methods: A cross-sectional study with a random sample of 328 children aged 8 and 9 years. Dietary intake was assessed by food records in three nonconsecutive days and measured in grams of food groups and nutrients. Factor analysis and subsequent orthogonal rotation (varimax) were used to determine dietary patterns. Ordinal logistic regression was used to assess associations between dietary patterns and the studied determinants. Results: Five dietary patterns were observed: “Traditional,” “Sweetened beverages and snacks,” “Monotonous,” “Healthy” and “Egg-dairy.” A higher maternal level of education was directly associated with “Sweetened beverages and snacks” and “Egg-dairy' standards. Low income children who were submitted to greater food restriction by parents/guardians followed the more “Traditional” standard, represented by the consumption of rice, beans, vegetables, cooked roots and tubers and red meat. The “Monotonous” pattern, represented by a high consumption of milk and chocolate powder, was most followed by children from the middle class. Children living in rural areas consumed more foods from the “Egg-dairy” pattern, when compared to those from the urban area. Conclusions: Dietary patterns of children were associated with family socioeconomic status, maternal level of education, practice of food restriction by parents/guardians and location of residence in urban or rural area. Better socioeconomic conditions contributed to a more nutritionally inadequate dietary pattern. PMID:26163945

  20. Low zinc serum levels and high blood lead levels among school-age children in coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramono, Adriyan; Panunggal, Binar; Rahfiludin, M. Zen; Swastawati, Fronthea

    2017-02-01

    The coverage of environmental lead toxicant was quiet wide. Lead exposure recently has been expected to be associated with zinc deficiency and blood indices disturbance. Emphasizing on children, which could absorb more than 50 % of lead that enters the body. Lead became the issue on the coastal area due to it has polluted the environment and waters as the source of fisheries products. This was a cross sectional study to determined nutritional status, blood lead levels, zinc serum levels, blood indices levels, fish intake among school children in coastal region of Semarang. This study was carried out on the school children aged between 8 and 12 years old in coastal region of Semarang. Nutritional status was figured out using anthropometry measurement. Blood lead and zinc serum levels were analyzed using the Atomic Absorbent Spectrophotometry (AAS) at a wavelength of 213.9 nm for zinc serum and 283.3 nm for blood lead. Blood indices was measured using auto blood hematology analyzer. Fish intake was assessed using 3-non consecutive days 24-hours food recall. The children had high lead levels (median 34.86 μg/dl, range 11.46 - 58.86 μg/dl) compared to WHO cut off. Zinc serum levels was low (median 18.10 μg/dl, range 10.25 – 41.39 μg/dl) compared to the Joint WHO/UNICEF/IAEA/IZiNCG cut off. Approximately 26.4% of children were anemic. This study concluded that all school children had high blood lead levels, low zinc serum, and presented microcytic hypochromic anemia. This phenomenon should be considered as public health concern.

  1. Changes in the Multi-Level Effects of Socio-Economic Status on Reading Achievement in Sweden in 1991 and 2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Kajsa Yang; Rosen, Monica; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the changes in educational inequality at the school- and individual-levels in 1991 and 2001. Comparisons are made between the IEA Reading Literacy Study 1991 and the so called 10-Year Trend Study in PIRLS 2001. The between-school differences in reading achievement variance and the size of the relationship between SES and…

  2. Neurobiological Pathways Linking Socioeconomic Position and Health

    PubMed Central

    Gianaros, Peter J.; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    Across individuals, risk for poor health varies inversely with socioeconomic position (SEP). The pathways by which SEP affects health have been viewed from many epidemiological perspectives. Central to these perspectives is the notion that socioeconomic health disparities arise from an interplay between nested, recursive, and cumulative environmental, social, familial, psychological, behavioral, and physiological processes that unfold over the life span. Epidemiological perspectives on socioeconomic health disparities, however, have not yet formally integrated emerging findings from neuropharmacological, molecular genetic, and neuroimaging studies demonstrating that indicators of SEP relate to patterns of brain neurotransmission, brain morphology, and brain functionality implicated in the etiology of chronic medical conditions and psychological disorders. Here, we survey these emerging findings and consider how future neurobiological studies in this area can enhance our understanding of the pathways by which different dimensions of SEP become embodied by the brain to influence health throughout life. PMID:20498294

  3. SOCIOECONOMIC VARIATIONS IN INDUCED ABORTION IN TURKEY.

    PubMed

    Ankara, Hasan Giray

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the levels of, and socioeconomic variations in, income-related inequality in induced abortion among Turkish women. The study included 15,480 ever-married women of reproductive age (15-49) from the 2003 and 2008 waves of the Turkish Demographic and Health Survey. The measured inequalities in abortion levels and their changes over time were decomposed into the percentage contributions of selected socioeconomic factors using ordinary least square analysis and concentration indices were calculated. The inequalities and their first difference (difference in inequalities between 2003 and 2008) were decomposed using the approaches of Wagstaff et al. (2003). Higher socioeconomic characteristics (such as higher levels of wealth and education and better neighbourhood) were found to be associated with higher rates of abortion. Inequality analyses indicated that although deprived women become more familiar with abortion over time, abortion was still more concentrated among affluent women in the 2008 survey. The decomposition analyses suggested that wealth, age, education and level of regional development were the most important contributors to income-related inequality in abortion. Therefore policies that (i) increase the level of wealth and education of deprived women, (ii) develop deprived regions of Turkey, (iii) improve knowledge about family planning and, especially (iv) enhance the accessibility of family planning services for deprived and/or rural women, may be beneficial for reducing socioeconomic variations in abortion in the country.

  4. Socioeconomic factors relating to diabetes and its management in India.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Usha; Misra, Anoop; Gupta, Rajeev; Viswanathan, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is an escalating problem in India and has major socioeconomic dimensions. Rapid dietary changes coupled with decreased levels of physical activity have resulted in increases in obesity and diabetes in rural and semi-urban areas, as well as in urban-based people living in resettlement colonies. Increasing risk has also been recorded in those who suffered from poor childhood nutrition and in rural-to-urban migrants. Social inequity manifests in disparities in socioeconomic status (SES), place of residence, education, gender, and level of awareness and affects prevention, care, and management. All these population subsets have major socioeconomic challenges: low levels of awareness regarding diabetes and prevention, inadequate resources, insufficient allotment of healthcare budgets, and lack of medical reimbursement. Unawareness and delays in seeking medical help lead to complications, resulting in many-fold increased costs in diabetes care. These costs plunge individuals and households into a vicious cycle of further economic hardship, inadequate management, and premature mortality, resulting in more economic losses. At the societal level, these are massive losses to national productivity and the exchequer. Overall, there is an immediate need to strengthen the healthcare delivery system to generate awareness and for the prevention, early detection, cost-effective management, and rehabilitation of patients with diabetes, with a focus on people belonging to the lower SES and women (with a particular focus on nutrition before and during pregnancy). Because of an enhanced awareness campaign spearheaded through the National Program on Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, Diabetes and Stroke (NCPCDS) initiated by Government of India, it is likely that the level of awareness and early detection of diabetes may increase.

  5. Primary School Teachers' Levels of Self-Efficacy According to Various Settlement Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdemir, Naki

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how elementary teachers use computers, the Internet, and educational technology in the educational process. The purpose was also to gain information regarding the teachers' possession of technological devices and their levels of self-efficacy in using them among the different types of settlement areas.…

  6. Copper and lead levels in crops and soils of the Holland Marsh Area-Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Czuba, M.; Hutchinson, T.C.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of the occurrence, distribution, and concentrations of the heavy metals copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) in the soils and crops of the important horticultural area north of Toronto known as the Holland Marsh. The soils are deep organic mucks (> 85% organic matter), derived by the drainage of black marshland soils, which has been carried out over the past 40 years. A comparison is made between the Pb and Cu concentrations in undrained, uncultivated areas of the marsh and in the intensively used horticultural area. Analyses show a marked accumulation of Cu in surface layers of cultivated soils, with a mean surface concentration of 130 ppM, declining to 20 ppM at a 32-cm depth. Undrained (virgin) soils of the same marshes had < 20 ppM at all depths. Lead concentrations also declined through the profile, from concentrations of 22 to 10 ppM. In comparison, undrained areas had elevated Pb levels. Cultivation appeared to have increased Cu, but lowered Pb in the marsh. Copper and lead levels found in the crops were generally higher in the young spring vegetables than in the mature fall ones. Leafy crops, especially lettuce (Lactuca L.) and celery (Apium graveolens), accumulated higher Pb levels in their foliage compared with levels in root crops. Cultivation procedures, including past pesticide applications and fertilizer additions, appeared to be principal sources of Cu. Mobility from the soil and into the plant for these elements in the marsh muck soils is discussed.

  7. Radioactivity levels in the mostly local foodstuff consumed by residents of the high level natural radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran.

    PubMed

    Fathabadi, Nasrin; Salehi, Ali Akbar; Naddafi, Kazem; Kardan, Mohammad Reza; Yunesian, Masud; Nodehi, Ramin Nabizadeh; Deevband, Mohammad Reza; Shooshtari, Molood Gooniband; Hosseini, Saeedeh Sadat; Karimi, Mahtab

    2017-04-01

    Among High Level Natural Radiation Areas (HLNRAs) all over the world, the northern coastal city of Ramsar has been considered enormously important. Many studies have measured environmental radioactivity in Ramsar, however, no survey has been undertaken to measure concentrations in the diets of residents. This study determined the (226)Ra activity concentration in the daily diet of people of Ramsar. The samples were chosen from both normal and high level natural radiation areas and based on the daily consumption patterns of residents. About 150 different samples, which all are local and have the highest consumption, were collected during the four seasons. In these samples, after washing and drying and pretreatment, the radionuclide was determined by α-spectrometry. The mean radioactivity concentration of (226)Ra ranged between 5 ± 1 mBq kg(-1) wet weight (chino and meat) to 725 ± 480 mBq kg(-1) for tea dry leaves. The (226)Ra activity concentrations compared with the reference values of UNSCEAR appear to be higher in leafy vegetables, milk and meat product. Of the total daily dietary (226)Ra exposure for adults in Ramsar, the largest percentage was from eggs. The residents consuming eggs from household chickens may receive an elevated dose in the diet.

  8. 324 Building radiochemical engineering cells, high-level vault, low-level vault, and associated areas closure plan

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J.M.

    1998-03-25

    The Hanford Site, located adjacent to and north of Richland, Washington, is operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). The 324 Building is located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The 324 Building was constructed in the 1960s to support materials and chemical process research and development activities ranging from laboratory/bench-scale studies to full engineering-scale pilot plant demonstrations. In the mid-1990s, it was determined that dangerous waste and waste residues were being stored for greater than 90 days in the 324 Building Radiochemical Engineering Cells (REC) and in the High-Level Vault/Low-Level Vault (HLV/LLV) tanks. [These areas are not Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) permitted portions of the 324 Building.] Through the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-89, agreement was reached to close the nonpermitted RCRA unit in the 324 Building. This closure plan, managed under TPA Milestone M-20-55, addresses the identified building areas targeted by the Tri-Party Agreement and provides commitments to achieve the highest degree of compliance practicable, given the special technical difficulties of managing mixed waste that contains high-activity radioactive materials, and the physical limitations of working remotely in the areas within the subject closure unit. This closure plan is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1.0 provides the introduction, historical perspective, 324 Building history and current mission, and the regulatory basis and strategy for managing the closure unit. Chapters 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 discuss the detailed facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring respectively. Chapter 6.0 deals with the closure strategy and performance standard, including the closure activities for the B-Cell, D-Cell, HLV, LLV; piping and miscellaneous associated building areas. Chapter 7.0 addresses the

  9. Water levels in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1990--91

    SciTech Connect

    Tucci, P.; O`Brien, G.M.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1996-07-01

    Water levels were monitored in 27 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada during 1990--91. Twelve wells were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, and 15 wells representing 24 intervals were monitored hourly. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks, except one that monitors levels in paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using calibrated steel tapes and pressure transducers; steel-tape measurements were corrected for mechanical stretch, thermal expansion, and borehole deviation to obtain precise water-level altitudes. Water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 728 meters above sea level east of Yucca Mountain to about 1,035 meters above sea level north of Yucca Mountain. Water-level altitudes in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks varied between 752 and 753 meters above sea level during 1990--91. All data were acquired in accordance with a quality-assurance program to support the reliability of the data.

  10. Caffeine and REM sleep deprivation: Effect on basal levels of signaling molecules in area CA1.

    PubMed

    Alkadhi, Karim A; Alhaider, Ibrahim A

    2016-03-01

    We have investigated the neuroprotective effect of chronic caffeine treatment on basal levels of memory-related signaling molecules in area CA1 of sleep-deprived rats. Animals in the caffeine groups were treated with caffeine in drinking water (0.3g/l) for four weeks before they were REM sleep-deprived for 24h in the Modified Multiple Platforms paradigm. Western blot analysis of basal protein levels of plasticity- and memory-related signaling molecules in hippocampal area CA1 showed significant down regulation of the basal levels of phosphorylated- and total-CaMKII, phosphorylated- and total-CREB as well as those of BDNF and CaMKIV in sleep deprived rats. All these changes were completely prevented in rats that chronically consumed caffeine. The present findings suggest an important neuroprotective property of caffeine in sleep deprivation.

  11. Influence of the socioeconomic status on the prevalence of malocclusion in the primary dentition

    PubMed Central

    Normando, Thiene Silva; Barroso, Regina Fátima Feio; Normando, David

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of socioeconomic background on malocclusion prevalence in primary dentition in a population from the Brazilian Amazon. METHODS: This cross-sectional study comprised 652 children (males and females) aged between 3 to 6 years old. Subjects were enrolled in private preschools (higher socioeconomic status - HSS, n = 312) or public preschools (lower socioeconomic status - LSS, n = 340) in Belém, Pará, Brazil. Chi-square and binomial statistics were used to assess differences between both socioeconomic groups, with significance level set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: A high prevalence of malocclusion (81.44%) was found in the sample. LSS females exhibited significantly lower prevalence (72.1%) in comparison to HSS females (84.7%), particularly with regard to Class II (P < 0.0001), posterior crossbite (P = 0.006), increased overbite (P = 0.005) and overjet (P < 0.0001). Overall, malocclusion prevalence was similar between HSS and LSS male children (P = 0.36). Early loss of primary teeth was significantly more prevalent in the LSS group (20.9%) in comparison to children in the HSS group (0.9%), for both males and females (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic background influences the occurrence of malocclusion in the primary dentition. In the largest metropolitan area of the Amazon, one in every five LSS children has lost at least one primary tooth before the age of seven. PMID:25741828

  12. A spatial model of socioeconomic and environmental determinants of dengue fever in Cali, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Delmelle, Eric; Hagenlocher, Michael; Kienberger, Stefan; Casas, Irene

    2016-12-01

    Dengue fever has gradually re-emerged across the global South, particularly affecting urban areas of the tropics and sub-tropics. The dynamics of dengue fever transmission are sensitive to changes in environmental conditions, as well as local demographic and socioeconomic factors. In 2010, the municipality of Cali, Colombia, experienced one of its worst outbreaks, however the outbreak was not spatially homogeneous across the city. In this paper, we evaluate the role of socioeconomic and environmental factors associated with this outbreak at the neighborhood level, using a Geographically Weighted Regression model. Key socioeconomic factors include population density and socioeconomic stratum, whereas environmental factors are proximity to both tire shops and plant nurseries and the presence of a sewage system (R(2)=0.64). The strength of the association between these factors and the incidence of dengue fever is spatially heterogeneous at the neighborhood level. The findings provide evidence to support public health strategies in allocating resources locally, which will enable a better detection of high risk areas, a reduction of the risk of infection and to strengthen the resilience of the population.

  13. Relationship between Aircraft Noise Contour Area and Noise Levels at Certification Points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Clemans A.

    2003-01-01

    The use of sound exposure level contour area reduction has been proposed as an alternative or supplemental metric of progress and success for the NASA Quiet Aircraft Technology program, which currently uses the average of predicted noise reductions at three community locations. As the program has expanded to include reductions in airframe noise as well as reduction due to optimization of operating procedures for lower noise, there is concern that the three-point methodology may not represent a fair measure of benefit to airport communities. This paper addresses several topics related to this proposal: (1) an analytical basis for a relationship between certification noise levels and noise contour areas for departure operations is developed, (2) the relationship between predicted noise contour area and the noise levels measured or predicted at the certification measurement points is examined for a wide range of commercial and business aircraft, and (3) reductions in contour area for low-noise approach scenarios are predicted and equivalent reductions in source noise are determined.

  14. Simulated changes in water levels in the Minjur Aquifer, Riyadh area, Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, J.F.; Sagaby, I.A.

    1982-01-01

    A two-dimensional finite-difference computer model of the Minjur aquifer in the Riyadh area of Saudi Arabia was developed to simulate and predict drawdown in an aquifer which, in 1979, supplied more than 80 percent of all water used in this capital area. The Minjur was modeled as a confined aquifer recharged by leakage through underlying confining beds. Pumpage was simulated for a 23-year period during which it increased from 2,160 to 220 ,000 cubic meters per day. At Riyadh, the top of the Minjur aquifer is about 1200 meters below land surface. Aquifer thickness within the 40,000-square-kilometer study area ranges from 74 to 138 meters inclusively. Values for aquifer characteristics used in the model are: transmissivity, from 0.001 to 0.0062 square meters per second; storage coefficients, 0.07 for the unconfined, and 0.0004 for the confined sectors of the model area. A value of 0.02 meters per second was used to represent the vertical conductivity of the confining bed. Predictive simulations indicate that if the Minjur aquifer in the Riyadh area is stressed by estimated future pumpages, static water-level declines ranging from 10 up to and including 90 meters, depending on location, will occur from 1980 through 1999. Simulations also demonstrated that pumping levels in the new Buwayb well field will decline substantially from 1980 through 1981. (USGS)

  15. Hair Selenium Levels of School Children in Kashin-Beck Disease Endemic Areas in Tibet, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhuo; Li, Hairong; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi; Li, Yonghua; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Nima, Cangjue; Zhao, Shengcheng; Wang, Jing; Ye, Bixiong; Danzeng, Sangbu; Deji, Yangzong

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that the selenium (Se) deficiency is an important factor for the etiology of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). Although KBD is presently controlled in most regions of China, it is still active in the Tibetan Plateau. The present study aimed to assess the nutritional status of selenium in school children by using the Se level in hair as a biomarker in KBD endemic areas of Lhasa in Tibet, China. Hair samples of 155 school children aged 6-15 years were collected in both KBD areas and non-KBD areas of Lhasa in 2013. The Se level in the hair samples was determined by inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The average concentration of Se in children's hair was 0.232 μg/g in KBD areas of Lhasa, which was significantly higher than the data reported decades ago. A significant difference in hair Se was observed between the boys (0.255 μg/g) and the girls (0.222 μg/g) in the studied KBD areas (P < 0.01, Mann-Whitney U test), but hair Se did not vary by age or region. School children in KBD endemic areas in Lhasa likely have improved Se status as a result of high Se content staple food substitution with the enforcement of Free Education Policy and Nutrition Improvement Plan in Tibet. Nevertheless, there were still 20.3 % of students with low Se status (hair Se <0.20 μg/g), which showed that Se status of school children was also partly affected by low Se environment in KBD endemic areas of Lhasa.

  16. The Stability of School Effectiveness Indices across Grade Levels and Subject Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandeville, Garrett K.; Anderson, Lorin W.

    1987-01-01

    School effectiveness indices based on regressing achievement test scores onto earlier scores and a socioeconomic status measure were obtained for South Carolina students in grades one to four. Results were unstable across grades, and grade-to-grade correlations were more significant for mathematics achievement than for reading. (Author/GDC)

  17. Heavy Metals Concentration Levels in Soils throughout the East San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagan, K.; Ramirez, N.; Diaz, J.; Cuff, K.; Adarkwah, N.

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that soils near structures made of pressure treated wood created before 2003 often contain high levels of arsenic, which was widely used in the processing of such wood. One such study, conducted by student scientists affiliated with the SF ROCKS program at San Francisco State University, found high levels of arsenic in soils collected from several children's play areas in San Francisco (Negrete, et al., 2006). Due to the known health risks associated with high concentrations of arsenic, and given a general lack of data related to soils of the East San Francisco Bay Area, the current study was initiated to determine whether or not dangerously high levels of arsenic exist in soils near public schools and playgrounds located in Richmond and Oakland, California. Soil samples were collected from approximately 100 locations in and around such areas, and analyzed for arsenic and a variety of other heavy metals concentration levels using an ICP spectrometer. Preliminary results demonstrate arsenic levels that exceed the EPA's 0.4 ppm action limit in 27 of the 100 sites from which samples were collected. Also, strong correlations between arsenic and various metals in the soil were found, such as arsenic with chromium (0.7022) and nickel (0.6588). Additionally, dangerously high levels of arsenic and lead were found in soils collected along the shores of a small lake fed by Leona Creek on the campus of Mills College in the Oakland foothills, approximately 2 kilometers downstream from a former iron sulphide mine. This occurrence constitutes evidence that the owner of the mine has not complied with recent orders from a local regulatory agency to make sure that mine effluents are safe.

  18. Exploring why residents of socioeconomically deprived neighbourhoods have less favourable perceptions of their neighbourhood environment than residents of wealthy neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Mackenbach, J D; Lakerveld, J; van Lenthe, F J; Bárdos, H; Glonti, K; Compernolle, S; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Oppert, J-M; Roda, C; Rutter, H; Brug, J; Nijpels, G

    2016-01-01

    Residents of socioeconomically deprived areas perceive their neighbourhood as less conducive to healthy behaviours than residents of more affluent areas. Whether these unfavourable perceptions are based on objective neighbourhood features or other factors is poorly understood. We examined individual and contextual correlates of socioeconomic inequalities in neighbourhood perceptions across five urban regions in Europe. Data were analysed from 5205 participants of the SPOTLIGHT survey. Participants reported perceptions of their neighbourhood environment with regard to aesthetics, safety, the presence of destinations and functionality of the neighbourhood, which were summed into an overall neighbourhood perceptions score. Multivariable multilevel regression analyses were conducted to investigate whether the following factors were associated with socioeconomic inequalities in neighbourhood perceptions: objectively observed neighbourhood features, neighbourhood social capital, exposure to the neighbourhood, self-rated health and lifestyle behaviours. Objectively observed traffic safety, aesthetics and the presence of destinations in the neighbourhood explained around 15% of differences in neighbourhood perceptions between residents of high and low neighbourhoods; levels of neighbourhood social cohesion explained around 52%. Exposure to the neighbourhood, self-rated health and lifestyle behaviours were significant correlates of neighbourhood perceptions but did not contribute to socioeconomic differences. This cross-European study provided evidence that socioeconomic differences in neighbourhood perceptions are not only associated with objective neighbourhood features but also with social cohesion. Levels of physical activity, sleep duration, self-rated health, happiness and neighbourhood preference were also associated with neighbourhood perceptions.

  19. Derived concentration guideline levels for Argonne National Laboratory's building 310 area.

    SciTech Connect

    Kamboj, S., Dr.; Yu, C ., Dr.

    2011-08-12

    The derived concentration guideline level (DCGL) is the allowable residual radionuclide concentration that can remain in soil after remediation of the site without radiological restrictions on the use of the site. It is sometimes called the single radionuclide soil guideline or the soil cleanup criteria. This report documents the methodology, scenarios, and parameters used in the analysis to support establishing radionuclide DCGLs for Argonne National Laboratory's Building 310 area.

  20. Land-use threats and protected areas: a scenario-based, landscape level approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Tamara S.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sleeter, Rachel R.; Soulard, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic land use will likely present a greater challenge to biodiversity than climate change this century in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Even if species are equipped with the adaptive capacity to migrate in the face of a changing climate, they will likely encounter a human-dominated landscape as a major dispersal obstacle. Our goal was to identify, at the ecoregion-level, protected areas in close proximity to lands with a higher likelihood of future land-use conversion. Using a state-and-transition simulation model, we modeled spatially explicit (1 km2) land use from 2000 to 2100 under seven alternative land-use and emission scenarios for ecoregions in the Pacific Northwest. We analyzed scenario-based land-use conversion threats from logging, agriculture, and development near existing protected areas. A conversion threat index (CTI) was created to identify ecoregions with highest projected land-use conversion potential within closest proximity to existing protected areas. Our analysis indicated nearly 22% of land area in the Coast Range, over 16% of land area in the Puget Lowland, and nearly 11% of the Cascades had very high CTI values. Broader regional-scale land-use change is projected to impact nearly 40% of the Coast Range, 30% of the Puget Lowland, and 24% of the Cascades (i.e., two highest CTI classes). A landscape level, scenario-based approach to modeling future land use helps identify ecoregions with existing protected areas at greater risk from regional land-use threats and can help prioritize future conservation efforts.

  1. Soil dioxins levels at agriculture sites and natural preserve areas of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Jou, Jin-juh; Lin, Kae-Long; Chung, Jen-Chir; Liaw, Shu-Liang

    2007-08-17

    In this study, agriculture soil in Taiwan has been sampled and analyzed to determine the background level of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/DF) in the agricultural and nature preserve areas. Another objective is to investigate relationship between soil characteristics and air deposition in Taiwan. The results indicate that in nature preserve areas the topsoil shows an extraordinary profile of PCDD/DF compared to that in the air deposition. The PCDD/DF levels of the low-contaminated agricultural soils are compatible with those of the nature preserves soils. However, in the highly-contaminated agricultural soils, there is an abrupt jump in their concentrations, 10-100 times higher. The overall I-TEQ values of the background topsoils range from 0.101 to 15.2 ng I-TEQ/kg. Near industrial/urban areas in Taiwan the PCDD/DF are slightly higher compared to those in the low concentration group. Typically, the PCDD/DF background values found in this survey fall in the 90% confidence interval and can thus, be deemed the background levels in Taiwan. Ninety-five percent of these data are below the European and American soil standard of 10 ng I-TEQ/kg d.w. The PCDD/DF profile with one neighborhood soil sample was shown no significant difference.

  2. Estimating Areas of Vulnerability: Sea Level Rise and Storm Surge Hazards in the National Parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caffrey, M.; Beavers, R. L.; Slayton, I. A.

    2013-12-01

    The University of Colorado Boulder in collaboration with the National Park Service has undertaken the task of compiling sea level change and storm surge data for 105 coastal parks. The aim of our research is to highlight areas of the park system that are at increased risk of rapid inundation as well as periodic flooding due to sea level rise and storms. This research will assist park managers and planners in adapting to climate change. The National Park Service incorporates climate change data into many of their planning documents and is willing to implement innovative coastal adaptation strategies. Events such as Hurricane Sandy highlight how impacts of coastal hazards will continue to challenge management of natural and cultural resources and infrastructure along our coastlines. This poster will discuss the current status of this project. We discuss the impacts of Hurricane Sandy as well as the latest sea level rise and storm surge modeling being employed in this project. In addition to evaluating various drivers of relative sea-level change, we discuss how park planners and managers also need to consider projected storm surge values added to sea-level rise magnitudes, which could further complicate the management of coastal lands. Storm surges occurring at coastal parks will continue to change the land and seascapes of these areas, with the potential to completely submerge them. The likelihood of increased storm intensity added to increasing rates of sea-level rise make predicting the reach of future storm surges essential for planning and adaptation purposes. The National Park Service plays a leading role in developing innovative strategies for coastal parks to adapt to sea-level rise and storm surge, whilst coastal storms are opportunities to apply highly focused responses.

  3. REM sleep loss associated changes in orexin-A levels in discrete brain areas in rats.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rachna; Khanday, Mudasir Ahmad; Mallick, Birendra Nath

    2015-03-17

    Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) serves house-keeping function of the brain and its loss affects several pathophysiological processes. Relative levels of neurotransmitters including orexin A (Orx-A) in various parts of the brain in health and diseases are among the key factors for modulation of behaviors, including REMS. The level of neurotransmitter in an area in the brain directly depends on number of projecting neurons and their firing rates. The locus coeruleus (LC), the site of REM-OFF neurons, receives densest, while the pedunculo-pontine area (PPT), the site of REM-ON neurons receives lesser projections from the Orx-ergic neurons. Further, the Orx-ergic neurons are active during waking and silent during REMS and NREMS. Therefore, the level of Orx-A in discrete regions of the brain is likely to be different during normal and altered states, which in turn is likely to be responsible for altered behaviors in health and diseases, including in relation to REMS. Therefore, in the present study, we estimated Orx-A level in LC, cortex, posterior hypothalamus (PH), hippocampus, and PPT after 96 h REMSD, in post-deprivation recovered rats and in control rats. This is the first report of estimation of Orx-A in different brain regions after prolonged REMSD. It was observed that after REMSD the Orx-A level increased significantly in LC, cortex and PH which returned to normal level after recovery; however, the level did not change in the hippocampus and PPT. The Orx-A induced modulation of REMS could be secondary to increased waking.

  4. Socioeconomic differences in childhood injury: a population based epidemiologic study in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Faelker, T.; Pickett, W.; Brison, R.

    2000-01-01

    Objective—To determine whether risks for childhood injury vary according to socioeconomic gradients. Design—Population based, retrospective study. The percentage of individuals living below the poverty line (described ecologically using census data) was the primary measure of socioeconomic status. Setting—Catchment area of a tertiary medical centre that provides emergency services to all area residents. Area residents aged 0–19 years during 1996 were included. Observations—Injuries that occurred during 1996 were identified by an emergency department based surveillance system. The study population was divided into socioeconomic grades based upon percentages of area residents living below the poverty line. Multiple Poisson regression analyses were used to quantify associations and assess the statistical significance of trends. Results—5894 childhood injuries were identified among 35 380 eligible children; 985 children with missing socioeconomic data were excluded. A consistent relation between poverty and injury was evident. Children in the highest grade (indicating higher poverty levels) experienced injury rates that were 1.67 (95% confidence interval 1.48 to 1.89) higher than those in the lowest grade (adjusted relative risk for grades 1-V: 1.00,1.10,1.22,1.42, 1.67; ptrend<0.001). These patterns were observed within age/sex strata; for home, recreational, and fall injuries; and for injuries of minor and moderate severities. Conclusions—Socioeconomic differences in childhood injury parallel mortality and morbidity gradients identified in adult populations. This study confirms that this health gradient is observable in a population of children using emergency department data. Given the population based nature of this study, these findings are likely to be reflected in other settings. The results suggest the need for targeted injury prevention efforts among children from economically disadvantaged populations, although the exact requirements of the

  5. 49 CFR Figure 2b to Subpart B of... - Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements-§§ 238.113 and 238.114 2B Figure 2B to... Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements—§§ 238.113...

  6. 49 CFR Figure 2b to Subpart B of... - Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements-§§ 238.113 and 238.114 2B Figure 2B to... Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements—§§ 238.113...

  7. 49 CFR Figure 2b to Subpart B of... - Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements-§§ 238.113 and 238.114 2B Figure 2B to... Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements—§§ 238.113...

  8. 49 CFR Figure 2b to Subpart B of... - Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements-§§ 238.113 and 238.114 2B Figure 2B to... Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements—§§ 238.113...

  9. 49 CFR Figure 2a to Subpart B of... - Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements-§§ 238.113 and 238.114 2A Figure 2A to... Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements—§§ 238.113...

  10. 49 CFR Figure 2a to Subpart B of... - Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements-§§ 238.113 and 238.114 2A Figure 2A to... Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements—§§ 238.113...

  11. 49 CFR Figure 2a to Subpart B of... - Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements-§§ 238.113 and 238.114 2A Figure 2A to... Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements—§§ 238.113...

  12. 49 CFR Figure 2a to Subpart B of... - Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements-§§ 238.113 and 238.114 2A Figure 2A to... Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements—§§ 238.113...

  13. 49 CFR Figure 2a to Subpart B of... - Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements-§§ 238.113 and 238.114 2A Figure 2A to... Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements—§§ 238.113...

  14. 49 CFR Figure 2b to Subpart B of... - Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements-§§ 238.113 and 238.114 2B Figure 2B to... Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements—§§ 238.113...

  15. Surface ozone levels in the forest and vegetation areas of the Biga Peninsula, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sari, Deniz; İncecik, Selahattin; Ozkurt, Nesimi

    2016-11-15

    Spatial and temporal variability of surface ozone in the rural, mountainous and suburban sites of Biga Peninsula, at the northwest of Turkey which is about 300km southwest of Istanbul was investigated using passive samplers and continuous analyzers. A total 10 passive samplers and two continuous analyzers were used between 1.1.2013 and 31.12.2014. OX levels in the study region were examined to understand NOx dependent or independent contribution to ozone. The influences of the meteorological parameters on ozone levels were also examined by wind speed and ambient temperature. The results clearly show that mountainous areas have higher cumulative exposure to ozone than suburban locations. In order to understand the long range transport sources contributing to the high ozone levels in the region backward trajectories were computed using HYSPLIT model and then clustering of trajectories are performed. The results clearly show the characteristics of pollutant transport from north to Biga Peninsula. Additionally, AOT40 (Accumulated hourly O3 concentrations Over a Threshold of 40ppb) cumulative index was calculated using daytime hourly measurements. The results indicate that the ozone values in the study area are much higher than the critical levels for forest and vegetation based on EU Directive 2008/50/EC.

  16. Spatial ascariasis risk estimation using socioeconomic variables.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Luis Iván Ortiz; Fortes, Bruno de Paula Menezes Drumond; Medronho, Roberto de Andrade

    2005-12-01

    Frequently, disease incidence is mapped as area data, for example, census tracts, districts or states. Spatial disease incidence can be highly heterogeneous inside these areas. Ascariasis is a highly prevalent disease, which is associated with poor sanitation and hygiene. Geostatistics was applied to model spatial distribution of Ascariasis risk and socioeconomic risk events in a poor community in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were gathered from a coproparasitologic and a domiciliary survey in 1550 children aged 1-9. Ascariasis risk and socioeconomic risk events were spatially estimated using Indicator Kriging. Cokriging models with a Linear Model of Coregionalization incorporating one socioeconomic variable were implemented. If a housewife attended school for less than four years, the non-use of a home water filter, a household density greater than one, and a household income lower than one Brazilian minimum wage increased the risk of Ascariasis. Cokriging improved spatial estimation of Ascariasis risk areas when compared to Indicator Kriging and detected more Ascariasis very-high risk areas than the GIS Overlay method.

  17. Radiological Modeling for Determination of Derived Concentration Levels of an Area with Uranium Residual Material - 13533

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Sanchez, Danyl

    2013-07-01

    As a result of a pilot project developed at the old Spanish 'Junta de Energia Nuclear' to extract uranium from ores, tailings materials were generated. Most of these residual materials were sent back to different uranium mines, but a small amount of it was mixed with conventional building materials and deposited near the old plant until the surrounding ground was flattened. The affected land is included in an area under institutional control and used as recreational area. At the time of processing, uranium isotopes were separated but other radionuclides of the uranium decay series as Th-230, Ra-226 and daughters remain in the residue. Recently, the analyses of samples taken at different ground's depths confirmed their presence. This paper presents the methodology used to calculate the derived concentration level to ensure that the reference dose level of 0.1 mSv y-1 used as radiological criteria. In this study, a radiological impact assessment was performed modeling the area as recreational scenario. The modelization study was carried out with the code RESRAD considering as exposure pathways, external irradiation, inadvertent ingestion of soil, inhalation of resuspended particles, and inhalation of radon (Rn-222). As result was concluded that, if the concentration of Ra-226 in the first 15 cm of soil is lower than, 0.34 Bq g{sup -1}, the dose would not exceed the reference dose. Applying this value as a derived concentration level and comparing with the results of measurements on the ground, some areas with a concentration of activity slightly higher than latter were found. In these zones the remediation proposal has been to cover with a layer of 15 cm of clean material. This action represents a reduction of 85% of the dose and ensures compliance with the reference dose. (authors)

  18. Low Level and Transuranic Waste Segregation and Low Level Waste Characterization at the 200 Area of the Hanford Site - 12424

    SciTech Connect

    Donohoue, Tom; Martin, E. Ray; Mason, John A.; Blackford, Ty; Estes, Michael; Jasen, William; Cahill, Michael

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the waste measurement and waste characterization activities carried out by ANTECH Corporation (ANTECH) and CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) at the 200 Area of the Hanford Site under Contracts No. 22394 and No. 40245 for the US Department of Energy (DOE). These include Low Level Waste (LLW) and Transuranic (TRU) Waste segregation and LLW characterization for both 55-gallon (200-litre) drums with gross weight up to 454 kg and 85-gallon over-pack drums. In order to achieve efficient and effective waste drum segregation and assay, ANTECH deployed an automated Gamma Mobile Assay Laboratory (G-MAL) at the trench face in both 200 Area West and East. The unit consists of a modified 40 foot ISO shipping container with an automatic flow through roller conveyor system with internal drum weigh scale, four measurement and drum rotation positions, and four high efficiency high purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors with both detector and shadow shields. The unit performs multiple far-field measurements and is able to segregate drums at levels well below 100 nCi/g. The system is sufficiently sensitive that drums, which are classified as LLW, are characterized at measurement levels that meet the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). With measurement times of between 20 and 30 minutes the unit can classify and characterize over 40 drums in an 8-hour shift. The system is well characterized with documented calibrations, lower limits of detection (LLD) and total measurement uncertainty. The calibrations are confirmed and verified using nationally traceable standards in keeping with the CHPRC measurement requirements. The performance of the system has been confirmed and validated throughout the measurement process by independent CHPRC personnel using traceable standards. All of the measurement and maintenance work has been conducted during the period under a Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) compliant with the

  19. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds: An interim report: Volume 1, Text

    SciTech Connect

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.; Wallace, D.W.; Newcomer, D.R.; Schramke, J.A.; Chamness, M.A.; Cline, C.S.; Airhart, S.P.; Wilbur, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived from the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. This volume contains the main text. Volume 2 contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text. This report documents information collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Presented in this report are the preliminary interpretations of the hydrogeologic environment of six low-level burial grounds, which comprise four waste management areas (WMAs) located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site. This information and its accompanying interpretations were derived from sampling and testing activities associated with the construction of 35 ground-water monitoring wells as well as a multitude of previously existing boreholes. The new monitoring wells were installed as part of a ground-water monitoring program initiated in 1986. This ground-water monitoring program is based on requirements for interim status facilities in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976).

  20. A Climatological Analysis of Ground Level Ozone Across the St. Louis Metropolitan Area During 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Adam

    Ground level ozone is a harmful air pollutant to humans and is not directly emitted. It is formed from the combination of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the presence of warm temperatures and sunlight. The St. Louis metropolitan area is home to different types of industry and the citizens of the area rely on the interstate network to commute to and from work. A spatial analysis of the St. Louis metropolitan area's 2012 ozone season (April 1 - October 31) was conducted to investigate the relationships between ground level ozone and meteorological and climatological variables at the micro- and synoptic scales. Previous studies addressed these relationships but may not have accounted for the issue of autocorrelation. The some of the study variables experienced autocorrelation; however, by calculating the effective sample size the issue of autocorrelation was addressed. High maximum temperatures, little to no precipitation, low average wind speeds at the surface, coupled with dominant anticyclones/high pressure and little moisture aloft were found to be associated with the 40 days during which Federal ozone exceedances occurred. The days with the most exceedance were Fridays (8) while the fewest were observed on Sundays (3). Like most summers, the greatest number of exceedance days occurred during the month of July (16). Precursors to ozone, and persistent ozone itself, also led to extended periods of high ozone. All of these factors, combined with emissions from vehicles and from industry, led to days on which the surface air quality may have been detrimental to human health.

  1. Involvement of low-level visual areas in hemispheric superiority for face processing.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yul-Wan; Someya, Yoshiaki; Eriko, Yamamoto; Choi, Sang-Han; Cho, Zang-Hee; Ogawa, Seiji

    2011-05-16

    Previous studies on laterality in face processing have indicated superiority of the right hemisphere in discriminating and recognizing faces; however, the reasons for this feature are poorly understood. We employed functional MRI (fMRI) to elucidate the origin of this feature and used a paired-stimulus paradigm in which face pairs were presented unilaterally at the left or right visual hemifield of the participants. Each face in a pair was at a different position in the visual field. Refractory suppression in the fMRI response was observed bilaterally at the fusiform face area (FFA) for the same face pairs when pictures were presented in the left visual hemifield. In contrast, suppression was observed bilaterally at the FFA for the different as well as for the same face pairs when pictures were presented in the right visual hemifield. This pattern indicated inferior discrimination ability for paired stimuli presented to the right visual hemifield. These observations, along with changes in bilaterally interlocked responses at the FFA, suggest that low-level visual areas, and not high-level face areas, are strongly associated with the superiority of the right hemisphere in face processing.

  2. Socioeconomic and Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Cancer Mortality, Incidence, and Survival in the United States, 1950–2014: Over Six Decades of Changing Patterns and Widening Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Jemal, Ahmedin

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in US mortality, incidence, and survival rates from all-cancers combined and major cancers from 1950 to 2014. Census-based deprivation indices were linked to national mortality and cancer data for area-based socioeconomic patterns in mortality, incidence, and survival. The National Longitudinal Mortality Study was used to analyze individual-level socioeconomic and racial/ethnic patterns in mortality. Rates, risk-ratios, least squares, log-linear, and Cox regression were used to examine trends and differentials. Socioeconomic patterns in all-cancer, lung, and colorectal cancer mortality changed dramatically over time. Individuals in more deprived areas or lower education and income groups had higher mortality and incidence rates than their more affluent counterparts, with excess risk being particularly marked for lung, colorectal, cervical, stomach, and liver cancer. Education and income inequalities in mortality from all-cancers, lung, prostate, and cervical cancer increased during 1979–2011. Socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality widened as mortality in lower socioeconomic groups/areas declined more slowly. Mortality was higher among Blacks and lower among Asian/Pacific Islanders and Hispanics than Whites. Cancer patient survival was significantly lower in more deprived neighborhoods and among most ethnic-minority groups. Cancer mortality and incidence disparities may reflect inequalities in smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, diet, alcohol use, screening, and treatment.

  3. Relation of drainage problems to high ground-water levels, Coconut Grove area, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, L.A.; Huxel, C.J.

    1971-01-01

    Purpose and Scope In 1969, hydrologic data-collection sites were established in and around the Coconut Grove area for the purpose of measuring directly the relationship between rainfall, runoff, ground-water levels, the level of water in Kawainui Swamp and the canals, and tidal fluctuations. The primary objective was to identify the causes of the occurrence and persistence of flooding and to gain data on which to base recommendations for remedial action. The scope of the study included establishing and operating flow and stage-recording gages on the Swamp, Kawainui Canal, and the inner canal; periodic and repeated measurements of ground-water level in test borings throughout the residential area; collection and analysis of soil and construction borings made for engineering purposes; the assembly and analysis of all available data relating surface and subsurface flow conditions, and the development of conclusions as to the causes and means to alleviate the flooding. This report summarizes the information collected from October 1969 to June 1971, includes analysis of the data, and discusses the probable causes of flooding.

  4. [The influence of proficiency level of foreign language on the activation patterns of language areas].

    PubMed

    Bryll, Amira; Binder, Marek; Urbanik, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    The of aim of the present study was the estimation of the influence of proficiency level of the second language on activation patterns of language areas. 30 volunteers participated in the experiment (15 females and 15 males) from 18 to 40 years of age. Mean age was 28 years. All participants were divided by linguist into two groups according to their proficiency level of the foreign language: high proficiency group (HP) and low proficiency group (LP). Block design method was used in the performed experiment. The experimental task was speech production in the form of sentences, the control tusk was silence. The experiment was performed using 1,5 T MR system. Functional data analysis was performed using SPM2 software (Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, Great Britain). In low proficiency group (LP) stronger activation was found in right inferior frontal gyrus (pars tiangulris) incuding insula and in the left hemisphere on the border of supramarginal and superior temporal gyrus. In high proficiency group (HP) more activated in second language (L2) was the left inferior frontal gyrus (pars tiangulris), and a small part of left middle frontal gyrus. Proficiency level of the second language influences the pattern of activation of language areas.

  5. Criteria for acceptable levels of the Shinkansen Super Express train noise and vibration in residential areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Kobayashi, F.; Kanada, S.; Tanahashi, M.; Muramatsu, T.; Yamada, S.

    1982-10-01

    A survey of 1187 housewives living in 18 areas along the Shinkansen Super Express (bullet train) railway was conducted by means of a self-administered health questionnaire (modified Cornell Medical Index). In addition, geographically corresponding measurements of noise level and vibration intensity were taken. The relationship of noise and vibration to positive responses (health complaints) related to bodily symptoms, illness and emotional disturbances was analyzed. The factors which correlated with an increase in the average number of positive responses included noise, vibration, age and health status. Such factors as marital status, educational level, part time work, duration of inhabitancy and occupation of the head of the houshold correlated poorly with the number of positive responses. Unhealthy respondents compared to healthy respondents are more frequently affected by noise and vibration. The rate of positive responses in the visual, respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive and nervous systems, sleep disturbances and emotional disturbances increased accordingly as noise and vibration increased. Combined effects of noise and vibration stimuli on the total number of positive responses (an indicator of general health) were found. This study has produced results indicating that the maximum permissible noise level should not exceed 70 dB(A) in the residential areas along the Shinkansen railway.

  6. Recurrent diarrhea in children living in areas with high levels of nitrate in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S K; Gupta, R C; Gupta, A B; Seth, A K; Bassin, J K; Gupta, A; Sharma, M L

    2001-01-01

    Given that there was documented evidence of an association between diarrhea and high nitrate ingestion, the authors examined drinking water nitrate concentration and its possible correlation(s) with methemoglobin levels, cytochrome b5 reductase activity, and recurrent diarrhea. In addition, the authors studied histopathological changes in the intestines of rabbits in an animal model. Five village areas were studied, and nitrate concentrations (expressed in mg of nitrate per liter of water) of 26, 45, 95, 220, and 459 existed in the respective villages. The study included 88 randomly selected children who were 8 yr of age or younger; they represented 10% of the total population of each of the areas. Detailed histories of recurrent diarrhea were noted, and medical examinations were conducted. Cytochrome b5 reductase activity and methemoglobin levels were estimated biochemically. Collected data were analyzed statistically with Microsoft Excel software. In addition, the authors exposed rabbits to various levels of nitrate, and histopathological changes of the stomach and intestine (small and large) were evaluated. There was a strong relationship between nitrate concentration and recurrent diarrhea; 80% of the recurrent diarrhea cases were explained by nitrate concentration alone. In the rabbit intestines, lymphocytic infiltration and hyperplasia characterized the submucosa as nitrate concentrations increased.

  7. Horizontal tuning for faces originates in high-level Fusiform Face Area.

    PubMed

    Goffaux, Valerie; Duecker, Felix; Hausfeld, Lars; Schiltz, Christine; Goebel, Rainer

    2016-01-29

    Recent work indicates that the specialization of face visual perception relies on the privileged processing of horizontal angles of facial information. This suggests that stimulus properties assumed to be fully resolved in primary visual cortex (V1; e.g., orientation) in fact determine human vision until high-level stages of processing. To address this hypothesis, the present fMRI study explored the orientation sensitivity of V1 and high-level face-specialized ventral regions such as the Occipital Face Area (OFA) and Fusiform Face Area (FFA) to different angles of face information. Participants viewed face images filtered to retain information at horizontal, vertical or oblique angles. Filtered images were viewed upright, inverted and (phase-)scrambled. FFA responded most strongly to the horizontal range of upright face information; its activation pattern reliably separated horizontal from oblique ranges, but only when faces were upright. Moreover, activation patterns induced in the right FFA and the OFA by upright and inverted faces could only be separated based on horizontal information. This indicates that the specialized processing of upright face information in the OFA and FFA essentially relies on the encoding of horizontal facial cues. This pattern was not passively inherited from V1, which was found to respond less strongly to horizontal than other orientations likely due to adaptive whitening. Moreover, we found that orientation decoding accuracy in V1 was impaired for stimuli containing no meaningful shape. By showing that primary coding in V1 is influenced by high-order stimulus structure and that high-level processing is tuned to selective ranges of primary information, the present work suggests that primary and high-level levels of the visual system interact in order to modulate the processing of certain ranges of primary information depending on their relevance with respect to the stimulus and task at hand.

  8. E AREA LOW LEVEL WASTE FACILITY DOE 435.1 PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhite, E

    2008-03-31

    This Performance Assessment for the Savannah River Site E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility was prepared to meet requirements of Chapter IV of the Department of Energy Order 435.1-1. The Order specifies that a Performance Assessment should provide reasonable assurance that a low-level waste disposal facility will comply with the performance objectives of the Order. The Order also requires assessments of impacts to water resources and to hypothetical inadvertent intruders for purposes of establishing limits on radionuclides that may be disposed near-surface. According to the Order, calculations of potential doses and releases from the facility should address a 1,000-year period after facility closure. The point of compliance for the performance measures relevant to the all pathways and air pathway performance objective, as well as to the impact on water resources assessment requirement, must correspond to the point of highest projected dose or concentration beyond a 100-m buffer zone surrounding the disposed waste following the assumed end of active institutional controls 100 years after facility closure. During the operational and institutional control periods, the point of compliance for the all pathways and air pathway performance measures is the SRS boundary. However, for the water resources impact assessment, the point of compliance remains the point of highest projected dose or concentration beyond a 100-m buffer zone surrounding the disposed waste during the operational and institutional control periods. For performance measures relevant to radon and inadvertent intruders, the points of compliance are the disposal facility surface for all time periods and the disposal facility after the assumed loss of active institutional controls 100 years after facility closure, respectively. The E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility is located in the central region of the SRS known as the General Separations Area. It is an elbow-shaped, cleared area, which curves to the northwest

  9. The effects of acetaldehyde on nicotine-induced transmitter levels in young and adult brain areas.

    PubMed

    Sershen, H; Shearman, E; Fallon, S; Chakraborty, G; Smiley, J; Lajtha, A

    2009-08-14

    nicotine-induced changes by acetaldehyde was noticed in four young brain areas (DA in PFC and MTC, 5-HT in VTA, and VH) and in 13 adult brain areas (DA in NAccS, DH, VH, PFC, MTC, NE in NAccS, DH, PFC, MTC, and 5-HT in DH, VH, MTC, and PFC). Thus acetaldehyde was more stimulatory in young and more inhibitory in the adult brain areas tested, which could explain its stimulating nicotine reward only in young animals. That increases in NE were noted only in young, decreases in NE only in adult brain areas further suggest the role of NE in the age-dependent response. In general, six areas showed some increase and four showed decrease in the young versus one showing increase and thirteen showing decrease in the adult. Clearly the effects of acetaldehyde in young animals are different from those in adult animals. Because acetaldehyde did not induce elevated DA levels in the NAccS of the young, we believe that the higher reward in the young caused by acetaldehyde is not likely due to DA changes in the accumbens. The increase of NE and 5-HT in the brain areas of the young only raises the possibility that they may play an important role in reward in some cases when DA in the accumbens does not. Areas involved in cognitive mechanisms and a number of transmitters seem to play a role in reward stimulation.

  10. [Critical tidal level for Kandelia candel forestation in strong tidal range area].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jian-biao; Huang, Li; Chen, Shao-bo; Chi, Wei; Ding, Wen-yong; Zhou, Chao-sheng; Zheng, Chun-fang; Wang, Wen-qing

    2010-05-01

    Taking Ximen island of Yueqing bay, the biggest tidal range area among the coasts of China, as study site, an investigation was made on the survival rate, growth characteristics, and attached barnacles of 1- and 3-year-old Kandelia candel seedlings at the elevations 1.96, 1.66, 1.35, and 1.03 m above the zero tidal level of Yellow Sea. Significant differences were observed in the survival rate and growth situation of the seedlings among the elevations. There were two barnacle species, Balanus albicostatus and Balanus amphitrite amphitrite, and B. albicostatus was the major species which attached K. candel most seriously at elevation 1.35 m. The critical tidal level for K. candel in the site was 1.66 m above the zero tidal level, i.e., at least 1.29 m higher than the local mean sea level, and the flooding time per tide cycle being less than 3.65 h. Barnacle, strong tide, and extreme weather event were the main reasons for the higher critical tidal level.

  11. Using community-level metrics to monitor the effects of marine protected areas on biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Soykan, Candan U; Lewison, Rebecca L

    2015-06-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are used to protect species, communities, and their associated habitats, among other goals. Measuring MPA efficacy can be challenging, however, particularly when considering responses at the community level. We gathered 36 abundance and 14 biomass data sets on fish assemblages and used meta-analysis to evaluate the ability of 22 distinct community diversity metrics to detect differences in community structure between MPAs and nearby control sites. We also considered the effects of 6 covariates-MPA size and age, MPA size and age interaction, latitude, total species richness, and level of protection-on each metric. Some common metrics, such as species richness and Shannon diversity, did not differ consistently between MPA and control sites, whereas other metrics, such as total abundance and biomass, were consistently different across studies. Metric responses derived from the biomass data sets were more consistent than those based on the abundance data sets, suggesting that community-level biomass differs more predictably than abundance between MPA and control sites. Covariate analyses indicated that level of protection, latitude, MPA size, and the interaction between MPA size and age affect metric performance. These results highlight a handful of metrics, several of which are little known, that could be used to meet the increasing demand for community-level indicators of MPA effectiveness.

  12. An evaluation of supervised classifiers for indirectly detecting salt-affected areas at irrigation scheme level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Sybrand Jacobus; van Niekerk, Adriaan

    2016-07-01

    Soil salinity often leads to reduced crop yield and quality and can render soils barren. Irrigated areas are particularly at risk due to intensive cultivation and secondary salinization caused by waterlogging. Regular monitoring of salt accumulation in irrigation schemes is needed to keep its negative effects under control. The dynamic spatial and temporal characteristics of remote sensing can provide a cost-effective solution for monitoring salt accumulation at irrigation scheme level. This study evaluated a range of pan-fused SPOT-5 derived features (spectral bands, vegetation indices, image textures and image transformations) for classifying salt-affected areas in two distinctly different irrigation schemes in South Africa, namely Vaalharts and Breede River. The relationship between the input features and electro conductivity measurements were investigated using regression modelling (stepwise linear regression, partial least squares regression, curve fit regression modelling) and supervised classification (maximum likelihood, nearest neighbour, decision tree analysis, support vector machine and random forests). Classification and regression trees and random forest were used to select the most important features for differentiating salt-affected and unaffected areas. The results showed that the regression analyses produced weak models (<0.4 R squared). Better results were achieved using the supervised classifiers, but the algorithms tend to over-estimate salt-affected areas. A key finding was that none of the feature sets or classification algorithms stood out as being superior for monitoring salt accumulation at irrigation scheme level. This was attributed to the large variations in the spectral responses of different crops types at different growing stages, coupled with their individual tolerances to saline conditions.

  13. Magnetic storms and variations in hormone levels among residents of North Polar area - Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breus, Tamara; Zenchenko, Tatiana; Boiko, Evgeni

    average intragroup level in June and from 16% to 38% in October. For T3 dependence found only in June: drop in hormone secretion with increasing levels of GMA from 18 to 30% of the average amplitude of intragroup variations). Thus, we showed for the first time that at high latitudes increase in the level of geomagnetic activity leads to a significant change in the level of secretion of several hormones in residing at high latitudes area healthy individuals, indicating that they revealed the type of adaptive stress reaction in reply on GMA disturbance. 1. Breus T.K. and Rapoport S.I. Magnetic storms. Medico- biological aspects (in Russian), Publ.Co Soviet Sport,.Moscow, 2003, 271p.

  14. Urban slum structure: integrating socioeconomic and land cover data to model slum evolution in Salvador, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The expansion of urban slums is a key challenge for public and social policy in the 21st century. The heterogeneous and dynamic nature of slum communities limits the use of rigid slum definitions. A systematic and flexible approach to characterize, delineate and model urban slum structure at an operational resolution is essential to plan, deploy, and monitor interventions at the local and national level. Methods We modeled the multi-dimensional structure of urban slums in the city of Salvador, a city of 3 million inhabitants in Brazil, by integrating census-derived socioeconomic variables and remotely-sensed land cover variables. We assessed the correlation between the two sets of variables using canonical correlation analysis, identified land cover proxies for the socioeconomic variables, and produced an integrated map of deprivation in Salvador at 30 m × 30 m resolution. Results The canonical analysis identified three significant ordination axes that described the structure of Salvador census tracts according to land cover and socioeconomic features. The first canonical axis captured a gradient from crowded, low-income communities with corrugated roof housing to higher-income communities. The second canonical axis discriminated among socioeconomic variables characterizing the most marginalized census tracts, those without access to sanitation or piped water. The third canonical axis accounted for the least amount of variation, but discriminated between high-income areas with white-painted or tiled roofs from lower-income areas. Conclusions Our approach captures the socioeconomic and land cover heterogeneity within and between slum settlements and identifies the most marginalized communities in a large, complex urban setting. These findings indicate that changes in the canonical scores for slum areas can be used to track their evolution and to monitor the impact of development programs such as slum upgrading. PMID:24138776

  15. Levels of hydrocarbons in mussels, Mytilus edulis, and surface sediments from Danish coastal areas

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, K.

    1981-02-01

    Until recently, most effort in oil pollution research has been spent on investigating the effects of oil spills and use of detergents. The effects of long-term low level input to the marine environment are much less elucidated. This study represents the first step in a project concerning chronic oil pollution undertaken by the Marine Pollution Laboratory, Denmark. Results from previous studies on this subject in the area concerned, which have not been internationally published, are also included. In a series of Danish coastal localities, samples of surface sediments (top cm) were taken and samples of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, were collected by SCUBA diving.

  16. Statistical interpretation of pollution data from satellites. [for levels distribution over metropolitan area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. L.; Green, R. N.; Young, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    The NIMBUS-G environmental monitoring satellite has an instrument (a gas correlation spectrometer) onboard for measuring the mass of a given pollutant within a gas volume. The present paper treats the problem: How can this type measurement be used to estimate the distribution of pollutant levels in a metropolitan area. Estimation methods are used to develop this distribution. The pollution concentration caused by a point source is modeled as a Gaussian plume. The uncertainty in the measurements is used to determine the accuracy of estimating the source strength, the wind velocity, diffusion coefficients and source location.

  17. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds: An interim report: Volume 2, Appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.; Wallace, D.W.; Newcomer, D.R.; Schramke, J.A.; Chamness, M.A.; Cline, C.S.; Airhart, S.P.; Wilbur, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived form the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the main text. This Volume contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text.

  18. Protocol for the E-Area Low Level Waste Facility Disposal Limits Database

    SciTech Connect

    Swingle, R

    2006-01-31

    A database has been developed to contain the disposal limits for the E-Area Low Level Waste Facility (ELLWF). This database originates in the form of an EXCEL{copyright} workbook. The pertinent sheets are translated to PDF format using Adobe ACROBAT{copyright}. The PDF version of the database is accessible from the Solid Waste Division web page on SHRINE. In addition to containing the various disposal unit limits, the database also contains hyperlinks to the original references for all limits. It is anticipated that database will be revised each time there is an addition, deletion or revision of any of the ELLWF radionuclide disposal limits.

  19. Encoding of nested levels of acoustic regularity in hierarchically organized areas of the human auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Recasens, Marc; Grimm, Sabine; Wollbrink, Andreas; Pantev, Christo; Escera, Carles

    2014-11-01

    Our auditory system is able to encode acoustic regularity of growing levels of complexity to model and predict incoming events. Recent evidence suggests that early indices of deviance detection in the time range of the middle-latency responses (MLR) precede the mismatch negativity (MMN), a well-established error response associated with deviance detection. While studies suggest that only the MMN, but not early deviance-related MLR, underlie complex regularity levels, it is not clear whether these two mechanisms interplay during scene analysis by encoding nested levels of acoustic regularity, and whether neuronal sources underlying local and global deviations are hierarchically organized. We registered magnetoencephalographic evoked fields to rapidly presented four-tone local sequences containing a frequency change. Temporally integrated local events, in turn, defined global regularities, which were infrequently violated by a tone repetition. A global magnetic mismatch negativity (MMNm) was obtained at 140-220 ms when breaking the global regularity, but no deviance-related effects were shown in early latencies. Conversely, Nbm (45-55 ms) and Pbm (60-75 ms) deflections of the MLR, and an earlier MMNm response at 120-160 ms, responded to local violations. Distinct neuronal generators in the auditory cortex underlay the processing of local and global regularity violations, suggesting that nested levels of complexity of auditory object representations are represented in separated cortical areas. Our results suggest that the different processing stages and anatomical areas involved in the encoding of auditory representations, and the subsequent detection of its violations, are hierarchically organized in the human auditory cortex.

  20. Socio-economic correlates of contraceptive knowledge among women in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Salleh, N M; Peng, T N; Arshat, H

    1986-12-01

    Knowledge about contraception was examined in relation to selected socioeconomic variables. A total of 2567 currently married women aged 15-49 years residing in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya were interviewed. The majority of the women knew of at least 1 contraceptive method. An index termed Contraceptive Knowledge Score (CKS) was used to measure the level of knowledge about contraception. The CKS achieved differed significantly by age, area of residence and ethnic group. The other socioeconomic variables significantly associated with CKS are schooling, occupation, income, childhood residence and age at marriage. These relationships persisted even after adjusting for differences in age, ethnicity and area of residence. Overall the CKS attained have a wide range and there is no significant difference of the mean CKS attained, between users and non-users of contraceptives.

  1. Assessing Natural Background Levels of aquifers in the Metropolitan Area of Milan (Lombardy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Caro, Mattia; Crosta, Giovanni; Frattini, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000/60/CE) requires Member States to evaluate the status of groundwater bodies in order to reach a good water quality for human consumption. One of the preliminary steps for defining the status of groundwater bodies consists in the definition and evaluation of the so-called Natural Background Levels (NBL). The NBL or Baseline level can be defined as "the range of concentration of a given element, isotope or chemical compound in solution, derived entirely from natural, geological, biological or atmospheric sources, under conditions not perturbed by anthropogenic activity" (Edmund and Shand, 2009). The qualitative analysis for a large area (ca 4500 Km2) of the Po Plain around the Milan Metropolitan area (Lombardy, Italy) is presented in this study. Despite the aquifers in the Milan metropolitan area are an incredible groundwater resource for a very large population (3.195.629 inhabitants in the metropolitan area, data at November 2014) and a highly industrialized area, a groundwater baseline characterization is still missing. In order to attain the hydro-geochemical characterization a complete geodatabase was built (120.655 chemical samples from 1980 to 2014). This database has been explored by classical and multivariate statistical analyses to provide relationships among the more influential lithological, hydrogeological and hydro-chemical variables. Finally, the NBLs of different chemical species which may be anthropogenic sensitive (Na, Cl, K, NO3, SO4, NH4, As, Fe, Cr, Fe, Mn, Zn) and for multiple aquifer bodies (phreatic, semi-confined and confined aquifer) are evaluated. Two different approaches are applied: the Pre-Selection method (BRIDGE, 2006) and the Component-Separation method. The first one (PS) consists in the exclusion of samples from the available dataset that could indicate human activities then deriving the NBL as the 90th percentile of the remaining data. The second one (CS) consists in the fitting of

  2. DIRECT OBSERVATION OF NEIGHBORHOOD ATTRIBUTES IN AN URBAN AREA OF THE US SOUTH: CHARACTERIZING THE SOCIAL CONTEXT OF PREGNANCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Neighborhood characteristics have been associated with poor maternal and child health outcomes, yet conceptualization of potential mechanisms is still needed. Census data have long served as proxies for area level socioeconomic influences. Unique information captured ...

  3. Multivariate spatial models of excess crash frequency at area level: case of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Aguero-Valverde, Jonathan

    2013-10-01

    Recently, areal models of crash frequency have being used in the analysis of various area-wide factors affecting road crashes. On the other hand, disease mapping methods are commonly used in epidemiology to assess the relative risk of the population at different spatial units. A natural next step is to combine these two approaches to estimate the excess crash frequency at area level as a measure of absolute crash risk. Furthermore, multivariate spatial models of crash severity are explored in order to account for both frequency and severity of crashes and control for the spatial correlation frequently found in crash data. This paper aims to extent the concept of safety performance functions to be used in areal models of crash frequency. A multivariate spatial model is used for that purpose and compared to its univariate counterpart. Full Bayes hierarchical approach is used to estimate the models of crash frequency at canton level for Costa Rica. An intrinsic multivariate conditional autoregressive model is used for modeling spatial random effects. The results show that the multivariate spatial model performs better than its univariate counterpart in terms of the penalized goodness-of-fit measure Deviance Information Criteria. Additionally, the effects of the spatial smoothing due to the multivariate spatial random effects are evident in the estimation of excess equivalent property damage only crashes.

  4. Reef Fishes at All Trophic Levels Respond Positively to Effective Marine Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Soler, German A; Edgar, Graham J; Thomson, Russell J; Kininmonth, Stuart; Campbell, Stuart J; Dawson, Terence P; Barrett, Neville S; Bernard, Anthony T F; Galván, David E; Willis, Trevor J; Alexander, Timothy J; Stuart-Smith, Rick D

    2015-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) offer a unique opportunity to test the assumption that fishing pressure affects some trophic groups more than others. Removal of larger predators through fishing is often suggested to have positive flow-on effects for some lower trophic groups, in which case protection from fishing should result in suppression of lower trophic groups as predator populations recover. We tested this by assessing differences in the trophic structure of reef fish communities associated with 79 MPAs and open-access sites worldwide, using a standardised quantitative dataset on reef fish community structure. The biomass of all major trophic groups (higher carnivores, benthic carnivores, planktivores and herbivores) was significantly greater (by 40% - 200%) in effective no-take MPAs relative to fished open-access areas. This effect was most pronounced for individuals in large size classes, but with no size class of any trophic group showing signs of depressed biomass in MPAs, as predicted from higher predator abundance. Thus, greater biomass in effective MPAs implies that exploitation on shallow rocky and coral reefs negatively affects biomass of all fish trophic groups and size classes. These direct effects of fishing on trophic structure appear stronger than any top down effects on lower trophic levels that would be imposed by intact predator populations. We propose that exploitation affects fish assemblages at all trophic levels, and that local ecosystem function is generally modified by fishing.

  5. Assessment of daytime outdoor comfort levels in and outside the urban area of Glasgow, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Eduardo; Drach, Patricia; Emmanuel, Rohinton; Corbella, Oscar

    2013-07-01

    To understand thermal preferences and to define a preliminary outdoor comfort range for the local population of Glasgow, UK, an extensive series of measurements and surveys was carried out during 19 monitoring campaigns from winter through summer 2011 at six different monitoring points in pedestrian areas of downtown Glasgow. For data collection, a Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station equipped with temperature and humidity sensors, cup anemometer with wind vane, silicon pyranometer and globe thermometer was employed. Predictions of the outdoor thermal index PET (physiologically equivalent temperature) correlated closely to the actual thermal votes of respondents. Using concurrent measurements from a second Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station placed in a rural setting approximately 15 km from the urban area, comparisons were drawn with regard to daytime thermal comfort levels and urban-rural temperature differences (∆Tu-r) for the various sites. The urban sites exhibited a consistent lower level of thermal discomfort during daytime. No discernible effect of urban form attributes in terms of the sky-view factor were observed on ∆Tu-r or on the relative difference of the adjusted predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD*).

  6. Cadmium levels in the urine of female farmers in nonpolluted areas in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, H.; Watanabe, T.; Ikeda, M.

    1986-01-01

    About 1200 urine samples were collected, mostly in winter seasons in 1982-1984, from adult women in 7 nonpolluted areas in widely separated parts of Japan, and analyses for cadmium (Cd-U) were conducted in a single laboratory. The geometric mean (GM) by decades of age groups of Cd-U, after adjustment for a specific gravity of urine of 1.016, increased from 0.88 microgram/l in the twenties to reach a maximum of 1.78 micrograms/l in the fifties followed by gradual decrease to 1.31 micrograms/l in the eighties. The effect of smoking (about 8 cigarettes/d as a mean) was absent. Analyses of additional 125 urine samples from men revealed that Cd-U in men was not higher than that in women. When classified geographically, Cd-U was higher in the area on the coast of the Sea of Japan, as suspected in preceding studies on blood cadmium levels and dietary cadmium intakes. The Cd-U levels observed in the present study are similar to the values in previous publications on the Japanese and are apparently higher than the counterpart values from Europe, the United States, and New Zealand.

  7. Reef Fishes at All Trophic Levels Respond Positively to Effective Marine Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Soler, German A.; Edgar, Graham J.; Thomson, Russell J.; Kininmonth, Stuart; Campbell, Stuart J.; Dawson, Terence P.; Barrett, Neville S.; Bernard, Anthony T. F.; Galván, David E.; Willis, Trevor J.; Alexander, Timothy J.; Stuart-Smith, Rick D.

    2015-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) offer a unique opportunity to test the assumption that fishing pressure affects some trophic groups more than others. Removal of larger predators through fishing is often suggested to have positive flow-on effects for some lower trophic groups, in which case protection from fishing should result in suppression of lower trophic groups as predator populations recover. We tested this by assessing differences in the trophic structure of reef fish communities associated with 79 MPAs and open-access sites worldwide, using a standardised quantitative dataset on reef fish community structure. The biomass of all major trophic groups (higher carnivores, benthic carnivores, planktivores and herbivores) was significantly greater (by 40% - 200%) in effective no-take MPAs relative to fished open-access areas. This effect was most pronounced for individuals in large size classes, but with no size class of any trophic group showing signs of depressed biomass in MPAs, as predicted from higher predator abundance. Thus, greater biomass in effective MPAs implies that exploitation on shallow rocky and coral reefs negatively affects biomass of all fish trophic groups and size classes. These direct effects of fishing on trophic structure appear stronger than any top down effects on lower trophic levels that would be imposed by intact predator populations. We propose that exploitation affects fish assemblages at all trophic levels, and that local ecosystem function is generally modified by fishing. PMID:26461104

  8. Determinants of blood lead levels in an adult population from a mining area in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos Paoliello, M. M.; Mello de Capitani, E.; Gonçalves da Cunha, F.; Carvalho, M. De Fatima; Matsuo, T.; Sakuma, A.; Ribeiro Figueiredo, B.

    2003-05-01

    During the last fifty year the Ribeira river valley, Brazil, had been under the influence of the full activity of a huge lead refinery and mining along the riverside. The plant completely stopped all kind of industrial activities at the end of 1995, and part of the worker population and their families still remain living nearby in smal communities. The objective of the present study was to assess the deterninants of blood lead levels (BLL) in these nining areas, where residual environmental contamination from the past industrial activity still remains. Blood samples of 350 adults aged 15 to 70, residing in areas around the mine and the refinery were collected. A questionnaire was given in order to gather information on food habits, current and former residential places occupationnal activities, among other variables. Blood lead concentrations were analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using Zeeman background correction. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the independent contribution of selected variables in predicting BLL in those subjects. The following variables showed significant association with high BLL: residential area close to the lead refinery, former dwelling at the refinery village, male gender, smoking habits, and consume of fruits from home back yard.

  9. Field-measured drag area is a key correlate of level cycling time trial performance

    PubMed Central

    Peterman, James E.; Lim, Allen C.; Ignatz, Ryan I.; Edwards, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    Drag area (Ad) is a primary factor determining aerodynamic resistance during level cycling and is therefore a key determinant of level time trial performance. However, Ad has traditionally been difficult to measure. Our purpose was to determine the value of adding field-measured Ad as a correlate of level cycling time trial performance. In the field, 19 male cyclists performed a level (22.1 km) time trial. Separately, field-determined Ad and rolling resistance were calculated for subjects along with projected frontal area assessed directly (AP) and indirectly (Est AP). Also, a graded exercise test was performed to determine \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\dot {V}{O}_{2}$\\end{document}V˙O2 peak, lactate threshold (LT), and economy. \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\dot {V}{O}_{2}$\\end{document}V˙O2 peak (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\mathrm{l}~\\min ^{-1}$\\end{document}lmin−1) and power at LT were significantly correlated to power measured during the time trial (r = 0.83 and 0.69, respectively) but were not significantly correlated to performance time (r = − 0.42 and −0.45). The correlation with performance time improved significantly (p < 0.05) when these variables were normalized to Ad. Of note, Ad alone was better correlated to performance time (r = 0.85, p < 0.001) than any combination of non-normalized physiological

  10. Robust Lake Level Extraction in Mountainous Areas By Retracking Cryosat Sarin Mode Waveforms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinherenbrink, M.; Ditmar, P.; Lindenbergh, R.

    2014-12-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, lake levels can be monitored using satellite altimetry.This is notably an advantage for lakes located in remote areas, where no gauges are present.Two disadvantages of traditional satellite altimetry however are the limited number of ground tracks and the pulse limited footprint size.In 2010 Cryosat was launched with onboard a SAR Interferometric Radar ALtimeter (SIRAL), which has a dense ground track spacing of 7-8 km and a along-track resolution of approximately 300 m in the SAR Interferometric (SARIn) mode.This potentially enables Cryosat to sample more lakes and obtain more reliable lake levels in near-shore regions.Still, the accuracy and robustness of standard level 2 data is limited due to pollution of the waveform in near-shore regions.We propose therefore to actively extract the water surface by a novel retracking algorithm based on cross-correlation of observed level 1b waveforms with a generic simulated waveform.As a result, we obtain multiple elevations per waveform.As the water level is contributing to each consecutive waveform over the lake, it can efficiently be extracted using a majority voting scheme.By comparing the lake levels to those obtained with Jason-2 over Lake Nasser an RMS of differences of 0.30 m is found.After this validation step, we applied the procedure to lakes in Tian Shan and Tibet.In these areas 125 lakes are measured at least four times in two years, of which 30 are even sampled ten times in two years and 16 more than twenty times.For the ones sampled more than twenty times an additional slope in the water surface could be estimated, which can be an effect of prevailing winds or errors in the geoid model.Ultimately, we found a negative water balance in the natural lakes in Tian Shan and a positive balance in Tibet between February 2012 and February 2014.These results clearly demonstrate the potential of Cryosat, as previous radar altimetry missions were only able to sample about 70 lakes over

  11. Vertical Displacements in the Upper Rhine Graben Area Derived from Precise Levelling Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, T.; Westerhaus, M.; Zippelt, K.; Heck, B.

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of precise levelling data enables an accurate determination of vertical displacement rates at levelling benchmarks, if repeated measurements at identical benchmarks are available. In order to gain detailed insight into vertical crustal deformations in the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) area, a consistent analysis of levelling measurements carried out in Germany, France and Switzerland is in progress at the Geodetic Institute, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. The data used for this study was primarily measured by the ordnance survey of the participating countries to contribute to a terrestrial height system. As the levelling lines were remeasured up to five times within the last 100 years, a calculation of reliable vertical displacement rates with accuracies of about 0.2 mm/a is possible. In a first step, the geodetic dataset was analysed using a kinematic network adjustment. Within this approach the exact dates of the measurements are used in a time-dependent model for the estimation of displacement rates. The adjustment model delivers a detailed picture of the recent vertical displacement field in the URG and the surrounding regions. On average, the magnitudes of estimated displacement rates are of the order of 0.15 mm/a, which is in an overall agreement with tectonic concepts. Since the formal error of the adjustment is of the same order of magnitude, only rates above this value can be treated as significant. Two features of the displacement field are studied in more detail: (i) An apparent regional tilt from +0.2 mm/a in the URG to about -0.3 mm/a in the eastern part of the investigation area is detected, which is not supported by tectonic models. We are currently investigating whether regional geochemical processes in the subsurface could be responsible for this large scale deformation observation. (ii) Subsidence rates of -0.5 mm/a are observed along the main border fault in the south-eastern part of the URG. A comparison of benchmark heights of

  12. Individual and Area Level Factors Associated with Prenatal, Delivery, and Postnatal Care in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Budhwani, Henna; Hearld, Kristine Ria; Harbison, Hanne

    2015-10-01

    This research examines individual and area level factors associated with maternal health care utilization in Pakistan. The 2012-2013 Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys data was used to model five outcomes: prenatal care within the first trimester, four plus prenatal visits, birth attendance by a skilled attendant, birth in a medical facility, and receipt of postnatal care. Less than half of births were to mothers receiving prenatal care in the first trimester, and approximately 57 % had trained personnel at delivery. Over half were born to mothers who received postnatal care. Evidence was found to support the positive effect of individual level variables, education and wealth, on the utilization of maternal health care across all five measures. Although, this study did not find unilateral differences between women residing in rural and urban settings, rural women were found to have lower odds of utilizing prenatal services as compared to mothers in urban environments. Additionally, women who cited distance as a barrier, had lower odds of receiving postnatal health care, but still engaged in prenatal services and often had a skilled attendant present at delivery. The odds of utilizing prenatal care increased when women resided in an area where prenatal utilization was high, and this variability was found across measures across provinces. The results found in this paper highlight the uneven progress made around improving prenatal, delivery, and postnatal care in Pakistan; disparities persist which may be attributed to factors both at the individual and community level, but may be addressed through a consorted effort to change national policy around women's health which should include the promotion of evidence based interventions such as incentivizing health care workers, promoting girls' education, and improving transportation options for pregnant women and recent mothers with the intent of ultimately lowering the Maternal Mortality Rate as recommended in the U

  13. School Socioeconomic Composition and Adolescent Sexual Initiation in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinho

    2015-09-01

    Numerous studies have documented the determinants of sexual behavior among adolescents in less-developed countries, yet relatively little is known about the influence of social contexts such as school and neighborhood. Using two waves of data from a school-based longitudinal survey conducted in Malawi from 2011-13, this study advances our understanding of the relationship between school-level socioeconomic contexts and adolescents' sexual activity. The results from two-level multinomial logistic regression models suggest that high socioeconomic composition of the student body in school decreases the odds of initiation of sexual activity, independent of other important features of schools and individual-level characteristics. This study also finds that the association between school socioeconomic composition and sexual activity is statistically significant among male adolescents but not female adolescents, suggesting that schools' socioeconomic contexts may be more relevant to male adolescents' initiation of sexual activity.

  14. The Volitional Nature of Nicotine Exposure Alters Anandamide and Oleoylethanolamide Levels in the Ventral Tegmental Area

    PubMed Central

    Buczynski, Matthew W; Polis, Ilham Y; Parsons, Loren H

    2013-01-01

    Cannabinoid-1 receptors (CB1) have an important role in nicotine reward and their function is disrupted by chronic nicotine exposure, suggesting nicotine-induced alterations in endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling. However, the effects of nicotine on brain eCB levels have not been rigorously evaluated. Volitional intake of nicotine produces physiological and behavioral effects distinct from forced drug administration, although the mechanisms underlying these effects are not known. This study compared the effects of volitional nicotine self-administration (SA) and forced nicotine exposure (yoked administration (YA)) on levels of eCBs and related neuroactive lipids in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and other brain regions. Brain lipid levels were indexed both by in vivo microdialysis in the VTA and lipid extractions from brain tissues. Nicotine SA, but not YA, reduced baseline VTA dialysate oleoylethanolamide (OEA) levels relative to nicotine-naïve controls, and increased anandamide (AEA) release during nicotine intake. In contrast, all nicotine exposure paradigms increased VTA dialysate 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) levels. Thus, nicotine differentially modulates brain lipid (2-AG, AEA, and OEA) signaling, and these modulations are influenced by the volitional nature of the drug exposure. Corresponding bulk tissue analysis failed to identify these lipid changes. Nicotine exposure had no effect on fatty acid amide hydrolase activity in the VTA, suggesting that changes in AEA and OEA signaling result from alterations in their nicotine-induced biosynthesis. Both CB1 (by AEA and 2-AG) and non-CB1 (by OEA) targets can alter the excitability and activity of the dopaminergic neurons in the VTA. Collectively, these findings implicate disrupted lipid signaling in the motivational effects of nicotine. PMID:23169348

  15. The volitional nature of nicotine exposure alters anandamide and oleoylethanolamide levels in the ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Buczynski, Matthew W; Polis, Ilham Y; Parsons, Loren H

    2013-03-01

    Cannabinoid-1 receptors (CB(1)) have an important role in nicotine reward and their function is disrupted by chronic nicotine exposure, suggesting nicotine-induced alterations in endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling. However, the effects of nicotine on brain eCB levels have not been rigorously evaluated. Volitional intake of nicotine produces physiological and behavioral effects distinct from forced drug administration, although the mechanisms underlying these effects are not known. This study compared the effects of volitional nicotine self-administration (SA) and forced nicotine exposure (yoked administration (YA)) on levels of eCBs and related neuroactive lipids in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and other brain regions. Brain lipid levels were indexed both by in vivo microdialysis in the VTA and lipid extractions from brain tissues. Nicotine SA, but not YA, reduced baseline VTA dialysate oleoylethanolamide (OEA) levels relative to nicotine-naïve controls, and increased anandamide (AEA) release during nicotine intake. In contrast, all nicotine exposure paradigms increased VTA dialysate 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) levels. Thus, nicotine differentially modulates brain lipid (2-AG, AEA, and OEA) signaling, and these modulations are influenced by the volitional nature of the drug exposure. Corresponding bulk tissue analysis failed to identify these lipid changes. Nicotine exposure had no effect on fatty acid amide hydrolase activity in the VTA, suggesting that changes in AEA and OEA signaling result from alterations in their nicotine-induced biosynthesis. Both CB(1) (by AEA and 2-AG) and non-CB(1) (by OEA) targets can alter the excitability and activity of the dopaminergic neurons in the VTA. Collectively, these findings implicate disrupted lipid signaling in the motivational effects of nicotine.

  16. Productivity aspects of three tropical seagrass species in areas of different nutrient levels in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uku, J.; Björk, M.

    2005-05-01

    Previous work conducted in two seagrass areas of different nutrient status, along the Kenyan coast, has shown that the seagrasses were characterised by differences in the species composition and biomass of epiphytic algae. This study was undertaken to evaluate the productivity patterns of the seagrass species growing in these same sites. Studies were made on Thalassodendron ciliatum (Forskål) den Hartog, Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenberg) Aschers and Cymodocea rotundata Ehrenberg and Hempr. ex Ascherson growing in the lagoons of Nyali and Vipingo, along the Kenyan coast, during the South East (SE) and North East (NE) monsoon periods. The results of this study revealed differences in the levels of nitrate within the water column, with Vipingo having lower levels of around 4 μM during the low tide period of the SE monsoon while nitrate levels in Nyali reached levels of 16 μM during the same period. Of the three seagrass species studied, C. rotundata had the highest shoot densities in both sites. The shoot densities of C. rotundata reached levels of 1300 shoots m -2 compared to an average of 600 shoots m -2 for both T. ciliatum and T. hemprichii. The stems of T. ciliatum were found to be 200 mm long in Nyali whereas those in Vipingo were 80 mm in length. Of the three seagrasses T. ciliatum and T. hemprichii showed significant differences in total leaf growth between the two sites. However, of these two species, only T. hemprichii showed distinct differences in leaf production and biomass when the two sites were compared. Leaves of T. hemprichii showed growth rates of 0.008 g dw shoot -1 day -1 in Nyali while the growth rate in Vipingo was 0.004 g dw shoot -1 day -1. Leaf production rates were approximately 0.005 g dw shoot -1 day -1 for T. ciliatum in both Nyali and Vipingo and that of C. rotundata was approximately 0.0015 g dw shoot -1 day -1 in the two sites. This suggests that of the three species studied, T. hemprichii may have been influenced by the

  17. Change in Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.; Cooper-McCann, Rebecca; Ayers, Colby; Berrigan, David; Lian, Min; McClurkin, Michael; Barbash, Rachel Ballard; Das, Sandeep R.; Hoehner, Christine M.; Leonard, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite a proposed connection between neighborhood environment and obesity, few longitudinal studies have examined the relationship between change in neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, as defined by moving between neighborhoods, and change in body weight. The purpose of this study is to examine the longitudinal relationship between moving to more socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods and weight gain as a cardiovascular risk factor. Methods Weight (kg) was measured in the Dallas Heart Study (DHS), a multiethnic cohort aged 18–65 years, at baseline (2000–2002) and 7-year follow-up (2007–2009, N=1,835). Data were analyzed in 2013–2014. Geocoded addresses were linked to Dallas County, TX census block groups. A block group-level neighborhood deprivation index (NDI) was created. Multilevel difference-in-difference models with random effects and a Heckman correction factor (HCF) determined weight change relative to NDI change. Results Forty-nine percent of the DHS population moved (263 to higher NDI, 586 to lower NDI, 47 within same NDI), with blacks more likely to move than whites or Hispanics (p<0.01), but similar baseline BMI and waist circumference were observed in movers vs. non-movers (p>0.05). Adjusting for HCF, sex, race, and time-varying covariates, those who moved to areas of higher NDI gained more weight compared to those remaining in the same or moving to a lower NDI (0.64 kg per 1-unit NDI increase, 95% CI=0.09, 1.19). Impact of NDI change on weight gain increased with time (p=0.03). Conclusions Moving to more–socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods was associated with weight gain among DHS participants. PMID:25960394

  18. Association between Blood Dioxin Level and Chronic Kidney Disease in an Endemic Area of Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chien-Yuan; Wu, Cheng-Long; Wu, Jin-Shang; Chang, Jung-Wei; Cheng, Ya-Yun; Kuo, Yau-Chang; Yang, Yi-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Background Dioxin is an industrial pollutant related to various diseases, but epidemiological data on its effects on the kidney are limited. Therefore, we conducted a study to evaluate the association between dioxin exposure and chronic kidney disease (CKD) and identify the related factors. Methods We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study and recruited participants from an area where the residents were exposed to dioxin released from a factory. We defined a “high dioxin level” as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) ≥ 20 pg WHO98-TEQDF/g lipid in the serum and defined CKD as having an estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR) ≤ 60 mL/min/1.73m2 or a diagnosis of CKD by a physician. The renal function was assessed between 2005 and 2010, and we excluded those who had had kidney diseases before the study started. Comparisons between patients of CKD and those who did not have CKD were made to identify the risk factors for CKD. Results Of the 2898 participants, 1427 had high dioxin levels, and 156 had CKD. In the univariate analyses, CKD was associated with high dioxin levels, age, gender, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and high insulin and uric acid levels. After adjusting for other factors, we found high dioxin levels (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.76, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04–2.99), female gender (AOR = 1.74, 95%CI: 1.20–2.53), hypertension (AOR = 1.68, 95%CI: 1.17–2.42), high insulin levels (AOR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.26–3.61), high uric acid levels (AOR = 4.25, 95% CI: 2.92–6.20), and older age (AOR = 4.66, 95% CI: 1.87–11.62 for 40–64 year and AOR = 26.66, 95% CI: 10.51–67.62 for age ≥ 65 year) were independent predictors of CKD. Conclusion A high dioxin level was associated with an increased prevalence of CKD. Therefore, the kidney function of populations with exposure to dioxin should be monitored. PMID:26963719

  19. Assessing coastal flood risk and sea level rise impacts at New York City area airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohman, K. A.; Kimball, N.; Osler, M.; Eberbach, S.

    2014-12-01

    Flood risk and sea level rise impacts were assessed for the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) at four airports in the New York City area. These airports included John F. Kennedy International, LaGuardia, Newark International, and Teterboro Airports. Quantifying both present day and future flood risk due to climate change and developing flood mitigation alternatives is crucial for the continued operation of these airports. During Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 all four airports were forced to shut down, in part due to coastal flooding. Future climate change and sea level rise effects may result in more frequent shutdowns and disruptions in travel to and from these busy airports. The study examined the effects of the 1%-annual-chance coastal flooding event for present day existing conditions and six different sea level rise scenarios at each airport. Storm surge model outputs from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) provided the present day storm surge conditions. 50th and 90thpercentile sea level rise projections from the New York Panel on Climate Change (NPCC) 2013 report were incorporated into storm surge results using linear superposition methods. These projections were evaluated for future years 2025, 2035, and 2055. In addition to the linear superposition approach for storm surge at airports where waves are a potential hazard, one dimensional wave modeling was performed to get the total water level results. Flood hazard and flood depth maps were created based on these results. In addition to assessing overall flooding at each airport, major at-risk infrastructure critical to the continued operation of the airport was identified and a detailed flood vulnerability assessment was performed. This assessment quantified flood impacts in terms of potential critical infrastructure inundation and developed mitigation alternatives to adapt to coastal flooding and future sea level changes. Results from this project are advancing the PANYNJ

  20. [Area changes of emergent herbaceous wetlands in relation to water level in East Dongting Lake, China in 1989-2011].

    PubMed

    Tang, Yue; Xie, Yong-Hong; Li, Feng; Chen, Xin-Sheng

    2013-11-01

    Based on multi-temporal Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+ images, and by using decision tree method, this paper extracted the areas of emergent herbaceous wetlands with different water levels in 1989-2011 in the East Dongting Lake, China. The change characteristics and change trends of the emergent herbaceous wetlands areas were investigated based on the DEM data and the daily water level data from the Chenglingji Hydrological Station. The area of the emergent herbaceous wetlands was significantly affected by water level (R2 = 0.875, P < 0.001), presenting a significant linear relationship between the two. Moreover, the emergent herbaceous wetlands area decreased with increasing water level. The higher the water level, the smaller the effects of the water level on the emergent area were. The emergent area changed regularly with water level. In January-July, water level increased, and the emergent area decreased; in July-December, it was opposite. In 1989-2011, the areas of emergent herbaceous wetlands had a continual increase. The newly emergent herbaceous wetlands area was mainly transformed from mudflat. The emergent herbaceous wetlands expansion was the co-effects of the increase of the emergent herbaceous wetlands areas at different elevations, and the rapid expansion of the emergent herbaceous wetlands in low bottomland (22-25 m of Yellow Sea elevation) played the most important role in the expansion. The change of water level at different elevations was the dominant cause for the changes of emergent herbaceous wetlands areas in the East Dongting Lake in the past 20 years.

  1. Haemoglobin status of adult women of two ethnic groups living in a peri-urban area of Kolkata city, India: a micro-level study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Rohini; Bharati, Premananda

    2003-01-01

    A micro level study on the haemoglobin status of 127 Munda (a tribe) and 174 Poundrakshatriya (Pod) (caste) women were conducted in the peri-urban area of Kolkata City, India. The two ethnic groups were selected in order to find out whether populations residing in the same habitat, with similar medical and health care facilities have similar haemoglobin status. Results indicate that there exists very high percentage of anaemia in both the ethnic groups and 100 percent anaemia was observed among the Munda. Mean haemoglobin level was higher among the women of both the ethnic groups, consuming calorie, protein, iron and folic acid, above the recommended value (Indian Council of Medical Research, 2000). Women below the age of 30 years were found to be more anaemic. Education (P <0.001), height (P <0.001) and weight (P<0.005) were significantly associated with the haemoglobin status of the Pod women. Haemoglobin level of both ethnic groups was found to increase with increase in Body Mass Index. Low socioeconomic condition, very low literacy rates, poverty and higher live births may have lowered the haemoglobin level of the women of the Munda population. However, women of both the ethnic groups were found to be anaemic in higher percentage than the state of West Bengal and all India (NFHS, 2000). Linear regression analysis indicated that expenditure on food had positive effect on the haemoglobin level (P<0.05) of the Munda adult women, possibly due to better buying capacity. However, negative effect of food expenditure on the haemoglobin level was noticed among the Pod women (P<0.05), which may be due to disparity in food sharing within the households. Thus populations residing with similar medical and health care facilities revealed differences in the haemoglobin level. Differential expenditure pattern and food sharing practice seems to be the major factors responsible for the differences in haemoglobin status among the adult women in this present study. Very low intake

  2. Health Insurance, Socio-Economic Position and Racial Disparities in Preventive Dental Visits in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ayo-Yusuf, Imade J.; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A.; Olutola, Bukola G.

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to determine the contributions of socio-economic position and health insurance enrollment in explaining racial disparities in preventive dental visits (PDVs) among South Africans. Data on the dentate adult population participating in the last South African Demographic and Health Survey conducted during 2003–2004 (n = 6,312) was used. Main outcome measure: Reporting making routine yearly PDVs as a preventive measure. Education, material wealth index and nutritional status indicated socio-economic position. Multi-level logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the predictors of PDVs. A variant of Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis was also conducted. Health insurance coverage was most common among Whites (70%) and least common among black Africans (10.1%) in South Africa. Similarly, a yearly PDV was most frequently reported by Whites (27.8%) and least frequently reported among black Africans (3.1%). Lower education and lower material wealth were associated with lower odds of making PDVs. There was significant interaction between location (urban/rural) and education (p = 0.010). The racial and socio-economic differences in PDVs observed in urban areas were not observed in rural areas. In the general dentate population, having health insurance significantly increased the odds of making PDVs (OR = 4.32; 3.04–6.14) and accounted for 40.3% of the White/non-White gap in the probability of making PDVs. Overall, socio-economic position and health insurance enrollments together accounted for 55.9% (95% CI = 44.9–67.8) of the White/non-White gap in PDVs. Interventions directed at improving both socio-economic position and insurance coverage of non-White South Africans are likely to significantly reduce racial disparities in PDVs. PMID:23282482

  3. Indicators of deprivation, voting patterns, and health status at area level in the Republic of Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Kelleher, C; Timoney, A; Friel, S; McKeown, D

    2002-01-01

    Study objective: To determine what relation, if any, exists between mortality patterns, indicators of deprivation, general lifestyle and social attitudes, as exemplified by general election voting pattern, in the Republic of Ireland. A relation has been demonstrated previously between voting and mortality patterns in the United Kingdom. Design: Cross sectional ecological study using three data sources. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were based on mortality rates at county level and 1996 census data from the Central Statistics Office, 1997 general election first preference voting data in all 41 constituencies were aggregated to county level. Selected reported measures of health status, lifestyle and social circumstances are from the first ever National survey on lifestyles, attitudes and nutrition (SLAN). This study comprised adults over 18 years sampled by post using the electoral register from 273 representative district electoral divisions. Univariate inter-relations were examined at individual level for the dataset as a whole, adjusting for age and at aggregated level for 26 county borough areas, which included the two largest cities and for 22 county areas, which afforded correlation with voting pattern, using the method of Pearson's correlation coefficient. Participants: 1 806 932 votes were cast nationally at the 1997 general election, representing a voter turnout of 65.92 %. There was an overall response rate of 62% to SLAN comprising 6539 adults (47% male). The demographic pattern of survey respondents was consistent with that of the general population over 18 years. Main results: At individual level there was a large number of highly significant inter-relations between indicators of deprivation, various measures of self rated health status and lifestyle factors. Aggregated at 26 county level percentage unemployed (r=0.408, p=0.038), and level of education (r=0.475, p=0.014) related significantly to SMR and inversely to both fruit and vegetable

  4. Postglacial relative sea-level history of the Prince Rupert area, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letham, Bryn; Martindale, Andrew; Macdonald, Rebecca; Guiry, Eric; Jones, Jacob; Ames, Kenneth M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a history of relative sea level (RSL) change for the last 15,000 years in the Prince Rupert region on the northern coast of British Columbia, Canada. One hundred twenty-three radiocarbon ages of organic material from isolation basin cores, sediment sequence exposures, and archaeological sites having a recognized relation to past sea levels constrain postglacial RSL. The large number of new measurements relating to past sea-level provides a well constrained RSL curve that differs in significant ways from previously published results. After deglaciation following the Last Glacial Maximum, the region experienced an isostatically-induced rapid RSL drop from as much 50 m asl to as low as -6.3 m asl in as little as a few centuries between 14,500 BP and 13,500 BP. After a lowstand below current sea level for about 2000 years during the terminal Pleistocene, RSL rose again to a highstand at least 6 m asl after the end of the Younger Dryas. RSL slowly dropped through the Holocene to close to its current position by 2000-1500 BP, with some potential fluctuations between 3500 and 1500 BP. This study highlights variation in RSL histories across relatively short distances, which must be accounted for by local RSL reconstructions such as this one. This RSL curve aided in the identification of an 8000-9000 year old archaeological site on a 10-12 m asl terrace, which is currently the earliest dated archaeological site in the area, and it provides guidance for searching for even older archaeological remains. We highlight the utility and potential of this refined RSL history for developing surveys for other archaeological sites associated with paleoshorelines.

  5. Regional variations pattern of indoor radon levels in some areas of Punjab and Haryana.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harmanjit; Singh, Joga; Singh, Surinder; Bajwa, B S

    2008-01-01

    The indoor radon concentration levels and their regional variations pattern, for two consecutive half-year periods, in a wide range of dwellings of some regions of Punjab and Haryana states have been studied. The objective was to find the relation between the variations of indoor radon levels with the sub-soil and local geology, type of building materials utilised in the dwellings of the region. Keeping this in view, indoor radon measurements have been carried out in the dwellings of 30 villages around the Tusham Ring Complex, Bhiwani district, Haryana, known to be composed of acidic volcanics and associated granites, along with 11 villages of Amritsar District, Punjab. The indoor radon concentration in the dwellings around Tusham (Haryana) was found to vary from 120 +/- 95 to 915 +/- 233 Bq m(-3), whereas radon levels varied from 60 +/- 37 to 235 +/- 96 Bq m(-3) for the dwellings studied in Punjab. We believe that local geology including embedded granitic rocks, and sub-soil, as well as building materials having higher radioactive content, is the major contributor for the higher indoor radon levels observed particularly in the dwelling around Tusham Ring complex, where some dwellings are showing higher radon concentrations than the ICRP recommendations. The environmental samples from some areas of Punjab state and around the Tusham Ring Complex of Haryana state have also been analysed for radon exhalation studies. Higher values for radon exhalation rates have been observed for the Tusham's soil/rock specimens, as compared with soil samples of the Amritsar region of Punjab.

  6. Levels and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds in southwestern area of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Rodolfo Sosa, E; Humberto Bravo, A; Violeta Mugica, A; Pablo Sanchez, A; Emma Bueno, L; Krupa, Sagar

    2009-03-01

    Thirteen volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were quantified at three sites in southwestern Mexico City from July 2000 to February 2001. High concentrations of different VOCs were found at a Gasoline refueling station (GS), a Condominium area (CA), and at the University Center for Atmospheric Sciences (CAS). The most abundant VOCs at CA and CAS were propane, n-butane, toluene, acetylene and pentane. In comparison, at GS the most abundant were toluene, pentane, propane, n-butane, and acetylene. Benzene, a known carcinogenic compound had average levels of 28, 35 and 250ppbC at CAS, CA, and GS respectively. The main contributing sources of the measured VOCs at CA and CAS were the handling and management of LP (Liquid Propane) gas, vehicle exhaust, asphalt works, and use of solvents. At GS almost all of the VOCs came from vehicle exhaust and fuel evaporation, although components of LP gas were also present. Based on the overall results possible abatement strategies are discussed.

  7. Socioeconomic deprivation and barriers to live-donor kidney transplantation: a qualitative study of deceased-donor kidney transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Phillippa K; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Tomson, Charles R V; Owen-Smith, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Socioeconomically deprived individuals with renal disease are less likely to receive a live-donor kidney transplant than less-deprived individuals. This qualitative study aimed to identify reasons for the observed socioeconomic disparity in live-donor kidney transplantation. Design A qualitative study using face-to-face in-depth semistructured interviews. Setting A UK tertiary renal referral hospital and transplant centre. Participants Purposive sampling was used to select deceased-donor transplant recipients from areas of high socioeconomic deprivation (SED) (19 participants), followed by a low SED comparison group (13 participants), aiming for maximum diversity in terms of age, gender, ethnicity, primary renal disease and previous renal replacement therapy. Methods Participants were interviewed following their routine transplant clinic review. Interviews were digitally audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded using NVivo software and analysed using the constant comparison method described in Grounded Theory. Results Themes common and distinct to each socioeconomic group emerged. 6 themes appeared to distinguish between individuals from areas of high and low SED. 4 themes were distinct to participants from areas of high SED: (1) Passivity, (2) Disempowerment, (3) Lack of social support and (4) Short-term focus. 2 themes were distinct to the low SED group: (1) Financial concerns and (2) Location of donor. Conclusions Several of the emerging themes from the high SED individuals relate to an individual's lack of confidence and skill in managing their health and healthcare; themes that are in keeping with low levels of patient activation. Inadequate empowerment of socioeconomically deprived individuals by healthcare practitioners was also described. Financial concerns did not emerge as a barrier from interviews with the high SED group. Interventions aiming to redress the observed socioeconomic inequity should be targeted at both

  8. Arsenic levels in the groundwater of Korea and the urinary excretion among contaminated area.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Duck; Choi, Seong-Jin; Choi, Byung-Sun; Lee, Choong-Ryeol; Kim, Heon; Kim, Yong-Dae; Park, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Young-Jo; Kang, Seojin; Lim, Kyung-Min; Chung, Jin-Ho

    2016-09-01

    Drinking water is a main source of human exposure to arsenic. Hence, the determination of arsenic in groundwater is essential to assess its impact on public health. Here, we report arsenic levels in the groundwater of 722 sites covering all six major provinces of Korea. Water was sampled in two occasions (summer, 722 sites and winter, 636 sites) and the arsenic levels were measured with highly sensitive inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry method (limit of detection, 0.1 μg/l) to encompass the current drinking water standard (<10 μg/l). Seasonal variation was negligible, but the geographical difference was prominent. Total arsenic in groundwater ranged from 0.1 to 48.4 μg/l. A 88.0-89.0% of sites were <2.0 μg/l and the remaining ones generally did not exceed 10 μg/l (6.4-7.0%, 2.0-4.9 μg/l; 2.4-3.0%, 5.0-9.9 μg/l). However, some areas (1.0-9.2%) exhibited >10 μg/l. Notably, urinary arsenic excretion of people around these regions was markedly higher compared with non-contaminated areas (<5 μg/l) (79.7±5.2 μg/g (N=122) vs 68.4±5.4 μg/g (N=65) creatinine, P=0.052). All stratified analysis also revealed higher urinary excretion, where a statistically significant difference was noted for non-smokers (85.9±12.7 vs 54.0±6.3, P=0.030), suggesting that arsenic-contaminated groundwater may contribute to its systemic exposure.

  9. Allowable residual-contamination levels for decommissioning facilities in the 100 areas of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.

    1983-07-01

    This report contains the results of a study sponsored by UNC Nuclear Industries to determine Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for five generic categories of facilities in the 100 Areas of the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to provide ARCL data useful to UNC engineers in conducting safety and cost comparisons for decommissioning alternatives. The ARCL results are based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for three specific modes of future use of the land and facilities. These modes of use are restricted, controlled, and unrestricted. The information on ARCL values for restricted and controlled use provided by this report is intended to permit a full consideration of decommissioning alternatives. ARCL results are presented both for surface contamination remaining in facilities (in dpm/100 cm/sup 2/), and for unconfined surface and confined subsurface soil conditions (in pCi/g). Two confined soil conditions are considered: contamination at depths between 1 and 4 m, and contamination at depths greater than or equal to 5 m. A set of worksheets are presented in an appendix for modifying the ARCL values to accommodate changes in the radionuclide mixture or concentrations, to consider the impacts of radioactive decay, and to predict instrument responses. Finally, a comparison is made between the unrestricted release ARCL values for the 100 Area facilities and existing decommissioning and land disposal regulations. For surface contamination, the comparison shows good agreement. For soil contamination, the comparison shows good agreement if reasonable modification factors are applied to account for the differences in modeling soil contamination and licensed low-level waste.

  10. An Analysis of Mathematics Achievement Disparities between Black and White Students and Socioeconomically Disadvantaged and Advantaged Students across Content Strands by Elementary and Middle School Level in a Diverse Virginia School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Benjamin L.

    2013-01-01

    Student achievement gaps between Black and White students, and socioeconomically disadvantaged and advantaged students, have been observed and formally documented since the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) began in the 1970s. In particular, the mathematics achievement gap between these historically disadvantaged populations has…

  11. Can salt marsh plants influence levels and distribution of DDTs in estuarine areas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Pedro N.; Rodrigues, Pedro Nuno R.; Evangelista, Rafael; Basto, M. Clara P.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2011-07-01

    Sediments are depositories of toxic substances such as organochlorine pesticides and there is a global need for their removal in contaminated environments. Studies that combine contaminated sediments and phytoremediation are relatively recent and their number has been increasing. This work aimed to investigate whether salt marsh plants (sea club-rush Scirpus maritimus, sea rush Juncus maritimus and sea purslane Halimione portulacoides) can favor DDT and metabolites remediation in estuarine environment. For this purpose the levels of DDT, DDE and DDD were compared in vegetated and non-vegetated sediments from an estuary in the North of Portugal ( in-situ study) and from another in the South of Portugal ( ex-situ study). Results obtained both in the in-situ study, involving S. maritimus and J. maritimus, and in the ex-situ study, involving H. portulacoides, indicated that these plants did not have a significant role in DDTs removal and/or degradation. Therefore, it seems that the tested plants cannot influence levels and distribution of DDTs in estuarine areas.

  12. Changes induced by sea level rise on network properties of restoration areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Mirian; Castanedo, Sonia; Zhou, Zeng; Coco, Giovanni; Medina, Raúl

    2015-04-01

    Human actions have been reducing the natural domain of estuarine systems for centuries. In the past, estuaries were perceived as unhealthy areas, source of diseases, which were adapted to human use by drainage and heavy engineering. Our current understanding shows that estuaries are not sources of disease, but rich ecosystems that cover important ecosystem functions. They need to be restored to their natural state. However, restoration actions may induce morphological changes that may change the estuary current behavior. It is thus of the utmost importance to understand the morphodynamic changes induced by restoration actions, more so when the final aim is to predict these changes. Dikes have been the most used mean to enclose and drain areas of estuaries. In this work, we focus our attention on dike removal as a means to restore the areas enclosed by these dikes. Dikes may be removed completely, or only partially (opening one or several breaches), to allow the tidal flow to enter into the area to be restored. Morphodynamic effects of dike removal are simulated numerically using Delft3d. Different dike removal configurations are studied and their effect on the recovery of the estuary quantified. Estuarine tidal networks are characterized by means of a new approach that links network connectivity to the spatial hydrodynamic fields developed in the estuary. The impact of different restorations strategies in the drainage properties of the network has been studied in the short term (5 -10 years) and in the long term (100 years) allowing the connectivity to evolve with time. Results show, for different scenarios, differences not only in the spatial distribution of the tidal network but also in statistical characteristics after different dike removal actions. The new distribution of channels will have implications for the location of the tidal flats, flood patterns and thus biological environments within the tidal networks. These changes in the morphological properties

  13. Socio-economic deprivation and duration of hospital stay in severe mental disorder.

    PubMed

    Abas, Melanie Amna; Vanderpyl, Jane; Robinson, Elizabeth; Le Prou, Trix; Crampton, Peter

    2006-06-01

    Adults from South Auckland, New Zealand who required acute admission to hospital were followed from admission to discharge. After adjusting for demographic factors, diagnosis, chronicity, severity, consultant psychiatrist and involuntary admission, the length of stay for those from more deprived areas was significantly longer by 7 days than for those from less deprived areas. Information on socio-economic deprivation should be used in discharge planning and in optimising access to community care. Research is needed on group-level factors that may affect recovery from mental disorders.

  14. Levels, Composition and Sources of PM in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area During the MILAGRO Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, X.; Pey, J.; Minguillon, M. C.; Perez, N.; Alastuey, A.; Moreno, T.; Bernabe, R.; Blanco, S.; Cardenas, B.

    2007-05-01

    Particle air pollution in urban agglomerations comes mostly from anthropogenic sources, mainly traffic, industrial processes, energy production, domestic and residential emissions, construction, but also a minor contribution from natural sources may be expected (bioaerosols, soil dust, marine aerosol). Once emitted into the atmosphere, this complex mixture of pollutants may be transformed as a function of the ambient conditions and the interaction among the different PM components, and also between PM components and gaseous pollutants. This system is especially complex in mega-cities due to the large emission volumes of PM components and gaseous precursors, the high variability and broad distribution of emission sources, and the possible long range transport of the polluted air masses. Speciation studies help to identify major sources of PM components with the end objective of applying plans and programs for PM pollution abatement. In this framework, concentration levels and compositions of particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10 and TSP) have been measured simultaneously at two sites in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (T0 and CENICA) and at one site 50 km away from Mexico City (T1) during the MILAGRO campaign (1st to 31st March 2006). Spatial and time (day and night) variations have been analysed. Coarse fraction levels were higher at T1 than at CENICA and T0, contrary to what was expected. This was due to the important soil re-suspension at T1, contributing significantly to the crustal load. Moreover, crustal levels were higher during daytime than during nights at all sites, while some secondary compounds (sulphate and ammonium) presented an opposite trend. Regarding trace elements, levels of Pb, Zn and Cd were higher at T0 than at CENICA and T1, probably due to traffic contribution. Arsenic levels did not show a clear pattern, being alternatively higher at CENICA and T0. Two intense episodes of Hg particulate have been recorded, more noticeable at T1 than at the urban

  15. New particle formation at ground level and in the vertical column over the Barcelona area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguillón, M. C.; Brines, M.; Pérez, N.; Reche, C.; Pandolfi, M.; Fonseca, A. S.; Amato, F.; Alastuey, A.; Lyasota, A.; Codina, B.; Lee, H.-K.; Eun, H.-R.; Ahn, K.-H.; Querol, X.

    2015-10-01

    The vertical profiles (up to 975 m a.s.l.) of ultrafine and micronic particles across the planetary boundary layer and the free troposphere over a Mediterranean urban environment were investigated. Measurements were carried out using a tethered balloon equipped with a miniaturized condensation particle counter, a miniaturized optical particle counter, a micro-aethalometer, a rotating impactor, and meteorological instrumentation. Simultaneous ground measurements were carried out at an urban and a regional background site. New particle formation episodes initiating in the urban area were observed under high insolation conditions. The precursors were emitted by the city and urban photochemically-activated nucleation occurred both at high atmospheric levels (tens to hundreds of meters) and at ground level. The new particle formation at ground level was limited by the high particulate matter concentrations recorded during the morning traffic rush hours that increase the condensation sink and prevent new particle formation, and therefore restricted to midday and early afternoon. The aloft new particle formation occurred earlier as the thermally ascending polluted air mass was diluted. The regional background was only affected from midday and early afternoon when sea and mountain breezes transported the urban air mass after particle growth. These events are different from most new particle formation events described in literature, characterized by a regionally originated nucleation, starting early in the morning in the regional background and persisting with a subsequent growth during a long period. An idealized and simplified model of the spatial and time occurrence of these two types of new particle formation episodes into, around and over the city was elaborated.

  16. Assessing spatial occurrence of ground level ozone around coal mining areas of Chandrapur District, Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Salve, Pradeep R; Satapathy, Deepty Ranjan; Katpatal, Yashwant B; Wate, Satish R

    2007-10-01

    Stratospheric input and photochemical ozone formation in the troposphere are the two main sources determining the ozone levels in the surface layer of the atmosphere. Because of the importance of ozone in controlling the atmospheric chemistry and its decisive role in the heat balance of atmosphere, leading to climate change, the examination of its formation and destruction are of great interest. This study characterized the distribution of Ground level Ozone (GLO) in Chandrapur district is lying between 19 degrees 25'N to 20 degrees 45'N and 78 degrees 50'E to 80 degrees 10'E. Continuous ozone analyzer was used to quantify GLO at thirteen locations fixed by Global Positioning System (GPS) during the winter of 2005-2006. The daily GLO at all the locations ranged between 6.4 and 24.8 ppbv with an average and standard deviation of 14.9 +/- 6.5 ppbv. The maximum and minimum concentration occurs during 1300-1600 h and 0300-0500 h may be due to high solar radiation facilitating photochemical production of O(3) and downward mixing from the overlying air mass and in situ destruction of ozone by deposition and/or the reaction between O(3) and NO. GIS based spatial distribution of GLO in Chandrapur district is indicates that the central core of the district and southern sites experienced elevated levels of GLO relative to the northern and western areas. The sites near by Chandrapur city are particularly affected by elevated GLO. The average variation of GLO with temperature shows a significant correlation of r = 0.55 indicating a direct relationship between GLO and temperature. Similarly an attempt has been made to compare the GLO monitored data in Chandrapur district with the reported values for other locations in Indian cities. This generated database helps regulatory agencies to identify locations where the natural resources and human health could be at risk.

  17. All-cause and cause-specific mortality among US youth: socioeconomic and rural-urban disparities and international patterns.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gopal K; Azuine, Romuladus E; Siahpush, Mohammad; Kogan, Michael D

    2013-06-01

    We analyzed international patterns and socioeconomic and rural-urban disparities in all-cause mortality and mortality from homicide, suicide, unintentional injuries, and HIV/AIDS among US youth aged 15-24 years. A county-level socioeconomic deprivation index and rural-urban continuum measure were linked to the 1999-2007 US mortality data. Mortality rates were calculated for each socioeconomic and rural-urban group. Poisson regression was used to derive adjusted relative risks of youth mortality by deprivation level and rural-urban residence. The USA has the highest youth homicide rate and 6th highest overall youth mortality rate in the industrialized world. Substantial socioeconomic and rural-urban gradients in youth mortality were observed within the USA. Compared to their most affluent counterparts, youth in the most deprived group had 1.9 times higher all-cause mortality, 8.0 times higher homicide mortality, 1.5 times higher unintentional-injury mortality, and 8.8 times higher HIV/AIDS mortality. Youth in rural areas had significantly higher mortality rates than their urban counterparts regardless of deprivation levels, with suicide and unintentional-injury mortality risks being 1.8 and 2.3 times larger in rural than in urban areas. However, youth in the most urbanized areas had at least 5.6 times higher risks of homicide and HIV/AIDS mortality than their rural counterparts. Disparities in mortality differed by race and sex. Socioeconomic deprivation and rural-urban continuum were independently related to disparities in youth mortality among all sex and racial/ethnic groups, although the impact of deprivation was considerably greater. The USA ranks poorly in all-cause mortality, youth homicide, and unintentional-injury mortality rates when compared with other industrialized countries.

  18. Socioeconomic status and length of hospital stay in children with vaso-occlusive crises of sickle cell disease.

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, Angela M.; Bauchner, Howard

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between socioeconomic status and length of hospital stay for vaso-occlusive crises in children with sickle cell disease. METHODS: 19,174 discharges (aged 1-20 years), with a primary diagnosis of sickle cell disease with crisis were analyzed from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kid Inpatient Database 2000. Socioeconomic status was assessed using an area-based measure, median household income by ZIP code and an individual-level measure, insurance status. We adjusted for age, gender, hospital location/teaching status, presence of pneumonia, number of diagnoses on record and number of procedures performed. Negative binomial regression models using generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to assess length of stay. RESULTS: Socioeconomic status as measured by income was not associated with length of stay (incidence rate ratio (highest versus lowest category) = 1.04 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.11)). In contrast, socioeconomic status as measured by insurance was associated with length of stay [adjusted incidence rate ratio = 1.04 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.08)), although the magnitude of this difference is small and not likely to be clinically important. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence to suggest that socioeconomic status has any clinically important effect on length of hospital stay in children with vaso-occlusive crises in sickle cell disease. PMID:17393942

  19. Map of the Carpinteria area and vicinity, Santa Barbara County, California, showing water-level contours for March 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maltby, Dorothy

    1984-01-01

    A water-level contour map of the Carpinteria area, California, has been completed by the U.S. Geological Survey using 34 water-level measurements made by the Carpinteria County Water District in March 1982. Also shown are 5 hydrographs that show water-level fluctuations in each well between 1977 and 1982. (USGS)

  20. [FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERN AT A FAMILY LEVEL OF URBAN AREAS OF ANZOÁTEGUI, VENEZUELA].

    PubMed

    Ekmeiro Salvador, Jesús; Moreno Rojas, Rafael; García Lorenzo, María; Cámara Martos, Fernando

    2015-10-01

    In order to assess the qualitative pattern of food consumption in urban families of Anzoátegui, Venezuela, 300 domestic groups that combined a total of 1 163 people were studied. The domestic dietary pattern was addressed by the method of qualitative frequency of food consumption, which applied a structured survey that yielded the usual frequency of intake of a food or food group over a given period. The information was obtained through an interview with the person responsible for the procurement of food in every home, and included basic data for the socioeconomic and nutritional profile of the families studied. The qualitative analysis of the diet was obtained by comparing the different food groups that constitute the actual consumption pattern of the population studied, with official feeding guidelines suggested for the Venezuelan population. The present study showed that the qualitative pattern of food consumption in the urban population evaluated is characterized by slightly adjusted to the promotion of health and control of diet-related diseases. The family food proved to be far from the guidelines established by the dietary guidelines for Venezuela and consumption patterns are fairly homogeneous in the different socioeconomic strata. The foods most consumed daily were salt, coffee, dressing and precooked corn flour as well as beef, chicken and the higher weekly food consumption pastas. 90% of the food consumed daily is technologically processed. The results contribute to increase knowledge about the food situation of the Venezuelan population, and technically could direct the efforts of the authorities to reconcile the development of the productive sector and food supply, whereas a pattern qualitatively inadequate intake directly affects the individual biological functioning, and results in the collective conditioning of unfavorable health states.

  1. Socioeconomic disadvantage and changes in health risk behaviours in Australia: 1989-90 to 2001.

    PubMed Central

    Najman, Jake M.; Toloo, Ghasem; Siskind, Victor

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated in industrialized countries with unhealthy lifestyle characteristics, such as smoking, physical inactivity and being overweight or obese. This paper examines changes over time in the association between SES and smoking status, physical activity and being overweight or obese in Australia. METHODS: Data were taken from three successive national health surveys in Australia carried out in 1989-90 (n = 54,576), 1995 (n = 53,828) and 2001 (n = 26,863). Participants in these surveys were selected using a national probability sampling strategy, and aggregated data for geographical areas are used to determine the changing association between SES and lifestyle over time. FINDINGS: Overall, men had less healthy lifestyles. In 2001 inverse SES trends for both men and women showed that those living in lower SES areas were more likely to smoke and to be sedentary and obese. There were some important socioeconomic changes over the period 1989-90 to 2001. The least socioeconomically disadvantaged areas had the largest decrease in the percentage of people smoking tobacco (24% decrease for men and 12% for women) and the largest decrease in the percentage of people reporting sedentary activity levels (25% decrease for men and 22% for women). While there has been a general increase in the percentage over time of those who are overweight or obese, there is a modest trend for being overweight to have increased (by about 16% only among females) among those living in areas of higher SES. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic inequalities have been increasing for several key risk behaviours related to health; this suggests that specific population-based prevention strategies intended to reduce health inequalities are needed. PMID:17242834

  2. Socioeconomic status and exposure to outdoor NO2 and benzene in the Asturias INMA birth cohort, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Tardon, Adonina

    2014-01-01

    Background It is commonly assumed that low socioeconomic levels are associated with greater exposure to pollution, but this is not necessarily valid. Our goal was to examine how individual socioeconomic characteristics are associated with exposure levels in a Spanish region included in the INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) cohort. Methods The study population comprised 430 pregnant women from the Asturias INMA cohort. Air pollution exposure was estimated using land-use regression techniques. Information about the participants’ lifestyle and socioeconomic variables was collected through questionnaires. In multivariate analysis, the levels of NO2 and benzene assigned to each woman were considered as dependent variables. Other variables included in the models were residential zone, age, education, parity, smoking, season, working status during pregnancy and social class. Results The average NO2 level was 23.60 (SD=6.50) μg/m3. For benzene, the mean value was 2.31 (SD=1.32) μg/m3. We found no association of any pollutant with education. We observed an association between social class and benzene levels. Social classes I and II had the highest levels. The analysed socioeconomic and lifestyle variables accounted for little variability in air pollution in the models; this variability was explained mainly by residential zone (adjusted R2: 0.27 for NO2; 0.09 for benzene). Conclusions Education and social class were not clearly associated with pollution. Administrations should monitor the environment of residential areas regardless of the socioeconomic level, and they should increase the distances between housing and polluting sources to prevent settlements at distances that are harmful to health. PMID:23999377

  3. Socioeconomic factors and racial disparities in kidney disease outcomes.

    PubMed

    Crews, Deidra C; Pfaff, Teresa; Powe, Neil R

    2013-09-01

    African Americans suffer disproportionately from advanced and progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD). Socioeconomic factors are believed to play an important role in this disparity, and likely influence African Americans' increased risk of CKD through multiple pathways. Low socioeconomic status (SES) may contribute to racial disparities in CKD because of the greater prevalence of poverty, for example, among African Americans as compared with whites. However, low SES has a stronger relation with CKD among African Americans than among whites, underscoring that the context and magnitude of socioeconomic influences on CKD outcomes varies between these populations. These socioeconomic influences may produce new or potentiate existing racial differences in biology. This review discusses what is known about the role of SES in explaining racial disparities in CKD, highlights several knowledge gaps in this area, and suggests future directions toward the elimination of disparities in CKD.

  4. Neighborhood-Level Factors Related to Asthma in Children Living in Urban Areas: An Integrative Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    DePriest, Kelli; Butz, Arlene

    2017-01-01

    Asthma disproportionately affects children who are non-White and of low socioeconomic status. One innovative approach to address these health disparities is to investigate the child’s neighborhood environment and factors influencing asthma symptoms. The purpose of this integrative review is to critique research investigating the relationships between neighborhood-level factors and asthma morbidity in urban children. Three literature databases were searched using the terms “asthma,” “child,” “neighborhood,” and “urban.” The articles included were organized into six themes within the larger domains of prevalence, physical, and social factors. Literature tables provide in-depth analysis of each article and demonstrate a need for strengthening analysis methods. The current research points to the necessity for a multilevel study to analyze neighborhood-level factors that are associated with increased asthma morbidity in urban children. School nurse clinicians, working within children’s neighborhoods, are uniquely positioned to assess modifiable neighborhood-level determinants of health in caring for children with asthma. PMID:27756873

  5. Association between the Diagnosis of Mental Retardation and Socioeconomic Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slone, Michelle; Durrheim, Kevin; Lachman, Peter; Kaminer, Debra

    1998-01-01

    An examination of clinical data from the regional hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, over four years for 538 children with a diagnosis of mental retardation found mild mental retardation referrals were underrepresented in low socioeconomic areas and that paramedical agencies were the primary referral source in these areas. (Author/CR)

  6. An in situ moisture monitoring system for a solid low-level radioactive disposal pit at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Technical Area 54, Area G

    SciTech Connect

    Purtymun, W.F. New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM . Dept. of Geology)

    1990-01-01

    At the end of the 1950's, Los Alamos National Laboratory began to develop a Laboratory-wide, shallow-land, solid low-level radioactive waste disposal area on top of Mesita del Buey at TA-54, Area G. An in situ hydrologic monitoring system in the zone of aeration was developed in early 1990 to detect the presence of the infiltration of meteoric water into Pit 37 at Area G. Monitoring the water movement through the pit cap into the waste with leaching and transport the containment rock and possible contamination of the main aquifer is of primary concern. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Total and methyl mercury levels in wild mammals from the PreCambrian Shield area of south central Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Wren, C.; MacCrimmon, H.; Frank, R.; Suda, P.

    1980-07-01

    It has been established that elevated mercury levels in fish occur in areas remote from recognized point sources of mercury contamination. It may be expected, therefore, that mercury levels may also be accumulated through natural processes in wild mammals inhabiting those areas. A process for demethylating organic mercury to less toxic inorganic mercury has been suggested in some marine mammals exposed to high mercury levls. It is possible that similar demethylating process exists in terrestial mammals which are exposed to elevated levels of mercury in their diet. Natural mercury levels in fish have been reported in the PreCambrian Shield of the Muskoka District. The present paper compares total and methyl mercury levels occurring in various organs of wilder beaver, raccoon and otter representing herbivorous, omnivorous and carnivorous life styles, collected from the same general area where substantial mercury levels are known to occur in fish.

  8. Infiltration control for low-level radioactive solid waste disposal areas: an assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, H.S.

    1980-11-01

    The primary mode of radionuclide transport from shallow land-disposal sites for low-level wastes can be traced to infiltration of precipitation. This report examines the factors that affect surface water entry and movement in the ground and assesses available infiltration-control technology for solid-waste-disposal sites in the humid eastern portion of the United States. A survey of the literature suggests that a variety of flexible and rigid liner systems are available as barriers for the stored waste and would be effective in preventing water infiltration. Installation of near-surface seals of bentonite clay admixed with dispersive chemicals seem to offer the required durability and low permeability at a reasonable cost. The infiltration rate in a bentonite-sealed area may be further retarded by the application of dispersive chemicals that can be easily admixed with the surface soil. Because the effectiveness of a dispersive chemical for infiltration reduction is influenced by the physico-chemical properties of the soil, appropriate laboratory tests should be conducted prior to field application.

  9. Measurements of gamma radiation levels and spectra in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, B. T.; Brozek, K. P.; Angell, C. T.; Norman, E. B.

    2011-10-01

    Much of the radiation received by an average person is emitted by naturally-occurring radioactive isotopes from the thorium, actinium, and uranium decay series, or potassium. In this study, we have measured gamma radiation levels at various locations in the San Francisco Bay Area and the UC Berkeley campus from spectra taken using an ORTEC NOMAD portable data acquisition system and a large-volume coaxial HPGe detector. We have identified a large number of gamma rays originating from natural sources. The most noticeable isotopes are 214Bi, 40K, and 208Tl. We have observed variations in counting rates by factors of two to five between different locations due to differences in local conditions - such as building, concrete, grass, and soil compositions. In addition, in a number of outdoor locations, we have observed 604-, 662-, and 795-keV gamma rays from 134,137Cs, which we attribute to fallout from the recent Fukushima reactor accident. The implications of these results will be discussed. This work was supported in part by a grant from the U. S. Dept. of Homeland Security.

  10. Waterfowl in relation to land use and water levels on the Spring Run Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.; Parsons, D.R.; Weller, M.W.

    1970-01-01

    Low water levels during critical phases of the breeding cycle appear to have caused population declines of waterfowl and other marsh birds on the Spring Run Game Management Area. Pair-counts indicated a decline from 70 pairs of waterfowl in 1965 to 2 pairs in 1968. Nest success of upland nesting blue-winged teal (Anas discors) averaged 33% and mallards (Anas platyrhyncos) averaged 23%. Blue-winged teal selected nest sites closer to water than did mallards (314 feet versus 424 feet). Teal nested in ungrazed bluegrass (Poa pratensis) in preference to alfalfa (Medicago sativa) hayland. Bromegrass (Bromus inermis) was readily used by teal and mallards when it became available for nesting. Nest success of species nesting overwater was considerably higher: Redheads (Aythya americana) were 55% successful and 93% of 75 coot (Fulica americana) nests hatched. A study of dummy-nests showed nest success significantly higher on ungrazed than on grazed bluegrass. Grazing did not significantly lower total mouse populations but did change species composition because deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) increased as other species declined with grazing.

  11. Water-level changes and directions of ground-water flow in the shallow aquifer, Fallon area, Churchill County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiler, R.L.; Allander, K.K.

    1993-01-01

    The Truckee-Carson-Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act of 1990 directed the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to acquire water rights for wetland areas in the Carson Desert, Nevada. The public is concerned that htis acquisition of water rights and delivery of the water directly to wildlife areas would result in less recharge to the shallow ground water in the Fallon area and cause domestic wells to go dry. In January 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, began a study of the shallow ground-water system in the Fallon area in Churchill County, Nevada. A network of 126 wells in the study area was monitored. Between January and November 1992, water levels in most wells declined, usually less than 2 feet. The maximum measured decline over this period was 2.68 feet in a well near Stillwater Marsh. Between April and July, however, water levels rose in irrigated areas, typically 1 to 2 feet. Newlands Project water deliveries to the study area began soon after the turn of the century. Since then, water levels have risen more than 15 feet across much of the study area. Water lost from unlined irrigtiaon canals caused the stage in Big Soda Lake to rise nearly 60 feet; ground-water levels near the lake have risen 30 to 40 feet. The depth to water in most irrigated areas is now less than 10 feet. The altitude of the water table ranges from 4.025 feet above sea level 11 miles west of Fallon to 3,865 feet in the Stillwater Marsh area. Ground water flows eastward and divides; some flow goes to the northeast toward the Carson Sink and Stillwater areas, and some goes southeastward to Carson Lake.

  12. Socioeconomic legacy yields an invasion debt.

    PubMed

    Essl, Franz; Dullinger, Stefan; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Hulme, Philip E; Hülber, Karl; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Kleinbauer, Ingrid; Krausmann, Fridolin; Kühn, Ingolf; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Vilà, Montserrat; Genovesi, Piero; Gherardi, Francesca; Desprez-Loustau, Marie-Laure; Roques, Alain; Pyšek, Petr

    2011-01-04

    Globalization and economic growth are widely recognized as important drivers of biological invasions. Consequently, there is an increasing need for governments to address the role of international trade in their strategies to prevent species introductions. However, many of the most problematic alien species are not recent arrivals but were introduced several decades ago. Hence, current patterns of alien-species richness may better reflect historical rather than contemporary human activities, a phenomenon which might be called "invasion debt." Here, we show that across 10 taxonomic groups (vascular plants, bryophytes, fungi, birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish, terrestrial insects, and aquatic invertebrates) in 28 European countries, current numbers of alien species established in the wild are indeed more closely related to indicators of socioeconomic activity from the year 1900 than to those from 2000, although the majority of species introductions occurred during the second half of the 20th century. The strength of the historical signal varies among taxonomic groups, with those possessing good capabilities for dispersal (birds, insects) more strongly associated with recent socioeconomic drivers. Nevertheless, our results suggest a considerable historical legacy for the majority of the taxa analyzed. The consequences of the current high levels of socioeconomic activity on the extent of biological invasions will thus probably not be completely realized until several decades into the future.

  13. Socioeconomic legacy yields an invasion debt

    PubMed Central

    Essl, Franz; Dullinger, Stefan; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Hulme, Philip E.; Hülber, Karl; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Kleinbauer, Ingrid; Krausmann, Fridolin; Kühn, Ingolf; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Vilà, Montserrat; Genovesi, Piero; Gherardi, Francesca; Desprez-Loustau, Marie-Laure; Roques, Alain; Pyšek, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Globalization and economic growth are widely recognized as important drivers of biological invasions. Consequently, there is an increasing need for governments to address the role of international trade in their strategies to prevent species introductions. However, many of the most problematic alien species are not recent arrivals but were introduced several decades ago. Hence, current patterns of alien-species richness may better reflect historical rather than contemporary human activities, a phenomenon which might be called “invasion debt.” Here, we show that across 10 taxonomic groups (vascular plants, bryophytes, fungi, birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish, terrestrial insects, and aquatic invertebrates) in 28 European countries, current numbers of alien species established in the wild are indeed more closely related to indicators of socioeconomic activity from the year 1900 than to those from 2000, although the majority of species introductions occurred during the second half of the 20th century. The strength of the historical signal varies among taxonomic groups, with those possessing good capabilities for dispersal (birds, insects) more strongly associated with recent socioeconomic drivers. Nevertheless, our results suggest a considerable historical legacy for the majority of the taxa analyzed. The consequences of the current high levels of socioeconomic activity on the extent of biological invasions will thus probably not be completely realized until several decades into the future. PMID:21173227

  14. Peer-Mentoring of Students in Rural and Low-Socioeconomic Status Schools: Increasing Aspirations for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, David D.; Drummond, Aaron; Halsey, John; Lawson, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Students from rural and low socioeconomic backgrounds do not pursue university education at the same rate as those from metropolitan areas or from higher socioeconomic backgrounds. This has been a long-standing issue for government. This study explores the aspirations and intentions for university education among low socioeconomic status (SES) and…

  15. [The relation between socio-economic class and demographic factors in the occurrence of temporomandibular joint dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Martins, Ronald Jefferson; Garcia, Alício Rosalino; Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Sundefeld, Maria Lúcia Marçal Mazza

    2008-12-01

    Different factors like stress and occlusion can decrease the adaptive capacity of the stomatognathic system and lead to the occurrence of temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD). The objective of this study was to verify the relation of the variables socio-economic level, schooling, sex and age with the occurrence of temporomandibular dysfunction. The population of this study consisted of a statistically significant sample of subjects of both sexes belonging to different socio-economic classes living in the urban area of the city of Piacatu, São Paulo, Brazil. The Criterion of Economic Classification Brazil (CCEB) was used for the economic stratification of the population. Fonseca's Questionnaire was applied to samples collected from each extract to verify the level of TMD. The data collected were statistically analyzed using the Chi-square Test, with a significance level of 5%. In total, 354 heads of families participated in the research. No statistically significant relation was found between socio-economic class, schooling, age group and temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD). There was a relation between sex and TMD (p<0.02). The variables socio-economic class, schooling and age group had no influence upon the occurrence of TMD, however there is a significant relation with the sex of the individual.

  16. Socioeconomic and demographic drivers of red and processed meat consumption: implications for health and environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Clonan, Angie; Roberts, Katharine E; Holdsworth, Michelle

    2016-08-01

    Red and processed meat (RPM) intake varies widely globally. In some high-income countries (HIC) the last decade has witnessed an overall decline or stabilisation in the consumption of RPM, in contrast to emerging economies where its consumption continues to increase with rising income and rapid urbanisation. The production and consumption of RPM have become major concerns regarding the environmental impacts of livestock in particular, but also because of associations between high RPM consumption and diet-related non-communicable disease. Therefore, it is important to identify socioeconomic and demographic drivers of the consumption of RPM. This paper explores how consumption of RPM differs with age, gender, socioeconomic status and in different global contexts. There are some key socioeconomic and demographic patterns in RPM consumption. Men tend to consume RPM more often and in higher quantities, and there is evidence of a social gradient in HIC, with lower socioeconomic groups consuming RPM more often and in larger quantities. Patterns for consumption with age are less clear cut. It is apparent that consumers in HIC are still consuming high levels of RPM, although the downward shifts in some socioeconomic and demographic groups is encouraging and suggests that strategies could be developed to engage those consumers identified as high RPM consumers. In low- and middle-income countries, RPM consumption is rising, especially in China and Brazil, and in urban areas. Ways of encouraging populations to maintain their traditional healthy eating patterns need to be found in low- and middle-income countries, which will have health, environmental and economic co-benefits.

  17. Variability in ambient noise levels and call parameters of North Atlantic right whales in three habitat areas.

    PubMed

    Parks, Susan E; Urazghildiiev, Ildar; Clark, Christopher W

    2009-02-01

    The North Atlantic right whale inhabits the coastal waters off the east coasts of the United States and Canada, areas characterized by high levels of shipping and fishing activities. Acoustic communication plays an important role in the social behavior of these whales and increases in low-frequency noise may be leading to changes in their calling behavior. This study characterizes the ambient noise levels, including both natural and anthropogenic sources, and right whale upcall parameters in three right whale habitat areas. Continuous recordings were made seasonally using autonomous bottom-mounted recorders in the Bay of Fundy, Canada (2004, 2005), Cape Cod Bay, (2005, 2006), and off the coast of Georgia (2004-2005, 2006-2007). Consistent interannual trends in noise parameters were found for each habitat area, with both the band level and spectrum level measurements higher in the Bay of Fundy than in the other areas. Measured call parameters varied between habitats and between years within the same habitat area, indicating that habitat area and noise levels alone are not sufficient to predict variability in call parameters. These results suggest that right whales may be responding to the peak frequency of noise, rather than the absolute noise level in their environment.

  18. Measurement and evaluation of the environmental noise levels in the urban areas of the city of Nis (Serbia).

    PubMed

    Prascevic, Momir R; Mihajlov, Darko I; Cvetkovic, Dragan S

    2014-02-01

    The environmental noise level represents one of the key factors of life quality in urban areas of modern cities. A continuous monitoring of the noise levels and the analysis of results have become a necessity when we discuss a possible recovery of those areas with high levels of noise pollution, and particularly, those zones which were designed for specific activities, e.g., areas around hospitals and schools. The city of Nis, Serbia, owing to the permanent long-term noise monitoring, possesses a database containing figures related to the noise levels at relevant locations in the city, which can serve as a basis for an analysis of the change of conditions, their tendencies in the future, and recognizing factors which influence the danger of noise pollution. The paper involves an analysis of the environmental noise level collected during the previous years.

  19. Sleep in adolescents of different socioeconomic status: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Felden, Érico Pereira Gomes; Leite, Carina Raffs; Rebelatto, Cleber Fernando; Andrade, Rubian Diego; Beltrame, Thais Silva

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the sleep characteristics in adolescents from different socioeconomic levels. Data source: Original studies found in the MEDLINE/PubMed and SciELO databases without language and period restrictions that analyzed associations between sleep variables and socioeconomic indicators. The initial search resulted in 99 articles. After reading the titles and abstracts and following inclusion and exclusion criteria, 12 articles with outcomes that included associations between sleep variables (disorders, duration, quality) and socioeconomic status (ethnicity, family income, and social status) were analyzed. Data synthesis: The studies associating sleep with socioeconomic variables are recent, published mainly after the year 2000. Half of the selected studies were performed with young Americans, and only one with Brazilian adolescents. Regarding ethnic differences, the studies do not have uniform conclusions. The main associations found were between sleep variables and family income or parental educational level, showing a trend among poor, low social status adolescents to manifest low duration, poor quality of sleeping patterns. Conclusions: The study found an association between socioeconomic indicators and quality of sleep in adolescents. Low socioeconomic status reflects a worse subjective perception of sleep quality, shorter duration, and greater daytime sleepiness. Considering the influence of sleep on physical and cognitive development and on the learning capacity of young individuals, the literature on the subject is scarce. There is a need for further research on sleep in different realities of the Brazilian population. PMID:26298657

  20. Determination of the total level of nitrosamines in select consumer products in Lagos area of Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Coker, H.A.B.; Thomas, A.E.; Akintonwa, A. )

    1991-11-01

    For some time there has been a considerable interest and growing concern in the extent of contamination of food items by N-nitrosamines because of the known carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of these compounds. Nitrosamines can be derived from the interaction of organic secondary and tertiary amines with nitrite, nitrate under reducing conditions, low pH values or nitrous gases. In Nigeria, the present harsh economic conditions have somewhat influenced the emergence of different kinds of socioeconomic attitude in Nigerians. There is now high incidence of adulteration of many consumer products. Faking of assorted consumables and pharmaceuticals, notably drugs, is a common feature, all in attempt to cut corners. It is a common practice amongst the local people to use certain chemicals as preservatives, colorants and flavorants without taking cognizance of the long-term health and toxicological hazards posed to the citizenry by these foreign agents. Recent work in the authors' laboratory had shown the presence of N-nitrosamines in some consumer products and it was therefore thought that a more thorough investigation and survey of as many foods and drinks as possible in the Lagos metropolis for contamination by nitrosamines might present a more revealing picture.

  1. [Characteristics of soil seed banks in different water level areas after returning farmland into lake in Qingshanyuan of Dongting Lake].

    PubMed

    Hou, Zhi-Yong; Xie, Yong-Hong; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Li, Feng

    2009-06-01

    To study the composition and distribution of soil seed bank in the areas after returning farmland into lake is of significance in evaluating the ecological restoration effect of damaged wetlands. In this paper, the composition and diversity of seed bank in soil profile (0-2, 2-5, and 5-10 cm) and their relationships with above-ground vegetation in different water level areas in Qingshanyuan, a typical region after returning farmland into lake in Dongting Lake, were investigated. A V-type variation pattern was observed in the seed density and species richness of soil seed bank and in the similarity coefficient of soil seed bank and above-ground vegetation along a gradient of low-medium-high water level. As for the seed density, it was the highest (36943 +/- 5207 seeds x m(-2)) in frequently flooded area, followed by in heavily flooded area (30572 +/- 5329 seeds x m(-2)), and in incidentally flooded area (18618 +/- 6977 seeds x m(-2)); for the similarity coefficient, it was also in the order of frequently flooded area (0.76) > heavily flooded area (0.53) > incidentally flooded area (0.41). The seed density, species diversity, and species richness of soil seed bank decreased along soil profile, but the decrements differed in different water level areas. The regular variation patterns of the seed density and species richness of soil seed bank and of the similarity coefficient of soil seed bank and above-ground vegetation along the water level gradient were closely related to the water-level fluctuation and the life-form composition of the vegetations in study area.

  2. Time trends in the association of ESRD incidence with area-level poverty in the US population.

    PubMed

    Garrity, Bridget H; Kramer, Holly; Vellanki, Kavitha; Leehey, David; Brown, Julia; Shoham, David A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the temporal trends of the association between area-level poverty status and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) incidence. We hypothesized that the association between area-level poverty status and ESRD incidence has increased significantly over time. Patient data from the United States Renal Data System were linked with data from the 2000 and 2010 US census. Area-level poverty was defined as living in a zip code-defined area with ≥20% of households living below the federal poverty line. Negative binomial regression models were created to examine the association between area-level poverty status and ESRD incidence by time period in the US adult population while simultaneously adjusting for the distribution of age, sex, and race/ethnicity within a zip code. Time was categorized as January 1, 1995 through December 31, 2004 (Period 1) and January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2010 (Period 2). The percentage of adults initiating dialysis with area-level poverty increased from 27.4% during Period 1 to 34.0% in Period 2. After accounting for the distribution of age, sex, and race/ethnicity within a zip code, area-level poverty status was associated with a 1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22, 1.25)-fold higher ESRD incidence. However, this association differed by time period with 1.04-fold (95% CI 1.02, 1.05) higher ESRD incidence associated with poverty status for Period 2 compared with the association between ESRD and poverty status in Period 1. Area-level poverty and its association with ESRD incidence is not static over time.

  3. Multilevel analyses of neighbourhood socioeconomic context and health outcomes: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, K; Pearl, M

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE—Interest in the effects of neighbourhood or local area social characteristics on health has increased in recent years, but to date the existing evidence has not been systematically reviewed. Multilevel or contextual analyses of social factors and health represent a possible reconciliation between two divergent epidemiological paradigms—individual risk factor epidemiology and an ecological approach.
DATA SOURCES—Keyword searching of Index Medicus (Medline) and additional references from retrieved articles.
STUDY SELECTION—All original studies of the effect of local area social characteristics on individual health outcomes, adjusted for individual socioeconomic status, published in English before 1 June 1998 and focused on populations in developed countries.
DATA SYNTHESIS—The methodological challenges posed by the design and interpretation of multilevel studies of local area effects are discussed and results summarised with reference to type of health outcome. All but two of the 25 reviewed studies reported a statistically significant association between at least one measure of social environment and a health outcome (contextual effect), after adjusting for individual level socioeconomic status (compositional effect). Contextual effects were generally modest and much smaller than compositional effects.
CONCLUSIONS—The evidence for modest neighbourhood effects on health is fairly consistent despite heterogeneity of study designs, substitution of local area measures for neighbourhood measures and probable measurement error. By drawing public health attention to the health risks associated with the social structure and ecology of neighbourhoods, innovative approaches to community level interventions may ensue.


Keywords: socioeconomic status; local area; contextual analysis; hierarchical analysis PMID:11154250

  4. Impact of fertilizers on background radioactivity level in two newly developed desert areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Fawzia

    A survey of soils and plants was carried out to determine the environmental gamma background radiation levels in two newly developed desert areas. The materials and the standards were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy; a shielded high purity germanium detector was used to measure the natural concentration of 238U, 232Th and 40K activities in the samples. The radionuclide content in some commercial fertilizers was determined. The results of the analysis of specific activities in the fertilizers under study were 1.27-950.09 Bq/kg for 238U, 0.73-162.16 Bq/kg for 232Th and 10.22-23845.24 Bq/kg for 40K. All natural soil samples showed low-activity concen-trations. The concentrations of 238U (6.13-38.84 Bq/kg) and 232Th (2.58-25.69 Bq/kg) are quite similar, whereas that of 40K (113.91-9314.11 Bq/kg) are much higher for plant samples. Some of the results obtained are larger than the permissible international radioactivity levels. It is suitable in this regard to compare the activity values of the imported fertilizers and that fabricated in Egypt. The absorbed dose rate was found to be 1.91-1027 nGy/h and the radium equivalent activity concentration was 4.02-1840.98 Bq/kg for fertilizer samples. Soil and plant sample results were 11.86-415E29 nGy/h and 24.20-750.52 Bq/kg for the absorbed dose rate and the radium equivalent activity concentration, respectively. Banana plant contains the largest values. This article presents actual data from investigations of the soil-plant transfer of the primordial radionuclides for some fruits growing on these soils. The transfer factors of 0.35-1.821 for 238U, 0.227-0.480 for 232Th and 1.95-31.85 for 40K were obtained. The increase of the transfer of 40K reflects its great uptake to the fruits. Observed soil-plant factors vary widely, mainly as a result of different soil, vegetation types and environmental conditions. Taking into account the transfer factors of 137Cs to plants, the measured activity concentrations of this isotope should not

  5. Rebuilt risk: involuntary return, voluntary migration, and socioeconomic segregation in post-tsunami Aceh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaughey, Jamie; Daly, Patrick; Mundzir, Ibnu; Mahdi, Saiful; Patt, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    In light of growing coastal populations and rising relative sea levels, understanding the consequences of infrequent, high-impact coastal hazards for human migration is a key ingredient for meeting the challenges of sustainable development. Using new quantitative and qualitative evidence from 1160 households and 121 village leaders, we examine longer-term migration in the city of Banda Aceh, Indonesia, following the devastating 2004 tsunami and an international aid response that offered most survivors only resettlement back in the tsunami-affected area. While many survivors wanted to return, some preferred to relocate further from the coast but did not have the chance to do so. Since that time, selective out-migration by those with the means and socioeconomic sorting of newcomers have led to a new socioeconomic segregation of the tsunami-affected parts of the city. More broadly, these findings suggest that short-distance socioeconomic sorting into and out from vulnerable areas may be an important migratory response to a newly recognized risk.

  6. Approximate altitude of water levels in wells in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in the Houston area, Texas, spring 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, James Frank; Ranzau, C.E.; Coplin, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this report, which was prepared in cooperation with the City of Houston and the Harris-Galveston Coastal Subsidence District, is to show the altitudes of water levels in wells in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in the Houston, Texas, metropolitan areas.  The maps are based on water-level measurements in spring of 1986 in about 400 wells.

  7. 20 CFR 666.310 - What levels of performance apply to the indicators of performance in local areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... indicators of performance in local areas? 666.310 Section 666.310 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... Local Measures of Performance § 666.310 What levels of performance apply to the indicators of... Governor and reach agreement on the local levels of performance for each indicator identified under §...

  8. 20 CFR 666.310 - What levels of performance apply to the indicators of performance in local areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... indicators of performance in local areas? 666.310 Section 666.310 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... Local Measures of Performance § 666.310 What levels of performance apply to the indicators of... Governor and reach agreement on the local levels of performance for each indicator identified under §...

  9. Groundwater-level change and evaluation of simulated water levels for irrigated areas in Lahontan Valley, Churchill County, west-central Nevada, 1992 to 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, David W.; Buto, Susan G.; Welborn, Toby L.

    2016-09-14

    The acquisition and transfer of water rights to wetland areas of Lahontan Valley, Nevada, has caused concern over the potential effects on shallow aquifer water levels. In 1992, water levels in Lahontan Valley were measured to construct a water-table map of the shallow aquifer prior to the effects of water-right transfers mandated by the Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribal Settlement Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-618, 104 Stat. 3289). From 1992 to 2012, approximately 11,810 water-righted acres, or 34,356 acre-feet of water, were acquired and transferred to wetland areas of Lahontan Valley. This report documents changes in water levels measured during the period of water-right transfers and presents an evaluation of five groundwater-flow model scenarios that simulated water-level changes in Lahontan Valley in response to water-right transfers and a reduction in irrigation season length by 50 percent.Water levels measured in 98 wells from 2012 to 2013 were used to construct a water-table map. Water levels in 73 of the 98 wells were compared with water levels measured in 1992 and used to construct a water-level change map. Water-level changes in the 73 wells ranged from -16.2 to 4.1 feet over the 20-year period. Rises in water levels in Lahontan Valley may correspond to annual changes in available irrigation water, increased canal flows after the exceptionally dry and shortened irrigation season of 1992, and the increased conveyance of water rights transferred to Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge. Water-level declines generally occurred near the boundary of irrigated areas and may be associated with groundwater pumping, water-right transfers, and inactive surface-water storage reservoirs. The largest water-level declines were in the area near Carson Lake.Groundwater-level response to water-right transfers was evaluated by comparing simulated and observed water-level changes for periods representing water-right transfers and a shortened irrigation season in areas near Fallon

  10. Lagged Associations of Metropolitan Statistical Area- and State-Level Income Inequality with Cognitive Function: The Health and Retirement Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel; Griffin, Beth Ann; Kabeto, Mohammed; Escarce, José; Langa, Kenneth M.; Shih, Regina A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Much variation in individual-level cognitive function in late life remains unexplained, with little exploration of area-level/contextual factors to date. Income inequality is a contextual factor that may plausibly influence cognitive function. Methods In a nationally-representative cohort of older Americans from the Health and Retirement Study, we examined state- and metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level income inequality as predictors of individual-level cognitive function measured by the 27-point Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-m) scale. We modeled latency periods of 8–20 years, and controlled for state-/metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level and individual-level factors. Results Higher MSA-level income inequality predicted lower cognitive function 16–18 years later. Using a 16-year lag, living in a MSA in the highest income inequality quartile predicted a 0.9-point lower TICS-m score (β = -0.86; 95% CI = -1.41, -0.31), roughly equivalent to the magnitude associated with five years of aging. We observed no associations for state-level income inequality. The findings were robust to sensitivity analyses using propensity score methods. Conclusions Among older Americans, MSA-level income inequality appears to influence cognitive function nearly two decades later. Policies reducing income inequality levels within cities may help address the growing burden of declining cognitive function among older populations within the United States. PMID:27332986

  11. A Place-Oriented, Mixed-Level Regionalization Method for Constructing Geographic Areas in Health Data Dissemination and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Lan; Wang, Fahui; Chen, Vivien W.; Wu, Xiao-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Similar geographic areas often have great variations in population size. In health data management and analysis, it is desirable to obtain regions of comparable population by decomposing areas of large population (to gain more spatial variability) and merging areas of small population (to mask privacy of data). Based on the Peano curve algorithm and modified scale-space clustering, this research proposes a mixed-level regionalization (MLR) method to construct geographic areas with comparable population. The method accounts for spatial connectivity and compactness, attributive homogeneity, and exogenous criteria such as minimum (and approximately equal) population or disease counts. A case study using Louisiana cancer data illustrates the MLR method and its strengths and limitations. A major benefit of the method is that most upper level geographic boundaries can be preserved to increase familiarity of constructed areas. Therefore, the MLR method is more human-oriented and place-based than computer-oriented and space-based. PMID:26251551

  12. Income inequality, area-level poverty, perceived aversion to inequality, and self-rated health in Japan.

    PubMed

    Oshio, Takashi; Kobayashi, Miki

    2009-08-01

    In this study we conduct a multilevel analysis to investigate the association between regional income inequality and self-rated health in Japan, based on two nationwide surveys. We confirm that there is a significant association between area-level income inequality and individual-level health assessment. We also find that health assessment tends to be more sensitive to income inequality among lower income individuals, and to degree of area-level poverty, than income inequality for the society as a whole. In addition, we examine how individuals are averse to inequality, based on the observed association between inequality and self-rated health.

  13. A Survey Level Report of the Johns Creek Drainage Canal Wetlands Permit Area, Shelby County, Tennessee

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    Mississippi and the southwestern Tennessee area as "vassal provinces" to the’Late Mississippian Nodena cultura of northeastern Arkansas. Chronological... Clovis material (40SY7). Most of what Peterson (1979a) has defined as Paleo for this area is actually best considered to be affiliated with the late Paleo

  14. Decoding Area Studies and Interdisciplinary Majors: Building a Framework for Entry-Level Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPherson, Kristina Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Decoding disciplinary expertise for novices is increasingly part of the undergraduate curriculum. But how might area studies and other interdisciplinary programs, which require integration of courses from multiple disciplines, decode expertise in a similar fashion? Additionally, as a part of decoding area studies and interdisciplines, how might a…

  15. Decomposition of groundwater level fluctuations using transfer modelling in an area with shallow to deep unsaturated zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, J. C.; van Geer, F. C.; de Vries, J. J.

    1994-05-01

    Time series analysis of the fluctuations in shallow groundwater levels in the Netherlands lowlands have revealed a large-scale decline in head during recent decades as a result of an increase in land drainage and groundwater withdrawal. The situation is more ambiguous in large groundwater bodies located in the eastern part of the country, where the unsaturated zone increases from near zero along the edges to about 40 m in the centre of the area. As depth of the unsaturated zone increases, groundwater level reacts with an increasing delay to fluctuations in climate and influences of human activities. The aim of the present paper is to model groundwater level fluctuations in these areas using a linear stochastic transfer function model, relating groundwater levels to estimated precipitation excess, and to separate artificial components from the natural groundwater regime. In this way, the impact of groundwater withdrawal and the reclamation of a 1000 km 2 polder area on the groundwater levels in the adjoining higher ground could be assessed. It became evident that the linearity assumption of the transfer functions becomes a serious drawback in areas with the deepest groundwater levels, because of non-linear processes in the deep unsaturated zone and the non-synchronous arrival of recharge in the saturated zone. Comparison of the results from modelling the influence of reclamation with an analytical solution showed that the lowering of groundwater level is partly compensated by reduced discharge and therefore is less than expected.

  16. Socioeconomic status and health of immigrants.

    PubMed

    Vacková, Jitka; Brabcová, Iva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to acquaint the general public with select socioeconomic status (SES) parameters (type of work, education level, employment category, and net monthly income) of select nationalities (Ukrainians, Slovaks, Vietnamese, Poles, and Russians) from a total of 1,014 immigrants residing in the Czech Republic. It will also present a subjective assessment of socioeconomic status and its interconnection with subjective assessment of health status. This work was carried out as part of the "Social determinants and their impact on the health of immigrants living in the Czech Republic" project (identification number LD 13044), which was conducted under the auspices of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) agency. Quantitative methodology in the form of a questionnaire was selected to facilitate the research aim. Data was processed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 16.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Statistical analyses were performed using the Pearson chi-square test, adjusted residual analysis, and multivariate correspondence analysis. The results of these tests demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between subjective assessments of socioeconomic status and the following related select characteristics: type of work performed (manual/intellectual), employment categories, education, and net monthly income. Results indicate that those situated lowest on the socioeconomic ladder feel the poorest in terms of health; not only from a subjective perspective, but also in terms of objective parameter comparisons (e.g. manual laborers who earn low wages). As the level of subjective SES assessment increases, the level of subjective health assessment increases, as well. Thus, the relationship has a natural gradient, as was described by Wilkinson and Marmot in 2003. Our study found no evidence of a healthy immigrant effect. Therefore, it was not possible to confirm that health status deteriorates

  17. Special Analysis for Disposal of High-Concentration I-129 Waste in the Intermediate-Level Vaults at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Collard, L.B.

    2000-09-26

    This revision was prepared to address comments from DOE-SR that arose following publication of revision 0. This Special Analysis (SA) addresses disposal of wastes with high concentrations of I-129 in the Intermediate-Level (IL) Vaults at the operating, low-level radioactive waste disposal facility (the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility or LLWF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS). This SA provides limits for disposal in the IL Vaults of high-concentration I-129 wastes, including activated carbon beds from the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), based on their measured, waste-specific Kds.

  18. Lake Storage Measurements For Water Resources Management: Combining Remotely Sensed Water Levels and Surface Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brakenridge, G. R.; Birkett, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Presently operating satellite-based radar altimeters have the ability to monitor variations in surface water height for large lakes and reservoirs, and future sensors will expand observational capabilities to many smaller water bodies. Such remote sensing provides objective, independent information where in situ data are lacking or access is restricted. A USDA/NASA (http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/cropexplorer/global_reservoir/) program is performing operational altimetric monitoring of the largest lakes and reservoirs around the world using data from the NASA/CNES, NRL, and ESA missions. Public lake-level products from the Global Reservoir and Lake Monitor (GRLM) are a combination of archived and near real time information. The USDA/FAS utilizes the products for assessing international irrigation potential and for crop production estimates; other end-users study climate trends, observe anthropogenic effects, and/or are are involved in other water resources management and regional water security issues. At the same time, the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (http://floodobservatory.colorado.edu/), its NASA GSFC partners (http://oas.gsfc.nasa.gov/floodmap/home.html), and associated MODIS data and automated processing algorithms are providing public access to a growing GIS record of the Earth's changing surface water extent, including changes related to floods and droughts. The Observatory's web site also provide both archival and near real time information, and is based mainly on the highest spatial resolution (250 m) MODIS bands. Therefore, it is now possible to provide on an international basis reservoir and lake storage change measurements entirely from remote sensing, on a frequently updating basis. The volume change values are based on standard numerical procedures used for many decades for analysis of coeval lake area and height data. We provide first results of this combination, including prototype displays for public access and data retrieval of water storage

  19. Socioeconomic Determinants of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomul, Ekber; Savasci, Havva Sebile

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between academic achievement and the socioeconomic characteristics of elementary school 7th grade students in Burdur. The population of the study are 7th grade students who had education at elementary schools in Burdur in the 2007-2008 academic year. Two staged sampling was chosen as suitable for the…

  20. Socioeconomic factors and vulnerability to outbreaks of leptospirosis in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Bacallao, Jorge; Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Soto, Aida; Marquiño, Wilmer; Sáenz, Carlos; Jiménez, Eduardo; Moreno, Gilberto; Chávez, Octavio; Galan, Deise I; Espinal, Marcos A

    2014-08-15

    Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide, with more than 500,000 human cases reported annually. It is influenced by environmental and socioeconomic factors that affect the occurrence of outbreaks and the incidence of the disease. Critical areas and potential drivers for leptospirosis outbreaks have been identified in Nicaragua, where several conditions converge and create an appropriate scenario for the development of leptospirosis. The objectives of this study were to explore possible socioeconomic variables related to leptospirosis critical areas and to construct and validate a vulnerability index based on municipal socioeconomic indicators. Municipalities with lower socioeconomic status (greater unsatisfied basic needs for quality of the household and for sanitary services, and higher extreme poverty and illiteracy rates) were identified with the highest leptospirosis rates. The municipalities with highest local vulnerability index should be the priority for intervention. A distinction between risk given by environmental factors and vulnerability to risk given by socioeconomic conditions was shown as important, which also applies to the "causes of outbreaks" and "causes of cases".

  1. Socioeconomic Factors and Vulnerability to Outbreaks of Leptospirosis in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Bacallao, Jorge; Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Soto, Aida; Marquiño, Wilmer; Sáenz, Carlos; Jiménez, Eduardo; Moreno, Gilberto; Chávez, Octavio; Galan, Deise I.; Espinal, Marcos A.

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide, with more than 500,000 human cases reported annually. It is influenced by environmental and socioeconomic factors that affect the occurrence of outbreaks and the incidence of the disease. Critical areas and potential drivers for leptospirosis outbreaks have been identified in Nicaragua, where several conditions converge and create an appropriate scenario for the development of leptospirosis. The objectives of this study were to explore possible socioeconomic variables related to leptospirosis critical areas and to construct and validate a vulnerability index based on municipal socioeconomic indicators. Municipalities with lower socioeconomic status (greater unsatisfied basic needs for quality of the household and for sanitary services, and higher extreme poverty and illiteracy rates) were identified with the highest leptospirosis rates. The municipalities with highest local vulnerability index should be the priority for intervention. A distinction between risk given by environmental factors and vulnerability to risk given by socioeconomic conditions was shown as important, which also applies to the “causes of outbreaks” and “causes of cases”. PMID:25153463

  2. Socio-economic differences and health seeking behaviour for the diagnosis and treatment of malaria: a case study of four local government areas operating the Bamako initiative programme in south-east Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Uzochukwu, Benjamin SC; Onwujekwe, Obinna E

    2004-01-01

    Background Malaria is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in Nigeria. It is not known how user fees introduced under the Bamako Initiative (BI) system affect healthcare seeking among different socio-economic groups in Nigeria for diagnosis and treatment of malaria. Reliable information is needed to initiate new policy thrusts to protect the poor from the adverse effect of user fees. Methods Structured questionnaires were used to collect information from 1594 female household primary care givers or household head on their socio-economic and demographic status and use of malaria diagnosis and treatment services. Principal components analysis was used to create a socio-economic status index which was decomposed into quartiles and chi-square for trends was used to calculate for any statistical difference. Results The study showed that self diagnosis was the commonest form of diagnosis by the respondents. This was followed by diagnosis through laboratory tests, community health workers, family members and traditional healers. The initial choice of care for malaria was a visit to the patent medicine dealers for most respondents. This was followed by visit to the government hospitals, the BI health centres, traditional medicine healers, private clinics, community health workers and does nothing at home. Furthermore, the private health facilities were the initial choice of treatment for the majority with a decline among those choosing them as a second source of care and an increase in the utilization of public health facilities as a second choice of care. Self diagnosis was practiced more by the poorer households while the least poor used the patent medicine dealers and community health workers less often for diagnosis of malaria. The least poor groups had a higher probability of seeking treatment at the BI health centres (creating equity problem in BI), hospitals, and private clinics and in using laboratory procedures. The least poor also used the patent

  3. Elevated lead levels and adverse effects on natural killer cells in children from an electronic waste recycling area.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Huo, Xia; Cao, Junjun; Yang, Tian; Xu, Long; Xu, Xijin

    2016-06-01

    Lead (Pb) has been proved to exert immunotoxicity to influence immune homeostasis in humans. To monitor the internal Pb level and evaluate its effect on natural killer (NK) cells and cytokine/chemokine concentrations, we recruited 285 preschool children from Guiyu, one of the largest electronic waste (e-waste) destinations and recycling areas in the world, and known to have high concentrations of Pb in the air, soil, water, sediment and plants. A total of 126 preschool children were selected from Haojiang as a reference group. Results showed that children in Guiyu, the exposed area, had higher blood Pb levels and lower percentages of NK cells than children from the reference area. A significantly negative association was found between the percentage of NK cells and increasing Pb levels. Moreover, children in Guiyu area had higher platelet counts and IL-1β concentrations, and lower levels of IL-2, IL-27, MIP-1α and MIP-1β were observed in the exposed children. These changes might not be conducive to the development and differentiation of NK cells. Taken together, the elevated Pb levels result in the lower percentages of NK cells, but also alter the levels of platelets, IL-1β and IL-27, which might be unconducive to the activity and function of NK cells.

  4. Socioeconomic thresholds that affect use of customary fisheries management tools.

    PubMed

    Cinner, Joshua E; Sutton, Stephen G; Bond, Trevor G

    2007-12-01

    Customary forms of resource management, such as taboos, have received considerable attention as a potential basis for conservation initiatives in the Indo-Pacific. Yet little is known about how socioeconomic factors influence the ability of communities to use customary management practices and whether socioeconomic transformations within communities will weaken conservation initiatives with a customary foundation. We used a comparative approach to examine how socioeconomic factors may influence whether communities use customary fisheries management in Papua New Guinea. We examined levels of material wealth (modernization), dependence on marine resources, population, and distance to market in 15 coastal communities. We compared these socioeconomic conditions in 5 communities that used a customary method of closing their fishing ground with 10 communities that did not use this type of management. There were apparent threshold levels of dependence on marine resources, modernization, distance to markets (<16.5 km), and population (>600 people) beyond which communities did not use customary fisheries closures. Nevertheless, economic inequality, rather than mean modernization levels seemed to influence the use of closures. Our results suggest that customary management institutions are not resilient to factors such as population growth and economic modernization. If customary management is to be used as a basis for modern conservation initiatives, cross-scale institutional arrangements such as networks and bridging organizations may be required to help filter the impacts of socioeconomic transformations.

  5. Where Are Socioeconomically Deprived Immigrants Located in Chile? A Spatial Analysis of Census Data Using an Index of Multiple Deprivation from the Last Three Decades (1992-2012)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Purpose of the Study Immigrants in Chile have diverse characteristics and include socioeconomically deprived populations. The location of socioeconomically deprived immigrants is important for the development of public policy intelligence at the local and national levels but their areas of residence have not been mapped in Chile. This study explored the spatial distribution of socioeconomic deprivation among immigrants in Chile, 1992–2012, and compared it to the total population. Material and Methods Areas with socioeconomically deprived populations were identified with a deprivation index which we developed modelled upon the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) for England. Our IMD was based upon the indicators of unemployment, low educational level (primary) and disability from Census data at county level for the three decades 1992, 2002 and 2012, for 332, 339 and 343 counties respectively. We developed two versions of the IMD one based on disadvantage among the total population and another focused upon the circumstances of immigrants only. We generated a spatial representation of the IMD using GIS, for the overall IMD score and for each dimension of the index, separately. We also compared the immigrants´ IMD to the total population´s IMD using Pearson´s correlation test. Results Results showed that socioeconomically deprived immigrants tended to be concentrated in counties in the northern and central area of Chile, in particular within the Metropolitan Region of Santiago. These were the same counties where there was the greatest concentration of socioeconomic deprivation for the total population during the same time periods. Since 1992 there have been significant change in the location of the socioeconomically deprived populations within the Metropolitan Region of Santiago with the highest IMD scores for both the total population and immigrants becoming increasingly concentrated in the central and eastern counties of the Region. Conclusion

  6. Radionuclide Concentrations in soils an Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G During 2004

    SciTech Connect

    P.R. Fresquez; E.A. Lopez

    2004-11-01

    Soil samples were collected at 15 locations and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation samples were collected at nine locations within and around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). These samples were analyzed for {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 238}U. Soil samples collected at Area G contained detectable concentrations of 3H (27%), {sup 239,240}Pu (60%), {sup 238}Pu (40%), and {sup 241}Am (47%) above regional statistical reference levels (RSRLs). In contrast, the levels of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and U in all of the soil samples at Area G were either nondetectable or within RSRLs. The highest levels of {sup 3}H in soils were detected in the southwestern portion of Area G near the {sup 3}H shafts, whereas the highest concentrations of the Pu isotopes were detected in the northern and northeastern portions. All concentrations of {sup 3}H and Pu in soils, however, were far below LANL screening action levels. As for vegetation, most radionuclides in/on plants were either nondetectable or within RSRLs. The exceptions were {sup 3}H in overstory and some understory vegetation, particularly in the southwestern portion of Area G, which correlated very well with the soils data in that area. Also, there was some foliar contamination from {sup 241}Am and Pu isotopes in/on a few plant samples--the highest concentrations occurring in the northern section of Area G.

  7. Ground Water Levels for NGEE Areas A, B, C and D, Barrow, Alaska, 2012-2014

    DOE Data Explorer

    Anna Liljedahl; Cathy Wilson

    2015-06-08

    Ice wedge polygonal tundra water levels were measured at a total of 45 locations representing polygon centers and troughs during three summers. Early season water levels, which were still affected by ice and snow, are represented by manual measurements only. Continuous (less than hourly) measurements followed through early fall (around mid-Sep). The data set contains inundation depth (cm), absolute water level and local ground surface elevation (masl).

  8. Simulated effects of water-level changes in the Mississippi River and Pokegama Reservoir on ground-water levels, Grand Rapids area, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Perry M.

    2005-01-01

    The extent of aquifer water-level changes resulting from these river, wetland, and lake water-level changes varied because of the complex hydrogeology of the study area. A 1.00-foot decline in reservoir/river water levels caused a maximum simulated ground-water-level decline in the middle aquifer near Jay Gould and Little Jay Gould Lakes of 1.09 feet and a maximum simulated ground-water-level decline of 1.00 foot in the lower aquifer near Cut-off and Blackwater Lakes. The amount and extent of ground-water-level changes in the middle and lower aquifers can be explained by the thickness, extent, and connectivity of the aquifers. Surface-water/ground-water interactions near wetlands and lakes with water levels unchanged from the calibrated model resulted in small water-table altitude differences among the simulations. Results of the ground-water modeling indicate that lowering of the reservoir and river water levels by 1.00 foot likely will not substantially affect water levels in the middle and lower aquifers.

  9. Lead exposure in the general population of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona: blood levels and related factors.

    PubMed

    Solé, E; Ballabriga, A; Dominguez, C

    1998-12-11

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on 254 individuals not occupationally exposed to lead to determine the degree of lead exposure in the general population of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. Blood lead levels (BPb) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) by haemofluorimetry. Blood lead levels were analysed with respect to individuals' age, sex, area of residence, the season of the year the blood was drawn and ZPP. Mean blood lead in our series was 0.22 +/- 0.011 mumol/l (mean +/- S.E.); no significant differences were found with respect to area of residence, sex or season. A linear relationship was observed between BPb and individuals' age (BPb = 0.08 + 0.05 x age; r = 0.37). The prevalence of lead intoxication (BPb > 0.48 mumol/l) was 7.1%. No linear relationship was observed between BPb and ZPP. ZPP determination does not appear to be a good screening method for lead intoxication since it presents low specificity and sensitivity values with an area below the ROC curve similar to the null value line (area below the curve = 0.5052, IC 95% = 0.443-0.568). We conclude that lead exposure does not constitute a serious health problem in the area studied, since BPb levels found are far below the toxic limit and the prevalence of intoxication is similar to that reported in other studies conducted in other developed countries.

  10. Levels of thoron and progeny in high background radiation area of southeastern coast of Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Ramola, R C; Gusain, G S; Rautela, B S; Sagar, D V; Prasad, G; Shahoo, S K; Ishikawa, T; Omori, Y; Janik, M; Sorimachi, A; Tokonami, S

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to radon, (222)Rn, is assumed to be the most significant source of natural radiation to human beings in most cases. It is thought that radon and its progeny are major factors that cause cancer. The presence of thoron, (220)Rn, was often neglected because it was considered that the quantity of thoron in the environment is less than that of radon. However, recent studies have shown that a high thoron concentration was found in some regions and the exposure to (220)Rn and its progeny can equal or several time exceed that of (220)Rn and its progeny. The results of thoron and its progeny measurements in the houses of high background radiation area (HBRA) of the southeastern coast of Odisha, India presented here. This area is one of the high background radiation areas in India with a large deposit of monazite sand which is the probable source of thoron. Both active and passive methods were employed for the measurement of thoron and its progeny in cement, brick and mud houses in the study area. Thoron concentration was measured using RAD-7 and Raduet. A CR-39 track detector was employed for the measurement of environmental thoron progeny, both in active and passive modes. Thoron and its progeny concentrations were found to be comparatively high in the area. A comparison between the results obtained with various techniques is presented in this paper.

  11. Changes in ground-water levels in the Carlin Trend area, north-central Nevada, 1989-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plume, Russell W.

    2005-01-01

    Ground-water pumpage in support of gold mining activities, including mine dewatering, has resulted in water-level declines and rises in different parts of the Carlin Trend area in north-central Nevada. Total annual pumpage at the Gold Quarry, Carlin, Genesis, and Betze Mines has ranged from about 5,000 acre-feet in 1989 to almost 130,000 acre-feet in 1994 and 1998. Excess water from the mines is stored in the TS Ranch and Maggie Creek Reservoirs. Aquifers in the Carlin Trend area are comprised of carbonate rocks of Cambrian to Permian age and basin-fill deposits and interbedded volcanic rocks of Tertiary and Quaternary age. Since 1992, water levels in carbonate-rock aquifers near the Gold Quarry Mine have declined as much as 680 feet below an elongate area 12 miles long and 6 miles wide northwest and southeast from the mine. Since 1990, water levels have declined by more than 1,600 feet in the deepest part of the cone of depression at the Betze Mine. The area encompassed by the main part of the cone, which is 7 miles long by 4 miles wide, did not change much during 1993-2003, although its depth had doubled. Near both mines, the cones of depression are bounded by faults acting as barriers to ground-water flow. Water levels in the volcanic rocks of northern Boulder Flat began to rise soon after the TS Ranch Reservoir began filling in 1990 because of infiltration. Since 1990, the net water-level rise around the reservoir has been 50 feet or more over an area of about 2 square miles, and 20 feet or more over an area of about 60 square miles. Since 1992, water levels in basin-fill deposits in Boulder Flat have risen 5 feet or more over an estimated area of 20 square miles as a result of (1) use of water from the Betze Mine as a substitute for irrigation pumpage, (2) water from the TS Ranch Reservoir infiltrating volcanic rocks and then flowing southward into adjacent basin-fill deposits, (3) secondary recharge of water from the mine for irrigating about 10,000 acres

  12. Neurocognitive development in socioeconomic context: multiple mechanisms and implications for measuring socioeconomic status

    PubMed Central

    Ursache, Alexandra; Noble, Kimberly G.

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked to functioning across a variety of neurocognitive domains including language, memory, executive functioning, and social-emotional processing. We review these findings and discuss the ways in which socioeconomic context may shape neural processes such that these skills are supported by different neurobiological pathways in children from lower versus high SES backgrounds. Moreover we consider the mechanisms by which SES may be related to specific neurocognitive functions. Specifically, we focus on linguistic exposure and stress as two main pathways through which SES could influence neurocognitive processes and shape relations between the neural and behavioral levels of functioning. Finally, suggestions for conceptualizing and measuring SES in future work are offered. PMID:26681619

  13. Neurocognitive development in socioeconomic context: Multiple mechanisms and implications for measuring socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Ursache, Alexandra; Noble, Kimberly G

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked to functioning across a variety of neurocognitive domains including language, memory, executive functioning, and social-emotional processing. We review these findings and discuss the ways in which socioeconomic context may shape neural processes such that these skills are supported by different neurobiological pathways in children from lower versus higher SES backgrounds. Moreover, we consider the mechanisms by which SES may be related to specific neurocognitive functions. Specifically, we focus on linguistic exposure and stress as two main pathways through which SES could influence neurocognitive processes and shape relations between the neural and behavioral levels of functioning. Finally, suggestions for conceptualizing and measuring SES in future work are offered.

  14. 10 CFR 960.5-2-6 - Socioeconomic impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Socioeconomic impacts. 960.5-2-6 Section 960.5-2-6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE... sectors of the economy of the affected area. (c) Potentially adverse conditions. (1) Potential...

  15. The Appalachian Region: A Statistical Appendix of Comparative Socioeconomic Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachian Regional Commission, Washington, DC.

    Socioeconomic and demographic indicators for the Appalachian regional area are compared in this report with similar indicators for the total United States. The Appalachian region is defined as including parts of Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and…

  16. Socioeconomic Status and Functional Brain Development--Associations in Early Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Moore, Derek G.; Ribeiro, Helena; Axelsson, Emma L.; Murphy, Elizabeth; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Johnson, Mark H.; Kushnerenko, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts on both structural and functional brain development in childhood, but how early its effects can be demonstrated is unknown. In this study we measured resting baseline EEG activity in the gamma frequency range in awake 6-9-month-olds from areas of East London with high socioeconomic deprivation. Between-subject…

  17. Motor Proficiency and Body Mass Index of Preschool Children: In Relation to Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mülazimoglu-Balli, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor proficiency and body mass index and to assess the socioeconomic status differences in motor proficiency and body mass index of preschool children. Sixty preschool children in the different socioeconomic status areas of central Denizli in Turkey participated in the study. The…

  18. [Influence of industrial pollution with mercury on levels of its accumulation in populated area objects and foods].

    PubMed

    Amreeva, K E; Teryokhin, S P; Krashanovskaya, T R

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with results of study covering influence of industrial pollution with mercury on its accumulation level in populated area objects and foods. Mercury content was measured in ambient air, snow, water, bed silt and regional foods of vegetable and animal origin--that is a potential health hazard for Central Kazakhstan population. The data obtained prove that high levels of mercury were detected in all the studied objects.

  19. Approximate altitude of water levels in wells in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in the Houston area, Texas, spring 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, James Frank; Lind, W.B.; Coplin, L.S.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this report, which was prepared in cooperation with the City of Houston and the Harris-Galveston Coastal Subsidence District, is to show the altitudes of water levels in wells in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area.  The maps are based on water-level measurements in the Spring of 1987 in about 400 wells.

  20. Water-level altitudes in wells completed in the Jasper aquifer, greater Houston area, Texas, Spring 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplin, L.S.

    2001-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the Harris-Galveston Coastal Subsidence District, presents a map showing the approximate water-level altitudes in spring 2000 in wells completed in the Jasper aquifer (back of page). The most recent previously published water-level-altitude map for the Jasper aquifer in the region is by Popkin (1971). The study area includes Montgomery County and parts of Harris, Waller, Grimes, and Walker Counties.

  1. Application of LANDSAT images to the study of level soils for recognizing drainage areas. Thesis Paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espinoza, M. U.

    1977-01-01

    Photographic images from LANDSAT 1 were applied to the study of soil in Desaguadero, Bolivia, in order to locate areas with high agricultural and livestock potential. Photointerpretation techniques were emphasized and advantages of information obtained via multispectral satellite images in various bands and combinations were demonstrated.

  2. [Migration and socioeconomic changes in the community of Zoogocho, Oaxaca].

    PubMed

    Ramos Pioquinto, D

    1991-01-01

    "This study of migration and the socioeconomic dynamics of the community of Zoogocho in the state of Oaxaca [Mexico] is an example of what happens in rural areas when Indian-campesinos establish contacts with foreign parts. The penetration of alien socioeconomic and cultural values alters both family and communal structures to such an extent that available resources prove insufficient in competing with the colliding external society. This leads to increasingly more complex movements of the population, the manifestations, causes and consequences of which vary through time not only in the places of origin but also in destinations." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  3. Prevalence of respiratory conditions among schoolchildren exposed to different levels of air pollutants in the Haifa Bay area, Israel.

    PubMed Central

    Goren, A I; Hellman, S; Brenner, S; Egoz, N; Rishpon, S

    1990-01-01

    During spring 1984, 2334 second and 2000 fifth-grade schoolchildren living in three Haifa Bay areas on the eastern Mediterranean coast with different levels of air pollution were studied. The parents of these children filled out American Thoracic Society and National Heart and Lung Institute health questionnaires, and the children performed the following pulmonary function tests (PFT); FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FEV, PEF, FEF50, and FEF75. A trend of higher prevalence of most reported respiratory symptoms was found for schoolchildren growing up in the medium and high pollution areas as compared with the low pollution area. Part of the reported respiratory diseases were significantly more common among children from the high pollution area. Models fitted for the respiratory conditions that differed significantly among the three areas of residence also included background variables that could be responsible for these differences. Relative risk values, which were calculated from the logistic models, were in the range of 1.38 for sputum with cold and 1.81 for sputum without cold for children from the high pollution area as compared with 1.00 for children from the low pollution area. All the measured values of PFT were within the normal range. There was no consistent trend of reduced pulmonary function that characterized any residential area. PMID:2088751

  4. Correlation of sense of coherence with oral health behaviors, socioeconomic status, and periodontal status

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Kommuri Sahithi; Doshi, Dolar; Kulkarni, Suhas; Reddy, Bandari Srikanth; Reddy, Madupu Padma

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The sense of coherence (SOC) has been suggested to be highly applicable concept in the public health area because a strong SOC is stated to decrease the likelihood of perceiving the social environment as stressful. This reduces the susceptibility to the health-damaging effect of chronic stress by lowering the likelihood of repeated negative emotions to stress perception. Materials and Methods: The demographic data and general information of subjects' oral health behaviors such as frequency of cleaning teeth, aids used to clean teeth, and dental attendance were recorded in the self-administered questionnaire. The SOC-related data were obtained using the short version of Antonovsky's SOC scale. The periodontal status was recorded based on the modified World Health Organization 1997 pro forma. Results: The total of 780 respondents comprising 269 (34.5%) males and 511 (65.5%) females participated in the study. A significant difference was noted among the subjects for socioeconomic status based on gender (P = 0.000). The healthy periodontal status (community periodontal index [CPI] code 0) was observed for 67 (24.9%) males and 118 (23.1%) females. The overall SOC showed statistically negative correlation with socioeconomic status scale (r = −0.287). The CPI and loss of attachment (periodontal status) were significantly and negatively correlated with SOC. Conclusion: The present study concluded that a high level of SOC was associated with good oral health behaviors, periodontal status, and socioeconomic status.

  5. Inequality of obesity and socioeconomic factors in Iran: a systematic review and meta- analyses

    PubMed Central

    Djalalinia, Shirin; Peykari, Niloofar; Qorbani, Mostafa; Larijani, Bagher; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Socioeconomic status and demographic factors, such as education, occupation, place of residence, gender, age, and marital status have been reported to be associated with obesity. We conducted a systematic review to summarize evidences on associations between socioeconomic factors and obesity/overweight in Iranian population. Methods: We systematically searched international databases; ISI, PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and national databases Iran-medex, Irandoc, and Scientific Information Database (SID). We refined data for associations between socioeconomic factors and obesity/overweight by sex, age, province, and year. There were no limitations for time and languages. Results: Based on our search strategy we found 151 records; of them 139 were from international databases and the remaining 12 were obtained from national databases. After removing duplicates, via the refining steps, only 119 articles were found related to our study domains. Extracted results were attributed to 146596 person/data from included studies. Increased ages, low educational levels, being married, residence in urban area, as well as female sex were clearly associated with obesity. Conclusion: Results could be useful for better health policy and more planned studies in this field. These also could be used for future complementary analyses. PMID:26793632

  6. Does socioeconomic inequality in health persist among older people living in resource-poor urban slums?

    PubMed

    Falkingham, Jane C; Chepngeno-Langat, Gloria; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ezeh, Alex; Evandrou, Maria

    2011-06-01

    Using self-reported health that assesses functionality or disability status, this paper investigates whether there are any differences in health status among older people living in a deprived area of Nairobi, Kenya. Data from a cross-sectional survey of 2,037 men and women aged 50 years and older are used to examine the association between socioeconomic position and self-reported health status across 6 health domains. Education, occupation, a wealth index, and main source of livelihood are used to assess the presence of a socioeconomic gradient in health. All the indicators showed the expected negative association with health across some, but not all, of the disability domains. Nonetheless, differences based on occupation, the most commonly used indicators to examine health inequalities, were not statistically significant. Primary level of education was a significant factor for women but not for men; conversely, wealth status was associated with lower disability for both men and women. Older people dependent on their own sources of livelihood were also less likely to report a disability. The results suggest the need for further research to identify an appropriate socioeconomic classification that is sensitive in identifying poverty and deprivation among older people living in slums.

  7. Human altruistic tendencies vary with both the costliness of selfless acts and socioeconomic status

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Jesse A.; Lewisson, James W.; Bradford, Olivia R.; Taba, Melody; Coetzee, Rebecca E.; Sherwood, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Altruism toward strangers is considered a defining feature of humans. However, manifestation of this behaviour is contingent on the costliness of the selfless act. The extent of altruistic tendencies also varies cross-culturally, being more common in societies with higher levels of market integration. However, the existence of local variation in selfless behaviour within populations has received relatively little empirical attention. Using a ‘lost letter’ design, we dropped 300 letters (half of them stamped, half of them unstamped) in 15 residential suburbs of the greater Perth area that differ markedly in socioeconomic status. The number of returned letters was used as evidence of altruistic behaviour. Costliness was assessed by comparing return rates for stamped vs. unstamped letters. We predicted that there is a positive association between suburb socioeconomic status and number of letters returned and that altruistic acts decrease in frequency when costs increase, even minimally. Both predictions were solidly supported and demonstrate that socioeconomic deprivation and elevated performance costs independently impinge on the universality of altruistic behaviour in humans. PMID:27812415

  8. Human altruistic tendencies vary with both the costliness of selfless acts and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Grueter, Cyril C; Ingram, Jesse A; Lewisson, James W; Bradford, Olivia R; Taba, Melody; Coetzee, Rebecca E; Sherwood, Michelle A

    2016-01-01

    Altruism toward strangers is considered a defining feature of humans. However, manifestation of this behaviour is contingent on the costliness of the selfless act. The extent of altruistic tendencies also varies cross-culturally, being more common in societies with higher levels of market integration. However, the existence of local variation in selfless behaviour within populations has received relatively little empirical attention. Using a 'lost letter' design, we dropped 300 letters (half of them stamped, half of them unstamped) in 15 residential suburbs of the greater Perth area that differ markedly in socioeconomic status. The number of returned letters was used as evidence of altruistic behaviour. Costliness was assessed by comparing return rates for stamped vs. unstamped letters. We predicted that there is a positive association between suburb socioeconomic status and number of letters returned and that altruistic acts decrease in frequency when costs increase, even minimally. Both predictions were solidly supported and demonstrate that socioeconomic deprivation and elevated performance costs independently impinge on the universality of altruistic behaviour in humans.

  9. Radionuclide Concentrations in Soils and Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during the 1997 Growing Season

    SciTech Connect

    L. Naranjo, Jr.; P. R. Fresquez; R. J. Wechsler

    1998-08-01

    Soil and overstory and understory vegetation (washed and unwashed) collected at eight locations within and around Area G-a low-level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory-were analyzed for 3H, 238Pu, 239Pu, 137CS, 234U, 235U, 228AC, Be, 214Bi, 60Co, 40& 54Mn, 22Na, 214Pb and 208Tl. In general, most radionuclide concentrations, with the exception of 3Ef and ~9Pu, in soils and overstory and understory vegetation collected from within and around Area G were within upper (95'%) level background concentrations. Although 3H concentrations in vegetation from most sites were significantly higher than background (>2 pCi mL-l), concentrations decreased markedly in comparison to last year's results. The highest `H concentration in vegetation was detected from a juniper tree that was growing over tritium shaft /+150; it contained 530,000 pCi 3H mL-l. Also, as in the pas~ the transuranic waste pad area contained the highest levels of 239Pu in soils and in understory vegetation as compared to other areas at Area G.

  10. Occupational Stress Levels among Rural Teachers in the Areas of Mental Retardation, Learning Disabilities, and Emotional Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Tommy; Wiley, Susan

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 154 rural special educators in the areas of mental retardation, learning disabilities, and emotional conflict found no significant differences in stress levels among groups, as measured by the Teacher Stress Inventory. An ad-hoc analysis found no significant differences among groups in supervisor support, room type, or job…

  11. Factors Influencing Low Level of Women Participation in Literacy Programme in Maiha Local Government Area of Adamawa State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Aminchi

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the extent to which poverty, gender stereotype, socio-cultural belief and lack of awareness influence low level of women participation in literacy programme in Maiha Local Government Area of Adamawa State. Survey designed was adopted for the study and a sample consisting of three hundred (300) women who were…

  12. Addendum to the performance assessment analysis for low-level waste disposal in the 200 west area active burial grounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M.I., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-20

    An addendum was completed to the performance assessment (PA) analysis for the active 200 West Area low-level solid waste burial grounds. The addendum includes supplemental information developed during the review of the PA analysis, an ALARA analysis, a comparison of PA results with the Hanford Groundwater Protection Strategy, and a justification for the assumption of 500 year deterrence to the inadvertent intruder.

  13. How the Skills, Competencies, and Knowledge Areas Necessary for Success as Entry-Level Student Affairs Practitioners Are Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Jason Ignazio

    2008-01-01

    Although there is an extensive review of the literature about the skills/competencies and knowledge areas needed for success as an entry-level student affairs professional (Hyman, 1988; Kinser, 1993; Lovell & Kosten, 2000; Ostroth, 1981; Waple, 2006), no such study or studies have been conducted regarding how graduates of College Student Personnel…

  14. The impact of socioeconomic factors on asthma hospitalization rates by rural classification.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Robert J; Stransky, Michelle L; Seavey, John W

    2011-06-01

    Asthma hospitalization rates have increased in the past decade. Research has shown that there are multiple correlates for this increase but that driving causal factors may differ for asthma hospitalization rates in rural and non-rural settings. Here we examine the socioeconomic correlates to asthma hospitalization rates in Maine for both rural and non-rural populations to examine the similarity and differences in causal factors. Findings indicate a clear SES gradient relative to asthma hospitalization rates; as population measured SES decreased, asthma hospitalization rates increased. The associated causal factors were found to differ in rural and non-rural areas. In non-rural areas, the presence of insurance was associated with increases in the asthma hospitalization rates while in rural areas, income, occupation and the percentage of non-English language speaking persons were associated with lower asthma hospitalization rates. Public policy should focus on targeted prevention strategies at the community level, especially in rural areas where cultural competency and socioeconomic factors are increasingly important.

  15. Towards A Fusion Of SAR-Interferometry, GNSS And Precise Levelling In The Upper Rhine Graben Area, Southwest Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, T.; Knopfler, A.; Mayer, M.; Schenk, A.; Westerhaus, M.; Zippelt, K.; Heck, B.

    2013-12-01

    InSAR, GNSS and precise levelling provide a unique database to detect recent displacements of the Earth's surface. Data of all three measurement techniques have been collected in order to gain detailed insight into the horizontal and vertical velocity field of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) area. This paper presents the database and the processing strategies for the calculation of displacements from InSAR, GNSS and levelling measurements in the URG area. Man-induced surface deformations caused by oil extraction in the Northern URG are investigated serving as a study area for the comparison of techniques. In order to benefit from the advantages of each technique we present a strategy to consistently link the different observation methods in a multi-technique approach.

  16. Socioeconomic Status and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Shebl, Fatma M.; Capo-Ramos, David E.; Graubard, Barry I.; McGlynn, Katherine A.; Altekruse, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a poor prognosis and, unlike most cancers, HCC incidence and mortality rates are increasing in the United States. While risk is known to vary among different racial and ethnic groups, less is known about the variability of risk within these groups by neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES). Methods HCC cases diagnosed in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) 11 cancer registries between 1996 and 2007, and the population of the SEER 11 catchment areas was studied. Analyses were conducted to compare census tract area family poverty, educational attainment, and unemployment by race and ethnicity. A multiple linear regression model, weighted by the number of cases and the number of individuals in each census tract, with adjustment for registry, was used to calculate mean differences in area-level attributes between HCC cases and the population. Results HCC cases in most racial/ethnic groups had lower mean neighborhood-level measures of SES than their referent population. An exception was seen among Hispanics. Comparing white cases with cases of other racial groups and to Hispanics, white cases lived in neighborhoods with less family poverty, fewer high-school dropouts, and lower unemployment. Compared with white cases, Asian and Pacific Islander and Hispanic cases lived in neighborhoods with a higher percentage of foreign-born population. Conclusions Low neighborhood-level SES and immigrant status may be associated with greater risk of HCC within specific racial and ethnic groups. Impact These findings could help to focus control resources for HCC toward the most affected communities. PMID:22669949

  17. Evaluation of the level of knowledge about visceral leishmaniasis in endemic areas of Maranhao, brazil

    PubMed

    Gama; Barbosa; Pires; Cunha; Freitas; Ribeiro; Costa

    1998-04-01

    A prospective study was performed to identify knowledge concerning visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in endemic areas of Maranhao, amongst the rural population of the Codo township and in a peripheral urban area (an old settlement, Maracana, on the outskirts of the city of Sao Luis, and Vila Nova/Bom Viver, Paco do Lumiar township). A total of 283 persons were interviewed, including 53 from Maracana, 103 from Vila Nova/Bom Viver, and 127 from Codo. The sites presented favorable conditions for the development and maintenance of VL. Some 93.8% of those interviewed had heard of kala-azar. In Maracana, 50.9% referred to sandflies as responsible for the transmission of VL, while 87.2% knew that dogs are the main link in the epidemiological cycle of the disease. Some 77.8% of those interviewed did not know how to control the disease. As regards manifestations of the disease, they largely associated it with fever, anemia, weight loss, and an enlarged abdomen. Only five individuals knew that Glucantimeis used to treat VL. We conclude that knowledge is poor with regard to all aspects of VL in both the rural and peripheral urban area.

  18. Soil mercury levels in the area surrounding the Cerro Prieto geothermal complex, MEXICO.

    PubMed

    Pastrana-Corral, M A; Wakida, F T; García-Flores, E; Rodriguez-Mendivil, D D; Quiñonez-Plaza, A; Piñon-Colin, T D J

    2016-08-01

    Even though geothermal energy is a renewable energy source that is seen as cost-effective and environmentally friendly, emissions from geothermal plants can impact air, soil, and water in the vicinity of geothermal power plants. The Cerro Prieto geothermal complex is located 30 km southeast of the city of Mexicali in the Mexican state of Baja California. Its installed electricity generation capacity is 720 MW, being the largest geothermal complex in Mexico. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the emissions generated by the geothermal complex have increased the soil mercury concentration in the surrounding areas. Fifty-four surface soil samples were collected from the perimeter up to an approximate distance of 7660 m from the complex. Additionally, four soil depth profiles were performed in the vicinity of the complex. Mercury concentration in 69 % of the samples was higher than the mercury concentration found at the baseline sites. The mercury concentration ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 mg/kg. Our results show that the activities of the geothermal complex have led to an accumulation of mercury in the soil of the surrounding area. More studies are needed to determine the risk to human health and the ecosystems in the study area.

  19. [The value of malaria antibody level determination in non-immune subjects in a holoendemic area].

    PubMed

    Chippaux, J P; Du Saussay, C; Akogbeto, M

    1989-01-01

    The use of indirect immunofluorescence in non-immune people under heavy risk of chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria has a fair interest for diagnosis because of atypical clinic features and poor parasite density in thin smears. Indirect immunofluorescence has been used in Cotonou where chloroquine resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum was described since 1986. This lead to detect numerous cases of malaria with negative thin smear. Under epidemiological considerations, non-autochthonous people's antibody acquiring curve related to residence time in endemic area is parallel to the autochthonous children's antibody acquiring curve. However, average of antibody titer is strongly lesser in non-autochthonous population even after living more than 12 years in holoendemic area. This can reveal a lesser capacity to acquire immunity in non-autochthonous people due to a lesser exposure or to prophylaxis. This has to be pointed out when prophylactic strategies are proposed to those who live endemic areas. Authors propose to look back upon past obsolete prophylactic methods as repellents, insecticides, mosquito nets, air conditioned, etc.

  20. Rising Seas: Threat to Coastal Areas, A General Study about the Sea Level Rises on Coastal Areas of Earth, its Consequences and Preventive Measures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataria, A.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific research indicates that sea levels worldwide have been rising at a rate of 3 millimeters per year since the early 1990s (IPCC), which is much higher than the previous century. The recent measurements (march 2015; NASA) tells us that the present rise of sea level is 64.4 mm. Most recent satellite measurements and tide gauge readings (NASA) tell us that present rate sea level rise is 3.20 mm per year. A recent study says we can expect the oceans to rise between 2.5 and 6.5 feet (0.8 and 2 meters) by 2100. The two main causes of rising seas are thermal expansion and glacier melting which further corresponds to the root cause of sea level rise: Green House effect. For every degree Celsius that global average temperature rises, we can expect 2.3 meters of sea-level rise sometime over the ensuing 2,000 years. The main consequence of Sea level rise is increase in oceanic acidity as it releases the entrapped carbon dioxide in between the glaciers. The problem goes from bad to worse when we take into consideration that one third of the world population lives in a 60 km range from the coast. In the event of a flood, this massive population would have to move away from the coasts. The main objective of research is to find all the most vulnerable areas, to make people aware about the consequences and to take proper measurements to fight with such natural calamities. The rise in sea level would inevitably cause massive migration like never seen before. Over 25% of the world population could disappear if sea levels continues to rise with same or faster rate as present. The oceans, sea life and life of people at coastal areas will get extremely effected unless there are considerable cuts in the carbon dioxide emissions. What we need to do is just to apply all the methods and measurements in our daily life that can help reduce the green house gases emissions. Also we need to plan that how to prevent all these cities in case of such natural hazards.

  1. Water-level monitoring in the area of the Palmdale Uplift, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamar, D.L.; Merifield, P.M.

    1978-01-01

    Abnormal behavior of water levels in wells has been observed prior to a number of earthquakes. For instance, water-level minima have been noted in the Cienega Winery well before earthquakes on the San Andreas fault. Abnormal water-level fluctuations were used in conjunctions with other precursors to predict the February 4, 1975, Haicheng earthquake in northeastern China. That such changes should occur prior to earthquakes is not surprising. Ground water that occupies the void spaces in porous rocks or alluvium can be expected to rise in wells when an aquifer is squeezed and fall when it is distended. COnfined aquifers, in particualr, have been found to be highly sensitive to Earth strain changes. 

  2. GIS-based assessment of groundwater level on extensive karst areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopecskó, Zsanett; Józsa, Edina

    2016-04-01

    Karst topographies represent unique geographical regions containing caves and extensive underground water systems developed especially on soluble rocks such as limestone, marble and gypsum. The significance of these areas is evident considering that 12% of the ice-free continental area consists of landscapes developed on carbonate rocks and 20-25% of the global population depends mostly on groundwater obtained from these systems. Karst water reservoirs already give the 25% of the freshwater resources globally. Comprehensive studies considering these regions are the key to explore chances of the exploitation and to analyze the consequences of contamination, anthropogenic effects and natural processes within these specific hydro-geological characteristics. For the proposed work we chose several of the largest karst regions over the ice-free part of continents, representing diverse climatic and topographic characteristics. An important aspect of the study is that there are no available in situ hydrologic measurements over the entire research area that would provide discrete sampling of soil, ground and surface water. As replacement for the detailed surveys, multi remote sensing data (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite derivatives products, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite products and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) monthly rainfalls satellite datasets) are used along with model reanalysis data (Global Precipitation Climate Center data (GPCC) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS)) to study the variation on extensive karst areas in response to the changing climate and anthropogenic effects. The analyses are carried out within open source software environment to enable sharing of the proposed algorithm. The GRASS GIS geoinformatic software and the R statistical program proved to be adequate choice to collect and analyze the above mentioned datasets by taking advantage of their interoperability

  3. B-Vitamin Levels in Human Milk among Different Lactation Stages and Areas in China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiangnan; Yang, Zhenyu; Shao, Bing; Yin, Shi-An; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2015-01-01

    To determine the contents of B-vitamins in human milk in China, we analyzed 1778 human milk samples from the sample bank of the National High Technique R & D Program (863 Projects) which was a cross-sectional survey and covered 6419 human milk samples from healthy lactating mothers who were at different stages of lactation (0-330 days postpartum) in 11 provinces of China. The contents of free forms of six B-vitamins in these human milk samples were analyzed by using UPLC-MS/MS. The median concentrations of free form of 6 B-vitamins in colostrums, transitional milk, 15-180 d mature milk and 181-330 d mature milk were respectively as follows: thiamin 5.0 µg/L, 6.7 µg/L, 21.1 µg/L and 40.7 µg/L; riboflavin 29.3 µg/L, 40.6 µg/L, 33.6 µg/L and 29.6 µg/L; niacin 470.7 µg/L, 661.3 µg/L, 687.0 µg/L and 571.3 µg/L; vitamin B-6 4.6 µg/L, 16.1 µg/L, 62.7 µg/L and 80.7 µg/L; flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) 808.7 µg/L, 1162.8 µg/L, 1023.9 µg/L and 1057.2 µg/L; pantothenic acid 1770.9 µg/L, 2626.8 µg/L, 2213.0 µg/L and 1895.5 µg/L. The contents of 6 B-vitamins varied significantly among the different lactation stages and different areas (coastal area vs inland area, rural area vs urban area). The present study indicated that the concentrations of B-vitamins in colostrum were generally much lower than those in transitional milk and mature milk. Further studies are warranted for their roles and significance on B-vitamins in colostrum in nutrition and metabolism of neonates.

  4. Occurrence of organotin compounds in river sediments under the dynamic water level conditions in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun-Min; Zhang, Ke; Chen, You-Peng; Guo, Jin-Song; Wei, Yun-Mei; Jiang, Wen-Chao; Zhou, Bin; Qiu, Hui

    2015-06-01

    The Three Gorges Project is the largest hydro project in the world, and the water level of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is dynamic and adjustable with the aim of flood control and electrical power generation. It is necessary to investigate the pollutants and their underlying contamination processes under dynamic water levels to determine their environmental behaviors in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA). Here, we report the assessment of organotin compounds (OTs) pollution in the river sediments of the TGRA. Surface sediment samples were collected in the TGRA at low and high water levels. Tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT), and their degradation products in sediments were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Butyltins (BTs) and phenyltins (PhTs) were detected in sediments, and BTs predominated over PhTs in the whole study area under dynamic water level conditions. The concentrations of OTs in sediments varied markedly among locations, and significant concentrations were found in river areas with high levels of boat traffic and wastewater discharge. Sediments at all stations except Cuntan were lightly contaminated with TBT, and total organic carbon (TOC) was a significant factor affecting the fate of TBT in the TGRA. The butyltin and phenyltin degradation indices showed no recent inputs of TBT or TPhT into this region, with the exception of fresh TPhT input at Xiakou Town. Shipping activity, wastewater discharge, and agriculture are the most likely sources of OTs in the TGRA.

  5. Utility of the Measurement of Carboxyhemoglobin Level at the Site of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rural Areas.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Makoto; Fujino, Yasuhisa; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Sato, Masayuki; Mori, Kiyofumi; Beppu, Takaaki; Inoue, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the hypothesis that correlations exist between the carbon monoxide exposure time and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning, using a pulse carbon monoxide oximeter in rural areas or the carboxyhemoglobin concentration measured at a given medical institution. Background. In previous studies, no definitive relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning have been observed. Method. The subjects included patients treated for acute carbon monoxide poisoning in whom a medical emergency team was able to measure the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning. We examined the relationship between the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning and carbon monoxide exposure time and the relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and carbon monoxide exposure time. Results. A total of 10 patients met the above criteria. The carboxyhemoglobin levels at the site of poisoning were significantly and positively correlated with the exposure time (rs = 0.710, p = 0.021), but the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin levels were not correlated with the exposure time. Conclusion. In rural areas, the carboxyhemoglobin level measured at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning correlated with the exposure time.

  6. Decision Level Fusion of LIDAR Data and Aerial Color Imagery Based on Bayesian Theory for Urban Area Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastiveis, H.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) generates high-density 3D point clouds to provide a comprehensive information from object surfaces. Combining this data with aerial/satellite imagery is quite promising for improving land cover classification. In this study, fusion of LiDAR data and aerial imagery based on Bayesian theory in a three-level fusion algorithm is presented. In the first level, pixel-level fusion, the proper descriptors for both LiDAR and image data are extracted. In the next level of fusion, feature-level, using extracted features the area are classified into six classes of "Buildings", "Trees", "Asphalt Roads", "Concrete roads", "Grass" and "Cars" using Naïve Bayes classification algorithm. This classification is performed in three different strategies: (1) using merely LiDAR data, (2) using merely image data, and (3) using all extracted features from LiDAR and image. The results of three classifiers are integrated in the last phase, decision level fusion, based on Naïve Bayes algorithm. To evaluate the proposed algorithm, a high resolution color orthophoto and LiDAR data over the urban areas of Zeebruges, Belgium were applied. Obtained results from the decision level fusion phase revealed an improvement in overall accuracy and kappa coefficient.

  7. Utility of the Measurement of Carboxyhemoglobin Level at the Site of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Onodera, Makoto; Fujino, Yasuhisa; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Sato, Masayuki; Mori, Kiyofumi; Beppu, Takaaki; Inoue, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the hypothesis that correlations exist between the carbon monoxide exposure time and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning, using a pulse carbon monoxide oximeter in rural areas or the carboxyhemoglobin concentration measured at a given medical institution. Background. In previous studies, no definitive relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning have been observed. Method. The subjects included patients treated for acute carbon monoxide poisoning in whom a medical emergency team was able to measure the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning. We examined the relationship between the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning and carbon monoxide exposure time and the relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and carbon monoxide exposure time. Results. A total of 10 patients met the above criteria. The carboxyhemoglobin levels at the site of poisoning were significantly and positively correlated with the exposure time (rs = 0.710, p = 0.021), but the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin levels were not correlated with the exposure time. Conclusion. In rural areas, the carboxyhemoglobin level measured at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning correlated with the exposure time. PMID:27239377

  8. The role of socioeconomic status in longitudinal trends of cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh, 1993-2007.

    PubMed

    Root, Elisabeth Dowling; Rodd, Joshua; Yunus, Mohammad; Emch, Michael

    2013-01-01

    There has been little evidence of a decline in the global burden of cholera in recent years as the number of cholera cases reported to WHO continues to rise. Cholera remains a global threat to public health and a key indicator of lack of socioeconomic development. Overall socioeconomic development is the ultimate solution for control of cholera as evidenced in developed countries. However, most research has focused on cross-county comparisons so that the role of individual- or small area-level socioeconomic status (SES) in cholera dynamics has not been carefully studied. Reported cases of cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh have fluctuated greatly over time and epidemic outbreaks of cholera continue, most recently with the introduction of a new serotype into the region. The wealth of longitudinal data on the population of Matlab provides a unique opportunity to explore the impact of socioeconomic status and other demographic characteristics on the long-term temporal dynamics of cholera in the region. In this population-based study we examine which factors impact the initial number of cholera cases in a bari at the beginning of the 0139 epidemic and the factors impacting the number of cases over time. Cholera data were derived from the ICDDR,B health records and linked to socioeconomic and geographic data collected as part of the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Longitudinal zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) multilevel regression models are used to examine the impact of environmental and socio-demographic factors on cholera counts across baris. Results indicate that baris with a high socioeconomic status had lower initial rates of cholera at the beginning of the 0139 epidemic (γ(01) = -0.147, p = 0.041) and a higher probability of reporting no cholera cases (α(01) = 0.156, p = 0.061). Populations in baris characterized by low SES are more likely to experience higher cholera morbidity at the beginning of an epidemic than populations in high

  9. The impact of industrial oil development on a protected area landscape: A case study on human population growth and landscape level change in Murchison Falls Conservation Area, Uganda.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowhaniuk, Nicholas; Hartter, Joel; Congalton, Russell G.; Palace, Michael W.; Ryan, Sadie J.

    2016-04-01

    Protected areas in Sub-Saharan Africa are sanctuaries for rich biodiversity and are important economic engines for African nations, but they are becoming increasingly threatened by discoveries of mineral deposits within and nearby their boundaries. In 2006, viable oil reserves were discovered in Murchison Falls Conservation Area (MFCA) in northern Uganda. Exploratory and appraisal activities concluded in 2014, and production is expected to begin in 2016. The oil development is associated with a substantial increase in human population outside MFCA, with people seeking jobs, land, and economic opportunity. Concomitant with this change is increased truck traffic, a sprawling and denser road network, and infrastructure within the park, which could have large impacts on both the flora and fauna. We examined the broader protected area landscape and the potential feedbacks from resource development on the ecosystem and local livelihoods. Our analysis combines a land cover analysis using Object Based Image Analysis of Landsat data (2002 and 2014), migration patterns and population change (1959-2014), and qualitative interview data. Our results suggest that most of the larger-scale impacts on the landscape and people are occurring in the western and northern sections, both inside and outside of the park. Additionally, oil development is not the only factor in the region influencing population growth and landscape change. Post conflict regrowth in the north, sugarcane production in the south, and migration to this region from conflict-ridden neighboring countries are also playing a vital role in human migration shaping the MFCA Landscape. Understanding the social and environmental changes and impacts in the MFCA and its surrounding areas will add to limited literature on the impacts of resource extraction on local, subsistence communities and landscape level change, which will be important as access and pressure for oil and minerals within protected areas continues to rise.

  10. Classroom-Level Positive Behavior Supports in Schools Implementing SW-PBIS: Identifying Areas for Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, Wendy M.; Herman, Keith C.; Stormont, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of classroom-level behavior management strategies that align with School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SW-PBIS). Direct observations of universal classroom management strategies were conducted across 33 elementary classrooms in elementary schools implementing SW-PBIS with high fidelity. Findings…

  11. A Genetic Algorithm for the Bi-Level Topological Design of Local Area Networks.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Vallejo, José-Fernando; Mar-Ortiz, Julio; López-Ramos, Francisco; Rodríguez, Ricardo Pedraza

    2015-01-01

    Local access networks (LAN) are commonly used as communication infrastructures which meet the demand of a set of users in the local environment. Usually these networks consist of several LAN segments connected by bridges. The topological LAN design bi-level problem consists on assigning users to clusters and the union of clusters by bridges in order to obtain a minimum response time network with minimum connection cost. Therefore, the decision of optimally assigning users to clusters will be made by the leader and the follower will make the decision of connecting all the clusters while forming a spanning tree. In this paper, we propose a genetic algorithm for solving the bi-level topological design of a Local Access Network. Our solution method considers the Stackelberg equilibrium to solve the bi-level problem. The Stackelberg-Genetic algorithm procedure deals with the fact that the follower's problem cannot be optimally solved in a straightforward manner. The computational results obtained from two different sets of instances show that the performance of the developed algorithm is efficient and that it is more suitable for solving the bi-level problem than a previous Nash-Genetic approach.

  12. Closure Plan for the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-10-30

    A closure plan has been developed to comply with the applicable requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.2 Manual and Guidance. The plan is organized according to the specifications of the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans.

  13. Dental lead levels in children from two different urban and suburban areas of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karahalil, B; Aykanat, B; Ertaş, N

    2007-03-01

    The lead content of shed primary teeth has proved to be a reliable measure of cumulative lead exposure in children as it is an indicator of the degree of exposure over several years, from in utero life to loss of the tooth. Totally 297 shed deciduous teeth were collected from 263 children between ages 4 and 15 to determine the level of lead exposure in Ankara and Balikesir in Turkey. Ankara is the capital of Turkey and characterized by heavy traffic and high air pollution. On the other hand, Balikesir has less traffic. Balikesir-Centre (R) had the highest mean (SD) lead level (1.77+/-1.03microg/g) whereas Ankara-Centre (U) had the lowest level (1.30+/-0.59microg/g). We could not observe a statistically significant difference between urban and suburban regions (Table 1), and in terms of type of tooth, incisors had a statistically significant higher lead level than canines and molars (p<0.05, Table 2). No difference was observed between boys and girls and the accumulation of lead in teeth (p<0.05, ).

  14. A Genetic Algorithm for the Bi-Level Topological Design of Local Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Camacho-Vallejo, José-Fernando; Mar-Ortiz, Julio; López-Ramos, Francisco; Rodríguez, Ricardo Pedraza

    2015-01-01

    Local access networks (LAN) are commonly used as communication infrastructures which meet the demand of a set of users in the local environment. Usually these networks consist of several LAN segments connected by bridges. The topological LAN design bi-level problem consists on assigning users to clusters and the union of clusters by bridges in order to obtain a minimum response time network with minimum connection cost. Therefore, the decision of optimally assigning users to clusters will be made by the leader and the follower will make the decision of connecting all the clusters while forming a spanning tree. In this paper, we propose a genetic algorithm for solving the bi-level topological design of a Local Access Network. Our solution method considers the Stackelberg equilibrium to solve the bi-level problem. The Stackelberg-Genetic algorithm procedure deals with the fact that the follower’s problem cannot be optimally solved in a straightforward manner. The computational results obtained from two different sets of instances show that the performance of the developed algorithm is efficient and that it is more suitable for solving the bi-level problem than a previous Nash-Genetic approach. PMID:26102502

  15. Radiomen Staffing Levels for the United States Coast Guard Pacific Area Communication System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    3. Workload Categories The workload of Radiomen at shore-based units was divided into four categories: primary work , direct work, indirect work, and...determining the staffing level. 15 b. Direct Work Direct work is defined as any work performed that directly affects the functions of the primary work

  16. A Framework for Evaluating the Impact of Obesity Prevention Strategies on Socioeconomic Inequalities in Weight

    PubMed Central

    Beauchamp, Alison; Ball, Kylie; Turrell, Gavin; Martin, Jane; Woods, Julie; Peeters, Anna

    2014-01-01

    We developed a theoretical framework to organize obesity prevention interventions by their likely impact on the socioeconomic gradient of weight. The degree to which an intervention involves individual agency versus structural change influences socioeconomic inequalities in weight. Agentic interventions, such as standalone social marketing, increase socioeconomic inequalities. Structural interventions, such as food procurement policies and restrictions on unhealthy foods in schools, show equal or greater benefit for lower socioeconomic groups. Many obesity prevention interventions belong to the agento–structural types of interventions, and account for the environment in which health behaviors occur, but they require a level of individual agency for behavioral change, including workplace design to encourage exercise and fiscal regulation of unhealthy foods or beverages. Obesity prevention interventions differ in their effectiveness across socioeconomic groups. Limiting further increases in socioeconomic inequalities in obesity requires implementation of structural interventions. Further empirical evaluation, especially of agento–structural type interventions, remains crucial. PMID:25121810

  17. A framework for evaluating the impact of obesity prevention strategies on socioeconomic inequalities in weight.

    PubMed

    Backholer, Kathryn; Beauchamp, Alison; Ball, Kylie; Turrell, Gavin; Martin, Jane; Woods, Julie; Peeters, Anna

    2014-10-01

    We developed a theoretical framework to organize obesity prevention interventions by their likely impact on the socioeconomic gradient of weight. The degree to which an intervention involves individual agency versus structural change influences socioeconomic inequalities in weight. Agentic interventions, such as standalone social marketing, increase socioeconomic inequalities. Structural interventions, such as food procurement policies and restrictions on unhealthy foods in schools, show equal or greater benefit for lower socioeconomic groups. Many obesity prevention interventions belong to the agento-structural types of interventions, and account for the environment in which health behaviors occur, but they require a level of individual agency for behavioral change, including workplace design to encourage exercise and fiscal regulation of unhealthy foods or beverages. Obesity prevention interventions differ in their effectiveness across socioeconomic groups. Limiting further increases in socioeconomic inequalities in obesity requires implementation of structural interventions. Further empirical evaluation, especially of agento-structural type interventions, remains crucial.

  18. Seeing with Profoundly Deactivated Mid-level Visual Areas: Non-hierarchical Functioning in the Human Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Perry, Anat; Bonneh, Yoram; Malach, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental concept in visual processing is that activity in high-order object-category distinctive regions (e.g., lateral occipital complex, fusiform face area, middle temporal+) is dependent on bottom-up flow of activity in earlier retinotopic areas (V2, V3, V4) whose main input originates from primary visual cortex (V1). Thus, activity in down stream areas should reflect lower-level inputs. Here we qualify this notion reporting case LG, a rare case of developmental object agnosia and prosopagnosia. In this person, V1 was robustly activated by visual stimuli, yet intermediate areas (V2–V4) were strongly deactivated. Despite this intermediate deactivation, activity in down stream visual areas remained robust, showing selectivity for houses and places, while selectivity for faces and objects was impaired. The extent of impairment evident in functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography activations was somewhat larger in the left hemisphere. This pattern of brain activity, coupled with fairly adequate everyday visual performance is compatible with models emphasizing the role of nonlinear local “amplification” of neuronal inputs in eliciting activity in ventral and dorsal visual pathways as well as perceptual experience in the human brain. Thus, while the proper functioning of intermediate areas appears essential for specialization in the cortex, daily visual behavior and reading are maintained even with deactivated intermediate visual areas. PMID:19015369

  19. Associations Between Socioeconomic Factors and Alcohol Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Collins, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is one of the many factors influencing a person's alcohol use and related outcomes. Findings have indicated that people with higher SES may consume similar or greater amounts of alcohol compared with people with lower SES, although the latter group seems to bear a disproportionate burden of negative alcohol-related consequences. These associations are further complicated by a variety of moderating factors, such as race, ethnicity, and gender. Thus, among individuals with lower SES, members of further marginalized communities, such as racial and ethnic minorities and homeless individuals, experience greater alcohol-related consequences. Future studies are needed to more fully explore the underlying mechanisms of the relationship between SES and alcohol outcomes. This knowledge should be applied toward the development of multilevel interventions that address not only individual-level risks but also economic disparities that have precipitated and maintained a disproportionate level of alcohol-related consequences among more marginalized and vulnerable populations.

  20. Epidemiology and socioeconomic aspects of urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Asper, R

    1984-01-01

    This epidemiologic study reveals that the occurrence of urolithiasis in the nineteenth century population in Europe is quite similar to that of the twentieth century in Asia. The analogy is demonstrated for age distribution, stone localization, male/female ratio, and stone composition. The distribution of urolithiasis in a low socioeconomic level population is defined by: highest frequency in childhood, more than 40% bladder stones, less than 20% female patients, less than 40% calcium-oxalate stones, and more than 30% uric acid/urate stones. Typical for a population with a high level these characteristics of urolithiasis are: highest frequency among adults, less than 10% bladder stones, more than 25% female patients, more than 60% calcium oxalate stones, and less than 20% uric acid/urate stones. In partially developed countries those values fall in between.

  1. Magnetic storms and variations in hormone levels among residents of North Polar area - Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breus, T. K.; Boiko, E. R.; Zenchenko, T. A.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work four examinations (January, March, June, October 1991-1992) of the blood concentration of adrenal hormones (cortisol) and thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine T4) and their dependence on space and terrestrial weather parameters have been done for large groups of healthy inhabitants of high latitudes (Svalbard, the most northerly in the world year-round inhabited settlements). The aim of this study was to find the possible sensitivity of these biochemical parameters to variations of external natural factors at high latitudes in three independent groups of people living in this region (miners and people working underground (364 samples), the men working on the ground (274 samples) and women working on the ground (280 samples)). The obtained data indicate that the most expressed dependence of concentration of the three studied hormones is on the level of geomagnetic activity (GMA) - Kp, Ap, Kpmax - 3h. For two of the four seasons (June and October) with increasing levels of GMA a significant (p < 0.05) increase in cortisol concentration in all three independent groups of people was observed. Range of increases in cortisol concentration in different groups were about 30% of the observed variation in the average intragroup concentration in June and from 16% to 38% in October. For T3 dependence was found only in June: drop in hormone secretion with increasing levels of GMA from 18 to 30% of the average range of intragroup variations. Thus it was shown for the first time that at high geographical latitudes with increased level of GMA a significant change in the level of secretion of several hormones leads to the type of adaptive stress reaction.

  2. Magnetic storms and variations in hormone levels among residents of North Polar area--Svalbard.

    PubMed

    Breus, T K; Boiko, E R; Zenchenko, T A

    2015-01-01

    In the present work four examinations (January, March, June, October 1991-1992) of the blood concentration of adrenal hormones (cortisol) and thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine T4) and their dependence on space and terrestrial weather parameters have been done for large groups of healthy inhabitants of high latitudes (Svalbard, the most northerly in the world year-round inhabited settlements). The aim of this study was to find the possible sensitivity of these biochemical parameters to variations of external natural factors at high latitudes in three independent groups of people living in this region (miners and people working underground (364 samples), the men working on the ground (274 samples) and women working on the ground (280 samples)). The obtained data indicate that the most expressed dependence of concentration of the three studied hormones is on the level of geomagnetic activity (GMA) - Kp, Ap, Kpmax - 3h. For two of the four seasons (June and October) with increasing levels of GMA a significant (p<0.05) increase in cortisol concentration in all three independent groups of people was observed. Range of increases in cortisol concentration in different groups were about 30% of the observed variation in the average intragroup concentration in June and from 16% to 38% in October. For T3 dependence was found only in June: drop in hormone secretion with increasing levels of GMA from 18 to 30% of the average range of intragroup variations. Thus it was shown for the first time that at high geographical latitudes with increased level of GMA a significant change in the level of secretion of several hormones leads to the type of adaptive stress reaction.

  3. Assessment of heavy metal and pesticide levels in soil and plant products from agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Marković, Mirjana; Cupać, Svjetlana; Durović, Rada; Milinović, Jelena; Kljajić, Petar

    2010-02-01

    This study was aimed to assess the levels of selected heavy metals and pesticides in soil and plant products from an agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia and to indicate possible sources and risks of contamination. Soil, vegetable, and fruit samples from the most important agricultural city areas were collected from July to November of 2006. Metal contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, whereas pesticide residues were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after extraction performed using solid-phase microextraction technique. Soil characterization based on the determination of selected physical and chemical properties revealed heterogeneous soils belonging to different soil groups. The concentrations of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in soil samples do not exceed the limits established by national and international regulations. Residues of the herbicide atrazine were detected in three soil samples, with levels lower than the relevant limit. The presence of other herbicides, namely prometryn, chloridazon, acetochlor, flurochloridone, and napropamide, was registered in some soil samples as well. Among the insecticides investigated in the soil, fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos were the only ones detected. In most of the investigated vegetable samples from the Obrenovac area, Pb and Cd contents are higher in comparison with the maximum levels, indicating the emission of coal combustion products from local thermal power plants as a possible source of contamination. Residue levels of some herbicides and insecticides (metribuzin, trifluralin, pendimethalin, bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin) determined in tomato, pepper, potato, and onion samples from Slanci, Ovca, and Obrenovac areas are even several times higher than the maximum residue levels. Inappropriate use of these plant protection products is considered to be the most probable reason of contamination. Because increased levels of heavy metals and pesticide residues found in

  4. Sea level side loads in high-area-ratio rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nave, L. H.; Coffey, G. A.

    1973-01-01

    An empirical separation and side load model to obtain applied aerodynamic loads has been developed based on data obtained from full-scale J-2S (265K-pound-thrust engine with an area ratio of 40:1) engine and model testing. Experimental data include visual observations of the separation patterns that show the dynamic nature of the separation phenomenon. Comparisons between measured and applied side loads are made. Correlations relating the separation location to the applied side loads and the methods used to determine the separation location are given.

  5. Factors affecting the groundwater chemistry in a highly urbanized coastal area in Hong Kong: an example from the Mid-Levels area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Chi-Man; Jiao, Jiu J.; Malpas, John; Chan, Wing-Tat; Wang, Yan-Xin

    2005-08-01

    Coastal areas of Hong Kong Island are one of the most extensively urbanized areas in the world. Groundwater samples in natural slopes and developed spaces in the regions centered by the Mid-Levels area, Hong Kong Island, were collected and analyzed to investigate the natural and anthropogenic processes affecting the groundwater chemistry. The results presented may be of value to other coastal areas in the world for the identification of possible groundwater contamination sources. Groundwater samples in the natural slopes were in low total dissolved solid (TDS) (<100 mg/l), indicating that the waters were in the early evolutionary stage. Using chloride as a normalizing factor, the “non-marine” components of different major ions in the samples were calculated. The correlation analysis indicated the occurrence of weathering of plagioclase feldspars in the natural slopes. However