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Sample records for area level socioeconomic

  1. [Use of area-level socioeconomic indicators in epidemiological research: experience in Spain and advancement opportunities].

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Berjón, María Felicitas; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Esnaola, Santiago; Prieto-Salceda, María Dolores; Duque, Ignacio; Rodrigo, María Pilar

    2014-01-01

    To determine the use of area-level socioeconomic indicators in epidemiological studies in Spain. We included studies analyzing the association of area-level socioeconomic indicators and health indicators in Spain published in peer-reviewed journals. An electronic search was conducted in PubMed-Medline, SCI-Expanded, SSCI, Embase, and the Spanish Medical Index (until December 31, 2012). A manual search was also conducted of the references of the selected studies. Each of the articles initially selected on the basis of the title and abstract was reviewed by two investigators. Information was obtained on the publication and methodology (design and study areas, information sources, health and socioeconomic indicators, and statistical analysis). We included 142 studies published since 1988 (58.4% since 2005). More than half (59.9%) were in English. The level of analysis was ecological in 73.2% and multilevel in 19.0%. The areas most frequently analyzed were census tracts (35 studies), especially within cities or autonomous regions, followed by the provinces (30 studies), mostly concerning Spain overall. The dependent variable most frequently analyzed was mortality and the socioeconomic dimension most commonly used was employment (71.1%). In the last decade in Spain, there has been an increase in the number of studies examining the association of area-level socioeconomic and health indicators, as well as in the complexity of design and analysis. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Individual and area-level socioeconomic associations with fast food purchasing.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Lukar E; Bentley, Rebecca J; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2011-10-01

    It has been suggested that those with lower socioeconomic characteristics would be more likely to seek energy-dense food options such as fast food because of cheaper prices; however, to date the evidence has been inconsistent. This study examines both individual- and area-level socioeconomic characteristics and their independent associations with chain-brand fast food purchasing. Data from the 2003 Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments Study (VicLANES); a multilevel study of 2,547 adults from 49 small-areas in Melbourne, Australia, were used. Multilevel multinomial models adjusted for confounders were used to assess associations between individual socioeconomic position (education, occupation and income) and area socioeconomic characteristics in relation to fast food purchasing from five major fast food chains with outcome categories: never, at least monthly and at least weekly. The study finally assessed whether any potential area-level associations were mediated by fast food access. Increased fast food purchasing was independently associated with lower education, being a blue-collar employee and decreased household income. Results for area-level disadvantage were marginally insignificant after adjustment for individual-level characteristics, although they were suggestive that living in an area with greater levels of disadvantage increased an individual's odds of more frequent fast food purchasing. This effect was further attenuated when measures of fast food restaurant access were included in the models. Independent effects of lower individual-level socioeconomic characteristics and more frequent fast food purchasing for home consumption are demonstrated. Although evidence was suggestive of an independent association with area-level disadvantage this did not reach statistical significance.

  3. Area-level socioeconomic disadvantage and suicidal behaviour in Europe: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Joanne-Marie; Graham, Eva; Bambra, Clare

    2017-09-23

    The relationship between adverse individual socio-economic circumstances and suicidal behaviour is well established. However, the impact of adverse collective circumstances - such as the socio-economic context where people live - is less well understood. This systematic review explores the extent to which area-level socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with inequalities in suicidal behaviour and self-harm in Europe. We performed a systematic review (in MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, EconLit and Social Sciences Citation Index) from 2005 to 2015. Observational studies were included if they were based in Europe and had a primary suicidal behaviour and self-harm outcome, compared at least two areas, included an area-level measure of socio-economic disadvantage and were published in the English language. The review followed The Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines for quality appraisal. We identified 27 studies (30 papers) from 14 different European countries. There was a significant association (in 25/27 studies, all of which were rated as of medium or high quality) between socioeconomic disadvantage and suicidal behaviour (and self-harm), particularly for men, and this was a consistent finding across a variety of European countries. Socio-economic disadvantage was found to have an independent effect in several studies whilst others found evidence of mediating contextual and compositional factors. There is strong evidence of an association between suicidal behaviours (and self-harm) and area-level socio-economic disadvantage in Europe, particularly for men. Suicide prevention strategies should take this into account. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Do relationships between environmental attributes and recreational walking vary according to area-level socioeconomic status?

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Howard, Natasha J; Paquet, Catherine; Coffee, Neil T; Taylor, Anne W; Daniel, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Residents of areas with lower socioeconomic status (SES) are known to be less physically active during leisure time. Neighborhood walkability has been shown to be related to recreational walking equally in low and high SES areas. This cross-sectional study tested whether associations of specific environmental attributes, measured objectively and subjectively, with walking for recreation were moderated by area-level SES. The data of the North West Adelaide Health Study collected in 2007 (n = 1500, mean age 57) were used. Self-reported walking frequency was the outcome of the study. Environmental exposure measures included objectively measured walkability components (residential density, intersection density, land use mix, and net retail area ratio) and perceived attributes (access to destinations, neighborhood esthetics, walking infrastructure, traffic/barriers, and crime safety). Participants' suburbs were categorized into low and high SES areas using an indicator of socioeconomic disadvantage. Low SES areas had lower scores in residential density, neighborhood esthetics, walking infrastructure, traffic/barriers, and crime safety. Recreational walking was associated with residential density, access to destinations, esthetics, traffic/barriers, and crime safety. Effect modification was observed for two attributes (out of nine): residential density was associated with walking only in low SES areas, while walking infrastructure was associated with walking only in high SES areas. The associations of neighborhood environmental attributes with recreational walking were largely consistent across SES groups. However, low SES areas were disadvantaged in most perceived environmental attributes related to recreational walking. Improving such attributes in low SES neighborhoods may help close socioeconomic disparities in leisure time physical activity.

  5. Area-Level Socioeconomic Characteristics, Prevalence and Trajectories of Cardiometabolic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Anh D.; Paquet, Catherine; Howard, Natasha J.; Coffee, Neil T.; Taylor, Anne W.; Adams, Robert J.; Daniel, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between area-level socioeconomic position (SEP) and the prevalence and trajectories of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the count of its constituents (i.e., disturbed glucose and insulin metabolism, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension). A cohort of 4,056 men and women aged 18+ living in Adelaide, Australia was established in 2000–2003. MetS was ascertained at baseline, four and eight years via clinical examinations. Baseline area-level median household income, percentage of residents with a high school education, and unemployment rate were derived from the 2001 population Census. Three-level random-intercepts logistic and Poisson regression models were performed to estimate the standardized odds ratio (SOR), prevalence risk ratio (SRR), ratio of SORs/SRRs, and (95% confidence interval (CI)). Interaction between area- and individual-level SEP variables was also tested. The odds of having MetS and the count of its constituents increased over time. This increase did not vary according to baseline area-level SEP (ratios of SORs/SRRs ≈ 1; p ≥ 0.42). However, at baseline, after adjustment for individual SEP and health behaviours, median household income (inversely) and unemployment rate (positively) were significantly associated with MetS prevalence (SOR (95%CI) = 0.76 (0.63–0.90), and 1.48 (1.26–1.74), respectively), and the count of its constituents (SRR (95%CI) = 0.96 (0.93–0.99), and 1.06 (1.04–1.09), respectively). The inverse association with area-level education was statistically significant only in participants with less than post high school education (SOR (95%CI) = 0.58 (0.45–0.73), and SRR (95%CI) = 0.91 (0.88–0.94)). Area-level SEP does not predict an elevated trajectory to developing MetS or an elevated count of its constituents. However, at baseline, area-level SEP was inversely associated with prevalence of MetS and the count of its constituents, with the association of area-level education

  6. Area-level socioeconomic characteristics, prevalence and trajectories of cardiometabolic risk.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Anh D; Paquet, Catherine; Howard, Natasha J; Coffee, Neil T; Taylor, Anne W; Adams, Robert J; Daniel, Mark

    2014-01-08

    This study examines the relationships between area-level socioeconomic position (SEP) and the prevalence and trajectories of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the count of its constituents (i.e., disturbed glucose and insulin metabolism, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension). A cohort of 4,056 men and women aged 18+ living in Adelaide, Australia was established in 2000-2003. MetS was ascertained at baseline, four and eight years via clinical examinations. Baseline area-level median household income, percentage of residents with a high school education, and unemployment rate were derived from the 2001 population Census. Three-level random-intercepts logistic and Poisson regression models were performed to estimate the standardized odds ratio (SOR), prevalence risk ratio (SRR), ratio of SORs/SRRs, and (95% confidence interval (CI)). Interaction between area- and individual-level SEP variables was also tested. The odds of having MetS and the count of its constituents increased over time. This increase did not vary according to baseline area-level SEP (ratios of SORs/SRRs ≈ 1; p ≥ 0.42). However, at baseline, after adjustment for individual SEP and health behaviours, median household income (inversely) and unemployment rate (positively) were significantly associated with MetS prevalence (SOR (95%CI) = 0.76 (0.63-0.90), and 1.48 (1.26-1.74), respectively), and the count of its constituents (SRR (95%CI) = 0.96 (0.93-0.99), and 1.06 (1.04-1.09), respectively). The inverse association with area-level education was statistically significant only in participants with less than post high school education (SOR (95%CI) = 0.58 (0.45-0.73), and SRR (95%CI) = 0.91 (0.88-0.94)). Area-level SEP does not predict an elevated trajectory to developing MetS or an elevated count of its constituents. However, at baseline, area-level SEP was inversely associated with prevalence of MetS and the count of its constituents, with the association of area-level education being

  7. Analysis of the methods for assessing socio-economic development level of urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, Olga; Bogacheva, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The present paper provides a targeted analysis of current approaches (ratings) in the assessment of socio-economic development of urban areas. The survey focuses on identifying standardized methodologies to area assessment techniques formation that will result in developing the system of intelligent monitoring, dispatching, building management, scheduling and effective management of an administrative-territorial unit. This system is characterized by complex hierarchical structure, including tangible and intangible properties (parameters, attributes). Investigating the abovementioned methods should increase the administrative-territorial unit's attractiveness for investors and residence. The research aims at studying methods for evaluating socio-economic development level of the Russian Federation territories. Experimental and theoretical territory estimating methods were revealed. Complex analysis of the characteristics of the areas was carried out and evaluation parameters were determined. Integral indicators (resulting rating criteria values) as well as the overall rankings (parameters, characteristics) were analyzed. The inventory of the most widely used partial indicators (parameters, characteristics) of urban areas was revealed. The resulting criteria of rating values homogeneity were verified and confirmed by determining the root mean square deviation, i.e. divergence of indices. The principal shortcomings of assessment methodologies were revealed. The assessment methods with enhanced effectiveness and homogeneity were proposed.

  8. Area-level socioeconomic deprivation, nitrogen dioxide exposure, and term birth weight in New York City.

    PubMed

    Shmool, Jessie L C; Bobb, Jennifer F; Ito, Kazuhiko; Elston, Beth; Savitz, David A; Ross, Zev; Matte, Thomas D; Johnson, Sarah; Dominici, Francesca; Clougherty, Jane E

    2015-10-01

    Numerous studies have linked air pollution with adverse birth outcomes, but relatively few have examined differential associations across the socioeconomic gradient. To evaluate interaction effects of gestational nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and area-level socioeconomic deprivation on fetal growth, we used: (1) highly spatially-resolved air pollution data from the New York City Community Air Survey (NYCCAS); and (2) spatially-stratified principle component analysis of census variables previously associated with birth outcomes to define area-level deprivation. New York City (NYC) hospital birth records for years 2008-2010 were restricted to full-term, singleton births to non-smoking mothers (n=243,853). We used generalized additive mixed models to examine the potentially non-linear interaction of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and deprivation categories on birth weight (and estimated linear associations, for comparison), adjusting for individual-level socio-demographic characteristics and sensitivity testing adjustment for co-pollutant exposures. Estimated NO2 exposures were highest, and most varying, among mothers residing in the most-affluent census tracts, and lowest among mothers residing in mid-range deprivation tracts. In non-linear models, we found an inverse association between NO2 and birth weight in the least-deprived and most-deprived areas (p-values<0.001 and 0.05, respectively) but no association in the mid-range of deprivation (p=0.8). Likewise, in linear models, a 10 ppb increase in NO2 was associated with a decrease in birth weight among mothers in the least-deprived and most-deprived areas of -16.2g (95% CI: -21.9 to -10.5) and -11.0 g (95% CI: -22.8 to 0.9), respectively, and a non-significant change in the mid-range areas [β=0.5 g (95% CI: -7.7 to 8.7)]. Linear slopes in the most- and least-deprived quartiles differed from the mid-range (reference group) (p-values<0.001 and 0.09, respectively). The complex patterning in air pollution exposure and deprivation

  9. Inequalities in Croatian pupils' risk behaviors associated to socioeconomic environment at school and area level: a multilevel approach.

    PubMed

    Pavic Simetin, Ivana; Kern, Josipa; Kuzman, Marina; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja

    2013-12-01

    The socioeconomic inequality in pupils' risk behaviors has been the topic of many studies with quite contradictory findings. Furthermore, the role of socioeconomic environment has been analyzed much less often than the role of individual socioeconomic status (SES). This study examined the association between school/area-level socioeconomic environment and Croatian pupils' risk behaviors (tobacco use, drunkenness, cannabis use, early sexual initiation and fighting). Data from the WHO-Collaborative 'Health Behavior in School-aged Children' study conducted in Croatia in 2006 (1601 secondary schools' pupils, aged 15) and census data were used. Multilevel logistic regression analyses, adjusted by gender, were performed. The individual level of SES explained the majority of differences in all risk behaviors among adolescents. Differences in tobacco use, early sexual initiation and fighting were more closely attributed to school level than area level, which was more closely associated with differences in adolescent drunkenness and cannabis use. At the individual level, high individual SES was associated with higher probability for tobacco use and drunkenness compared to low individual SES. Furthermore, school heterogeneity (compared to school homogeneity) and medium school-level SES (compared to low school-level SES) were associated with higher probability for cannabis use. Compared to the most advanced schools (gymnasiums), attending the least advanced schools (industrial and crafts schools) was associated with higher probability for fighting. Compared to low area-level SES, medium area-level SES was associated with higher probability for cannabis use and fighting. Conclusively, it was found that low SES at individual, school and area levels, school homogeneity and advanced school attendance play a protective role against risk behaviors. To reduce inequalities in pupils' risk behaviors, there is a need for community and school-based programs that take into consideration

  10. Associations of Neighborhood Environmental Attributes with Walking in Japan: Moderating Effects of Area-Level Socioeconomic Status.

    PubMed

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Hanibuchi, Tomoya; Nakaya, Tomoki; Shibata, Ai; Ishii, Kaori; Liao, Yung; Oka, Koichiro; Sugiyama, Takemi

    2017-09-12

    Several studies have examined how the associations of built environment attributes with walking behaviors may be moderated by socioeconomic status (SES). Such understanding is important to address socioeconomic inequalities in health through urban design initiatives. However, to date, there is no study examining the moderation effects of SES in the relationships of environmental attributes and walking in non-Western countries. The current study aims to examine associations of environmental attributes with walking behaviors among Japanese adults, and to test whether these associations were moderated by area-level SES. Data on walking were collected from Japanese adults using a nationwide Internet survey (N = 4605). Built environment measures including population density, street density, distance to the nearest public open space, and distance to the nearest commercial destination were calculated using geographic information systems software. An index of neighborhood deprivation was used as an area-level indicator of SES. Logistic regression models adjusted for clustering and sociodemographic variables were used. It was found that more residents in high SES areas walked for commuting, for errands, and for exercise compared with those who lived in low SES areas. When the whole sample was examined, all environmental attributes were associated with walking behaviors (except for street density not being associated with walking for exercise). Associations of environmental attributes with walking behaviors were moderated by area-level SES only in walking for exercise. Walking for exercise was associated with higher population density, higher street density (marginally significant), and shorter distance to the nearest commercial destination only in high SES areas. Our findings showed that the associations of these environmental attributes and walking behaviors were largely consistent across different SES levels. Therefore, urban design interventions focusing on low SES

  11. Socioeconomic inequality in hip replacement in four European countries from 2002 to 2009--area-level analysis of hospital data.

    PubMed

    Cookson, Richard; Gutacker, Nils; Garcia-Armesto, Sandra; Angulo-Pueyo, Ester; Christiansen, Terkel; Bloor, Karen; Bernal-Delgado, Enrique

    2015-02-01

    Cross-country comparisons of socioeconomic equity in health care typically use sample survey data on general services such as physician visits. This study uses comprehensive administrative data on a specific service: hip replacement. We analyse 651 652 publicly funded hip replacements, excluding fractures and accidents, in adults over 35 in Denmark, England, Portugal and Spain from 2002 to 2009. Sub-national administrative areas are split into socioeconomic quintile groups comprising approximately one-fifth of the national population. Area-level Poisson regression with Huber-White standard errors is used to calculate age-sex standardised hip replacement rates by quintile group, together with gaps and ratios between richest and poorest groups (Q5 and Q1) and the middle group (Q3). We find pro-rich-area inequality in England (2009 Q5/Q1 ratio 1.35 [CI 1.25-1.45]) and Spain (2009 Q5/Q1 ratio 1.43 [CI 1.17-1.70]), pro-poor-area inequality in Portugal (2009 Q5/Q1 ratio 0.67 [CI 0.50-0.83]) and no significant inequality in Denmark. Pro-rich-area inequality increased over time in England and Spain but not significantly. Within-country differences between socioeconomic quintile groups are smaller than between-country differences in general population averages: hip replacement rates are substantially lower in Portugal and Spain (8.6 and 7.4 per 10 000 in 2009) than England and Denmark (20.2 and 27.8 per 10 000 in 2009). Despite limitations regarding individual-level inequality and area heterogeneity, analysis of area-level data on publicly funded hospital activity can provide useful cross-country comparisons and longitudinal monitoring of socioeconomic inequality in specific health services. Although this kind of analysis cannot provide definitive answers, it can raise important questions for decision makers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  12. Area-level socioeconomic context, total mortality and cause-specific mortality in Spain: Heterogeneous findings depending on the level of geographic aggregation.

    PubMed

    Regidor, Enrique; Vallejo, Fernando; Reques, Laura; Cea, Lucía; Miqueleiz, Estrella; Barrio, Gregorio

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the association between area-level socioeconomic context and mortality in Spain, using two different geographic aggregations. Nation-wide prospective study covering all persons living in Spain in 2001. Mortality was analysed in Spanish citizens by province of residence and in citizens of Madrid by neighbourhood of residence. Provinces and neighbourhoods were grouped into quartiles according to two socioeconomic indicators: percentage of the population with university education and unemployment rate. The measure of association was the rate ratio for total mortality and cause-specific mortality, by each socioeconomic indicator in two age groups, 25-64 years (adult population) and 65 years and over (elderly population). After adjustment for all individual socioeconomic variables, the rate ratio for total mortality among residents in the provinces with the worst versus best socioeconomic context was 0.92 (95% CI 0.88-0.97) when the indicator was percentage of university population and 0.89 (0.85-0.93) when it was unemployment rate in the adult population, and 1.05 (1.00-1.11) and 1.08 (1.03-1.13), respectively, in the elderly population. No significant differences in mortality were observed between adults residing in neighbourhoods with the worst versus best socioeconomic context, but in the elderly population the mortality rate ratios for the two socioeconomic indicators were 1.04 (1.01-1.07) and 1.06 (1.03-1.09), respectively. Residents in provinces with the worst socioeconomic context had the lowest mortality from cancer and external causes and the highest mortality from cardiovascular diseases, while residents in neighbourhoods with the worst socioeconomic context had the highest mortality from respiratory and digestive diseases. Further research should find out the reasons for the lower total mortality in adult population residing in the Spanish provinces with the most adverse socioeconomic context and the reasons for

  13. How do area-level socioeconomic status and gender norms affect partner violence against women? Evidence from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Seema; Heise, Lori

    2016-11-01

    To explore how area-level socioeconomic status and gender-related norms influence partner violence against women in Tanzania. We analysed data from the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey and used multilevel logistic regression to estimate individual and community-level effects on women's risk of current partner violence. Prevalence of current partner violence was 36.1 %; however, variation in prevalence exists across communities. Twenty-nine percent of the variation in the logodds of partner violence is due to community-level influences. When adjusting for individual-level characteristics, this variation falls to 10 % and falls further to 8 % when adjusting for additional community-level factors. Higher levels of women's acceptance towards wife beating, male unemployment, and years of schooling among men were associated with higher risk of partner violence; however, higher levels of women in paid work were associated with lower risk. Area-level poverty and inequitable gender norms were associated with higher risk of partner violence. Empowerment strategies along with addressing social attitudes are likely to achieve reductions in rates of partner violence against women in Tanzania and in other similar low-income country settings.

  14. Composite Measures of Individual and Area-Level Socio-Economic Status Are Associated with Visual Impairment in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Wah, Win; Earnest, Arul; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Wong, Tien Y.; Lamoureux, Ecosse L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the independent relationship of individual- and area-level socio-economic status (SES) with the presence and severity of visual impairment (VI) in an Asian population. Methods Cross-sectional data from 9993 Chinese, Malay and Indian adults aged 40–80 years who participated in the Singapore Epidemiology of eye Diseases (2004–2011) in Singapore. Based on the presenting visual acuity (PVA) in the better-seeing eye, VI was categorized into normal vision (logMAR≤0.30), low vision (logMAR>0.30<1.00), and blindness (logMAR≥1.00). Any VI was defined as low vision/blindness in the PVA of better-seeing eye. Individual-level low-SES was defined as a composite of primary-level education, monthly income<2000 SGD and residing in 1 or 2-room public apartment. An area-level SES was assessed using a socio-economic disadvantage index (SEDI), created using 12 variables from the 2010 Singapore census. A high SEDI score indicates a relatively poor SES. Associations between SES measures and presence and severity of VI were examined using multi-level, mixed-effects logistic and multinomial regression models. Results The age-adjusted prevalence of any VI was 19.62% (low vision = 19%, blindness = 0.62%). Both individual- and area-level SES were positively associated with any VI and low vision after adjusting for confounders. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of any VI was 2.11(1.88–2.37) for low-SES and 1.07(1.02–1.13) per 1 standard deviation increase in SEDI. When stratified by unilateral/bilateral categories, while low SES showed significant associations with all categories, SEDI showed a significant association with bilateral low vision only. The association between low SES and any VI remained significant among all age, gender and ethnic sub-groups. Although a consistent positive association was observed between area-level SEDI and any VI, the associations were significant among participants aged 40–65 years and male. Conclusion In this

  15. Socioeconomic determinants of haemoglobin levels of African women are less important in areas with more health facilities: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Haverkate, Manon; Smits, Jeroen; Meijerink, Hinta; van der Ven, André

    2014-02-01

    The prevalence of anaemia in Africa is the highest in the world. Especially women are at risk because of blood loss during menstruation and increased iron requirements during pregnancy. This study examined determinants of the haemoglobin (Hb) level of African women at individual/household, cluster, district, and national level. Special attention was paid to socioeconomic factors and the presence of health facilities. Data were derived from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 2003 and 2010 in 21 African countries. We included all women aged 15-49 who participated in a women's survey and had a Hb measurement. Multilevel models were used to examine the influence of various factors at different hierarchical levels simultaneously. 104 899 women were included in the study, of which 23.1% were anaemic (Hb<110 g/L). Socioeconomic factors were strongly related to the Hb level of women. Wealth, education, having a job, occupation of the partner, presence of a toilet facility, context educational level and preventive health measures were positively associated with the Hb level. Interaction analysis indicated that socioeconomic differences in the Hb level of women were reduced by the presence of health facilities. Interventions aimed at improving the Hb level of African women should take socioeconomic and contextual aspects into account. Increasing availability of health facilities might be a tool for reducing socioeconomic differences.

  16. Comparison of individual-level versus area-level socioeconomic measures in assessing health outcomes of children in Olmsted County, Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Pardo-Crespo, Maria R; Narla, Nirmala Priya; Williams, Arthur R; Beebe, Timothy J; Sloan, Jeff; Yawn, Barbara P; Wheeler, Philip H; Juhn, Young J

    2013-04-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is an important determinant of health, but SES measures are frequently unavailable in commonly used datasets. Area-level SES measures are used as proxy measures of individual SES when the individual measures are lacking. Little is known about the agreement between individual-level versus area-level SES measures in mixed urban-rural settings. We identified SES agreement by comparing information from telephone self-reported SES levels and SES calculated from area-level SES measures. We assessed the impact of this agreement on reported associations between SES and rates of childhood obesity, low birth weight <2500 g and smoking within the household in a mixed urban-rural setting. 750 households were surveyed with a response rate of 62%: 51% male, 89% Caucasian; mean child age 9.5 years. Individual-level self-reported income was more strongly associated with all three childhood health outcomes compared to area-level SES. We found significant disagreement rates of 22-31%. The weighted Cohen's κ indices ranged from 0.15 to 0.22, suggesting poor agreement between individual-level and area-level measures. In a mixed urban-rural setting comprised of both rural and urbanised areas, area-level SES proxy measures significantly disagree with individual SES measures, and have different patterns of association with health outcomes from individual-level SES measures. Area-level SES may be an unsuitable proxy for SES when individual rather than community characteristics are of primary concern.

  17. Environmental and socioeconomic factors contributing to elevated blood lead levels in children from an industrial area of Upper Silesia.

    PubMed

    Pelc, Wojciech; Pawlas, Natalia; Dobrakowski, Michał; Kasperczyk, Sławomir

    2016-10-01

    The present study concentrated on a cross-sectional analysis of recent exposure to lead (Pb) and the socioeconomic factors behind increased Pb exposure in Polish children. Lead is one of the most widespread toxic heavy metals in the industrial region of Upper Silesia (Poland). Elevated blood Pb levels in children continue to be a matter of serious concern. The present study involved 4882 children from the Upper Silesia region, aged from 3 yr to 18 yr, over the calendar years 1999 to 2013. The concentration of Pb in blood was determined in each child. The children's parents were asked to answer survey questions about the child's environmental exposure to Pb as well as the socioeconomic condition of the family. Factors that correspond with increased exposure to Pb included: lower level of education of parents, unemployment, parents' occupational Pb exposure, poor socioeconomic status of the family, smoking at home, living on the ground floor of buildings, consumption of locally grown vegetables and fruits, longer outdoor playing periods in a polluted environment, and male gender. Environmental exposure to Pb is the most important factor behind chronic poisoning of children in Upper Silesia. The most important socioeconomic factor associated with concentrations of Pb in children's blood is a lower level of education of a child's mother and father. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2597-2603. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  18. Area-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Overweight and Obesity in a Community-Derived Cohort of Health Service Users - A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Bonney, Andrew; Mayne, Darren J; Jones, Bryan D; Bott, Lawrence; Andersen, Stephen E J; Caputi, Peter; Weston, Kathryn M; Iverson, Don C

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity lead to higher probability of individuals accessing primary care but adiposity estimates are rarely available at regional levels to inform health service planning. This paper analyses a large, community-derived clinical database of objectively measured body mass index (BMI) to explore relationships with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage for informing regional level planning activities. The study included 91776 adults who had BMI objectively measured between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2011 by a single pathology provider. Demographic data and BMI were extracted and matched to 2006 national census socioeconomic data using geocoding. Adjusted odds-ratios for overweight and obesity were calculated using sex-stratified logistic regression models with socioeconomic disadvantage of census collection district of residence as the independent variable. The prevalence of overweight or obesity was 79.2% (males) and 65.8% (females); increased with age to 74 years; and was higher in rural (74%) versus urban areas (71.4%) (p<0.001). Increasing socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with increasing prevalence of overweight (p<0.0001), obesity (p<0.0001) and overweight or obesity (p<0.0001) in women and obesity (p<0.0001) in men. Socioeconomic disadvantage was unrelated to overweight (p = 0.2024) and overweight or obesity (p = 0.4896) in males. It is feasible to link routinely-collected clinical data, representative of a discrete population, with geographic distribution of disadvantage, and to obtain meaningful area-level information useful for targeting interventions to improve population health. Our results demonstrate novel area-level socioeconomic gradients in overweight and obesity relevant to regional health service planning.

  19. Area-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Overweight and Obesity in a Community-Derived Cohort of Health Service Users – A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Bonney, Andrew; Mayne, Darren J.; Jones, Bryan D.; Bott, Lawrence; Andersen, Stephen E. J.; Caputi, Peter; Weston, Kathryn M.; Iverson, Don C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity lead to higher probability of individuals accessing primary care but adiposity estimates are rarely available at regional levels to inform health service planning. This paper analyses a large, community-derived clinical database of objectively measured body mass index (BMI) to explore relationships with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage for informing regional level planning activities. Materials and Methods The study included 91776 adults who had BMI objectively measured between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2011 by a single pathology provider. Demographic data and BMI were extracted and matched to 2006 national census socioeconomic data using geocoding. Adjusted odds-ratios for overweight and obesity were calculated using sex-stratified logistic regression models with socioeconomic disadvantage of census collection district of residence as the independent variable. Results The prevalence of overweight or obesity was 79.2% (males) and 65.8% (females); increased with age to 74 years; and was higher in rural (74%) versus urban areas (71.4%) (p<0.001). Increasing socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with increasing prevalence of overweight (p<0.0001), obesity (p<0.0001) and overweight or obesity (p<0.0001) in women and obesity (p<0.0001) in men. Socioeconomic disadvantage was unrelated to overweight (p = 0.2024) and overweight or obesity (p = 0.4896) in males. Conclusion It is feasible to link routinely-collected clinical data, representative of a discrete population, with geographic distribution of disadvantage, and to obtain meaningful area-level information useful for targeting interventions to improve population health. Our results demonstrate novel area-level socioeconomic gradients in overweight and obesity relevant to regional health service planning. PMID:26317861

  20. Comparing the availability, price, variety and quality of fruits and vegetables across retail outlets and by area-level socio-economic position.

    PubMed

    Millichamp, Anna; Gallegos, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    To explore whether area-level socio-economic position or the form of retail stream (conventional v. farmers' market) is associated with differences in the price, availability, variety and quality of a range of fresh fruit and vegetables. A multi-site cross-sectional pilot study of farmers' markets, supermarkets and independent fruit and vegetable retailers. Each was surveyed to assess the price, availability, variety and quality of fifteen fruit and eighteen vegetable items. Retail outlets were located in south-east Queensland. Fifteen retail outlets were surveyed (five of each retail stream). Average basket prices were not significantly different across the socio-economic spectrum, but prices in low socio-economic areas were cheapest. Availability, variety and quality did not differ significantly across levels of socio-economic position; however, the areas with the most socio-economic disadvantage scored poorest for quality and variety. Supermarkets had significantly better fruit and vegetable availability than farmers' markets, although price, variety and quality scores were not different across retail streams. Results demonstrate a trend to fruit and vegetable prices being more expensive at farmers' markets, with the price of the fruit basket being significantly greater at the organic farmers' market compared with the non-organic farmers' markets. Neither area-level socio-economic position nor the form of retail stream was significantly associated with differences in the availability, price, variety and quality of fruit and vegetables, except for availability which was higher in supermarkets than farmers' markets. Further research is needed to determine what role farmers' markets can play in affecting fruit and vegetable intake.

  1. Socio-economic benefits from protected areas in southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Heagney, E C; Kovac, M; Fountain, J; Conner, N

    2015-12-01

    International case studies of protected area performance increasingly report that conservation and socio-economic outcomes are interdependent. Effective conservation requires support and cooperation from local governments and communities, which in turn requires that protected areas contribute to the economic well-being of the communities in which they are sited. Despite increasing recognition of their importance, robust studies that document the socio-economic impacts of protected areas are rare, especially in the developed world context. We proposed 3 potential pathways through which protected areas might benefit local communities in the developed world: the improved local housing value, local business stimulus, and increased local funding pathways. We examined these pathways by undertaking a statistical longitudinal analysis of 110 regional and rural communities covering an area of approximately 600,000 km(2) in southeastern Australia. We compared trends in 10 socio-economic indicators describing employment, income, housing, business development and local government revenue from 2000 to 2010. New protected areas acquisitions led to an increased number of new dwelling approvals and associated developer contributions, increased local business numbers, and increased local government revenue from user-pays services and grants. Longer-term effects of established protected areas included increased local council revenue from a variety of sources. Our findings provide support for each of our 3 proposed benefit pathways and contribute new insights into the cycling of benefits from protected areas through the economy over time. The business and legislative models in our study are typical of those operating in many other developed countries; thus, the benefit pathways reported in our study are likely to be generalizable. By identifying and communicating socio-economic benefits from terrestrial protected areas in a developed world context, our findings represent an important

  2. Evaluating area-level spatial clustering of Salmonella Enteritidis infections and their socioeconomic determinants in the greater Toronto area, Ontario, Canada (2007 - 2009): a retrospective population-based ecological study.

    PubMed

    Varga, Csaba; Pearl, David L; McEwen, Scott A; Sargeant, Jan M; Pollari, Frank; Guerin, Michele T

    2013-11-15

    There have been only a few region-level ecological studies conducted in Canada investigating enteric infections in humans. Our study objectives were to 1) assess the spatial clustering of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) human infections in the Greater Toronto Area, and 2) identify underlying area-level associations between S. Enteritidis infection rates and socioeconomic status (SES) indicators that might explain the clustering of infections. Retrospective data on S. Enteritidis infections from 2007 to 2009 were obtained from Ontario's reportable disease surveillance database and were grouped at the forward sortation area (FSA) - level. A spatial scan statistic was employed to identify FSA-level spatial clusters of high infection rates. Negative binomial regression was used to identify FSA-level associations between S. Enteritidis infection rates and SES indicators obtained from the 2006 Census of Canada. Global Moran's I statistic was used to evaluate the final model for residual spatial clustering. A spatial cluster that included nine neighbouring FSAs was identified in downtown Toronto. A significant positive curvilinear relationship was observed between S. Enteritidis infection rates and FSA-level average number of children at home per census family. Areas with high and areas with low average median family income had higher infection rates than FSAs with medium average median family income. Areas with a high proportion of visible minority population had lower infection rates than FSAs with a medium proportion of visible minority population. The Moran's I statistic was not significant, indicating that no residual spatial autocorrelation was present after accounting for the SES variables in the final model. Our study demonstrated that FSAs with high and low average median family income, medium proportion of visible minority population, and high average number of children at home per census family had the highest S. Enteritidis infection

  3. Evaluating area-level spatial clustering of Salmonella Enteritidis infections and their socioeconomic determinants in the greater Toronto area, Ontario, Canada (2007 – 2009): a retrospective population-based ecological study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There have been only a few region-level ecological studies conducted in Canada investigating enteric infections in humans. Our study objectives were to 1) assess the spatial clustering of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) human infections in the Greater Toronto Area, and 2) identify underlying area-level associations between S. Enteritidis infection rates and socioeconomic status (SES) indicators that might explain the clustering of infections. Methods Retrospective data on S. Enteritidis infections from 2007 to 2009 were obtained from Ontario’s reportable disease surveillance database and were grouped at the forward sortation area (FSA) - level. A spatial scan statistic was employed to identify FSA-level spatial clusters of high infection rates. Negative binomial regression was used to identify FSA-level associations between S. Enteritidis infection rates and SES indicators obtained from the 2006 Census of Canada. Global Moran’s I statistic was used to evaluate the final model for residual spatial clustering. Results A spatial cluster that included nine neighbouring FSAs was identified in downtown Toronto. A significant positive curvilinear relationship was observed between S. Enteritidis infection rates and FSA-level average number of children at home per census family. Areas with high and areas with low average median family income had higher infection rates than FSAs with medium average median family income. Areas with a high proportion of visible minority population had lower infection rates than FSAs with a medium proportion of visible minority population. The Moran’s I statistic was not significant, indicating that no residual spatial autocorrelation was present after accounting for the SES variables in the final model. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that FSAs with high and low average median family income, medium proportion of visible minority population, and high average number of children at home per census

  4. Association of area socioeconomic status with lung function in children.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Fan; Wu, Cho-Kai; Chen, Duan-Rung; Chie, Wei-Chu; Lee, Yungling Leo

    2012-12-01

    The study investigates the association between area-level socioeconomic status (SES) and children's lung function. Participants were 3994 seventh grade students from the Taiwan Children Health Study living in 14 communities in Taiwan and were recruited in 2007. Area-level SES predictors were population size, occupation type, income and education level. Hierarchical linear models (HLM) were used to examine the effects of area-level SES on lung function, after accounting for area air pollution and individual SES (parental education and family income). Areas with high income were independently associated with lower child lung function. The coefficients for log transformation of area tax per person in HLM were -47.8 (95% confidence interval (CI): -80.9, -14.8) in FEV(1), -43.8 (95% CI: -75.2, -12.5) in FVC, -93.4 (95% CI: -179.3, -7.5) in FEF(25-75) and -203.2 (95% CI: -349.1, -57.2) in PEF. All SES predictors influenced in the same direction and affected males more. The interaction of area tax per person with parental educational level was significant on PEF, suggesting significant association of greater parental education with lower lung function in children. High area SES was inversely associated with lung function in Taiwanese children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ethnic Concentration and Socioeconomic Status in Metropolitan Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Mary G.

    1978-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between the socioeconomic status of selected ethnic groups in metropolitan areas and the extent of foreign stock in the areas, with some control for size and regional classification. (Author/AM)

  6. Socioeconomic deprivation and hospital length of stay: a new approach using area-based socioeconomic indicators in multilevel models.

    PubMed

    Coevoet, Vincent; Fresson, Jeanne; Vieux, Rachel; Jay, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    Socioeconomic deprivation is not easily measurable in hospital information systems. However, its identification is essential, as it is associated with morbidity and hospital length of stay (LOS). We aimed at studying the feasibility of using routinely recorded individual and area-based socioeconomic indicators, and assessing their relation with LOS. In a cross-sectional study we collected area-based socioeconomic deprivation indicators from French census databases and individual ones from the 2009 medical and administrative databases of a French referral maternity hospital. The principal outcome was the LOS for delivery. Individual level socioeconomic deprivation indicators included preferential insurance scheme (health insurance allocated to poor persons). Nine area-based socioeconomic deprivation indicators were aggregated at the census tract and commune levels. The relation between socioeconomic deprivation and LOS was studied using multilevel models. The well-documented relation between socioeconomic deprivation and preterm delivery was firstly studied in these models as a validation step. The linkage between aggregated and individual data was possible for the 3471 women included. The median LOS was 5 days. In multivariable analysis adjusted for age (P=0.02), twinning (P=0.0001), delivery mode (P<0.0001), drug addiction (P<0.0001), diagnosis-related group severity level (P<0.0001), and unemployment rate (P=0.002) were associated with an increased LOS. Identifying deprived patients in hospital databases using routinely collected area-based indicators is feasible. The relation of these latter with LOS is consistent with previous studies. Further multicenter investigations are needed to confirm the interest of using such indicators for cost and morbidity predictions.

  7. Drivers and Socioeconomic Impacts of Tourism Participation in Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Vogt, Christine A.; Luo, Junyan; He, Guangming; Frank, Kenneth A.; Liu, Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Nature-based tourism has the potential to enhance global biodiversity conservation by providing alternative livelihood strategies for local people, which may alleviate poverty in and around protected areas. Despite the popularity of the concept of nature-based tourism as an integrated conservation and development tool, empirical research on its actual socioeconomic benefits, on the distributional pattern of these benefits, and on its direct driving factors is lacking, because relevant long-term data are rarely available. In a multi-year study in Wolong Nature Reserve, China, we followed a representative sample of 220 local households from 1999 to 2007 to investigate the diverse benefits that these households received from recent development of nature-based tourism in the area. Within eight years, the number of households directly participating in tourism activities increased from nine to sixty. In addition, about two-thirds of the other households received indirect financial benefits from tourism. We constructed an empirical household economic model to identify the factors that led to household-level participation in tourism. The results reveal the effects of local households' livelihood assets (i.e., financial, human, natural, physical, and social capitals) on the likelihood to participate directly in tourism. In general, households with greater financial (e.g., income), physical (e.g., access to key tourism sites), human (e.g., education), and social (e.g., kinship with local government officials) capitals and less natural capital (e.g., cropland) were more likely to participate in tourism activities. We found that residents in households participating in tourism tended to perceive more non-financial benefits in addition to more negative environmental impacts of tourism compared with households not participating in tourism. These findings suggest that socioeconomic impact analysis and change monitoring should be included in nature-based tourism management systems

  8. Drivers and socioeconomic impacts of tourism participation in protected areas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Vogt, Christine A; Luo, Junyan; He, Guangming; Frank, Kenneth A; Liu, Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Nature-based tourism has the potential to enhance global biodiversity conservation by providing alternative livelihood strategies for local people, which may alleviate poverty in and around protected areas. Despite the popularity of the concept of nature-based tourism as an integrated conservation and development tool, empirical research on its actual socioeconomic benefits, on the distributional pattern of these benefits, and on its direct driving factors is lacking, because relevant long-term data are rarely available. In a multi-year study in Wolong Nature Reserve, China, we followed a representative sample of 220 local households from 1999 to 2007 to investigate the diverse benefits that these households received from recent development of nature-based tourism in the area. Within eight years, the number of households directly participating in tourism activities increased from nine to sixty. In addition, about two-thirds of the other households received indirect financial benefits from tourism. We constructed an empirical household economic model to identify the factors that led to household-level participation in tourism. The results reveal the effects of local households' livelihood assets (i.e., financial, human, natural, physical, and social capitals) on the likelihood to participate directly in tourism. In general, households with greater financial (e.g., income), physical (e.g., access to key tourism sites), human (e.g., education), and social (e.g., kinship with local government officials) capitals and less natural capital (e.g., cropland) were more likely to participate in tourism activities. We found that residents in households participating in tourism tended to perceive more non-financial benefits in addition to more negative environmental impacts of tourism compared with households not participating in tourism. These findings suggest that socioeconomic impact analysis and change monitoring should be included in nature-based tourism management systems

  9. Individual and Area Level Socioeconomic Status and Its Association with Cognitive Function and Cognitive Impairment (Low MMSE) among Community-Dwelling Elderly in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Liang En; Yeo, Wei Xin; Yang, Gui Rong; Hannan, Nazirul; Lim, Kenny; Chua, Christopher; Tan, Mae Yue; Fong, Nikki; Yeap, Amelia; Chen, Lionel; Koh, Gerald Choon-Huat; Shen, Han Ming

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) can affect cognitive function. We assessed cognitive function and cognitive impairment among community-dwelling elderly in a multi-ethnic urban low-SES Asian neighborhood and compared them with a higher-SES neighborhood. Methods The study population involved all residents aged ≥60 years in two housing estates comprising owner-occupied housing (higher SES) and rental flats (low SES) in Singapore in 2012. Cognitive impairment was defined as <24 on the Mini Mental State Examination. Demographic/clinical details were collected via questionnaire. Multilevel linear regression was used to evaluate factors associated with cognitive function, while multilevel logistic regression determined predictors of cognitive impairment. Results Participation was 61.4% (558/909). Cognitive impairment was found in 26.2% (104/397) of residents in the low-SES community and in 16.1% (26/161) of residents in the higher-SES community. After adjusting for other sociodemographic variables, living in a low-SES community was independently associated with poorer cognitive function (β = −1.41, SD = 0.58, p < 0.01) and cognitive impairment (adjusted odds ratio 5.13, 95% CI 1.98–13.34). Among cognitively impaired elderly in the low-SES community, 96.2% (100/104) were newly detected. Conclusion Living in a low-SES community is independently associated with cognitive impairment in an urban Asian society. PMID:23277785

  10. Language and disadvantage: a comparison of the language abilities of adolescents from two different socioeconomic areas.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Sarah; Clegg, Judy; Stackhouse, Joy

    2012-01-01

    It is recognized that children from areas associated with socioeconomic disadvantage are at an increased risk of delayed language development. However, so far research has focused mainly on young children and there has been little investigation into language development in adolescence. To investigate the language abilities of adolescents from two different socioeconomic areas. The paper aims to determine if a higher proportion of adolescents from an area of socioeconomic disadvantage have low language scores when compared with adolescents from a relatively advantaged area. Six standardized language assessments were used to measure expressive and receptive language skills across vocabulary, syntax and narrative in two cohorts of 13 and 14 year olds: one cohort attending a school in an area of socioeconomic disadvantage (103 participants) and the other cohort attending a school in an area of relative socioeconomic advantage (48 participants). The cohort from the area of disadvantage performed significantly lower than the assessments' normative mean on all measures of language ability. There were significant differences between the two cohorts on four of the six language measures. More adolescents from the school in the area of socioeconomic disadvantage had standardized assessment scores that suggest hitherto undetected language difficulties. Results suggest that socioeconomic background is associated with language ability in adolescence as measured by standardized tests. In particular, adolescents from an area of socioeconomic disadvantage were at risk of low vocabulary scores. The advantages and disadvantages of using standardized language assessments are discussed and the implications for clinical and educational practice and for school level policies are highlighted. © 2012 Royal College of Speech & Language Therapists.

  11. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Socioeconomics (DRAFT)

    SciTech Connect

    Saulsbury, J.W.; Sorensen, B.M.; Schexnayder, S.M.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background information on socioeconomic resources collected during the preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed. Regis. 5925638), withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed Regis. 57:5433), of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGPEIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This document provides background information on socioeconomic resources in Hawaii County, with particular emphasis on the Puna District (Fig. 1). Information is being made available for use by others in conducting future socioeconomic impact assessments in this area. This report describes existing socioeconomic resources in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. The socioeconomic resources described are primarily those that would be affected by employment and population growth associated with any future large-scale development. These resource categories are (1) population, (2) housing, (3) land use, (4) economic structure (primarily employment and income), (5) infrastructure and public services (education, ground transportation, police and fire protection, water, wastewater, solid waste disposal, electricity, and emergency planning), (6) local government revenues and expenditures, and (7) tourism and recreation.

  12. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Socioeconomics

    SciTech Connect

    Saulsbury, J.W.; Sorensen, B.M.; Reed, R.M.; Schexnayder, S.M.

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background information on socioeconomic resources collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3--4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The USDOE published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This document provides background information on socioeconomic resources in Hawaii County, with particular emphasis on the Puna District. Information is being made available for use by others in conducting future socioeconomic impact assessments in this area. this report describes existing socioeconomic resources in the areas studied and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. The socioeconomic resources described are primarily those that would be affected by employment and population growth associated with any future large-scale development. These resource categories are population, housing, land use, economic structure, infrastructure and public services, local government revenues and expenditures, and tourism and recreation.

  13. Socioeconomic factors and cancer incidence, mortality, and survival in a metropolitan area of Japan: a cross-sectional ecological study.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Kimiko; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Ajiki, Wakiko; Oshima, Akira

    2005-10-01

    Cancer mortality is generally high in people of low socioeconomic status compared with people of high socioeconomic status (SES). Although these differences in mortality may be caused by differences in cancer incidence and survival, analysis of these factors has rarely been conducted. The objective of our cross-sectional ecological study was to analyze socioeconomic differences in cancer incidence, mortality and survival in a metropolitan area of Japan. The age-adjusted cancer incidence rates, age-adjusted mortality rates, relative 5-year survival, and proportions of early stage cancer were calculated for 67 municipalities in Osaka, Japan. For area-based socioeconomic variables, we used the percentages of male unemployment, college or graduate school graduates, home ownership, households receiving government assistance, and households below the subsistence habitation level in each municipality. We performed linear regression taking each municipality's population as weight to examine the relationships between measurements relating cancer and socioeconomic variables. Factor analysis of socioeconomic variables was carried out to determine whether a particular socioeconomic variable tended to be associated with another. Cancer incidence, cancer mortality, 5-year cancer survival, and proportion of early stage cancer were highly correlated with each socioeconomic variable at the municipality level. Five area-based socioeconomic variables could be explained by three factors: economic status, housing characteristics and educational attainment. Despite the major limitation of a lack of individual information about socioeconomic characteristics and outcomes related to cancer, we hypothesize that a municipal area's socioeconomic status might be a predictor of individual incidence, mortality, and survival of cancer.

  14. Association between cardiovascular disease and socioeconomic level in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sónia; Furtado, Cláudia; Pereira, João

    2013-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity, mortality and disability in Portugal. Socioeconomic level is known to influence health status but there is scant evidence on socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease in Portugal. To analyze the distribution of cardiovascular disease in the Portuguese population according to socioeconomic status. We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the fourth National Health Survey on a representative sample of the Portuguese population. Socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease, risk factors and number of medical visits were analyzed using odds ratios according to socioeconomic status (household equivalent income) in the adult population (35-74 years). Comparisons focused on the top and bottom 50% and 10% of household income distribution. Of the 21 807 individuals included, 53.3% were female, and mean age was 54 ± 11 years. Cardiovascular disease, stroke, ischemic heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, obesity and physical inactivity were associated with lower socioeconomic status, while smoking was associated with higher status; number of medical visits and psychological distress showed no association. When present, inequality was greater at the extremes of income distribution. The results reveal an association between morbidity, lifestyle and socioeconomic status. They also suggest that besides improved access to effective medical intervention, there is a need for a comprehensive strategy for health promotion and disease prevention that takes account of individual, cultural and socioeconomic characteristics. Copyright © 2012 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Regional Inequalities in Lung Cancer Mortality in Belgium at the Beginning of the 21st Century: The Contribution of Individual and Area-Level Socioeconomic Status and Industrial Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Hagedoorn, Paulien; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Willaert, Didier; Vanthomme, Katrien; Gadeyne, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Being a highly industrialized country with one of the highest male lung cancer mortality rates in Europe, Belgium is an interesting study area for lung cancer research. This study investigates geographical patterns in lung cancer mortality in Belgium. More specifically it probes into the contribution of individual as well as area-level characteristics to (sub-district patterns in) lung cancer mortality. Data from the 2001 census linked to register data from 2001–2011 are used, selecting all Belgian inhabitants aged 65+ at time of the census. Individual characteristics include education, housing status and home ownership. Urbanicity, unemployment rate, the percentage employed in mining and the percentage employed in other high-risk industries are included as sub-district characteristics. Regional variation in lung cancer mortality at sub-district level is estimated using directly age-standardized mortality rates. The association between lung cancer mortality and individual and area characteristics, and their impact on the variation of sub-district level is estimated using multilevel Poisson models. Significant sub-district variations in lung cancer mortality are observed. Individual characteristics explain a small share of this variation, while a large share is explained by sub-district characteristics. Individuals with a low socioeconomic status experience a higher lung cancer mortality risk. Among women, an association with lung cancer mortality is found for the sub-district characteristics urbanicity and unemployment rate, while for men lung cancer mortality was associated with the percentage employed in mining. Not just individual characteristics, but also area characteristics are thus important determinants of (regional differences in) lung cancer mortality. PMID:26760040

  16. A multilevel study of area socio-economic status and food purchasing behaviour.

    PubMed

    Turrell, Gavin; Bentley, Rebecca; Thomas, Lyndal R; Jolley, Damien; Subramanian, Sv; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2009-11-01

    The present study examined the association between area socio-economic status (SES) and food purchasing behaviour. Data were collected by mail survey (64.2 % response rate). Area SES was indicated by the proportion of households in each area earning less than $AUS 400 per week, and individual-level socio-economic position was measured using education, occupation and household income. Food purchasing was measured on the basis of compliance with dietary guideline recommendations (for grocery foods) and variety of fruit and vegetable purchase. Multilevel regression analysis examined the association between area SES and food purchase after adjustment for individual-level demographic (age, sex, household composition) and socio-economic factors. Melbourne city, Australia, 2003. Residents of 2564 households located in fifty small areas. Residents of low-SES areas were significantly less likely than their counterparts in advantaged areas to purchase grocery foods that were high in fibre and low in fat, salt and sugar; and they purchased a smaller variety of fruits. There was no evidence of an association between area SES and vegetable variety. In Melbourne, area SES was associated with some food purchasing behaviours independent of individual-level factors, suggesting that areas in this city may be differentiated on the basis of food availability, accessibility and affordability, making the purchase of some types of foods more difficult in disadvantaged areas.

  17. Analysing risk factors for poorer breast cancer outcomes in residents of lower socioeconomic areas of Australia.

    PubMed

    Roder, David; Zorbas, Helen M; Kollias, James; Pyke, Chris M; Walters, David; Campbell, Ian D; Taylor, Corey; Webster, Fleur

    2014-05-01

    are likely to vary with the country and health system characteristics. What does this paper add? The present study found that in Australia, women from lower socioeconomic areas do not have more advanced cancers at diagnosis, nor, in general, other cancer features that would predispose them to poorer outcomes. The standout differences were that they tended more to live in areas that were more remote from specialist metropolitan centres and were more likely to be treated in regional settings where prior research has indicated poorer outcomes. The reasons for these poorer outcomes are not known but may include lower levels of surgical specialisation, less access to specialised adjunctive services, and less involvement with multidisciplinary teams. Women from lower socioeconomic areas also appeared more likely to attend lower case load surgeons. Little difference was evident in the type of clinical care received, although women from lower socioeconomic areas were less likely to be asymptomatic referrals from other clinical settings (excluding BreastScreen). What are the implications for practitioners? Results suggest that poorer outcomes in women from lower socioeconomic areas in Australia may have less to do with the characteristics of their breast cancers or treatment modalities and more to do with health system features, such as access to specialist centres. This study highlights the importance of demographic and health system features as potentially key factors in service outcomes. Health system research should be strengthened in Australia to augment biomedical and clinical research, with a view to best meeting service needs of all sectors of the population.

  18. Racial and Socioeconomic Variations in Preadolescent Area-Specific and General Self-esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Bruce R.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses a study of two hundred and ten fifth-grade students, noting indications that children of varying backgrounds differ in their levels of general and area-specific self-esteem across both racial and socioeconomic lines but not significantly by sex. For availability see CS 704 480. (MH)

  19. Agreement in measuring socio-economic status: area-based versus individual measures.

    PubMed

    Demissie, K; Hanley, J A; Menzies, D; Joseph, L; Ernst, P

    2000-01-01

    Area-based socio-economic status (SES) measures are frequently used in epidemiology. Such an approach assumes socio-economic homogeneity within an area. To quantify the agreement between area-based SES measures and SES assessed at the individual level, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 943 children who resided in 155 small enumeration areas and 117 census tracts from 18 schools in Montreal, Quebec. We used street address information together with 1986 census data and parental occupation to establish area-based and individual level SES indicators, respectively. As compared with the SES score determined at the level of the individual, 13 different area-based SES indices classified the children within the same quintile 28.7% (+/- 2.8%) of the time. The discrepancy was within one quintile in 35.3% (+/- 2.3%) of cases, two quintiles in 20.6% (+/- 3.6%), three quintiles in 11.3% (+/- 4.2%) and four quintiles in 4.1% (+/- 0.2%). In conclusion, we observed a substantial discrepancy between area- based SES measures and SES assessed at the individual level. Caution should therefore be used in designing or interpreting the results of studies in which area-based SES measures are used to test hypotheses or control for confounding.

  20. Influence of municipal- and individual-level socioeconomic conditions on mortality in Japan.

    PubMed

    Honjo, Kaori; Iso, Hiroyasu; Fukuda, Yoshiharu; Nishi, Nobuo; Nakaya, Tomoki; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Tanabe, Naohito; Suzuki, Sadao; Subramanian, S V; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2014-01-01

    The health effect of area socioeconomic conditions has been evident especially in Western countries; however, limited research has focused on the effect of municipal-level socioeconomic conditions, especially in Asia. Multilevel research using data from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study, a large cohort study followed from 1990 to 2006, was conducted to examine individual as well as municipal socioeconomic conditions on risk of death, adjusting for each other. We included 24,460 men and 32,649 women aged 40 to 65 years at baseline in 35 municipalities as our study population. Primary predictors were municipal socioeconomic conditions (proportion of college graduates, per capita income, unemployment rate, and proportion of households receiving public assistance) and individual socioeconomic conditions (education level and occupation). Among men, the multilevel logistic estimate (standard errors) of proportion of college graduates and unemployment rate for mortality from cardiovascular disease were -0.399 (0.094) and -0.343 (0.122), respectively. Among women, the multilevel logistic estimate (standard errors) of proportion of college graduates and per capita annual income for mortality from injuries were -0.386 (0.171) and -1.069 (0.407). Individual education level and occupation were associated with all-cause mortality, in particular, mortality from cardiovascular disease or injuries. Interactions between individual education level and indicators of municipal socioeconomic conditions were observed for mortality from cancer and cardiovascular disease among men and mortality from injuries among women. Municipal and individual socioeconomic conditions were independently and interactively associated with premature death; this suggests that reducing social inequalities in health demands a focus on municipal conditions in addition to those of individuals.

  1. What are the socio-economic conditions of local areas affected by wildfires in Portugal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Sandra; Luís Zêzere, José; Pereira, José Miguel

    2017-04-01

    The socio-economic context of wildfire distribution is paramount to understand the conditions that influence the vulnerability and resilience levels of different communities exposed to wildfire risk. This research had the main purpose to assess the social and economic dimensions of fire occurrence in Portugal, the country most affected by wildfires in Europe. Differences in fire incidence levels, obtained from number of fire events and burned areas recorded between 2007 and 2014, were examined in relation to socio-economic data from the latest Census at local level, describing conditions regarding exposure levels, sociodemographic patterns, infrastructures, agricultural activities and labour conditions for the civil parishes of mainland Portugal. To identify differences between parishes, two groups were retrieved for fire events and burned areas separately, based on quantiles and keeping only the highest and lowest 20% of wildfire incidence data. The relationships between the wildfire incidence groups and the socio-economic variables were assessed with a stepwise approach based on classification trees. First, irrelevant variables for identifying differences between the groups were removed by an interactive process based on misclassification rates. The second step used random Forest analysis with the selected variables to compute the strength of association and rank variables by importance. The third step applied cluster analysis to determine if the clusters created only with the selected independent variables were equivalent to the initial groups. Results showed that the social and economic conditions of civil parishes vary with wildfire incidence levels. Population density, proportion of foreigners, overcrowded housing conditions, proportion of houses occupied seasonally, and agricultural variables, such as pastures and livestock density, appeared as relevant to distinguish the two fire incidence groups, although with differences in their level of importance and

  2. A multilevel analysis of socioeconomic (small area) differences in household food purchasing behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Turrell, G; Blakely, T; Patterson, C; Oldenburg, B

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: To examine the association between area and individual level socioeconomic status (SES) and food purchasing behaviour. Design: The sample comprised 1000 households and 50 small areas. Data were collected by face to face interview (66.4% response rate). SES was measured using a composite area index of disadvantage (mean 1026.8, SD = 95.2) and household income. Purchasing behaviour was scored as continuous indices ranging from 0 to 100 for three food types: fruits (mean 50.5, SD = 17.8), vegetables (61.8, 15.2), and grocery items (51.4, 17.6), with higher scores indicating purchasing patterns more consistent with dietary guideline recommendations. Setting: Brisbane, Australia, 2000. Participants: Persons responsible for their household's food purchasing. Main results: Controlling for age, gender, and household income, a two standard deviation increase on the area SES measure was associated with a 2.01 unit increase on the fruit purchasing index (95% CI -0.49 to 4.50). The corresponding associations for vegetables and grocery foods were 0.60 (-1.36 to 2.56) and 0.94 (-1.35 to 3.23). Before controlling for household income, significant area level differences were found for each food, suggesting that clustering of household income within areas (a composition effect) accounted for the purchasing variability between them. Conclusions: Living in a socioeconomically advantaged area was associated with a tendency to purchase healthier food, however, the association was small in magnitude and the 95% CI for area SES included the null. Although urban areas in Brisbane are differentiated on the basis of their socioeconomic characteristics, it seems unlikely that where you live shapes your procurement of food over and above your personal characteristics. PMID:14966233

  3. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in amenable mortality in urban areas of Spanish cities, 1996-2007.

    PubMed

    Nolasco, Andreu; Quesada, José Antonio; Moncho, Joaquín; Melchor, Inmaculada; Pereyra-Zamora, Pamela; Tamayo-Fonseca, Nayara; Martínez-Beneito, Miguel Angel; Zurriaga, Oscar

    2014-04-01

    While research continues into indicators such as preventable and amenable mortality in order to evaluate quality, access, and equity in the healthcare, it is also necessary to continue identifying the areas of greatest risk owing to these causes of death in urban areas of large cities, where a large part of the population is concentrated, in order to carry out specific actions and reduce inequalities in mortality. This study describes inequalities in amenable mortality in relation to socioeconomic status in small urban areas, and analyses their evolution over the course of the periods 1996-99, 2000-2003 and 2004-2007 in three major cities in the Spanish Mediterranean coast (Alicante, Castellón, and Valencia). All deaths attributed to amenable causes were analysed among non-institutionalised residents in the three cities studied over the course of the study periods. Census tracts for the cities were grouped into 3 socioeconomic status levels, from higher to lower levels of deprivation, using 5 indicators obtained from the 2001 Spanish Population Census. For each city, the relative risks of death were estimated between socioeconomic status levels using Poisson's Regression models, adjusted for age and study period, and distinguishing between genders. Amenable mortality contributes significantly to general mortality (around 10%, higher among men), having decreased over time in the three cities studied for men and women. In the three cities studied, with a high degree of consistency, it has been seen that the risks of mortality are greater in areas of higher deprivation, and that these excesses have not significantly modified over time. Although amenable mortality decreases over the time period studied, the socioeconomic inequalities observed are maintained in the three cities. Areas have been identified that display excesses in amenable mortality, potentially attributable to differences in the healthcare system, associated with areas of greater deprivation. Action

  4. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in amenable mortality in urban areas of Spanish cities, 1996–2007

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While research continues into indicators such as preventable and amenable mortality in order to evaluate quality, access, and equity in the healthcare, it is also necessary to continue identifying the areas of greatest risk owing to these causes of death in urban areas of large cities, where a large part of the population is concentrated, in order to carry out specific actions and reduce inequalities in mortality. This study describes inequalities in amenable mortality in relation to socioeconomic status in small urban areas, and analyses their evolution over the course of the periods 1996–99, 2000–2003 and 2004–2007 in three major cities in the Spanish Mediterranean coast (Alicante, Castellón, and Valencia). Methods All deaths attributed to amenable causes were analysed among non-institutionalised residents in the three cities studied over the course of the study periods. Census tracts for the cities were grouped into 3 socioeconomic status levels, from higher to lower levels of deprivation, using 5 indicators obtained from the 2001 Spanish Population Census. For each city, the relative risks of death were estimated between socioeconomic status levels using Poisson’s Regression models, adjusted for age and study period, and distinguishing between genders. Results Amenable mortality contributes significantly to general mortality (around 10%, higher among men), having decreased over time in the three cities studied for men and women. In the three cities studied, with a high degree of consistency, it has been seen that the risks of mortality are greater in areas of higher deprivation, and that these excesses have not significantly modified over time. Conclusions Although amenable mortality decreases over the time period studied, the socioeconomic inequalities observed are maintained in the three cities. Areas have been identified that display excesses in amenable mortality, potentially attributable to differences in the healthcare system

  5. Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Monitoring Socioeconomic Gradients in Health: A Comparison of Area-Based Socioeconomic Measures—The Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Nancy; Chen, Jarvis T.; Waterman, Pamela D.; Rehkopf, David H.; Subramanian, S. V.

    2003-01-01

    Use of multilevel frameworks and area-based socioeconomic measures (ABSMs) for public health monitoring can potentially overcome the absence of socioeconomic data in most US public health surveillance systems. To assess whether ABSMs can meaningfully be used for diverse race/ethnicity–gender groups, we geocoded and linked public health surveillance data from Massachusetts and Rhode Island to 1990 block group, tract, and zip code ABSMs. Outcomes comprised death, birth, cancer incidence, tuberculosis, sexually transmitted infections, childhood lead poisoning, and nonfatal weapons-related injuries. Among White, Black, and Hispanic women and men, measures of economic deprivation (e.g., percentage below poverty) were most sensitive to expected socioeconomic gradients in health, with the most consistent results and maximal geocoding linkage evident for tract-level analyses. PMID:14534218

  6. Assessing the Impact of Socioeconomic Variables on Small Area Variations in Suicide Outcomes in England

    PubMed Central

    Congdon, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Ecological studies of suicide and self-harm have established the importance of area variables (e.g., deprivation, social fragmentation) in explaining variations in suicide risk. However, there are likely to be unobserved influences on risk, typically spatially clustered, which can be modeled as random effects. Regression impacts may be biased if no account is taken of spatially structured influences on risk. Furthermore a default assumption of linear effects of area variables may also misstate or understate their impact. This paper considers variations in suicide outcomes for small areas across England, and investigates the impact on them of area socio-economic variables, while also investigating potential nonlinearity in their impact and allowing for spatially clustered unobserved factors. The outcomes are self-harm hospitalisations and suicide mortality over 6,781 Middle Level Super Output Areas. PMID:23271304

  7. Socioeconomic studies of high-level nuclear waste disposal.

    PubMed Central

    White, G F; Bronzini, M S; Colglazier, E W; Dohrenwend, B; Erikson, K; Hansen, R; Kneese, A V; Moore, R; Page, E B; Rappaport, R A

    1994-01-01

    The socioeconomic investigations of possible impacts of the proposed repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have been unprecedented in several respects. They bear on the public decision that sooner or later will be made as to where and how to dispose permanently of the waste presently at military weapons installations and that continues to accumulate at nuclear power stations. No final decision has yet been made. There is no clear precedent from other countries. The organization of state and federal studies is unique. The state studies involve more disciplines than any previous efforts. They have been carried out in parallel to federal studies and have pioneered in defining some problems and appropriate research methods. A recent annotated bibliography provides interested scientists with a compact guide to the 178 published reports, as well as to relevant journal articles and related documents. PMID:7971963

  8. Area-based socioeconomic position and adult glioma: a hierarchical analysis of surveillance epidemiology and end results data.

    PubMed

    Plascak, Jesse J; Fisher, James L

    2013-01-01

    Glioma rates vary by demographic factors and geo-political boundaries and this variation suggests higher glioma rates in groups of higher socioeconomic position. The primary goal of this analysis is to investigate the relationship between glioma and county socioeconomic position using U.S. Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data. Cases were individuals 25+ years diagnosed with glioma between 2000 and 2006 and residing within the SEER-17 catchment area. County-, sex-, race-, age-specific rates were created in order to investigate individual-level associations (population data from U.S. Census 2000). A Bayesian hierarchical Poisson spatial conditionally autoregressive (CAR) model was utilized to simultaneously estimate individual- and county-level associations while controlling for county spatial dependence. Those residing in counties of the second, third, and fourth highest quartiles of socioeconomic position have glioma incidence rates that are 1.10 (95% CI: 1.02,1.19), 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02,1.20), 1.14 (95% CI: 1.05,1.23) times that of the first quartile, respectively. A CAR model properly controlled for error spatial dependence. Investigated lag times suggest year 2000 census data yields superior model fit. Demographically adjusted rates of glioma are elevated in counties of higher socioeconomic position. More well-grounded theory concerning the glioma-socioeconomic position association along with socioeconomic data collected at multiple levels is recommended for future studies investigating this relationship.

  9. A Study of the Science Achievement of Earth Science Curriculum Project Students From Different Socioeconomic Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, Stanley Joe

    Reported is a study to compare science achievement of 318 ninth-grade students who came from different socioeconomic areas but all enrolled in an Earth Science Curriculum Project (ESCP) program. The students were divided into three socioeconomic groups: upper, middle, and lower. All were given a pretest in science achievement, a posttest, an…

  10. The Association of Area Socioeconomic Status and Breast, Cervical, and Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Pruitt, Sandi L.; Shim, Matthew J.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Vernon, Sally W.; Amick, Benjamin C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Although numerous studies have examined the association of area socioeconomic status (SES) and cancer screening after controlling for individual SES, findings have been inconsistent. A systematic review of existing studies is timely in order to identify conceptual and methodologic limitations and to provide a basis for future research directions and policy. Objective The objectives were to: 1) describe the study designs, constructs, methods, and measures; 2) describe the independent association of area SES and cancer screening; and 3) identify neglected areas of research. Methods We searched 6 electronic databases and manually searched cited and citing articles. Eligible studies were published before 2008 in peer-reviewed journals in English, represented primary data on individuals aged ≥18 years from developed countries, and measured the association of area and individual SES with breast, cervical, or colorectal cancer screening. Results Of 19 eligible studies, most measured breast cancer screening. Studies varied widely in research design, definitions and measures of SES, cancer screening behaviors, and covariates. Eight employed multilevel logistic regression, the remainder analyzed data with standard single level logistic regression. The majority measured 1 or 2 indicators of area and individual SES; common indicators at both levels were poverty, income, and education. There was no consistent pattern in the association between area SES and cancer screening. Discussion The gaps and conceptual and methodologic heterogeneity in the literature to date limit definitive conclusions about an underlying association between area SES and cancer screening. We identify five areas of research deserving greater attention in the literature. PMID:19815634

  11. Prediction of community mental health service utilization by individual and ecological level socio-economic factors.

    PubMed

    Donisi, Valeria; Tedeschi, Federico; Percudani, Mauro; Fiorillo, Andrea; Confalonieri, Linda; De Rosa, Corrado; Salazzari, Damiano; Tansella, Michele; Thornicroft, Graham; Amaddeo, Francesco

    2013-10-30

    Individuals with a more deprived socioeconomic status (SES) are more likely to have higher rates of psychiatric morbidity and use of psychiatric services. Such service use is also influenced by socioeconomic factors at the ecological level. The aim of this article is to investigate the influence of these variables on service utilization. All patients in contact with three Italian community psychiatric services (CPS) were included. Community and hospital contacts over 6 months were investigated. Socio-economic characteristics were described using a SES Index and two new Resources Accessibility Indexes. Low SES was found to be associated with more community service contacts. When other individual and ecological variables were controlled for, SES was negatively associated only with the number of home visits, which was about half the rate in deprived areas. An association between service utilization and the resources of the catchment area was also detected. The economic crisis in Europe is increasing inequality of access, so paying attention to SES characteristics at both the individual and the ecological levels is likely to become increasingly important in understanding patterns of psychiatric service utilization and planning care accordingly.

  12. Spatial Relationship Quantification between Environmental, Socioeconomic and Health Data at Different Geographic Levels

    PubMed Central

    Saib, Mahdi-Salim; Caudeville, Julien; Carre, Florence; Ganry, Olivier; Trugeon, Alain; Cicolella, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Spatial health inequalities have often been analyzed in terms of socioeconomic and environmental factors. The present study aimed to evaluate spatial relationships between spatial data collected at different spatial scales. The approach was illustrated using health outcomes (mortality attributable to cancer) initially aggregated to the county level, district socioeconomic covariates, and exposure data modeled on a regular grid. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) was used to quantify spatial relationships. The strongest associations were found when low deprivation was associated with lower lip, oral cavity and pharynx cancer mortality and when low environmental pollution was associated with low pleural cancer mortality. However, applying this approach to other areas or to other causes of death or with other indicators requires continuous exploratory analysis to assess the role of the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP) and downscaling the health data on the study of the relationship, which will allow decision-makers to develop interventions where they are most needed. PMID:24705362

  13. Are some areas more equal than others? Socioeconomic inequality in potentially avoidable emergency hospital admissions within English local authority areas

    PubMed Central

    Asaria, Miqdad; Barratt, Helen; Raine, Rosalind; Cookson, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Reducing health inequalities is an explicit goal of England’s health system. Our aim was to compare the performance of English local administrative areas in reducing socioeconomic inequality in emergency hospital admissions for ambulatory care sensitive chronic conditions. Methods We used local authority area as a stable proxy for health and long-term care administrative geography between 2004/5 and 2011/12. We linked inpatient hospital activity, deprivation, primary care, and population data to small area neighbourhoods (typical population 1500) within administrative areas (typical population 250,000). We measured absolute inequality gradients nationally and within each administrative area using neighbourhood-level linear models of the relationship between national deprivation and age–sex-adjusted emergency admission rates. We assessed local equity performance by comparing local inequality against national inequality to identify areas significantly more or less equal than expected; evaluated stability over time; and identified where equity performance was steadily improving or worsening. We then examined associations between change in socioeconomic inequalities and change in within-area deprivation (gentrification). Finally, we used administrative area-level random and fixed effects models to examine the contribution of primary care to inequalities in admissions. Results Data on 316 administrative areas were included in the analysis. Local inequalities were fairly stable between consecutive years, but 32 areas (10%) showed steadily improving or worsening equity. In the 21 improving areas, the gap between most and least deprived fell by 3.9 admissions per 1000 (six times the fall nationally) between 2004/5 and 2011/12, while in the 11 areas worsening, the gap widened by 2.4. There was no indication that measured improvements in local equity were an artefact of gentrification or that changes in primary care supply or quality contributed to changes in

  14. Tracking stroke hospitalization clusters over time and associations with county-level socioeconomic and healthcare characteristics.

    PubMed

    Schieb, Linda J; Mobley, Lee R; George, Mary; Casper, Michele

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated clustering of stroke hospitalization rates, patterns of the clustering over time, and associations with community-level characteristics. We used Medicare hospital claims data from 1995-1996 to 2005-2006 with a principal discharge diagnosis of stroke to calculate county-level stroke hospitalization rates. We identified statistically significant clusters of high- and low-rate counties by using local indicators of spatial association, tracked cluster status over time, and assessed associations between cluster status and county-level socioeconomic and healthcare profiles. Clearly defined clusters of counties with high- and low-stroke hospitalization rates were identified in each time. Approximately 75% of counties maintained their cluster status from 1995-1996 to 2005-2006. In addition, 243 counties transitioned into high-rate clusters, and 148 transitioned out of high-rate clusters. Persistently high-rate clusters were located primarily in the Southeast, whereas persistently low-rate clusters occurred mostly in New England and in the West. In general, persistently low-rate counties had the most favorable socioeconomic and healthcare profiles, followed by counties that transitioned out of or into high-rate clusters. Persistently high-rate counties experienced the least favorable socioeconomic and healthcare profiles. The persistence of clusters of high- and low-stroke hospitalization rates during a 10-year period suggests that the underlying causes of stroke in these areas have also persisted. The associations found between cluster status (persistently high, transitional, persistently low) and socioeconomic and healthcare profiles shed new light on the contributions of community-level characteristics to geographic disparities in stroke hospitalizations.

  15. Socioeconomic area disparities in tobacco retail outlet density: a Western Australian analysis.

    PubMed

    Wood, Lisa J; Pereira, Gavin; Middleton, Nick; Foster, Sarah

    2013-05-20

    To examine the association between tobacco outlet density and area socioeconomic status (SES) in Western Australia. Ecological cross-sectional study investigating the relationship between the area SES of, and the density of tobacco retail outlets in, WA suburbs and towns for the Perth metropolitan area, and at the regional and state level. SES was determined using the 2006 Australian Bureau of Statistics Index of Relative Socioeconomic Advantage and Disadvantage (IRSAD) and classified into quartiles (very low, low, high and very high); tobacco outlet data were sourced from the WA Department of Health register of retailers licensed to sell tobacco at May 2011. Tobacco outlet density rate (per 10 000 residents). In WA overall, suburbs and towns with a very low IRSAD had more than four times the number of tobacco outlets compared with those with a very high IRSAD (P> < 0.001). This trend was similar when analyses were restricted to the Perth metropolitan area and to regional areas. Suburbs and towns in regional WA with a very low IRSAD had more than five times the number of tobacco outlets than those with a very high IRSAD (P> < 0.001). This study provides the first Australian evidence of a strong relationship between area SES and tobacco outlet density. Findings are consistent with a number of United States studies that report higher tobacco outlet densities in lower SES or minority neighbourhoods. The results underscore the importance of policy approaches to limit the number of tobacco retail licences granted, and to reduce the geographic density of outlets in more disadvantaged suburbs and towns.

  16. The Purdue Elementary Problem-Solving Inventory (PEPSI), Grade Level, and Socioeconomic Status: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, David W.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of grade level and socioeconomic status upon Purdue Elementary Problem-Solving Inventory (PEPSI) scores were investigated with 123 elementary students. It was concluded that the PEPSI is usable with most grade two through grade six pupils at both lower and middle socioeconomic levels, and has potential utility in teaching…

  17. The Purdue Elementary Problem-Solving Inventory (PEPSI), Grade Level, and Socioeconomic Status: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, David W.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of grade level and socioeconomic status upon Purdue Elementary Problem-Solving Inventory (PEPSI) scores were investigated with 123 elementary students. It was concluded that the PEPSI is usable with most grade two through grade six pupils at both lower and middle socioeconomic levels, and has potential utility in teaching…

  18. Profiling of Alzheimer's disease patients in Puerto Rico: A comparison of two distinct socioeconomic areas.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Mercado, Clara L; Figueroa, Raúl; Acosta, Heriberto; Arnold, Steven E; Vega, Irving E

    2016-01-01

    The Latino/Hispanic community in the United States is at higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease than other ethnic groups. Specifically, Caribbean Hispanics showed a more severe Alzheimer's disease symptomatology than any other ethnic group. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the mortality rate associated with Alzheimer's disease in Puerto Rico is higher than that reported in the United States. Moreover, the mortality rate associated with Alzheimer's disease was higher among Puerto Rican living in Puerto Rico than those in the mainland United States. There is also a differential geographical distribution of mortality rate associated with Alzheimer's disease in Puerto Rico, which may be associated with differential socioeconomic status and/or access to healthcare. However, there is no information regarding the clinical profile of Alzheimer's disease patients in Puerto Rico. Here, we present the results of a retrospective study directed to profile Alzheimer's disease patients clustered into two groups based on areas previously determined with low (Metro Region) and high (Northwest-Central Region) mortality rate associated with Alzheimer's disease in Puerto Rico. Significant difference in the age-at-diagnosis and years of education was found among patients within the two studied regions. Despite these differences, both regions showed comparable levels of initial and last Mini Mental State Examination scores and rate of cognitive decline. Significant difference was also observed in the occurance of co-morbidities associated with Alzheimer's disease. The differential profile of Alzheimer's disease patients correlated with differences in socioeconomic status between these two regions, suggesting that covariant associated with social status may contribute to increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. Further studies should be conducted to determine the role of socioeconomic factors and healthy living practices as risk factors for Alzheimer's disease.

  19. [Prevalence of risk factors for drowning at home related to the socioeconomic level].

    PubMed

    Sevilla-Godínez, Rosa Elizabeth; Gómez-Lomelí, Zolia Margarita; Chávez-Ponce, Blanca; Orozco-Valerio, María; Celis-de la Rosa, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    To measure the association between social economic conditions and the presence of risk factors for drowning at home in children under 5 years old within metropolitan area of Guadalajara. Surveyed 439 family houses were lived children less than 5 years old randomly selected during 18 months. Variables included social economic level, demographics, and bodies of water and accessories present at the house. Children in the lower social economic level are exposed more frequently to buckets and laundry tubs in the house than children of medium level families, but not to underground cisterns and wells. No mater the equal number of underground cisterns and wells, safety accessories and equipment are less frequent in low socioeconomic families. Children in the low social economic level spend more time at their homes than medium socioeconomic level children. It seems that the high frequency of drowning among low social economic families is related to a higher exposure to risk factors. It is necessary to improve mechanisms and change environmental conditions to reduce the number of children drowning at home.

  20. [Seroprevalence of helicobacter pylori infection in the republic of Argentina: influence of age, sex, socioeconomic level, geographical area, and health infrastructure. Multicenter study by the Club Argentino del Estomago y Duodeno].

    PubMed

    Pest, P S; Corti, R; Pedrana, R; Varela, A; Glanczpigel, R; Schraier, M

    1999-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection affects almost half of the world population, it is almost a pandemia, and has been associated to poverty in underdeveloped countries. The Club Argentino del Estómago y Duodeno decided to fulfill the lack of information upon this subject in Argentina designing a seroprevalence, multicentric, prospective study performed in voluntary adults donors in blood banks and in children seen during normal growth controls. Seven hundred and nineteen individuals were evaluated, 645 of them were included: 178 children (age 0-18 years) and 467 adults. In all cases a serological IgG Hp test (Flex-Pack Abbott) was performed and an epidemiological questionnaire was completed by a physician. General prevalence of Hp infection was 44.8% of individuals. In the paediatric population prevalence was 15.7% and in adults 55.9%. The highest prevalence was observed in the fifth decade: 64%. In concordance with other similar studies carried out in different countries, we may conclude that the risk of acquisition of Hp infection is directly related to age, area of residence, social-economical status, sanitary facilities, and educational level reached. Even though the prevalence of Hp infection in Argentina is intermediate between highly developed and underdeveloped countries, the number of people infected is very high and the incidence of Hp-associated pathologies in the future represents a formidable task for gastroenterologists and sanitary authorities.

  1. Socioeconomic baseline characterization for the Savannah River Plant area

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the social and economic characteristics of the environs of the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The characterization is keyed to those areas of the social and economic environment that could be impacted by the construction and operation of major facilities at SRP. The data consists of past trends and existing characteristics of the area's land use; its demographic, social, and economic profile; regional government; community services; housing, transportation; and historical, scenic, and archeological resources. Published documents, reports, and brochures were the primary sources of all the data presented in this document. When current published data was unavailable, representatives of federal, state, and local agencies were contacted by telephone. Conversations were followed by letters of verification, which were reviewed and verified by the agency representative.

  2. Learning Strategies in Different Socioeconomic Levels. Final Report, June 27, 1968 - September 1, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Martin M.; And Others

    Learning behavior of young children of contrasting socioeconomic backgrounds is examined in this study, which poses the question: what are the necessary or sufficient environmental conditions for the establishment of identifiable patterns of behavior? Socioeconomic level (SEL), the principal independent variable, was defined in terms of parental…

  3. Learning Strategies in Different Socioeconomic Levels. Final Report, June 27, 1968 - September 1, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Martin M.; And Others

    Learning behavior of young children of contrasting socioeconomic backgrounds is examined in this study, which poses the question: what are the necessary or sufficient environmental conditions for the establishment of identifiable patterns of behavior? Socioeconomic level (SEL), the principal independent variable, was defined in terms of parental…

  4. Individual and School-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Physical Activity in Australian School children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lucy; Maher, Carol; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Olds, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background: We attempted to determine whether there was a socioeconomic gradient in 9- to 11-year-old Australian children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and whether school facilities or policies supporting physical activity were associated with school-level socioeconomic status (SES) and MVPA. Methods: Children (N = 528) from 26…

  5. Individual and School-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Physical Activity in Australian School children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lucy; Maher, Carol; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Olds, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background: We attempted to determine whether there was a socioeconomic gradient in 9- to 11-year-old Australian children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and whether school facilities or policies supporting physical activity were associated with school-level socioeconomic status (SES) and MVPA. Methods: Children (N = 528) from 26…

  6. Demographic and socio-economic determinants of post-neonatal deaths in a special project area of rural northern India.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Zubair

    2003-07-01

    The demographic and socio-economic determinants of post-neonatal deaths (n = 475) in a special project area of rural northern India (Ballabgarh) were ascertained from 1991 to 1999 using the electronic database system of the project area for data extraction, and were compared with the eligible living children of the same age using a matched population-based case-control study design. Similar determinants were also ascertained in neonatal deaths (n = 212) using the same study design. After controlling for the potential confounders using conditional logistic regression analyses, lower caste (a proxy measure for low socio-economic conditions in rural India) was found to be significantly associated with higher post-neonatal deaths (OR = 2.21). Higher maternal age (>30 years) and fathers' lower educational levels were significantly associated with higher neonatal deaths, in addition to higher post-neonatal deaths in the same area.

  7. Cross-sectional study of ethnic differences in the utility of area deprivation measures to target socioeconomically deprived individuals.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jessica; Mitchell, Richard; Pell, Jill

    2013-05-01

    Area deprivation measures provide a pragmatic tool for targeting public health interventions at socioeconomically deprived individuals. Ethnic minority groups in the UK experience higher levels of socioeconomic deprivation and certain associated diseases than the White population. The aim of this study was to explore ethnic differences in the utility of area deprivation measures as a tool for targeting socioeconomically deprived individuals. We carried out a cross-sectional study using the Health Survey for England 2004. 7208 participants aged 16-64 years from the four largest ethnic groups in England (White, Indian, Pakistani and Black Caribbean) were included. The main outcome measures were percentage agreement, sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of area deprivation, measured using Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004, in relation to individual socioeconomic position (measured by education, occupation, income, housing tenure and car access). We found that levels of both area and individual deprivation were higher in the Pakistani and Black Caribbean groups compared to the White group. Across all measures, agreement was lower in the Pakistani (50.9-63.4%) and Black Caribbean (61.0-70.1%) groups than the White (67.2-82.4%) group. However, sensitivity was higher in the Pakistani (0.56-0.64) and Black Caribbean (0.59-0.66) groups compared to the White group (0.24-0.38) and PPV was at least as high. The results for the Indian group were intermediate. We conclude that, in spite of lower agreement, area deprivation is better at identifying individual deprivation in ethnic minority groups. There was no evidence that area based targeting of public health interventions will disadvantage ethnic minority groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Area socioeconomic status and progressive CKD: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

    PubMed

    Merkin, Sharon Stein; Coresh, Josef; Diez Roux, Ana V; Taylor, Herman A; Powe, Neil R

    2005-08-01

    Individual-level socioeconomic status (SES) has been found to be associated inversely with progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD); the effect of area-level SES on progressive CKD is less known. We conducted a cohort study of 12,856 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study participants to examine the independent risk for progressive CKD associated with living in a low SES area. Progressive CKD is defined as a creatinine level elevation of 0.4 mg/dL or greater (> or = 35 micromol/L) during a 9-year follow-up, hospitalization for CKD, or death. Area-level SES was characterized by using measures of income, wealth, education, and occupation for 1990 US Census block groups of residence. Age- and center-adjusted incidence rates (per 1,000 person-years) of progressive CKD by quartiles of area-level SES score showed increasing rates with decreasing SES for African-American women: quartile 1 (Q1; low) = 11.1, Q2 = 10.5, Q3 = 6.4, and Q4 = 7.1 and white men: Q1 = 6.6, Q2 = 4.8, Q3 = 4.0, and Q4 (high) = 3.5, but not for African-American men or white women. Cox proportional hazards models showed that living in the lowest versus the highest SES-area quartile was associated with a 60% greater risk for progressive CKD in white men after adjusting for age, center, baseline creatinine level, body mass index, and individual-level SES (hazard ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 2.5). This risk and trend persisted after adjusting for such potential mediators as health awareness, health care access, and behavioral and physiological factors. We found no significant association of progressive CKD risk and area SES in white women, African-American women, or African-American men after adjustment. For white men, living in a low SES area is independently associated with greater risk for progressive CKD. Future research is needed to examine this association, considering the disparate effects found by race/sex groups.

  9. Socio-economic factors affecting the conservation of natural woodlands in Central Riyadh Area - Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Subaiee, Faisal Sultan

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to identify some socioeconomic factors affecting local people in central Riyadh area for the utilization of wood and other energy sources in cooking and heating in order to develop some recommendations for conserving woodlands. The study results revealed that gas is the most common energy source used for cooking with a mean usage level of 2.79 (SD = 0.58). On the other hand, wood ranked first for heating with the highest mean, usage level of 1.90 (SD = 1.06). However, electricity and gas as sources of energy for heating ranked second and third with mean usage level of 1.81 and 0.80 respectively. The study revealed that local people with the university education were significantly making higher use of electricity for both cooking and heating and those with no formal education ranked the highest on wood use for both cooking and heating. In addition, those living in traditional houses significantly used more wood for cooking than those living in villas and apartments. Also, local people with high income levels significantly were using more electricity for heating than others. The study recommended conducting extension and environmental awareness raising programs to enhance local residents' adoption of wood substitutes, promoting employment opportunities for unemployed locals, and subsidizing prices of alternative energy sources.

  10. Socioeconomic Determinants of Urban Poverty Area Workers' Labor Force Participation and Income.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkerton, James R.

    This study examined how the socioeconomic characteristics of male workers from poverty areas in Saint Louis, Missouri, San Antonio, Texas, and Chicago, Illinois, affect their incomes, hours of employment, unemployment, and labor force participation. The research was based on statistical analysis, using an interaction model, of data from the 1970…

  11. Language and Disadvantage: A Comparison of the Language Abilities of Adolescents from Two Different Socioeconomic Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Sarah; Clegg, Judy; Stackhouse, Joy

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is recognized that children from areas associated with socioeconomic disadvantage are at an increased risk of delayed language development. However, so far research has focused mainly on young children and there has been little investigation into language development in adolescence. Aims: To investigate the language abilities of…

  12. Striking a balance between biodiversity conservation and socioeconomic viability in the design of marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Klein, C J; Chan, A; Kircher, L; Cundiff, A J; Gardner, N; Hrovat, Y; Scholz, A; Kendall, B E; Airamé, S

    2008-06-01

    The establishment of marine protected areas is often viewed as a conflict between conservation and fishing. We considered consumptive and nonconsumptive interests of multiple stakeholders (i.e., fishers, scuba divers, conservationists, managers, scientists) in the systematic design of a network of marine protected areas along California's central coast in the context of the Marine Life Protection Act Initiative. With advice from managers, administrators, and scientists, a representative group of stakeholders defined biodiversity conservation and socioeconomic goals that accommodated social needs and conserved marine ecosystems, consistent with legal requirements. To satisfy biodiversity goals, we targeted 11 marine habitats across 5 depth zones, areas of high species diversity, and areas containing species of special status. We minimized adverse socioeconomic impacts by minimizing negative effects on fishers. We included fine-scale fishing data from the recreational and commercial fishing sectors across 24 fisheries. Protected areas designed with consideration of commercial and recreational fisheries reduced potential impact to the fisheries approximately 21% more than protected areas designed without consideration of fishing effort and resulted in a small increase in the total area protected (approximately 3.4%). We incorporated confidential fishing data without revealing the identity of specific fisheries or individual fishing grounds. We sited a portion of the protected areas near land parks, marine laboratories, and scientific monitoring sites to address nonconsumptive socioeconomic goals. Our results show that a stakeholder-driven design process can use systematic conservation-planning methods to successfully produce options for network design that satisfy multiple conservation and socioeconomic objectives. Marine protected areas that incorporate multiple stakeholder interests without compromising biodiversity conservation goals are more likely to protect

  13. Preventable avoidable mortality: evolution of socioeconomic inequalities in urban areas in Spain, 1996-2003.

    PubMed

    Nolasco, Andreu; Melchor, Inmaculada; Pina, José A; Pereyra-Zamora, Pamela; Moncho, Joaquin; Tamayo, Nayara; García-Senchermes, Carmen; Zurriaga, Oscar; Martínez-Beneito, Miguel A

    2009-09-01

    This study describes the inequalities in preventable avoidable mortality in relation to socioeconomic levels and analyses their evolution during the period 1996-2003 in the cities of Alicante, Castellon and Valencia. Four causes of preventable avoidable mortality were analysed according to sex: malignant tumour of the trachea, bronchus and lung, cirrhosis and other chronic diseases of the liver, motor vehicle accidents and AIDS, which had caused the death of non-institutionalised residents in the three cities during the period 1996-2003. The different census tracts were grouped into three socioeconomic levels. In general, socioeconomic inequalities in preventable avoidable mortality remain constant in time, except the ones caused by AIDS in Valencia, where they increase for men. Some census tracts in the three cities where the study was carried out were found to have significantly higher preventable mortality rates, and therefore require intervention.

  14. Does exposure to the food environment differ by socioeconomic position? Comparing area-based and person-centred metrics in the Fenland Study, UK.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Eva R; Burgoine, Thomas; Penney, Tarra L; Forouhi, Nita G; Monsivais, Pablo

    2017-09-06

    Retail food environments (foodscapes) are a recognised determinant of eating behaviours and may contribute to inequalities in diet. However, findings from studies measuring socioeconomic inequality in the foodscape have been mixed, which may be due to methodological differences. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare exposure to the foodscape by socioeconomic position using different measures, to test whether the presence, direction or amplitude of differences was sensitive to the choice of foodscape metric or socioeconomic indicator. A sample of 10,429 adults aged 30-64 years with valid home address data were obtained from the Fenland Study, UK. Of this sample, 7270 participants also had valid work location data. The sample was linked to data on food outlets obtained from local government records. Foodscape metrics included count, density and proximity of takeaway outlets and supermarkets, and the percentage of takeaway outlets relative to all food outlets. Exposure metrics were area-based (lower super output areas), and person-centred (proximity to nearest; Euclidean and Network buffers at 800 m, 1 km, and 1 mile). Person-centred buffers were constructed using home and work locations. Socioeconomic status was measured at the area-level (2010 Index of Multiple Deprivation) and the individual-level (highest educational attainment; equivalised household income). Participants were classified into socioeconomic groups and average exposures estimated. Results were analysed using the statistical and percent differences between the highest and lowest socioeconomic groups. In area-based measures, the most deprived areas contained higher takeaway outlet densities (p < 0.001). However, in person-centred metrics lower socioeconomic status was associated with lower exposure to takeaway outlets and supermarkets (all home-based exposures p < 0.001) and socioeconomic differences were greatest at the smallest buffer sizes. Socioeconomic differences in

  15. Socioeconomic status, overweight and obesity in prepuberal children: a study in an area of Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Gnavi, R; Spagnoli, T D; Galotto, C; Pugliese, E; Carta, A; Cesari, L

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether socio-economical status (SES) is associated with overweight and obesity in prepuberal children. In an area of North-Western Italy a sample of 1420 children, aged 10-11 years, had his/her height and weight recorded, (overweight and obesity were defined, respectively, as relative body weight > or = 120% and > or = 140%), and parents were requested to compile a questionnaire exploring some demographic and social conditions. 23% of the sample resulted overweight or obese. Prevalence rate ratios (PRR) of overweight and obesity (together) were calculated, adjusting for parents' age, parents' area of birth, and school district. PRR for mother's lowest educational level compared to the highest was 1.59 (95% CI: 1.19-2.13), while for father's education was 1.21 (0.90-1.63). PRRs for 'unemployed' or 'manual' mother compared to 'upper non manual' were respectively 1.83 (1.20-2.79) and 2.20 (1.31-3.68), while for 'unemployed' or 'manual' father were 2.63 (1.97-2.63), and 1.63 (1.27-2.09). The cultural resources of the mother, and the economical resources of the family seem to influence the prevalence of weight gain in prepuberal children. This should be taken into account when planning programs for the prevention or reduction of obesity in children.

  16. The Association between Socio-economic Context at Individual and Neighbourhood Levels, Wellbeing and Lifestyle Behaviours of Young Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    SALEHI, Asiyeh; HARRIS, Neil; SEBAR, Bernadette; COYNE, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study explored the relationship between socio-economic characteristics at the individual and neighbourhood levels, and wellbeing and lifestyle behaviours of young Iranian women. Methods: Cluster convenience sampling was used to select 391 Iranian women participated in this cross-sectional survey in Shiraz, Iran in 2013. A scale adapted from the British General Household Social Capital questionnaire was used to assess neighbourhood socio-economic characteristics. The satisfaction with life scale, WHO quality of life scale, and the International Health and Behaviours Survey were used to measure wellbeing outcomes and lifestyle behaviours. Results: Findings showed participants were dissatisfied with their neighbourhood socio-economic conditions (M: 36.3±9.8, score range: 11–60) as well as the availability of leisure facilities (M: 1.8, score range: 1–5) in their local areas. Correlations and regression analysis revealed that better neighbourhood socio-economic characteristics were positively associated with better wellbeing outcomes as well as healthier lifestyle behaviours. Conclusion: These findings suggest the need for transitioning economies to be cognisant of the importance of social policy and strategies for enhancing neighbourhood socioeconomic status in order to enhance wellbeing outcomes for sub-populations, including young women. PMID:27957461

  17. Presentation of Social and Academic Factors That Encourage Persistence in Secondary Schools in Rural, Low Socioeconomic Areas of Two Selected Southeastern States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Patricia C.; And Others

    This paper describes the development of a predictive model to determine potential high school dropouts and identify areas for intensified assistance at the individual or group level. V. Tinto's (1975, 1987) model of college attrition was validated for use with high school students in rural, low socioeconomic areas of the Southeast. Ex post facto…

  18. Supermarket access, transport mode and BMI: the potential for urban design and planning policy across socio-economic areas.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Maureen; Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Badland, Hannah; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2017-09-07

    To investigate dietary intake, BMI and supermarket access at varying geographic scales and transport modes across areas of socio-economic disadvantage, and to evaluate the implementation of an urban planning policy that provides guidance on spatial access to supermarkets. Cross-sectional study used generalised estimating equations to investigate associations between supermarket density and proximity, vegetable and fruit intake and BMI at five geographic scales representing distances people travel to purchase food by varying transport modes. A stratified analysis by area-level disadvantage was conducted to detect optimal distances to supermarkets across socio-economic areas. Spatial distribution of supermarket and transport access was analysed using a geographic information system. Melbourne, Australia. Adults (n 3128) from twelve local government areas (LGA) across Melbourne. Supermarket access was protective of BMI for participants in high disadvantaged areas within 800 m (P=0·040) and 1000 m (P=0·032) road network buffers around the household but not for participants in less disadvantaged areas. In urban growth area LGA, only 26 % of dwellings were within 1 km of a supermarket, far less than 80-90 % of dwellings suggested in the local urban planning policy. Low public transport access compounded disadvantage. Rapid urbanisation is a global health challenge linked to increases in dietary risk factors and BMI. Our findings highlight the importance of identifying the most appropriate geographic scale to inform urban planning policy for optimal health outcomes across socio-economic strata. Urban planning policy implementation in disadvantaged areas within cities has potential for reducing health inequities.

  19. Intelligence, Socioeconomic Background, Emotional Capacity, and Level of Education as Predictors of Attained Socioeconomic Position in a Cohort of Swedish Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorjonen, Kimmo; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Lundin, Andreas; Falkstedt, Daniel; Melin, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The question whether a person's attained socioeconomic position is mainly due to hers/his intelligence, socioeconomic background, or level of education, has sparked some controversy. In the present study, the effects of these three variables, as well as emotional capacity, on attained occupational position and on income were analyzed with…

  20. Disentangling the relative influence of built and socioeconomic environments on walking: the contribution of areas homogenous along exposures of interest.

    PubMed

    Riva, Mylene; Gauvin, Lise; Apparicio, Philippe; Brodeur, Jean-Marc

    2009-11-01

    The geography of small areas has important implications for studying the contextual determinants of health because of potential errors when measuring ecologic exposures and estimating their effects on health. In this paper, we present an approach for designing homogeneous zones optimising the spatial distribution of an area-level exposure, active living potential (ALP), based on data collected in Montreal, Canada. The objectives are to (1) assess and compare variation in walking behaviours between these purposefully designed zones and between standard administrative units, census tracts; and (2) disentangle the relative influence of ALP and area-level socioeconomic conditions on walking using the alternative geographies. Zones were designed by statistically classifying smallest census areas (disseminations areas) into seven categories of exposure similar along three indicators of ALP: population density, land use mix, and geographic accessibility to services. Mapping of categories resulted in the delineation of zones characterised by one of seven levels of ALP. A sample of 2716 adults aged >/=45 years was geocoded and cross-classified in 270 zones and 112 census tracts. Individuals reported on minutes and motives of walking and provided socioeconomic information. Data were analysed using cross-classified multilevel models. Variation in utilitarian walking was larger across the purposefully defined zones than across census tracts. Total walking varied significantly between census tracts only. Greater ALP was associated with more utilitarian walking but with less recreational walking. Higher socioeconomic position in census tracts was positively associated with total, utilitarian, and recreational walking. The soundness of standard administrative units for measuring ecologic exposure and their associations with health should be considered prior to conducting analyses. The added value of different approaches for understanding how place relates to health remains to be

  1. Disentangling the relative influence of built and socioeconomic environments on walking: The contribution of areas homogenous along exposures of interest

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Mylene; Gauvin, Lise; Apparicio, Philippe; Brodeur, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    The geography of small areas has important implications for studying the contextual determinants of health because of potential errors when measuring ecologic exposures and estimating their effects on health. In this paper, we present an approach for designing homogeneous zones optimising the spatial distribution of an area-level exposure, active living potential (ALP), based on data collected in Montreal, Canada. The objectives are to (1) assess and compare variation in walking behaviours between these purposefully designed zones and between standard administrative units, census tracts; and (2) disentangle the relative influence of ALP and area-level socioeconomic conditions on walking using the alternative geographies. Zones were designed by statistically classifying smallest census areas (disseminations areas) into seven categories of exposure similar along three indicators of ALP: population density, land use mix, and geographic accessibility to services. Mapping of categories resulted in the delineation of zones characterised by one of seven levels of ALP. A sample of 2716 adults aged ≥45 years was geocoded and cross-classified in 270 zones and 112 census tracts. Individuals reported on minutes and motives of walking and provided socioeconomic information. Data were analysed using cross-classified multilevel models. Variation in utilitarian walking was larger across the purposefully defined zones than across census tracts. Total walking varied significantly between census tracts only. Greater ALP was associated with more utilitarian walking but with less recreational walking. Higher socioeconomic position in census tracts was positively associated with total, utilitarian, and recreational walking. The soundness of standard administrative units for measuring ecologic exposure and their associations with health should be considered prior to conducting analyses. The added value of different approaches for understanding how place relates to health remains to be

  2. Area socioeconomic status and childhood injury morbidity in New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Poulos, Roslyn; Hayen, Andrew; Finch, Caroline; Zwi, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between child injury morbidity and socioeconomic status. Design A cross‐sectional analysis of routinely collected hospital separation data for unintentional injury for the period 1999/2000–2004/2005. Setting All statistical local areas of New South Wales (NSW), Australia Subjects 110 549 unintentional injury‐related hospital separations for NSW children aged 0–14 years. Main outcome measure Adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for hospital separations for unintentional injury (for all injury and by individual injury mechanisms) by quintile of socioeconomic disadvantage for children aged 0–14 years. Results There was no clear relationship between socioeconomic status and injury when all injury mechanisms were combined. However, children in the more disadvantaged quintiles were more likely to be hospitalized than children in the least disadvantaged quintile for the following injury mechanisms: motor cycle (point estimates for IRRs across the socioeconomic status quintiles ranged from 2.95 to 4.02 relative to the least disadvantaged quintile), motor‐vehicle occupant (IRR range 1.33–2.27), pedestrian (IRR range 1.43–2.54 for ages 0–4 years), pedal cyclist (IRR range 1.30–1.50), fire and burns (IRR range 1.37–2.00), and poisoning (IRR range 1.32–1.91). Similarly, hospital separation rates for foreign body, other transport, and pedestrian (aged 5–9 years) injuries were also greater, but the differences were not statistically significant across all quintiles. These injury mechanisms accounted for about 25% of the hospital separations. Conclusions The relationship between relative socioeconomic disadvantage and injury risk in NSW children is strongest for transport‐related injuries, fires and burns, and poisoning. Interventions that address these specific injury mechanisms may help to reduce the disparity between high and lower socioeconomic groups. PMID:17916889

  3. The level of socioeconomic development of EU countries and the state of ISO 14001 certification.

    PubMed

    Fura, Barbara; Wang, Qingfang

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the level of socioeconomic development of the EU 28 countries and the adoption of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 environmental management system. First, through a multivariate comparative analysis of the secondary data obtained from the public statistics, a Hellwig's synthetic indicator is created to rank the level of socioeconomic development of the EU 28 countries. Then, using the total number of certificates issued in 2012 and the increase from 2011, this study has found a correlation between the level of national socioeconomic development and the adoption of ISO 14001 system in their businesses. Although there was no relationship between the number of ISO 14001 certificates in 2012 and the level of socioeconomic development at the national level, a weak negative correlation was observed between the increase of certification from 2011 to 2012 and the level of national socioeconomic development. The results suggest a higher interest in ISO 14001 adoption by the firms from the less developed countries than those from the more developed states.

  4. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in preventable mortality in urban areas of 33 Spanish cities, 1996-2007 (MEDEA project).

    PubMed

    Nolasco, Andreu; Moncho, Joaquin; Quesada, Jose Antonio; Melchor, Inmaculada; Pereyra-Zamora, Pamela; Tamayo-Fonseca, Nayara; Martínez-Beneito, Miguel Angel; Zurriaga, Oscar; Ballesta, Mónica; Daponte, Antonio; Gandarillas, Ana; Domínguez-Berjón, M Felicitas; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Gotsens, Mercè; Izco, Natividad; Moreno, M Concepción; Sáez, Marc; Martos, Carmen; Sánchez-Villegas, Pablo; Borrell, Carme

    2015-04-01

    Preventable mortality is a good indicator of possible problems to be investigated in the primary prevention chain, making it also a useful tool with which to evaluate health policies particularly public health policies. This study describes inequalities in preventable avoidable mortality in relation to socioeconomic status in small urban areas of thirty three Spanish cities, and analyses their evolution over the course of the periods 1996-2001 and 2002-2007. We analysed census tracts and all deaths occurring in the population residing in these cities from 1996 to 2007 were taken into account. The causes included in the study were lung cancer, cirrhosis, AIDS/HIV, motor vehicle traffic accidents injuries, suicide and homicide. The census tracts were classified into three groups, according their socioeconomic level. To analyse inequalities in mortality risks between the highest and lowest socioeconomic levels and over different periods, for each city and separating by sex, Poisson regression were used. Preventable avoidable mortality made a significant contribution to general mortality (around 7.5%, higher among men), having decreased over time in men (12.7 in 1996-2001 and 10.9 in 2002-2007), though not so clearly among women (3.3% in 1996-2001 and 2.9% in 2002-2007). It has been observed in men that the risks of death are higher in areas of greater deprivation, and that these excesses have not modified over time. The result in women is different and differences in mortality risks by socioeconomic level could not be established in many cities. Preventable mortality decreased between the 1996-2001 and 2002-2007 periods, more markedly in men than in women. There were socioeconomic inequalities in mortality in most cities analysed, associating a higher risk of death with higher levels of deprivation. Inequalities have remained over the two periods analysed. This study makes it possible to identify those areas where excess preventable mortality was associated with more

  5. Modeling risks: effects of area deprivation, family socio-economic disadvantage and adverse life events on young children's psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Flouri, Eirini; Mavroveli, Stella; Tzavidis, Nikos

    2010-06-01

    The effects of contextual risk on young children's behavior are not appropriately modeled. To model the effects of area and family contextual risk on young children's psychopathology. The final study sample consisted of 4,618 Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) children, who were 3 years old, clustered in lower layer super output areas in nine strata in the UK. Contextual risk was measured by socio-economic disadvantage (SED) at both area and family level, and by distal and proximal adverse life events at family level. Multivariate response multilevel models that allowed for correlated residuals at both individual and area level, and univariate multilevel models estimated the effect of contextual risk on specific and broad psychopathology measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The area SED/broad psychopathology association remained significant after family SED was controlled, but not after maternal qualifications and family adverse life events were added to the model. Adverse life events predicted psychopathology in all models. Family SED did not predict emotional symptoms or hyperactivity after child characteristics were added to the model with the family-level controls. Area-level SED predicts child psychopathology via family characteristics; family-level SED predicts psychopathology largely by its impact on development; and adverse life events predict psychopathology independently of earlier adversity, SED and child characteristics, as well as maternal psychopathology, parenting and education.

  6. Choosing area based socioeconomic measures to monitor social inequalities in low birth weight and childhood lead poisoning: The Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project (US)

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, N; Chen, J; Waterman, P; Soobader, M; Subramanian, S; Carson, R

    2003-01-01

    Study objectives: To determine which area based socioeconomic measures can meaningfully be used, at which level of geography, to monitor socioeconomic inequalities in childhood health in the US. Design: Cross sectional analysis of birth certificate and childhood lead poisoning registry data, geocoded and linked to diverse area based socioeconomic measures that were generated at three geographical levels: census tract, block group, and ZIP code. Setting: Two US states: Massachusetts (1990 population=6 016 425) and Rhode Island (1990 population=1 003 464). Participants: All births born to mothers ages 15 to 55 years old who were residents of either Massachusetts (1989–1991; n=267 311) or Rhode Island (1987–1993; n=96 138), and all children ages 1 to 5 years residing in Rhode Island who were screened for lead levels between 1994 and 1996 (n=62 514 children, restricted to first test during the study period). Main results: Analyses of both the birth weight and lead data indicated that: (a) block group and tract socioeconomic measures performed similarly within and across both states, while ZIP code level measures tended to detect smaller effects; (b) measures pertaining to economic poverty detected stronger gradients than measures of education, occupation, and wealth; (c) results were similar for categories generated by quintiles and by a priori categorical cut off points; and (d) the area based socioeconomic measures yielded estimates of effect equal to or augmenting those detected, respectively, by individual level educational data for birth outcomes and by the area based housing measure recommended by the US government for monitoring childhood lead poisoning. Conclusions: Census tract or block group area based socioeconomic measures of economic deprivation could be meaningfully used in conjunction with US public health surveillance systems to enable or enhance monitoring of social inequalities in health in the United States. PMID:12594195

  7. Assessment of Macro-Level Socioeconomic Factors That Impact Waterborne Diseases: The Case of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Polimeni, John M; Almalki, Ahmad; Iorgulescu, Raluca I; Albu, Lucian-Liviu; Parker, Wendy M; Chandrasekara, Ray

    2016-11-25

    The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is an example of a country that suffers from high water scarcity. Additionally, due to the economic drivers in the country, such as phosphate and potash extraction and pharmaceutical production, the little fresh water that remains is generally polluted. The infrastructure, often antiquated in urban areas and non-existent in rural areas, also contributes to poor water conditions and to the spread of waterborne diseases. This paper examines the socioeconomic factors that contribute to diarrhea and hepatitis A on a macro level in Jordan and discusses the public-policies that government officials could use to abate those problems. Ordinary least squares time series models are used to understand the macro-level variables that impact the incidence of these diseases in Jordan. Public health expenditure has a significant impact on reducing their incidence. Furthermore, investment in sanitation facilities in rural regions is likely to reduce the number of cases of hepatitis A. Perhaps the most surprising outcome is that importation of goods and services likely results in a decrease in cases of hepatitis A. However, income has little impact on the incidence of diarrhea and hepatitis A.

  8. Assessment of Macro-Level Socioeconomic Factors That Impact Waterborne Diseases: The Case of Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Polimeni, John M.; Almalki, Ahmad; Iorgulescu, Raluca I.; Albu, Lucian-Liviu; Parker, Wendy M.; Chandrasekara, Ray

    2016-01-01

    The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is an example of a country that suffers from high water scarcity. Additionally, due to the economic drivers in the country, such as phosphate and potash extraction and pharmaceutical production, the little fresh water that remains is generally polluted. The infrastructure, often antiquated in urban areas and non-existent in rural areas, also contributes to poor water conditions and to the spread of waterborne diseases. This paper examines the socioeconomic factors that contribute to diarrhea and hepatitis A on a macro level in Jordan and discusses the public-policies that government officials could use to abate those problems. Ordinary least squares time series models are used to understand the macro-level variables that impact the incidence of these diseases in Jordan. Public health expenditure has a significant impact on reducing their incidence. Furthermore, investment in sanitation facilities in rural regions is likely to reduce the number of cases of hepatitis A. Perhaps the most surprising outcome is that importation of goods and services likely results in a decrease in cases of hepatitis A. However, income has little impact on the incidence of diarrhea and hepatitis A. PMID:27898017

  9. [Physical activity levels among Colombian adults: inequalities by gender and socioeconomic status].

    PubMed

    González, Silvia; Lozano, Óscar; Ramírez, Andrea; Grijalba, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide studies show inequalities in physical activity levels related to socio-demographic characteristics. In Colombia, among the countries in Latin America with the highest inequality, the evidence related to inequalities in physical activity is limited. It is imperative to identify disparities in physical activity in the country, to guide the design of public policies aimed at promoting physical activity. 1) To estimate the prevalence and associated factors of meeting physical activity recommendations; 2) to assess inequalities by gender and socioeconomic status in meeting physical activity recommendations, and 3) to assess the trends in physical activity prevalence within a five-year period. A secondary analysis of data from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey was conducted. The sample included 27,243 adults. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure leisure time and transport domains. Socioeconomic status was measured by the Sisben level. Compared to men, women were less likely to meet physical activity recommendations in all domains. Compared to adults from high socioeconomic-status households, low socioeconomic-status adults had a lower prevalence of meeting physical activity recommendations during leisure time and the highest prevalence of using a bicycle for transport. The factors associated with meeting physical activity recommendations differed by gender and physical activity domain. Household and individual variables explained 13.6% of the inequalities observed by gender, and 23.2% of the inequalities by socioeconomic status. In a five-year period, the prevalence of physical activity in leisure time decreased, while the physical activity of walking for transport increased and biking for transport did not change. Future interventions to increase physical activity levels in Colombia must consider inequalities by gender and socioeconomic status. Of special concern is the low prevalence of meeting physical activity

  10. Serum retinol levels among preschool children in Central Java: demographic and socioeconomic determinants.

    PubMed

    Kjolhede, C L; Stallings, R Y; Dibley, M J; Sadjimin, T; Dawiesah, S; Padmawati, S

    1995-04-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a significant problem in many countries in the developing world. Reports have noted demographic and socioeconomic risk factors for vitamin A deficiency. As part of a population-based trial of vitamin A to prevent childhood morbidity, census data (n = 666), baseline socioeconomic data (n = 636) and sera (n = 666) were collected from children 6-48 months old in 25 adjacent villages in a rural area in Central Java, Indonesia. Participation amounted to more than 95%. The analyses used t tests, ANOVA, and a multiple variable linear regression model. The distribution of serum retinol levels (in mcmol/l) in males shifted to the left relative to females, resulting in a higher proportion of males with a level 0.70 mcmol/l (20 mcg/dl); 216/346 males versus 173/320 females (p = 0.03). However, there was no significant difference in the means by gender. Differences in mean retinol level were detected for the following variables: village (p 0.001); child's age (p = 0.03); size of sibship (p 0.001); mother's occupation (p 0.01); mother's education (p = 0.05); father's education (p = 0.03); monthly household earnings (p = 0.02); land ownership (p = 0.03); possession of ducks (p = 0.06), radio or tape player (p = 0.02), or a watch or clock (p = 0.07); and presence of a natural well (p = 0.09). There was no significant difference in mean serum retinol level for mother's marital status; father's occupation; monthly household expenditures; house ownership; composition of floors, walls, or roofs; or possession of buffaloes, cattle, goats, kerosene light fixtures, televisions, or motorcycles. The regression model verified the predictive value of village, age, sibship, land ownership, and earnings. Owning land and the highest and lowest categories of reported household income were associated with higher serum retinol levels. Also clustering of serum retinol levels was noted by village, and children from larger sibships and infants had significantly lower serum

  11. Association of Census Tract-Level Socioeconomic Status with Disparities in Prostate Cancer-Specific Survival

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Vincent L.; Ricardo, Ana C.; Campbell, Richard T.; Barrett, Richard E.; Warnecke, Richard B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Social determinants of prostate cancer survival and their relation to racial/ethnic disparities thereof are poorly understood. We analyzed whether census tract-level socioeconomic status (SES) at diagnosis is a prognostic factor in men with prostate cancer and helps explain racial/ethnic disparities in survival. Methods We used a retrospective cohort of 833 African-American and white, non-Hispanic men diagnosed with prostate cancer at four Chicago-area medical centers between 1986 and 1990. Tract-level concentrated disadvantage (CD), a multi-dimensional area-based measure of SES, was calculated for each case using 1990 U.S. census data. Its association with prostate cancer-specific survival was measured using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for case and tumor characteristics, treatment, and healthcare system (private sector vs. Veterans Administration [VA]). Results Tract-level CD associated with an increased risk of death from prostate cancer (highest vs. lowest quartile, hazard ratio [HR] = 2.37, p < .0001). However, the association was observed in the private sector and not in the VA (per 1 standard deviation [SD] increase, HR = 1.33, p < .0001 and HR = 0.93, p = .46, respectively). The multivariate HR for African Americans before and after accounting for tract-level CD was 1.30 (p = .0036) and 0.96 (p = .82), respectively. Conclusion Census tract-level SES is a social determinant of prostate-specific mortality and helps account for racial/ethnic disparities in survival. An equal-access healthcare system may moderate this association. Impact This study identifies a potential pathway for minimizing disparities in prostate cancer control. The findings need confirmation in a population-based study. PMID:21784953

  12. Socio-economic and ecological impacts of global protected area expansion plans.

    PubMed

    Visconti, Piero; Bakkenes, Michel; Smith, Robert J; Joppa, Lucas; Sykes, Rachel E

    2015-11-05

    Several global strategies for protected area (PA) expansion have been proposed to achieve the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi target 11 as a means to stem biodiversity loss, as required by the Aichi target 12. However, habitat loss outside PAs will continue to affect habitats and species, and PAs may displace human activities into areas that might be even more important for species persistence. Here we measure the expected contribution of PA expansion strategies to Aichi target 12 by estimating the extent of suitable habitat available for all terrestrial mammals, with and without additional protection (the latter giving the counterfactual outcome), under different socio-economic scenarios and consequent land-use change to 2020. We found that expanding PAs to achieve representation targets for ecoregions under a Business-as-usual socio-economic scenario will result in a worse prognosis than doing nothing for more than 50% of the world's terrestrial mammals. By contrast, targeting protection towards threatened species can increase the suitable habitat available to over 60% of terrestrial mammals. Even in the absence of additional protection, an alternative socio-economic scenario, adopting progressive changes in human consumption, leads to positive outcomes for mammals globally and to the largest improvements for wide-ranging species.

  13. Socio-economic and ecological impacts of global protected area expansion plans

    PubMed Central

    Visconti, Piero; Bakkenes, Michel; Smith, Robert J.; Joppa, Lucas; Sykes, Rachel E.

    2015-01-01

    Several global strategies for protected area (PA) expansion have been proposed to achieve the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi target 11 as a means to stem biodiversity loss, as required by the Aichi target 12. However, habitat loss outside PAs will continue to affect habitats and species, and PAs may displace human activities into areas that might be even more important for species persistence. Here we measure the expected contribution of PA expansion strategies to Aichi target 12 by estimating the extent of suitable habitat available for all terrestrial mammals, with and without additional protection (the latter giving the counterfactual outcome), under different socio-economic scenarios and consequent land-use change to 2020. We found that expanding PAs to achieve representation targets for ecoregions under a Business-as-usual socio-economic scenario will result in a worse prognosis than doing nothing for more than 50% of the world's terrestrial mammals. By contrast, targeting protection towards threatened species can increase the suitable habitat available to over 60% of terrestrial mammals. Even in the absence of additional protection, an alternative socio-economic scenario, adopting progressive changes in human consumption, leads to positive outcomes for mammals globally and to the largest improvements for wide-ranging species. PMID:26460136

  14. Environmental inequity in England: small area associations between socio-economic status and environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Briggs, David; Abellan, Juan J; Fecht, Daniela

    2008-11-01

    Recent studies have suggested that more deprived people tend to live in areas characterised by higher levels of environmental pollution. If generally true, these environmental inequities may combine to cause adverse effects on health and also exacerbate problems of confounding in epidemiological studies. Previous studies of environmental inequity have nevertheless indicated considerable complexity in the associations involved, which merit further investigation using more detailed data and more advanced analytical methods. This study investigates the ways in which environmental inequity in England varies in relation to: (a) different environmental pollutants (measured in different ways); (b) different aspects of socio-economic status; and (c) different geographical scales and contexts (urban vs. rural). Associations were analysed between the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD2004) and its domains and five sets of environmental pollutants (relating to road traffic, industry, electro-magnetic frequency radiation, disinfection by-products in drinking water and radon), measured in terms of proximity, emission intensity and environmental concentration. Associations were assessed using bivariate and multivariate correlation, and by comparing the highest and lowest quintiles of deprivation using Student's t-test and Hotelling's T2. Associations are generally weak (R(2) < 0.10), and vary depending on the specific measures used. Strongest associations occur with what can be regarded as contingent components of deprivation (e.g. crime, living environment, health) rather than causative factors such as income, employment or education. Associations also become stronger with increasing level of spatial aggregation. Overall, the results suggest that any triple jeopardy for health, and problems of confounding, associated with environmental inequities are likely to be limited.

  15. Childhood and Adult Socioeconomic Position, Cumulative Lead Levels, and Pessimism in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Junenette L.; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Ikeda, Ai; Spiro, Avron; Wright, Robert O.; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Kim, Daniel; Sparrow, David; Nie, Linda H.; Hu, Howard; Schwartz, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Pessimism, a general tendency toward negative expectancies, is a risk factor for depression and also heart disease, stroke, and reduced cancer survival. There is evidence that individuals with higher lead exposure have poorer health. However, low socioeconomic status (SES) is linked with higher lead levels and greater pessimism, and it is unclear whether lead influences psychological functioning independently of other social factors. The authors considered interrelations among childhood and adult SES, lead levels, and psychological functioning in data collected on 412 Boston area men between 1991 and 2002 in a subgroup of the VA Normative Aging Study. Pessimism was measured by using the Life Orientation Test. Cumulative (tibia) lead was measured by x-ray fluorescence. Structural equation modeling was used to quantify the relations as mediated by childhood and adult SES, controlling for age, health behaviors, and health status. An interquartile range increase in lead quartile was associated with a 0.37 increase in pessimism score (P < 0.05). Low childhood and adult SES were related to higher tibia lead levels, and both were also independently associated with higher pessimism. Lead maintained an independent association with pessimism even after childhood and adult SES were considered. Results demonstrate an interrelated role of lead burden and SES over the life course in relation to psychological functioning in older age. PMID:22071587

  16. The Level of Shyness among Talented Students in Light of Socio-Economic Level of the Family in Riyadh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asi, Khaled Yousef

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify the level of shyness among talented students in the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and detect differences according to the variable of socio-economic level of the family. The sample consisted of (101) students, who randomly chosen from centers of talented students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Shyness scale utilized…

  17. Temporal trends in area socioeconomic disparities in breast-cancer incidence and mortality, 1988-2005.

    PubMed

    Schootman, Mario; Lian, Min; Deshpande, Anjali D; Baker, Elizabeth A; Pruitt, Sandi L; Aft, Rebecca; Jeffe, Donna B

    2010-07-01

    Since an overarching goal of Healthy People 2010 was to eliminate health disparities, we determined temporal trends in socioeconomic disparities in five breast-cancer indicators (in situ, stage I, lymph-node positive, and locally advanced breast-cancer incidence, and breast-cancer mortality) by county socioeconomic deprivation using 1988-2005 population-based breast-cancer data. Using 1988-2005 data from women aged 40 and older from 200 counties in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program, we examined trends in temporal disparities in the five breast-cancer indicators across quartiles of county socioeconomic deprivation. County-level trends were summarized using the estimated annual percentage change. Observed county rates were smoothed using Bayesian hierarchical spatiotemporal methods to calculate measures of absolute and relative disparity (using absolute and relative concentration indices) and their changes over time. Large increases in in situ breast cancer rates since 1988 were observed for each of the deprivation quartiles. Absolute and relative disparity both increased over time, suggesting increasing disparities across levels of county deprivation. Absolute and relative concentration indices were near zero for the other four breast-cancer indicators, suggesting no disparities among the four quartiles of county deprivation during 1988-2005. Efforts to target counties aimed at increasing breast-cancer screening based on their level of deprivation will not likely be beneficial.

  18. Unequal socioeconomic distribution of the primary care workforce: whole-population small area longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Cookson, Richard; Fleetcroft, Robert; Ali, Shehzad

    2016-01-01

    Objective To measure changes in socioeconomic inequality in the distribution of family physicians (general practitioners (GPs)) relative to need in England from 2004/2005 to 2013/2014. Design Whole-population small area longitudinal data linkage study. Setting England from 2004/2005 to 2013/2014. Participants 32 482 lower layer super output areas (neighbourhoods of 1500 people on average). Main outcome measures Slope index of inequality (SII) between the most and least deprived small areas in annual full-time equivalent GPs (FTE GPs) per 100 000 need adjusted population. Results In 2004/2005, inequality in primary care supply as measured by the SII in FTE GPs was 4.2 (95% CI 3.1 to 5.3) GPs per 100 000. By 2013/2014, this SII had fallen to −0.7 (95% CI −2.5 to 1.1) GPs per 100 000. The number of FTE GPs per 100 000 serving the most deprived fifth of small areas increased over this period from 54.0 to 60.5, while increasing from 57.2 to 59.9 in the least deprived fifth, so that by the end of the study period there were more GPs per 100 000 need adjusted population in the most deprived areas than in the least deprived. The increase in GP supply in the most deprived fifth of neighbourhoods was larger in areas that received targeted investment for establishing new practices under the ‘Equitable Access to Primary Medical Care’. Conclusions There was a substantial reduction in socioeconomic inequality in family physician supply associated with national policy. This policy may not have completely eliminated socioeconomic inequality in family physician supply since existing need adjustment formulae do not fully capture the additional burden of multimorbidity in deprived neighbourhoods. The small area approach introduced in this study can be used routinely to monitor socioeconomic inequality of access to primary care and to indicate workforce shortages in particular neighbourhoods. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 PMID:26787245

  19. Unequal socioeconomic distribution of the primary care workforce: whole-population small area longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Asaria, Miqdad; Cookson, Richard; Fleetcroft, Robert; Ali, Shehzad

    2016-01-19

    To measure changes in socioeconomic inequality in the distribution of family physicians (general practitioners (GPs)) relative to need in England from 2004/2005 to 2013/2014. Whole-population small area longitudinal data linkage study. England from 2004/2005 to 2013/2014. 32,482 lower layer super output areas (neighbourhoods of 1500 people on average). Slope index of inequality (SII) between the most and least deprived small areas in annual full-time equivalent GPs (FTE GPs) per 100,000 need adjusted population. In 2004/2005, inequality in primary care supply as measured by the SII in FTE GPs was 4.2 (95% CI 3.1 to 5.3) GPs per 100,000. By 2013/2014, this SII had fallen to -0.7 (95% CI -2.5 to 1.1) GPs per 100,000. The number of FTE GPs per 100,000 serving the most deprived fifth of small areas increased over this period from 54.0 to 60.5, while increasing from 57.2 to 59.9 in the least deprived fifth, so that by the end of the study period there were more GPs per 100,000 need adjusted population in the most deprived areas than in the least deprived. The increase in GP supply in the most deprived fifth of neighbourhoods was larger in areas that received targeted investment for establishing new practices under the 'Equitable Access to Primary Medical Care'. There was a substantial reduction in socioeconomic inequality in family physician supply associated with national policy. This policy may not have completely eliminated socioeconomic inequality in family physician supply since existing need adjustment formulae do not fully capture the additional burden of multimorbidity in deprived neighbourhoods. The small area approach introduced in this study can be used routinely to monitor socioeconomic inequality of access to primary care and to indicate workforce shortages in particular neighbourhoods. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  20. Association of dental caries with socioeconomic status in relation to different water fluoridation levels.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun-Jae; Lee, Heung-Soo; Paik, Dai-Il; Bae, Kwang-Hak

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries in 11-year-old children, related to water fluoridation and family affluence scale (FAS), as an indicator of socioeconomic status (SES) in Korea. A total of eight areas were selected for study: four areas with fluoridated piped water (WF areas) and four areas with nonfluoridated piped water (non-WF areas). Non-WF areas had a similar economic level and population size compared with the WF areas. A total of 1446 elementary school students, 11 years of age, were included. They were examined, and questionnaires completed by their parents were analyzed. In the questionnaire, information about gender, FAS as an indicator of SES, occasions of daily cariogenic snack intake, occasions of daily cariogenic beverage intake, drinking of piped water, cooking with piped water, and usage of oral hygiene supplemental measures were surveyed. The bivariate association between the characteristics of the subjects and the number of decayed, filled, and missing permanent teeth (DMFT score) was analyzed through an independent samples t-test. The difference in the mean DMFT score between different FAS groups was analyzed by DMFT ratio, after adjusting for gender, oral health behaviors, and usage of piped water variables. The DMFT ratio was calculated from a Poisson regression model, because the DMFT score was not normally distributed. There was no significant association between FAS and the mean DMFT score in both areas, by bivariate analysis. After adjusting for each group of confounders, a significant association (95% CI: 1.032-1.513) was found between the FAS and mean DMFT scores in non-WF areas; however, no significant difference was observed in the WF areas (95% CI: 0.766-1.382). This study supported that water fluoridation could not only lead to a lower prevalence of dental caries, but also help to reduce the effect of SES inequalities on oral health. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Disparities in Children's Blood Lead and Mercury Levels According to Community and Individual Socioeconomic Positions.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sinye; Ha, Mina; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Son, Mia; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2015-05-29

    We aimed to examine the associations between blood lead and mercury levels and individual and community level socioeconomic positions (SEPs) in school-aged children. A longitudinal cohort study was performed in 33 elementary schools in 10 cities in Korea. Among a total of 6094 children included at baseline, the final study population, 2281 children followed-up biennially, were analyzed. The geometric mean (GM) levels of blood lead were 1.73 μg/dL (range 0.02-9.26) and 1.56 μg/dL (range 0.02-6.83) for male and female children, respectively. The blood lead levels were significantly higher in males, children living in rural areas, and those with lower individual SEP. The GM levels of blood mercury were 2.07 μg/L (range 0.09-12.67) and 2.06 μg/L (range 0.03-11.74) for males and females, respectively. Increased blood mercury levels were significantly associated with urban areas, higher individual SEP, and more deprived communities. The risk of high blood lead level was significantly higher for the lower individual SEP (odds ratio (OR) 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36-3.50 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship observed after adjusting for the community SEP. The association between high blood lead levels and lower individual SEP was much stronger in the more deprived communities (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.27-6.53) than in the less deprived communities (OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.76-2.59), and showed a significant decreasing trend during the follow-up only in the less deprived communities. The risk of high blood mercury levels was higher in higher individual SEP (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.40-1.03 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship noted. Significant decreasing trends were observed during the follow-up both in the less and more deprived communities. From a public health point-of-view, community level intervention with different approaches for different metals is

  2. Socioeconomic Status, Higher-Level Mathematics Courses, Absenteeism, and Student Mobility as Indicators of Work Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folds, Lea D.; Tanner, C. Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relations among socioeconomic status, highest-level mathematics course, absenteeism, student mobility and measures of work readiness of high school seniors in Georgia. Study participants were 476 high school seniors in one Georgia county. The full regression model explained 27.5% of the variance in…

  3. The Relationship between Socioeconomic Characteristics and School-Level Performance Assessment Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    The relationship between selected contextual and socioeconomic variables and school-level results from a statewide performance-based student assessment system was studied using the Kentucky Instructional Results Information System (KIRIS). KIRIS uses portfolios of student work, scores from on-demand assessments, and student performance on…

  4. Ethnic and Socioeconomic Comparisons of Fitness, Activity Levels, and Barriers to Exercise in High School Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane M.; Hall, Heather L.; Lock, Robyn

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if high school females differed in individual measures of health-related physical fitness, barriers to exercise, or activity level based on ethnicity or socioeconomic status. A cross-sectional sample consisting of African American (28%), Hispanic (23%), and white (49%) female high school students, 46%…

  5. Ethnic and Socioeconomic Comparisons of Fitness, Activity Levels, and Barriers to Exercise in High School Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane M.; Hall, Heather L.; Lock, Robyn

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if high school females differed in individual measures of health-related physical fitness, barriers to exercise, or activity level based on ethnicity or socioeconomic status. A cross-sectional sample consisting of African American (28%), Hispanic (23%), and white (49%) female high school students, 46%…

  6. [Socioeconomic indicators and oral health services in an underprivileged area of Brazil].

    PubMed

    Palmier, Andréa Clemente; Andrade, Danielle Alves; Campos, Ana Cristina Viana; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the association between the proportion of tooth extractions, socioeconomic indicators, and the availability of oral health services in an underprivileged area of Brazil. An ecological study was carried out in 52 municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The socioeconomic indicators employed were criteria for health care resources allocation, municipal human development index, Theil index, Gini coefficient, and sanitation conditions. Concerning the availability of oral health services, the following were considered: number of inhabitants, number of dental surgeons living in the city, number of dentists working in the public services, and number of municipal oral health care teams. The utilization of oral health services was evaluated using the indicators recommended by the Health Ministry's Basic Care Package (Pacto da Atencão Básica in Portuguese) and the number of procedures carried out in the primary care setting. The 17 variables assessed were grouped into factorial components, which were then analyzed in terms of their relationship with the dependent variable, tooth extractions. The following six components explained 73.5% of the overall variance: socioeconomic conditions, social inequality, Basic Care Package indicators, number of procedures carried out, ratio of dentists to inhabitants, and coverage of the Family Health Strategy. Inequalities in income distribution (P = 0.031) and coverage by the Family Health Strategy (P = 0.015) contributed significantly to explain the difference in the proportion of tooth extractions in the different municipalities under study. The dental loss observed in the region is largely explained by socioeconomic factors and aspects related to the organization of oral health services.

  7. Calcium and magnesium concentrations in mature human milk: influence of calcium intake, age and socioeconomic level.

    PubMed

    Vítolo, M R; Valente Soares, L M; Carvalho, E B; Cardoso, C B

    2004-03-01

    Concentrations of calcium and magnesium were measured in mature milk, collected between 30 and 90 days after childbirth, from a group of 90 mothers between 14 and 39 years of age, exclusively breastfeeding. The group was divided into three sub-groups: low socioeconomic-level adolescents (LSAd), low socioeconomic-level adults (LSA), and high socioeconomic-level adults (HSA). Each mother's nutritional status was determined using the body-mass index (BMI) and her eating habits, obtained on the basis of a 24-h dietary recall. Adolescent and adult mothers in the low socioeconomic-level group had lower average calcium intake (LSAd = 618.4 +/- 555.2 mg and LSA = 679.4 +/- 411.4 mg) than adult mothers in the higher socioeconomic-level group (853.6 +/- 415.5 mg). The average concentration of calcium in the adolescent mothers' milk (LSAd) was significantly lower (5.30 +/- 1.42 mmol Ca/L, P = 0.01) than that of the two adult groups (LSA = 5.82 +/- 1.55 mmol Ca/L and HSA = 6.40 mmol Ca/L). The average magnesium concentrations for all groups did not show significant differences (LSAd = 1.06 +/- 0.18, LSA = 1.16 +/- 0.23 and HSA = 1.11 +/- 0.23 mmol Mg/L, for P= 0.16). These results indicate that magnesium concentrations in mature human milk do not seem to depend on maternal nutritional status. The condition of adolescence, however, associated with lower calcium intake by the mother, resulted in lower calcium concentrations in the milk secreted when compared to that of adult mothers.

  8. Association between individual-level and community-level socio-economic status and blood pressure among Inuit in Greenland

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Mylène; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite abundant evidence that socio-economic status (SES) is a fundamental determinant of health, there is a dearth of research examining association between SES, measured at the individual and community levels, and cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations. Objectives To examine the influence of individual-level and community-level SES on systolic and diastolic blood pressure among Greenlandic Inuit. Methods Multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from the Inuit Health in Transition – Greenland Survey, to which 3,108 Greenlandic Inuit aged 18 years and older participated. Blood pressure is measured using an automatic device, according to standardized protocol. Individual SES is measured by education. Community socio-economic conditions are measured using combined information on average disposable household income and settlement type. Results Education was not significantly associated with blood pressure. There was an inverse U-shape association between community socio-economic conditions and blood pressure with significantly lower SBP and DBP among participants living in remote traditional villages characterized by lower average disposable household income and in affluent more urbanized towns. Sex-stratified analyses demonstrate the salience of community conditions for men. Conclusions The association observed between blood pressure and community-level socio-economic conditions suggests that public health and social policies, programmes and interventions aiming to improve living conditions might improve cardiovascular health in Greenland. Studies are required to further examine social gradients in cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations using different measures of SES. PMID:27938632

  9. Comparative Study of the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Low Socioeconomic Areas from South Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Dhanabal, Jeevitha; Selvadoss, Pradeep Pushparaj; Muthuswamy, Kanchana

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites cause one of the most important health problems through their effects in causing undernourishment morbidity and incapacitation due to their behavior particularly in children compared to adults. This study was intended to state the prevalence of intestinal parasites between the slum dwellers of different areas in south Chennai. Among the total of 256 samples collected between the ages of 0–50 yrs, 194 samples were positive. Standard laboratory techniques for parasitological diagnosis were carried out for each sample. Entamoeba coli (23%), Cyclospora sp. (22.2%), Entamoeba histolytica (21.8%), Giardia intestinalis (14.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (6.2%), Trichuris trichiura (1.1%), and Hymenolepis nana (2.7%) were found in the dwellers of low socioeconomic areas. The data on the prevalence of parasites with respect to sex and age showed that the females harbored more numbers of parasites when compared to males. Further, with respect to age, children and teenagers had surplus parasites compared to old age groups. The percentage of educational status showed a reduction in the number of parasites in the higher education dwellers. These parasites could be prevented by possible grouping of better ecological design and hygiene. Conclusively, the examination of personal hygiene as well as routine medical examination and treatment is strongly recommended in the low socio-economic areas. PMID:24587897

  10. County-level socioeconomic status and cancer rates in Texas, 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    Risser, David R; Miller, Eric A; Williams, Melanie A; Foxhall, Lewis E

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that a person's socioeconomic status (SES) (a proxy measure that can incorporate income, wealth, education, and occupation) is associated with cancer incidence and mortality. Examining variation in cancer rates by SES can help identify health disparities and target areas for cancer control activities. The Texas Cancer Registry (TCR) collects data on every newly diagnosed case of cancer in Texas, including personal and demographic data, but does not collect data related directly to SES. Using a county-level measure of SES determined by the 2000 US Census, we compared cancer incidence and mortality rates for selected cancer sites by counties categorized into Low, Intermediate, and High SES. The cancers examined in this analysis included lung, colorectal, female breast, prostate, cervical, and all cancers collected by TCR combined. Consistent with other studies, most incidence and mortality rates were lowest in the High SES counties. However, in general, the highest incidence and mortality rates were found in counties categorized as Intermediate SES, but patterns differed by cancer site and by race and ethnicity. This study provides additional evidence that geographically related SES is associated with cancer incidence and mortality.

  11. Area deprivation, individual socioeconomic status and low vision in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Yip, Jennifer L Y; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Khawaja, Anthony P; Broadway, David C; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, K T; Foster, Paul J

    2014-03-01

    Poor vision is associated with lower socioeconomic status, but less is known about its relationship to area deprivation. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study Norfolk Eye Study was a cross-sectional study of 8563 participants with completed eye examinations. Logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) visual acuity (VA) was measured using standard protocols and low vision (LV) was defined as Snellen equivalent (VA) ≤6/12 in the better eye. Uncorrected refractive error (URE) was defined as improvement of VA by 2 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution lines with pinhole. The lowest 5% of index of multiple deprivation rank was used to define the most deprived areas. The index of multiple deprivation is a composite measure using routine data from seven domains of deprivation to identify the most disadvantaged areas in England. Logistic regression was used to examine univariable and multivariable associations with LV. Ninety-six participants with missing data were excluded, leaving 8467 for analysis (98.9%). The mean age of the study group was 68.7 years (SD=8.1, range=48-92), with 55.1% women. LV was present in 263 participants (3.1%, 95% CI 2.7 to 3.5%). LV was associated with deprivation after adjusting for age, sex, education, social class and cataract surgery (OR=1.7, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.6, p=0.03), but this effect was mitigated by additionally adjusting for URE (OR=1.5, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.4, p=0.09). People with LV are more likely to live in the most deprived areas; this association was independent of socioeconomic status and partly mediated by URE. Targeting URE in deprived areas may reduce health inequalities associated with LV.

  12. Area deprivation, individual socioeconomic status and low vision in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Jennifer L Y; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Khawaja, Anthony P; Broadway, David C; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, K T; Foster, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Background Poor vision is associated with lower socioeconomic status, but less is known about its relationship to area deprivation. Methods The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study Norfolk Eye Study was a cross-sectional study of 8563 participants with completed eye examinations. Logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) visual acuity (VA) was measured using standard protocols and low vision (LV) was defined as Snellen equivalent (VA) ≤6/12 in the better eye. Uncorrected refractive error (URE) was defined as improvement of VA by 2 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution lines with pinhole. The lowest 5% of index of multiple deprivation rank was used to define the most deprived areas. The index of multiple deprivation is a composite measure using routine data from seven domains of deprivation to identify the most disadvantaged areas in England. Logistic regression was used to examine univariable and multivariable associations with LV. Results Ninety-six participants with missing data were excluded, leaving 8467 for analysis (98.9%). The mean age of the study group was 68.7 years (SD=8.1, range=48–92), with 55.1% women. LV was present in 263 participants (3.1%, 95% CI 2.7 to 3.5%). LV was associated with deprivation after adjusting for age, sex, education, social class and cataract surgery (OR=1.7, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.6, p=0.03), but this effect was mitigated by additionally adjusting for URE (OR=1.5, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.4, p=0.09). Conclusions People with LV are more likely to live in the most deprived areas; this association was independent of socioeconomic status and partly mediated by URE. Targeting URE in deprived areas may reduce health inequalities associated with LV. PMID:24179053

  13. Effect of socioeconomic level on knowledge of stroke in the general population: A social inequality gradient.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Moreno, J M; Alonso-González, R; Peral Pacheco, D; Millán-Nuñez, M V; Roa-Montero, A; Constantino-Silva, A B; Aguirre-Sánchez, J J

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is a factor that influences health-related behaviour in individuals as well as health conditions in entire populations. The objective of the present study was to analyse the sociodemographic factors that may influence knowledge of stroke. Cross-sectional study. A representative sample was selected by double randomisation. Face-to-face interviews were carried out by previously trained medical students using a structured questionnaire with open- and closed-ended questions. Adequate knowledge was previously defined. The Mantel-Haenszel test and adjusted logistic regression analysis were used to assess the association between knowledge of stroke and the study variables. 2411 subjects were interviewed (59.9% women; mean age 49.0 [SD 17.3] years) Seventy-three per cent were residents of urban areas, 24.7% had a university education, and 15.2% had a low level of schooling. Only 2.1% reported earning more than 40 000 euros/year, with 29.9% earning less than 10 000. Nearly 74% reported having an excellent or good state of health. The unemployment rate was 17.0%. Prevalence of "adequate knowledge" was 39.7% (95% CI: 37.7%-41.6%). Trend analysis showed an association between knowledge of stroke and income (z=10.14, P<0.0001); educational level (z=15.95, P<0.0001); state of health (z=7.92, P<0.0001); and employment status (z=8.98, P<0.0001). Educational level, income, employment status, and state of health are independent factors for adequate knowledge of stroke. Public awareness campaigns should present material using simple language and efforts should be directed toward the most disadvantaged social strata in particular. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Promoting physical activity in a low socioeconomic area: results from an intervention targeting stair climbing.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Jacquelyn; Lyon, Katie; Webb, Oliver J; Eves, Frank F; Ryan, Cormac G

    2011-05-01

    To compare rates of stair climbing in a high and low socioeconomic (SE) area, and to assess the efficacy of a stair climbing intervention in each area. From March to May 2009 ascending stair/escalator choices (N=20,315) were observed in two underground train stations located in a high, and low, SE area of Glasgow. Baseline observations preceded a 4-week intervention in which posters, promoting stair choice, were installed. Follow-up observations were collected 1 week after poster removal. Baseline stair climbing rates were 12.2% and 7.1% at the high and low SE stations, respectively. Overall, pedestrians at the high SE station were around twice as likely to climb the stairs as those at the low SE station (odds ratio [OR] = 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.70-2.15). Across sites, the rate of stair climbing was higher during the intervention relative to baseline (OR = 1.48, CI = 1.34-1.63) and remained elevated at follow-up (OR = 1.24, CI = 1.11-1.39). Absolute increase in stair climbing was similar at both stations (high SE, +4.7%; low SE, +4.5%), indicating equivalent poster effects in each area. Pedestrians in lower SE areas appear less likely to climb stairs than pedestrians in high SE areas. Nevertheless, a stair climbing intervention was equally effective in both areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Individual and household-level socioeconomic position is associated with harmful alcohol consumption behaviours among adults.

    PubMed

    Giskes, Katrina; Turrell, Gavin; Bentley, Rebecca; Kavanagh, Anne

    2011-06-01

    To examine associations between individual-, household- and neighbourhood-level socioeconomic position (SEP) and harmful alcohol consumption. Adults aged 18-76 residing in 50 neighbourhoods in Melbourne completed a postal questionnaire (n= 2349, 58.7% response rate). Alcohol-related behaviours were classified by risk of short- and long-term harm. Individual-, household- and neighbourhood-level SEP were ascertained by education, household income and proportion of low-income households, respectively. The association were examined by multi-level logistic regression. Participants lower education or household income were less likely to consume alcohol frequently compared to their more-advantaged counterparts. Lower-educated men were more likely to be at risk of short-term harm [OR 1.75 (1.23 - 2.48)]. Low-income women were less likely to be at risk of short-term harm [OR 0.44 (0.23 - 0.81)]. Neighbourhood disadvantage was not associated with alcohol consumption. Men and women from socioeconomically advantaged backgrounds were more frequent consumers of alcohol, whereas their disadvantaged counterparts drank less frequently but in greater quantities on each drinking occasion. Socioeconomic disadvantage at the individual and household levels may be an important determinant of alcohol consumption among Australian adults. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  16. Using GIS to develop socio-economic profiles of areas adjacent to DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.C.; Saraswatula, S.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of the research addressed in this paper is to identify and analyze the offsite effects of DOE activities at the Savannah River Site. The paper presents the socio-economic conditions of the areas surrounding the site in order to evaluate the possible effects of DOE activities. The study employed a geographic information system (GIS) in order to evaluate spatial relationships between otherwise unrelated factors. Socio-economic data used in the study are publicly available and were obtained mainly from the Bureau of the Census. The Department of Energy (DOE), currently dealing with the environmental management of a large number of sites throughout the United States, must consider the effects of its activities on surrounding populations and ensure compliance with the various federal regulations, such as the executive order on environmental justice. Environmental justice is the process of studying and achieving equal distribution of the effects of environmental pollution on populations across social and economic lines. An executive order signed by the President has directed federal agencies, including the Department of Energy, to make achieving environmental justice a part of the agency`s mission by identifying and addressing disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental effects of its programs, policies, and activities on minority and low-income populations.

  17. Socio-economic aspects of Gum Arabic production in Dalanj area, South Korodofan, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Koli, A O; Eltayeb, A M; Sanjak, E M; Mohammed, M H

    2013-11-01

    Acacia senegal (locally: Hashab tree) is one of the most important tree species in Sudan as it considers the main Gum Arabic producing tree. The objective of this study is to investigate the socio-economic aspects of gum Arabic production and to assess contribution of gum Arabic to sustainable livelihood of local people in Dalanj Locality, South Kordofan State-Sudan. Social survey was carried out by using structured questionnaire for 80 respondents (gum producers) on random sample basis in eight villages, 10 respondents from each village. Issues pertaining to socio-economic factors affecting gum Arabic production and contribution of gum Arabic to sustainable livelihood of local people, in Dalanj Locality, were assessed. Results of the study revealed that expansion of agriculture lands at the expense of hashab trees, fires and illegal felling are the most important factors constraining gum production in the area. The results also indicated that agriculture is the main source of income and gum Arabic is a supplementary source of income. The importance of gum Arabic becomes apparent during (off farm season) the period between crops harvest and the preparation of the next agricultural season. Establishment of producers' associations and provision of loans to producers are highly recommended to ensure sustainability of gum production.

  18. Report summary - The Direct Economic Burden of Socioeconomic Health Inequalities in Canada: An Analysis of Health Care Costs by Income Level.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Canadian research indicates that individuals with lower incomes, less education or lower occupational skill levels tend to be less healthy than those who enjoy greater advantages in these areas. This uneven distribution of health across different socioeconomic status (SES) groups is referred to as "socioeconomic inequality in health." Evidence of the economic cost of health inequalities helps us understand the benefits of reducing these inequalities. However, the data needed to generate such evidence is difficult to obtain. A lack of Canadian data linking health costs and socioeconomic characteristics means that assessment of the degree to which health costs are associated with socioeconomic inequalities at the national level is limited. In order to build evidence on the cost of socioeconomic health inequalities, the Public Health Agency of Canada worked with Statistics Canada to test the feasibility of a "bottom-up" approach to compiling national health cost data. A bottom-up approach relies on individual-level data, which allows costs to be calculated by individual-level characteristics not always found in other data sources. This includes indicators of SES such as level of education or income. In this study, the population was divided into quintiles based on income, and the health care costs incurred by these five income groups were examined for a single year (2007-2008).

  19. Profiling of Alzheimer’s disease patients in Puerto Rico: A comparison of two distinct socioeconomic areas

    PubMed Central

    Camacho-Mercado, Clara L; Figueroa, Raúl; Acosta, Heriberto; Arnold, Steven E; Vega, Irving E

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The Latino/Hispanic community in the United States is at higher risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease than other ethnic groups. Specifically, Caribbean Hispanics showed a more severe Alzheimer’s disease symptomatology than any other ethnic group. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the mortality rate associated with Alzheimer’s disease in Puerto Rico is higher than that reported in the United States. Moreover, the mortality rate associated with Alzheimer’s disease was higher among Puerto Rican living in Puerto Rico than those in the mainland United States. There is also a differential geographical distribution of mortality rate associated with Alzheimer’s disease in Puerto Rico, which may be associated with differential socioeconomic status and/or access to healthcare. However, there is no information regarding the clinical profile of Alzheimer’s disease patients in Puerto Rico. Methods: Here, we present the results of a retrospective study directed to profile Alzheimer’s disease patients clustered into two groups based on areas previously determined with low (Metro Region) and high (Northwest-Central Region) mortality rate associated with Alzheimer’s disease in Puerto Rico. Results: Significant difference in the age-at-diagnosis and years of education was found among patients within the two studied regions. Despite these differences, both regions showed comparable levels of initial and last Mini Mental State Examination scores and rate of cognitive decline. Significant difference was also observed in the occurance of co-morbidities associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Conclusions: The differential profile of Alzheimer’s disease patients correlated with differences in socioeconomic status between these two regions, suggesting that covariant associated with social status may contribute to increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Further studies should be conducted to determine the role of socioeconomic factors and

  20. Are associations between socio-economic characteristics and exposure to air pollution a question of study area size? An example from Scania, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Stroh, Emilie; Oudin, Anna; Gustafsson, Susanna; Pilesjö, Petter; Harrie, Lars; Strömberg, Ulf; Jakobsson, Kristina

    2005-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have shown that exposure to air pollutants in the area of residence and the socio-economic status of an individual may be related. Therefore, when conducting an epidemiological study on the health effect of air pollution, socio-economy may act as a confounding factor. In this paper we examine to what extent socio-economic status and concentrations of NO2 in the county/region of Scania, southern Sweden, are associated and if such associations between these factors differ when studying them at county or city level. To perform this study we used high-resolution census data and modelled the annual exposure to NO2 using an emission database, a dispersion modelling program and a geographical information system (GIS). Results The results from this study confirm that socio-economic status and the levels of NO2 in the area of residence are associated in some cities. The associations vary considerably between cities within the same county (Scania). Even for cities of similar sizes and population bases the associations observed are different. Studying the cities together or separately yields contradictory results, especially when education is used as a socio-economic indicator. Conclusion Four conclusions have been drawn from the results of this study. 1) Adjusting for socio-economy is important when investigating the health effects of air pollution. 2) The county of Scania seems to be heterogeneous regarding the association between air pollution and socio-economy. 3) The relationship between air pollution and socio-economy differs in the five cities included in our study, depending on whether they are analysed separately or together. It is therefore inadvisable to determine and analyse associations between socio-economy and exposure to air pollutants on county level. This study indicates that the size and choice of study area is of great importance. 4) The selection of socio-economic indices (in this study: country of birth and education level) is

  1. The illegal cigarette market in a socioeconomically deprived inner-city area: the case of the South Bronx.

    PubMed

    Kurti, Marin K; von Lampe, Klaus; Thompkins, Douglas E

    2013-03-01

    To determine the scope of the cigarette black market in a socioeconomically deprived inner-city area in the US, taking the South Bronx in New York City as a case study. The South Bronx Litter Pack Survey collected discarded cigarette packs (n=497) along 30 randomised census tracts to quantify the prevalence of counterfeit, legal and out-of-state tax stamps. It was found that 76.2% of cigarette packs collected avoided the combined New York City and State tax. More specifically, 57.9% were untaxed (counterfeit or bearing no tax stamp), for 15.8% taxes were paid outside of New York City (including other states and New York State only). Only 19.4% of tax stamps collected indicated that New York City and New York State taxes were paid. 4.4% of the cigarette packs could not be analysed because the tax stamps were not discernible. The finding that the majority of cigarettes did not have a tax stamp or bore a counterfeit tax stamp suggests that these cigarettes were being bootlegged, most likely from Native American Reservations. The present study highlights the importance of examining the illegal cigarette market in socioeconomically deprived regions of the US, where tax avoidance and black market activities appear to far exceed levels found elsewhere in the country including Chicago and New York City at large.

  2. Area-based socioeconomic characteristics of industries at high risk for violence in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Ta, Myduc L; Marshall, Stephen W; Kaufman, Jay S; Loomis, Dana; Casteel, Carri; Land, Kenneth C

    2009-12-01

    This study examined socioeconomic factors associated with the presence of workplaces belonging to industries reported to be at high risk for worker homicide. The proportion of 2004 North Carolina workplaces in high-risk industries was computed following spatial linkage of individual workplaces to 2000 United States Census Block Groups (n = 3,925). Thirty census-derived socioeconomic variables (selected a priori as potentially predictive of violence) were summarized using exploratory factor analysis into poverty/deprivation, human/economic capital, and transience/instability. Multinomial logistic regression models indicate associations between higher proportion of workplaces belonging to high-risk industries and Block Groups with more poverty/deprivation or transience/instability and less human/economic capital. The relationship between human/economic capital and Block Groups proportion of high-risk industry workplaces was modified by levels of transience/instability. Community characteristics therefore contribute to the potential for workplace violence, and future research should continue to understand the relationship between social context and workplace violence risk.

  3. Obesity and Association with Area of Residence, Gender and Socio-Economic Factors in Algerian and Tunisian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Atek, Madjid; Traissac, Pierre; El Ati, Jalila; Laid, Youcef; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; Mézimèche, Nadia; Bougatef, Souha; Béji, Chiraz; Boutekdjiret, Leila; Martin-Prével, Yves; Lebcir, Hassiba; Gartner, Agnès; Kolsteren, Patrick; Delpeuch, Francis; Romdhane, Habiba Ben; Maire, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The epidemiological transition has resulted in a major increase in the prevalence of obesity in North Africa. This study investigated differences in obesity and its association with area of residence, gender and socio-economic position among adults in Algeria and Tunisia, two countries with socio-economic and socio-cultural similarities. Methods Cross-sectional studies used stratified, three-level, clustered samples of 35–70 year old adults in Algeria, (women n = 2741, men n = 2004) and Tunisia (women n = 2964, men n = 2379). Thinness was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI) = weight/height <18.5 kg/m2, obesity as BMI ≥30, and abdominal obesity as waist circumference/height ≥0.6. Associations with area of residence, gender, age, education, profession and household welfare were assessed. Results Prevalence of thinness was very low except among men in Algeria (7.3% C.I.[5.9–8.7]). Prevalence of obesity among women was high in Algeria (30.1% C.I.[27.8–32.4]) and Tunisia (37.0% C.I.[34.4–39.6]). It was less so among men (9.1% C.I.[7.1–11.0] and 13.3% C.I.[11.2–15.4]).The results were similar for abdominal obesity. In both countries women were much more obesity-prone than men: the women versus men obesity Odds-Ratio was 4.3 C.I.[3.4–5.5] in Algeria and 3.8 C.I.[3.1–4.7] in Tunisia. Obesity was more prevalent in urban versus rural areas in Tunisia, but not in Algeria (e.g. for women, urban versus rural Odds-Ratio was 2.4 C.I.[1.9–3.1] in Tunisia and only 1.2 C.I.[1.0–5.5] in Algeria). Obesity increased with household welfare, but more markedly in Tunisia, especially among women. Nevertheless, in both countries, even in the lowest quintile of welfare, a fifth of the women were obese. Conclusion The prevention of obesity, especially in women, is a public health issue in both countries, but there were differences in the patterning of obesity according to area of residence and socio-economic position. These specificities

  4. Introduction of an Area Deprivation Index Measuring Patient Socioeconomic Status in an Integrated Health System: Implications for Population Health

    PubMed Central

    Knighton, Andrew J; Savitz, Lucy; Belnap, Tom; Stephenson, Brad; VanDerslice, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Intermountain Healthcare is a fully integrated delivery system based in Salt Lake City, Utah. As a learning healthcare system with a mission of performance excellence, it became apparent that population health management and our efforts to move towards shared accountability would require additional patient-centric metrics in order to provide the right care to the right patients at the right time. Several European countries have adopted social deprivation indices in measuring the impact that social determinants can have on health. Such indices provide a geographic, area-based measure of how socioeconomically deprived residents of that area are on average. Intermountain’s approach was to identify a proxy measure that did not require front-line data collection and could be standardized for our patient population, leading us to the area deprivation index or ADI. This paper describes the specifications and calculation of an ADI for the state of Utah. Results are presented along with introduction of three use cases demonstrating the potential for application of an ADI in quality improvement in a learning healthcare system. Case Description: The Utah ADI shows promise in providing a proxy for patient-reported measures reflecting key socio-economic indicators useful for tailoring patient interventions to improve health care delivery and patient outcomes. Strengths of this approach include a consistent standardized measurement of social determinants, use of more granular block group level measures and a limited data capture burden for front-line teams. While the methodology is generalizable to other communities, results of this index are limited to block groups within the state of Utah and will differ from national calculations or calculations for other states. The use of composite measures to evaluate individual characteristics must also be approached with care. Other limitations with the use of U.S. Census data include use of estimates and missing data

  5. Obesity and association with area of residence, gender and socio-economic factors in Algerian and Tunisian adults.

    PubMed

    Atek, Madjid; Traissac, Pierre; El Ati, Jalila; Laid, Youcef; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; Mézimèche, Nadia; Bougatef, Souha; Béji, Chiraz; Boutekdjiret, Leila; Martin-Prével, Yves; Lebcir, Hassiba; Gartner, Agnès; Kolsteren, Patrick; Delpeuch, Francis; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Maire, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiological transition has resulted in a major increase in the prevalence of obesity in North Africa. This study investigated differences in obesity and its association with area of residence, gender and socio-economic position among adults in Algeria and Tunisia, two countries with socio-economic and socio-cultural similarities. Cross-sectional studies used stratified, three-level, clustered samples of 35-70 year old adults in Algeria, (women n = 2741, men n = 2004) and Tunisia (women n = 2964, men n = 2379). Thinness was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI) = weight/height <18.5 kg/m(2), obesity as BMI ≥30, and abdominal obesity as waist circumference/height ≥0.6. Associations with area of residence, gender, age, education, profession and household welfare were assessed. Prevalence of thinness was very low except among men in Algeria (7.3% C.I.[5.9-8.7]). Prevalence of obesity among women was high in Algeria (30.1% C.I.[27.8-32.4]) and Tunisia (37.0% C.I.[34.4-39.6]). It was less so among men (9.1% C.I.[7.1-11.0] and 13.3% C.I.[11.2-15.4]).The results were similar for abdominal obesity. In both countries women were much more obesity-prone than men: the women versus men obesity Odds-Ratio was 4.3 C.I.[3.4-5.5] in Algeria and 3.8 C.I.[3.1-4.7] in Tunisia. Obesity was more prevalent in urban versus rural areas in Tunisia, but not in Algeria (e.g. for women, urban versus rural Odds-Ratio was 2.4 C.I.[1.9-3.1] in Tunisia and only 1.2 C.I.[1.0-5.5] in Algeria). Obesity increased with household welfare, but more markedly in Tunisia, especially among women. Nevertheless, in both countries, even in the lowest quintile of welfare, a fifth of the women were obese. The prevention of obesity, especially in women, is a public health issue in both countries, but there were differences in the patterning of obesity according to area of residence and socio-economic position. These specificities must be taken into account in the management of obesity

  6. Access to primary care for socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas: a realist review

    PubMed Central

    Ford, John A; Wong, Geoff; Jones, Andy P; Steel, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this review is to identify and understand the contexts that effect access to high-quality primary care for socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas. Design A realist review. Data sources MEDLINE and EMBASE electronic databases and grey literature (from inception to December 2014). Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Broad inclusion criteria were used to allow articles which were not specific, but might be relevant to the population of interest to be considered. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were assessed for rigour and relevance and coded for concepts relating to context, mechanism or outcome. Analysis An overarching patient pathway was generated and used as the basis to explore contexts, causal mechanisms and outcomes. Results 162 articles were included. Most were from the USA or the UK, cross-sectional in design and presented subgroup data by age, rurality or deprivation. From these studies, a patient pathway was generated which included 7 steps (problem identified, decision to seek help, actively seek help, obtain appointment, get to appointment, primary care interaction and outcome). Important contexts were stoicism, education status, expectations of ageing, financial resources, understanding the healthcare system, access to suitable transport, capacity within practice, the booking system and experience of healthcare. Prominent causal mechanisms were health literacy, perceived convenience, patient empowerment and responsiveness of the practice. Conclusions Socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas face personal, community and healthcare barriers that limit their access to primary care. Initiatives should be targeted at local contextual factors to help individuals recognise problems, feel welcome, navigate the healthcare system, book appointments easily, access appropriate transport and have sufficient time with professional staff to improve their experience of healthcare; all of which

  7. [Tuberculosis in a primary care center in a socioeconomically depressed area: variables associated with giving up treatment].

    PubMed

    Solá, M; Gardella, A; Llauger, M A; Muñoz, J; Birulés, M; Foz, G

    1990-06-01

    We report the features of 72 patients with tuberculosis of a low socioeconomical level, seen at the primary care center of Perecamps (Barcelona). We identify the factors associated with giving up therapy. We found a predominance of males and of the 40-59 years age group. In 1988 we found an increased rate of young patients (20-39 years) and PDA/HIV+. Twenty-five patients (35%) had had previous episodes of tuberculosis. 19 had had inadequate chemotherapy because of abandonment. The rate of follow-up losses was high (36%). A history of previous PDA/HIV+ were associated with giving up therapy. We indicate the several measures to be applied in our area to improve compliance with chemotherapy in patients with tuberculosis.

  8. Neighbourhood characteristics, individual level socioeconomic factors, and depressive symptoms in young adults: the CARDIA study

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, C.; Diez, R; Jacobs, D.; Kiefe, C.; West, D.; Williams, D.

    2005-01-01

    Study objective: To investigate the relation between neighbourhood socioeconomic and ethnic characteristics with depressive symptoms in a population based sample. Design: Cross sectional data from the CARDIA study, including the Center for Epidemiological Studies depression scale score (CES-D). Neighbourhoods were 1990 US census blocks of 1000 people; six census variables reflecting wealth/income, education, and occupation investigated separately and as a summary score; neighbourhood racial composition (percentage white and black) and individual level income and education were also examined. Setting: Participants recruited in 1985/86 from community lists in Birmingham, AL; Chicago, IL; Minneapolis MN; from a health plan in Oakland, CA. Participants: 3437 adults aged 28–40 years in 1995/96: 24% white men, 27% white women, 20% black men, 29% black women. Main results: For each race-sex group, CES-D was inversely related to neighbourhood score and individual income and education. Associations of neighbourhood score with CES-D became weak and inconsistent after adjusting for individual level factors; personal income remained strongly and inversely associated with CES-D. Age adjusted mean differences (standard errors) in CES-D between the lowest and highest income categories were 3.41 (0.62) for white men, 4.57 (0.64) for white women, 5.80 (0.87) for black men, and 5.74 (0.83) for black women. For both black and white participants, CES-D was associated negatively with percentage of white people and positively with percentage of black people in their census block, before, but not after, adjustment for individual and neighbourhood socioeconomic variables. Conclusions: Neither neighbourhood socioeconomic characteristics nor ethnic density were consistently related to depressive symptoms once individual socioeconomic characteristics were taken into account. PMID:15767387

  9. Association of Childhood Blood Lead Levels With Cognitive Function and Socioeconomic Status at Age 38 Years and With IQ Change and Socioeconomic Mobility Between Childhood and Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Reuben, Aaron; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Broadbent, Jonathan; Harrington, Honalee; Sugden, Karen; Houts, Renate M; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2017-03-28

    Many children in the United States and around the world are exposed to lead, a developmental neurotoxin. The long-term cognitive and socioeconomic consequences of lead exposure are uncertain. To test the hypothesis that childhood lead exposure is associated with cognitive function and socioeconomic status in adulthood and with changes in IQ and socioeconomic mobility between childhood and midlife. A prospective cohort study based on a population-representative 1972-1973 birth cohort from New Zealand; the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study observed participants to age 38 years (until December 2012). Childhood lead exposure ascertained as blood lead levels measured at age 11 years. High blood lead levels were observed among children from all socioeconomic status levels in this cohort. The IQ (primary outcome) and indexes of Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed (secondary outcomes) were assessed at age 38 years using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV; IQ range, 40-160). Socioeconomic status (primary outcome) was assessed at age 38 years using the New Zealand Socioeconomic Index-2006 (NZSEI-06; range, 10 [lowest]-90 [highest]). Of 1037 original participants, 1007 were alive at age 38 years, of whom 565 (56%) had been lead tested at age 11 years (54% male; 93% white). Mean (SD) blood lead level at age 11 years was 10.99 (4.63) µg/dL. Among blood-tested participants included at age 38 years, mean WAIS-IV score was 101.16 (14.82) and mean NZSEI-06 score was 49.75 (17.12). After adjusting for maternal IQ, childhood IQ, and childhood socioeconomic status, each 5-µg/dL higher level of blood lead in childhood was associated with a 1.61-point lower score (95% CI, -2.48 to -0.74) in adult IQ, a 2.07-point lower score (95% CI, -3.14 to -1.01) in perceptual reasoning, and a 1.26-point lower score (95% CI, -2.38 to -0.14) in working memory. Associations of childhood blood lead level with deficits in

  10. Serum aflatoxin B₁-lysine adduct level in adult women from Eastern Province in Kenya depends on household socio-economic status: A cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Jef L; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Jones, Kelly

    2015-12-01

    Notwithstanding the growing concern about the negative impact of aflatoxin (AF) on human health, there is a dearth of evidence on the socio-economic determinants of AF exposure in low and middle income countries. We used detailed socio-economic data to quantify to what extent socio-economic characteristics explained differences in serum AFB1-lysine adduct level in adult women from a rural area in Kenya's Eastern Province. We first explored the relationship between serum aflatoxin level and a number of household, farm, and individual characteristics using cross-sectional data on 884 mothers (pregnant or with a child under 24 months). We then used regression analyses to estimate the extent to which the combined characteristics could predict serum aflatoxin levels. We finally used the estimated regression models to predict changes in AF level when changing a women's characteristics from the most disadvantaged group (setting all socio-economic characteristics to the lowest tertile) to the most advantaged group (highest tertile). AF was detected in all women. The median level of serum AB1-lysine adduct was 7.47 pg/mg albumin. Higher exposure levels were significantly associated with poverty: predicted serum aflatoxin levels in women living in the worst socio-economic conditions were 4.7-7.1 times higher than those with the best socio-economic status. The results of our study, the first to show the significant association between poverty and aflatoxin exposure, highlight the need to better understand the strategies used by better-off families to mitigate AF exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Association of childhood blood-lead levels with cognitive function and socioeconomic status at age 38 years and with IQ change and socioeconomic mobility between childhood and adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Reuben, Aaron; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W.; Broadbent, Jonathan; Harrington, Honalee; Sugden, Karen; Houts, Renate M.; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Many children in the US and around the world are exposed to lead, a developmental neurotoxin. The long-term cognitive and socioeconomic consequences of lead exposure are uncertain. Objective To test the hypothesis that childhood lead exposure is associated with cognitive function and socioeconomic status in adulthood and with changes in IQ and socioeconomic mobility between childhood and midlife. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective cohort study based on a population-representative 1972–73 birth cohort from New Zealand, the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, followed to age 38 years (December, 2012). Exposure Childhood lead exposure ascertained as blood-lead levels measured at 11 years. High blood-lead levels were observed among children from all socioeconomic status levels in this cohort. Main Outcomes and Measures The IQ (primary outcome) and indexes of Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed (secondary outcomes) were assessed at 38 years using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–IV (WAIS-IV; IQ range 40–160). Socioeconomic status (primary outcome) was assessed at 38 years using the New Zealand Socioeconomic Index-2006, (NZSEI-06; range 10=lowest-90=highest). Results Of 1037 original participants, 1007 were alive at 38 years, of whom 565 (56%) had been lead tested at 11 years (54% male; 93% white). Mean blood-lead level at 11 years was 10.99μg/dL (SD=4.63). Among blood-tested participants included at 38 years, mean WAIS-IV score was 101.16 (SD=14.82) and mean NZSEI-06 score was 49.75 (SD=17.12). After adjusting for maternal IQ, childhood IQ, and childhood socioeconomic status, each 5μg/dL higher level of blood-lead in childhood was associated with a 1.61-point lower score (95%CI:−2.48, −0.74) in adult IQ, a 2.07-point lower score (95%CI: −3.14, −1.01) in Perceptual Reasoning, and a 1.26-point lower score (95%CI: −2.38, −0.14) in Working Memory. Lead

  12. Socioeconomic context in area of living and risk of myocardial infarction: results from Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program (SHEEP)

    PubMed Central

    Kolegard, S; Diderichsen, F; Reuterwall, C; Hallqvist, J

    2002-01-01

    Study objective: To analyse if socioeconomic characteristics in area of living affect the risk of myocardial infarction in a Swedish urban population, and to evaluate to what extent the contextual effect is confounded by the individual exposures. Design: A population based case-referent study (SHEEP). Setting: Cases (n=1631) were all incident first events of myocardial infarction during 1992–1994. The study base included all Swedish citizens aged 45–70 years, living in Stockholm metropolitan area during these years. The social context of all metropolitan parishes (n=89) was determined by routine statistics on 21 socioeconomic indicators. A factor analysis of the socioeconomic indicators resulted in three dimensions of socioeconomic deprivation, which were analysed separately as three different contextual exposures. Main results: The main characteristics of the extracted factors were; class structure, social exclusion and poverty. Among men, there were increased relative risks of similar magnitudes (1.28 to 1.33) in the more deprived areas according to all three dimensions of the socioeconomic context. However, when adjusting for individual exposures, the poverty factor had the strongest contextual impact. The contextual effects among women showed a different pattern. In comparison with women living the most affluent areas according to the class structure index, women in the rest of Stockholm metropolitan area had nearly 70% higher risk of myocardial infarction after adjustment for individual social exposures. Conclusions: The results suggest that the socioeconomic context in area of living increases the risk of myocardial infarction. The increased risk in only partially explained by individual social factors (the compositional effect). PMID:11801617

  13. Area-based socioeconomic factors and Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among teen boys in the United States.

    PubMed

    Henry, Kevin A; Swiecki-Sikora, Allison L; Stroup, Antoinette M; Warner, Echo L; Kepka, Deanna

    2017-07-14

    This study is the first to examine associations between several area-based socioeconomic factors and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake among boys in the United States (U.S.). Data from the 2012-2013 National Immunization Survey-Teen restricted-use data were analyzed to examine associations of HPV vaccination initiation (receipt of ≥1 dose) and series completion (receipt of three doses) among boys aged 13-17 years (N = 19,518) with several individual-level and ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) census measures. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of HPV vaccination initiation and series completion separately. In 2012-2013 approximately 27.9% (95% CI 26.6%-29.2%) of boys initiated and 10.38% (95% CI 9.48%-11.29%) completed the HPV vaccine series. Area-based poverty was not statistically significantly associated with HPV vaccination initiation. It was, however, associated with series completion, with boys living in high-poverty areas (≥20% of residents living below poverty) having higher odds of completing the series (AOR 1.22, 95% CI 1.01-1.48) than boys in low-poverty areas (0-4.99%). Interactions between race/ethnicity and ZIP code-level poverty indicated that Hispanic boys living in high-poverty areas had a statistically significantly higher odds of  HPV vaccine initiation (AOR 1.43, 95% CI 1.03-1.97) and series completion (AOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.05-2.32)  than Hispanic boys in  low-poverty areas. Non-Hispanic Black boys in high poverty areas had higher odds of initiation (AOR 2.23, 95% CI 1.33-3.75) and completion (AOR 2.61, 95% CI 1.06-6.44) than non-Hispanic Black boys in low-poverty areas. Rural/urban residence and population density were also significant factors, with boys from urban or densely populated areas having higher odds of initiation and completion compared to boys living in non-urban, less densely populated areas. Higher HPV vaccination coverage in urban areas and among racial/ethnic minorities in areas with

  14. Country- and individual-level socioeconomic determinants of depression: multilevel cross-national comparison.

    PubMed

    Rai, Dheeraj; Zitko, Pedro; Jones, Kelvyn; Lynch, John; Araya, Ricardo

    2013-03-01

    The prevalence and correlates of depression vary across countries. Contextual factors such as country-level income or income inequalities have been hypothesised to contribute to these differences. To investigate associations of depression with socioeconomic factors at the country level (income inequality, gross national income) and individual (education, employment, assets and spending) level, and to investigate their relative contribution in explaining the cross-national variation in the prevalence of depression. Multilevel study using interview data of 187 496 individuals from 53 countries participating in the World Health Organization World Health Surveys. Depression prevalence varied between 0.4 and 15.7% across countries. Individual-level factors were responsible for 86.5% of this variance but there was also reasonable variation at the country level (13.5%), which appeared to increase with decreasing economic development of countries. Gross national income or country-level income inequality had no association with depression. At the individual level, fewer material assets, lower education, female gender, economic inactivity and being divorced or widowed were associated with increased odds of depression. Greater household spending, unlike material assets, was associated with increasing odds of depression (adjusted analysis). The variance of depression prevalence attributable to country-level factors seemed to increase with decreasing economic development of countries. However, country-level income inequality or gross national income explained little of this variation, and individual-level factors appeared more important than contextual factors as determinants of depression. The divergent relationship of assets and spending with depression emphasise that different socioeconomic measures are not interchangeable in their associations with depression.

  15. Maternal age, education level and migration: Socioeconomic determinants for smoking during pregnancy in a field study from Turkey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Smoking during pregnancy has been associated with socioeconomic determinants and it is recognized as the most important preventable risk factor for an unsuccessful pregnancy outcome. Turkey has national data on the prevalance of smoking during pregnancy; however there is no data on the characteristics of the high-risk population. This is a field study that aims to identify socioeconomic determinants for smoking during pregnancy as well as differentiating the daily and occasional smokers. Method Cross sectional study was conducted among women with 0-5 year old children living in the area served by Primary Health Care Center (PHCC) in Burhaniye, Turkey. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by the researchers during January-March 2008 at the home of the participants with 83.7% response rate (n = 256). The relation of "smoking during pregnacy" and "daily smoking during pregnancy" with the independent variables was determined with χ2 tests. Women's age, educational level, number of previous births, place of origin, migration, partner's educational level, poverty, perceived income, social class were evaluated. Statistical significance was achieved when the p value was less than 0.05. The variables in relation with the dependent variables in the χ2 tests were included in the forward-stepwise logistic analysis. Results Prevalance of smoking during pregnancy was 22.7%. The majority (74.1%) were daily smokers. Young mothers (< 20), low educated women and migrants were at increased risk for smoking during pregnancy. Low education and being a migrant were risk factors for daily consumption (p < 0.05). Conclusions Systematic attention should be paid to socioeconomic determinants in smoking for pregnant women, especially in countries like Turkey with high rates of infant and mother mortality and substantial health inequalities. Young mothers (< 20), low educated women and migrants are important groups to focus on. PMID:20534133

  16. [Adiposity and fat distribution in preschool children from low socioeconomic levels in Caracas].

    PubMed

    Pérez, B M; Vásquez, M; Landaeta-Jiménez, M; Rámirez, G; Ledezma, T

    1997-03-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that body fat distribution in adults is associated with chronical nontransmissible diseases, less is known during the growing years. The current study was undertaken to explore the relationship between level of fatness, fat patterning and some socioenvironmental variables in a group of 449 children aged 3 to 6, living in Caracas, who belong to the poorest Venezuelan socio-economic stratum. Data was analyzed taking nutritional status (weight-for-age), an index of socioeconomic conditions (ICSA), sex and age, as control variables. Using a multivariate analysis we derived first, two groups of households (G1 and G2) as determined by socioeconomic variables, to which principal component analysis was applied to elicited fatness and relative fat patterning through six skinfolds. First component identify level of adiposity, second extremity/trunk fatness, and third upper/lower pattern. Comparison of normal children with those of low weight-for-age showed differences in adiposity and in the upper/lower patterning as detected by the skinfolds involved in the differences: subscapular (-0.53) and supraspinale (0.32) in children with low weight-for-age; triceps (-0.46) and thigh (0.29) in those classified as normal. We found that gender, nutritional condition, environmental variables and age, were significant predictors of the differences in adiposity level; while age and households conditions, appear to be related to upper/lower patterning. The data equally suggests that body fat is more centrally distributed in boys with low weight-for-age. Since these patterns are indicators of risk in the ongoing years, we call tha attention about environmental circumstances.

  17. Observed smoking in cars: a method and differences by socioeconomic area

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Josh; George, Robert; Andrews, Kirsty; Barr, Peter; Bicknell, Derryn; Insull, Elizabeth; Knox, Carl; Liu, Jessie; Naqshband, Mumraiz; Romeril, Kate; Wong, Donny; Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To establish a reproducible method to estimate he point prevalence of smoking and second‐hand smoke (SHS) exposure in cars, and to compare this prevalence between two areas of contrasting socioeconomic status. Method A method involving two teams of observers was developed and evaluated. It involved observing 16 055 cars in Wellington, New Zealand. Two of the observation sites represented a high and a low area of deprivation (based on a neighbourhood deprivation index) and three were in the central city. Results A 4.1% point prevalence of smoking in cars was observed (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.8% to 4.4%). There was a higher prevalence of smoking in cars in the high deprivation area relative to the other sites, and particularly compared to the low deprivation area (rate ratio relative to the latter 3.2, 95% CI 2.6 to 4.0). Of cars with smoking, 23.7% had other occupants being exposed to SHS. Cars with smoking and other occupants were significantly more likely to have a window open (especially if the smoker was not the driver). The observation method developed was practical, and inter‐observer agreement was high (κ value for the “smoking seen in car” category 0.95). Conclusions Observational studies can be an effective way of investigating smoking in cars. The data from this survey suggest that smoking in cars occurs at a higher rate in relatively deprived populations and hence may contribute to health inequalities. Fortunately, there are a number of policy options for reducing SHS exposure in cars including mass media campaigns and laws for smoke‐free cars. PMID:16998177

  18. Observed smoking in cars: a method and differences by socioeconomic area.

    PubMed

    Martin, Josh; George, Robert; Andrews, Kirsty; Barr, Peter; Bicknell, Derryn; Insull, Elizabeth; Knox, Carl; Liu, Jessie; Naqshband, Mumraiz; Romeril, Kate; Wong, Donny; Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick

    2006-10-01

    To establish a reproducible method to estimate he point prevalence of smoking and second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in cars, and to compare this prevalence between two areas of contrasting socioeconomic status. A method involving two teams of observers was developed and evaluated. It involved observing 16,055 cars in Wellington, New Zealand. Two of the observation sites represented a high and a low area of deprivation (based on a neighbourhood deprivation index) and three were in the central city. A 4.1% point prevalence of smoking in cars was observed (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.8% to 4.4%). There was a higher prevalence of smoking in cars in the high deprivation area relative to the other sites, and particularly compared to the low deprivation area (rate ratio relative to the latter 3.2, 95% CI 2.6 to 4.0). Of cars with smoking, 23.7% had other occupants being exposed to SHS. Cars with smoking and other occupants were significantly more likely to have a window open (especially if the smoker was not the driver). The observation method developed was practical, and inter-observer agreement was high (kappa value for the "smoking seen in car" category 0.95). Observational studies can be an effective way of investigating smoking in cars. The data from this survey suggest that smoking in cars occurs at a higher rate in relatively deprived populations and hence may contribute to health inequalities. Fortunately, there are a number of policy options for reducing SHS exposure in cars including mass media campaigns and laws for smoke-free cars.

  19. Availability of Recreational Resources in Minority and Low Socioeconomic Status Areas

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Latetia V.; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Evenson, Kelly R.; McGinn, Aileen P.; Brines, Shannon J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Differences in availability of recreational resources may contribute to racial and SES disparities in physical activity. Variations in the location and density of recreational resources were examined by SES and racial composition of neighborhoods. Methods Densities of resources available in recreational facilities and parks were estimated for census tracts between April 2003 and June 2004 in North Carolina, New York, and Maryland using kernel estimation. The probability of not having a facility or park was modeled by tract racial composition and SES, adjusting for population and area, using binomial regression in 2006. Mean densities of tract resources were modeled by SES and racial composition using linear regression. Results Minority neighborhoods were significantly more likely than white neighborhoods not to have recreational facilities (relative probability (RP)=3.27 (95% CI=2.11–5.07) and 8.60 (95% CI=4.48–16.51), for black and Hispanic neighborhoods, respectively). Low-income neighborhoods were 4.5 times more likely to not have facilities than high-income areas (95% CI=2.87–7.12). Parks were more equitably distributed. Most resources located in recreational facilities required a fee and were less dense in minority and low-income areas. Those located inside parks were usually free to use, sports-related, and denser in poor and minority neighborhoods. Conclusions Recreational facilities and the resources they offer are not equitably distributed. The presence of parks in poor and minority areas suggest that improving the types and quality of resources in parks could be an important strategy to increase physical activity and reduce racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities. PMID:18083446

  20. Socio-economic factors affecting the conservation of natural woodlands in Central Riyadh Area – Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Subaiee, Faisal Sultan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify some socioeconomic factors affecting local people in central Riyadh area for the utilization of wood and other energy sources in cooking and heating in order to develop some recommendations for conserving woodlands. The study results revealed that gas is the most common energy source used for cooking with a mean usage level of 2.79 (SD = 0.58). On the other hand, wood ranked first for heating with the highest mean, usage level of 1.90 (SD = 1.06). However, electricity and gas as sources of energy for heating ranked second and third with mean usage level of 1.81 and 0.80 respectively. The study revealed that local people with the university education were significantly making higher use of electricity for both cooking and heating and those with no formal education ranked the highest on wood use for both cooking and heating. In addition, those living in traditional houses significantly used more wood for cooking than those living in villas and apartments. Also, local people with high income levels significantly were using more electricity for heating than others. The study recommended conducting extension and environmental awareness raising programs to enhance local residents’ adoption of wood substitutes, promoting employment opportunities for unemployed locals, and subsidizing prices of alternative energy sources. PMID:27081355

  1. Learning to (Dis)Engage? The Socialising Experiences of Young People Living in Areas of Socio-Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Carolynne; Cremin, Hilary; Warwick, Paul; Harrison, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Young people are increasingly required to demonstrate civic engagement in their communities and help deliver the aspirations of localism and Big Society. Using an ecological systems approach this paper explores the experiences of different groups of young people living in areas of socio-economic disadvantage. Using volunteering as an example of…

  2. Understanding high traffic injury risks for children in low socioeconomic areas: a qualitative study of parents' views

    PubMed Central

    Christie, N; Ward, H; Kimberlee, R; Towner, E; Sleney, J

    2007-01-01

    Objective To gain an in‐depth qualitative understanding of parents' views about their children's exposure to road traffic injury risk in low socioeconomic areas. Design Focus groups facilitated by a moderator with content analysis of data. Setting Focus groups were conducted in 10 low socioeconomic English districts that also have high rates of child pedestrian injury. Research was conducted in community venues within each area. Subjects Parents of children aged 9–14 years living in low socioeconomic areas. Results Parents believe that children play in their local streets for the following reasons: they like playing out with friends near home; there are few safe, secure, and well‐maintained public spaces for children; children are excluded from affordable leisure venues because of their costs; insufficient parental responsibility. For children that play in the street, the key sources of risk identified by parents were: illegal riding and driving around estates and on the pavements; the speed and volume of traffic; illegal parking; drivers being poorly informed about where children play; children's risk‐taking behavior. Conclusions Intervention programs need to take into account multiple reasons why children in low socioeconomic areas become exposed to hazardous environments thereby increasing their risk of injury. Multi‐agency partnerships involving the community are increasingly needed to implement traditional road safety approaches, such as education, engineering, and enforcement, and provide safe and accessible public space, affordable activities for children, and greater support for parents. PMID:18056316

  3. Can money buy green? Demographic and socioeconomic predictors of lawn-care expenditures and lawn greenness in urban residential areas

    Treesearch

    Weiqi Zhou; Austin Troy; J. Morgan Grove; Jennifer C. Jenkins

    2009-01-01

    It is increasingly important to understand how household characteristics influence lawn characteristics, as lawns play an important ecological role in human-dominated landscapes. This article investigates household and neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics as predictors of residential lawn-care expenditures and lawn greenness. The study area is the Gwynns Falls...

  4. Promoting Low Socio-Economic Participation in Higher Education: A Comparison of Area-Based and Individual Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockery, Alfred M.; Seymour, Richard; Koshy, Paul

    2016-01-01

    As with other countries, Australia has been grappling with the identification, measurement and impact of disadvantage in higher education. In particular, the measurement of socio-economic status (SES) has been of central concern. The immediate solution in Australia has been the introduction of an "area" measure in which students' SES is…

  5. Promoting Low Socio-Economic Participation in Higher Education: A Comparison of Area-Based and Individual Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockery, Alfred M.; Seymour, Richard; Koshy, Paul

    2016-01-01

    As with other countries, Australia has been grappling with the identification, measurement and impact of disadvantage in higher education. In particular, the measurement of socio-economic status (SES) has been of central concern. The immediate solution in Australia has been the introduction of an "area" measure in which students' SES is…

  6. Learning to (Dis)Engage? The Socialising Experiences of Young People Living in Areas of Socio-Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Carolynne; Cremin, Hilary; Warwick, Paul; Harrison, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Young people are increasingly required to demonstrate civic engagement in their communities and help deliver the aspirations of localism and Big Society. Using an ecological systems approach this paper explores the experiences of different groups of young people living in areas of socio-economic disadvantage. Using volunteering as an example of…

  7. A Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluation of an After-School Prosocial Behavior Program in an Area of Socioeconomic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, Liam; Biggart, Andy; Kerr, Karen; Connolly, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate the effects of a prosocial behavior after-school program called Mate-Tricks for 9- and 10-year-old children and their parents living in an area of significant socioeconomic disadvantage. The children were randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 220) or a control group (n = 198). Children were…

  8. A Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluation of an After-School Prosocial Behavior Program in an Area of Socioeconomic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, Liam; Biggart, Andy; Kerr, Karen; Connolly, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate the effects of a prosocial behavior after-school program called Mate-Tricks for 9- and 10-year-old children and their parents living in an area of significant socioeconomic disadvantage. The children were randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 220) or a control group (n = 198). Children were…

  9. Blood lead levels in pregnant women of high and low socioeconomic status in Mexico City.

    PubMed Central

    Farias, P; Borja-Aburto, V H; Rios, C; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Rojas-Lopez, M; Chavez-Ayala, R

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the determinants of blood lead (BPb) in 513 pregnant women in Mexico City: 311 from public hospital prenatal clinics, representing primarily women of low socioeconomic status (SES), and 202 from private hospitals, primarily women of high SES. Overall, BPb levels ranged from 1.38 to 29 micrograms/dl, with geometric means of 6.7 and 11.12 micrograms/dl for women from private and public hospitals, respectively. The crude geometric means difference obtained by t-test was 4.42 (p < 0.001). BPb was measured from January 1994 to August 1995 and showed higher levels during fall and winter and lower levels during spring and summer. The main BPb determinants were the use of lead-glazed ceramics in women from public hospitals and season of the year in women from private hospitals. Consumption of tortillas (corn bread rich in calcium) decreased BPb levels in the lower SES group, but the relationship was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Consumption of milk products significantly (p < 0.05) reduced BPb levels in the higher SES group. In 112 women whose diets were deficient in calcium, taking calcium supplements lowered their blood lead levels about 7 micrograms/dl. A predictive model fitted to these data, using the strongest predictors plus gestational age, showed a difference of 14 micrograms/dl between the best and worst scenarios in women from public hospitals. Avoiding use of lead-glazed ceramics, consuming diets rich in calcium, and, if needed, taking calcium supplements, would be expected to result in substantial lowering of BPb, especially in pregnant women of low socioeconomic status. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:8930548

  10. Particulate Air Pollution and Socioeconomic Position in Rural and Urban Areas of the Northeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Brochu, Paul J.; Yanosky, Jeff D.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Schwartz, Joel; Chen, Jarvis T.; Herrick, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Although differential exposure by socioeconomic position (SEP) to hazardous waste and lead is well demonstrated, there is less evidence for particulate air pollution (PM), which is associated with risk of death and illness. This study determined the relationship of ambient PM and SEP across several spatial scales. Methods. Geographic information system-based, spatio-temporal models were used to predict PM in the Northeastern United States. Predicted concentrations were related to census tract SEP and racial composition using generalized additive models. Results. Lower SEP was associated with small, significant increases in PM. Annual PM10 decreased between 0.09 and 0.93 micrograms per cubic meter and PM2.5 between 0.02 and 0.94 micrograms per cubic meter for interquartile range increases in income. Decrements in PM with SEP increased with spatial scale, indicating that between-city spatial gradients were greater than within-city differences. The PM–SEP relation in urban tracts was not substantially modified by racial composition. Conclusions. Lower compared with higher SEP populations were exposed to higher ambient PM in the Northeastern United States. Given the small percentage change in annual PM2.5 and PM10, SEP was not likely a major source of confounding in epidemiological studies of PM, especially those conducted within a single urban/metropolitan area. PMID:21836114

  11. [Nutritional knowledge and its association with overweight and obesity in Mexican women with low socioeconomic level].

    PubMed

    Galindo Gómez, Carlos; Juárez Martínez, Liliana; Shamah Levy, Teresa; García Guerra, Armando; Avila Curiel, Abelardo; Quiroz Aguilar, Marco Antonio

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the association between knowledge about nutrition with the presence of obesity or overweight in women with low income in Mexico City. Data was obtained with the Urban Food and Nutrition Survey 2002 in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (ENURBAL 2002), a stratified multistage and clustered design survey. An ordinal logistic regression model was used in order to estimate the probability to present obesity and overweight or obesity, in relation to nutritional knowledge, age, education, employment, socioeconomic status, and total fat consumption. The variables that were related to overweight or obesity: correct or regular nutrition knowledge (OR = 2,00; CI95% = 1,13-3,54) and (OR = 1,54; CI 95%= 1,03-2,30), respectively; age 30 years (OR = 3,00; CI 95% = 1,94-4,64), belonging to a medium- low socioeconomic status (OR = 2,04; CI 95% = 1,33-3,15), and high fat consumption (OR = 1,65; CI 95% = 1,07-2,55). For obesity was age 30 years (OR = 2,42; IC 95% = 1,48-3,94) and high fat consumption (OR = 1,67; IC 95% = 1,05-2,66). Our results helped to identify associated factors in women with obesity and overweight from low income households, mainly those concerning with nutrition knowledge. This emphasizes the importance of improving knowledge about nutrition, in planning the strategy for interventions aimed to prevent overweight and obesity.

  12. Fish consumption and socio-economic factors among residents of Arkhangelsk city and the rural Nenets autonomous area.

    PubMed

    Petrenya, Natalia; Dobrodeeva, Liliya; Brustad, Magritt; Bichkaeva, Fatima; Menshikova, Elena; Lutfalieva, Gulnara; Poletaeva, Anna; Repina, Veronika; Cooper, Marie; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2011-02-01

    The urban Russian and the rural Indigenous populations in the Russian European North have different lifestyles, living conditions and food supplies. The objective of this study was to investigate and compare fish consumption in relation to the socio-economic characteristics of 2 communities in Arkhangelsk County. A cross-sectional study. In total, 166 adults (83.1% women) from Arkhangelsk city and 134 adults (80.6% women) from the village of Nelmin-Nos (of which 88.9% are Indigenous people, Nenets), in the Nenets Autonomous Area (NAO), attended a health screening. The screening included a physical examination, blood sampling and a questionnaire. The populations studied had different socio-economic characteristics. In the rural NAO group, education levels were lower, the number of full-time employees was less, the percentage of persons with low monthly income was higher and the number of children per household was higher when compared to the Arkhangelsk group. The median total fish intake was 48.8 g/day for Arkhangelsk city and 27.1 g/day for Nelmin-Nos (p=0.009). Locally caught whitefish constituted a major part of the total fish consumption in Nelmin-Nos, while lean marine fish species were rarely eaten. Cod and cod-family fish species were often consumed by residents of Arkhangelsk city (p < 0.001). Fish consumption was positively related to monthly income. The frequency of fishing in the respondents from the Nelmin-Nos group predicted their fish consumption. Monthly income had a significant influence on fish intake in both study populations from Northern Russia. Fishing seems to be an important factor for predicting fish consumption in the residents of the rural NAO.

  13. Waiting time and socioeconomic status--an individual-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Monstad, Karin; Engesaeter, Lars Birger; Espehaug, Birgitte

    2014-04-01

    Waiting time is a rationing mechanism that is used in publicly funded healthcare systems. From an equity viewpoint, it is regarded as preferable to co-payments. However, long waits are an indication of poor quality of service. To our knowledge, this analysis is the first to benefit from individual-level data from administrative registers to investigate the relationship between waiting time, income, and education. Furthermore, it makes use of an extensive set of medical information that serves as indicators of patient need. Differences in waiting time by socioeconomic status are detected. For men, there is a statistically highly significant negative association between income and waiting time, driven by men in the highest income group, which constitutes 12% of all men. More educated women, that is, those having an education above compulsory schooling, experience lower waiting time than their fellow sisters with the lowest level of education. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Serum Phosphorus Levels, Race, and Socioeconomic Status in Incident Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Victoria A; Tilluckdharry, Natasha; Xue, Hui; Sidell, Margo A

    2016-01-01

    We sought to examine the relationship between race, socioeconomic status, and serum phosphorus levels in patients with end-stage renal disease incident to hemodialysis (HD) at a large, integrated health-care delivery system in Southern California. Retrospective cohort study. A total of 5,778 adult patients who initiated HD at our institution between January 1, 2007 and June 30, 2013. Unadjusted and adjusted time-averaged serum phosphorus levels and actual phosphorus levels over time. Phosphorus levels were also analyzed by repeated measures as a continuous measure and by phosphorus category. Baseline patient covariates included age, self-reported race, gender, cause of end-stage renal disease, and Charlson comorbidity index scores. Education and income level were estimated using geocoded data. A total of 68,372 phosphorus levels were available for 4,862 patients. Estimated annual family income fell below $40,001 in 66.1% of African Americans (AAs) and 62.7% of Hispanics compared with 43.5% of Asians and 43.7% of whites, P < .0001. Educational level fell into the highest category for whites (70.8%) compared with AA (44.8%) or Hispanic (30.5%) patients, P < .0001. Adjusted time-averaged phosphorus levels were lower among Hispanics (4.33 mg/dL, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.27-4.40) compared with Asian (4.54 mg/dL, 95% CI 4.45-4.64, P < .001) and white patients (4.48 mg/dL, 95% CI 4.43-4.54, P < .001) but similar to AA patients. Asian patients experienced a significant increase in phosphorus levels over time (0.11 mg/dL per year, P < .0001). There were no significant effects of race, time, or race by time interactions in the unadjusted and adjusted categorical analyses of phosphorus levels. Our findings suggest that serum phosphorus levels are similar among HD patients, irrespective of race or socioeconomic status. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Few geographic and socioeconomic variations exist in primary total shoulder arthroplasty: a multi-level study of Australian registry data.

    PubMed

    Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Page, Richard S; Lane, Stephen E; Lorimer, Michelle; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Osborne, Richard H; Pasco, Julie A; Wluka, Anita E; Sanders, Kerrie M; Ebeling, Peter R; Graves, Stephen E

    2016-07-16

    Associations between socioeconomic position (SEP) and the uptake of primary total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) is not well understood in the Australian population, thus potentially limiting equitable allocation of healthcare resources. We used the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry (AOA NJRR) to examine whether geographic or socioeconomic variations exist in TSA performed for a diagnosis of osteoarthritis 2007-11 for all Australians aged ≥40 years. Primary anatomical and reverse TSA data were extracted from the AOA NJRR which captures >99 % of all TSA nationally. Residential addresses were cross-referenced to Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011 Census data to identify SEP measured at the area-level (categorised into deciles), and geographic location defined as Australian State/Territory of residence. We used a Poisson distribution for the number of TSA over the study period, and modelled the effects of age, SEP and geographic location using multilevel modelling. During 2007-11, we observed 6,123 TSA (62.2 % female). For both sexes, TSA showed a proportional increase with advancing age. TSA did not vary by SEP or geographic location, with the exception of greater TSA among men in New South Wales. Using a national registry approach we provide the first reliable picture of TSA at a national level. The uptake of TSA was equitable across SEP; however, there was some variation between the States/Territories. With an aging population, it is imperative that monitoring of major surgical procedures continues, and be focused toward determining whether TSA uptake correlates with need across different social and area-based groups.

  16. Genotypic and phenotypic analysis of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from Brazilian children living in low socioeconomic level communities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood diarrheal diseases remain highly endemic in developing areas of Brazil. The importance of Escherichia coli among children with diarrhea in these areas was unknown. This study determined the prevalence of different E. coli categories in symptomatic and asymptomatic children from low socioeconomic level rural communities in southeastern Brazil. Methods A total of 560 stool samples were collected from 141 children with diarrhea (< 10 years) and 419 apparently healthy controls who resided in 23 communities. E. coli isolates (n = 1943) were subjected to two multiplex PCRs developed for the detection of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Strains were also examined for the presence of EPEC, EAEC, and DAEC by assays of adhesion to HEp-2 cells and by hybridization with specific DNA probes. Results Diarrheagenic E. coli strains were isolated from 253 (45.2%) children, and were associated with diarrhea in children aged < 5 years (p < 0.001). EAEC (20.9%), DAEC (11.6%), EPEC (9.3%) were the most frequent pathotypes, followed by ETEC (2.7%), EIEC (0.5%), and STEC (0.2%). Depending of the assay, EPEC, EAEC, and DAEC (collectively termed enteroadherent E. coli) strains were isolated in 45% to 56% of diarrhea cases, a significantly higher incidence than in controls (P < 0.05). Individually, only DAEC showed significant association with diarrhea (p < 0.05), particularly in children aged 2–5 years. Conclusion This study indicates that enteroadherent E. coli is an important cause of diarrhea in children living in low socioeconomic level communities in southeastern Brazil. Our results reveal that the PCR1 assay is an excellent tool for the identification of EAEC and DAEC. PMID:24010735

  17. Risk factor frequency for learning disabilities in low socioeconomic level preschool children in Mexico city.

    PubMed

    Zambrano-Sánchez, Elizabeth; del Consuelo Martínez-Wbaldo, María; Poblano, Adrián

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to identify the frequency of risk factors for Learning Disabilities (LD) in low socioeconomic level children in Mexico City. We studied children by means of: Wechsler, Bender-Gestalt, and Human drawing tests. Average age of male subjects was 5.6±0.9 years, while that of the female group was 5.4±0.5 years. In male subjects, average Total intelligence quotient (T-IQ) score was 98±12.2 while, in the female group, this was 99±12.2. On the Bender-Gestalt test, male subjects had a mental and visual-motor average age of <1 year under chronological age. Female subjects had a mental and visual-motor age 8-7 months under the norm. On the Human drawing test, in male and female subjects, the most frequent at-risk features comprised: self-isolation in 25% of subjects, shyness in 22.4%, and poor internal controls in 22%. In conclusion, we found a high at-risk factor frequency for LD in children of low socioeconomic strata. We highlight the importance of screening children before they attain school age.

  18. The effect of socio-economic status and area of residence on household food variety in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Anzid, Karim; Elhamdani, Fatima Zahra; Baali, Abdellatif; Boëtsch, Gilles; Levy-Desroches, Susan; Lôpez, Pilar Montero; Cherkaoui, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    In Morocco, few studies have specifically addressed the association between food variety and household socio-economic status and area of residence. The study's objective was to obtain a qualitative description of food consumption in samples of Moroccan households and to examine the influence of socio-economic factors and area of residence on their food variety. A qualitative food frequency questionnaire was administered by adolescent school pupils in their own households between March 2005 and March 2006 in 526 households in the regions of Marrakesh north of the High Atlas range and Ouarzazate to the south. We calculated the Food Variety Index (FVI) based on 183 food items and compared scores for advantaged/disadvantaged and urban/rural households. Mean FVI scores for all individuals and total food groups differ significantly between the area of residence, urban and peri-urban Marrakesh and urban Ouarzazate having the highest scores. The mean total FVI scores, presented according to the household's socio-economic status from highest to lowest, are 123.8 +/- 17.1 for urban Marrakesh, 107.6 +/- 21.6 for urban Ouarzazate, 92.0 +/- 22.4 for rural Skoura, 110.5 +/- 21.5 for peri-urban Marrakesh and 89.9 +/- 10.8 for rural Iguerferouane (F-test = 26.7, p < 0.001). Advantaged households have significantly greater variety than disadvantaged households for all variables only in the two urban samples. In peri-urban Marrakesh and rural Skoura, there are no significant differences between advantaged and disadvantaged households. In our Moroccan sample, food variety is distributed according to two patterns: One based on area of residence, urban areas having greater variety than rural areas, and the other on socio-economic factors, with advantaged households having higher FVI values but only in urban areas. The limited availability of certain foods and food preferences by the populations mean that not all households are able to diversify their diets.

  19. Integrated conservation and development: evaluating a community-based marine protected area project for equality of socioeconomic impacts

    PubMed Central

    Gurney, Georgina G.; Pressey, Robert L.; Cinner, Joshua E.; Pollnac, Richard; Campbell, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of protected areas, evidence of their impacts on people is weak and remains hotly contested in conservation policy. A key question in this debate is whether socioeconomic impacts vary according to social subgroup. Given that social inequity can create conflict and impede poverty reduction, understanding how protected areas differentially affect people is critical to designing them to achieve social and biological goals. Understanding heterogeneous responses to protected areas can improve targeting of management activities and help elucidate the pathways through which impacts of protected areas occur. Here, we assessed whether the socioeconomic impacts of marine protected areas (MPAs)—designed to achieve goals for both conservation and poverty alleviation—differed according to age, gender or religion in associated villages in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using data from pre-, mid- and post-implementation of the MPAs for control and project villages, we found little empirical evidence that impacts on five key socioeconomic indicators related to poverty differed according to social subgroup. We found suggestive empirical evidence that the effect of the MPAs on environmental knowledge differed by age and religion; over the medium and long terms, younger people and Muslims showed greater improvements compared with older people and Christians, respectively. PMID:26460130

  20. Integrated conservation and development: evaluating a community-based marine protected area project for equality of socioeconomic impacts.

    PubMed

    Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Cinner, Joshua E; Pollnac, Richard; Campbell, Stuart J

    2015-11-05

    Despite the prevalence of protected areas, evidence of their impacts on people is weak and remains hotly contested in conservation policy. A key question in this debate is whether socioeconomic impacts vary according to social subgroup. Given that social inequity can create conflict and impede poverty reduction, understanding how protected areas differentially affect people is critical to designing them to achieve social and biological goals. Understanding heterogeneous responses to protected areas can improve targeting of management activities and help elucidate the pathways through which impacts of protected areas occur. Here, we assessed whether the socioeconomic impacts of marine protected areas (MPAs)-designed to achieve goals for both conservation and poverty alleviation-differed according to age, gender or religion in associated villages in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using data from pre-, mid- and post-implementation of the MPAs for control and project villages, we found little empirical evidence that impacts on five key socioeconomic indicators related to poverty differed according to social subgroup. We found suggestive empirical evidence that the effect of the MPAs on environmental knowledge differed by age and religion; over the medium and long terms, younger people and Muslims showed greater improvements compared with older people and Christians, respectively. © 2015 The Author(s).

  1. Individual and community level socioeconomic inequalities in contraceptive use in 10 Newly Independent States: a multilevel cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Little is known regarding the association between socioeconomic factors and contraceptive use in the Newly Independent States (NIS), countries that have experienced profound changes in reproductive health services during the transition from socialism to a market economy. Methods Using 2005–2006 data from Demographic Health Surveys (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Moldova) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan), we examined associations between individual and community socioeconomic status with current modern contraceptive use (MCU) among N = 55,204 women aged 15–49 married or in a union. Individual socioeconomic status was measured using quintiles of wealth index and education level (higher than secondary school, secondary school or less). Community socioeconomic status was measured as the percentage of households in the poorest quintile of the nationals household wealth index (0%, 0–25%, or greater than 25%). We used multilevel logistic regression to estimate associations adjusted for age, number of children, urban/rural, and socioeconomic variables. Results MCU varied by country from 14% (in Azerbaijan) to 62% (in Belarus). Overall, women living in the poorest communities were less likely than those in the richest to use modern contraceptives (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.82, 95% Confidence Interval = 0.76, 0.89). Similarly, there was an increasing odds of MCU with increasing individual-level wealth. Women with a lower level of education also had lower odds of MCU than those with a higher level of education (aOR = .75, 95%CI = 0.71, 0.79). In country-specific analyses, community-level socioeconomic inequalities were apparent in 4 of 10 countries; in contrast, inequalities by individual-level wealth were apparent in 7 countries and by education in 8 countries. All countries in which community-level socioeconomic status was associated with MCU were in

  2. Individual and community level socioeconomic inequalities in contraceptive use in 10 Newly Independent States: a multilevel cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Janevic, Teresa; Sarah, Pallas W; Leyla, Ismayilova; Elizabeth, Bradley H

    2012-11-16

    Little is known regarding the association between socioeconomic factors and contraceptive use in the Newly Independent States (NIS), countries that have experienced profound changes in reproductive health services during the transition from socialism to a market economy. Using 2005-2006 data from Demographic Health Surveys (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Moldova) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan), we examined associations between individual and community socioeconomic status with current modern contraceptive use (MCU) among N = 55,204 women aged 15-49 married or in a union. Individual socioeconomic status was measured using quintiles of wealth index and education level (higher than secondary school, secondary school or less). Community socioeconomic status was measured as the percentage of households in the poorest quintile of the nationals household wealth index (0%, 0-25%, or greater than 25%). We used multilevel logistic regression to estimate associations adjusted for age, number of children, urban/rural, and socioeconomic variables. MCU varied by country from 14% (in Azerbaijan) to 62% (in Belarus). Overall, women living in the poorest communities were less likely than those in the richest to use modern contraceptives (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.82, 95% Confidence Interval = 0.76, 0.89). Similarly, there was an increasing odds of MCU with increasing individual-level wealth. Women with a lower level of education also had lower odds of MCU than those with a higher level of education (aOR = .75, 95%CI = 0.71, 0.79). In country-specific analyses, community-level socioeconomic inequalities were apparent in 4 of 10 countries; in contrast, inequalities by individual-level wealth were apparent in 7 countries and by education in 8 countries. All countries in which community-level socioeconomic status was associated with MCU were in Central Asia, whereas at the individual-level

  3. Variation with socioeconomic status of indoor radon levels in Great Britain: The less affluent have less radon.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Gerald M; Miles, Jon C H; Rees, David; Wakeford, Richard; Bunch, Kathryn J; Vincent, Tim J; Little, Mark P

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate a strong correlation between domestic radon levels and socio-economic status (SES) in Great Britain, so that radon levels in homes of people with lower SES are, on average, only about two thirds of those of the more affluent. This trend is apparent using small area measures of SES and also using individual social classes. The reasons for these differences are not known with certainty, but may be connected with greater underpressure in warmer and better-sealed dwellings. There is also a variation of indoor radon levels with the design of the house (detached, terraced, etc.). In part this is probably an effect of SES, but it appears to have other causes as well. Data from other countries are also reviewed, and broadly similar effects seen in the United States for SES, and in other European countries for detached vs other types of housing. Because of correlations with smoking, this tendency for the lower SES groups to experience lower radon levels may underlie the negative association between radon levels and lung cancer rates in a well-known ecological study based on US Counties. Those conducting epidemiological studies of radon should be alert for this effect and control adequately for SES. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Predicting farm-level animal populations using environmental and socioeconomic variables.

    PubMed

    van Andel, Mary; Jewell, Christopher; McKenzie, Joanna; Hollings, Tracey; Robinson, Andrew; Burgman, Mark; Bingham, Paul; Carpenter, Tim

    2017-09-15

    Accurate information on the geographic distribution of domestic animal populations helps biosecurity authorities to efficiently prepare for and rapidly eradicate exotic diseases, such as Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD). Developing and maintaining sufficiently high-quality data resources is expensive and time consuming. Statistical modelling of population density and distribution has only begun to be applied to farm animal populations, although it is commonly used in wildlife ecology. We developed zero-inflated Poisson regression models in a Bayesian framework using environmental and socioeconomic variables to predict the counts of livestock units (LSUs) and of cattle on spatially referenced farm polygons in a commercially available New Zealand farm database, Agribase. Farm-level counts of cattle and of LSUs varied considerably by region, because of the heterogeneous farming landscape in New Zealand. The amount of high quality pasture per farm was significantly associated with the presence of both cattle and LSUs. Internal model validation (predictive performance) showed that the models were able to predict the count of the animal population on groups of farms that were located in randomly selected 3km zones with a high level of accuracy. Predicting cattle or LSU counts on individual farms was less accurate. Predicted counts were statistically significantly more variable for farms that were contract grazing dry stock, such as replacement dairy heifers and dairy cattle not currently producing milk, compared with other farm types. This analysis presents a way to predict numbers of LSUs and cattle for farms using environmental and socio-economic data. The technique has the potential to be extrapolated to predicting other pastoral based livestock species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Does school social capital modify socioeconomic inequality in mental health? A multi-level analysis in Danish schools.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Line; Koushede, Vibeke; Vinther-Larsen, Mathilde; Bendtsen, Pernille; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2015-09-01

    It seems that social capital in the neighbourhood has the potential to reduce socioeconomic differences in mental health among adolescents. Whether school social capital is a buffer in the association between socioeconomic position and mental health among adolescents remains uncertain. The aim of this study is therefore to examine if the association between socioeconomic position and emotional symptoms among adolescents is modified by school social capital. The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Methodology Development Study 2012 provided data on 3549 adolescents aged 11-15 in two municipalities in Denmark. Trust in the school class was used as an indicator of school social capital. Prevalence of daily emotional symptoms in each socioeconomic group measured by parents' occupational class was calculated for each of the three categories of school classes: school classes with high trust, moderate trust and low trust. Multilevel logistic regression analyses with parents' occupational class as the independent variable and daily emotional symptoms as the dependent variable were conducted stratified by level of trust in the school class. The prevalence of emotional symptoms was higher among students in school classes with low trust (12.9%) compared to school classes with high trust (7.2%) (p < 0.01). In school classes with low level of trust, the odds ratio for daily emotional symptoms was 1.89 (95% CI 1.25-2.86) in the low socioeconomic group compared to the high socioeconomic group. In school classes characterised by high and moderate trust, there were no statistically significant differences in emotional symptoms between high and low socioeconomic groups. Although further studies are needed, this cross-sectional study suggests that school social capital may reduce mental health problems and diminish socioeconomic inequality in mental health among adolescents.

  6. How Does the Choice of A-level Subjects Vary with Students' Socio-Economic Status in English State Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilnot, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The reasons why students from lower socio-economic groups are under-represented at high status universities are not yet entirely understood, but evidence suggests that part of the gap may be a consequence of differential choice of A-levels by social background. The Russell Group of universities has since 2011 published guidance on A-level subject…

  7. How Does the Choice of A-level Subjects Vary with Students' Socio-Economic Status in English State Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilnot, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The reasons why students from lower socio-economic groups are under-represented at high status universities are not yet entirely understood, but evidence suggests that part of the gap may be a consequence of differential choice of A-levels by social background. The Russell Group of universities has since 2011 published guidance on A-level subject…

  8. Hearing and Related Medical Findings Among Children: Race, Area, and Socioeconomic Differentials United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    The national survey examined a probability sample of 7,417 children 6 to 11 years of age to provide estimates showing regional, racial, and socioeconomic differentials in the prevalence of ear, nose, and throat pathology and hearing problems. Data were obtained by means of a medical examination by a staff pediatrician and a medical history…

  9. Climate change and socio-economic scenarios, land use modelling implications on water resources in an inner alpine area, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Emmanuel; Schneider, Flurina; Liniger, Hanspeter; Weingartner, Rolf; Herweg, Karl

    2014-05-01

    The MontanAqua project aims to study the water resources management in the region Sierre-Montana (Valais, Switzerland). Land use is known to have an influence on the water resources (soil moisture dynamic, soil sealing, surface runoff and deep percolation). Thus land use modelling is of importance for the water resources management. An actual land use map was produced using infrared imagery (Niklaus 2012, Fig.1). Land use changes are known to be mainly drived by socio-economic factors as well as climatic factors (Dolman et al. 2003). Potential future Land uses was separatly predicted according to 1-. socio-economic and 2-. climatic/abiotic drivers : 1. 4 socio-economic scenarios were developped with stakeholders (Schneider et al. 2013) between 2010 and 2012. We modeled those socio-economic scenarios into a GIS application using Python programming (ModelBuilder in ArcGIS 10) to get a cartographic transcription of the wishes of the stakeholders for their region in 2050. 2. Uncorrelated climatic and abiotic drivers were used in a BIOMOD2 (Georges et al. 2013) framework. 4 models were used: Maximum Entropy (MAXENT), Multiple Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), Classification Tree Analysis (CTA) and the Flexible Discriminant Analysis (FDA) to predict grassland, alpine pasture, vineyards and forest in our study region. Climatic scenarios were then introduced into the models to predict potential land use in 2050 driven only by climatic and abiotic factors The comparison of all the outputs demonstrates that the socio-economic drivers will have a more important impact in the region than the climatic drivers (e.g. -70% grassland surface for the worst socio-economic scenario vs. -40% of grassland surface for the worst climatic models). Further analysis also brings out the sensitivity of the grassland/alpine pasture system to the climate change and to socio-economic changes. Future work will be to cross the different land use maps obtained by the two model types and to use

  10. Assessment of neighbourhood-level socioeconomic status as a modifier of air pollution-asthma associations among children in Atlanta.

    PubMed

    O'Lenick, Cassandra R; Winquist, Andrea; Mulholland, James A; Friberg, Mariel D; Chang, Howard H; Kramer, Michael R; Darrow, Lyndsey A; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt

    2017-02-01

    A broad literature base provides evidence of association between air pollution and paediatric asthma. Socioeconomic status (SES) may modify these associations; however, previous studies have found inconsistent evidence regarding the role of SES. Effect modification of air pollution-paediatric asthma morbidity by multiple indicators of neighbourhood SES was examined in Atlanta, Georgia. Emergency department (ED) visit data were obtained for 5-18 years old with a diagnosis of asthma in 20-county Atlanta during 2002-2008. Daily ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA)-level concentrations of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter and elemental carbon were estimated using ambient monitoring data and emissions-based chemical transport model simulations. Pollutant-asthma associations were estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for temporal trends and meteorology. Effect modification by ZCTA-level (neighbourhood) SES was examined via stratification. We observed stronger air pollution-paediatric asthma associations in 'deprivation areas' (eg, ≥20% of the ZCTA population living in poverty) compared with 'non-deprivation areas'. When stratifying analyses by quartiles of neighbourhood SES, ORs indicated stronger associations in the highest and lowest SES quartiles and weaker associations among the middle quartiles. Our results suggest that neighbourhood-level SES is a factor contributing vulnerability to air pollution-related paediatric asthma morbidity in Atlanta. Children living in low SES environments appear to be especially vulnerable given positive ORs and high underlying asthma ED rates. Inconsistent findings of effect modification among previous studies may be partially explained by choice of SES stratification criteria, and the use of multiplicative models combined with differing baseline risk across SES populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Age at menarche and its socioeconomic determinants among female students in an urban area in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Serajul; Hussain, Md Altaf; Islam, Saimul; Mahumud, Rashidul Alam; Biswas, Tuhin; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful

    2017-06-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the age at menarche and its socioeconomic determinants among urban female students (n=680) in Bangladesh. The mean age of the respondents was 14±1.43years. Majority of the respondents were unmarried (98.4%). The mean age at menarche was 11.6±3.6years, median 12years. Almost one-third (35.7%) of the participants had menarche at the age of 12years. There was no statistically significant difference between age at menarche before and after 12years with the socio-economic characteristics, except education (p=<0.001). In the multivariate model, only higher education was statistically significant predictor of age at menarche. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Socioeconomic status affects mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitat type availability and infestation level.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Zara; Ladeau, Shannon L; Armbruster, Peter; Biehler, Dawn; Leisnham, Paul T

    2013-07-01

    Mosquito populations are largely regulated by processes occurring at the larval stage. We sampled mosquito larval microhabitats (mostly water-holding containers) in six neighborhoods in the Washington, DC, area that varied in socioeconomic status (SES) and housing structure (row houses vs. stand-alone houses) to test associations among these neighborhood characteristics, microhabitat abundance and parameters, and mosquito occurrence and densities. Thirty-four percent (33.9%) of sampled microhabitats contained mosquito larvae, and 93.1% of larvae were Aedes albopictus Skuse or Culex pipiens L. Five specific container types (drains, corrugated flexible drainpipes, planters, garbage cans, and buckets) accounted for the majority of water-holding (56.0%) and mosquito-positive (50.6%) microhabitats sampled. We found no associations between SES or housing structure with total microhabitat abundance per yard, mosquito occurrence or mosquito densities per microhabitat. In contrast, container purpose varied with SES, with low SES neighborhoods having greater numbers of disused containers and lower numbers of functional containers than low and medium SES neighborhoods. Ae. albopictus were 83% more abundant in disused containers, whereas Cx. pipiens were more abundant in structural and functional containers, possibly owing to species-specific oviposition and development related to water quality. Ae. albopictus densities increased over the summer, whereas Cx. pipiens densities remained constant. Ae. albopictus is usually the dominant pest in urban areas in the eastern United States; therefore, integrated mosquito management programs should incorporate the elimination of disused containers to reduce its infestation and adult production, especially in low SES neighborhoods where they occur most frequently.

  13. [Individual social factors and their association with environmental socioeconomic factors--a descriptive small-area analysis in the city of Dortmund].

    PubMed

    Neuner, B; Berger, K

    2010-11-01

    Apart from individual resources and individual risk factors, environmental socioeconomic factors are determinants of individual health and illness. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the association of small-area environmental socioeconomic parameters (proportion of 14-year-old and younger population, proportion of married citizens, proportion of unemployed, and the number of private cars per inhabitant) with individual socioeconomic parameters (education, income, unemployment, social class and the country of origin) in Dortmund, a major city in Germany. After splitting the small-area environmental socioeconomic parameters of 62 statistical administration units into quintiles, differences in the distribution of individual social parameters were evaluated using adjusted tests for trend. Overall, 1,312 study participants (mean age 53.6 years, 52.9% women) were included. Independently of age and gender, individual social parameters were unequally distributed across areas with different small-area environmental socioeconomic parameters. A place of birth abroad and social class were significantly associated with all small-area environmental socioeconomic parameters. If the impact of environmental socioeconomic parameters on individual health or illness is determined, the unequal small-area distribution of individual social parameters should be considered. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. [Food promotion and food preferences in Chilean school age children from different socioeconomic levels].

    PubMed

    Olivares, Sonia; Lera, Lydia; Mardones, María Angélica; Araneda, Jacqueline; Bustos, Nelly; Olivares, María Antonieta; Colque, María Ester

    2011-06-01

    To determine the attitude towards marketing of food and beverages a sample of 1,048 school children ages 8 to 13 from three cities of Chile (north, center and south of the country) were interviewed. The instrument applied was a validated questionnaire used in previous studies. A descriptive analysis of the variables was performed and differences were determined by region, socioeconomic level (SEL) and gender using Chi2 test. Differences per SEL were higher in Santiago. A greater proportion of school children of medium-low SEL watched more than 2 hours of TV during weekdays and weekends (p < 0.001). The proportion of children that liked food and beverage commercials was greater in medium-low SEL in Santiago (66%) (p < 0.001), as opposed to 26 to 35% in the medium high SEL. A high percentage indicated that they liked promotional campaigns of foods at supermarkets, on the streets, shopping centers and on the Internet. The preferred commercials were those for beverages, chocolates, ice-creams and cereals. Most common foods taken from home to school were cookies, fruits and yogurt. Most of the children had money available to buy food and the products more frequently preferred were cookies, sweets, French fries, beverages with sugar, chocolates, ice-creams and hot-dogs. marketing of food and beverages is recognized and remembered by school age children, influencing what they buy and consume regularly at school.

  15. Enteropathogens Associated with Acute Diarrhea in Children from Households with High Socioeconomic Level in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Batthyány, Lara; Bianco, María Noel; Pérez, Walter; Pardo, Lorena; Algorta, Gabriela; Robino, Luciana; Suárez, Ramón; Navarro, Armando; Pírez, María Catalina; Schelotto, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diarrhea, a common disease of children, deserves permanent monitoring in all social groups. To know the etiology and clinical manifestations of acute diarrhea in children up to 5 years of age from high socioeconomic level households, we conducted a descriptive, microbiological, and clinical study. Stools from 59 children with acute community-acquired diarrhea were examined, and their parents were interviewed concerning symptoms and signs. Rotavirus, adenovirus, and norovirus were detected by commercially available qualitative immunochromatographic lateral flow rapid tests. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, and Shigella were investigated by standard bacteriological methods and diarrheagenic E. coli by PCR assays. We identified a potential enteric pathogen in 30 children. The most frequent causes of diarrhea were enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), viruses, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Only 2 patients showed mixed infections. Our data suggest that children with viral or Campylobacter diarrhea were taken to the hospital earlier than those infected with EPEC. One child infected with STEC O26 developed “complete” HUS. The microbiological results highlight the importance of zoonotic bacteria such as atypical EPEC, Campylobacter, STEC, and Salmonella as pathogens associated with acute diarrhea in these children. The findings also reinforce our previous communications about the regional importance of non-O157 STEC strains in severe infant food-borne diseases. PMID:25861274

  16. Elementary Students' Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Science: Role of Grade Level, Gender, and Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaarslan, Guliz; Sungur, Semra

    2011-01-01

    This study examined grade level and gender difference with respect to elementary students' science and technology self-efficacy. Additionally, relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and self-efficacy was examined. A total of 145 elementary students participated in the study. Self efficacy towards Science and Technology Scale was used to…

  17. A Connected Generation? Digital Inequalities in Elementary and High School Students According to Age and Socioeconomic Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin, Simon; Karsenti, Thierry; Ndimubandi, Alexis; Saffari, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article was to better understand the relationship between students' age and socioeconomic level, and its influence on students' digital uses. We conducted a quantitative study of 401 elementary and high school students in Quebec. Four independent variables were initially selected: two related to age (actual age and education…

  18. Investigating the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of sea level rise in the Galveston Bay, Texas region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedee, M.; Dotson, M.; Gibeaut, J. C.

    2016-02-01

    Anthropogenic effects throughout the twenty-first century, particularly greenhouse gas emissions, have contributed to global climatic and environmental changes. Sea level rise (SLR) is one of these changes which is occurring along the Texas Coast and is amplified by land subsidence. SLR along the northern Texas coast is impacting sensitive coastal environments as well as human populations, and industries and infrastructure supporting those populations. Sea level data from the NOAA gauge at Galveston Pier 21 has shown an increase of 2.08 feet in relative sea level in 100 years. Given an expected increase in the rate of sea level rise in the next decades, the purpose of this study is to provide an in-depth assessment on the effects of relative sea level rise on the habitat distribution of highly valuable coastal wetlands in the Galveston Bay region. This study also focuses on projecting the potential socioeconomic losses due to coastal flooding that is amplified by SLR in the region. In this study, three SLR scenarios are modeled: a scenario based on a linear extrapolation of satellite altimetry data (0.21 m by 2100); the IPCC's RCP8.5 mean scenario (0.74 m by 2100); and a high-end scenario (1.8 m by 2100) as proposed by Jevrejeva et al. (2014). A land subsidence rate calculated by developing a subsidence grid using GPS-measured subsidence monitoring and releveling data is added to all these scenarios. The Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) is used to predict wetland conversion due to long-term SLR incorporating the processes of inundation, erosion, accretion, overwash, and saturation. Similarly, HAZUS-MH is used to evaluate the property damage to building stocks and the direct business interruption losses due to flooding caused by 100-year flood event scenario with three SLR scenarios. This coordinated research effort to assess the physical, environmental and policy impacts due to SLR is intended to enable policy-makers, managers, and the general public to

  19. [Comparative study of height and age at menarche according to the socioeconomic level in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    López Contreras, M; Tovar Escobar, G; Farid Coupal, N; Landaeta Jiménez, M; Méndez Castellano, H

    1981-12-01

    This is a retrospective study based on growth and development data published in Venezuela by various authors in the period 1936-1978. The data on height for males of the middle and high socioeconomic strata show growth curves which are very similar to the standards for British children. Likewise, the girls of the same socioeconomic condition follow the British standards, but only up to about 10-12 years of age. After that age, the girls studied by the Venezuelan authors, show a pattern of early maturation with a corresponding lower adult height compared with their British counterparts. There were differences in the growth curves according to the socioeconomic strata. These differences were more marked in the girls data. A secular increase for height was discerned, from the published data, in all socioeconomic strata and in both sexes. The data on sexual maturation showed a tendency for progressively early menarche in Venezuelan girls. These changes in growth in height and age of menarche were more notorious and came about at an earlier age in the upper socioeconomic strata. They were less marked, not constant, and came about later in the lower socioeconomic groups. The secular changes in height and sexual maturation apparent from these data, could be explained by an improvement in the environmental conditions, especially nutrition and hygiene of the population, and also be genetic heterosis from European immigration and with improvement in communications.

  20. Association between mortality among women and socioeconomic factors in general practices in Edinburgh: an application of small area statistics.

    PubMed

    Alexander, F E; O'Brien, F; Hepburn, W; Miller, M

    1987-09-26

    Women aged 45-64 in 78 general practices in the city of Edinburgh were followed up for five to seven years and all cause mortality noted. Standardised mortality ratios were calculated for the individual practices. Postcodes were available for a 20% sample of these women and were used to retrieve relevant measures of social class and deprivation from the 1981 census for the smallest division, the enumeration district. Weighted averages gave socioeconomic variables at the level of the general practice. High positive correlations were found between standardised mortality ratios and the socioeconomic variables, with the highest being for percentage overcrowding. This study established that the relation between deprivation and excess mortality can be shown in general practices in one large city and gave a direct relation for women without reference to their husbands' occupations, thus obviating problems of assigning social class. The data also partially refute the "social drift" hypothesis as an explanation of the association between mortality and social class.

  1. Geographic variation in colorectal cancer survival and the role of small-area socioeconomic deprivation: a multilevel survival analysis of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study Cohort.

    PubMed

    Lian, Min; Schootman, Mario; Doubeni, Chyke A; Park, Yikyung; Major, Jacqueline M; Stone, Rosalie A Torres; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Graubard, Barry I; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2011-10-01

    Adverse socioeconomic conditions, at both the individual and the neighborhood level, increase the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) death, but little is known regarding whether CRC survival varies geographically and the extent to which area-level socioeconomic deprivation affects this geographic variation. Using data from the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study, the authors examined geographic variation and the role of area-level socioeconomic deprivation in CRC survival. CRC cases (n = 7,024), identified during 1995-2003, were followed for their CRC-specific vital status through 2005 and overall vital status through 2006. Bayesian multilevel survival models showed that there was significant geographic variation in overall (variance = 0.2, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.1, 0.2) and CRC-specific (variance = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1, 0.4) risk of death. More socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods had a higher overall risk of death (most deprived quartile vs. least deprived: hazard ratio = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.4) and a higher CRC-specific risk of death (most deprived quartile vs. least deprived: hazard ratio = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.5). However, neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation did not account for the geographic variation in overall and CRC-specific risks of death. In future studies, investigators should evaluate other neighborhood characteristics to help explain geographic heterogeneity in CRC survival. Such research could facilitate interventions for reducing geographic disparity in CRC survival.

  2. Association between HIV infection and socio-economic status: evidence from a semirural area of southern Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Pons-Duran, Clara; González, Raquel; Quintó, Llorenç; Munguambe, Khatia; Tallada, Joan; Naniche, Denise; Sacoor, Charfudin; Sicuri, Elisa

    2016-12-01

    To analyse the association between socio-economic status (SES) and HIV in Manhiça, a district of Southern Mozambique with one of the highest HIV prevalences in the world. Data were gathered from two cross-sectional surveys performed in 2010 and 2012 among 1511 adults and from the household census of the district's population. Fractional polynomial logit models were used to analyse the association between HIV and SES, controlling for age and sex and taking into account the nonlinearity of covariates. The inequality of the distribution of HIV infection with regard to SES was computed through a concentration index. Fourth and fifth wealth quintiles, the least poor, were associated with a reduced probability of HIV infection compared to the first quintile (OR = 0.595, P-value = 0.009 and OR = 0.474, P-value < 0.001, respectively). Probability of HIV infection peaked at 36 years and then fell, and was always higher for women regardless of age and SES. HIV infection was unequally distributed across the SES strata. Despite the high HIV prevalence across the entire population of Manhiça, the poorest are at greatest risk of being HIV infected. While women have a higher probability of being HIV positive than men, both sexes showed the same infection reduction at higher levels of SES. HIV interventions in the area should particularly focus on the poorest and on women without neglecting anyone else, as the HIV risk is high for everyone. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Gender and Socio-economic Differences in Daily Smoking and Smoking Cessation Among Adult Residents in a Greek Rural Area

    PubMed Central

    Birmpili, Evangelia; Katsiki, Niki; Malhotra, Aseem; Dimopoulou, Evelina; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Tsiligiroglou-Fachantidou, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Despite the well-known health risks, smoking is still highly prevalent worldwide. Greece has the highest level of adult smoking rate (40%) across the European Union. We investigated gender and socio-economic differences in daily smoking and smoking cessation among Greek adults. We conducted a cross-sectional survey between October and November 2009 in 434 adults residing in a Greek rural area. Data were collected with the use of the World Health Organization Global Adult Tobacco Survey (WHO GATS) Core Questionnaire. Respondents were classified into smokers (if they had smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and continued to smoke) or non-smokers. Overall, 58.1% (n=252) were smokers (58.5% male, n=127 and 57.8% female, n=125); 51.2% (n=222) were younger than 18 years-old when they started smoking. Men tended to start smoking at a younger age, to smoke more cigarettes/day and to have smoked a greater average of cigarettes during the last 5 days. Overall, 82.5% of smokers attempted to stop smoking a year prior to the study, with women having a greater difficulty in quitting smoking. The main source of information on smoking was the mass media (73.5%) and books (53.7%), whereas doctors and other health professionals were the least listed source of relative information (27.7 and 8.1%, respectively). Smoking rates among Greek adults were high, but a considerable number of individuals who smoked, wished to quit and had attempted to do so. Smoking cessation clinics are not perceived as a valuable support in quitting effort. PMID:22435078

  4. Socio-economic features of commercial fishery in the bordering upper Danube River area of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Smederevac-Lalić, Marija; Pešić, Radmilo; Cvejić, Slobodan; Simonović, Predrag

    2012-05-01

    The multidisciplinary socio-economic study of fisheries in the bordering part of the Danube River between Serbia and Croatia (at the following sites: Apatin, Bačka Palanka, Bačko Novo Selo, Bezdan, and Sombor) that was performed in order to investigate various aspects of fish resource utilization (management, policy of protection and exploitation of freshwater fishery resources, present fisheries legislation, catch statistics), was realized during 2004 and 2005. Data were collected via survey with a structured interview. Socio-economic circumstances, together with ecological factors, have had an influence on the fish stock and number of commercial fishermen. Awareness of the occurring problems, both economic and ecological ones, is apparent, regardless of whether it is assessed in the field of commercial or recreational fishing. Fishery sector in Serbia is in a prolonged process of transition, with the enforcement of fishing regulations, but also the lack of control that leaves space for illegal commercial fishing. The statements, consciousness, experience and behavior of commercial fishermen represent a good basis for planning the sustainable development of fishing in this section of the Danube River.

  5. Local Modelling Techniques for Assessing Micro-Level Impacts of Risk Factors in Complex Data: Understanding Health and Socioeconomic Inequalities in Childhood Educational Attainments

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shang-Ming; Lyons, Ronan A.; Bodger, Owen G.; John, Ann; Brunt, Huw; Jones, Kerina; Gravenor, Mike B.; Brophy, Sinead

    2014-01-01

    Although inequalities in health and socioeconomic status have an important influence on childhood educational performance, the interactions between these multiple factors relating to variation in educational outcomes at micro-level is unknown, and how to evaluate the many possible interactions of these factors is not well established. This paper aims to examine multi-dimensional deprivation factors and their impact on childhood educational outcomes at micro-level, focusing on geographic areas having widely different disparity patterns, in which each area is characterised by six deprivation domains (Income, Health, Geographical Access to Services, Housing, Physical Environment, and Community Safety). Traditional health statistical studies tend to use one global model to describe the whole population for macro-analysis. In this paper, we combine linked educational and deprivation data across small areas (median population of 1500), then use a local modelling technique, the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy system, to predict area educational outcomes at ages 7 and 11. We define two new metrics, “Micro-impact of Domain” and “Contribution of Domain”, to quantify the variations of local impacts of multidimensional factors on educational outcomes across small areas. The two metrics highlight differing priorities. Our study reveals complex multi-way interactions between the deprivation domains, which could not be provided by traditional health statistical methods based on single global model. We demonstrate that although Income has an expected central role, all domains contribute, and in some areas Health, Environment, Access to Services, Housing and Community Safety each could be the dominant factor. Thus the relative importance of health and socioeconomic factors varies considerably for different areas, depending on the levels of each of the other factors, and therefore each component of deprivation must be considered as part of a wider system. Childhood educational

  6. Local modelling techniques for assessing micro-level impacts of risk factors in complex data: understanding health and socioeconomic inequalities in childhood educational attainments.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shang-Ming; Lyons, Ronan A; Bodger, Owen G; John, Ann; Brunt, Huw; Jones, Kerina; Gravenor, Mike B; Brophy, Sinead

    2014-01-01

    Although inequalities in health and socioeconomic status have an important influence on childhood educational performance, the interactions between these multiple factors relating to variation in educational outcomes at micro-level is unknown, and how to evaluate the many possible interactions of these factors is not well established. This paper aims to examine multi-dimensional deprivation factors and their impact on childhood educational outcomes at micro-level, focusing on geographic areas having widely different disparity patterns, in which each area is characterised by six deprivation domains (Income, Health, Geographical Access to Services, Housing, Physical Environment, and Community Safety). Traditional health statistical studies tend to use one global model to describe the whole population for macro-analysis. In this paper, we combine linked educational and deprivation data across small areas (median population of 1500), then use a local modelling technique, the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy system, to predict area educational outcomes at ages 7 and 11. We define two new metrics, "Micro-impact of Domain" and "Contribution of Domain", to quantify the variations of local impacts of multidimensional factors on educational outcomes across small areas. The two metrics highlight differing priorities. Our study reveals complex multi-way interactions between the deprivation domains, which could not be provided by traditional health statistical methods based on single global model. We demonstrate that although Income has an expected central role, all domains contribute, and in some areas Health, Environment, Access to Services, Housing and Community Safety each could be the dominant factor. Thus the relative importance of health and socioeconomic factors varies considerably for different areas, depending on the levels of each of the other factors, and therefore each component of deprivation must be considered as part of a wider system. Childhood educational achievement could

  7. The Potential of Solar as Alternative Energy Source for Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Rural Areas, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Rashidah Zainal; Siwar, Chamhuri; Ludin, Norasikin Ahmad

    Malaysia's energy sector is highly dependent on fossil fuels as a primary energy source. Economic growth and socio-economic wellbeing also rely on the utilization of energy in daily life routine. Nevertheless, the increasing cost for electricity and declining fossil fuels resources causes various negative impacts to the people and environment especially in rural areas. This prompted Malaysia to shift towards alternative energy sources such as solar energy to ensure social, economic and environmental benefits. The solar energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources in tropical countries particularly in Malaysia. The paper attempts to analyze the benefits and advantages related to energy efficiency of solar for sustainable energy use and socio economic wellbeing in rural areas, Malaysia. The paper uses secondary sources of data such as policies, regulations and research reports from relevant ministries and agencies to attain the objectives. As a signatory country to the UN Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, Malaysia has taken initiatives for decreasing energy dependence on oil to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) for sustainable development. The paper shows solar energy becomes one of the promising alternative energy sources to alleviate energy poverty in Malaysia for rural areas. Finally, solar energy has increased socio-economic wellbeing and develops green potential and toward achieving energy efficiency in energy sector of Malaysia by preserving environment as well as reducing carbon emission.

  8. Incorporation of Socio-Economic Features' Ranking in Multicriteria Analysis Based on Ecosystem Services for Marine Protected Area Planning

    PubMed Central

    Portman, Michelle E.; Shabtay-Yanai, Ateret; Zanzuri, Asaf

    2016-01-01

    Developed decades ago for spatial choice problems related to zoning in the urban planning field, multicriteria analysis (MCA) has more recently been applied to environmental conflicts and presented in several documented cases for the creation of protected area management plans. Its application is considered here for the development of zoning as part of a proposed marine protected area management plan. The case study incorporates specially-explicit conservation features while considering stakeholder preferences, expert opinion and characteristics of data quality. It involves the weighting of criteria using a modified analytical hierarchy process. Experts ranked physical attributes which include socio-economically valued physical features. The parameters used for the ranking of (physical) attributes important for socio-economic reasons are derived from the field of ecosystem services assessment. Inclusion of these feature values results in protection that emphasizes those areas closest to shore, most likely because of accessibility and familiarity parameters and because of data biases. Therefore, other spatial conservation prioritization methods should be considered to supplement the MCA and efforts should be made to improve data about ecosystem service values farther from shore. Otherwise, the MCA method allows incorporation of expert and stakeholder preferences and ecosystem services values while maintaining the advantages of simplicity and clarity. PMID:27183224

  9. PM levels in urban area of Bejaia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaissa, Fatima; Maesano, Cara Nichole; Alkama, Rezak; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2017-04-01

    Air pollution is not routinely measured in Bejaia City, Algeria, an urban area of around 200,000 inhabitants. We present first time measurements of particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations for this city (PM10, PM7, PM4, PM2.5 and PM1) over the course of one week, from July 8 to July 14, 2015. This study covered eight urban sampling sites and 169 measurements were obtained to determine mass concentration levels. Air pollution is not routinely measured in Bejaia City, Algeria, an urban area of around 200,000 inhabitants. We present first time measurements of particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations for this city (PM10, PM7, PM4, PM2.5 and PM1) over the course of one week, from July 8 to July 14, 2015. This study covered eight urban sampling sites and 169 measurements were obtained to determine mass concentration levels. The average city-wide PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations measured during this sampling were 87.8 ± 33.9 and 28.7 ± 10.6 µg/m3 respectively. These results show that particulate matter levels are high and exceed Algerian ambient air quality standards (maximum 80 µg/m3, without specifying the particle size). Further, PM10 and PM2.5 averages were well above the prescribed 24-hour average World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines (WHO AQG) (50 µg/m3 for PM10 and 25 µg/m3 for PM2.5). The PM1, PM2,5, PM4 and PM7 fractions accounted for 15%, 32 %, 56% and 78% respectively of the PM10 measurements. Our analysis reveals that PM concentration variations in the study region were influenced primarily by traffic. In fact, lower PM10 concentrations (21.7 and 33.1 µg/m3) were recorded in residential sites while higher values (53.1, and 45.2 µg/m3) were registered in city centers. Keywords: Particulate matter, Urban area, vehicle fleet, Bejaia.

  10. Asthma and rhinitis symptoms in individuals from different socioeconomic levels in a Brazilian city.

    PubMed

    Baqueiro, Tiana; Pontes-de-carvalho, Lain; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Santos, Nilza Maria; Alcântara-Neves, Neuza Maria

    2007-01-01

    Allergy is considered to be caused by complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Socioeconomic status (SES) may be the most important environmental determinant of allergy because it determines the living environment, but few studies have addressed the causal role of SES in allergy. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of asthma and rhinitis symptoms in two SES groups in a Brazilian city. History of asthma and rhinitis symptoms was collected using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. SES was determined by the Gallup method. Sera from subgroups of the individuals were used to determine total, anti-Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and anti-Blomia tropicalis IgE. The prevalence of asthma and rhinitis symptoms was higher in the A and B (A&B) SES group than in the C, D, and E (C, D&E) SES group. Individuals with asthma and/or rhinitis were more frequently positive for anti-B. tropicalis and anti-D. pteronyssinus IgE than individuals without these symptoms. A positive association between total IgE levels and asthma and rhinitis symptoms was observed in the A&B SES group but not in the C, D&E SES group. Women reported more respiratory symptoms than men. These results revealed higher prevalence rates ofasthma and rhinitis symptoms in individuals with higher SES and may provide support for the hygiene hypothesis, which attributes the high prevalence of respiratory allergies observed in individuals from developed countries to a low exposure to pathogens. The observed higher prevalence of asthma and rhinitis symptoms in women than in men could be attributed to differences in the perception of these symptoms or in exposures to allergens and protective pathogens.

  11. Risk Analysis of Coastal hazard Considering Sea-level Rise and Local Environment in Coastal Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangjin, P.; Lee, D. K.; KIM, H.; Ryu, J. E.; Yoo, S.; Ryoo, H.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, natural hazards has been more unpredictable with increasing frequency and strength due to climate change. Especially, coastal areas would be more vulnerable in the future because of sea-level rise (SLR). In case of Korea, it is surrounded by oceans and has many big cities at coastal area, thus a hazard prevention plan in coastal area is absolutely necessary. However, prior to making the plan, finding areas at risk would be the first step. In order to find the vulnerable area, local characteristics of coastal areas should also be considered along with SLR. Therefore, the objective of the research is to find vulnerable areas, which could be damaged by coastal hazards considering local environment and SLR of coastal areas. Spatial scope of the research was set up as 1km from the coastline according to the 'coastal management law' in Korea. The assessment was done up to the year of 2050, and the highest sea level rise scenario was used. For risk analysis, biophysical and socioeconomic characteristics were considered as to represent local characteristics of coastal area. Risk analysis was carried out through the combination of 'possibility of hazard' and the 'level of damages', and both of them reflect the above-mentioned regional characteristics. Since the range of inundation was narrowed down to the inundation from typhoon in this research, the possibility of inundation caused by typhoon was estimated by using numerical model, which calculated the height of storm surge considering wave, tide, sea-level pressure and SLR. Also the level of damage was estimated by categorizing the socioeconomic character into four factors; human, infrastructure, ecology and socioeconomic. Variables that represent each factor were selected and used in damage estimation with their classification and weighting value. The result shows that the urban coastal areas are more vulnerable and hazardous than other areas because of socioeconomic factors. The east and the south coast are

  12. Socioeconomic variation in the burden of chronic conditions and health care provision – analyzing administrative individual level data from the Basque Country, Spain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases are posing an increasing challenge to society, with the associated burden falling disproportionally on more deprived individuals and geographical areas. Although the existence of a socioeconomic health gradient is one of the main concerns of health policy across the world, health information systems commonly do not have reliable data to detect and monitor health inequalities and inequities. The objectives of this study were to measure the level of socioeconomic-related inequality in prevalence of chronic diseases and to investigate the extent and direction of inequities in health care provision. Methods A dataset linking clinical and administrative information of the entire population living in the Basque Country, Spain (over 2 million individuals) was used to measure the prevalence of 52 chronic conditions and to quantify individual health care costs. We used a concentration-index approach to measure the extent and direction of inequality with respect to the deprivation of the area of residence of each individual. Results Most chronic diseases were found to be disproportionally concentrated among individuals living in more deprived areas, but the extent of the imbalance varies by type of disease and sex. Most of the variation in health care utilization was explained by morbidity burden. However, even after accounting for differences in morbidity, pro-poor horizontal inequity was present in specialized outpatient care, emergency department, prescription, and primary health care costs and this fact was more apparent in females than males; inpatient costs exhibited an equitable distribution in both sexes. Conclusions Analyses of comprehensive administrative clinical information at the individual level allow the socioeconomic gradient in chronic diseases and health care provision to be measured to a level of detail not possible using other sources. This frequently updated source of information can be exploited to monitor trends and evaluate

  13. Association of food-hygiene practices and diarrhea prevalence among Indonesian young children from low socioeconomic urban areas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Information on the part that poor food-hygiene practices play a role in the development of diarrhea in low socioeconomic urban communities is lacking. This study was therefore aimed at assessing the contribution of food-hygiene practice to the prevalence of diarrhea among Indonesian children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 274 randomly selected children aged 12–59 months in selected low socioeconomic urban areas of East Jakarta. The prevalence of diarrhea was assessed from 7-day records on frequency and consistency of the child’s defecation pattern. Food-hygiene practices including mother’s and child’s hand washing, food preparation, cleanliness of utensils, water source and safe drinking water, habits of buying cooked food, child’s bottle feeding hygiene, and housing and environmental condition were collected through home visit interviews and observations by fieldworkers. Thirty-six practices were scored and classified into poor (median and below) and better (above median) food-hygiene practices. Nutritional status of children, defined anthropometrically, was measured through height and weight. Results Among the individual food-hygiene practices, children living in a house with less dirty sewage had a significantly lower diarrhea prevalence compared to those who did not [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.03-0.73]. The overall food-hygiene practice score was not significantly associated with diarrhea in the total group, but it was in children aged < 2 years (adjusted OR 4.55, 95% CI = 1.08-19.1). Conclusions Overall poor mother’s food-hygiene practices did not contribute to the occurrence of diarrhea in Indonesian children. However, among children < 2 years from low socioeconomic urban areas they were associated with more diarrhea. PMID:24138899

  14. Association of food-hygiene practices and diarrhea prevalence among Indonesian young children from low socioeconomic urban areas.

    PubMed

    Agustina, Rina; Sari, Tirta P; Satroamidjojo, Soemilah; Bovee-Oudenhoven, Ingeborg M J; Feskens, Edith J M; Kok, Frans J

    2013-10-19

    Information on the part that poor food-hygiene practices play a role in the development of diarrhea in low socioeconomic urban communities is lacking. This study was therefore aimed at assessing the contribution of food-hygiene practice to the prevalence of diarrhea among Indonesian children. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 274 randomly selected children aged 12-59 months in selected low socioeconomic urban areas of East Jakarta. The prevalence of diarrhea was assessed from 7-day records on frequency and consistency of the child's defecation pattern. Food-hygiene practices including mother's and child's hand washing, food preparation, cleanliness of utensils, water source and safe drinking water, habits of buying cooked food, child's bottle feeding hygiene, and housing and environmental condition were collected through home visit interviews and observations by fieldworkers. Thirty-six practices were scored and classified into poor (median and below) and better (above median) food-hygiene practices. Nutritional status of children, defined anthropometrically, was measured through height and weight. Among the individual food-hygiene practices, children living in a house with less dirty sewage had a significantly lower diarrhea prevalence compared to those who did not [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.03-0.73]. The overall food-hygiene practice score was not significantly associated with diarrhea in the total group, but it was in children aged < 2 years (adjusted OR 4.55, 95% CI = 1.08-19.1). Overall poor mother's food-hygiene practices did not contribute to the occurrence of diarrhea in Indonesian children. However, among children < 2 years from low socioeconomic urban areas they were associated with more diarrhea.

  15. Tipping Points towards Regional Forest or Urban Transition in Stressed Rural Areas: An Agent-based Modelling Application of Socio-Economic Shifts in Rural Vermont US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Y.; Turnbull, S.; Zia, A.

    2015-12-01

    In rural areas where farming competes with urban development and environmental amenities, urban and forest transitions occur simultaneously at different locales with different rates due to the underlying socio-economic shifts. Here we develop an interactive land use transition agent-based model (ILUTABM) in which farmers' land use decisions are made contingent on expansion and location choices of urban businesses and urban residences, as well as farmers' perceived ecosystem services produced by their land holdings. The ILUTABM simulates heterogeneity in land use decisions at parcel levels by differentiating decision making processes for agricultural and urban landowners. Landowners are simulated to make land-use transition decisions as bounded rational agents that maximize their partial expected utility functions under different underlying socio-economic conditions given the category of a landowner and the spatial characteristics of the landowner's landholdings. The ILUTABM is parameterized by spatial data sets such as National Land Cover Database (NLCD), zoning, parcels, property prices, US census, farmers surveys, building/facility characteristics, soil, slope and elevation. We then apply the ILUTABM to the rural Vermont landscape, located in the Northeast Arm District of Lake Champlain and the downstream sub-watersheds of Missisquoi River, to generate phase transitions of rural land towards urban land near peri-urban areas and towards forest land near financially stressed farmlands during 2001-2051. Possible tipping point trajectories of rural land towards regional forest or urban transition are simulated under three socio-economic scenarios: business as usual (ILUTABM calibrated to 2011 NLCD), increased incentives for conservation easements, and increased incentives for attracting urban residences and businesses.

  16. Early life socioeconomic conditions in rural areas and old-age mortality in twentieth-century Quebec.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Alain; Bohnert, Nora

    2012-10-01

    This study examines the effects of early life socioeconomic and residential conditions on adult mortality. The family and residential details of children living in rural areas of Quebec, Canada, in 1901 were linked to their subsequent ages at death using a database compiling information from the 1901 Canadian Census and Quebec vital statistics registers. Survival analysis results suggest that males raised on a farm and in a household owned by their father had lower mortality after the age of fifty than other males from rural areas. Chances for survival at older ages were not equal, however, among males whose father was a farmer. Most notably, males raised on a larger farmstead, an indicator of a higher socioeconomic status, experienced lower risk of mortality than those raised by farmers owning fewer acres. Results were widely different for females, who did not gain an advantage from being raised on a farm, wealthy or not, regardless of homeownership, but instead from having a literate father. Accounting for selection bias and shared frailty among brothers served to enhance the significance and effect size of acreage wealth and of other early life factors in the prediction of male adult mortality risk. This study provides evidence that early life effects on later life health and mortality could often be underestimated, due to a failure to account for selection and unobserved heterogeneity.

  17. The Effect of Technology and Socioeconomic Status on Parental Involvement at the Elementary School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsamo, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that parents who extensively use technology and have a high socioeconomic status (SES) may become overly involved with their elementary school-aged children's education and school-related activities, an involvement which can create a lasting dependence of the children on their parents. The literature indicates high…

  18. Moral Judgment among Black Adolescents and White Adolescents from Different Socioeconomic Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Edward D.; Hambright, Jerold E.

    1984-01-01

    Major findings were (1) White subjects and males in this investigation were reared in an ideologically nondirectional situation, making them relativistic in their moral judgments; (2) Black subjects and females followed a directional process resulting in a moral realistic orientation; and (3) socioeconomic factors did not bear strongly on the type…

  19. Moral Judgment among Black Adolescents and White Adolescents from Different Socioeconomic Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Edward D.; Hambright, Jerold E.

    1984-01-01

    Major findings were (1) White subjects and males in this investigation were reared in an ideologically nondirectional situation, making them relativistic in their moral judgments; (2) Black subjects and females followed a directional process resulting in a moral realistic orientation; and (3) socioeconomic factors did not bear strongly on the type…

  20. The Effect of Technology and Socioeconomic Status on Parental Involvement at the Elementary School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsamo, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that parents who extensively use technology and have a high socioeconomic status (SES) may become overly involved with their elementary school-aged children's education and school-related activities, an involvement which can create a lasting dependence of the children on their parents. The literature indicates high…

  1. Health inequalities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: lower healthy life expectancy in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas.

    PubMed

    Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; da Mota, Jurema Corrêa; Damacena, Giseli Nogueira; Pereira, Tatiana Guimarães Sardinha

    2011-03-01

    We investigated deprivation and inequalities in life expectancy and healthy life expectancy by location in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We conducted a health survey of 576 adults in 2006. Census tracts were stratified by income level and categorization as a slum. We determined health status by degree of functional limitation, according to the approach proposed by the World Health Organization. We calculated healthy life expectancies by Sullivan's method with abridged life table. We found the worst indicators in the slum stratum. The life expectancy at birth of men living in the richest parts of the city was 12.8 years longer than that of men living in deprived areas. For both men and women older than age 65 years, healthy life expectancy was more than twice as high in the richest sector as in the slum sector. Our analysis detailed the excess burden of poor health experienced by disadvantaged populations of Rio de Janeiro. Policy efforts are needed to reduce social inequalities in health in this city, especially among the elderly.

  2. Implementation of the Port Hope Area Initiative Biophysical and Socioeconomic Environmental Assessment Follow-up Programs - 13209

    SciTech Connect

    Baba, Nina; Friedmann, Karyn; Groulx, Charles

    2013-07-01

    The Port Hope Initiative (PHAI) involves the cleanup of historic low-level radioactive waste in various locations throughout the communities of Port Hope and Clarington, Ontario, as well as the construction of two engineered aboveground mounds for safe long-term management. The PHAI is comprised of two major projects - the Port Hope Project and the Port Granby Project. An Environmental Assessment (EA) was undertaken for each project and as a result EA Follow-up Programs were developed and are being implemented addressing both biophysical and socioeconomic aspects. This paper provides insight on elements of the EA Follow-up Program development, and its implementation. (authors)

  3. Remaining life expectancy among older people in a rural area of Vietnam: trends and socioeconomic inequalities during a period of multiple transitions

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    in rural areas of Vietnam. Inequalities in life expectancy exist between socioeconomic groups, especially between different poverty levels and also patterns of living arrangements. These inequalities should be addressed by appropriate social and health policies with stronger targeting of the poorest and most disadvantaged groups. PMID:20017933

  4. Food items consumed by students attending schools in different socioeconomic areas in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Temple, Norman J; Steyn, Nelia P; Myburgh, Neil G; Nel, Johanna H

    2006-03-01

    We investigated the food consumption patterns of adolescent students at schools. Our findings are intended to reveal the overall nutritional quality of foods eaten by students at school, including foods brought to school and foods purchased at school. A questionnaire was completed by 476 students, mostly from grades 7 and 10, from 14 schools in Cape Town, South Africa. The schools were representative of the various ethnic groups and socioeconomic strata of the population. The questionnaire requested information on eating habits at school, foods brought to school and food purchases, and breakfast consumption before school. We also tested whether students knew which foods are healthy and which are less healthy choices. The students were mostly 12 to 16 y of age (mean age 14.5 y). The large majority had breakfast before school (77.8%) and ate at school (79.7%). Food was brought to school by 41% to 56%, whereas 69.3% purchased food at school, mainly at the school store (tuck shop). Predefined "unhealthy" foods brought to school outnumbered "healthy" ones by 2 to 1. Among students who purchased food at school, 70.0% purchased no healthy items, whereas 73.2% purchased two or more unhealthy items. With six foods 84% of students correctly stated whether they were healthy or unhealthy; however, with cola drinks, samoosas (deep-fried pastry with spicy filling), and pies, only 47% to 61% knew that these were less healthy choices. Students' scores on this question were unrelated to whether they purchased healthy or unhealthy foods. Students who attended schools of high socioeconomic status were twice as likely to bring food to school (64.7% versus 31.0%, P<0.001), scored higher marks on the quiz of healthy versus unhealthy foods (P<0.01), but were no more likely to purchase healthy food. The large majority of food eaten by adolescent students in Cape Town is classified as being unhealthy choices. This applies to foods brought to school and food purchases. Consideration needs

  5. Social Structural Influences on Healthy Aging: Community-Level Socioeconomic Conditions and Survival Probability of Becoming a Centenarian for Those Aged 65 to 69 in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin

    2015-10-01

    This study estimated the associations between community-level socioeconomic conditions and survival probability of becoming a centenarian (SPBC) for those aged 65 to 69 in South Korea to determine the social structural influences on healthy aging. The indicators of socioeconomic and data of centenarians were obtained from Statistics Korea database 2014: population census and social survey. Significant positive correlations were found between SPBC and community-level socioeconomic conditions (minimum cost of living and economically active population, water supply and sewerage, pave a road with asphalt, and urbanization). SPBC male and female predictors had higher economic level and base facilities (R2)=0.578, p<.001). The study provides evidence that community-level socioeconomic conditions are important correlates of SPBC for those aged 65 to 69 in South Korea. These strategies should include social structural influences on successful aging in the overall socioeconomic conditions.

  6. Does alcohol outlet density differ by area-level disadvantage in metropolitan Perth?

    PubMed

    Foster, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Knuiman, Matthew; Trapp, Georgina; Wood, Lisa

    2017-09-01

    Research suggests that there are area-level disparities in alcohol outlets, with greater density in disadvantaged areas. In part, this might be explained by the inequitable distribution of retail, attracted by lower rents to disadvantaged neighbourhoods. This ecological study examines the distribution of liquor licences in Perth, Australia, and whether discrepancies in the distribution of retail land-uses could account for a socio-economic gradient. Area disadvantage was determined for each Statistical Area 1 (SA1) using the Australian Bureau of Statistics Index of Relative Socio-economic Disadvantage, and licence locations were mapped in GIS. Negative binomial loglinear models examined whether licence densities within SA1s differed by area disadvantage, controlling for demographics and spatial correlation. Models included an offset term, so the estimated effects of area-level disadvantage were on licences per km(2) , or licences per retail destination. In the area-based analyses, for every unit increase in disadvantage decile (i.e. a reduction in relative disadvantage), general licences reduced by 15% (P = 0.000) and liquor stores reduced by 7% (P = 0.004). These gradients were not apparent when licences were examined as a function of retail; however, for every unit increase in disadvantage decile, the density of on-premise licences per retail destination increased by 14% (P = 0.000). The direction of the socio-economic gradient for general licences and liquor stores in Perth is concerning, as all licences selling packaged alcohol were more abundant in disadvantaged areas. However, the over-representation of packaged liquor in disadvantaged areas may relate to the increased provision of retail. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  7. What socioeconomic factors are associated with different levels of antenatal care visits in Bangladesh? A behavioral model.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sanjib; Mubarak, Mahfuza; Jarl, Johan

    2017-01-01

    We identify the socioeconomic determinants of three levels of antenatal care (ANC) visits (no, intermediate [1-3], and recommended [≥4]) in Bangladesh using a behavior model framework for health care utilization. Using multinomial logistic regression, we found that different levels of visits had different determinants; for example, media exposure increased the likelihood of intermediate compared with no visits while desire for pregnancy increased the likelihood of recommended compared with intermediate visits. We therefore highlight that ANC policies or interventions should be target-group specific because determinants differ depending on level of ANC visits.

  8. District-level variations in childhood immunizations in India: The role of socio-economic factors and health infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Rammohan, Anu; Awofeso, Niyi

    2015-11-01

    Routine childhood immunizations against measles and DPT are part of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) set up in 1974, with the aim of reducing childhood morbidity and mortality. Despite this, immunization rates are sub-optimal in developing countries such as India, with wide heterogeneity observed across districts and socio-economic characteristics. The aim of this paper is to examine district-level variations in the propensity to vaccinate a child in India for measles and DPT3, and analyse the extent to which these immunizations are given age-inappropriately, either prematurely or delayed. The present study uses data from the Indian District Level Household Survey (DLHS-3) collected in 2008, and the final sample contains detailed information on 42157 children aged between 12 and 60 months, across 549 Indian districts for whom we have complete information on immunization history. Our empirical study analyses: (i) the district-level average immunization rates for measles and DPT3, and (ii) the extent to which these immunizations have been given age-appropriately. A key contribution of this paper is that we link the household-level data at the district level to data on availability and proximity to health infrastructure and district-level socio-economic factors. Our results show that after controlling for an array of socio-economic characteristics, across all our models, the district's income per capita is a strong predictor of better immunization outcomes for children. Mother's education level at the district-level has a statistically significant and positive influence on immunization outcomes across all our models.

  9. Socio-economic, health and nutritional status of the villagers in the Nong Wai irrigation area, Khon Kaen, Northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Harinasuta, C; Sornamani, S; Migasena, P; Vivatanasesth, P; Pongpaew, P; Intarakao, C; Vudhivai, N

    1976-12-01

    Studies were carried out from June 1974 to May 1975 on the socio-economic status, health and nutritional status of the people in 4 villages, in the irrigation area of the Nong Wai Pioneer Agricultural Project of Khon Kaen Province, Northeast Thailand. The result obtained were compared with those in 2 non-irrigated villages in the same province, in order to identify the health and nutritional problems which might arise during the water resource development in the irrigation area. It was found that in the irrigated villages 90% of the peoples were farmers, while in the non-irrigated villages all were farmers. The socio-economic status of the people in the irrigated villages was much better than those in the non-irrigated ones. The income per family in the former was about three times greater than that in the latter. In the study of the health conditions of the villagers, the vulnerable age group including pre-school children under 7 years of age and school children in the elementary school class 1 and class 2, aged 7-9 years old, served as subjects for investigation. Haematological and physical examinations revealed many children with mild to moderate anaemia, vitamin B2 deficiency and a few cases of hepatomegaly. Anaemic children were found to be more prevalent in the non-irrigated villages than in the irrigated area. The overall parasitic infection rates in children in the irrigated and non-irrigated villages were similar with respect to severity of the infection. Hookworm infection, opisthorchiasis, strongyloidiasis and giardiasis were the leading parasitic infections, while amoebiasis was rare. Ascariasis and trichuriasis were not found. However, the first two helminthic infections had a low grade of intensity. The nutritional status of pre-school children, showed that there were more children with good growth in the irrigated villages than in the non-irrigated one. Serum proteins, albumin and globulin, and urinary urea nitrogen-creatinine ratio revealed normal

  10. Does car ownership reflect socio-economic disadvantage in rural areas? A cross-sectional geographical study in Wales, UK.

    PubMed

    Christie, S M; Fone, D L

    2003-03-01

    It is widely believed that area-based deprivation indices that include the car ownership census variable are poor indicators of deprivation in rural areas since car ownership is a necessity of rural life. In this cross-sectional geographical study, we assess whether the relation between lack of car ownership and socio-economic deprivation varies between urban and rural enumeration districts of Wales, UK. We classified the 6376 census enumeration districts in Wales into rural (1636, 26%) and urban (4740, 74%), using the Office for National Statistics' classification based on land use. Rank correlation coefficients between the proportion of households with no car and a range of other proxy deprivation census variables were strongly positive in urban and the most densely populated rural enumeration districts. However, these correlations were weaker in sparsely populated rural enumeration districts, with a declining trend across deciles of population density. Exclusion of the car ownership variable from the Townsend index of deprivation re-categorized rural enumeration districts as more deprived and urban enumeration districts as less deprived compared with the standard Townsend index. Our results suggest that lack of car ownership is a poor proxy for social deprivation in the most sparsely populated rural areas of Wales, and therefore, deprivation indices that include the car ownership variable are less valid for use in rural areas.

  11. Individual- and Area-level Unemployment Influence Smoking Cessation Among African Americans Participating in a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kendzor, Darla E.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M.; Cao, Yumei; Ji, Lingyun; Costello, Tracy J.; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Businelle, Michael S.; Li, Yisheng; Castro, Yessenia; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

    2012-01-01

    African Americans suffer disproportionately from the adverse health consequences of smoking, and also report substantially lower socioeconomic status than Whites and other racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. Although socioeconomic disadvantage is known to have a negative influence on smoking cessation rates and overall health, little is known about the influence of socioeconomic status on smoking cessation specifically among African Americans. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to characterize the impact of several individual- and area-level indicators of socioeconomic status on smoking cessation among African Americans. Data were collected as part of a smoking cessation intervention study for African American smokers (N = 379) recruited from the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area, who participated in the study between 2005 and 2007. The separate and combined influences of individual-level (insurance status, unemployment, education, and income) and area-level (neighborhood unemployment, education, income, and poverty) indicators of socioeconomic status on continuous smoking abstinence were examined across time intervals using continuation ratio logit modeling. Individual-level analyses indicated that unemployment was significantly associated with reduced odds of smoking abstinence, while higher income was associated with greater odds of abstinence. However, only unemployment remained a significant predictor of abstinence when unemployment and income were included in the model together. Area-level analyses indicated that greater neighborhood unemployment and poverty were associated with reduced odds of smoking abstinence, while greater neighborhood education was associated with higher odds of abstinence. However, only neighborhood unemployment remained significantly associated with abstinence status when individual-level income and unemployment were included in the model. Overall, findings suggest that individual- and area-level unemployment have a negative

  12. Predicting later life health status and mortality using state-level socioeconomic characteristics in early life.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Rita; Rehkopf, David H; Kuan, Kai Y; Cullen, Mark R

    2016-12-01

    Studies extending across multiple life stages promote an understanding of factors influencing health across the life span. Existing work has largely focused on individual-level rather than area-level early life determinants of health. In this study, we linked multiple data sets to examine whether early life state-level characteristics were predictive of health and mortality decades later. The sample included 143,755 U.S. employees, for whom work life claims and administrative data were linked with early life state-of-residence and mortality. We first created a "state health risk score" (SHRS) and "state mortality risk score" (SMRS) by modeling state-level contextual characteristics with health status and mortality in a randomly selected 30% of the sample (the "training set"). We then examined the association of these scores with objective health status and mortality in later life in the remaining 70% of the sample (the "test set") using multivariate linear and Cox regressions, respectively. The association between the SHRS and adult health status was β=0.14 (95%CI: 0.084, 0.20), while the hazard ratio for the SMRS was 0.96 (95%CI: 0.93, 1.00). The association between the SHRS and health was not statistically significant in older age groups at a p-level of 0.05, and there was a statistically significantly different association for health status among movers compared to stayers. This study uses a life course perspective and supports the idea of "sensitive periods" in early life that have enduring impacts on health. It adds to the literature examining populations in the U.S. where large linked data sets are infrequently available.

  13. Socioeconomic issues for the Bear River Watershed Conservation Land Area Protection Plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Catherine Cullinane; Huber, Christopher; Gascoigne, William; Koontz, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    The Bear River Watershed Conservation Area is located in the Bear River Watershed, a vast basin covering fourteen counties across three states. Located in Wyoming, Utah, and Idaho, the watershed spans roughly 7,500 squares miles: 1,500 squares miles in Wyoming; 2,700 squares miles in Idaho; and 3,300 squares miles in Utah (Utah Division of Water Resources, 2004). Three National Wildlife Refuges are currently contained within the boundary of the BRWCA: the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge in Utah, the Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Idaho, and the Cokeville Meadows National Wildlife Refuge in Wyoming. In 2010, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted a Preliminary Project Proposal and identified the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area as having high-value wildlife habitat. This finding initiated the Land Protection Planning process, which is used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to study land conservation opportunities including adding lands to the National Wildlife Refuge System. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to include part of the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area in the Refuge System by acquiring up to 920,000 acres of conservation easements from willing landowners to maintain landscape integrity and habitat connectivity in the region. The analysis described in this report provides a profile of the social and economic conditions in the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area and addresses social and economic questions and concerns raised during public involvement in the Land Protection Planning process.

  14. Small-area geographic and socioeconomic inequalities in colorectal tumour detection in France.

    PubMed

    Fournel, Isabelle; Bourredjem, Abderrahmane; Sauleau, Erik-André; Cottet, Vanessa; Dejardin, Olivier; Bouvier, Anne-Marie; Launoy, Guy; Bonithon-Kopp, Claire

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of area deprivation and primary care facilities on colorectal adenoma detection and on colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence in a French well-defined population before mass screening implementation. The study population included all patients aged 20 years or more living in Côte d'Or (France) with either colorectal adenoma or invasive CRC first diagnosed between 1995 and 2002 and who were identified from the Burgundy Digestive Cancer Registry and the Côte d'Or Polyp Registry. Area deprivation was assessed using the European deprivation index on the basis of the smallest French area available (Ilots Regroupés pour l'Information Statistique). Healthcare access was assessed using medical density of general practitioners (GPs) and road distance to the nearest GP and gastroenterologist. Bayesian regression analyses were used to estimate influential covariates on adenoma detection and CRC incidence rates. The results were expressed as relative risks (RRs) with their 95% credibility interval. In total, 5399 patients were diagnosed with at least one colorectal adenoma and 2125 with invasive incident CRC during the study period. Remoteness from GP [RR=0.71 (0.61-0.83)] and area deprivation [RR=0.98 (0.96-1.00)] independently reduced the probability of adenoma detection. CRC incidence was only slightly affected by GP medical density [RR=1.05 (1.01-1.08)] without any area deprivation effect [RR=0.99 (0.96-1.02)]. Distance to gastroenterologist had no impact on the rates of adenoma detection or CRC incidence. This study highlighted the prominent role of access to GPs in the detection of both colorectal adenomas and overall cancers. Deprivation had an impact only on adenoma detection.

  15. A Whole Class Teaching Approach to Improve the Vocabulary Skills of Adolescents Attending Mainstream Secondary School, in Areas of Socioeconomic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Aoife; Franklin, Sue; Breen, Annemarie; Hanlon, Molly; McNamara, Aoife; Bogue, Aine; James, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Young people from areas of socioeconomic disadvantage (SED) are more likely to present with language difficulties, particularly vocabulary difficulties. Studies have shown the effectiveness of vocabulary interventions for children with language impairment but not for adolescents from areas of SED. This article aims to establish the effectiveness…

  16. Associations between area-level unemployment, body mass index, and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in an urban area.

    PubMed

    Naimi, Ashley Isaac; Paquet, Catherine; Gauvin, Lise; Daniel, Mark

    2009-12-01

    Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) has been linked to "neighbourhood" socioeconomic status (nSES), often operationalized as a composite index of aggregate income, occupation and education within predefined administrative boundaries. The role of specific, non-composite socioeconomic markers has not been clearly explained. It is also unclear whether the relationship between nSES and CVD varies according to sex. We sought to determine whether area-level unemployment (ALU) was associated with CVD risk, and whether this association differed by sex. 342 individuals from the Montreal Neighbourhood Survey of Lifestyle and Health provided self-reported behavioural and socioeconomic information. A nurse collected biochemical and anthropometric data. ALU, a weighted average of the proportion of persons 15-years and older available for but without work, was measured using a Geographic Information System for a 250 m buffer centred on individual residence. Generalized Estimating Equations were used to estimate the associations between ALU, body mass index (BMI) and a cumulative score for total cardiometabolic risk (TCR). After confounder adjustments, the mean 4(th) minus 1(st) quartile difference in BMI was 3.19 kg/m(2) (95% CI: 2.39, 3.99), while the prevalence ratio for the 4(th) relative to 1(st) quartile for TCR was 2.20 (95 % CI: 1.53, 3.17). Sex interacted with ALU; women relative to men had greater mean 3.97 kg/m(2) (95% CI: 2.08, 5.85) BMI and greater mean TCR 1.51 (95% CI: 0.78, 2.90), contrasted at mean ALU. Area-level unemployment is associated with greater CVD risk, and this association is stronger for women.

  17. Associations between Area-Level Unemployment, Body Mass Index, and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in an Urban Area

    PubMed Central

    Naimi, Ashley Isaac; Paquet, Catherine; Gauvin, Lise; Daniel, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) has been linked to “neighbourhood” socioeconomic status (nSES), often operationalized as a composite index of aggregate income, occupation and education within predefined administrative boundaries. The role of specific, non-composite socioeconomic markers has not been clearly explained. It is also unclear whether the relationship between nSES and CVD varies according to sex. We sought to determine whether area-level unemployment (ALU) was associated with CVD risk, and whether this association differed by sex. Methods: 342 individuals from the Montreal Neighbourhood Survey of Lifestyle and Health provided self-reported behavioural and socioeconomic information. A nurse collected biochemical and anthropometric data. ALU, a weighted average of the proportion of persons 15-years and older available for but without work, was measured using a Geographic Information System for a 250 m buffer centred on individual residence. Generalized Estimating Equations were used to estimate the associations between ALU, body mass index (BMI) and a cumulative score for total cardiometabolic risk (TCR). Results: After confounder adjustments, the mean 4th minus 1st quartile difference in BMI was 3.19 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.39, 3.99), while the prevalence ratio for the 4th relative to 1st quartile for TCR was 2.20 (95 % CI: 1.53, 3.17). Sex interacted with ALU; women relative to men had greater mean 3.97 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.08, 5.85) BMI and greater mean TCR 1.51 (95% CI: 0.78, 2.90), contrasted at mean ALU. Conclusions: Area-level unemployment is associated with greater CVD risk, and this association is stronger for women. PMID:20049247

  18. Influence of demographic, socioeconomic and environmental variables on childhood diarrhoea in a rural area of Zaire.

    PubMed

    Manun'ebo, M N; Haggerty, P A; Kalengaie, M; Ashworth, A; Kirkwood, B R

    1994-02-01

    There have been very few longitudinal studies of diarrhoea morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. This longitudinal study of children aged 3-35 months from 18 clusters of villages reports an annual incidence rate of 6.3 episodes per child in a rural area of Zaire, which is higher than a cross-sectional estimate previously obtained in the same district. The study confirms that a child's risk of diarrhoeal attack is associated with age, water quality and sanitation, parental education and household size. The findings suggest also that birth interval may be an important risk factor for diarrhoeal morbidity.

  19. Cesarean section and increased body mass index in school children: two cohort studies from distinct socioeconomic background areas in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies have raised controversy regarding the association between cesarean section and later obesity in the offspring. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of cesarean section with increased body mass index (BMI) and obesity in school children from two Brazilian cities with distinct socioeconomic backgrounds. Methods Two birth cohorts respectively born in 1994 in Ribeirao Preto, a wealthy city in Southeast, and in 1997/98 in Sao Luis, a less wealthy city in Northeast of Brasil, were evaluated. After birth, 2,846 pairs of mothers-newborns were evaluated in Ribeirao Preto and 2,542 in Sao Luis. In 2004/05, 790 children aged 10/11 years were randomly reassessed in Ribeirao Preto and 673 at 7/9 years in Sao Luis. Information on type of delivery, maternal and child characteristics, socioeconomic position and anthropometric measurements were collected after birth and at school age. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 95th percentile at school age. Results Obesity rate was 13.0% in Ribeirao Preto and 2.1% in Sao Luis. Cesarean section was associated with obesity and remained significant after adjustment only in Ribeirao Preto [OR = 1.74 (95% CI: 1.04; 2.92)]. The association between cesarean section and BMI remained significant after adjustment for maternal schooling, maternal smoking during pregnancy, duration of breastfeeding, gender, birth weight and gestational age, type of school and, only in Sao Luis, pre-pregnancy maternal weight. In Ribeirao Preto children born by cesarean section had BMI 0.31 kg/m2 (95%CI: 0.11; 0.51) higher than those born by vaginal delivery. In Sao Luis BMI of children born by cesarean section was 0.28 kg/m2 higher (95%CI: 0.08; 0.49) than those born by vaginal delivery. Conclusion A positive association between cesarean section and increased BMI z-score was demonstrated in areas with different socioeconomic status in a middle-income country. PMID:23886115

  20. Serum Retinol Levels in Pregnant Adolescents and Their Relationship with Habitual Food Intake, Infection and Obstetric, Nutritional and Socioeconomic Variables.

    PubMed

    Spíndola Garcêz, Laís; de Sousa Paz Lima, Geania; de Azevedo Paiva, Adriana; Maria Rebêlo Sampaio da Paz, Suzana; Lázaro Gomes, Erica Ivana; Nunes, Valéria Sutti; Cotta de Faria, Eliana; de Barros-Mazon, Sílvia

    2016-10-25

    Globally, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects about 19.1 million pregnant women. Its occurrence is classically associated with inadequate food intake and may also be associated with socioeconomic factors and the presence of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to serum retinol levels among pregnant teenagers. The sample consisted of 89 pregnant adolescents, from whom socioeconomic, obstetric, anthropometric, and food consumption data were collected. Serum concentrations of retinol and the supposed presence of infection were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and C-reactive protein quantification, respectively. The serum retinol concentrations were classified according to the criteria of the World Health Organization. We adopted a 5% significance level for all statistical tests. Serum retinol levels were significantly and positively associated with sanitation (p = 0.008) and pre-gestational nutritional status (p = 0.002), and negatively with the trimester (p = 0.001). The appropriate sanitation conditions and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) were shown to have a protective effect against VAD. Conversely, serum retinol levels were reduced with trimester progression, favoring VAD occurrence.

  1. Serum Retinol Levels in Pregnant Adolescents and Their Relationship with Habitual Food Intake, Infection and Obstetric, Nutritional and Socioeconomic Variables

    PubMed Central

    Spíndola Garcêz, Laís; de Sousa Paz Lima, Geania; de Azevedo Paiva, Adriana; Maria Rebêlo Sampaio da Paz, Suzana; Lázaro Gomes, Erica Ivana; Nunes, Valéria Sutti; Cotta de Faria, Eliana; de Barros-Mazon, Sílvia

    2016-01-01

    Globally, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects about 19.1 million pregnant women. Its occurrence is classically associated with inadequate food intake and may also be associated with socioeconomic factors and the presence of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to serum retinol levels among pregnant teenagers. The sample consisted of 89 pregnant adolescents, from whom socioeconomic, obstetric, anthropometric, and food consumption data were collected. Serum concentrations of retinol and the supposed presence of infection were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and C-reactive protein quantification, respectively. The serum retinol concentrations were classified according to the criteria of the World Health Organization. We adopted a 5% significance level for all statistical tests. Serum retinol levels were significantly and positively associated with sanitation (p = 0.008) and pre-gestational nutritional status (p = 0.002), and negatively with the trimester (p = 0.001). The appropriate sanitation conditions and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) were shown to have a protective effect against VAD. Conversely, serum retinol levels were reduced with trimester progression, favoring VAD occurrence. PMID:27792135

  2. Time trends and socioeconomic differences in blood pressure levels: The Northern Sweden MONICA study 1994-2014.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Marie; Carlberg, Bo; Pennlert, Johanna; Söderberg, Stefan; Eliasson, Mats

    2017-09-01

    Background People with low socioeconomic status have higher blood pressure (BP), increasing their risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. We hypothesized that the gap in systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP, according to educational level, has decreased over time but, that economical vulnerability would confer higher BP. Methods A total of 4564 women and 4363 men aged 25-74 years participated in five population-based surveys in the Northern Sweden MONICA study between 1994 and 2014 (participation rate 76.8-62.5%). Results SBP decreased by 10 mmHg in women and 4 mmHg in men, while DBP was unchanged. Treatment with antihypertensives increased in all but the youngest men. The prevalence of BP control in the population (<140/90 mmHg) increased and in 2014 reached 75% among women and 70% among men. The decrease in SBP was more pronounced in people without university education than in people with university education and DBP showed the same pattern, regardless of education. After adjustment for confounding factors, age, male sex, higher body mass index, and being born in a Nordic country were related to higher SBP and DBP. University education was related to lower SBP, while variables mirroring economic vulnerability were not associated with BP levels. Conclusions BP levels as well as the socioeconomic gap in BP has decreased in Sweden but people with a lower level of education still have higher SBP. Lacking economic resources is not associated with high BP.

  3. [Relation of socioeconomic levels and life style to fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor in healthy Venezuelans and those with ischemic cardiopathy].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Larralde, Alvaro; Mijares, Mercedes E; Nagy, Elena; Espinosa, Raul; Ryder, Elena; Diez-Ewald, María P; Torres, Enrique; Coll-Sangrona, Enriqueta; Rodríguez-Roa, Elsy; Carvajal, Zoila; Lundberg, Ulf; Campos, Gilberto; Gill, Amparo; Arocha-Piñango, Carmen L

    2005-06-01

    Previous studies in Europe, U.S.A and Japan have revealed an inverse relationship between socioeconomic levels and fibrinogen concentration. Similar results have been reported in a smaller number of studies for concentrations of von Willebrand factor. In this opportunity we present results on the relationship between smoking, drinking, physical activity, age and socioeconomic level on fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor concentrations in a Venezuelan sample. The control population consisted of 978 men and 968 women. Patients with coronary heart disease were 172 males and 78 females. The presence of one or more of the following conditions: smoking or less than 5 years of having quit, non drinkers or drinking in excess, and a reduced physical activity, was considered a health related risk factor for high levels of these two haemostatic variables. Our results indicate that in Controls, the socioeconomic level had a significant effect on fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor levels, only in women: those of lower socioeconomic levels had the highest concentrations. This difference was maintained when age was taken into account. Health related behaviors had no significant effect on either variable. In patients, age had no effect on either variable. The health behavior risk factor had a significant effect only on fibrinogen of male patients, and socioeconomic level had a significant effect only on the fibrinogen of female patients. More studies in Venezuela are recommended, in order to increase our knowledge on the relationship between socioeconomic levels, haemostatic markers and the occurrence of coronary heart disease.

  4. Wildlife population trends in protected areas predicted by national socio-economic metrics and body size

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Megan D.; Craigie, Ian D.; Harrison, Luke B.; Geldmann, Jonas; Collen, Ben; Whitmee, Sarah; Balmford, Andrew; Burgess, Neil D.; Brooks, Thomas; Hockings, Marc; Woodley, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Ensuring that protected areas (PAs) maintain the biodiversity within their boundaries is fundamental in achieving global conservation goals. Despite this objective, wildlife abundance changes in PAs are patchily documented and poorly understood. Here, we use linear mixed effect models to explore correlates of population change in 1,902 populations of birds and mammals from 447 PAs globally. On an average, we find PAs are maintaining populations of monitored birds and mammals within their boundaries. Wildlife population trends are more positive in PAs located in countries with higher development scores, and for larger-bodied species. These results suggest that active management can consistently overcome disadvantages of lower reproductive rates and more severe threats experienced by larger species of birds and mammals. The link between wildlife trends and national development shows that the social and economic conditions supporting PAs are critical for the successful maintenance of their wildlife populations. PMID:27582180

  5. Wildlife population trends in protected areas predicted by national socio-economic metrics and body size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Megan D.; Craigie, Ian D.; Harrison, Luke B.; Geldmann, Jonas; Collen, Ben; Whitmee, Sarah; Balmford, Andrew; Burgess, Neil D.; Brooks, Thomas; Hockings, Marc; Woodley, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    Ensuring that protected areas (PAs) maintain the biodiversity within their boundaries is fundamental in achieving global conservation goals. Despite this objective, wildlife abundance changes in PAs are patchily documented and poorly understood. Here, we use linear mixed effect models to explore correlates of population change in 1,902 populations of birds and mammals from 447 PAs globally. On an average, we find PAs are maintaining populations of monitored birds and mammals within their boundaries. Wildlife population trends are more positive in PAs located in countries with higher development scores, and for larger-bodied species. These results suggest that active management can consistently overcome disadvantages of lower reproductive rates and more severe threats experienced by larger species of birds and mammals. The link between wildlife trends and national development shows that the social and economic conditions supporting PAs are critical for the successful maintenance of their wildlife populations.

  6. Impact of Dental Fluorosis, Socioeconomic Status and Self-Perception in Adolescents Exposed to a High Level of Fluoride in Water.

    PubMed

    Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Nevarez-Rascón, Martina; Nevarez-Rascón, Alfredo; González-González, Rogelio; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Sánchez-Pérez, Leonor; López-Verdin, Sandra; Bologna-Molina, Ronell

    2017-01-12

    Objective: To identify adolescents' self-perception of dental fluorosis from two areas with different socioeconomic levels. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with 15-year-old youths by applying a questionnaire designed and validated to assess self-perceptions of dental fluorosis in two areas with different socioeconomic statuses (SESs). Fluorosis was clinically evaluated by applying the Thylstrup and Fejerkov (TF) index on the upper front teeth. Results: A total of 308 adolescents were included in the study. The medium-SES population, which was exposed to 2.5 ppm of fluoride in water, and the low-SES population, which was exposed to 5.1 ppm, presented the following levels of dental fluorosis: TF 2-3 (50%), TF 4-5 (45.6%) and TF 6-7 (4.4%) for medium SES and TF 2-3 (12.3%), TF 4-5 (67.1%) and TF 67 (20.6%) for low SES. A significant association was found between self-perception and dental fluorosis in those with medium and low SESs (p < 0.05). The multiple regression model found differences between TF levels and self-perception, with a 6-7 TF level for concerns about color (OR = 1.6), smile (OR = 1.2) and appearance (OR = 3.36). Conclusions: Self-perceptions of dental fluorosis affect adolescents such that adolescents with a medium SES have more negative perceptions than those with a low SES. Such perceptions increase as the TF index increases.

  7. Impact of Dental Fluorosis, Socioeconomic Status and Self-Perception in Adolescents Exposed to a High Level of Fluoride in Water

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Nevarez-Rascón, Martina; Nevarez-Rascón, Alfredo; González-González, Rogelio; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Sánchez-Pérez, Leonor; López-Verdin, Sandra; Bologna-Molina, Ronell

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To identify adolescents’ self-perception of dental fluorosis from two areas with different socioeconomic levels. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with 15-year-old youths by applying a questionnaire designed and validated to assess self-perceptions of dental fluorosis in two areas with different socioeconomic statuses (SESs). Fluorosis was clinically evaluated by applying the Thylstrup and Fejerkov (TF) index on the upper front teeth. Results: A total of 308 adolescents were included in the study. The medium-SES population, which was exposed to 2.5 ppm of fluoride in water, and the low-SES population, which was exposed to 5.1 ppm, presented the following levels of dental fluorosis: TF 2–3 (50%), TF 4–5 (45.6%) and TF 6–7 (4.4%) for medium SES and TF 2–3 (12.3%), TF 4–5 (67.1%) and TF 67 (20.6%) for low SES. A significant association was found between self-perception and dental fluorosis in those with medium and low SESs (p < 0.05). The multiple regression model found differences between TF levels and self-perception, with a 6–7 TF level for concerns about color (OR = 1.6), smile (OR = 1.2) and appearance (OR = 3.36). Conclusions: Self-perceptions of dental fluorosis affect adolescents such that adolescents with a medium SES have more negative perceptions than those with a low SES. Such perceptions increase as the TF index increases. PMID:28085102

  8. Association of Allergic Rhinitis in Female University Students with Socio-economic Factors and Markers of Estrogens Levels.

    PubMed

    Wronka, I; Kliś, K; Jarzebak, K

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the association of allergic rhinitis in female university students with socio-economic factors and sex-hormone markers, including age at menarche, menstrual disorders, and selected anthropometrics indexes. The research was conducted among 640 female university students, aged 19-25 years. The measurements of body height, body mass, waist and hip circumference were taken. Each person completed a questionnaire. The occurrence of allergy was determined on the basis of answers to the questions whether the allergy and its allergens were defined on the basis of medical workup. We found that a significantly larger number of cases of allergic rhinitis were recorded in the university students coming from families of high socio-economic level than those from lower level. Allergic rhinitis also was more frequent in the students who spent their childhood in cities than in those who lived in the countryside. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis was inversely correlated to the number of siblings. There were no differences in the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in relation to the birth order. The estrogen level seemed unassociated with rhinitis. However, there were slightly more allergic among females with an earlier age of menarche.

  9. Individual-level socioeconomic status and community-level inequality as determinants of stigma towards persons living with HIV who inject drugs in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Travis; Zelaya, Carla; Latkin, Carl; Quan, Vu Minh; Frangakis, Constantine; Ha, Tran Viet; Minh, Nguyen Le; Go, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    Introduction HIV infection may be affected by multiple complex socioeconomic status (SES) factors, especially individual socioeconomic disadvantage and community-level inequality. At the same time, stigma towards HIV and marginalized groups has exacerbated persistent concentrated epidemics among key populations, such as persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Vietnam. Stigma researchers argue that stigma fundamentally depends on the existence of economic power differences in a community. In rapidly growing economies like Vietnam, the increasing gap in income and education levels, as well as an individual's absolute income and education, may create social conditions that facilitate stigma related to injecting drug use and HIV. Methods A cross-sectional baseline survey assessing different types of stigma and key socioeconomic characteristics was administered to 1674 PWID and 1349 community members living in physical proximity throughout the 32 communes in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam. We created four stigma scales, including HIV-related and drug-related stigma reported by both PWID and community members. We then used ecologic Spearman's correlation, ordinary least-squares regression and multi-level generalized estimating equations to examine community-level inequality associations, individual-level SES associations and multi-level SES associations with different types of stigma, respectively. Results There was little urban–rural difference in stigma among communes. Higher income inequality was marginally associated with drug-related stigma reported by community members (p=0.087), and higher education inequality was significantly associated with higher HIV-related stigma reported by both PWID and community members (p<0.05). For individuals, higher education was significantly associated with lower stigma (HIV and drug related) reported by both PWID and community members. Part-time employed PWID reported more experiences and perceptions of drug-related stigma, while

  10. Individual-level socioeconomic status and community-level inequality as determinants of stigma towards persons living with HIV who inject drugs in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Lim, Travis; Zelaya, Carla; Latkin, Carl; Quan, Vu Minh; Frangakis, Constantine; Ha, Tran Viet; Minh, Nguyen Le; Go, Vivian

    2013-11-13

    HIV infection may be affected by multiple complex socioeconomic status (SES) factors, especially individual socioeconomic disadvantage and community-level inequality. At the same time, stigma towards HIV and marginalized groups has exacerbated persistent concentrated epidemics among key populations, such as persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Vietnam. Stigma researchers argue that stigma fundamentally depends on the existence of economic power differences in a community. In rapidly growing economies like Vietnam, the increasing gap in income and education levels, as well as an individual's absolute income and education, may create social conditions that facilitate stigma related to injecting drug use and HIV. A cross-sectional baseline survey assessing different types of stigma and key socioeconomic characteristics was administered to 1674 PWID and 1349 community members living in physical proximity throughout the 32 communes in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam. We created four stigma scales, including HIV-related and drug-related stigma reported by both PWID and community members. We then used ecologic Spearman's correlation, ordinary least-squares regression and multi-level generalized estimating equations to examine community-level inequality associations, individual-level SES associations and multi-level SES associations with different types of stigma, respectively. There was little urban-rural difference in stigma among communes. Higher income inequality was marginally associated with drug-related stigma reported by community members (p=0.087), and higher education inequality was significantly associated with higher HIV-related stigma reported by both PWID and community members (p<0.05). For individuals, higher education was significantly associated with lower stigma (HIV and drug related) reported by both PWID and community members. Part-time employed PWID reported more experiences and perceptions of drug-related stigma, while conversely unemployed community

  11. Spatial, socio-economic, and ecological implications of incorporating minimum size constraints in marine protected area network design.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Kristian; Vaughan, Gregory; Vaz, Sandrine; Smith, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are the cornerstone of most marine conservation strategies, but the effectiveness of each one partly depends on its size and distance to other MPAs in a network. Despite this, current recommendations on ideal MPA size and spacing vary widely, and data are lacking on how these constraints might influence the overall spatial characteristics, socio-economic impacts, and connectivity of the resultant MPA networks. To address this problem, we tested the impact of applying different MPA size constraints in English waters. We used the Marxan spatial prioritization software to identify a network of MPAs that met conservation feature targets, whilst minimizing impacts on fisheries; modified the Marxan outputs with the MinPatch software to ensure each MPA met a minimum size; and used existing data on the dispersal distances of a range of species found in English waters to investigate the likely impacts of such spatial constraints on the region's biodiversity. Increasing MPA size had little effect on total network area or the location of priority areas, but as MPA size increased, fishing opportunity cost to stakeholders increased. In addition, as MPA size increased, the number of closely connected sets of MPAs in networks and the average distance between neighboring MPAs decreased, which consequently increased the proportion of the planning region that was isolated from all MPAs. These results suggest networks containing large MPAs would be more viable for the majority of the region's species that have small dispersal distances, but dispersal between MPA sets and spill-over of individuals into unprotected areas would be reduced. These findings highlight the importance of testing the impact of applying different MPA size constraints because there are clear trade-offs that result from the interaction of size, number, and distribution of MPAs in a network. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Use of SERTS (Socio-Economic, health Resources and Technologic Supplies) models to estimate cancer survival at provincial geographical level.

    PubMed

    Vercelli, Marina; Lillini, Roberto; Capocaccia, Riccardo; Quaglia, Alberto

    2012-12-01

    The main aim of this work is to compute expected cancer survival for Italian provinces by Socio-Economic and health Resources and Technologic Supplies (SERTS) models, based on demographic, socioeconomic variables and information describing the health care system (SEH). Five-year age-standardised relative survival rates by gender for 11 cancer sites and all cancers combined of patients diagnosed in 1995-1999, were obtained from the Italian Association of Cancer Registries (CRs) database. The SEH variables describe at provincial level macro-economy, demography, labour market, health resources in 1995-2005. A principal components factor analysis was applied to the SEH variables to control their strong mutual correlation. For every considered cancer site, linear regression models were estimated considering the 5-RS% as dependent variable and the principal components factors of the SEH variables as independent variables. The model composition was correlated to the characteristics of take in charge of patients. SEH factors were correlated with the observed survival for all cancer combined and colon-rectum in both sexes, prostate, kidney and non Hodgkin's lymphomas in men, breast, corpus uteri and melanoma in women (R(2) from 40% to 85%). In the provinces without any CR the survival was very similar with that of neighbouring provinces with analogous social, economic and health characteristics. The SERTS models allowed us to interpret the survival outcome of oncologic patients with respect to the role of the socio-economic and health related system characteristics, stressing how the peculiarities of the take in charge at the province level could address the decisions regarding the allocation of resources. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Drugs prescribed by general practitioners according to age, gender and socioeconomic status after adjustment for multimorbidity level.

    PubMed

    Skoog, Jessica; Midlöv, Patrik; Beckman, Anders; Sundquist, Jan; Halling, Anders

    2014-11-25

    Age, gender and socioeconomic status have been shown to be associated with the use of prescription drugs, even after adjustment for multimorbidity. General practitioners have a holistic and patient-centred perspective and our hypothesis is that this may reflect on the prescription of drugs. In Sweden the patient may seek secondary care without a letter of referral and the liability of the prescription of drugs accompanies the patient, which makes it suitable for this type of research. In this study we examine the odds of having prescription drug use in the population and the rates of prescription drugs among patients, issued in primary health care, according to age, gender and socioeconomic status after adjustment for multimorbidity level. Data were collected on all individuals above 20 years of age in Östergötland county with about 400 000 inhabitants in year 2006. The John Hopkins ACG Case-mix was used as a proxy for multimorbidity level. Odds ratio (OR) of having prescription drugs issued in primary health care in the population and rates of prescription drug use among patients in primary health care, stated as incidence rate ratio (IRR), according to age, gender and socioeconomic status were calculated and adjusted for multimorbidity. After adjustment for multimorbidity, individuals 80 years or older had higher odds ratio (OR 3.37 (CI 95% 3.22-3.52)) and incidence rate ratio (IRR 6.24 (CI 95% 5.79-6.72)) for prescription drug use. Male individuals had a lower odds ratio of having prescription drugs (OR 0.66 (CI 95% 0.64-0.69)), but among patients males had a slightly higher incidence rate of drug use (IRR 1.06 (CI 95% 1.04-1.09)). Individuals with the highest income had the lowest odds ratio of having prescription drugs and individuals with the second lowest income had the highest odds ratio of having prescription drugs (OR 1.10 (CI 95% 1.07-1.13)). Individuals with the highest education had the lowest odds ratio of having prescription drugs (OR 0.61 (CI 95

  14. Butyltin levels in several Portuguese coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Pedro N; Rodrigues, Pedro Nuno R; Basto, M Clara P; Vasconcelos, M Teresa S D

    2009-12-01

    This work aimed to report present levels (2007-2008 sampling) of tri- (TBT), di- (DBT), and monobutyltin (MBT) in surface sediments from 11 Portuguese coastal sites and discuss the evolution of BTs contamination in the last two decades. All the samples revealed quantifiable values of TBT, DBT, and MBT with total butyltin concentrations between 1 and 565 ng/g (of Sn in dry sediment). Maximum level of TBT, 66 ng/g, was observed in Sado estuary, at Lisnave site, in the proximity of a big shipyard. MBT decreased site by site by the same order as DBT and TBT did, but its concentrations were much higher in many cases, denoting that TBT contamination was much higher in the past. A comparison with the available previous data confirmed a marked decrease of TBT contamination all over the last years, indicating that the main sources of TBT in Portuguese coastwise stopped effectively.

  15. Outdoor NOx and stroke mortality: adjusting for small area level smoking prevalence using a Bayesian approach.

    PubMed

    Maheswaran, Ravi; Haining, Robert P; Pearson, Tim; Law, Jane; Brindley, Paul; Best, Nicola G

    2006-10-01

    There is increasing evidence, mainly from daily time series studies, linking air pollution and stroke. Small area level geographical correlation studies offer another means of examining the air pollution-stroke association. Populations within small areas may be more homogeneous than those within larger areal units, and census-based socioeconomic information may be available to adjust for confounding effects. Data on smoking from health surveys may be incorporated in spatial analyses to adjust for potential confounding effects but may be sparse at the small area level. Smoothing, using data from neighbouring areas, may be used to increase the precision of smoking prevalence estimates for small areas. We examined the effect of modelled outdoor NOx levels on stroke mortality using a Bayesian hierarchical spatial model to incorporate random effects, in order to allow for unmeasured confounders and to acknowledge sampling error in the estimation of smoking prevalence. We observed an association between NOx and stroke mortality after taking into account random effects at the small area level. We found no association between smoking prevalence and stroke mortality at the small area level after modelling took into account imprecision in estimating smoking prevalence. The approach we used to incorporate smoking as a covariate in a single large model is conceptually sound, though it made little difference to the substantive results.

  16. [Socioeconomical level and behavior in school-age children: the mediating role of parents].

    PubMed

    Ulloa Vidal, Natalia; Cova Solar, Félix; Bustos N, Claudio

    2017-06-01

    A determinant of particular relevance in human development is the socioeconomic status (SES) and, specifically, low SES and poverty. Likewise, family environment is essential in the development of children and a potential mediator or moderator of the effect of broader social conditions. To analyze the role of parenting stress as a mediating variable of the relationship between SES and both externalized and internalized behaviors in preschool children. Descriptive secondary base study based on the Longitudinal Survey of Chilean First Infancy that selected a stratified sample, representative by clusters, of 9.996 children from 3 to 5 years old and their caregivers, that completed a battery of instruments for measuring SES variables, parenting stress and externalized and internalized behaviors. The analysis used a linear model with least square estimate. As hypothesis testing, the Dm (an adaptation of the F-test for multiple imputation method) was used. The mediation model of parenting stress in the relationship between SES and both externalized and internalized behaviors was confirmed for the latter; regarding externalized behaviors a model of moderation was observed, being the stress influence lower on the low SES. Parental stress showed a clear relationship with the presence of externalized and internalized behaviors, stronger than the SES. The relationship between SES and parenting stress is very important to understand the processes that affect children’s development.

  17. A comparison of socioeconomic level among hemodialysis patients and normal controls in the fars province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Malekmakan, Leila; Pakfetrat, Maryam; Daneshian, Arghavan; Sayadi, Mehrab

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a public health problem and it is suggested that low socioeconomic status (SES) may increase the risk of renal failure. The aim of this study was to report and compare the SES of hemodialysis patients (HD) and normal population in Shiraz, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated 519 HD patients and 900 normal controls. We asked about SES using a questionnaire. The participants were categorized into three groups according to their SES as low, medium, and high SES. Of the 1419 participants, 454 (31.7%), 581 (40.6%), and 395 (27.6%) were grouped in low, medium, and high SES, respectively. Most of our normal controls (43.5%) were in the medium SES group and most of the HD patients (61.3%) were in the low SES group. HD patients had a significantly lower SES score than the normal population (P <0.001). A pattern of decrease in the child number and increase in the marital age was seen associated with a rise in SES status among the two groups. In contrast with the control population, a pattern of increasing age was seen in the HD patients with a higher SES status (P = 0.038). In conclusion, SES was significantly lower in HD patients than the normal population. People with CKD and limited education or lower income should be targeted for early intervention.

  18. Cost-analysis of an oral health outreach program for preschool children in a low socioeconomic multicultural area in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Wennhall, Inger; Norlund, Anders; Matsson, Lars; Twetman, Svante

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to calculate the total and the net costs per child included in a 3-year caries preventive program for preschool children and to make estimates of expected lowest and highest costs in a sensitivity analysis. The direct costs for prevention and dental care were applied retrospectively to a comprehensive oral health outreach project for preschool children conducted in a low-socioeconomic multi-cultural urban area. The outcome was compared with historical controls from the same area with conventional dental care. The cost per minute for the various dental professions was added to the cost of materials, rental facilities and equipment based on accounting data. The cost for fillings was extracted from a specified per diem list. Overhead costs were assumed to correspond to 50% of salaries and all costs were calculated as net present value per participating child in the program and expressed in Euro. The results revealed an estimated total cost of 310 Euro per included child (net present value) in the 3-year program. Half of the costs were attributed to the first year of the program and the costs of manpower constituted 45% of the total costs. When the total cost was reduced with the cost of conventional care and the revenue of avoided fillings, the net cost was estimated to 30 Euro. A sensitivity analysis displayed that a net gain could be possible with a maximal outcome of the program. In conclusion, the estimated net costs were displayed and available to those considering implementation of a similar population-based preventive program in areas where preschool children are at high caries risk.

  19. Spatio-Temporal Pattern and Socio-Economic Factors of Bacillary Dysentery at County Level in Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yue; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Lei; Lv, Qiang; Yin, Fei

    2015-10-15

    Bacillary dysentery (BD) remains a big public health problem in China. Effective spatio-temporal monitoring of BD incidence is important for successful implementation of control and prevention measures. This study aimed to examine the spatio-temporal pattern of BD and analyze socio-economic factors that may affect BD incidence in Sichuan province, China. Firstly, we used space-time scan statistic to detect the high risk spatio-temporal clusters in each year. Then, bivariate spatial correlation and Bayesian spatio-temporal model were utilized to examine the associations between the socio-economic factors and BD incidence. Spatio-temporal clusters of BD were mainly located in the northern-southern belt of the midwest area of Sichuan province. The proportion of primary industry, the proportion of rural population and the rates of BD incidence show statistically significant positive correlation. The proportion of secondary industry, proportion of tertiary Industry, number of beds in hospitals per thousand persons, medical and technical personnel per thousand persons, per capital GDP and the rate of BD incidence show statistically significant negative correlation. The best fitting spatio-temporal model showed that medical and technical personnel per thousand persons and per capital GDP were significantly negative related to the risk of BD.

  20. Health status and socio-economic factors associated with health facility utilization in rural and urban areas in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstracts Background With regards to equity, the objective for health care systems is “equal access for equal needs”. We examined associations of predisposing, enabling and need factors with health facility utilization in areas with high HIV prevalence and few people being aware of their HIV status. Methods The data is from a population-based survey among adults aged 15years or older conducted in 2003. The current study is based on a subset of this data of adults 15–49 years with a valid HIV test result. A modified Health behaviour model guided our analytical approach. We report unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals from logistic regression analyses. Results Totals of 1042 males and 1547 females in urban areas, and 822 males and 1055 females in rural areas were included in the study. Overall, 53.1% of urban and 56.8% of rural respondents utilized health facilities past 12 months. In urban areas, significantly more females than males utilized health facilities (OR=1.4 (95% CI [1.1, 1.6]). Higher educational attainment (10+ years of schooling) was associated with utilization of health facilities in both urban (OR=1.7, 95% CI [1.3, 2.1]) and rural (OR=1.4, 95% CI [1.0, 2.0]) areas compared to respondents who attained up to 7 years of schooling. Respondents who self-rated their health status as very poor/ poor/fair were twice more likely to utilize health facilities compared to those who rated their health as good/excellent. Respondents who reported illnesses were about three times more likely to utilize health facilities compared to those who did not report the illnesses. In urban areas, respondents who had mental distress were 1.7 times more likely to utilize health facilities compare to those who had no mental distress. Compared to respondents who were HIV negative, respondents who were HIV positive were 1.3 times more likely to utilize health facilities. Conclusion The health care needs were the factors most strongly

  1. Statistical Assessment of Neighborhood Socioeconomic Deprivation Environment in Spatial Epidemiologic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Min; Struthers, James; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation has been associated with health behaviors and outcomes. However, neighborhood socioeconomic status has been measured inconsistently across studies. It remains unclear whether appropriate socioeconomic indicators vary over geographic areas and geographic levels. The aim of this study is to compare the composite socioeconomic index to six socioeconomic indicators reflecting different aspects of socioeconomic environment by both geographic areas and levels. Using 2000 U.S. Census data, we performed a multivariate common factor analysis to identify significant socioeconomic resources and constructed 12 composite indexes at the county, the census tract, and the block group levels across the nation and for three states, respectively. We assessed the agreement between composite indexes and single socioeconomic variables. The component of the composite index varied across geographic areas. At a specific geographic region, the component of the composite index was similar at the levels of census tracts and block groups but different from that at the county level. The percentage of population below federal poverty line was a significant contributor to the composite index, regardless of geographic areas and levels. Compared with non-component socioeconomic indicators, component variables were more agreeable to the composite index. Based on these findings, we conclude that a composite index is better as a measure of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation than a single indicator, and it should be constructed on an area- and unit-specific basis to accurately identify and quantify small-area socioeconomic inequalities over a specific study region. PMID:27413589

  2. Effect of socioeconomic status as measured by education level on survival in breast cancer clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Herndon, James E; Kornblith, Alice B; Holland, Jimmie C; Paskett, Electra D

    2013-02-01

    This paper aims to investigate the effect of socioeconomic status, as measured by education, on the survival of breast cancer patients treated on 10 studies conducted by the Cancer and Leukemia Group B. Sociodemographic data, including education, were reported by the patient at trial enrollment. Cox proportional hazards model stratified by treatment arm/study was used to examine the effect of education on survival among patients with early stage and metastatic breast cancer, after adjustment for known prognostic factors. The patient population included 1020 patients with metastatic disease and 5146 patients with early stage disease. Among metastatic patients, factors associated with poorer survival in the final multivariable model included African American race, never married, negative estrogen receptor status, prior hormonal therapy, visceral involvement, and bone involvement. Among early stage patients, significant factors associated with poorer survival included African American race, separated/widowed, post/perimenopausal, negative/unknown estrogen receptor status, negative progesterone receptor status, >4 positive nodes, tumor diameter >2 cm, and education. Having not completed high school was associated with poorer survival among early stage patients. Among metastatic patients, non-African American women who lacked a high school degree had poorer survival than other non-African American women, and African American women who lacked a high school education had better survival than educated African American women. Having less than a high school education is a risk factor for death among patients with early stage breast cancer who participated in a clinical trial, with its impact among metastatic patients being less clear. Post-trial survivorship plans need to focus on women with low social status, as measured by education. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Impact of medical student origins on the likelihood of ultimately practicing in areas of low vs high socio-economic status.

    PubMed

    Puddey, Ian B; Playford, Denese E; Mercer, Annette

    2017-01-05

    Medical schools are in general over-represented by students from high socio-economic status backgrounds. The University of Western Australia Medical School has been progressively widening the participation of students from a broader spectrum of the community both through expanded selection criteria and quota-based approaches for students of rural, indigenous and other socio-educationally disadvantaged backgrounds. We proposed that medical students entering medical school from such backgrounds would ultimately be more likely to practice in areas of increased socio-economic disadvantage. The current practice address of 2829 medical students who commenced practice from 1980 to 2011 was ascertained from the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency (AHPRA) Database. Logistic regression was utilised to determine the predictors of the likelihood of the current practice address being in the lower 8 socio-economic deciles versus the top 2 socio-economic deciles. Those who were categorised in the lower 8 socio-economic deciles at entry to medical school had increased odds of a current practice address in the lower 8 socio-economic deciles 5 or more years after graduation (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.72, 2.45, P < 0.001). Other positive univariate predictors included age at medical degree completion (for those 25 years or older vs those 24 years or younger OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.27, 1.84, P < 0.001), being female (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.07, 1.48, P = 0.005) and having a general practice versus specialist qualification (OR 4.16, 95% CI 3.33, 5.19, P < 0.001). Negative predictors included having attended an independent school vs a government school (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.64, 0.92, P < 0.001) or being originally from overseas vs being born in Oceania (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.67, 0.96, P = 0.017). After adjustment for potential confounders in multivariate logistic regression, those in the lower 8 socio-economic deciles at entry to medical school still had increased odds of

  4. Seasonal variations of all-cause and cause-specific mortality by age, gender, and socioeconomic condition in urban and rural areas of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mortality exhibits seasonal variations, which to a certain extent can be considered as mid-to long-term influences of meteorological conditions. In addition to atmospheric effects, the seasonal pattern of mortality is shaped by non-atmospheric determinants such as environmental conditions or socioeconomic status. Understanding the influence of season and other factors is essential when seeking to implement effective public health measures. The pressures of climate change make an understanding of the interdependencies between season, climate and health especially important. Methods This study investigated daily death counts collected within the Sample Vital Registration System (VSRS) established by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS). The sample was stratified by location (urban vs. rural), gender and socioeconomic status. Furthermore, seasonality was analyzed for all-cause mortality, and several cause-specific mortalities. Daily deviation from average mortality was calculated and seasonal fluctuations were elaborated using non parametric spline smoothing. A seasonality index for each year of life was calculated in order to assess the age-dependency of seasonal effects. Results We found distinctive seasonal variations of mortality with generally higher levels during the cold season. To some extent, a rudimentary secondary summer maximum could be observed. The degree and shape of seasonality changed with the cause of death as well as with location, gender, and SES and was strongly age-dependent. Urban areas were seen to be facing an increased summer mortality peak, particularly in terms of cardiovascular mortality. Generally, children and the elderly faced stronger seasonal effects than youths and young adults. Conclusion This study clearly demonstrated the complex and dynamic nature of seasonal impacts on mortality. The modifying effect of spatial and population characteristics were highlighted. While tropical regions have been, and still are

  5. Activity levels in pregnant New Zealand women: relationship with socioeconomic factors, well-being, anthropometric measures, and birth outcome.

    PubMed

    Watson, Patricia E; McDonald, Barry W

    2007-08-01

    Activity during pregnancy has health implications for mother and child. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to examine changes in activity levels during pregnancy; the influence of socioeconomic factors and well-being on activity, and the influence of activity on maternal anthropometric measures and birth outcome. Twenty-four hour activity diaries were collected for 3 d in months 4 and 7 of pregnancy in 197 volunteers. Anthropometric measures and questionnaires to determine personal details were collected at these times and 2 months post-partum. Health records were used to supply infant measures. The time spent on each activity category was calculated, and used to calculate overall daily metabolic equivalents (METs). Low socioeconomic (SES) group 24 h activity levels were significantly higher than for high SES or welfare groups (p = 0.013). Activity declined throughout pregnancy in all groups (p = 0.002). Women with children had higher 24 h activity, spending 41% more time walking and (or) on housework than nulliparous women (p = 0.013). Reduced well-being was associated with lower levels of activity. Sleep and lying down time influenced 2 month post-partum body mass (upper quartile gained 2.54 kg, lower quartile lost 0.24 kg, p < 0.001). Mean infant gestational age increased with increasing 24 h activity (p = 0.047). No infants were born prematurely to mothers who spent more than 190 min/d walking or doing housework activities in month 4. Probability of infant admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) declined with time spent walking or doing housework in month 4 (p = 0.007). Mean (SE) birth weight was 3883 (+/-165) g in the 10% of women spending less than 530 min sleeping or lying down per day, compared with 3413 (+/-104) g in the 10% of women spending 725 min or more sleeping or lying down. Socioeconomic factors were therefore important influences on activity levels during pregnancy. Inactivity, especially in early pregnancy, was associated

  6. Childhood Socioeconomic Position and Objectively Measured Physical Capability Levels in Adulthood: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Richard M.; Kuh, Diana; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Alvarado, Beatriz E.; Bayer, Antony; Christensen, Kaare; Cho, Sung-il; Cooper, Cyrus; Corley, Janie; Craig, Leone; Deary, Ian J.; Demakakos, Panayotes; Ebrahim, Shah; Gallacher, John; Gow, Alan J.; Gunnell, David; Haas, Steven; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Inskip, Hazel; Jang, Soong-nang; Noronha, Kenya; Osler, Merete; Palloni, Alberto; Rasmussen, Finn; Santos-Eggimann, Brigitte; Spagnoli, Jacques; Starr, John; Steptoe, Andrew; Syddall, Holly; Tynelius, Per; Weir, David; Whalley, Lawrence J.; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Hardy, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Background Grip strength, walking speed, chair rising and standing balance time are objective measures of physical capability that characterise current health and predict survival in older populations. Socioeconomic position (SEP) in childhood may influence the peak level of physical capability achieved in early adulthood, thereby affecting levels in later adulthood. We have undertaken a systematic review with meta-analyses to test the hypothesis that adverse childhood SEP is associated with lower levels of objectively measured physical capability in adulthood. Methods and Findings Relevant studies published by May 2010 were identified through literature searches using EMBASE and MEDLINE. Unpublished results were obtained from study investigators. Results were provided by all study investigators in a standard format and pooled using random-effects meta-analyses. 19 studies were included in the review. Total sample sizes in meta-analyses ranged from N = 17,215 for chair rise time to N = 1,061,855 for grip strength. Although heterogeneity was detected, there was consistent evidence in age adjusted models that lower childhood SEP was associated with modest reductions in physical capability levels in adulthood: comparing the lowest with the highest childhood SEP there was a reduction in grip strength of 0.13 standard deviations (95% CI: 0.06, 0.21), a reduction in mean walking speed of 0.07 m/s (0.05, 0.10), an increase in mean chair rise time of 6% (4%, 8%) and an odds ratio of an inability to balance for 5s of 1.26 (1.02, 1.55). Adjustment for the potential mediating factors, adult SEP and body size attenuated associations greatly. However, despite this attenuation, for walking speed and chair rise time, there was still evidence of moderate associations. Conclusions Policies targeting socioeconomic inequalities in childhood may have additional benefits in promoting the maintenance of independence in later life. PMID:21297868

  7. Epidemiology of Toxocara canis in the dog population from two areas of different socioeconomic status, Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rubel, D; Zunino, G; Santillán, G; Wisnivesky, C

    2003-07-29

    Toxocara canis infection in dogs is a public health problem in most countries, although it has been poorly documented in many of them. The main objective of the present work was to investigate the epidemiology of infection in the canine populations from two areas of Buenos Aires of different socioeconomic status and urban conditions: a middle-income neighbourhood (MIN) and a low-income neighbourhood (LIN). This study evaluated the prevalence of infection in dogs by parasitological and serological techniques in both areas, and described the relationship between the infection and different epidemiological variables for each neighbourhood. A cross-sectional study was carried out after a house-to-house census was completed. During August 1999, a sample of households was selected at random (nMIN=53 and nPA=52). In each house, one dog was randomly chosen for the collection of fresh faeces and blood. The dog owners were interviewed utilising a questionnaire about dogs on sex, recent anthelmintic treatment, degree of confinement, control by the dog's owner (whether the dog goes out of the house accompanied or not, leashed or unleashed), defecation site, defecation substratum and number of dogs in the house. The diagnostic techniques were concentration-sedimentation formalin/ether method and ELISA test. The parasitological prevalences in dogs were 9% (5/53) in MIN and 19% (10/52) in LIN, and serological prevalences were 22% (2/9) in MIN and 40% (15/37) in LIN. In MIN, the patent infection of males was significantly higher than that of females. In LIN, puppies less than 1 year old were the most prevalent age class. Our serological results showed that the positivity of adult dogs was more frequent in LIN than in MIN. The density of puppies with patent infection was seven times higher in LIN than in MIN, when combining coprological analysis and the estimated age structure obtained by the census.

  8. The contribution of biogeographical ancestry and socioeconomic status to racial/ethnic disparities in type 2 diabetes mellitus: results from the Boston Area Community Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, Rebecca S; Pearce, Neil; Araujo, Andre B; McKinlay, John B

    2014-09-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are well documented, and many researchers have proposed that biogeographical ancestry (BGA) may play a role in these disparities. However, studies examining the role of BGA on T2DM have produced mixed results to date. Therefore, the objective of this research was to quantify the contribution of BGA to racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM incidence controlling for the mediating influences of socioeconomic factors. We analyzed data from the Boston Area Community Health Survey, a prospective cohort with approximately equal numbers of black, Hispanic, and white participants. We used 63 ancestry-informative markers to calculate the percentages of participants with West African and Native American ancestry. We used logistic regression with G-computation to analyze the contribution of BGA and socioeconomic factors to racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM incidence. We found that socioeconomic factors accounted for 44.7% of the total effect of T2DM attributed to black race and 54.9% of the effect attributed to Hispanic ethnicity. We found that BGA had almost no direct association with T2DM and was almost entirely mediated by self-identified race/ethnicity and socioeconomic factors. It is likely that nongenetic factors, specifically socioeconomic factors, account for much of the reported racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM incidence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Contribution of Biogeographic Ancestry and Socioeconomic Status to Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Type 2 Diabetes: Results from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey

    PubMed Central

    Piccolo, Rebecca S.; Pearce, Neil; Araujo, Andre B.; McKinlay, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Racial/ethnic disparities in the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are well documented and many researchers have proposed that biogeographical ancestry (BGA) may play a role in these disparities. However, studies examining the role of BGA on T2DM have produced mixed results to date. Therefore, the objective of this research is to quantify the contribution of BGA to racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM incidence controlling for the mediating influences of socioeconomic factors. Methods We analyzed data from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey, a prospective cohort with approximately equal numbers of Black, Hispanic, and White participants. We used Ancestry Informative Markers to calculate the percentages of West African and Native American ancestry of participants. We used logistic regression with g-computation to analyze the contribution of BGA and socioeconomic factors to racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM incidence. Results We found that socioeconomic factors accounted for 44.7% of the total effect of T2DM attributed to Black race and 54.9% of the effect attributed to Hispanic ethnicity. We found that BGA had almost no direct association with T2DM and was almost entirely mediated by self-identified race/ethnicity and socioeconomic factors. Conclusions It is likely that non-genetic factors, specifically socioeconomic factors, account for much of the reported racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM incidence. PMID:25088753

  10. A Cohort Study Evaluating the Implications of Biology, Weight Status and Socioeconomic Level on Global Self-Esteem Competence Among Female African-American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Powell-Young, Yolanda M.; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Velasco-Gonzalez, Cruz; Sothern, Melinda S.

    2014-01-01

    The link between obesity and self-esteem among minority youth has received minimal empirical evaluation. This study aims to describe the magnitude of risk that body mass index, household income, and transitional age have on global self-esteem levels among African-American adolescents. These analyses were conducted on cross-sectional data obtained from 264 urban-dwelling African-American females between 14 and 18 years of age. Survey data on global self-esteem levels, transitory age, and socioeconomic levels were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Measured height and weight values were used to calculate and categorize weight status according to body mass index. Logistic regression models examined the probability of reporting less than average levels of global self-esteem. Adolescent African-American females residing in low-income households were 10 times more likely to report lower global self-esteem scores than those individuals from more affluent households (95% CI: 1.94, 60.19, p < .001). Neither weight status (95% CI: 0.81, 2.55; p = .26) nor age (95% CI: 0.05, 1.87; p = .82) were significant risk indicators for lower than average levels of global self-esteem among participants in this study. Household income appears to be the greatest predictor of global self-esteem levels. Further research in this area is needed to fully elucidate precursors for psychological health vulnerability and facilitate intervention development. PMID:24218867

  11. A cohort study evaluating the implications of biology, weight status and socioeconomic level on global self-esteem competence among female African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Powell-Young, Yolanda M; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Velasco-Gonzalez, Cruz; Sothern, Melinda S

    2013-07-01

    The link between obesity and self-esteem among minority youth has received minimal empirical evaluation. This study aims to describe the magnitude of risk that body mass index, household income, and transitional age have on global self-esteem levels among African-American adolescents. These analyses were conducted on cross-sectional data obtained from 264 urban-dwelling African-American females between 14 and 18 years of age. Survey data on global self-esteem levels, transitory age, and socioeconomic levels were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Measured height and weight values were used to calculate and categorize weight status according to body mass index. Logistic regression models examined the probability of reporting less than average levels of global self-esteem. Adolescent African-American females residing in low-income households were 10 times more likely to report lower global self-esteem scores than those individuals from more affluent households (95% CI: 1.94, 60.19, p < .001). Neither weight status (95% CI: 0.81, 2.55; p = .26) nor age (95% CI: 0.05, 1.87; p = .82) were significant risk indicators for lower than average levels of global self-esteem among participants in this study. Household income appears to be the greatest predictor of global self-esteem levels. Further research in this area is needed to fully elucidate precursors for psychological health vulnerability and facilitate intervention development.

  12. 7. Level 7 conveyor area. Stub shoring under bin to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Level 7 conveyor area. Stub shoring under bin to apron feeder. - Kennecott Copper Corporation, Concentration Mill, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  13. The Role of Curricular Approach, Rural-Urban Background, and Socioeconomic Status in Second Language Learning: The Cornwall Area Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, M.; Barik, H. C.

    1978-01-01

    Presenting evaluation results of a kindergarten bilingual education program and followup program, this article indicates French immersion can be effective among rural and urban students of both middle-upper and low socioeconomic status. (JC)

  14. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN BODY COMPOSITION, SOMATOTYPE AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS IN CHILEAN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS AT DIFFERENT SCHOOL LEVELS.

    PubMed

    Lizana, Pablo A; González, Sofia; Lera, Lydia; Leyton, Bárbara

    2017-02-27

    This study examined the association between body composition, somatotype and socioeconomic status (SES) in Chilean children and adolescents by sex and school level (grade). The cross-sectional study was conducted on 1168 schoolchildren aged 6-18 years (572 males) from Valparaíso, Chile. Body composition, as assessed by percentage body fat (BF%) and somatotype, was evaluated using Ellis equations and the Heath-Carter method, respectively. The socioeconomic status of respondents was assessed using the ESOMAR survey. Obesity was defined as BF% ≥25 for boys and ≥30 for girls; 'high endomorph' somatotype was defined as a somatotype endomorph component (EC) of at least 5.5. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between high adiposity and SES, potential confounding factors and school level. In females, the results indicated that the groups with lower SES had higher EC. At the 1st (youngest) school level (1-4th grades), males exhibited similar trends in their BF% and EC. High adiposity was associated with the female sex (BF%: OR=3.39; 95% CI 2.60, 4.41; high EC: OR=2.31; 95% CI 1.80, 2.98). In addition, low SES increased the risk of high adiposity compared with high SES (BF%: OR=2.25; 95% CI 1.40, 3.61; high EC: OR=2.19; 95% CI 1.37, 3.47). An association was observed between increased adiposity and lower SES, mainly in females, which indicates that females with low SES might be at greater risk of obesity.

  15. Socioeconomic status in children is associated with hair cortisol levels as a biological measure of chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Vliegenthart, J; Noppe, G; van Rossum, E F C; Koper, J W; Raat, H; van den Akker, E L T

    2016-03-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) may be associated with a high risk of lifestyle-related diseases such as cardiovascular diseases. There is a strong association between parental SES, stress and indicators of child health and adult health outcome. The exact mechanisms underlying this association have not yet been fully clarified. Low SES may be associated with chronic stress, which may lead to activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, resulting in a higher circulating level of the stress hormone cortisol. Therefore, chronic stress may mediate the association between low SES and elevated cortisol levels and its adverse outcomes. We investigated whether SES was associated with a chronic measure of cortisol exposure in a child population. Cortisol and cortisone were measured in scalp hair in 270 children and adolescents, aged 4-18 years, enrolled through school visits. Neighborhood level SES was based on a score developed by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research using postal codes, and this includes neighborhood measures of income education and unemployment. Maternal and paternal education level were used as indicators of family SES. Neighborhood level socioeconomic status score was significantly associated with hair cortisol (β=-0.103, p=0.007, 95%CI [-0.179, -0.028]) and hair cortisone (β=-0.091, p=0.023, 95%CI [-0.167, -0.015]), adjusted for age and sex. Additionally, hair cortisol was significantly correlated with maternal education level and hair cortisone was significantly correlated with paternal education level. The results of our study suggest that the widely shown association between low family SES and adverse child health outcomes may be mediated by chronic stress, given the chronically higher levels of cortisol in children and adolescents in families with low SES. It is especially notable that the association between SES and cortisol was already found in children of young age as this can have major consequences, such as increased

  16. Correlates of Creativity in Children from Two Socioeconomic Levels. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasi, Anne

    The two studies reported here investigate the role of experiential factors in the development of creative thinking of children and adolescents. The first assigned 400 male students from six high schools in the New York metropolitan area to four criterion groups of 100 each: (1) Creative Art or Writing, (2) Creative/ Scientific, (3) Control Art or…

  17. Geo-statistical modeling to evaluate the socio-economic impacts of households in the context of low-lying areas conversion in Colombo metropolitan region-Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemakumara, GPTS; Rainis, Ruslan

    2015-02-01

    Living in Low-lying areas is a challenging task, but due to the lack of suitable land at affordable prices, thousands of householders have been establishing their own houses on Low-lying areas. Manipulation and conversion of low lying areas have led to an increase in the frequency and severity of micro disasters because the cumulative effect of these settlements is very high. Therefore, it is needed to examine how individual households have been emerging in Low-lying areas. This process is primarily influenced and controlled by Socio-economic factors. In the field survey conducted for this study, 388 householders were interviewed face to face to obtain the primary data. Collected data were applied to the Multivariate binary logistic Model. The Dependent variable of the model was set as Stable Houses and Non-Stable Houses based on the weighted values that were obtained from the field observations. Independent variables of this study are nine key aspects of the socio-economic conditions in these areas. Units of analysis of the study were taken as individual housing plots in the study area. The particular combination of Socio-Economic factors that exerted influence on each housing plot was measured using predicted probability value of logistic model and linked it with GIS land plot's map. Accuracy of Final Model is 86.9 % and probability level of influencing factors given a clear idea about household distribution and status while providing guidance about how the planning authorities should monitor and manage low lying areas, taking into consideration the present housing condition of these areas.

  18. The effect of socioeconomic and individual factors on acceptance levels of bariatric surgery among Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hui; Liu, Yun; Miao, Yi; Wu, Honghao; Yang, Simei; Guan, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has been increasing over the past years in China. Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment that has been gradually accepted by obese patients. This study explored the effect of different factors on the acceptance levels of bariatric surgery. A total of 186 obese patients (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 32 kg/m(2)) answered a questionnaire, including questions about their marital status, income level, education level, health insurance, and obesity-associated co-morbidities; 84 of these patients underwent bariatric surgery. The data was analyzed using the χ(2) test. Univariate analyses found that age, BMI, gluttonous behavior, income level, health insurance, medications, and weight loss expectations were correlated with the acceptance of bariatric surgery. Multivariate analyses found that BMI (P = .034) and weight loss expectations (P = .001) were positively correlated with the acceptance of bariatric surgery. Patients with gluttonous behavior accepted bariatric surgery (P = .003). However, income levels (P<.001) and health insurance (P = .001) were negatively correlated with the acceptance of bariatric surgery. Obesity was more prevalent in families of low social status and income levels; this group requires medical assistance, and education is still necessary for obese individuals of high social status and income levels. © 2013 American Society for Bariatric Surgery Published by American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery All rights reserved.

  19. Integration of data from censuses and remote sensing to measure the socio-economic and environmental evolution in urban areas: case of the city of Sherbrooke (1981-2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dari, Ouassini

    The urban environment is complex, heterogeneous and temporally changeable. Man is the main actor in the transformation of urban areas where he interacts with intensity. Spatial differentiation is a result of human occupation in the urban environment. This occupation may vary according to land use, population density, social and economic characteristics and environment. This leads us to say that the socio-economic and environmental indicators change according to the various locations in the urban area and through time. Our goal is to measure the socio-economic and environmental changes in the urban area of the city of Sherbrooke using remote sensing data synchronized with the censuses and that we will then integrate into the geographic information system (GIS). We have used data from the 1981 and 2006 censuses, 1983 aerial photos, 2007 orthophotos and 1983 MSS and 2006 Ikons satellite images to measure the socio-economic and environmental changes in the city of Sherbrooke. We have used spatial analysis tools to integrate image data with census data. The methods uses such as global indices, principal component analysis combined with the variation between the two dates have yielded interesting results. The first factor in principal component analysis with orthogonal rotation (Varimax) justified a substantial percentage of the variance in global indices. The use of dissemination areas resulted in detailed information on the change in the city. From the perspective of spatial distribution, we noted a major difference between the central areas and the peripheral areas in 1981 and 2006. From the perspective of evolution between 1981 and 2006, we observed that are positive and negative changes at various levels took place. We also observed the evolution of ethnicity in the Sherbrooke city and Lennoxville municipality. The study showed that the French population is prevalent in the old city of Sherbrooke as the English population is prevalent in Lennoxville. The European

  20. Effect of Individual and District-level Socioeconomic Disparities on Cognitive Decline in Community-dwelling Elderly in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Kim, Geon Ha; Lee, Hye Ah; Park, Hyesook; Lee, Dong Young; Jo, Inho; Choi, Seong Hye; Choi, Kyoung Gyu; Jeong, Jee Hyang

    2017-09-01

    This study was to investigate the effects of individual and district-level socioeconomic status (SES) on the development of cognitive impairment among the elderly. A 3-year retrospective observational analysis (2010-2013) was conducted which included 136,217 community-dwelling healthy elderly who participated in the Seoul Dementia Management Project. Cognitive impairment was defined as 1.5 standard deviations below the norms on the Mini-mental status examination. In the individual lower SES group, the cumulative incidence rate (CIR) of cognitive impairment was 8.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.64-8.70), whereas the CIR in the individual higher SES group was 4.1% (95% CI, 4.08-4.10). The CIR for lower district-level SES was 4.7% (95% CI, 4.52-4.86), while that in the higher district-level SES was 4.3% (95% CI, 4.06-4.44). There were no additive or synergistic effects between individual and district-level SES. From this study, the individual SES contributed 1.9 times greater to the development of cognitive impairment than the district-level SES, which suggests that individual SES disparities could be considered as one of the important factors in public health related to cognitive impairment in the elderly. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  1. Blood lead (Pb) levels: a potential environmental mechanism explaining the relation between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular reactivity in children.

    PubMed

    Gump, Brooks B; Reihman, Jacki; Stewart, Paul; Lonky, Ed; Darvill, Tom; Matthews, Karen A

    2007-05-01

    A number of studies have shown an association between socioeconomic status (SES) and cardiovascular reactivity to acute stress. In addition, the authors recently reported that higher early childhood blood lead (Pb) levels are associated with significantly greater total peripheral (vascular) resistance (TPR) responses to acute stress. It is not known whether the SES-TPR association is mediated by underlying differences in blood lead levels. Participants were 9.5-year-old children (N=122) with established early childhood blood lead levels. Family SES was measured using the Hollingshead Index, blood lead levels were abstracted from pediatrician and state records, and children's cardiovascular responses to acute stressors were measured in the laboratory with impedance cardiography and an automated blood pressure monitor. Lower family SES was shown to be associated with significantly higher blood lead levels as well as significantly heightened systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and TPR responses to acute stress tasks. A mediational analysis confirmed that Pb was a significant mediator of the SES-TPR reactivity association; some evidence also suggested moderation. These results suggest the importance of considering the chemical environment as well as social and psychological environment when evaluating cardiovascular effects of low SES. Copyright (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. [Socio-economic impact at the household level of the health consequences of toxic waste discharge in Abidjan in 2006].

    PubMed

    Koné, B A; Tiembré, I; Dongo, K; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J; Cissé, G

    2011-02-01

    In August 2006, toxic wastes were discharged in the district of Abidjan, causing important health consequences in many households in the area. In order to appreciate the socio-economic impact of the consequences of toxic waste discharge on the households and of the measures taken by the authorities to deal with this catastrophe, and to appreciate the spatial extent of the pollution, we undertook a multidisciplinary transversal investigation at the sites of discharge of oxic waste, from October the 19th to December the 8th, 2006, using a transect sampling methodology. This paper presents the results related to the socio-economic aspects of the survey while the environmental and epidemiological results are presented in two other published papers. The socioeconomics investigation, conducted using a questionnaire, concerned 809 households across the various sites of discharge of toxic waste. More than 62% of households had at least one person who had been affected by toxic waste (affected households). 62.47% of these households were in Cocody district (with 2 sites and 4 points of discharge), 30.14% in Abobo district (with 2 sites and 3 points) and 7.39% in Koumassi district (with 1 site and 1 point). To escape the bad smell and the nuisance, 22.75% of the 501 "affected" households had left their houses. To face the health consequences generated by the toxic waste, 30.54% of the "affected" households engaged expenses. Those were on average of 92 450 FCFA (€141), with a minimum of 1 000 FCFA (€1.5) and a maximum of 1500000 FCFA (€2.287), in spite of the advertisement of the exemption from payment treatment fees made by the government. The decision of destroying cultures and farms near the points of discharge of the toxic products in a radius of 200 meters, taken by the authorities, touched 2.22% of the households. For these households, it did nothing but worsen their state of poverty, since the zone of influence of the toxic waste went well beyond the 200 meters

  3. [Fatty acids in mature breast milk from low socioeconomic levels of Venezuelan women: influence of temperature and time of storage].

    PubMed

    Bosch, Virgilio; Golfetto, Iván; Alonso, Hilda; Laurentin, Zuly; Materan, Mercedes; García, Ninoska

    2009-03-01

    Fatty acids in mature breast milk from low socioeconomic levels of Venezuelan women: influence of temperature and time of storage. Breast milk is the main food in infants from birth until six months old. It is important to know if precarious life conditions could limit some nutrients in mother's milk. The objective of this study is to evaluate the total fat and essential long chain fatty acids in mature breast milk from low socioeconomic levels in Venezuelan women. The values of total fat (3.56 +/- 1.18 g/%) are similar that reported in the literature, however the sume of LC-PUFA n-3 was 0.3 +/- 0.04% which is related whith low n-3 fatty acid maternal diet.The sume LC-PUFA n-3 contained in this study is below most of the reviewed publications. The average amount of 22:6 n-3 in breast milk offered to newborn one month old (750 ml/day) is below estimated requirements (70 mg/day). The majority of these samples provide to the infants, the amount of DHA estimated as convenient to sustain normal growth. Also it was explored how the time (8h to 24 h) and temperatura (+4 degrees C, +15 degrees C, and +25 degrees C) can affect its composition. This data will permit to select the best condiitions of sampling and storage of mother's milk in future investigations in different regions of Venezuela. Most of the breast milk fatty acids tolerate some hours at room temperature (25 degrees C) but essential long chain fatty acids are very vulnerable. We propose that, in consequence, that samples should be transported in sterile conditions in dry ice to the laboratory in a few hours and should be kept at -70 degrees C until their analysis.

  4. [RIU project: perceived changes by health agents and professionals after a health intervention in an urban area of socioeconomic disadvantage].

    PubMed

    Aviñó, Dory; Paredes-Carbonell, Joan J; Peiró-Pérez, Rosana; La Parra Casado, Daniel; Álvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2014-12-01

    To describe how health agents and professionals working in a community project perceive the changes related to the population health status and their use of health-care services after the RIU intervention in an urban area of socioeconomic disadvantage. A qualitative descriptive study based on individual and group interviews and participant observation conducted between October 2008-July 2009. Raval (Algemesí-Valencia) We selected by purposive sample 7 women health agents, all persons who completed the intervention, and 10 professionals for their involvement in the intervention. We conducted a group interview with the women at 6 months and a group and 7 individuals interviews both at 9 months of intervention. We realized a thematic descriptive analysis from health promotion framework. We used participant observation in a meeting with professionals at 9 months and analyzed field notes as: appraisal project, detected changes, challenges and recommendations. Women acquired information about health, contraception, pregnancy and heath services; they noted changes in self-care and social skills and leadership; they internalized the role of health worker disseminating what they learned and showed improvement in self-esteem and social recognition. They caused changes in the people related on health care and access to services. Professionals didn't incorporate at their work the community perspective; they valued positively the project; professionals and women agreed on improving access and use of services and closeness population-professionals. RIU increases the capabilities of the participants, their social recognition and improves access and use of health services. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Secular trends and predictors of mortality in acute lymphoblastic leukemia for children of low socioeconomic level in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Viana, Simone Santana; de Lima, Leyla Manoella Maurício Rodrigues; do Nascimento, Juliana Brito; Cardoso, Carlos André Ferreira; Rosário, Ana Carolina Dantas; Mendonça, Cristiano de Queiroz; de Menezes-Neto, Osvaldo Alves; Cipolotti, Rosana

    2015-10-01

    The treatment for ALL has evolved in recent decades and as a result survival rates are now close to 90% in many developed countries. However, this is not the case in developing countries where survival rates are often below 35%. More than 80% of children who are affected by ALL worldwide live in developing countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the secular trend in mortality for children with ALL living in Sergipe, a state in northeastern Brazil, and to investigate any association with variables that relate to socioeconomic status. This study evaluated ALL patients who were less than 20 years of age and who were treated at the Dr. Osvaldo Leite Oncology Center in the capital city, Aracaju. The sample comprised two cohorts of patients from the public health service: patients treated from 1980 to 2004 (cohort A) and from 2005 to 2014 (cohort B). The findings were compared to those of patients treated in the one private service for pediatric cancer treatment available in the region, from 2005 to 2014 (cohort C). Two categories of variables were considered in this study: biological and socioeconomic. We analyzed 412 patients who were divided into three cohorts (cohort A: 287 patients, cohort B: 106 patients and cohort C: 19 patients). The mortality rates for the three cohorts were significantly different: 57.5% in cohort A, 45.3% in cohort B and 26.3% in cohort C (p=0.006). Mortality during induction in cohort B was 22.6%, while in cohort C no deaths occurred during this phase (p=0.041). Patients living in rural areas had higher mortality rates (p=0.036). The reduction in deaths from infection during induction seems to be the starting point for improving the chances for children and adolescents with ALL anywhere in the world. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Modelling typhoid risk in Dhaka Metropolitan Area of Bangladesh: the role of socio-economic and environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Developing countries in South Asia, such as Bangladesh, bear a disproportionate burden of diarrhoeal diseases such as Cholera, Typhoid and Paratyphoid. These seem to be aggravated by a number of social and environmental factors such as lack of access to safe drinking water, overcrowdedness and poor hygiene brought about by poverty. Some socioeconomic data can be obtained from census data whilst others are more difficult to elucidate. This study considers a range of both census data and spatial data from other sources, including remote sensing, as potential predictors of typhoid risk. Typhoid data are aggregated from hospital admission records for the period from 2005 to 2009. The spatial and statistical structures of the data are analysed and Principal Axis Factoring is used to reduce the degree of co-linearity in the data. The resulting factors are combined into a Quality of Life index, which in turn is used in a regression model of typhoid occurrence and risk. Results The three Principal Factors used together explain 87% of the variance in the initial candidate predictors, which eminently qualifies them for use as a set of uncorrelated explanatory variables in a linear regression model. Initial regression result using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) were disappointing, this was explainable by analysis of the spatial autocorrelation inherent in the Principal factors. The use of Geographically Weighted Regression caused a considerable increase in the predictive power of regressions based on these factors. The best prediction, determined by analysis of the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) was found when the three factors were combined into a quality of life index, using a method previously published by others, and had a coefficient of determination of 73%. Conclusions The typhoid occurrence/risk prediction equation was used to develop the first risk map showing areas of Dhaka Metropolitan Area whose inhabitants are at greater or lesser risk of typhoid

  7. Socio-economic status and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Rural and Urban Areas of Vellore, Tamilnadu, South India

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Prasanna; Antonisamy, Belavendra; Raghupathy, P; Richard, J; Fall, Caroline HD

    2012-01-01

    Background We examined associations between socio-economic (SES) indicators and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among urban and rural South Indians. Methods Data from a population-based birth cohort of 2,218 men and women aged 26-32 years from Vellore, Tamilnadu were used. SES indicators included a household possessions score, attained education, and paternal education. CVD risk factors included body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose tolerance, plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and consumption of tobacco and alcohol. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between SES indicators and CVD risk factors. Results Most risk factors were positively associated with possessions score in urban and rural men and women, except for tobacco use, which was negatively associated. Trends were similar with the participants’ own education, and paternal education, though weaker and less consistent. In a concurrent analysis of all three SES indicators adjusted for gender and urban/rural residence, independent associations were observed only for the possessions score; compared with those in the lowest fifth of the possessions score, participants in the highest fifth had a higher risk of abdominal obesity (OR=6.4, 95%CI 3.4, 11.6), high total cholesterol to HDL ratio (OR=2.4, 95%CI 1.6, 3.5) and glucose intolerance (OR=2.8, 95%CI 1.9, 4.1). Their tobacco use (OR=0.4, 95%CI 0.2, 0.6) was lower. Except hypertension and glucose intolerance, risk factors were higher in urban than rural participants independently of SES. Conclusion In rural and urban populations, higher SES, as reflected by household possessions, was associated (apart from tobacco use) with a more adverse CVD risk factor profile. PMID:22366083

  8. Socioeconomic, family, and pediatric practice factors that affect level of asthma control.

    PubMed

    Bloomberg, Gordon R; Banister, Christina; Sterkel, Randall; Epstein, Jay; Bruns, Julie; Swerczek, Lisa; Wells, Suzanne; Yan, Yan; Garbutt, Jane M

    2009-03-01

    Multiple issues play a role in the effective control of childhood asthma. To identify factors related to the level of asthma control in children receiving asthma care from community pediatricians. Data for 362 children participating in an intervention study to reduce asthma morbidity were collected by a telephone-administered questionnaire. Level of asthma control (well controlled, partially controlled, or poorly controlled) was derived from measures of recent impairment (symptoms, activity limitations, albuterol use) and the number of exacerbations in a 12-month period. Data also included demographic characteristics, asthma-related quality of life, pediatric management practices, and medication usage. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to identify factors associated with poor asthma control and to explore the relationship between control and use of daily controller medications. Asthma was well controlled for 24% of children, partially controlled for 20%, and poorly controlled for 56%. Medicaid insurance, the presence of another family member with asthma, and maternal employment outside the home were significant univariable factors associated with poor asthma control. Medicaid insurance had an independent association with poor control. Seventy-six percent of children were reported by parents as receiving a daily controller medication. Comparison of guideline recommended controller medication with current level of asthma control indicated that a higher step level of medication would have been appropriate for 74% of these children. Significantly lower overall quality-of-life scores were observed in both parents and children with poor control. Despite substantial use of daily controller medication, children with asthma continue to experience poorly controlled asthma and reduced quality of life. Although Medicaid insurance and aspects of family structure are significant factors associated with poorly controlled asthma, attention to medication use and

  9. Age differences in the association of childhood obesity with area-level and school-level deprivation: cross-classified multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data.

    PubMed

    Townsend, N; Rutter, H; Foster, C

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that area-level deprivation is associated with obesity independently of individual socioeconomic status; however, although the school may also have an impact on child health, few studies have investigated the association between school-level deprivation and the body mass index (BMI) of students. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the BMI for children of different ages and area-level and school-level deprivation. BMI measurements were collected through the National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) that samples from two school years: 396,171 reception year pupils (4-5-year olds) and 392,344 year 6 pupils (10-11-year olds) from 14,054 primary schools in England. Cross-classified multilevel models with four levels: individual (n=788,525), lower super output areas corresponding to area of residence (n=29,606), schools (n=14,054) and primary care trusts (PCTs, n=143), which coordinate the collection of data within a large area, were used to study the relationship between measures of deprivation at an area and school level, and childhood BMI within England. A positive association was found between the area and school measures of deprivation, and student BMI. Both the measures of deprivation explained a greater proportion of variance in BMI z-scores for year 6 students than for the reception year students, with a greater difference between the year groups found with the school-level measure of socioeconomic status than for the the area-level measure. Deprivation explains a greater proportion of the variance in BMI for older compared with younger children, perhaps reflecting the impact of deprivation as children age, highlighting the widening of health inequalities through childhood. The association with school-level deprivation illustrates the impact of the school on BMI status throughout the primary school years.

  10. Relationship Between Locus of Control Scores and Reading Achievement of Black and White Second Grade Children from Two Socio-Economic Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ralph L.; Uhl, Norman P.

    This study investigates the effect of socio-economic level (lower and upper-middle), race (black and white), and sex on locus of control of reinforcement scores, and the relationship between the latter scores and reading achievement in a sample of 211 second grade children. A stratified random sampling technique insured adequate levels of each…

  11. Socioeconomic, Family, and Pediatric Practice Factors Affecting the Level of Asthma Control

    PubMed Central

    Bloomberg, Gordon R; Banister, Christina; Sterkel, Randall; Epstein, Jay; Bruns, Julie; Swerczek, Lisa; Wells, Suzanne; Yan, Yan; Garbutt, Jane M

    2008-01-01

    Background Multiple issues bear on effective control of childhood asthma. Objective To identify factors related to the level of asthma control in children receiving asthma care from community pediatricians. Patients and Methods Data for 362 children participating in an intervention study to reduce asthma morbidity were collected by telephone administered questionnaire. Level of asthma control (“well controlled,” partially controlled,” or “poorly controlled”) was derived from measures of recent impairment (symptoms, activity limitations, albuterol use) and the number of exacerbations in a 12 month period. Data also included demographic characteristics, asthma-related quality of life, pediatric management practices, and medication usage. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to identify factors associated with poor asthma control and to explore the relationship between control and use of daily controller medications. Results Asthma was “well controlled” for 24% of children, “partially controlled” for 20%, and “poorly controlled” for 56%. Medicaid insurance (p=0.016), the presence of another family member with asthma (p=0.0168), and outside the home maternal employment, (p=0.025), were significant univariable factors associated with poor asthma control. Medicaid insurance had an independent association with poor control (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.28-0.9). Seventy-six percent of children were reported by parents as receiving a daily controller medication. Comparison of guidelines recommended controller medication with level of control indicated that a higher step level of medication would have been appropriate for 74% of these children. Significantly lower overall quality of life scores were observed in both parents and children with poor control. (ANOVA, p<0.05) Conclusion Despite substantial use of daily controller medication, children with asthma continue to experience poorly controlled asthma and reduced quality of life. While Medicaid

  12. [Social inequalities and health. Socioeconomic level and infant mortality in Chile in 1985-1995].

    PubMed

    Hollstein, R D; Vega, J; Carvajal, Y

    1998-03-01

    The strong relationship between social inequalities and health have been extensively reported. To measure the effects of social inequalities, assessed through maternal educational level, on infant mortality in Chile. Using death and birth electronic databases of the Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas, the annual rates of infant mortality per years of approved studies of both parents and per cause were calculated. In the 1990-1995 period, there is a clear gradient of infant mortality according to the level of education of the mother (38.2 per 1000 born alive among those without education versus 7.8 per 1000 born alive among those with university education). The same tendency is maintained for neonatal and post-neonatal mortality. All groups of causes had a similar effect, standing out diseases of the respiratory system with a relative risk (RR) of 14.3 and a population attributable risk (PAR) of 73%, trauma with a RR of 11.3 and a PAR of 69% and infectious diseases with a RR of 10.8 and a PAR of 62%. Between 1985 and 1995, absolute inequalities decreased but relative inequalities remained constant. The great social inequality in infant mortality has persisted in Chile during the last years. To adequately assess the national progresses in population health using infant mortality as an indicator, the gaps between social groups must be born in mind.

  13. The Effects of Socioeconomic Strata, Sex and Reading Achievement Level on the Auditory-Visual Integration Performance of Sixth Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Michael Duane

    This study investigates the differences between the auditory-visual integration ability of 80 sixth grade students when such variables as socioeconomic status, sex, intelligence, conservation ability, and reading achievement were controlled. Socioeconomic Strata were determined by Hollingshead's Four Factor Index of Social Position. The California…

  14. Who Do You Think You Are? Medical Student Socioeconomic Status and Intention to Work in Underserved Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Barbara; Porfeli, Erik; Hu, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    A frequently cited rationale for increasing the participation of students from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds is that it will create a workforce who will choose to work in low SES and medically underserviced communities. Two theoretical arguments, one that supports and one that contradicts this assumption, are proposed to explain the…

  15. Strategic Analysis of Sustainable Socioeconomic Situation of Rural Areas in the Samara Region of the Russian Federation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belyaeva, Galina I.; Ermoshkina, Ekaterina N.; Kosyakova, Inessa V.; Pankratova, Larisa E.; Zotova, Anna S.

    2016-01-01

    On the one hand, the relevance of this problem is primarily determined by a growing gap of rural territorial entities in socioeconomic development, and on the other hand, due to their significance in such prominent aspects for the country as food security, maintaining the existing land, industrial, ecological, demographic and human potential. The…

  16. Association of Insurance and Community-Level Socioeconomic Status With Treatment and Outcome of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Pharynx.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jacob Y; Yoon, Ja Kyoung; Shin, Aaron K; Blumenfeld, Philip; Mai, Miranda; Diaz, Aidnag Z

    2017-09-01

    Community-level socioeconomic status, particularly insurance status, is increasingly becoming important as a possible determinant in patient outcomes. To determine the association of insurance and community-level socioeconomic status with outcome for patients with pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). This study extracted data from more than 1500 Commission on Cancer-accredited facilities collected in the National Cancer Database. A total of 35 559 patients diagnosed with SCC of the pharynx from 2004 through 2013 were identified. The χ2 test, Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox regression models were used to analyze data from April 1, 2016, through April 16, 2017. Overall survival was defined as time to death from the date of diagnosis. Among the 35 559 patients identified (75.6% men and 24.4% women; median age, 61 years [range, 18-90 years]), 15 146 (42.6%) had Medicare coverage; 13 061 (36.7%), private insurance; 4881 (13.7%), Medicaid coverage; and 2471 (6.9%), no insurance. Uninsured patients and Medicaid recipients were more likely to be younger, black, or Hispanic; to have lower median household income and lower educational attainment; to present with higher TNM stages of disease; and to start primary treatment at a later time from diagnosis. Those with private insurance (reference group) had significantly better overall survival than uninsured patients (hazard ratio [HR], 1.72; 95% CI, 1.59-1.87), Medicaid recipients (HR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.88-2.12), or Medicare recipients (HR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.99-2.16), as did those with median household income of at least $63 000 (reference) vs $48 000 to $62 999 (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.13-1.26), $38 000 to $47 999 (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.24-1.38), and less than $38 000 (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.43-1.59). On multivariable analysis, insurance status and median household income remained independent prognostic factors for overall survival even after accounting for educational attainment, race, Charlson/Deyo comorbidity

  17. Health and Socioeconomic Status of the Elderly People Living in Hilly Areas of Pakhribas, Kosi Zone, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ankit Amar; Lall, Amrit Kumar; Das, Aditi; Saurav, Anshu; Nandan, Abnish; Shah, Deepa; Agrahari, Anand; Yadav, Deepak Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: The rising geriatric population is facing significant health and social problems in the developing world that are impacting the quality of their lives. Objective: The study describes the general health status and the socioeconomic characteristics of the elderly people of Pakhribas village development committee (VDC) of Eastern Nepal. Materials and Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out targeting the people aged 60 years and above in the sample area using a semi-structured questionnaire and convenient sampling to get the required sample size. A total of 189 elderly people who consented were interviewed in May 2010. Result: The major part of the elderly population was in the age group of 60-69 years. Seventy-two percent were illiterate and 75% were still earning with the majority involved in farming. Nine out of ten were living with their families and still made decisions for the household, Eighty-two percent did not feel lonely and 88.4% did not report any misbehavior by the house members. Regarding health, 69% had some diagnosed health issue with 36% suffering from gastritis and 20.4% from chronic lung disease. Using the ICD 10 criteria, depression was found among 18%. The most prevalent geriatric problem was a dental problem as found in 61% even though 87% claimed to brush their teeth regularly. More than half were suffering from visual difficulty and the proportions suffering from memory and hearing issues were also substantive. Smoking habit was found in 60%, and the relation between smoking and chronic respiratory diseases had a statistical association (P = <0.05). The geriatric cases who were misbehaved with felt depressed or neglected in the family (P = <0.0001). Conclusions: The results of the study show that employment, family support, and pension schemes have a positive impact on the social status of the elderly. Health screening clinics should be established in the community to detect health-related disorders. Elderly

  18. Socio-economic inequalities in mortality due to injuries in small areas of ten cities in Spain (MEDEA Project).

    PubMed

    Gotsens, Mercè; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Martínez-Beneito, Miguel Ángel; Pérez, Katherine; Pasarín, M Isabel; Daponte, Antonio; Puigpinós-Riera, Rosa; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Audicana, Covadonga; Nolasco, Andreu; Gandarillas, Ana; Serral, Gemma; Domínguez-Berjón, Felicitas; Martos, Carmen; Borrell, Carme

    2011-09-01

    To analyse socio-economic inequalities in mortality due to injuries among census tracts of ten Spanish cities by sex and age in the period 1996-2003. This is a cross-sectional ecological study where the units of analysis are census tracts. The study population consisted of people residing in the cities during the period 1996-2003. For each census tract we obtained an index of socio-economic deprivation, and estimated standardized mortality ratios using hierarchical Bayesian models which take into account the spatial structure of the data. In the majority of the cities, the geographical pattern of total mortality from injuries is similar to that of the socio-economic deprivation index. There is an association between mortality due to injuries and the deprivation index in the majority of the cities which is more important among men and among those younger than 45 years. In these groups, traffic injuries and overdoses are the causes most often associated with deprivation in the cities. The percentage of excess mortality from injuries related to socio-economic deprivation is higher than 20% in the majority of the cities, the cause with the highest percentage being drug overdose. In most cities, there are socio-economic inequalities in mortality due to overdose and traffic injuries. In contrast, few cities have found association between suicide mortality and deprivation. Finally, no association was found between deprivation and deaths due to falls. Inequalities are higher in men and those under 45 years of age. These results highlight the importance of intra-urban inequalities in mortality due to injuries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Incidence variation of prostate and cervical cancer according to socioeconomic level in the Girona Health Region.

    PubMed

    Vicens, Gemma Renart; Zafra, Marc Saez; Moreno-Crespi, Judit; Ferrer, Bernat C Serdà; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael

    2014-10-17

    The main aim of this study, using a spatial-temporal model, is to analyse the link between a deprivation index and the incidence of prostate and cervical cancer in the Girona Health Region (GHR). This is a population-based study which includes all the inhabitants in the GHR in the period 1993-2006. In order to assess prostate/cervical cancer risk, Besag, York and Mollie (BYM)'s spatial-temporal version of the model was used and four random effects were introduced: (non-spatial) unstructured variability, spatial dependency, temporal dependency and spatial-temporal interaction. As an explanatory variable, a deprivation index was introduced at the census tract level. Furthermore, the percentage of the population between 45-64 years of age and over-65 was also considered as explanatory variables. In the case of prostate cancer, all the variables which were introduced into the model showed a significant correlation with the relative risk, except for the second quintile of the deprivation index. Furthermore, as the index increased the correlation became negative and lower. Thus, the correlation between the relative risk and the two age bands proved to be lower, the higher the age was. In the case of cervical cancer, only the correlation between the over-65 age band and the relative risk was found to be statistically significant and positive. In the case of prostate cancer, the results obtained in the GHR are in line with similar analyses. However, in the case of cervical cancer, no significant relationship between incidences in this location or economic status was found.

  20. Socioeconomic Status and the Health of Youth: A Multi-level, Multi-domain Approach to Conceptualizing Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Schreier, Hannah M. C.; Chen, Edith

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has clearly established associations between low socioeconomic status (SES) and poor youth physical health outcomes. This article provides an overview of the main pathways through which low SES environments come to influence youth health. We focus on two of the most prevalent chronic health problems in youth today, asthma and obesity. We review and propose a model that encompasses (1) multiple levels of influence, including the neighborhood, family and person level, (2) both social and physical domains in the environment, and finally (3) dynamic relationships between these factors. A synthesis of existing research and our proposed model draw attention to the notion of adverse physical and social exposures in youth’s neighborhood environments altering family characteristics and youth psychosocial and behavioral profiles, thereby increasing youth’s risk for health problems. We also note the importance of acknowledging reciprocal influences across levels and domains (e.g., between family and child) that create self-perpetuating patterns of influence that further accentuate the impact of these factors on youth health. Finally, we document that factors across levels can interact (e.g., environmental pollution levels with child stress) to create unique, synergistic effects on youth health. Our model stresses the importance of evaluating influences on youth’s physical health not in isolation but in the context of the broader social and physical environments in which youth live. Understanding the complex relationships between the factors that link low SES to youth’s long-term health trajectories is necessary for the creation and implementation of successful interventions and policies to ultimately reduce health disparities. PMID:22845752

  1. Temporal trends in BMI in Argentina by socio-economic position and province-level economic development, 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    Christine, Paul J; Diez Roux, Ana V; Wing, Jeffrey J; Alazraqui, Marcio; Spinelli, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    We investigated temporal trends in BMI, and assessed hypothesized predictors of trends including socio-economic position (SEP) and province-level economic development, in Argentina. Using multivariable linear regression, we evaluated cross-sectional patterning and temporal trends in BMI and examined heterogeneity in these associations by SEP and province-level economic development with nationally representative samples from Argentina in 2005 and 2009. We calculated mean annual changes in BMI for men and women to assess secular trends. Women, but not men, exhibited a strong cross-sectional inverse association between SEP and BMI, with the lowest-SEP women having an average BMI 2.55 kg/m(2) greater than the highest-SEP women. Analysis of trends revealed a mean annual increase in BMI of 0.19 kg/m(2) and 0.15 kg/m(2) for women and men, respectively, with slightly greater increases occurring in provinces with greater economic growth. No significant heterogeneity in trends existed by individual SEP. BMI is increasing rapidly over time in Argentina irrespective of various sociodemographic characteristics. Higher BMI remains more common in women of lower SEP compared with those of higher SEP.

  2. Gender, socio-economic status, migration origin and neighbourhood of residence are barriers to HIV testing in the Paris metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Massari, Veronique; Lapostolle, Annabelle; Cadot, Emmanuelle; Parizot, Isabelle; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Chauvin, Pierre

    2011-12-01

    In France, numerous HIV patients still discover their HIV status as a result of AIDS-related symptoms. We investigated factors related to the absence of any HIV testing in men and women separately, using the data from the SIRS cohort, which includes 3023 households representative of the Paris metropolitan area in 2005. The failure to use HIV testing services was studied in relation to individual socio-economic and demographic factors as well as some psychosocial characteristics. The effect of the characteristics of the residential neighbourhood was also analysed using multilevel models. In multivariate analysis, the factors associated with no history of HIV testing in women were an age >44 years, the absence of any pregnancy during the previous 15 years, a low education level, unemployment, to have had no or only one steady relationship in one's lifetime, to have a religious affiliation and to live in a poor neighbourhood. In men, factors were age <30 or >44 years, to have had no or only one steady relationship during one's lifetime, to have a religious affiliation and to perceive oneself as being at low risk of HIV infection. An association according to the "migration origin" was observed among men: foreigners and French men born to (at least) one foreign parent were more likely not to have been tested than French men born to two French parents. We conclude that gender, social and territorial differences exist in HIV testing among people living in the Paris area. More systematic proposals of HIV test in primary care would be an effective policy to overcome these persistent social stratifications.

  3. 16. VIEW OF ROAD AND LEVELED AREA IN FRONT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF ROAD AND LEVELED AREA IN FRONT OF HATCH ADIT (FEATURE B-28) WHICH IS ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTOGRAPH. (OCTOBER, 1995) - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  4. NORTHWEST ELEVATION SHOWING THE THREE LEVEL EQUIPMENT AREA. VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHWEST ELEVATION SHOWING THE THREE LEVEL EQUIPMENT AREA. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Theater, Hornet Avenue between Enterprise & Pokomoke Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. 7. Ball mill area and second level entry with overhead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Ball mill area and second level entry with overhead crane in background - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Ore Dressing Pilot Plant, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  6. Effects of socioeconomic status on brain development, and how cognitive neuroscience may contribute to levelling the playing field.

    PubMed

    Raizada, Rajeev D S; Kishiyama, Mark M

    2010-01-01

    THE STUDY OF SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS (SES) AND THE BRAIN FINDS ITSELF IN A CIRCUMSTANCE UNUSUAL FOR COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE: large numbers of questions with both practical and scientific importance exist, but they are currently under-researched and ripe for investigation. This review aims to highlight these questions, to outline their potential significance, and to suggest routes by which they might be approached. Although remarkably few neural studies have been carried out so far, there exists a large literature of previous behavioural work. This behavioural research provides an invaluable guide for future neuroimaging work, but also poses an important challenge for it: how can we ensure that the neural data contributes predictive or diagnostic power over and above what can be derived from behaviour alone? We discuss some of the open mechanistic questions which Cognitive Neuroscience may have the power to illuminate, spanning areas including language, numerical cognition, stress, memory, and social influences on learning. These questions have obvious practical and societal significance, but they also bear directly on a set of longstanding questions in basic science: what are the environmental and neural factors which affect the acquisition and retention of declarative and nondeclarative skills? Perhaps the best opportunity for practical and theoretical interests to converge is in the study of interventions. Many interventions aimed at improving the cognitive development of low SES children are currently underway, but almost all are operating without either input from, or study by, the Cognitive Neuroscience community. Given that longitudinal intervention studies are very hard to set up, but can, with proper designs, be ideal tests of causal mechanisms, this area promises exciting opportunities for future research.

  7. Effects of Socioeconomic Status on Brain Development, and How Cognitive Neuroscience May Contribute to Levelling the Playing Field

    PubMed Central

    Raizada, Rajeev D.S.; Kishiyama, Mark M.

    2009-01-01

    The study of socioeconomic status (SES) and the brain finds itself in a circumstance unusual for Cognitive Neuroscience: large numbers of questions with both practical and scientific importance exist, but they are currently under-researched and ripe for investigation. This review aims to highlight these questions, to outline their potential significance, and to suggest routes by which they might be approached. Although remarkably few neural studies have been carried out so far, there exists a large literature of previous behavioural work. This behavioural research provides an invaluable guide for future neuroimaging work, but also poses an important challenge for it: how can we ensure that the neural data contributes predictive or diagnostic power over and above what can be derived from behaviour alone? We discuss some of the open mechanistic questions which Cognitive Neuroscience may have the power to illuminate, spanning areas including language, numerical cognition, stress, memory, and social influences on learning. These questions have obvious practical and societal significance, but they also bear directly on a set of longstanding questions in basic science: what are the environmental and neural factors which affect the acquisition and retention of declarative and nondeclarative skills? Perhaps the best opportunity for practical and theoretical interests to converge is in the study of interventions. Many interventions aimed at improving the cognitive development of low SES children are currently underway, but almost all are operating without either input from, or study by, the Cognitive Neuroscience community. Given that longitudinal intervention studies are very hard to set up, but can, with proper designs, be ideal tests of causal mechanisms, this area promises exciting opportunities for future research. PMID:20161995

  8. The role of neighborhood level socioeconomic characteristics in Salmonella infections in Michigan (1997-2007): assessment using geographic information system.

    PubMed

    Younus, Muhammad; Hartwick, Edward; Siddiqi, Azfar A; Wilkins, Melinda; Davies, Herbert D; Rahbar, Mohammad; Funk, Julie; Saeed, Mahdi

    2007-12-19

    The majority of U.S. disease surveillance systems contain incomplete information regarding socioeconomic status (SES) indicators like household or family income and educational attainment in case reports, which reduces the usefulness of surveillance data for these parameters. We investigated the association between select SES attributes at the neighborhood level and Salmonella infections in the three most populated counties in Michigan using a geographic information system. We obtained data on income, education, and race from the 2000 U.S. Census, and the aggregate number of laboratory-confirmed cases of salmonellosis (1997-2006) at the block group level from the Michigan Department of Community Health. We used ArcGIS to visualize the distribution, and Poisson regression analysis to study associations between potential predictor variables and Salmonella infections. Based on data from 3,419 block groups, our final multivariate model revealed that block groups with lower educational attainment were less commonly represented among cases than their counterparts with higher education levels (< high school degree vs. > or = college degree: rate ratio (RR) = 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI):0.63, 0.99; > or = and high school degree, but no college degree vs. > or = college degree: RR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.76, 0.92). Levels of education also showed a dose-response relation with the outcome variable, i.e., decreasing years of education was associated with a decrease in Salmonella infections incidence at the block group level. Education plays a significant role in health-seeking behavior at the population level. It is conceivable that a reporting bias may exist due to a greater detection of Salmonella infections among high education block groups compared to low education block groups resulting from differential access to healthcare. In addition, individuals of higher education block groups who also have greater discretionary income may eat outside the home frequently and be

  9. Evaluating County-Level Heat Vulnerability and Social Inequity in the United States through Climate and Socioeconomic Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gannon, C.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change will have many impacts on human health, perhaps most directly through extreme heat. High temperature and humidity combinations inhibit the body's ability to cool through physiological responses such as sweating. In conjunction with extended periods of extreme heat and shifted seasonality, these conditions are particularly dangerous. Current research and literature can be used to show where dangerous heat and humidity conditions are likely to be most prevalent, or where populations vulnerable to heat stress reside. To provide a better assessment of overall heat vulnerability, however, many complex factors, such as relative changes in temperature patterns or local socioeconomic conditions, must also be considered. Here, we utilize a multivariate approach to establish county-level risk scores by combining the most relevant indicators for heat vulnerability with climate model projections of wet bulb globe temperature, a metric useful for understanding how the human body will respond to conditions of high heat and humidity. We present our findings as an ESRI ArcOnline Story Map with data aggregated at the county-level in the continental United States. This format allows users to access maps showing each county's score in four categories related to heat vulnerability: heat and humidity hazards, population vulnerability, medical access, and physical infrastructure. A final map showcases a composite heat vulnerability score for each county, with comparisons to state and national averages. Our tool, part of the White House's Climate Data Initiative, is presented as a series of maps with a normalized scoring system to provide clear and easy access to the indicators most relevant to evaluating heat vulnerability at a local level. Ultimately, this readily available tool with general indices helps community decision makers communicate heat vulnerability and identify which resilience factors are most critical to improving local resilience.

  10. Demographic, behavioral, dietary, and socioeconomic characteristics related to persistent organic pollutants and mercury levels in pregnant women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Chihiro; Sasaki, Seiko; Saijo, Yasuaki; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Baba, Toshiaki; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Todaka, Takashi; Iwasaki, Yusuke; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Hachiya, Noriyuki; Yasutake, Akira; Murata, Katsuyuki; Kishi, Reiko

    2015-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants and mercury are known environmental chemicals that have been found to be ubiquitous in not only the environment but also in humans, including women of reproductive age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between personal lifestyle characteristics and environmental chemical levels during the perinatal period in the general Japanese population. This study targeted 322 pregnant women enrolled in the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health. Each participant completed a self-administered questionnaire and a food-frequency questionnaire to obtain relevant information on parental demographic, behavioral, dietary, and socioeconomic characteristics. In total, 58 non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, 17 dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofuran, and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls congeners, perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and mercury were measured in maternal samples taken during the perinatal period. Linear regression models were constructed against potential related factors for each chemical concentration. Most concentrations of environmental chemicals were correlated with the presence of other environmental chemicals, especially in the case of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibezofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls which had similar exposure sources and persistence in the body. Maternal smoking and alcohol habits, fish and beef intake and household income were significantly associated with concentrations of environmental chemicals. These results suggest that different lifestyle patterns relate to varying exposure to environmental chemicals.

  11. Factor Structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire in Turkish Children and Gender, Grade-Level, and Socioeconomic Status Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uz Bas, Asli; Yurdabakan, Irfan

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the factor structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ) with Turkish children, and to investigate gender, grade-level, and socioeconomic status (SES) differences in reactive and proactive aggression. Participants consisted of 1,081 Turkish children (544 boys and 537 girls) aged 9 to 14…

  12. Factor Structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire in Turkish Children and Gender, Grade-Level, and Socioeconomic Status Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uz Bas, Asli; Yurdabakan, Irfan

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the factor structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ) with Turkish children, and to investigate gender, grade-level, and socioeconomic status (SES) differences in reactive and proactive aggression. Participants consisted of 1,081 Turkish children (544 boys and 537 girls) aged 9 to 14…

  13. Final Systems Development Report for the Clark County Socioeconomic Impact Assessment of the Proposed High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV

    SciTech Connect

    1992-06-18

    The Systems Development Report represents the third major step in the Clark County Socioeconomic Impact Assessment of the Proposed High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mound Nevada. The first of these steps was to forge a Research Design that would serve as a guide for the overall research process. The second step was the construction of the Base Case, the purpose of which was to describe existing conditions in Clark County in the specified analytic areas of Economic-Demographic/Fiscal, Emergency Planning and Management, Transportation and Sociocultural analysis. The base case description will serve as a basis for assessing changes in these topic areas that might result from the Yucca Mountain project. These changes will be assessed by analyzing conditions with and without repository development in the county. Prior to performing such assessments, however, the snapshot type of data found in the base case must be operationalized or systematized to allow for more dynamic data utilization. In other words, a data system that can be used to analyze the consequences of the introduction of different variables (or variable values) in the Clark County context must be constructed. Such a system must be capable of being updated through subsequent data collection and monitoring efforts to both provide a rolling base case and supply information necessary to construct trend analyses. For example, during the Impact Assessment phase of the study process, the without repository analysis is accomplished by analyzing growth for the county given existing conditions and likely trends. These data are then compared to the with Yucca Mountain project conditions anticipated for the county. Similarly, once the emergency planning management and response needs associated with the repository are described, these needs will be juxtaposed against existing (and various future) capacity(ies) in order to determine the nature and magnitude of impacts in this analytic area. Analogous tasks

  14. Socioeconomical and sociopolitical correlates of interpersonal forgiveness: a three-level meta-analysis of the Enright Forgiveness Inventory across 13 societies.

    PubMed

    Hanke, Katja; Fischer, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    We report a meta-analysis on the country-level correlates of the Enright Forgiveness Inventory (EFI), to address (1) whether there are differences in forgiveness between societies, (2) what society-level context variables can account for these differences, and (3) whether conceptual relationships of forgiveness found at the individual level can be replicated at the societal level. We found sizeable differences between societies that are associated with democracy, peacefulness, socioeconomic development, and postmaterialism indices of a society. Replicating individual-level results, subjective wellbeing was positively related to forgiveness. We discuss the importance of macro-level contextual variables for understanding levels of forgiveness.

  15. Area-level risk factors for adverse birth outcomes: trends in urban and rural settings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Significant and persistent racial and income disparities in birth outcomes exist in the US. The analyses in this manuscript examine whether adverse birth outcome time trends and associations between area-level variables and adverse birth outcomes differ by urban–rural status. Methods Alabama births records were merged with ZIP code-level census measures of race, poverty, and rurality. B-splines were used to determine long-term preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) trends by rurality. Logistic regression models were used to examine differences in the relationships between ZIP code-level percent poverty or percent African-American with either PTB or LBW. Interactions with rurality were examined. Results Population dense areas had higher adverse birth outcome rates compared to other regions. For LBW, the disparity between population dense and other regions increased during the 1991–2005 time period, and the magnitude of the disparity was maintained through 2010. Overall PTB and LBW rates have decreased since 2006, except within isolated rural regions. The addition of individual-level socioeconomic or race risk factors greatly attenuated these geographical disparities, but isolated rural regions maintained increased odds of adverse birth outcomes. ZIP code-level percent poverty and percent African American both had significant relationships with adverse birth outcomes. Poverty associations remained significant in the most population-dense regions when models were adjusted for individual-level risk factors. Conclusions Population dense urban areas have heightened rates of adverse birth outcomes. High-poverty African American areas have higher odds of adverse birth outcomes in urban versus rural regions. These results suggest there are urban-specific social or environmental factors increasing risk for adverse birth outcomes in underserved communities. On the other hand, trends in PTBs and LBWs suggest interventions that have decreased adverse

  16. Heritability for adolescent antisocial behavior differs with socioeconomic status: gene-environment interaction.

    PubMed

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Grann, Martin; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2006-07-01

    Socioeconomic status is often assumed to be of importance for the development of antisocial behavior, yet it explains only a fraction of the variance. One explanation for this paradox could be that socioeconomic status moderates the influence of genetic and environmental effects on antisocial behavior. TCHAD is a Swedish longitudinal population-based twin study that contains 1,480 twin pairs born 1985-1986. The present study included 1,133 twin pairs, aged 16-17 years. Antisocial behavior was measured through self-report. Family socioeconomic status was assessed by parental-reported education and occupational status. Neighborhood socioeconomic conditions were assessed using five aggregated level variables: ethnic diversity, basic educational level, unemployment level, buying power, and crime-rate. We used structural equation modeling to test whether socioeconomic status interacted with latent genetic and environmental effects for antisocial behavior. Genetic influences on antisocial behavior were more important in adolescents in socioeconomically more advantaged environments, whereas the shared environment was higher in adolescents in socioeconomically less advantaged environments. Heritability for antisocial behavior was higher in girls than in boys, irrespective of socioeconomic background. Our results suggest that different intervention policies should be considered in different socioeconomic areas. In socioeconomically advantaged areas, it might be more fruitful to focus on individually based preventions and treatments. In socioeconomically disadvantaged areas, intervention and prevention policies might be more effective on a community level, to account for shared environmental risk factors.

  17. The coastal area of Togo: A space vulnerable to sea level rise hotly disputed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adjoussi, P. D.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract Erosion caused in the coastal area of Togo especially in the cell to the east of the harbor of Lomé some reorganization of space and a reallocation of tasks functions of the importance of existing issues. This reorganization is an important race against time between the various stakeholders which paradoxically make this area a very dynamic environment. In spite of the disaster situation in the area, it is changing. This mutation has been observed for a decade in many ways. Fishing is a traditional activity disappears causing the emergence of new activities such as the extraction of gravel, the gardening, the informal trade of any kind, installing hotels, etc.. At the socio-economic transformation is associated with a beach in state of deficit causing the decline of the coastline that reaches approximately 500 m over a few kilometers according to the old marks missing. The decline of the coastline is by undermining the beach by the waves at high tide. These issues are reshaping the land use map that passes a distribution of fishing villages on the coast in 1980 to a suburban area exposed to sea level rise corollary to anticipated climate change. Keywords: Space, Reorganization, Vulnerability, Stakeholders, Sea Level, Fishing

  18. School- and Family-Level Socioeconomic Status and Health Behaviors: Multilevel Analysis of a National Survey in Wales, United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Graham F.; Littlecott, Hannah J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Interventions to address inequalities in adolescent health behaviors often target children from less affluent families, or schools in poorer areas. Few studies have examined whether school- or family-level affluence predicts health behaviors independently, or in combination. Methods: This article reports secondary analysis of the Welsh…

  19. School- and Family-Level Socioeconomic Status and Health Behaviors: Multilevel Analysis of a National Survey in Wales, United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Graham F.; Littlecott, Hannah J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Interventions to address inequalities in adolescent health behaviors often target children from less affluent families, or schools in poorer areas. Few studies have examined whether school- or family-level affluence predicts health behaviors independently, or in combination. Methods: This article reports secondary analysis of the Welsh…

  20. Change in walking for transport: a longitudinal study of the influence of neighbourhood disadvantage and individual-level socioeconomic position in mid-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Turrell, Gavin; Hewitt, Belinda; Haynes, Michele; Nathan, Andrea; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2014-12-10

    Unlike leisure time physical activity, knowledge of the socioeconomic determinants of active transport is limited, research on this topic has produced mixed and inconsistent findings, and it remains unknown if peoples' engagement in active transport declines as they age. This longitudinal study examined relationships between neighbourhood disadvantage, individual-level socioeconomic position and walking for transport (WfT) during mid- and early old-age (40 - 70 years). Three questions were addressed: (i) which socioeconomic groups walk for transport, (ii) does the amount of walking change over time as people age, and (iii) is the change socioeconomically patterned? The data come from the HABITAT study of physical activity, a bi-annual multilevel longitudinal survey of 11,036 residents of 200 neighbourhoods in Brisbane, Australia. At each wave (2007, 2009 and 2011) respondents estimated the duration (minutes) of WfT in the previous 7 days. Neighbourhood disadvantage was measured using a census-derived index comprising 17 different socioeconomic components, and individual-level socioeconomic position was measured using education, occupation, and household income. The data were analysed using multilevel mixed-effects logistic and linear regression. The odds of being defined as a 'never walker' were significantly lower for residents of disadvantaged neighbourhoods, but significantly higher for the less educated, blue collar employees, and members of lower income households. WfT declined significantly over time as people aged and the declines were more precipitous for older persons. Average minutes of WfT declined for all neighbourhoods and most socioeconomic groups; however, the declines were steeper for the retired and members of low income households. Designing age-friendly neighbourhoods might slow or delay age-related declines in WfT and should be a priority. Steeper declines in WfT among residents of low income households may reflect their poorer health status and

  1. Access to eye health services among indigenous Australians: an area level analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This project is a community-level study of equity of access to eye health services for Indigenous Australians. Methods The project used data on eye health services from multiple sources including Medicare Australia, inpatient and outpatient data and the National Indigenous Eye Health Survey. The analysis focused on the extent to which access to eye health services varied at an area level according to the proportion of the population that was Indigenous (very low = 0-1.0%, low = 1.1-3.0%, low medium = 3.1-6.0%, high medium = 6.1-10.0%, high = 10.1-20.0%, very high = 20 + %). The analysis of health service utilisation also took into account age, remoteness and the Socioeconomic Indices for Areas (SEIFA). Results The rate of eye exams provided in areas with very high Indigenous populations was two-thirds of the rate of eye exams for areas with very low indigenous populations. The cataract surgery rates in areas with high medium to very high Indigenous populations were less than half that reference areas. In over a third of communities with very high Indigenous populations the cataract surgery rate fell below the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines compared to a cataract surgery rate of 3% in areas with very low Indigenous populations. Conclusions There remain serious disparities in access to eye health service in areas with high Indigenous populations. Addressing disparities requires a co-ordinated approach to improving Indigenous people’s access to eye health services. More extensive take-up of existing Medicare provisions is an important step in this process. Along with improving access to health services, community education concerning the importance of eye health and the effectiveness of treatment might reduce reluctance to seek help. PMID:22998612

  2. Increase in best practice child car restraint use for children aged 2-5 years in low socioeconomic areas after introduction of mandatory child restraint laws.

    PubMed

    Brown, Julie; Keay, Lisa; Hunter, Kate; Bilston, Lynne E; Simpson, Judy M; Ivers, Rebecca

    2013-06-01

    To examine changes in child car restraint practices in low socioeconomic areas following the introduction of mandatory child car restraint legislation in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Data from two cross-sectional studies of child car restraint use at pre-schools, early childhood centres and primary schools before and after the introduction of legislating mandatory age-appropriate car restraint use for children up to the age of seven years was used in this analysis. All included observations were from local government areas with socioeconomic status in the lowest 30% of urban Sydney. Children aged 2-5 years were observed in their vehicles as they arrived at observation sites (107 pre-legislation, 360 post-legislation). Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine changes in observed age-appropriate and correct use of car restraints. Age-appropriate car restraint use was higher post-legislation than pre-legislation. After controlling for child's age, parental income, language spoken at home and adjusting for clustering, the odds of children being appropriately restrained post-legislation were 2.3 times higher than in the pre-legislation sample, and the odds of them being correctly restrained were 1.6 times greater. Results indicate an improvement in car restraint practices among children aged 2-5 in low socioeconomic areas after introduction of child restraint laws. Implications : Despite improvements observed with enhanced legislation, further efforts are required to increase optimal child car restraint use. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  3. Sports participation and physical education in American secondary schools: current levels and racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Lloyd D; Delva, Jorge; O'Malley, Patrick M

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the current levels of physical education (PE) and sports participation among American secondary school students, and to establish the extent to which they vary by grade level, racial/ethnic background, and socioeconomic status (SES) of the students. Nationally representative data were used from over 500 schools and 54,000 students surveyed in 2003, 2004, and 2005 as part of the Youth, Education, and Society (YES) study and the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study. As part of YES, school administrators completed questionnaires on physical activity (including rates of sports and PE participation) of students in their schools. Students in the same schools completed self-administered questionnaires in the same year as part of MTF, providing individual background data, including their gender, racial/ethnic identification, and parents' education level. Data were analyzed in 2006. Physical education requirements, and actual student participation rates, decline substantially between 8th and 12th grades. About 87% of 8th graders were in schools that required them to take PE, compared to only 20% of 12th graders. Principals estimate that over 90% of 8th graders actually take PE, compared to 34% of 12th graders. Subgroup differences in PE participation rates were small. Only a fraction of all students participate in varsity sports during the school year, with girls participating only slightly less than boys (33% vs 37%). Participation correlates negatively with SES and was lower among black and Hispanic students than white students, even after controlling for other variables. Participation rates in intramural sports were even lower, declined in higher grades, and were lower among low-SES and Hispanic students (after controlling for other variables). Physical education is noticeably lacking in American high schools for all groups. Racial/ethnic minorities and low-SES youth, who are at higher than average risk of being overweight in

  4. Risk of several cancers is higher in urban areas after adjusting for socioeconomic status. Results from a two-country population-based study of 18 common cancers.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Linda; Donnelly, David; Hegarty, Avril; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Deady, Sandra; McCluskey, Neil; Gavin, Anna; Comber, Harry

    2014-06-01

    Some studies suggest that there are urban-rural variations in cancer incidence but whether these simply reflect urban-rural socioeconomic variation is unclear. We investigated whether there were urban-rural variations in the incidence of 18 cancers, after adjusting for socioeconomic status. Cancers diagnosed between 1995 and 2007 were extracted from the population-based National Cancer Registry Ireland and Northern Ireland Cancer Registry and categorised by urban-rural status, based on population density of area of residence at diagnosis (rural <1 person per hectare, intermediate 1-15 people per hectare, urban >15 people per hectare). Relative risks (RR) were calculated by negative binomial regression, adjusting for age, country and three area-based markers of socioeconomic status. Risks were significantly higher in both sexes in urban than rural residents with head and neck (males RR urban vs. rural = 1.53, 95 % CI 1.42-1.64; females RR = 1.29, 95 % CI 1.15-1.45), esophageal (males 1.21, 1.11-1.31; females 1.21, 1.08-1.35), stomach (males 1.36, 1.27-1.46; females 1.19, 1.08-1.30), colorectal (males 1.14, 1.09-1.18; females 1.04, 1.00-1.09), lung (males 1.54, 1.47-1.61; females 1.74, 1.65-1.84), non-melanoma skin (males 1.13, 1.10-1.17; females 1.23, 1.19-1.27) and bladder (males 1.30, 1.21-1.39; females 1.31, 1.17-1.46) cancers. Risks of breast, cervical, kidney and brain cancer were significantly higher in females in urban areas. Prostate cancer risk was higher in rural areas (0.94, 0.90-0.97). Other cancers showed no significant urban-rural differences. After adjusting for socioeconomic variation, urban-rural differences were evident for 12 of 18 cancers. Variations in healthcare utilization and known risk factors likely explain some of the observed associations. Explanations for others are unclear and, in the interests of equity, warrant further investigation.

  5. Socioeconomic, medical care, and public health contexts affecting infant mortality: a study of community-level differentials in Peru.

    PubMed

    Andes, N

    1989-12-01

    Socioeconomic, medical care, and public health contexts are examined in Peruvian communities for their relationship to infant mortality. A deviant case analysis is used to uncover characteristics important in the social structure of Peruvian communities. Results from fieldwork in two "deviant" communities suggest that economic diversity, income disparity, social class fluidity, and women's autonomy, along with refined measures of medical care and public health resources, are important in understanding differentials in mortality. Attention is drawn to the community context and to the interplay of socioeconomic determinants affecting infant mortality.

  6. [Correlation between Area-Level Sociodemographic Patterns and Estimates of Need for Medical Care].

    PubMed

    Schulz, M; Czihal, T; Erhart, M; Stillfried, D

    2016-05-01

    Besides the known determinants age, sex, and morbidity, regional sociodemographic factors may be important for the level of health care needs. This study proposes a possible characterisation of area-level sociodemographic patterns and proves their association to variation in morbidity, mortality and health service utilisation. We used the 412 counties of Germany as unit of analysis. To describe area-level sociodemographic patterns a factor analysis was conducted on a set of 27 indicators from official statistics. Two factors were retained and rotated according to the Varimax criteria, which explained 34.2 and 33.0% of variance. Mortality, utilisation of inpatient health services as well as parameters of the nationwide outpatient claims data [relative risk score (RRS) and the level of health care use (LB)] served as determinants of need for medical care and were correlated to the extracted factors. Factor 1 describes regional disparities in socio-economic and health status variables and is called socio-economic health index (SGX). Factor 2 characterises the spatial distribution of interregional migration and household size and is called urbanity index (UX). There was a strong positive correlation between SGX and RRS (r=0.77), mortality (r=0.68 and r=0.78 for overall and premature death rate) and inpatient health care use (r=0.62). UX was not correlated with RRS but weakly inversely correlated with inpatient health care use (r=-0.28). Both SGX and UX were significantly correlated to the level of outpatient health care use (r=0.39 and r=0.40). Stratification of LB by type of practitioner revealed that SGX was mainly associated with health care provided by general practitioners while UX was linked to health care provided by specialists, particularly psychotherapists. The extracted factors to describe area-level sociodemographic patterns showed distinct correlations to indicators for medical care use. While SGX was mainly associated with overall morbidity, UX showed

  7. Pump room level, looking north in service bay area. Visible ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pump room level, looking north in service bay area. Visible from left to right are the direct current breaker panel, battery bank, door to stairwell, and hanging tools. - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  8. Level area surrounding Facility 314 showing the planted ring that ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Level area surrounding Facility 314 showing the planted ring that contains the radial ground wires, note the ring beneath the antenna circles is cleared of vegetation and covered with gravel, view facing southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Radio Station, AF/FRD-10 Circularly Disposed Antenna Array, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  9. Service bay area, pump room level, showing ventilation fans and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Service bay area, pump room level, showing ventilation fans and ducts association with evaporative-cooling system. Note battery bank at far right. View to the east - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 3, South of Interstate 8, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  10. Looking southwest in the service bay area, pump room level, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking southwest in the service bay area, pump room level, at the ventilation fan ducts associated with the evaporative cooling system. Stairs to the operating deck above the intakes are at the far left - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  11. DETAIL OF THE THREE LEVEL EQUIPMENT AREA SHOWING ACCESS STAIRS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THE THREE LEVEL EQUIPMENT AREA SHOWING ACCESS STAIRS AND RAILING, CAST CONCRETE LOUVERS AT THE FIRST FLOOR, AND WOOD LOUVERS ABOVE. IN THE FOREGROUND IS THE BALUSTRADE AT THE NORTHWEST END OF THE PROMENADE. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Theater, Hornet Avenue between Enterprise & Pokomoke Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. Do the Predictors of Child Conduct Problems Vary by High- and Low-Levels of Socioeconomic and Neighborhood Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonberg, Michael A.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2007-01-01

    This review seeks to examine whether the existing literature on child conduct problems (CP) supports the notion that certain CP risk factors vary in their importance across disadvantaged and better-off environments. Disadvantaged environments are represented by socioeconomic and/or neighborhood risk (SN risk) in this review. Three types of studies…

  13. Report card on low level ozone in urban areas

    SciTech Connect

    Onischak, M.

    1994-12-31

    It has been four years since the Clean Air Act was amended in November of 1990. Much work has been done in this time, and the country is beginning to see real air quality benefits. Although these changes have not completely licked the urban ozone problem yet, they have made a lot of progress. All of the urban areas which have been required to reduce their ozone levels have done a good job of lowering their emissions. While the urban areas have not all been able to meet every federal deadline, the areas have all been able to achieve the control milestones before the mandatory Clean Air Act sanctions have taken effect. Some areas are even ready to declare their ozone problems solved.

  14. Pulmonary tuberculosis and associated factors in areas of high levels of poverty in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, H; Flores-Hernández, J; Jansá, J; Caylá, J; Martín-Mateo, M

    2001-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and factors associated with PTB in areas of high levels of poverty in Chiapas, Mexico. In 1998 active case-finding was carried out among those aged over 14 years who had a cough of > or =15 days duration, in a convenience sample of 1894 households in 32 communities selected at random based on the level of poverty and on the level of access to health services, measured by travelling time (<1 hour, > or =1 hour) from the community to the nearest health care unit. Of the 277 identified with a productive cough, we obtained sputum samples from 228 for the purposes of detecting PTB through acid-fast smears and cultures. Mycobacteria characterization was carried out using the BACTEC method. The identification of factors associated with PTB was performed using bivariate analysis and via logistic regression models. A PTB rate of 276.9 per 100 000 persons aged > or =15 years was found (95% CI : 161-443). Blood in sputum was the only factor associated with PTB (none of the demographic or socioeconomic characteristics were). Of 16 positive cultures, 14 became contaminated. The two cultures characterized were Mycobacterium tuberculosis (one being multiresistant). The high prevalence of PTB detected indicates the need, both in the area studied and in others with similar conditions, to develop PTB control programmes which give priority to early diagnosis and to the provision of adequate treatment.

  15. Area-level poverty and preterm birth risk: A population-based multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    DeFranco, Emily A; Lian, Min; Muglia, Louis A; Schootman, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is a complex disease with etiologic influences from a variety of social, environmental, hormonal, genetic, and other factors. The purpose of this study was to utilize a large population-based birth registry to estimate the independent effect of county-level poverty on preterm birth risk. To accomplish this, we used a multilevel logistic regression approach to account for multiple co-existent individual-level variables and county-level poverty rate. Methods Population-based study utilizing Missouri's birth certificate database (1989–1997). We conducted a multilevel logistic regression analysis to estimate the effect of county-level poverty on PTB risk. Of 634,994 births nested within 115 counties in Missouri, two levels were considered. Individual-level variables included demographics factors, prenatal care, health-related behavioral risk factors, and medical risk factors. The area-level variable included the percentage of the population within each county living below the poverty line (US census data, 1990). Counties were divided into quartiles of poverty; the first quartile (lowest rate of poverty) was the reference group. Results PTB < 35 weeks occurred in 24,490 pregnancies (3.9%). The rate of PTB < 35 weeks was 2.8% in counties within the lowest quartile of poverty and increased through the 4th quartile (4.9%), p < 0.0001. High county-level poverty was significantly associated with PTB risk. PTB risk (< 35 weeks) was increased for women who resided in counties within the highest quartile of poverty, adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) 1.18 (95% CI 1.03, 1.35), with a similar effect at earlier gestational ages (< 32 weeks), adjOR 1.27 (95% CI 1.06, 1.52). Conclusion Women residing in socioeconomically deprived areas are at increased risk of preterm birth, above other underlying risk factors. Although the risk increase is modest, it affects a large number of pregnancies. PMID:18793437

  16. Water levels in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, R.P.; Tucci, P.; Goemaat, R.L.

    1996-12-31

    Water levels were monitored in 28 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during 1994. Twelve wells representing 13 intervals were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, 6 wells representing 10 intervals were monitored hourly, and 10 wells representing 13 intervals were monitored both periodically and hourly. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks, except one, that monitors water levels in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using calibrated steel tapes, a multiconductor cable unit, and pressure transducers. Water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 728 to about 1,034 meters above sea level during 1994. The mean-annual water-level altitude in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks was about 753 meters above sea level during 1994. Water levels were only an average of about 0.01 meters lower than 1993 water levels. All data were acquired in accordance with a quality-assurance program to support the reliability of the data.

  17. [Socioeconomic variables and fertility].

    PubMed

    Arguello, O

    1980-08-01

    While making comparative analyses of data collected by the World Fertility Survey regarding Latin America, a group of investigators of CELADE (Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia) realized that the selection of economic variables for the study of fertility had serious limitations. Such limitations did not allow the elaboration of a theory which took into account the complicated process of fertility, in all its socioeconomic, cultural, and psychological manifestations. Thus, this paper intends to lay the theoretical basis for the selection of all relevant variables, distinguishing, for example, the average fertility of women according to area of residence, place of early socialization, migrant status, social status, occupation of husband, level of instruction, occupation, and all changes in occupational activities of women in fertile age.

  18. Socioeconomic environment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This portion of the Energy vision 2020 draft report discusses the socioeconomic environment of the Tennessee Valley region. It describes the region and mentions geographical factors, current economy, the agricultural sector, and future trends in the economy of the region.

  19. Comparing the socioeconomic status--health gradient among adults 50 and older across rural and urban areas of Thailand in 1994 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Zachary; Prachuabmoh, Vipan

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines associations between three indicators of socioeconomic status, education, income and bank savings, as well as one composite of these three measures, and self-assessed health for adults aged 50+ across rural and urban Thailand, comparing 1994 and 2007. Between 1994 and 2007 Thailand experienced rapid social changes that could impact on health overall and across groups, including population aging, socioeconomic development and changes in health policy. This led us to test whether overall health has improved as a result and whether the SES health gradient has changed. The data come from comparable survey sources from over seventy-thousand respondents, collected by Thailand's National Statistical Office. Generalized proportional ordered logit models were run that include up to three-way interactions of SES by year by rural versus urban location of residence are run. The three-way interactions allow for testing and of whether changes over time are due to complex intertwined effects. Results indicate that a) there has been improvement in health among the population aged 50 years and older in Thailand; b) there has been a flattening in the SES - health gradient in rural areas, and c) there has been little change in the gradient in urban areas, and if anything, there has been a widening of the relationship between income and health in urban Thailand. Divergence in the way the gradient has changed across rural and urban Thailand may point to the impact of social policy that has been aimed at poorer rural residents.

  20. Quality in general practice consultations; a qualitative study of the views of patients living in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Stewart W; Cawston, Peter G; Bikker, Annemieke P

    2007-01-01

    Background Inequality in health and health care services is an important policy issue internationally as well as in the UK, and is closely linked to socio-economic deprivation, which in Scotland is concentrated in and around Glasgow. Patients views on primary care in deprived areas are not well documented. In the present study we explore the views of patients living in a high deprivation area on the quality of consultations in general practice. Methods Qualitative focus group study set in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in a large peripheral housing estate in Glasgow, Scotland. 11 focus groups were conducted; 8 with local community groups and 3 with other local residents. In total 72 patients took part. Grounded theory was used to analyse the data. Results Patients' perceptions of the quality of the consultation with GPs consisted of two broad, inter-relating themes; (1) the GPs' competence, and (2) the GPs empathy or ' caring'. Competence was often assumed but many factors coloured this assumption, in particular whether patients had experienced (directly or indirectly with a close family member) 'successful' outcomes with that doctor previously or not. 'Caring' related to patients feeling (a) listened to by the doctor and being able to talk; (b) valued as an individual by the doctor (c) that the doctor understood 'the bigger picture', and (d) the doctors' explanations were clear and understandable. Relational continuity of care (being able to see the same GP and having a good relationship), and having sufficient time in the consultation were closely linked with perceptions of consultation quality. Conclusion Patients from deprived areas want holistic GPs who understand the realities of life in such areas and whom they can trust as both competent and genuinely caring. Without this, they may judge doctors as socially distant and emotionally detached. Relational continuity, empathy and sufficient time in consultations are key factors in achieving this

  1. Constructing area-level indicators of successful ageing in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Tsai, Chiung-Yi; Chang, Ming-Cheng; Luh, Dih-Ling

    2010-01-01

    We constructed area-level indicators of successful ageing in Taiwan. Area-level successful ageing was defined as follows: the living environment in a community/city is beneficial for physical, psychological and social health, and the people living in the area are well informed about the issues that pertain to maintaining health and behave in ways that promote their health. A modified Delphi method and analytical hierarchy process were used, with eight experts completing three successive rounds of questionnaires to determine the appropriate dimensions and indicators. In total, 65 indicators of area-level successful ageing were suggested. The weights of the six dimensions of the area indicators were determined as follows: health status (0.273), health lifestyle (0.182), social participation (0.166), health-care resources and utilisation (0.164), social environment (0.113) and natural environment (0.102). Nationwide survey data and government statistics were used to describe the profiles of 23 cities and counties in Taiwan with respect to successful ageing. Degree of ageing and geographic location were not related significantly to the total successful ageing scores of the cities/counties. However, urbanisation was correlated negatively to the total score (Spearman's rho = -0.43), the dimensions health status (rho = -0.54), health lifestyle (rho = -0.52), and natural environment (rho = -0.43), and degree of ageing was related moderately and negatively to health lifestyle (rho = -0.39). There were significant differences in health lifestyle and natural environment according to geographic location. These area indicators will be helpful to local governments for monitoring and improving successful ageing within their communities.

  2. Area-level variations in cancer care and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Keating, Nancy L; Landrum, Mary Beth; Lamont, Elizabeth B; Bozeman, Samuel R; McNeil, Barbara J

    2012-05-01

    : Substantial regional variations in health-care spending exist across the United States; yet, care and outcomes are not better in higher-spending areas. Most studies have focused on care in fee-for-service Medicare; whether spillover effects exist in settings without financial incentives for more care is unknown. : We studied care for cancer patients in fee-for-service Medicare and the Veterans Health Administration (VA) to understand whether processes and outcomes of care vary with area-level Medicare spending. : An observational study using logistic regression to assess care by area-level measures of Medicare spending. : Patients with lung, colorectal, or prostate cancers diagnosed during 2001-2004 in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) areas or the VA. The SEER cohort included fee-for-service Medicare patients aged older than 65 years. : Recommended and preference-sensitive cancer care and mortality. : In fee-for-service Medicare, higher-spending areas had higher rates of recommended care (curative surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer and chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer) and preference-sensitive care (chemotherapy for stage IV lung and colon cancer and primary treatment of local/regional prostate cancer) and had lower lung cancer mortality. In the VA, we observed minimal variation in care by area-level Medicare spending. : Our findings suggest that intensity of care for Medicare beneficiaries is not driving variations in VA care, despite some overlap in physician networks. Although the Dartmouth Atlas work has been of unprecedented importance in demonstrating variations in Medicare spending, new measures may be needed to better understand variations in other populations.

  3. Variation of radon levels in U. S. homes correlated with house characteristics, location, and socio-economic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.L. )

    1991-05-01

    Data are analyzed on measurements of Rn levels in numerous U.S. homes, accompanied by responses to questionnaires. Substantial (but far from complete) bias reduction was accomplished using questionnaire responses, leaving 37,000 measurements in living areas and 33,000 in basements for the analysis. Variables studied included: level with respect to ground where measurement was made, room type, age of house, recent weatherization actions, draftiness, location (urban, suburban, rural), air pollution, market value of house, annual household income, educational attainment of head of household, cigarette smoking, whether the house is rented or owner occupied, and geographic section of U.S. Geometric mean Rn levels were determined for each response to questionnaire items (correlations) and for each pair of responses (cross correlations). Many interesting correlations and cross correlations were found, and their explanation and consequences are discussed.

  4. A systematic review of the effectiveness of individual, community and societal-level interventions at reducing socio-economic inequalities in obesity among adults

    PubMed Central

    Hillier-Brown, F C; Bambra, C L; Cairns, J-M; Kasim, A; Moore, H J; Summerbell, C D

    2014-01-01

    Background: Socioeconomic inequalities in obesity are well established in high-income countries. There is a lack of evidence of the types of intervention that are effective in reducing these inequalities among adults. Objectives: To systematically review studies of the effectiveness of individual, community and societal interventions in reducing socio-economic inequalities in obesity among adults. Methods: Nine electronic databases were searched from start date to October 2012 along with website and grey literature searches. The review examined the best available international evidence (both experimental and observational) of interventions at an individual, community and societal level that might reduce inequalities in obesity among adults (aged 18 years or over) in any setting and country. Studies were included if they reported a body fatness-related outcome and if they included a measure of socio-economic status. Data extraction and quality appraisal were conducted using established mechanisms and narrative synthesis was conducted. Results: The ‘best available' international evidence was provided by 20 studies. At the individual level, there was evidence of the effectiveness of primary care delivered tailored weight loss programmes among deprived groups. Community based behavioural weight loss interventions and community diet clubs (including workplace ones) also had some evidence of effectiveness—at least in the short term. Societal level evaluations were few, low quality and inconclusive. Further, there was little evidence of long term effectiveness, and few studies of men or outside the USA. However, there was no evidence to suggest that interventions increase inequalities. Conclusions: The best available international evidence suggests that some individual and community-based interventions may be effective in reducing socio-economic inequalities in obesity among adults in the short term. Further research is required particularly of more complex, multi

  5. A systematic review of the effectiveness of individual, community and societal level interventions at reducing socioeconomic inequalities in obesity amongst children.

    PubMed

    Hillier-Brown, Frances C; Bambra, Clare L; Cairns, Joanne-Marie; Kasim, Adetayo; Moore, Helen J; Summerbell, Carolyn D

    2014-08-11

    Tackling childhood obesity is one of the major contemporary public health policy challenges and vital in terms of addressing socioeconomic health inequalities.We aimed to systematically review studies of the effectiveness of interventions (individual, community and societal) operating via different approaches (targeted or universal) in reducing socio-economic inequalities in obesity-related outcomes amongst children. Nine electronic databases were searched from start date to October 2012 along with website and grey literature searches. The review examined the best available international evidence from interventions that aimed to prevent obesity, treat obesity, or improve obesity-related behaviours (diet and/or physical activity) amongst children (aged 0-18 years) in any setting and country, so long as they provided relevant information and analysis on both socioeconomic status and obesity-related outcomes. Data extraction and quality appraisal were conducted using established mechanisms and narrative synthesis was conducted. We located 23 studies that provided the 'best available' (strongest methodologically) international evidence. At the individual level (n = 4), there was indicative evidence that screen time reduction and mentoring health promotion interventions could be effective in reducing inequalities in obesity. For the community level interventions (n = 17), evidence was inconclusive - with some studies suggesting that school-based health promotion activities and community-based group-based programmes were effective in reducing obesity - others not. Societal level evaluations were few (n = 1). However, there was no evidence to suggest that any of these intervention types increase inequalities and several studies found that interventions could at least prevent the widening of inequalities in obesity. The majority of studies were from America and were of 6-12 year old children. The review has found only limited evidence although some individual

  6. Burden of multimorbidity, socioeconomic status and use of health services across stages of life in urban areas: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The burden of chronic conditions and multimorbidity is a growing health problem in developed countries. The study aimed to determine the estimated prevalence and patterns of multimorbidity in urban areas of Catalonia, stratified by sex and adult age groups, and to assess whether socioeconomic status and use of primary health care services were associated with multimorbidity. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Catalonia. Participants were adults (19+ years) living in urban areas, assigned to 251 primary care teams. Main outcome: multimorbidity (≥2 chronic conditions). Other variables: sex (male/female), age (19–24; 25–44; 45–64; 65–79; 80+ years), socioeconomic status (quintiles), number of health care visits during the study. Results We included 1,356,761 patients; mean age, 47.4 years (SD: 17.8), 51.0% women. Multimorbidity was present in 47.6% (95% CI 47.5-47.7) of the sample, increasing with age in both sexes but significantly higher in women (53.3%) than in men (41.7%). Prevalence of multimorbidity in each quintile of the deprivation index was higher in women than in men (except oldest group). In women, multimorbidity prevalence increased with quintile of the deprivation index. Overall, the median (interquartile range) number of primary care visits was 8 (4–14) in multimorbidity vs 1 (0–4) in non-multimorbidity patients. The most prevalent multimorbidity pattern beyond 45 years of age was uncomplicated hypertension and lipid disorder. Compared with the least deprived group, women in other quintiles of the deprivation index were more likely to have multimorbidity than men until 65 years of age. The odds of multimorbidity increased with number of visits in all strata. Conclusions When all chronic conditions were included in the analysis, almost 50% of the adult urban population had multimorbidity. The prevalence of multimorbidity differed by sex, age group and socioeconomic status. Multimorbidity patterns varied by life

  7. Temporal Variation and Association of Aflatoxin B1 Albumin-Adduct Levels with Socio-Economic and Food Consumption Factors in HIV Positive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Pauline E.; Akinyemiju, Tomi F.; Jha, Megha; Aban, Inmaculada; Gonzalez-Falero, Andrea; Joseph, Dnika

    2015-01-01

    The association between aflatoxin exposure and alteration in immune responses observed in humans suggest that aflatoxin could suppress the immune system and work synergistically with HIV to increase disease severity and progression to AIDS. No longitudinal study has been conducted to assess exposure to aflatoxin (AF) among HIV positive individuals. We examined temporal variation in AFB1 albumin adducts (AF-ALB) in HIV positive Ghanaians, and assessed the association with socioeconomic and food consumption factors. We collected socioeconomic and food consumption data for 307 HIV positive antiretroviral naive adults and examined AF-ALB levels at recruitment (baseline) and at six (follow-up 1) and 12 (follow-up 2) months post-recruitment, by age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES) and food consumption patterns. Generalized linear models were used to examine the influence of socioeconomic and food consumption factors on changes in AF-ALB levels over the study period, adjusting for other covariates. AF-ALB levels (pg/mg albumin) were lower at baseline (mean AF-ALB: 14.9, SD: 15.9), higher at six months (mean AF-ALB: 23.3, SD: 26.6), and lower at 12 months (mean AF-ALB: 15.3, SD: 15.4). Participants with the lowest SES had the highest AF-ALB levels at baseline and follow up-2 compared with those with higher SES. Participants who bought less than 20% of their food and who stored maize for less than two months had lower AF-ALB levels. In the adjusted models, there was a statistically significant association between follow up time and season (dry or rainy season) on AF-ALB levels over time (p = 0.04). Asymptomatic HIV-positive Ghanaians had high plasma AF-ALB levels that varied according to season, socioeconomic status, and food consumption patterns. Steps need to be taken to ensure the safety and security of the food supply for the population, but in particular for the most vulnerable groups such as HIV positive people. PMID:26633502

  8. Temporal Variation and Association of Aflatoxin B₁ Albumin-Adduct Levels with Socio-Economic and Food Consumption Factors in HIV Positive Adults.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Pauline E; Akinyemiju, Tomi F; Jha, Megha; Aban, Inmaculada; Gonzalez-Falero, Andrea; Joseph, Dnika

    2015-11-30

    The association between aflatoxin exposure and alteration in immune responses observed in humans suggest that aflatoxin could suppress the immune system and work synergistically with HIV to increase disease severity and progression to AIDS. No longitudinal study has been conducted to assess exposure to aflatoxin (AF) among HIV positive individuals. We examined temporal variation in AFB₁ albumin adducts (AF-ALB) in HIV positive Ghanaians, and assessed the association with socioeconomic and food consumption factors. We collected socioeconomic and food consumption data for 307 HIV positive antiretroviral naive adults and examined AF-ALB levels at recruitment (baseline) and at six (follow-up 1) and 12 (follow-up 2) months post-recruitment, by age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES) and food consumption patterns. Generalized linear models were used to examine the influence of socioeconomic and food consumption factors on changes in AF-ALB levels over the study period, adjusting for other covariates. AF-ALB levels (pg/mg albumin) were lower at baseline (mean AF-ALB: 14.9, SD: 15.9), higher at six months (mean AF-ALB: 23.3, SD: 26.6), and lower at 12 months (mean AF-ALB: 15.3, SD: 15.4). Participants with the lowest SES had the highest AF-ALB levels at baseline and follow up-2 compared with those with higher SES. Participants who bought less than 20% of their food and who stored maize for less than two months had lower AF-ALB levels. In the adjusted models, there was a statistically significant association between follow up time and season (dry or rainy season) on AF-ALB levels over time (p = 0.04). Asymptomatic HIV-positive Ghanaians had high plasma AF-ALB levels that varied according to season, socioeconomic status, and food consumption patterns. Steps need to be taken to ensure the safety and security of the food supply for the population, but in particular for the most vulnerable groups such as HIV positive people.

  9. A novel approach to measuring residential socioeconomic factors associated with cardiovascular and metabolic health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Individual-level characteristics, including socioeconomic status, have been associated with poor metabolic and cardiovascular health; however, residential area-level characteristics may also independently contribute to health status. In the current study, we used a novel applica...

  10. A novel approach to measuring residential socioeconomic factors associated with cardiovascular and metabolic health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Individual-level characteristics, including socioeconomic status, have been associated with poor metabolic and cardiovascular health; however, residential area-level characteristics may also independently contribute to health status. In the current study, we used a novel applica...

  11. A novel approach for measuring residential socioeconomic factors associated with cardiovascular and metabolic health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Individual-level characteristics, including socioeconomic status, have been associated with poor metabolic and cardiovascular health; however, residential area-level characteristics may also independently contribute to health status. In the current study, we used hierarchical clu...

  12. [Infant mortality by cause of death in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, 1976-1986: association with socioeconomic, climatic and air pollution variables].

    PubMed

    Duchiade, M P; Beltrao, K I

    1992-01-01

    The Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro (RMR) consists of the capital (the city of Rio de Janeiro) and 13 surrounding cities. The city of Rio de Janeiro itself was divided into 24 rather heterogeneous administrative regions (RAS) based on the income level of their inhabitants, the supply of public services such as water and sewerage, and population density or air pollution. Three different socioeconomic covariables were selected in three residential zones (ZONA) or subareas: the central rich nucleus, the intermediary zone of transition, and the distant periphery. As dependent variables the specific rate of infant, neonatal, or postneonatal mortality were considered for causes. The RMRJ Civil Register mortality data were utilized. A factor of correction was estimated according to the technique of Brass using the fertility rate and the rate of delivery for specific 5-year age groups of mothers. A multivariate analysis, the adjusted generalized linear model (MLG), was used for studying associations between socioeconomic, climatic, and air pollution variables and the levels of mortality. The MLG was formulated by means of the statistical package, GLIM or Generalized Linear Interactive Modelling. Analysis of infant mortality trends during 1976-1986 for the large subareas of RMRJ and the outlying region showed that the peak months of total neonatal and perinatal mortality were March and February, while the lowest months were November and October. May and June represented maximum rates of postneonatal mortality for pneumonia, diarrhea, other respiratory infections, malnutrition, and other diseases. MLG indicated that there was a statistically significant association between the annual mortality rate for selected causes and socioeconomic indicators (INS, FS and Zona); the rates of mortality also varied depending on time (ANO and ANOQ); and the mortality rates also appeared to be associated with the variations of the log of average pollution (LPM).

  13. A new bio-inspired, population-level approach to the socioeconomic evolution of dynamic spectrum access services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, Denis; Gazda, Juraj; Brutovsky, Branislav

    Evolutionary species and quasispecies models provide the universal and flexible basis for a large-scale description of the dynamics of evolutionary systems, which can be built conceived as a constraint satisfaction dynamics. It represents a general framework to design and study many novel, technologically contemporary models and their variants. Here, we apply the classical quasispecies concept to model the emerging dynamic spectrum access (DSA) markets. The theory describes the mechanisms of mimetic transfer, competitive interactions between socioeconomic strata of the end-users, their perception of the utility and inter-operator switching in the variable technological environments of the operators offering the wireless spectrum services. The algorithmization and numerical modeling demonstrate the long-term evolutionary socioeconomic changes which reflect the end-user preferences and results of the majorization of their irrational decisions in the same manner as the prevailing tendencies which are embodied in the efficient market hypothesis.

  14. The influence of urban development and social mobility on socioeconomic level: The application of GIS on urban ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaili Mansor, Nur; Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Helmi; Mansor, Shattri; Paradhan, Biswajeet

    2014-06-01

    Specifically, the integration between social sciences and natural science are fundamental in our understanding of the economic, social and technological transformations that have drastically changed the society. This study will be based on the municipality of Sungai Petani, Kedah as it has been most influenced by urbanization and urban development. Urban development in Sungai Petani is closely associated with a tremendous increase in demand for land, which is highly related to population growth, human movement and their social mobility. The qualitative case study taken will rely on the visual interpretation technique that would allow the researcher to develop a map of urban changes detection. The potential application of GIS information to estimate socioeconomic indicators and the modelling of socio-economic activities that are explored in this study is hoped to increase further our understanding of the impacts of development and urbanization on social life.

  15. Basic sanitation, socioeconomic conditions, and degree of risk for the presence and maintenance of malaria in a low-transmission area in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Thais Hetierre Abreu; Chaves, Tânia do Socorro Souza; Matos, Haroldo José de; Sofffiatti, Nelson Fernando de Lisboa; Guimarães, Ricardo José de Paula Souza e; Guimarães, Luis Henrique Rocha; Ventura, Ana Maria Revoredo; Machado, Ricardo Luiz Dantas

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate basic sanitation and socioeconomic indicators, reported cases of malaria, and risk of contracting malaria in the Ananindeua municipality, State of Pará. Data on basic sanitation and socioeconomic dimensions were taken from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics [ Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE)] 2010 census. Epidemiological malaria information was taken from the Epidemiological Malaria Surveillance Information System [ Sistema de Informação de Vigilância Epidemiológica de Malária (SIVEP/Malaria)], between 2003 and 2013 of the Ministry of Health and from the SIVEP/Malaria forms of the municipality's Endemic Diseases Unit for 2,013 cases. Our data do not confirm the correlation among indicators of basic sanitation, socioeconomic conditions, and water supply with malaria cases. Of the 1,557 cases evaluated, most were caused by Plasmodium vivax , with rare cases of Plasmodium falciparum and mixed infections. There were 756 notifications in 2003. The number of reported cases was sharply reduced between 2006 and 2012, but a 142-case outbreak occurred in 2013. Ananindeua municipality's Annual Parasite Index indicated low risk in 2003 and no risk in other years, and the 2,013 cases were predominantly male individuals aged ≥40 years. Our data confirm the non-endemicity of malaria in the Ananindeua municipality, as the Annual Parasite Indices described for the years 2004-2013 classify it as a risk-free area. However, the 2013 outbreak indicates the need to strengthen prevention, surveillance, and control activities to reduce the risk of new outbreaks and consequent economic and social impacts on the population.

  16. Pump room level, looking west in the service bay area. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pump room level, looking west in the service bay area. Cable trays and two ventilation fans (part of the evaporative-cooling system) are visible at right. The vacuum pump is in the center in front of a concrete partition, and a water discharge pipe is visible beyond the partition at left - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  17. 5. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG DRESSING AREA ON LEVEL 4; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG DRESSING AREA ON LEVEL 4; LOOKING WEST; WORKERS STOOD ON RAISED PLATFORMS TO EVISCERATE AND WASH CARCASSES; EXPANDED STEEL GRATING PROVIDED NON-SLIP WORKING SURFACE; STAINLESS-STEEL BAFFLES BETWEEN PLATFORMS HELPED TO CONTAIN STEAM AND WATER SPRAY; METAL TROUGHS BELOW PLATFORMS AND CONCRETE GUTTERS IN FLOOR HELPED CHANNEL WASTE WATER TO DRAINS - Rath Packing Company, Hog Dressing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  18. Sleep Duration and Area-Level Deprivation in Twins

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Horn, Erin; Duncan, Glen E.; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Turkheimer, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether area-level deprivation as indicated by the Singh Index predicts shorter sleep duration and modifies its underlying genetic and environmental contributions. Methods: Participants were 4,218 adult twin pairs (2,377 monozygotic and 1,841 dizygotic) from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration. The Singh Index was determined by linking geocoding addresses to 17 indicators at the census-tract level using data from Census of Washington State and Census Tract Cartographic Boundary Files from 2000 and 2010. Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate genetic decomposition and quantitative genetic interaction models that assessed A (additive genetics), C (common environment), and E (unique environment) main effects of the Singh Index on sleep duration and allowed the magnitude of residual ACE variance components in sleep duration to vary with the Index. Results: The sample had a mean age of 38.2 y (standard deviation [SD] = 18), and was predominantly female (62%) and Caucasian (91%). Mean sleep duration was 7.38 h (SD = 1.20) and the mean Singh Index score was 0.00 (SD = 0.89). The heritability of sleep duration was 39% and the Singh Index was 12%. The uncontrolled phenotypic regression of sleep duration on the Singh Index showed a significant negative relationship between area-level deprivation and sleep length (b = −0.080, P < 0.001). Every 1 SD in Singh Index was associated with a ∼4.5 min change in sleep duration. For the quasi-causal bivariate model, there was a significant main effect of E (b0E = −0.063; standard error [SE] = 0.30; P < 0.05). Residual variance components unique to sleep duration were significant for both A (b0Au = 0.734; SE = 0.020; P < 0.001) and E (b0Eu = 0.934; SE = 0.013; P < 0.001). Conclusions: Area-level deprivation has a quasi-causal association with sleep duration, with greater deprivation being related to

  19. Household dust metal levels in the Sydney metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Gautam; Lin, Kevin Chi-Pei; Feitz, Andrew J

    2003-11-01

    Household dust was collected from 82 residential homes within the Sydney metropolitan area. The geometric mean concentrations of metals in the household dust were Cd, 1.9 microg/g; Cr, 64.3 microg/g; Cu, 103 microg/g; Fe, 2740 microg/g; Mn, 54 microg/g; Ni, 15.6 microg/g; Pb, 85.2 microg/g; and Zn, 437 microg/g. Differences in household income level, dwelling type, or the number of occupants were not statistically significant for the majority of metals. The exceptions were higher amounts of Zn (P=0.033) and Fe (P=0.047) found in households with only 1-2 residents compared to those with 3-4 or >4 residents, and slightly higher Mn levels (P=0.033) were found in low-income households (AUD 0-30,000 dollars/year). Region was highly significant for Pb levels in Sydney but not significant for other metals. Large variations in Pb levels were found in household dust (16-16,600 microg/g), with the inner-west region associated with significantly higher Pb levels (P<0.001). Comparisons with a study from a decade earlier have revealed that the household dust Pb levels have remained constant despite substantial improvements in air quality in the inner-west area of Sydney. New epidemiological studies are required to determine whether Pb blood levels have also remained unchanged and whether accumulated Pb in household dust represents a significant health risk to children in this region.

  20. Municipal solid waste generation in growing urban areas in Africa: current practices and relation to socioeconomic factors in Jimma, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getahun, T; Mengistie, E; Haddis, A; Wasie, F; Alemayehu, E; Dadi, D; Van Gerven, T; Van der Bruggen, B

    2012-10-01

    As one of cities in the developing countries, a rapid population growth and industrial activities pose many environmental challenges for Jimma city, Ethiopia. One aspect of urban growth posing a threat on sustainable development is poor solid waste management, which results in environmental pollution. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the quantity, composition, sources of waste generated, their current disposal practices, and to recommend appropriate management technologies. The total waste generated daily in Jimma city was ca. 88,000 kg, and the average per capita generation rate was 0.55 ± 0.17 kg/capita/day. Eighty-seven percent of the waste was produced by households and 13% by institutions, and a negligible fraction (0.1%) was generated by street sweepings. During the rainy season, 40% more waste was generated than in the dry season because of the increased availability of agricultural food product. Further analysis showed that biodegradable organic waste constitutes 54% by weight with an average moisture content of 60% that falls within the required limits for composting. The nonbiodegradable components constitute 46% of which 30% of it was nonrecyclable material. Only 25% of the community uses municipal containers for disposal at the selected landfill site. Fifty-one percent of the households disposed their waste in individually chosen spots, whereas 22% burned their waste. Finally 2% of households use private waste collectors. The socioeconomic analysis showed that higher family income and educational status is associated more with private or municipal waste collection and less with the application of backyard or open dumping. These insights into generated waste and management practice in Jimma city allow making suggestions for improved collection, treatment, and disposal methods. A primary conclusion is that the biodegradable waste is a major fraction having suitable properties for recycling. As such an economic benefit can be obtained from

  1. Dose area product reference levels in dental panoramic radiology.

    PubMed

    Tierris, Christine E; Yakoumakis, Emmanuel N; Bramis, George N; Georgiou, Evangelos

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure DAP (Dose Area Product) values in panoramic radiology with the use of a DAP meter, to determine corresponding reference levels, and to compare DAP between panoramic and intraoral radiology. DAP was measured in 62 panoramic X-ray units for 3 types of exposure (male, female and child) and in 20 intraoral X-ray units of 50, 60 and 70 kVp. DAP reference levels were 117 mGy cm2, 97 mGy cm2 and 77 mGy cm2 for exposure of a male, female and child respectively. Results showed that DAP from a panoramic dental examination is approximately twice that from a single intraoral examination. DAP meter is a very convenient and easy to use tool for patient dosimetry and for the establishment of reference levels in dental panoramic radiology.

  2. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and minority composition are associated with better potential spatial access to the ground-truthed food environment in a large rural area.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Horel, Scott

    2008-03-01

    Little is known about spatial inequalities and potential access to the food environment in rural areas. In this study, we assessed the food environment in a 6-county rural region of Texas (11,567 km2) through ground-truthed methods that included direct observation and on-site Global Positioning System technology to examine the relationship between neighborhood inequalities (e.g., socioeconomic deprivation and minority composition) and network distance from all 101 rural neighborhoods to the nearest food store (FS). Neighborhood deprivation was determined from socioeconomic characteristics using 2000 census block group (CBG) data. Network distances were calculated from the population-weighted center of each CBG to the nearest supermarket, grocery, convenience, and discount store. Multiple regression models examined associations among deprivation, minority composition, population density, and network distance to the nearest FS. The median distance to the nearest supermarket was 14.9 km one way (range 0.12 to 54.0 km). The distance decreased with increasing deprivation, minority composition, and population density. The worst deprived neighborhoods with the greatest minority composition had better potential spatial access to the nearest FS. For >20% of all rural residents, their neighborhoods were at least 17.7 km from the nearest supermarket or full-line grocery or 7.6 km from the nearest convenience store. This makes food shopping a challenge, especially in rural areas that lack public transportation and where many have no vehicular access. Knowledge of potential access to the food environment is essential for combining environmental approaches and health interventions so that families, especially those in rural areas, can make healthier food choices.

  3. Interface Surface Area Tracking for the Conservative Level Set Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firehammer, Stephanie; Desjardins, Olivier

    2015-11-01

    One key question in liquid-gas flows is how to model the interface between phases in a way that is mass, momentum, and energy conserving. The accurate conservative level set (ACLS) method of Desjardins et al. provides a tool for tracking a liquid-gas interface with minimal mass conservation issues; however, it does not explicitly compute the interface surface area and thus nothing can be said a priori about the balance between kinetic energy and surface energy. This work examines an equation for the transport of interface surface area density, which can be written in terms of the gradient of the volume fraction. Furthermore this presentation will outline a numerical method for jointly transporting a conservative level set and surface area density. Finally, we will explore oppportunities for energy conservation via the accurate exchange of energy between the flow field and the interface through surface tension, with test cases to show the results of our extended ACLS method. Funding from the National Science Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.

  4. Sleep Duration and Area-Level Deprivation in Twins.

    PubMed

    Watson, Nathaniel F; Horn, Erin; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V; Turkheimer, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether area-level deprivation as indicated by the Singh Index predicts shorter sleep duration and modifies its underlying genetic and environmental contributions. Participants were 4,218 adult twin pairs (2,377 monozygotic and 1,841 dizygotic) from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration. The Singh Index was determined by linking geocoding addresses to 17 indicators at the census-tract level using data from Census of Washington State and Census Tract Cartographic Boundary Files from 2000 and 2010. Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate genetic decomposition and quantitative genetic interaction models that assessed A (additive genetics), C (common environment), and E (unique environment) main effects of the Singh Index on sleep duration and allowed the magnitude of residual ACE variance components in sleep duration to vary with the Index. The sample had a mean age of 38.2 y (standard deviation [SD] = 18), and was predominantly female (62%) and Caucasian (91%). Mean sleep duration was 7.38 h (SD = 1.20) and the mean Singh Index score was 0.00 (SD = 0.89). The heritability of sleep duration was 39% and the Singh Index was 12%. The uncontrolled phenotypic regression of sleep duration on the Singh Index showed a significant negative relationship between area-level deprivation and sleep length (b = -0.080, P < 0.001). Every 1 SD in Singh Index was associated with a ∼4.5 min change in sleep duration. For the quasi-causal bivariate model, there was a significant main effect of E (b(0E) = -0.063; standard error [SE] = 0.30; P < 0.05). Residual variance components unique to sleep duration were significant for both A (b(0Au) = 0.734; SE = 0.020; P < 0.001) and E (b(0Eu) = 0.934; SE = 0.013; P < 0.001). Area-level deprivation has a quasi-causal association with sleep duration, with greater deprivation being related to shorter sleep. As area-level deprivation

  5. Affective and Cognitive Development: Comparison of Need Achievement and Risk Level with Piagetian Levels of Cognitive Development for Two Socioeconomic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osicki, Kenneth John

    Reported is a study to determine the role of the affective measures of need to achieve (nAch) and risk taking in determining the acceleration or retardation of cognitive development as defined by Piaget. Students in the fourth and sixth grades of two schools differing according to socioeconomic status (SES) were the subjects for this…

  6. Cutaneous onchocerciasis in Dumbu, a pastoral area in the North-West region of Cameroon: diagnostic challenge and socio-economic implications.

    PubMed

    Njim, Tsi; Ngum, Joel Mbigha; Aminde, Leopold Ndemnge

    2015-01-01

    Onchocerciasis is a severe parasitic infestation caused by Onchocerca volvulus which causes disabling skin and subcutaneous tissue changes and ultimately leads to blindness. It has a huge public health impact due to its socioeconomic burden and the vast number of people it affects in developing countries. In this case, a 60 years old woman was encountered with leopard skin like changes, rashes and pruritus on the left leg; which had been managed as cutaneous mycosis for over a period of 8 years. A diagnosis of onchocerciasis was finally made after a skin snip identified onchocercal microfilariae. The above case shows that onchocerciasis is still a neglected tropical disease (NTD) in Cameroon. This emphasizes the need for more expansive outreach programs in remote areas in Cameroon, a change in health policies to ensure the eradication of this disabling disease and health promotion amongst vulnerable populations.

  7. Musculo-skeletal pain among 40- and 45-year olds in Oslo: differences between two socioeconomically contrasting areas, and their possible explanations

    PubMed Central

    Brekke, Mette; Hjortdahl, Per

    2004-01-01

    Background The objective of the study was to compare the prevalence and severity of musculo-skeletal pain between two socioeconomically contrasting areas in Oslo, Norway, and to explore possible explanatory factors. Methods Questionnaire survey, carried out as part of The Oslo Health Study in 2000–2001. Data from 821 persons (40 and 45 year old) living in a less affluent inner city area (called east) were compared with 854 persons living in an affluent area of the city (called west). Bivariate comparisons (chi square test) and multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate differences between the samples. Results 61 % in east and 56 % in west (p < 0.05) reported pain/stiffness in muscles/joints during the last four weeks. 30 % in east versus 19 % in west (p < 0.001) reported extensive pain. The between area difference in extensive pain was partially explained by physical inactivity, mental health problems and being of non-Western origin. Conclusion Musculo-skeletal pain is reported by 55–60 % of middle aged persons in Oslo during a four week period, and must be considered a normal phenomenon. Poor social conditions, inactivity, mental health problems and being an immigrant imply increased risk of more severe symptoms with a concomitant demand of health care. PMID:15494077

  8. Impact of vaccination uptake on hospitalizations due to rotavirus acute gastroenteritis in 2 different socioeconomic areas of Spain.

    PubMed

    Giménez Sánchez, Francisco; Nogueira, Esperanza Jiménez; Sánchez Forte, Miguel; Ibáñez Alcalde, Mercedes; Cobo, Elvira; Angulo, Raquel; Garrido Fernández, Pablo

    2016-04-02

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of hospitalization due to acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in infants and toddlers. However, rotavirus vaccination has been associated with a decline in hospitalization rates due to rotavirus AGE. A descriptive retrospective study was conducted to analyze the impact of rotavirus vaccination on the rate of hospitalizations due to AGE among children ≤2 years old in 2 areas of the province of Almería, Spain. After eight years of rotavirus vaccination, rates of hospitalizations due to rotavirus AGE are diminished. This decline is closely related to vaccine coverage in the studied areas.

  9. Impact of vaccination uptake on hospitalizations due to rotavirus acute gastroenteritis in 2 different socioeconomic areas of Spain

    PubMed Central

    Giménez Sánchez, Francisco; Nogueira, Esperanza Jiménez; Sánchez Forte, Miguel; Ibáñez Alcalde, Mercedes; Cobo, Elvira; Angulo, Raquel; Garrido Fernández, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rotavirus is the leading cause of hospitalization due to acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in infants and toddlers. However, rotavirus vaccination has been associated with a decline in hospitalization rates due to rotavirus AGE. A descriptive retrospective study was conducted to analyze the impact of rotavirus vaccination on the rate of hospitalizations due to AGE among children ≤2 years old in 2 areas of the province of Almería, Spain. After eight years of rotavirus vaccination, rates of hospitalizations due to rotavirus AGE are diminished. This decline is closely related to vaccine coverage in the studied areas. PMID:26810147

  10. Socio-economic inequalities in malnutrition among children and adolescents in Colombia: the role of individual-, household- and community-level characteristics.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Sandra; Sarmiento, Olga L; Forde, Ian; Velasco, Tatiana

    2013-09-01

    To examine socio-economic inequalities in malnutrition among Colombian children and adolescents, and to assess the contribution of individual-, household- and community-level factors to those inequalities. Cross-sectional data were used from two sources: 2005 Colombian Demographic and Health Survey and 2005 Colombian census. Malnutrition outcomes included stunting and overweight. Multilevel Poisson models were used to estimate the association between individual, household and contextual characteristics and malnutrition. Changes in prevalence ratios of the poorest quintile (v. richest) were compared to assess the contribution of different characteristics to inequalities in malnutrition. Population-based, representative of Colombia. Children and adolescents <18 years of age (n 30 779) from the Colombian Demographic and Health Survey. Children and adolescents living in the poorest households were close to five times more likely to be stunted, while those from the richest households were 1.3–2.8 times more likely than their poorest counterparts to be overweight. Care practices and household characteristics, particularly mother’s education, explained over one-third of socio-economic inequalities in stunting. The proportion explained by access to services was not negligible (between 6% and 14 %). Access to sanitation was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of stunting for all age groups. Between 14% and 32% of socio-economic disparities in overweight were explained by maternal and household characteristics. Mother’s overweight was positively associated with overweight of the child. Socio-economic inequalities in stunting and overweight coexist among children and adolescents in Colombia. Malnutrition inequalities are largely explained by household characteristics, suggesting the need for targeted interventions.

  11. Low-level waste disposal in highly populated areas

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalski, E.; McCombie, C.; Issler, H.

    1989-11-01

    Nuclear-generated electricity supplies almost 40% of the demand in Switzerland (the rest being hydro-power). Allowing for a certain reserve and assuming an operational life-time of 40 years for each reactor, and taking into account wastes from decommissioning and from medicine, industry and research, the total amount of low-level radioactive waste to be disposed of is about 175,000 m{sup 3}. Since there are no unpopulated areas in Switzerland, and since Swiss Federal Law specifies that the safety of disposal may not depend upon supervision of the repository, no shallow-land burial has been foreseen, even for short-lived low-level waste. Instead, geological disposal in a mined cavern system with access through a horizontal tunnel was selected as the best way of meeting the requirements and ensuring the necessary public acceptance.

  12. [Enterobiasis among schoolchildren in a rural population from Estado Falcón, Venezuela, and its relation with socioeconomic level].

    PubMed

    Acosta, María; Cazorla, Dalmiro; Garvett, María

    2002-09-01

    Between may and july 2001, a survey was conducted in order to investigate the prevalence and symptoms of Enterobius vermicularis infection and its relationship with the socio-economic status and household crowding of 154 schoolchildren aged 6-12 years from a rural village in Falcon State, Venezuela. The Graham technique (perianal swabs with an adhesive cellulose tape) was used to perform the parasitological diagnosis. The overall prevalence was high (57.79%). There was no difference in the prevalence between sexes (X2 = 0.005; d.f. = 1) or ages (X2 = 3.63; d.f. = 6) (p > 0.05), suggesting similar risk conditions for all individuals. Anal pruritus was the most common clinical finding (53.9%). Other less frequent manifestations were the following: perianal lesions (34.8%) and vulvovaginitis (32.6%). Graffar analysis revealed that the majority of schoolchildren belong to the poorer socioeconomic strata: IV (55.9%) and V (29.87%), with overcrowded living conditions. The correlation between E. vermicularis infection and crowding rates was found to be statistically significant (r = 0.98; p < 0.001). In the light on these results, it can be concluded that poverty, overcrowding, anal pruritus, scarcity of water, inadequate personal and community hygiene play a relevant role on the transmission dynamics and endemic maintenance of enterobiasis among schoolchildren from Sabaneta.

  13. Area-Level and Individual-Level Factors for Teenage Motherhood: A Multilevel Analysis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Baba, Sachiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    Teenage motherhood is strongly associated with a range of disadvantages for both the mother and the child. No epidemiological studies have examined related factors for teenage motherhood at both area and individual levels among Japanese women. Therefore, we performed a multilevel analysis of nationwide data in Japan to explore the association of area- and individual-level factors with teenage motherhood. The study population comprised 21,177 mothers living in 47 prefectures who had their first, singleton baby between 10 and 17 January or between 10 and 17 July, 2001. Information on the prefecture in which the mothers resided was linked to prefecture-level variables. Primary outcomes were area-level characteristics (single-mother households, three-generation households, college enrollment, abortions, juvenile crime, and per capita income) and individual-level characteristics, and divided into tertiles or quintiles based on their variable distributions. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was then performed. There were 440 teenage mothers (2.1%) in this study. In addition to individual low level of education [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 7.40; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.59-9.78], low income [4.23 (2.95-6.08)], and smoking [1.65 (1.31-2.07)], high proportions of single-mother households [1.72 (1.05-2.80)] and three-generation household [1.81 (1.17-2.78)], and per capita income [2.19 (1.06-3.81)] at an area level were positively associated, and high level of college enrollment [0.46 (0.25-0.83)] and lower crime rate [0.62 (0.40-0.98)] at area level were inversely associated with teenage motherhood compared with the corresponding women living in prefectures with the lowest levels of these variables. Our findings suggest that encouraging the completion of higher education and reducing the number of single-mother household at an area level may be important public health strategies to reduce teenage motherhood.

  14. Area-Level and Individual-Level Factors for Teenage Motherhood: A Multilevel Analysis in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Sachiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    Background Teenage motherhood is strongly associated with a range of disadvantages for both the mother and the child. No epidemiological studies have examined related factors for teenage motherhood at both area and individual levels among Japanese women. Therefore, we performed a multilevel analysis of nationwide data in Japan to explore the association of area- and individual-level factors with teenage motherhood. Methods The study population comprised 21,177 mothers living in 47 prefectures who had their first, singleton baby between 10 and 17 January or between 10 and 17 July, 2001. Information on the prefecture in which the mothers resided was linked to prefecture-level variables. Primary outcomes were area-level characteristics (single-mother households, three-generation households, college enrollment, abortions, juvenile crime, and per capita income) and individual-level characteristics, and divided into tertiles or quintiles based on their variable distributions. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was then performed. Results There were 440 teenage mothers (2.1%) in this study. In addition to individual low level of education [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 7.40; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.59–9.78], low income [4.23 (2.95–6.08)], and smoking [1.65 (1.31–2.07)], high proportions of single-mother households [1.72 (1.05–2.80)] and three-generation household [1.81 (1.17–2.78)], and per capita income [2.19 (1.06–3.81)] at an area level were positively associated, and high level of college enrollment [0.46 (0.25–0.83)] and lower crime rate [0.62 (0.40–0.98)] at area level were inversely associated with teenage motherhood compared with the corresponding women living in prefectures with the lowest levels of these variables. Conclusions Our findings suggest that encouraging the completion of higher education and reducing the number of single-mother household at an area level may be important public health strategies to reduce teenage motherhood

  15. Cochlear implantation in children: socioeconomic family characteristics.

    PubMed

    Brkic, Fuad; Piric, Lejla; Salihovic, Nevzeta; Kabil, Jasmina

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to analyse the socioeconomic status of implanted children families, candidates for implantation families and families of deaf children whose parents elicit not to proceed with cochlear implantation and to find out if the socioeconomic status has an influence on parental decision-making process. The following variables describe the socioeconomic status: place of living (urban/rural area), parental educational level and household monthly income (in Euro). Forty children divided in two groups were included in the study: Group 1 (23 implanted children and 7 candidates for implantation) and Group 2 (10 deaf children whose parents elicit not to proceed). Data were obtained from parents of children by phone. It was not possible to establish the contact with parents of three children. As for the place of living, 20 families were from urban area, 17 families were from rural area and the place of living of 3 families was unknown. Average number of completed school grades by parents was respectively: Group 1- 5.92 and Group 2 - 5.33. Concerning the place of living, parental educational level and household monthly income no differences can be seen between groups. Therefore, the authors concluded that socioeconomic status has no influence on making decision process.

  16. Bla g 1 allergen levels in Zagreb area household dust.

    PubMed

    Prester, Ljerka; Macan, Jelena

    2011-03-01

    Cockroach allergy is a health problem in many parts of the world. In urban environments, indoor exposure to cockroach allergens involves a risk of asthma. The aim of this study was to measure the mass fraction of Bla g 1, a major allergen of the German cockroach (Blatella germanica) in 30 house samples, collected at random from Zagreb area households, Croatia. Dust samples were collected on cellulose filters by vacuuming living rooms floors. After extraction, Bla g 1 was detected using the commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only four of the thirty households had detectable Bla g 1 levels, and only in one was its concentration higher than 2.0 U g(-1), the threshold associated with sensitisation. The Bla g 1 ELISA proved highly sensitive, with the detection limit of 0.12 U g(-1). The within- and between-assay imprecision was 8.9 % and 14.4 %, respectively, and accuracy 85 % to 120 %. Low Bla g 1 levels in the household dust support previously reported low prevalence of skin sensitisation to B. germanica among Zagreb residents. Further monitoring should reveal if there are differences in cockroach allergen exposure and sensitisation between households from other geographic areas in Croatia.

  17. Socioeconomic disparities in indoor air, breath, and blood perchloroethylene level among adult and child residents of buildings with or without a dry cleaner.

    PubMed

    Storm, Jan E; Mazor, Kimberly A; Shost, Stephen J; Serle, Janet; Aldous, Kenneth M; Blount, Benjamin C

    2013-04-01

    In many cities, dry cleaners using perchloroethylene are frequently located in multifamily residential buildings and often cause elevated indoor air levels of perchloroethylene throughout the building. To assess individual perchloroethylene exposures associated with co-located dry cleaners, we measured perchloroethylene in residential indoor air, and in blood and breath of adults and children residing in buildings with a dry cleaner as part of the New York City (NYC) Perc Project. We also measured perchloroethylene in indoor air, and in blood and breath of residents of buildings without a dry cleaner for comparison. Here, we evaluate whether an environmental disparity in perchloroethylene exposures is present. Study participants are stratified by residential building type (dry cleaner or reference) and socioeconomic characteristics (race/ethnicity and income); measures of perchloroethylene exposure are examined; and, the influence of stratified variables and other factors on perchloroethylene exposure is assessed using multivariate regression. All measures of perchloroethylene exposure for residents of buildings with a dry cleaner indicated a socioeconomic disparity. Mean indoor air perchloroethylene levels were about five times higher in minority (82.5 ug/m(3)) than in non-minority (16.5 ug/m(3)) households, and about six times higher in low-income (105.5 ug/m(3)) than in high income (17.8 ug/m(3)) households. Mean blood perchloroethylene levels in minority children (0.27 ng/mL) and adults (0.46 ng/mL) were about two and three times higher than in non-minority children (0.12 ng/mL) and adults (0.15 ng/mL), respectively. Mean blood perchloroethylene levels in low income children (0.34 ng/mL) and adults (0.62 ng/mL) were about three and four times higher than in high income children (0.11 ng/mL) and adults (0.14 ng/mL), respectively. A less marked socioeconomic disparity was observed in perchloroethylene breath levels with minority and low income residents having

  18. Individual and area socioeconomic inequalities in cause-specific unintentional injury mortality: 11-year follow-up study of 2.7 million Canadians.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Stephanie; Auger, Nathalie; Gamache, Philippe; Hamel, Denis

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the association between individual and area socioeconomic status (SES) and leading causes of unintentional injury mortality in Canadian adults. Using the 1991-2001 Canadian Census Mortality Follow-up Study cohort (N=2,735,152), Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all-cause unintentional injury, motor vehicle collision (MVC), fall, poisoning, suffocation, fire/burn, and drowning deaths. Results indicated that associations with SES differed by cause of injury, and were generally more pronounced for males. Low education was associated with an elevated risk of mortality from all-cause unintentional injury and MVC (males only) and poisoning and drowning (both sexes). Low income was strongly associated with most causes of injury mortality, particularly fire/burn and poisoning. Having no occupation or low occupational status was associated with higher risks of all-cause injury, fall, poisoning and suffocation (both sexes) and MVC deaths among men. Associations with area deprivation were weak, and only areas with high deprivation had elevated risk of all-cause injury, MVC (males only), poisoning and drowning (both sexes). This study reveals the importance of examining SES differentials by cause of death from a multilevel perspective. Future research is needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying these differences to implement equity-oriented approaches for reducing differential exposures, vulnerability or consequences of injury mortality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationship of socio-economic factors and parental eating habits with children's food intake in a population-based study in a metropolitan area of Brazil.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Barroso, Gabriela; Sichieri, Rosely; Salles-Costa, Rosana

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the association of sociodemographic factors and parental food consumption with children's food intake. A cross-sectional survey. A population-based study with a representative sample in a metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Parents' socio-economic variables, age and education level and children's age were obtained by face-to-face interviews. The parental food intake was assessed using an FFQ and the children's food intake was assessed using two 24 h recalls. Children (n 366) aged 6-30 months and their parents. The hierarchical regression analysis indicated that parents' age was positively associated with the intake of vegetables among children (β = 0·73, 95% CI 0·11, 1·34), while parents' educational level was positively associated with the intake of fats (β = 3·52, 95% CI 0·04, 7·01) and negatively associated with the intake of beans (β = -13·98, 95% CI -27·94, -0·03). The age of the children was positively associated with the intakes of meats and eggs (β = 2·88, 95% CI 1·55, 4·22), sugars (β = 5·08, 95% CI 1·85, 8·30) and coffee (β = 1·77, 95% CI 0·71, 2·84), and negatively associated with the intake of vegetables (β = -2·12, 95% CI -3·20, -1·05). The influence of parental food intake was observed for the food groups of breads, cereals and tubers (β = 0·06, 95% CI 0·003, 0·12), beans (β = 0·11, 95% CI -0·003, 0·22) and fruits (β = 0·10, 95% CI 0·03, 0·16). Unfavourable socio-economic variables were associated with intakes of breads, cereals and tubers, vegetables, fruits, meats, sugars and coffee by children. Parental food intake is associated with children's intake of cereals, beans and fruits independent of socio-economic status.

  20. Hydrogeochemical characterization and Natural Background Levels in urbanized areas: Milan Metropolitan area (Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Caro, Mattia; Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Although aquifers in densely populated and industrialized areas are extremely valuable and sensitive to contamination, an estimate of the groundwater quality status relative to baseline conditions is lacking for many of them. This paper provides a hydrogeochemical characterization of the groundwater in the Milan metropolitan area, one of the most densely populated areas in Europe. First, a conceptual model of the study area based on the analysis of the spatial distribution of natural chemical species and indicator contaminants is presented. The hydrochemical facies of the study area depend on the lithology of catchments drained by the main contributing rivers and on the aquifer settings. The anthropogenic influence on the groundwater quality of superficial aquifers is studied by means of probability plots, concentration versus depth plots and spatial-temporal plots for nitrate, sulfate and chloride. These allow differentiation of contaminated superficial aquifers from deep confined aquifers with baseline water quality. Natural Background Levels (NBL) of selected species (Cl, Na, NH4, SO4, NO3, As, Fe, Mn and Zn) are estimated by means of the pre-selection (PS) and the component separation (CS) statistical approaches. The NBLs depend on hydrogeological settings of the study area; sodium, chloride, sulfate and zinc NBL values never exceed the environmental water quality standards. NBL values of ammonium, iron, arsenic and manganese exceed the environmental water quality standards in the anaerobic portion of the aquifers. On the basis of observations, a set of criteria and precautions are suggested for adoption with both PS and CS methods in the aquifer characterization of highly urbanized areas.

  1. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries.

    PubMed

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Boada, Luis D; Carranza, Cristina; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María; Arellano, José Luis Pérez

    2014-11-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N=575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Access to care: not enough to completely abolish the disparity in hypertension management at the socio-economic level].

    PubMed

    Atallah, A; Inamo, J; Lang, T; Larabi, L; Chatelliera, G; Rozet, J E; Machuron, C; De Gaudemaris, R

    2006-01-01

    Higher prevalence and poorer control of hypertension have been observed in populations with low socioeconomic status. The causal link between socioeconomic factors and hypertension is complex. What is the impact of medical services compared with other health status determinants? We aimed to assess blood pressure prevalence and control in an unemployed disadvantaged population receiving state financial support and with easy access to health care. This was a cross-sectional study of 2420 consecutive subjects in Guadeloupe, a French Caribbean island, who were referred for check-up in a health centre. As unemployed persons, they all benefited from state financial support and special coverage. Blood pressure was averaged from three consecutive measurements. Subjects not taking antihypertensive medications and with average BP > 140/90 mmHg underwent an additional visit. A total of 1088 men aged 42 +/- 10.6 years and 1332 women aged 40 +/- 11 years were included from November 2001 to November 2003. Hypertension prevalence was 25.2% in men and 22.1% in women, while awareness was 40.2% in men and 73% in women. Blood pressure was controlled (<140/90 mmHg) in 19% of men and 37,2 % of women receiving antihypertensive medication. Among women, 58% were overweight and 29% obese. Hypertension prevalence was slightly higher than that recently observed in cohorts of workers in Caribbean regions and metropolitan France. Control was poorer despite similar awareness and treatment rates. These findings suggest that a universal healthcare system can reduce, but not fully eliminate, disparities in hypertension care and prevalence across income categories.

  3. COUNTRY-LEVEL SOCIOECONOMIC INDICATORS ASSOCIATED WITH SURVIVAL PROBABILITY OF BECOMING A CENTENARIAN AMONG OLDER EUROPEAN ADULTS: GENDER INEQUALITY, MALE LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION AND PROPORTIONS OF WOMEN IN PARLIAMENTS.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin

    2017-03-01

    This study confirms an association between survival probability of becoming a centenarian (SPBC) for those aged 65 to 69 and country-level socioeconomic indicators in Europe: the gender inequality index (GII), male labour force participation (MLP) rates and proportions of seats held by women in national parliaments (PWP). The analysis was based on SPBC data from 34 countries obtained from the United Nations (UN). Country-level socioeconomic indicator data were obtained from the UN and World Bank databases. The associations between socioeconomic indicators and SPBC were assessed using correlation coefficients and multivariate regression models. The findings show significant correlations between the SPBC for women and men aged 65 to 69 and country-level socioeconomic indicators: GII (r=-0.674, p=0.001), MLP (r=0.514, p=0.002) and PWP (r=0.498, p=0.003). The SPBC predictors for women and men were lower GIIs and higher MLP and PWP (R 2=0.508, p=0.001). Country-level socioeconomic indicators appear to have an important effect on the probability of becoming a centenarian in European adults aged 65 to 69. Country-level gender equality policies in European counties may decrease the risk of unhealthy old age and increase longevity in elders through greater national gender equality; disparities in GII and other country-level socioeconomic indicators impact longevity probability. National longevity strategies should target country-level gender inequality.

  4. Occupational social class, educational level and area deprivation independently predict plasma ascorbic acid concentration: a cross-sectional population based study in the Norfolk cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk).

    PubMed

    Shohaimi, S; Bingham, S; Welch, A; Luben, R; Day, N; Wareham, N; Khaw, K-T

    2004-10-01

    To investigate the independent association between three different measures of socioeconomic status and plasma ascorbic acid level. Cross-sectional population based study. 20 292 men and women aged 39-79 y who participated in the EPIC-Norfolk study. Individuals in manual social classes, who had no educational qualifications or those who lived in the most deprived areas had significantly lower levels of plasma ascorbic acid compared to those in nonmanual social classes, with at least O-level qualifications or who lived in less deprived areas. The magnitude of effect for each measure of socioeconomic status was greater in current smokers compared to current nonsmokers. Education and social class were stronger predictors of differences in ascorbic acid levels, an indicator of dietary health behaviour, than a deprivation index based on the Townsend score. This suggests that education could be particularly important in influencing large socioeconomic differentials in health related behaviours and potentially, health outcomes in the UK.

  5. Hair cortisol levels, perceived stress and body mass index in women and children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods: the READI study.

    PubMed

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Ball, Kylie; Wright, Craig; Abbott, Gavin; Brown, Erin; Turner, Anne Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Disadvantaged communities provide adverse psychosocial exposures that have been linked to high levels of stress, and this may provide one explanatory pathway linking socioeconomic disadvantage to obesity. This study used hair cortisol analysis to quantify associations between stress and body mass index (BMI), and between hair cortisol and perceived psychological stress levels, in women and children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Participants were a volunteer sample of 70 women from the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study, including 30 maternal-child pairs. Women self-reported body weight, height and perceived psychological stress using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and provided hair samples for themselves and their child. Children's body weight and height were measured. Following extraction, hair cortisol levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multiple linear regression models examined associations between stress and BMI, and between hair cortisol and perceived stress levels in women and children. Women's hair cortisol levels were not associated with their BMI or PSS scores. Women's PSS scores were positively associated with their BMI (p = 0.015). Within maternal-child pairs, mothers and children's hair cortisol levels were strongly positively associated (p = 0.006). Maternal hair cortisol levels and PSS scores were unrelated to their child's zBMI. Children's hair cortisol levels were not associated with their zBMI or with their mother's PSS score. Findings suggest that cortisol-based and perceived psychological measures of stress may be distinct among women and children living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Perceived psychological measures may be more important predictors of weight-related risk.

  6. Land use pattern, socio-economic development, and assessment of their impacts on ecosystem service value: study on natural wetlands distribution area (NWDA) in Fuzhou city, southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yuan-Bin; Zhang, Hao; Pan, Wen-Bin; Chen, Yan-Hong; Wang, Xiang-Rong

    2013-06-01

    This paper quantifies the allocation of ecosystem services value (ESV) associated with land use pattern and qualitatively examined impacts of land use changes and socio-economic factors on spatiotemporal variation of ESV in the Natural Wetland Distribution Area (NWDA), Fuzhou city, China. The results showed that total ESV of the study area decreased from 4,332.16 × 10(6) RMB Yuan in 1989 to 3,697.42 × 10(6) RMB Yuan in 2009, mainly due to the remarkable decreases in cropland (decreased by 55.3 %) and wetland (decreased by 74.2 %). Forest, water, and wetland played major roles in providing ecosystem services, accounting for over 90 % of the total ESV. Based on time series Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery, geographic information system, and historical data, analysis of the spatiotemporal variation of ESV from 1989 to 2009 was performed. It indicated that rapid expansion of urban areas along the Minjiang River resulted in significant changes in land use types, leading to a dramatic decline in ecosystem services. Meanwhile, because of land scarcity and unique ecosystem functions, the emergency of wetland and cropland protection in built-up area has become an urgent task of local authorities to the local government. Furthermore, there was still a significant negative correlation between ESV of cropland and wetland and the GDP. The results suggest that future planning of land use pattern should control encroachment of urban areas into cropland and wetland in addition to scientific and rational policies towards minimizing the adverse effects of urbanization.

  7. Castration, other management practices and socio-economic implications for dog keepers in Nsukka area, Enugu state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Eze, C A; Eze, M C

    2002-11-15

    Structured interviews were used to obtain information from 258 respondents from among 625 people who were selected by stratified random sampling from villages in five of seven local government areas of Nsukka area. Information included gender and literacy status of the respondents, whether the respondents had (between 1990 and 1995) presented any of their dogs for castration, the comparative market value of the dogs, and dog use and owner preference for castrates in performance of such duties. Information on bathing, vaccinations, confinements, use of veterinarians and cultural and religious uses of dogs also were sought. Also, 208 (80%) of the respondents had their dogs castrated. Of the respondents, 23% were literate, 37% semiliterate and 40% illiterate. Of the 367 non-respondents, 63% were not available during the time of contact and 37% resented dog keeping and therefore refused to talk. About 958 dogs were owned by respondents, of these dogs, 56%, 27% and 17% were females, intact males and castrates, respectively. There was no association between the respondent's literacy status and dog-sex preference in performance of such uses as security, hunting, and "economic reasons". The three most-important reasons for dog keeping were security, pet and hunting. However, the use of castrates for security was favoured by most keepers irrespective of literacy status. Most of the respondents agreed that dogs are used as gifts and 72% of the respondents agree that dog meat is a protein source. Castration should be encouraged because of its market value. Usage was low of veterinary services, confinement, and bathing of dogs.

  8. The influence of socioeconomic factors on choice of infant male circumcision provider in rural Ghana; a community level population based study.

    PubMed

    Gyan, Thomas; McAuley, Kimberley; Strobel, Natalie; Newton, Sam; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Edmond, Karen

    2017-08-29

    The influence of socio-economic determinants on choice of infant male circumcision provider is not known in areas with high population coverage such as rural Africa. The overall aim of this study was to determine the key socio-economic factors which influence the choice of infant male circumcision provider in rural Ghana. The study investigated the effect of family income, distance to health facility, and cost of the circumcision on choice of infant male circumcision provider in rural Ghana. Data from 2847 circumcised infant males aged under 12 weeks and their families were analysed in a population-based cross-sectional study conducted from May to December 2012 in rural Ghana. Multivariable logistic regression models were adjusted for income status, distance to health facility, cost of circumcision, religion, maternal education, and maternal age. Infants from the lowest income households (325, 84.0%) were more likely to receive circumcision from an informal provider compared to infants from the highest income households (260, 42.4%) even after adjusting for religious affiliation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.42, 95% CI 3.12-6.27 p = <0.001). There appeared to be a dose response with increasing risk of receiving a circumcision from an informal provider as distance to a health facility increased (aOR 1.25, 95 CI 1.30-1.38 P = <0.001). Only 9.0% (34) of families in the lowest socio-economic quintile received free circumcision services compared to 27.9% (171) of the highest income families. The Government of Ghana and Non-Government Organisations should consider additional support to poor families so they can access high quality free infant male circumcision in rural Ghana.

  9. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E and Helicobacter pylori in a low socioeconomic area of a metropolitan city in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Jafri, W; Yakoob, J; Abid, S; Awan, S; Siddiqui, S; Jafri, F; Hamid, S; Nizami, S Q

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to determine the prevalence of coinfection of H. pylori and hepatitis E virus (HEV) in the paediatric age group in an urban slum area of Karachi and identify risk factors associated with co-infection. Five hundred and forty children aged one to 15 years were investigated. Blood samples were collected and questionnaires completed on socio-demographic characteristics. Anti-H. pylori, HEV IgG and IgM antibodies were analysed by enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). The seroprevalence of H. pylori antibody was 47.2%, while that of HEV IgG and IgM was 14.4% and 2.4%, respectively. 12.4% exhibited seroprevalence for both H. pylori and HEV (IgG). In 67 (26%) cases positive for H. pylori IgG, HEV IgG positivity was also seen (P < 0.001). Only 13 (5%) positive for H. pylori were also positive for HEV IgM (P < 0.001). Only 11 (4%) HEV IgG-positive cases were H. pylori antibody-negative (P < 0.001). Hepatitis E virus was common in children who had access to municipal piped water (P = 0.025). H. pylori was common in children who used a non-flush toilet system (P < 0.001). Children exposed to H. pylori infection were also exposed to the risk of HEV.

  10. Relationship between prevalence of childhood obesity in 17-year-olds and socioeconomic and environmental factors: prefecture-level analysis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Rie

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the association between childhood obesity and neighborhood-level socio-economic and environmental factors in Japan. The prevalence of childhood obesity in 2008 was obtained from annual reports of the School Health Survey. The following 12 factors were publicly available: income per person, ratio of people completing up to college or university education, population density, total length of roads per square kilometer, number relative to the population of food and drink stores, restaurants, large-scale retail stores, convenience stores, passenger cars, traffic accidents, criminal offenses, and death by accidents. The ratio of people completing up to college or university education was inversely associated with obesity in boys and girls. No association was found between obesity and the other factors examined. An inverse association was shown between educational level and childhood obesity in both boys and girls. Further studies integrating associations between childhood obesity and neighborhood-level factors are needed.

  11. Differences in Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Among Adolescent Girls in Metropolitan Versus Non-metropolitan Areas: Considering the Moderating Roles of Maternal Socioeconomic Status and Health Care Access.

    PubMed

    Monnat, Shannon M; Rhubart, Danielle C; Wallington, Sherrie Flynt

    2016-02-01

    This study is among the first to examine metropolitan status differences in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation and completion among United States adolescent girls and is unique in its focus on how maternal socioeconomic status and health care access moderate metropolitan status differences in HPV vaccination. Using cross-sectional data from 3573 girls aged 12-17 in the U.S. from the 2008-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we estimate main and interaction effects from binary logistic regression models to identify subgroups of girls for which there are metropolitan versus non-metropolitan differences in HPV vaccination. Overall 34 % of girls initiated vaccination, and 19 % completed all three shots. On average, there were no metropolitan status differences in vaccination odds. However, there were important subgroup differences. Among low-income girls and girls whose mothers did not complete high school, those in non-metropolitan areas had significantly higher probability of vaccine initiation than those in metropolitan areas. Among high-income girls and girls whose mothers completed college, those in metropolitan areas had significantly higher odds of vaccine initiation than those in non-metropolitan areas. Moreover, among girls whose mothers experienced a medical cost barrier, non-metropolitan girls were less likely to initiate vaccination compared to metropolitan girls. Mothers remain essential targets for public health efforts to increase HPV vaccination and combat cervical cancer. Public health experts who study barriers to HPV vaccination and physicians who come into contact with mothers should be aware of group-specific barriers to vaccination and employ more tailored efforts to increase vaccination.

  12. Neighborhood-Level Socioeconomic Deprivation Predicts Weight Gain in a Multi-Ethnic Population: Longitudinal Data from the Dallas Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.; Ayers, Colby; Agyemang, Priscilla; Leonard, Tammy; Berrigan, David; Barbash, Rachel Ballard; Lian, Min; Das, Sandeep R.; Hoehner, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine relationship between neighborhood-level socioeconomic deprivation and weight change in a multi-ethnic cohort from Dallas County, Texas and whether behavioral/psychosocial factors attenuate the relationship. Methods Non-movers (those in the same neighborhood throughout the study period) aged 18–65 (N=939) in Dallas Heart Study (DHS) underwent weight measurements between 2000–2009 (median 7-year follow-up). Geocoded home addresses defined block groups; a neighborhood deprivation index (NDI) was created (higher NDI=greater deprivation). Multi-level modeling determined weight change relative to NDI. Model fit improvement was examined with adding physical activity and neighborhood environment perceptions (higher score=more unfavorable perceptions) as covariates. A significant interaction between residence length and NDI was found (p-interaction=0.04); results were stratified by median residence length (11 years). Results Adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking, education/income, those who lived in neighborhood>11 years gained 1.0 kilograms (kg) per one-unit increment of NDI (p=0.03), or 6 kg for those in highest NDI tertile compared with those in the lowest tertile. Physical activity improved model fit; NDI remained associated with weight gain after adjustment for physical activity and neighborhood environment perceptions. There was no significant relationship between NDI and weight change for those in their neighborhood≤11 years. Conclusions Living in more socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods over a longer time period was associated with weight gain in DHS. PMID:24875231

  13. Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality in 16 European cities.

    PubMed

    Borrell, Carme; Marí-Dell'olmo, Marc; Palència, Laia; Gotsens, Mercè; Burström, B O; Domínguez-Berjón, Felicitas; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Dzúrová, Dagmar; Gandarillas, Ana; Hoffmann, Rasmus; Kovacs, Katalin; Marinacci, Chiara; Martikainen, Pekka; Pikhart, Hynek; Corman, Diana; Rosicova, Katarina; Saez, Marc; Santana, Paula; Tarkiainen, Lasse; Puigpinós, Rosa; Morrison, Joana; Pasarín, M Isabel; Díez, Èlia

    2014-05-01

    To explore inequalities in total mortality between small areas of 16 European cities for men and women, as well as to analyse the relationship between these geographical inequalities and their socioeconomic indicators. A cross-sectional ecological design was used to analyse small areas in 16 European cities (26,229,104 inhabitants). Most cities had mortality data for a period between 2000 and 2008 and population size data for the same period. Socioeconomic indicators included an index of socioeconomic deprivation, unemployment, and educational level. We estimated standardised mortality ratios and controlled for their variability using Bayesian models. We estimated relative risk of mortality and excess number of deaths according to socioeconomic indicators. We observed a consistent pattern of inequality in mortality in almost all cities, with mortality increasing in parallel with socioeconomic deprivation. Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality were more pronounced for men than women, and relative inequalities were greater in Eastern and Northern European cities, and lower in some Western (men) and Southern (women) European cities. The pattern of excess number of deaths was slightly different, with greater inequality in some Western and Northern European cities and also in Budapest, and lower among women in Madrid and Barcelona. In this study, we report a consistent pattern of socioeconomic inequalities in mortality in 16 European cities. Future studies should further explore specific causes of death, in order to determine whether the general pattern observed is consistent for each cause of death.

  14. [Comparison between nutritional status of school children of low socioeconomic level from Santiago, Chile and Sao Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Amigo, H; Leone, C; Bustos, P; Gallo, P

    1995-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine and compare the anthropometric profiles of schoolchildren from low income household from Santiago, Chile and Sao Paulo, Brasil. A total of 1779 children from Santiago and 2210 from Sao Paulo were evaluated. Z-score distribution of the height/age (H/A), weight/age (W/A) and weight/height (W/H) indicators were utilized to assess the children. As a reference, the pattern recommended by WHO was used. The distribution of the H/A curves from both cities were deviated to the left. This deviation was more evident in Santiago. This situation points out the existence of a greater prevalence of growth retardation of the children from this city. In relation to the W/A indicator, both groups showed a similar distribution curves, Sao Paulo group however, had an increment of cases in the left extreme of the curve, under -2 . According to the W/H indicator the profile of both groups are different; one-Santiago-is deviated to the excess and Sao Paulo to the deficit. The differences observed in both groups of children studied indicated higher deficit of height, but lower current undernutrition in Santiago and increased wasting with conservated height in Sao Paulo. The observed situation suggests that the distinct patterns are consequences of socioeconomic factors at different stages of the growing process of the children and/or etnic differences of the population.

  15. Does the level of wealth inequality within an area influence the prevalence of depression amongst older people?

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Alan; Jivraj, Stephen; Nazroo, James; Tampubolon, Gindo; Vanhoutte, Bram

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers whether the extent of inequality in house prices within neighbourhoods of England is associated with depressive symptoms in the older population using the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. We consider two competing hypotheses: first, the wealth inequality hypothesis which proposes that neighbourhood inequality is harmful to health and, second, the mixed neighbourhood hypothesis which suggests that socially mixed neighbourhoods are beneficial for health outcomes. Our results are supportive of the mixed neighbourhood hypothesis, we find a significant association between neighbourhood inequality and depression with lower levels of depression amongst older people in neighbourhoods with greater house price inequality after controlling for individual socio-economic and area correlates of depression. The association between area inequality and depression is strongest for the poorest individuals, but also holds among the most affluent. Our results are in line with research that suggests there are social and health benefits associated with economically mixed communities. PMID:24662528

  16. Identification of areas with high levels of untreated dental caries.

    PubMed

    Ellwood, R P; O'Mullane, D M

    1996-02-01

    In order to examine the geographical variation of dental health within 10 county districts in North Wales, 3538 children were examined. The associations between three demographic indicators, based on the 1981 OPCS census, and dental health outcomes were assessed for electoral wards within the county districts. The Townsend and Jarman indices were the first two indicators employed and the third was based on a mathematical model representing the variation in the mean number of untreated decayed surfaces per person for the wards. This model was developed using the children examined in the five most westerly county districts. Using the data derived from the five most easterly county districts, the three indicators were assessed. All three showed strong correlations (r > or = 0.88) with dental health. These results indicate that measures of dental health based on large administrative units may obscure variation within them. It is concluded that geographical methods of this type may be useful for targeting dental resources at small areas with high levels of need.

  17. A comparative study of fluoride ingestion levels, serum thyroid hormone & TSH level derangements, dental fluorosis status among school children from endemic and non-endemic fluorosis areas.

    PubMed

    Singh, Navneet; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Verma, Pradhuman; Sidhu, Gagandeep Kaur; Sachdeva, Suresh

    2014-01-03

    The study was undertaken to determine serum/urinary fluoride status and comparison of free T4, free T3 and thyroid stimulating hormone levels of 8 to 15 years old children with and without dental fluorosis living in an endemic and non-endemic fluorosis area. A sample group of 60 male and female school children, with or without dental fluorosis, consuming fluoride-contaminated water in endemic fluoride area of Udaipur district, Rajasthan were selected through a school dental fluorosis survey. The sample of 10 children of same age and socio-economic status residing in non endemic areas who did not have dental fluorosis form controls. Fluoride determination in drinking water, urine and blood was done with Ion 85 Ion Analyzer Radiometer with Hall et al. method. The thyroid gland functional test was done by Immonu Chemiluminiscence Micropartical Assay with Bayer Centaur Autoanalyzer. The significantly altered FT3, FT4 and TSH hormones level in both group1A and 1B school children were noted. The serum and urine fluoride levels were found to be increased in both the groups. A significant relationship of water fluoride to urine and serum fluoride concentration was seen. The serum fluoride concentration also had significant relationship with thyroid hormone (FT3/FT4) and TSH concentrations. The testing of drinking water and body fluids for fluoride content, along with FT3, FT4, and TSH in children with dental fluorosis is desirable for recognizing underlying thyroid derangements and its impact on fluorosis.

  18. Variability among hospitals and staff in collection of race, ethnicity, birthplace, and socioeconomic information in the greater San Francisco Bay Area.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Scarlett L; Satariano, William; Le, Gem M; Weeks, Patricia; McClure, Laura; West, Dee W

    2009-01-01

    Hospital data on race, ethnicity, birthplace, and socioeconomic status (SES) are important for identifying health disparities; however, little is known about the consistency across and within hospitals in the collection of these data. This study examined hospital practices and policies for the collection of these data and the variability across hospital staff and hospital characteristics. Surveys were mailed to selected hospital staff in all 59 hospitals in the San Francisco Bay Area, and completed questionnaires were received from 141 (of 367) staff from 41 hospitals. While most hospitals collect race/ethnicity (83% always collect) and birthplace (60% always or sometimes collect), few hospitals collect patient information on education (75% never collect) and income (55% never collect). There is vast variability in reported practices and policies across staff within hospitals, and variability across hospitals with regards to certain hospital characteristics. Nationally standardized policies, including standards for where, what, and when these data should be collected, are necessary for accurate and uniform data collection, and for effectively addressing health disparities.

  19. Geographical and socioeconomic factors relating to the distribution of Schistosoma mansoni infection in an urban area of north-east Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, M. L.

    1991-01-01

    A study was carried out in Santo Antonio de Jesus, a town in Bahia State, north-east Brazil, to determine the relationship between various biological, socioeconomic, behavioural, and geographical factors and the prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma mansoni infection. The town's population was around 45,000 and the study was targeted at all children born in 1970-71 who were living in the town at the time of the survey (August-November 1984). An extensive questionnaire was used to collect information on each child and on family and household conditions; samples of stools were also taken for examination (Kato-Katz method). A survey of water snails was also carried out and information on the distribution of their breeding sites was plotted on a map of the area. The overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 31.0%. Several variables that reflected different aspects of the population's way of life were strongly associated with the prevalence and the intensity of infection. Some of the findings are valuable for understanding the mechanisms involved in the occurrence of schistosomiasis and its distribution in urban locations as well as for defining high-risk groups, all of which are important for planning control strategies. PMID:1905208

  20. Lead sources, behaviors, and socioeconomic factors in relation to blood lead of native american and white children: a community-based assessment of a former mining area.

    PubMed Central

    Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Lynch, Robert A; Keger, Michelle Crozier; Skaggs, Valerie J

    2002-01-01

    Lead poisoning prevention requires knowledge of lead sources and of appropriate residential lead standards. Data are severely lacking on lead sources for Native American children, many of whom live in rural areas. Further, the relation of mining waste to blood lead concentrations (BPbs) of rural children is controversial. In collaboration with the eight tribes of northeastern Oklahoma, we assessed lead sources and their effects on BPbs for rural Native American and White children living in a former mining region. Venous blood lead, residential environmental (soil, dust, paint, water), and caregiver interview (e.g., hand-to-mouth behaviors, socioeconomic conditions) data were obtained from a representative sample of 245 children 1-6 years of age. BPbs ranged from 1 to 24 microg/dL. There were no ethnic differences in BPbs (p= 0.48) nor any patterns of excess lead sources for Native American or White children. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that mean soil lead, mean floor lead loading, mouthing behaviors, caregivers' education, and residence in former mining towns were all strongly associated with BPbs. Logistic regression results showed mean floor dust lead loading greater than or equal to 10.1 microg/ft(2) (odds ratio [OR], 11.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.5-37.3), and yard soil lead >165.3 mg/kg (OR, 4.1; CI, 1.3-12.4) were independently associated with BPbs greater than or equal to 10 microg/dL. We also found strong interactions between soil lead and poverty (p= 0.005), and dust and soil sources (p= 0.02). Our findings indicate that soil and dust lead derived largely from mining waste pose a health hazard to Native American and White children, and that current residential dust lead standards are insufficient to adequately protect children. Moreover, our finding that poor children are especially vulnerable to lead exposures suggests that residential standards should consider interactions among socioeconomic conditions and lead sources if

  1. Accessing and engaging women from socio-economically disadvantaged areas: a participatory approach to the design of a public health intervention for delivery in a Bingo club.

    PubMed

    Evans, Josie M M; Ryde, Gemma; Jepson, Ruth; Gray, Cindy; Shepherd, Ashley; Mackison, Dionne; Ireland, Aileen V; McMurdo, Marion E T; Williams, Brian

    2016-04-18

    Our aim was to use participatory methods to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of using Bingo clubs for the design and delivery of an evidence-based physical activity and/or healthy eating intervention to socio-economically disadvantaged women. This paper describes the participatory process that has resulted in a physical activity intervention for women aged >55 years, ready for pilot-testing in a Bingo club setting. Studies using different quantitative and qualitative approaches were conducted among customers and staff of a Bingo club in a city of 85,000 inhabitants in central Scotland. These were designed to take the views of different stakeholders into account, with a view to enhancing uptake, engagement and effectiveness with any proposed intervention. Sixteen relevant studies were identified in a literature review that generated ideas for intervention components. A questionnaire completed by 151 women in the Bingo club showed that almost half (47 %) aged >55 years were not meeting physical activity guidelines; evidence backed up by accelerometer data from 29 women. Discussions in six focus groups attended by 27 club members revealed different but overlapping motivations for attending the Bingo club (social benefits) and playing Bingo (cognitive benefits). There was some scepticism as to whether the Bingo club was an appropriate setting for an intervention, and a dietary intervention was not favoured. It was clear that any planned intervention needed to utilise the social motivation and habitual nature of attendance at the Bingo club, without taking women away from Bingo games. These results were taken forward to a 5-h long participative workshop with 27 stakeholders (including 19 Bingo players). Intervention design (form and content) was then finalised during two round table research team meetings. It was possible to access and engage with women living in areas of socio-economic disadvantage through a Bingo club setting. A physical activity

  2. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in ischemic heart disease mortality in small areas of nine Spanish cities from 1996 to 2007 using smoothed ANOVA.

    PubMed

    Marí-Dell'olmo, Marc; Gotsens, Mercè; Borrell, Carme; Martinez-Beneito, Miguel A; Palència, Laia; Pérez, Glòria; Cirera, Lluís; Daponte, Antonio; Domínguez-Berjón, Felicitas; Esnaola, Santiago; Gandarillas, Ana; Lorenzo, Pedro; Martos, Carmen; Nolasco, Andreu; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the evolution of socioeconomic inequalities in mortality due to ischemic heart diseases (IHD) in the census tracts of nine Spanish cities between the periods 1996-2001 and 2002-2007. Among women, there are socioeconomic inequalities in IHD mortality in the first period which tended to remain stable or even increase in the second period in most of the cities. Among men, in general, no socioeconomic inequalities have been detected for this cause in either of the periods. These results highlight the importance of intra-urban inequalities in mortality due to IHD and their evolution over time.

  3. A neuropsychological study of children with elevated dentine lead level: Assessment of the effect of lead in different socio-economic groups

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, O.N.; Trillingsgaard, A.; Beese, I.; Lyngbye, T.; Grandjean, P. )

    1989-05-01

    The study was carried out in the municipality of Aarhus, a city of 250,000 inhabitants. The study was designed as a cross-sectional cohort study of school children in first grade in 1982-83. A total of 2,412 children were contacted and asked to submit their shed teeth to the teacher, and 1,291 children delivered at least one usable tooth (response rate, 54 percent). The lead level in circumpulpal dentin showed an average of 10.7 micrograms/g. Eight percent of the children (N = 110) had a lead level above 18.7 micrograms/g and were selected as a high lead exposure group. This group was matched by sex and socio-economic status of the parents with control children with a dentin lead level below 5 micrograms/g. Following a detailed interview with the parents, children were excluded from the study if medical risk factors were present. A clinical psychologist, blind to the lead data, administered selected psychometric tests to 162 of the children selected. The high-lead children scored lower on the WISC when compared to low-lead children, especially on the Verbal IQ (p less than 0.001) and Full Scale IQ (p less than 0.01). No significant difference was seen between the high- and low-exposure groups on the Performance IQ and on several experimental tests. Impaired function associated with lead exposure was also found on the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test (p less than 0.001) and on a behavioral rating scale (p less than 0.01). These results remained statistically significant even after controlling for socio-economic status and other confounding variables.

  4. Influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic position on the transition to type II diabetes in older Mexican Americans: the Sacramento Area Longitudinal Study on Aging

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Lorena; Lee, Anne; Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina; Neuhaus, John M; Aiello, Allison; Elfassy, Tali; Haan, Mary N

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic position (NSEP) on development of diabetes over time. Design A longitudinal cohort study. Setting The data reported were from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging, a longitudinal study of the health of 1789 older Latinos. Participants Community-dwelling older Mexican Americans residing in the Sacramento Metropolitan Statistical Area. Main outcome Multistate Markov regression were used to model transitions through four possible states over time: 1=normal; 2=pre-diabetic; 3=diabetic; and 4=death without diabetes. Results At baseline, nearly 50% were non-diabetic, 17.5% were pre-diabetic and nearly 33% were diabetic. At the end of follow-up, there were a total of 824 people with type 2 diabetes. In a fully adjusted MSM regression model, among non-diabetics, higher NSEP was not associated with a transition to pre-diabetes. Among non-diabetics, higher NSEP was associated with an increased risk of diabetes (HR=1.66, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.42) and decreased risk of death without diabetes (HR: 0.56, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.96). Among pre-diabetics, higher NSEP was significantly associated with a transition to non-diabetic status (HR: 1.22, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.50). Adjusting for BMI, age, education, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, medical insurance and nativity did not affect this relationship. Conclusions Our findings show that high NSEP poses higher risk of progression from normal to diabetes compared with a lower risk of death without diabetes. This work presents a possibility that these associations are modified by nativity or culture. PMID:27515749

  5. Influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic position on the transition to type II diabetes in older Mexican Americans: the Sacramento Area Longitudinal Study on Aging.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Lorena; Lee, Anne; Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina; Neuhaus, John M; Moyce, Sally; Aiello, Allison; Elfassy, Tali; Haan, Mary N

    2016-08-11

    To examine the influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic position (NSEP) on development of diabetes over time. A longitudinal cohort study. The data reported were from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging, a longitudinal study of the health of 1789 older Latinos. Community-dwelling older Mexican Americans residing in the Sacramento Metropolitan Statistical Area. Multistate Markov regression were used to model transitions through four possible states over time: 1=normal; 2=pre-diabetic; 3=diabetic; and 4=death without diabetes. At baseline, nearly 50% were non-diabetic, 17.5% were pre-diabetic and nearly 33% were diabetic. At the end of follow-up, there were a total of 824 people with type 2 diabetes. In a fully adjusted MSM regression model, among non-diabetics, higher NSEP was not associated with a transition to pre-diabetes. Among non-diabetics, higher NSEP was associated with an increased risk of diabetes (HR=1.66, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.42) and decreased risk of death without diabetes (HR: 0.56, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.96). Among pre-diabetics, higher NSEP was significantly associated with a transition to non-diabetic status (HR: 1.22, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.50). Adjusting for BMI, age, education, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, medical insurance and nativity did not affect this relationship. Our findings show that high NSEP poses higher risk of progression from normal to diabetes compared with a lower risk of death without diabetes. This work presents a possibility that these associations are modified by nativity or culture. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Improving access to high-quality primary care for socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas: a mixed method study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Ford, John A; Jones, Andrew P; Wong, Geoff; Clark, Allan B; Porter, Tom; Shakespeare, Tom; Swart, Ann Marie; Steel, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The UK has an ageing population, especially in rural areas, where deprivation is high among older people. Previous research has identified this group as at high risk of poor access to healthcare. The aim of this study is to generate a theory of how socioeconomically disadvantaged older people from rural areas access primary care, to develop an intervention based on this theory and test it in a feasibility trial. Methods and analysis On the basis of the MRC Framework for Developing and Evaluating Complex Interventions, three methods will be used to generate the theory. First, a realist review will elucidate the patient pathway based on existing literature. Second, an analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing will be completed using structural equation modelling. Third, 15 semistructured interviews will be undertaken with patients and four focus groups with health professionals. A triangulation protocol will be used to allow each of these methods to inform and be informed by each other, and to integrate data into one overall realist theory. Based on this theory, an intervention will be developed in discussion with stakeholders to ensure that the intervention is feasible and practical. The intervention will be tested within a feasibility trial, the design of which will depend on the intervention. Lessons from the feasibility trial will be used to refine the intervention and gather the information needed for a definitive trial. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval from the regional ethics committee has been granted for the focus groups with health professionals and interviews with patients. Ethics approval will be sought for the feasibility trial after the intervention has been designed. Findings will be disseminated to the key stakeholders involved in intervention development, to researchers, clinicians and health planners through peer-reviewed journal articles and conference publications, and locally through a dissemination event. PMID

  7. Moving forward socio-economically focused models of deforestation.

    PubMed

    Dezécache, Camille; Salles, Jean-Michel; Vieilledent, Ghislain; Hérault, Bruno

    2017-01-05

    Whilst high-resolution spatial variables contribute to a good fit of spatially explicit deforestation models, socio-economic processes are often beyond the scope of these models. Such a low level of interest in the socio-economic dimension of deforestation limits the relevancy of these models for decision-making and may be the cause of their failure to accurately predict observed deforestation trends in the medium term. This study aims to propose a flexible methodology for taking into account multiple drivers of deforestation in tropical forested areas, where the intensity of deforestation is explicitly predicted based on socio-economic variables. By coupling a model of deforestation location based on spatial environmental variables with several sub-models of deforestation intensity based on socio-economic variables, we were able to create a map of predicted deforestation over the period 2001-2014 in French Guiana. This map was compared to a reference map for accuracy assessment, not only at the pixel scale but also over cells ranging from 1 to approximately 600 sq. km. Highly significant relationships were explicitly established between deforestation intensity and several socio-economic variables: population growth, the amount of agricultural subsidies, gold and wood production. Such a precise characterization of socio-economic processes allows to avoid overestimation biases in high deforestation areas, suggesting a better integration of socio-economic processes in the models. Whilst considering deforestation as a purely geographical process contributes to the creation of conservative models unable to effectively assess changes in the socio-economic and political contexts influencing deforestation trends, this explicit characterization of the socio-economic dimension of deforestation is critical for the creation of deforestation scenarios in REDD+ projects.

  8. Attributable risk of psychiatric and socio-economic factors for suicide from individual-level, population-based studies: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuoyang; Page, Andrew; Martin, Graham; Taylor, Richard

    2011-02-01

    The overall importance of a risk factor for suicide in a population is determined not only by the relative risk (RR) of suicide but also the prevalence of the risk factor in the population, which can be combined with the RR to calculate the population attributable risk (PAR). This study compares risk factors from two well studied domains of suicide research - socio-economic deprivation (relatively low RR, but high population prevalence) and mental disorders (relatively high RR risk, but low population prevalence). RR and PAR associated with suicide was estimated for high prevalence ICD-10/DSM-IV psychiatric disorders and measures of socio-economic status (SES) from individual-level, population-based studies. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted of population-based case-control and cohort studies of suicide where relative risk estimates for males and females could be extracted. RR for any mental disorder was 7.5 (6.2-9.0) for males and 11.7 (9.7-14.1) for females, compared to RR for the lowest SES groups of 2.1 (1.5-2.8) for males and 1.5 (1.2-1.9) for females. PAR in males for low educational achievement (41%, range 19-47%) and low occupational status (33%, range 21-42%) was of a similar magnitude to affective disorders (26%, range 7-45%) and substance use disorders (9%, range 5-24%). Similarly in females the PAR for low educational achievement (20%, range 19-22%) was of a similar magnitude to affective disorders (32%, range 19-67%), substance use disorder (25%, range 5-32%) and anxiety disorder (12%, range 6-22%). The findings of the present study suggest that prevention strategies which focus on lower socio-economic strata (more distal risk factors) have the potential to have similar population-level effects as strategies which target more proximal psychiatric risk factors in the prevention and control of suicide. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Positive impact of a weekly iron-folic acid supplement delivered with social marketing to Cambodian women: compliance, participation, and hemoglobin levels increase with higher socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Crape, Byron L; Kenefick, Eric; Cavalli-Sforza, Tommaso; Busch-Hallen, Jennifer; Milani, Silvano; Kanal, Koum

    2005-12-01

    A social marketing program promoting weekly iron-folic acid supplementation improved hemoglobin levels in women of reproductive age in Cambodia. Supplementation was increasingly effective among women of higher socioeconomic status (SES). Among higher SES schoolgirls, 58% took the supplements, compared with 49% for lower SES (P = 0.07). Garment factory workers with an 11th- or 12th-grade education had a mean improvement in hemoglobin of 0.72 g/dL over those with a 5th-grade education or less (P = 0.04). The percentage of rural village women taking supplements increased with increasing SES (linear trend P = 0.046). These results suggest that women with lower SES be given special attention for future programs.

  10. Influence of socio-economic factors on street litter generation in the middle east: effects of education level, age, and type of residence.

    PubMed

    Arafat, Hassan A; Al-Khatib, Issam A; Daoud, Raeda; Shwahneh, Hadeel

    2007-08-01

    Street littering is considered an important environmental health issue in the Middle East. This problem is growing steadily and is attracting great concerns within the communities. The purpose of this paper, which focuses on Nablus district (Palestinian Territory), is to measure the perception and opinion of residents toward littering, in addition to studying prevailing attitudes and practices on littering. This was achieved using an interview survey approach. The influence of three socio-economic factors; level of education, age, and type of residence, on the littering behaviour of individuals was studied. As a result, possible remedial actions have been suggested. The data presented in this work can be considered as one piece of information, which can be compiled with other future data to design an effective litter control programrhe for Middle Eastern countries.

  11. Assessing the Relationship between Socioeconomic Conditions and Urban Environmental Quality in Accra, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Fobil, Julius; May, Juergen; Kraemer, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on health inequalities is widely known, but there is still poor understanding of the precise relationship between area-based socioeconomic conditions and neighborhood environmental quality. This study aimed to investigate the socioeconomic conditions which predict urban neighbourhood environmental quality. The results showed wide variation in levels of association between the socioeconomic variables and environmental conditions, with strong evidence of a real difference in environmental quality across the five socioeconomic classes with respect to total waste generation (p < 0.001), waste collection rate (p < 0.001), sewer disposal rate (p < 0.001), non-sewer disposal (p < 0.003), the proportion of households using public toilets (p = 0.005). Socioeconomic conditions are therefore important drivers of change in environmental quality and urban environmental interventions aimed at infectious disease prevention and control if they should be effective could benefit from simultaneous implementation with other social interventions. PMID:20195437

  12. Bipolar disorder patients have similar levels of education but lower socio-economic status than the general population.

    PubMed

    Schoeyen, Helle K; Birkenaes, Astrid B; Vaaler, Arne E; Auestad, Bjoern H; Malt, Ulrik F; Andreassen, Ole A; Morken, Gunnar

    2011-03-01

    There is conflicting evidence regarding the educational level and its importance for social and occupational functioning in bipolar disorder (BD). The aim of this study was to investigate how educational achievement relates to function in BD compared with the general population, and which clinical factors are associated with level of education. Hospitalized patients with DSM-IV BD (N=257; 69.3% BD I; 25.7% BD II; 5.1 BD NOS; 51.4% females) were consecutively recruited from mental health clinics throughout Norway and compared with a geographically matched reference sample from the general population (N=56,540) on levels of education, marital status, income, and disability benefits. Further analyses of association were carried out using logistic regression analyses. A significantly higher proportion of subjects in the BD group than in the reference group was single, had low income, or was disabled. No between-group difference was found in educational level. In the reference group education was inversely correlated with the risk of being disabled, but no such relationship was found in the BD group. Rapid cycling and recurring depressive episodes were the only clinical characteristics associated with low educational level. Acutely admitted patients might not be representative for milder forms of disease. Despite similar levels of education, BD patients had lower social and occupational function than the general population, and no association was found between education and disability for BD patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Interactive and Independent Associations between the Socioeconomic and Objective Built Environment on the Neighbourhood Level and Individual Health: A Systematic Review of Multilevel Studies

    PubMed Central

    Schüle, Steffen Andreas; Bolte, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Background The research question how contextual factors of neighbourhood environments influence individual health has gained increasing attention in public health research. Both socioeconomic neighbourhood characteristics and factors of the built environment play an important role for health and health-related behaviours. However, their reciprocal relationships have not been systematically reviewed so far. This systematic review aims to identify studies applying a multilevel modelling approach which consider both neighbourhood socioeconomic position (SEP) and factors of the objective built environment simultaneously in order to disentangle their independent and interactive effects on individual health. Methods The three databases PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science were systematically searched with terms for title and abstract screening. Grey literature was not included. Observational studies from USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Western European countries were considered which analysed simultaneously factors of neighbourhood SEP and the objective built environment with a multilevel modelling approach. Adjustment for individual SEP was a further inclusion criterion. Results Thirty-three studies were included in qualitative synthesis. Twenty-two studies showed an independent association between characteristics of neighbourhood SEP or the built environment and individual health outcomes or health-related behaviours. Twenty-one studies found cross-level or within-level interactions either between neighbourhood SEP and the built environment, or between neighbourhood SEP or the built environment and individual characteristics, such as sex, individual SEP or ethnicity. Due to the large variation of study design and heterogeneous reporting of results the identification of consistent findings was problematic and made quantitative analysis not possible. Conclusions There is a need for studies considering multiple neighbourhood dimensions and applying multilevel

  14. Neighborhood-level socioeconomic deprivation predicts weight gain in a multi-ethnic population: longitudinal data from the Dallas Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Ayers, Colby; Agyemang, Priscilla; Leonard, Tammy; Berrigan, David; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Lian, Min; Das, Sandeep R; Hoehner, Christine M

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to examine a relationship between neighborhood-level socioeconomic deprivation and weight change in a multi-ethnic cohort from Dallas County, Texas and whether behavioral/psychosocial factors attenuate the relationship. Non-movers (those in the same neighborhood throughout the study period) aged 18-65 (N=939) in Dallas Heart Study (DHS) underwent weight measurements between 2000 and 2009 (median 7-year follow-up). Geocoded home addresses defined block groups; a neighborhood deprivation index (NDI) was created (higher NDI=greater deprivation). Multi-level modeling determined weight change relative to NDI. Model fit improvement was examined with adding physical activity and neighborhood environment perceptions (higher score=more unfavorable perceptions) as covariates. A significant interaction between residence length and NDI was found (p-interaction=0.04); results were stratified by median residence length (11 years). Adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking, and education/income, those who lived in neighborhood >11 years gained 1.0 kg per one-unit increment of NDI (p=0.03), or 6 kg for those in highest NDI tertile compared with those in the lowest tertile. Physical activity improved model fit; NDI remained associated with weight gain after adjustment for physical activity and neighborhood environment perceptions. There was no significant relationship between NDI and weight change for those in their neighborhood ≤11 years. Living in more socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods over a longer time period was associated with weight gain in DHS. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. [Intersection between gender and socioeconomic status in medical sciences career choice].

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Hernández, Georgina; Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Compeán-Dardón, Sandra; Verde-Flota, Elizabeth; Delgado-Sáncnchez, Guadalupe; Tamez-González, Silivia

    2006-01-01

    Analyze the relationship between gender identity and socioeconomic level associated with career choice among undergraduate students selecting the area of health sciences. Our sample was comprised of first year medical nutrition, dentistry and nursing students (n=637) admitted to the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Xochimilco. A self administered questionnaire was used. The dependent variable was career choice. Independent variables included socioeconomic status, gender norms in student's homes, and gender stereotype internalization. More female nursing students came from low socioeconomic strata, while medical students had a higher socioeconomic status. Among males, more nursing and medical students belonged to a higher socioeconomicstrata. Nutrition and dentistry students belonged to a medium strata. In comparison with males from high socioeconomic strata more male participants reported that household chores were divided among men and women. For women, as the socioeconomic level increased, the participation of men and women also increased. In the indicators of internalization of gender stereotypes, nursing students had the highest rates in the submission scale, but the lowest for masculinity and machismo. As the socioeconomic strata increased, the characteristics of masculinity and machismo also increased. The present results seem to indicate that among women of low socioeconomic strata more traditional gender stereotypes prevail which lead them to seek career choices considered femenine. Among men, there is a clear relationship between career choice, socioeconomic level and internalization of gender stereotypes.

  16. Neighbourhood socioeconomic inequalities in food access and affordability.

    PubMed

    Ball, Kylie; Timperio, Anna; Crawford, David

    2009-06-01

    This study investigated whether the availability and accessibility of supermarkets and fruit and vegetable stores, and the availability, variety and price of foods within these stores, varied across areas of different levels of socioeconomic disadvantage in Melbourne, Australia. Data on food store locations, and food variety and price within stores were obtained through objective audits of 45 neighbourhoods of varying socioeconomic disadvantage. Geographical accessibility of healthy food stores was mostly better amongst those living in more advantaged neighbourhoods. Availability of healthy foods within stores only slightly favoured those in advantaged neighbourhoods. However food prices favoured those living in disadvantaged areas.

  17. Estimation of stand-level leaf area for boreal bryophytes.

    PubMed

    Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Gower, Stith T

    2007-04-01

    Bryophytes dominate the carbon and nitrogen cycling of many poorly drained terrestrial ecosystems and are important in the vegetation-atmosphere exchange of carbon and water, yet few studies have estimated their leaf area at the stand scale. This study quantified the bryophyte-specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf area index (LAI) in a group of different-aged boreal forest stands in well and poorly drained soils. Species-specific SLA (for three feather mosses, four Sphagnum spp. and Aulacomnium palustre mixed with Tomentypnum nitens) was assessed by determining the projected area using a flatbed scanner and cross-sectional geometry using a dissecting microscope. The hemisurface leaf area was computed as the product of SLA and live biomass and was scaled by coverage data collected at all stands. Pleurozium schreberi dominated the spatial coverage, biomass and leaf area in the well-drained stands, particularly the oldest, while S. fuscum and A. palustre were important in the poorly drained stands. Live moss biomass ranged from 47 to 230 g m(-2) in the well-drained stands dominated by feather mosses and from 102 to 228 g m(-2) in the poorly drained stands. Bryophyte SLA varied between 135 and 473 cm(2) g(-1), for A. palustre and S. capillifolium, respectively. SLA was strongly and significantly affected by bryophyte species, but did not vary between stands; in general, there was no significant difference between the SLA of non-Sphagnum mosses. Bryophyte LAI increased with stand age, peaking at 3.1 and 3.7 in the well and poorly drained stands, respectively; this represented approximately 40% of the overstory LAI in the well-drained stands and 100-1,000% in the poorly drained stands, underscoring the important role bryophytes play in the water and carbon budgets of these boreal forests.

  18. Tobacco Use and Influencing Factors Among Iranian Children and Adolescents at National and Subnational Levels, According to Socioeconomic Status: The Caspian-IV Study

    PubMed Central

    Kelishadi, Roya; Shahsanai, Armindokht; Qorbani, Mostafa; Esmaeil Motlagh, Mohammad; Jari, Mohsen; Ardalan, Gelayol; Ansari, Hossein; Asayesh, Hamid; Heshmat, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Background Iran is facing an epidemiologic transition, with one of its features being the tendency towards smoking by adolescents. The findings of previous studies in Iran have shown that the pervasiveness of tobacco products among school students is high. No previous study has reported the prevalence and determinants of smoking in various socioeconomic statuses (SESs) and at the subnational level in Iran. Objectives To compare the prevalence of smoking and the factors that influence the initiation and continuation of tobacco use in a nationally representative sample of Iranian adolescents living in different regions with diverse socio-demographic patterns. Patients and Methods This nationwide, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 - 2012 among 14,880 students, aged 6 - 18 years, selected by cluster sampling from 30 provinces. Anonymous questionnaires were completed about tobacco use and the main psychological determinants of initiation and continuation to smoke. The questionnaire was modeled on the world health organization global school-based student health survey (WHO-GSHS). The sub-national regions were defined by the criteria of geography combined with SES. According to this classification, the lowest to highest SESs were considered for the southeast, north-northeast, west, and central regions, respectively. Data were analyzed using the STATA statistical software package. Results Overall, 13,486 students completed this survey (participation rate of 90.6%). They consisted of 50.8% boys, 75.6% urban residents, with a mean age of 12.47 ± 3.36 years. According to the self-report of students, 2.6 % (3.5% of boys and 1.7% of girls) were current smokers, and5.9% (7.5% of boys and 4.2% of girls) had ever been smokers. The current use of tobacco was higher in participants aged 14 - 18 years (6.11%) than in those aged 10 - 13.9 years (1.18%) and 6 - 9.9 years (0.51%). Current and past tobacco use, respectively, had the lowest prevalence in the region with the

  19. Tobacco Use and Influencing Factors Among Iranian Children and Adolescents at National and Subnational Levels, According to Socioeconomic Status: The Caspian-IV Study.

    PubMed

    Kelishadi, Roya; Shahsanai, Armindokht; Qorbani, Mostafa; Esmaeil Motlagh, Mohammad; Jari, Mohsen; Ardalan, Gelayol; Ansari, Hossein; Asayesh, Hamid; Heshmat, Ramin

    2016-05-01

    Iran is facing an epidemiologic transition, with one of its features being the tendency towards smoking by adolescents. The findings of previous studies in Iran have shown that the pervasiveness of tobacco products among school students is high. No previous study has reported the prevalence and determinants of smoking in various socioeconomic statuses (SESs) and at the subnational level in Iran. To compare the prevalence of smoking and the factors that influence the initiation and continuation of tobacco use in a nationally representative sample of Iranian adolescents living in different regions with diverse socio-demographic patterns. This nationwide, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 - 2012 among 14,880 students, aged 6 - 18 years, selected by cluster sampling from 30 provinces. Anonymous questionnaires were completed about tobacco use and the main psychological determinants of initiation and continuation to smoke. The questionnaire was modeled on the world health organization global school-based student health survey (WHO-GSHS). The sub-national regions were defined by the criteria of geography combined with SES. According to this classification, the lowest to highest SESs were considered for the southeast, north-northeast, west, and central regions, respectively. Data were analyzed using the STATA statistical software package. Overall, 13,486 students completed this survey (participation rate of 90.6%). They consisted of 50.8% boys, 75.6% urban residents, with a mean age of 12.47 ± 3.36 years. According to the self-report of students, 2.6 % (3.5% of boys and 1.7% of girls) were current smokers, and5.9% (7.5% of boys and 4.2% of girls) had ever been smokers. The current use of tobacco was higher in participants aged 14 - 18 years (6.11%) than in those aged 10 - 13.9 years (1.18%) and 6 - 9.9 years (0.51%). Current and past tobacco use, respectively, had the lowest prevalence in the region with the lowest SES (2.2%, 3.7%) and the greatest prevalence in

  20. From childhood socio-economic position to adult educational level – do health behaviours in adolescence matter? A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Our interest was in how health behaviours in early and late adolescence are related to educational level in adulthood. The main focus was in the interplay between school career and health behaviours in adolescence. Our conceptual model included school career and health-compromising (HCB) and health-enhancing (HEB) behaviours as well as family background. Two hypotheses were tested: 1) the primary role of school career in shaping educational level in adulthood (an unsuccessful school career in adolescence leads to HCB and not adopting HEB and to low educational level in adulthood); 2) the primary role of health behaviours (HCB and not adopting HEB in adolescence leads to a school career with low education in adulthood). Methods Mailed surveys to 12 to18 year-old Finns in 1981–1991 (N=15,167, response rate 82%) were individually linked with the Register of Completed Education and Degrees (28 to 32-year-olds). We applied structural equation modeling to study relations of latent variables (family SEP, family structure, school career, HCB, HEB) in adolescence, to the educational level in adulthood. Results Standardized regression coefficients between school career and health behaviours were equally strong whether the direction was from school career to HEB (0.21-0.28 for 12–14 years; 0.38-0.40 for 16–18 years) or from HEB to school career (0.21-0.22; 0.28-0.29); and correspondingly from school career to HCB (0.23-0.31; 0.31-0.32) or from HCB to school career (0.20-0.24; 0.22-0.22). The effect of family background on adult level of education operated mainly through school career. Only a weak pathway which did not go through school career was observed from behaviours to adult education. Conclusions Both hypotheses fitted the data showing a strong mutual interaction of school achievement and adoption of HCB and HEB in early and late adolescence. Both hypotheses acknowledged the crucial role of family background. The pathway from health behaviours in

  1. From childhood socio-economic position to adult educational level - do health behaviours in adolescence matter? A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Koivusilta, Leena Kristiina; West, Patrick; Saaristo, Vesa Markus Antero; Nummi, Tapio; Rimpelä, Arja Hannele

    2013-08-02

    Our interest was in how health behaviours in early and late adolescence are related to educational level in adulthood. The main focus was in the interplay between school career and health behaviours in adolescence. Our conceptual model included school career and health-compromising (HCB) and health-enhancing (HEB) behaviours as well as family background. Two hypotheses were tested: 1) the primary role of school career in shaping educational level in adulthood (an unsuccessful school career in adolescence leads to HCB and not adopting HEB and to low educational level in adulthood); 2) the primary role of health behaviours (HCB and not adopting HEB in adolescence leads to a school career with low education in adulthood). Mailed surveys to 12 to18 year-old Finns in 1981-1991 (N=15,167, response rate 82%) were individually linked with the Register of Completed Education and Degrees (28 to 32-year-olds). We applied structural equation modeling to study relations of latent variables (family SEP, family structure, school career, HCB, HEB) in adolescence, to the educational level in adulthood. Standardized regression coefficients between school career and health behaviours were equally strong whether the direction was from school career to HEB (0.21-0.28 for 12-14 years; 0.38-0.40 for 16-18 years) or from HEB to school career (0.21-0.22; 0.28-0.29); and correspondingly from school career to HCB (0.23-0.31; 0.31-0.32) or from HCB to school career (0.20-0.24; 0.22-0.22). The effect of family background on adult level of education operated mainly through school career. Only a weak pathway which did not go through school career was observed from behaviours to adult education. Both hypotheses fitted the data showing a strong mutual interaction of school achievement and adoption of HCB and HEB in early and late adolescence. Both hypotheses acknowledged the crucial role of family background. The pathway from health behaviours in adolescence to adult education runs through school

  2. Assessment of health level and socio-economic characteristics of people working in the shipbuilding industry: a control group study.

    PubMed

    Koulouri, Agoritsa; Roupa, Zoe; Sarafis, Pavlos; Hatzoglou, Chryssi; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos

    2014-10-09

    The health level of the population and the way people perceive it has been associated with their physical and mental health, as well as with their social and occupational characteristics. The comparative assessment of mental and health level in shipbuilding industry workers and general population and its relationship to social and economic parameters. A group of one hundred men working in the shipbuilding industry aged 51.8±8.2 years old and a control group of one hundred men of the general population aged 51.1±6.4 were studied. All participants completed the General Health Questionnaire - 28 and Fagerstrom test and a form with demographic, occupational and economic status characteristics. The statistical software SPSS 17.0 was used for data analysis. Twenty-six percent of the general population and 47% of men working in the shipbuilding industry assessed their health as moderate/poor. Higher median values of anxiety and depressive symptomatology were observed in individuals characterizing their health as moderate/poor (p<0.001), their work as physically too demanding and in individuals with high dependency on smoking (p<0.05). With regard to the parameter of physical complaints, people working in the shipbuilding industry, non-active employees and those with comorbidities were found more burdened in relation to the general population (p<0.05). Depressive disorders were more common in those stating that their economic situation had been significantly deteriorated and in individuals with chronic diseases, which also showed reduced social functioning (p<0.05). Health level and its individual dimensions are both associated with health self-assessment and occupational and economic status. The coexistence of chronic diseases and smoking dependence affects emotion and social functioning of individuals.

  3. Peer-mentoring for first-time mothers from areas of socio-economic disadvantage: A qualitative study within a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Christine A; Cupples, Margaret E; Percy, Andrew; Halliday, Henry L; Stewart, Moira C

    2008-01-01

    Background Non-professional involvement in delivering health and social care support in areas of socio-economic deprivation is considered important in attempting to reduce health inequalities. However, trials of peer mentoring programmes have yielded inconsistent evidence of benefit: difficulties in implementation have contributed to uncertainty regarding their efficacy. We aimed to explore difficulties encountered in conducting a randomised controlled trial of a peer-mentoring programme for first-time mothers in socially disadvantaged areas, in order to provide information relevant to future research and practice. This paper describes the experiences of lay-workers, women and health professionals involved in the trial. Methods Thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with women (n = 11) who were offered peer mentor support, lay-workers (n = 11) who provided mentoring and midwives (n = 2) who supervised the programme, which provided support, from first hospital antenatal visit to one year postnatal. Planned frequency of contact was two-weekly (telephone or home visit) but was tailored to individuals' needs. Results Despite lay-workers living in the same locality, they experienced difficulty initiating contact with women and this affected their morale adversely. Despite researchers' attempts to ensure that the role of the mentor was understood clearly it appeared that this was not achieved for all participants. Mentors attempted to develop peer-mentor relationships by offering friendship and sharing personal experiences, which was appreciated by women. Mentors reported difficulties developing relationships with those who lacked interest in the programme. External influences, including family and friends, could prevent or facilitate mentoring. Time constraints in reconciling flexible mentoring arrangements with demands of other commitments posed major personal difficulties for lay-workers. Conclusion Difficulties in initiating contact, developing peer

  4. Level 1 remedial investigation work plan, 300 Area Process Ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    This report discusses the objectives of the site characterization for the 300 Area Process Ponds which are to identify and quantify contamination at the ponds and to estimate their potential impact on human health and the environment. The results of the site characterization will be used to identify any future actions related to contamination at the site and to identify any additional data requirements needed to support selection of a remedial action. 9 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Particulate Matter Levels in Ambient Air Adjacent to Industrial Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Nizam, N. M. S.; Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Lajis, A.; Kassim, A. H. M.

    2016-07-01

    Air quality in the residential areas adjacent to the industrial regions is of great concern due to the association with human health risks. In this work, the concentrations of particulate matter (PM10) in the ambient air of UTHM campus was investigated tostudy the air qualityand their compliance to the Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (AAQG). The PM10 samples were taken over 24 hours from the most significant area at UTHM including Stadium, KolejKediamanTunDr. Ismail (KKTDI) and MakmalBahan. The meteorological parameters; temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction as well as particulate matterwere estimated by using E-Sampler Particulate Matter (PM10) Collector. The highest concentrations of PM10 (55.56 µg/m3) was recorded at MakmalBahan during the working and weekend days. However, these concentrations are less than 150 pg/m3. It can be concluded that although UTHM is surrounded by the industrial area, the air quality in the campus still within the standards limits.

  6. Closing the gap between socioeconomic and financial implications of residential and community level hydrogen-based energy systems: Incentives needed for a bridge to the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verduzco, Laura E.

    The use of hydrogen as an energy carrier has the potential to decrease the amount of pollutants emitted to the atmosphere, significantly reduce our dependence on imported oil and resolve geopolitical issues related to energy consumption. The current status of hydrogen technology makes it prohibitive and financially risky for most investors to commit the money required for large-scale hydrogen production. Therefore, alternative strategies such as small and medium-scale hydrogen applications should be implemented during the early stages of the transition to the hydrogen economy in order to test potential markets and technology readiness. While many analysis tools have been built to estimate the requirements of the transition to a hydrogen economy, few have focused on small and medium-scale hydrogen production and none has paired financial with socioeconomic costs at the residential level. The computer-based tool (H2POWER) presented in this study calculates the capacity, cost and socioeconomic impact of the systems needed to meet the energy demands of a home or a community using home and neighborhood refueling units, which are systems that can provide electricity and heat to meet the energy demands of either (1) a home and automobile or (2) a cluster of homes and a number of automobiles. The financial costs of the production, processing and delivery sub-systems that conform the refueling units are calculated using cost data of existing technology and normalizing them to calculate capital and net present cost. The monetary value of the externalities (socioeconomic analysis) caused by each system is calculated by H2POWER through a statistical analysis of the cost associated to various externalities. Additionally, H2POWER calculates the financial impact of different penalties and incentives (such as net metering, low interest loans, fuel taxes, and emission penalties) on the cost of the system from the point of view of a developer and a homeowner. In order to assess the

  7. Heavy metal levels of pasture grasses in metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luilo, G. B.; Othman, O. C.

    2003-05-01

    Urban agriculture is becoming an important lucrative activity in Dar es Salaam City even though the city is subject to traffic and industrial pollution pressures. Poor planning has left only limited spaces, particularly road reserves, for cultivation and foraging animals. While there is increasing road traffic no study bas been conducted determine levels of trace metals in pasture grasses. This study, therefore, reports on the levels of cadmium, manganese, lead and zinc of cynodon grasses in road vicinity in the city. Results show that the trace metal levels (ppm ± SDE) in Cynodon grass species were: Cd (0.24 ± 0.06-2.58 ± 0.15), Mn (41.5 ± 13.6-345.0 ± 124.3), Pb (1.15 ± 0.64-25.53 ± 1.29) and Zn (25.97 ± 3.69-95.36 ± 19.61). The mean levels of lead and zinc varied exponentially with distance off the road up to 15 m distance. Lead and zinc levels correlated with average daily traffic in the roads while cadmium and manganese did not. This suggests that lead and zinc in grasses owe their sources from the passing motor vehicles in agreement with other reported studies. It is recommended that pasture grasses in road vicinities must not be used for foraging dairy cattle and goats for public health reasons.

  8. Factors associated with low consumption of fruits and vegetables by preschoolers of low socio-economic level.

    PubMed

    Valmórbida, Julia L; Vitolo, Márcia R

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate factors associated with low consumption of fruits and vegetables among preschoolers from families treated at basic health centers in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. This was a cohort study nested in a randomized field trial. Data collection was performed through structured questionnaires to obtain demographic and dietary data, combined with two 24-hour recalls in the age groups 12-16 months and again at 2-3 years of age. Data on the consumption of one daily serving of fruits (80 g) and vegetables (60 g) were evaluated, as well as consumption of non-recommended foods such as candy, chocolate, and soft drinks. Statistical analyses were performed using Poisson regression with robust estimation. A total of 388 children aged 2-3 years were evaluated; of these, 58% and 87.4% did not consume one daily serving of fruits and vegetables, respectively. The following factors were negatively associated with fruit consumption: family income higher than four minimum wages, (p=0.024), lower paternal educational level (p=0.03), and lower fruit consumption at 12-16 months (p=0.002). Factors negatively associated with the consumption of vegetables were low paternal educational level (p=0.033) and consumption of high-sugar content beverages at 12-16 months (p=0.014). This study demonstrated a high prevalence of children who consumed less than one daily serving of fruit and vegetables; early feeding practices, parental education, and family income were associated with this process. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. A primary care lifestyle programme suitable for socioeconomically vulnerable groups – an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Maria; Blomstrand, Ann; Högberg, Tine; Ariai, Nashmil; Thorn, Jörgen; Hange, Dominique; Björkelund, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore whether a primary health care (PHC) health promotion programme reaches and engages socioeconomically vulnerable groups in a community to the same extent as higher socioeconomic groups. Design Comparison of level of engagement and lifestyle improvements stratified by socioeconomic vulnerability level. Setting Hisingen PHC catchment area (130,000 inhabitants) Gothenburg, Sweden. Participants Men and women aged 18–79, visiting any of the eight public PHC centres during an eight-month period 2007–2008, were presented with a short intervention health questionnaire and offered a health dialogue with a nurse, including a health profile, p-glucose and blood pressure check. Participants were classified according to four socioeconomic vulnerability factors: education, employment, ethnicity and living situation. Results Out of 3691 participants, 27% had low education (Hisingen community level 23%), 18% were unemployed (community level 22%), and 16% were born outside Scandinavia (community level 22%). At the one-year follow-up, 2121 (57%) attended. At baseline, 3% of the individuals in the sample had three out of four socioeconomic vulnerability factors, 17% had two vulnerability factors, 43% had one vulnerability factor, and 37% had no vulnerability factors. Improved biological markers were seen in all vulnerability groups (1–3) and odds ratios for improvement were significantly higher in the most socioeconomically vulnerable group for smoking and stress compared to the group with no vulnerability factors. Conclusion Socioeconomically vulnerable groups were reached and lifestyle changes were accomplished to the same extent as in the higher socioeconomic groups in a PHC lifestyle intervention programme. KEY POINTSPrimary care plays a major part in prevention of chronic diseases. However, non-pharmacological primary and secondary prevention is often less successful, especially concerning socioeconomically vulnerable groups.The health promoting

  10. Winter Thaws Can Raise Ground Water Levels in Driftless Area

    Treesearch

    Richard S. Sartz

    1967-01-01

    Springflow and ground water levels both rose with winter thaws, even when the ground was frozen. A high soil water content suggests that water moved to the water table through a continuous column of soil water rather than as a wetting front

  11. The influence of neighbourhood-level socioeconomic deprivation on cardiovascular disease mortality in older age: longitudinal multilevel analyses from a cohort of older British men

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, S E; Morris, R W; Whincup, P H; Subramanian, S V; Papacosta, A O; Lennon, Lucy T; Wannamethee, S G

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence from longitudinal studies on the influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic factors in older age on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is limited. We aimed to investigate the prospective association of neighbourhood-level deprivation in later life with CVD mortality, and assess the underlying role of established cardiovascular risk factors. Methods A socially representative cohort of 3924 men, aged 60–79 years in 1998–2000, from 24 British towns, was followed up until 2012 for CVD mortality. Quintiles of the national Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), a composite score of neighbourhood-level factors (including income, employment, education, housing and living environment) were used. Multilevel logistic regression with discrete-time models (stratifying follow-up time into months) were used. Results Over 12 years, 1545 deaths occurred, including 580 from CVD. The risk of CVD mortality showed a graded increase from IMD quintile 1 (least deprived) to 5 (most deprived). Compared to quintile 1, the age-adjusted odds of CVD mortality in quintile 5 were 1.71 (95% CI 1.32 to 2.21), and 1.62 (95% CI 1.23 to 2.13) on further adjustment for individual social class, which was attenuated slightly to 1.44 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.89), but remained statistically significant after adjustment for smoking, body mass index, physical activity and use of alcohol. Further adjustment for blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and prevalent diabetes made little difference. Conclusions Neighbourhood-level deprivation was associated with an increased risk of CVD mortality in older people independent of individual-level social class and cardiovascular risk factors. The role of other specific neighbourhood-level factors merits further research. PMID:26285580

  12. Objective sea level pressure analysis for sparse data areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druyan, L. M.

    1972-01-01

    A computer procedure was used to analyze the pressure distribution over the North Pacific Ocean for eleven synoptic times in February, 1967. Independent knowledge of the central pressures of lows is shown to reduce the analysis errors for very sparse data coverage. The application of planned remote sensing of sea-level wind speeds is shown to make a significant contribution to the quality of the analysis especially in the high gradient mid-latitudes and for sparse coverage of conventional observations (such as over Southern Hemisphere oceans). Uniform distribution of the available observations of sea-level pressure and wind velocity yields results far superior to those derived from a random distribution. A generalization of the results indicates that the average lower limit for analysis errors is between 2 and 2.5 mb based on the perfect specification of the magnitude of the sea-level pressure gradient from a known verification analysis. A less than perfect specification will derive from wind-pressure relationships applied to satellite observed wind speeds.

  13. Knowledge of Food Production Methods Informs Attitudes toward Food but Not Food Choice in Adults Residing in Socioeconomically Deprived Rural Areas within the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Maria; Kearney, John; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Understand food choice, from the perspective of people residing in socioeconomically deprived rural neighborhoods. Methods: Focus groups (n = 7) were undertaken within a community setting involving 42 adults (2 males and 40 females) recruited through voluntary action groups. Data were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and content…

  14. Knowledge of Food Production Methods Informs Attitudes toward Food but Not Food Choice in Adults Residing in Socioeconomically Deprived Rural Areas within the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Maria; Kearney, John; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Understand food choice, from the perspective of people residing in socioeconomically deprived rural neighborhoods. Methods: Focus groups (n = 7) were undertaken within a community setting involving 42 adults (2 males and 40 females) recruited through voluntary action groups. Data were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and content…

  15. Socioeconomic research in agroforestry: progress, prospects, priorities

    Treesearch

    D. Evan Mercer; R.P. Miller

    1998-01-01

    Fourteen years after the birth of the journal Agroforestry Systems, biophysical studies continue to dominate agroforestry research while other important areas have not received the attention they deserve. This paper reviews the progress in one of these under-researched areas, socioeconomics. A quantitative and qualitative analysis of published socioeconomic research...

  16. An overview of methods for monitoring social disparities in cancer with an example using trends in lung cancer incidence by area-socioeconomic position and race-ethnicity, 1992-2004.

    PubMed

    Harper, Sam; Lynch, John; Meersman, Stephen C; Breen, Nancy; Davis, William W; Reichman, Marsha E

    2008-04-15

    The authors provide an overview of methods for summarizing social disparities in health using the example of lung cancer. They apply four measures of relative disparity and three measures of absolute disparity to trends in US lung cancer incidence by area-socioeconomic position and race-ethnicity from 1992 to 2004. Among females, measures of absolute and relative disparity suggested that area-socioeconomic and race-ethnic disparities increased over these 12 years but differed widely with respect to the magnitude of the change. Among males, the authors found substantial disagreement among summary measures of relative disparity with respect to the magnitude and the direction of change in disparities. Among area-socioeconomic groups, the index of disparity increased by 47% and the relative concentration index decreased by 116%, while for race-ethnicity the index of disparity increased by 36% and the Theil index increased by 13%. The choice of a summary measure of disparity may affect the interpretation of changes in health disparities. Important issues to consider are the reference point from which differences are measured, whether to measure disparity on the absolute or relative scale, and whether to weight disparity measures by population size. A suite of indicators is needed to provide a clear picture of health disparity change.

  17. Childhood Socioeconomic Status and the Occurrence of Recent Negative Life Events as Predictors of Circulating and Stimulated Levels of Interleukin-6.

    PubMed

    John-Henderson, Neha A; Marsland, Anna L; Kamarck, Thomas W; Muldoon, Matthew F; Manuck, Stephen B

    2016-01-01

    Evidence supports an inverse association of childhood socioeconomic status (SES) with systemic inflammation in adulthood. However, it remains to be determined whether this association is dependent on exposure to stressful life experiences. We predicted that the combination of a high number of recent negative life events and low childhood SES would be associated with the highest levels of both circulating interleukin (IL)-6 and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of IL-6. We tested this prediction among a community sample of 459 adults (47% male, mean [standard deviation] age = 42.8 [7.3] years). Inverse associations were found between childhood and adult SES indices with circulating IL-6 levels (r values between -0.07 and -0.16, p < .05) but not stimulated IL-6 levels (r values between -0.007 and 0.07, p > .05). The number of recent negative life events (mean [standard deviation] = 2.43 [2.34]) was not significantly related to subjective childhood SES and other SES indices (r values < 0.06, p > .10). Multivariate linear regression analyses revealed a significant association between the interaction of subjective childhood SES and recent negative life events and circulating IL-6 (β = -0.09, t(404) = -1.98, p = .049) and a marginally significant association with stimulated levels of IL-6 (β = -0.10, t(365) = -1.94, p = .054), whereas these covariate-adjusted models revealed no main effects for subjective SES or recent negative life events. The relationship between childhood SES and IL-6 seems to be moderated by recent life events, such that individuals with a relatively low childhood SES exhibit an inflammatory phenotype in the context of a high number of recent negative life events.

  18. Spatial analysis of leprosy incidence and associated socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Cury, Maria Rita de Cassia Oliveira; Paschoal, Vania Del'Arco; Nardi, Susilene Maria Tonelli; Chierotti, Ana Patrícia; Rodrigues Júnior, Antonio Luiz; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco

    2012-02-01

    To identify clusters of the major occurrences of leprosy and their associated socioeconomic and demographic factors. Cases of leprosy that occurred between 1998 and 2007 in São José do Rio Preto (southeastern Brazil) were geocodified and the incidence rates were calculated by census tract. A socioeconomic classification score was obtained using principal component analysis of socioeconomic variables. Thematic maps to visualize the spatial distribution of the incidence of leprosy with respect to socioeconomic levels and demographic density were constructed using geostatistics. While the incidence rate for the entire city was 10.4 cases per 100,000 inhabitants annually between 1998 and 2007, the incidence rates of individual census tracts were heterogeneous, with values that ranged from 0 to 26.9 cases per 100,000 inhabitants per year. Areas with a high leprosy incidence were associated with lower socioeconomic levels. There were identified clusters of leprosy cases, however there was no association between disease incidence and demographic density. There was a disparity between the places where the majority of ill people lived and the location of healthcare services. The spatial analysis techniques utilized identified the poorer neighborhoods of the city as the areas with the highest risk for the disease. These data show that health departments must prioritize politico-administrative policies to minimize the effects of social inequality and improve the standards of living, hygiene, and education of the population in order to reduce the incidence of leprosy.

  19. Levels of radioactivity in fish from streams near F-Area and H-Area seepage basins

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Loehle, C.

    1991-05-01

    This report summarizes results of recent analyses of radioactivity in fish from SRS streams near the F-Area and H-Area seepage basins. Fish were collected from headwater areas of Four Mile Creek and Pen Branch, from just below the H-Area seepage basin, and from three sites downstream in Four Mile Creek. These fish were analyzed for gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity using standard EPA methods. Levels of gross alpha and nonvolatile beta radioactivity in fish were found to be comparable to levels previously reported for these sites. Gross alpha activity was not found to be influenced by Separations Area discharges. Nonvolatile beta activity was higher in the nonvolatile beta activity was attributable to Cs-137 and K-40. The dosimetric consequences of consuming fish from this area were found to be well below DOE guidelines.

  20. In situ rainwater harvesting using dead level contours in semi-arid southern Zimbabwe: Insights on the role of socio-economic factors on performance and effectiveness in Gwanda District

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munamati, Muchaneta; Nyagumbo, Isaiah

    Droughts and dry spells which have characterised the past decade in Zimbabwe have seen a marked increase in the promotion and use of in situ rainwater harvesting technologies (RWHTs) as a drought mitigating strategy. A number of these technologies have been tried in recent years which include dead level contours with infiltration pits and deepened contours. Although in situ RWHTs are known to increase food security in drought prone areas, the role of socio-economic factors on their performance in terms of crop yield and scaling out is still not well understood. This study sought to investigate the socio-economic factors which influence the effectiveness of dead level contours for in situ rainwater harvesting and consequently on crop yield. The study involved 14 key informants interviews and questionnaire administration to a total of 55 respondent farmers practising in situ rainwater harvesting with dead level contours. A statistical package (Statistical Package for Social Scientists, SPSS) was used to analyse relationships between performance of RWHTs and attributes such as labour, resources, gender, experience and education. The results show a strong correlation between performance and resource status ( p = 0.004). For example, within the wealthy category, 42.1% were successful, while 14.3% and 13.8% were average and poor performers respectively. Thus within the successful category, 42.1% were wealthy, while 42.1% and 15.8% were medium-rich and resource-constrained respectively. Performance rating was also significantly correlated ( p = 0.007) to gender of household head e.g., within the most successful group 94.7% were men compared to 5.3% women. There was also a significant correlation between resource status and gender ( p = 0.039) such that within the wealthy category, 69.2% of the respondents were men compared to 30.8% women. Labour was found to have no significance on performance ( p > 0.05) even though the majority of key informants (93%) alluded that the

  1. Robust small area estimation of poverty indicators using M-quantile approach (Case study: Sub-district level in Bogor district)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girinoto, Sadik, Kusman; Indahwati

    2017-03-01

    The National Socio-Economic Survey samples are designed to produce estimates of parameters of planned domains (provinces and districts). The estimation of unplanned domains (sub-districts and villages) has its limitation to obtain reliable direct estimates. One of the possible solutions to overcome this problem is employing small area estimation techniques. The popular choice of small area estimation is based on linear mixed models. However, such models need strong distributional assumptions and do not easy allow for outlier-robust estimation. As an alternative approach for this purpose, M-quantile regression approach to small area estimation based on modeling specific M-quantile coefficients of conditional distribution of study variable given auxiliary covariates. It obtained outlier-robust estimation from influence function of M-estimator type and also no need strong distributional assumptions. In this paper, the aim of study is to estimate the poverty indicator at sub-district level in Bogor District-West Java using M-quantile models for small area estimation. Using data taken from National Socioeconomic Survey and Villages Potential Statistics, the results provide a detailed description of pattern of incidence and intensity of poverty within Bogor district. We also compare the results with direct estimates. The results showed the framework may be preferable when direct estimate having no incidence of poverty at all in the small area.

  2. A comparative study of noise pollution levels in some selected areas in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyedepo, Olayinka S; Saadu, Abdullahi A

    2009-11-01

    The noise pollution is a major problem for the quality of life in urban areas. This study was conducted to compare the noise pollution levels at busy roads/road junctions, passengers loading parks, commercial, industrial and residential areas in Ilorin metropolis. A total number of 47-locations were selected within the metropolis. Statistical analysis shows significant difference (P < 0.05) in noise pollution levels between industrial areas and low density residential areas, industrial areas and high density areas, industrial areas and passengers loading parks, industrial areas and commercial areas, busy roads/road junctions and low density areas, passengers loading parks and commercial areas and commercial areas and low density areas. There is no significant difference (P > 0.05) in noise pollution levels between industrial areas and busy roads/road junctions, busy roads/road junctions and high density areas, busy roads/road junctions and passengers loading parks, busy roads/road junctions and commercial areas, passengers loading parks and high density areas, passengers loading parks and commercial areas and commercial areas and high density areas. The results show that Industrial areas have the highest noise pollution levels (110.2 dB(A)) followed by busy roads/Road junctions (91.5 dB(A)), Passengers loading parks (87.8 dB(A)) and Commercial areas (84.4 dB(A)). The noise pollution levels in Ilorin metropolis exceeded the recommended level by WHO at 34 of 47 measuring points. It can be concluded that the city is environmentally noise polluted and road traffic and industrial machineries are the major sources of it. Noting the noise emission standards, technical control measures, planning and promoting the citizens awareness about the high noise risk may help to relieve the noise problem in the metropolis.

  3. Mixing layer height and air pollution levels in urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Wagner, Patrick; Emeis, Stefan; Jahn, Carsten; Muenkel, Christoph; Suppan, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Ceilometers are applied by KIT/IMK-IFU to detect layering of the lower atmosphere continuously. This is necessary because not only wind speed and direction but also atmospheric layering and especially the mixing layer height (MLH) influence exchange processes of ground level emissions. It will be discussed how the ceilometer monitoring information is used to interpret the air pollution near the ground. The information about atmospheric layering is continuously monitored by uninterrupted remote sensing measurements with the Vaisala ceilometer CL51 which is an eye-safe commercial mini-lidar system. Special software for this ceilometer provides routine retrievals of lower atmosphere layering from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. An intensive measurement period during the winter 2011/2012 is studied. The meteorological influences upon air pollutant concentrations are investgated and the correlations of air pollutant concentrations with ceilometer MLH are determined. Benzene was detected by department of Applied Climatology and Landscape Ecology, University of Duisburg-Essen (UDE) with a gas chromatograph during the measurement period. The meteorological data are collected by UDE and the monitoring station Essen of the German national meteorological service DWD. The concentrations of the air pollutants NO, NO2 and PM10 are provided by the national air pollution network LANUV.

  4. [Differences in mortality in Brazilian youth: the importance of household socioeconomic factors and living conditions in Brazilian municipalities and states].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Fabiano Neves Alves; Queiroz, Bernardo Lanza

    2016-10-10

    This study analyzed the relationship between household socioeconomic status and local social conditions and risk of death in Brazilian youth 15 to 29 years of age. Mortality data from the previous 12 months collected by the 2010 Population Census were used for the analysis at the local level. Data analysis was based on hierarchical models that allowed identifying the role of household social conditions and municipality and state of residence on mortality in young Brazilians. Differences in socioeconomic status between households accounted for more than 90% of the variability in risk of death. Residing in socioeconomically deprived areas also increased the odds of death among young people from households of any socioeconomic status.

  5. The effect of neighborhood-level socioeconomic status on racial differences in ovarian cancer treatment in a population-based analysis in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Joslin, Charlotte E; Brewer, Katherine C; Davis, Faith G; Hoskins, Kent; Peterson, Caryn E; Pauls, Heather A

    2014-11-01

    Less than half of women with ovarian cancer and blacks specifically receive therapy adherent to National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines. The purpose is to assess the effect of neighborhood-level socioeconomic status (SES) on black-white treatment differences in a population-based analysis in a highly-segregated community. Illinois State Cancer Registry data for invasive epithelial ovarian cancer cases diagnosed in Cook County, IL in non-Hispanic white (NHW) or black (NHB) women from 1998 to 2009 was analyzed. As few women receive NCCN-adherent care, variables were constructed to assess extent of treatment, including receipt of: 1) debulking surgery; 2) any surgery; 3) multi-agent chemotherapy; and 4) any chemotherapy. Two measures (concentrated affluence and disadvantage) were used to estimate neighborhood-level SES. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), with generalized linear mixed models to account for hierarchical data. 2766 (81.0%) NHW and 647 (19.0%) NHB women were diagnosed. Adjusting for covariates, NHB were less likely to receive debulking surgery (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.30-0.50), any surgery (OR: 0.38; 95%CI: 0.29-0.49), multi-agent chemotherapy (OR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.45-0.71) and any chemotherapy (OR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.45-0.74). Concentrated affluence but not disadvantage was significant in final models for multi-agent and any chemotherapy, but not debulking or any surgery. Results identify black-white differences consistent across treatments that persist despite adjustment for neighborhood-level SES. Results advance inequality awareness beyond "ideal" NCCN-adherent care, indicating inequality exists in delivery of even the most basic oncologic care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evidence-based policies on school nutrition and physical education: Associations with state-level collaboration, obesity, and socio-economic indicators.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Jennifer E; Laska, Melissa N; MacLehose, Richard; Nelson, Toben F; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2017-02-13

    Despite calls for more cross-sector collaboration on obesity prevention, little is known about the role of collaborative partnerships, or groups of organizations from different sectors working together toward a shared goal, in state policy activities. This study examined associations between competitive food/beverage and physical education policies and state-level collaboration and state characteristics (obesity, socioeconomic indicators, public health funding levels) for all 50 states and the District of Columbia, USA, in 2012. We examined cross-sectional associations between evidence-based competitive food/beverage and physical education policies from the Classification of Laws Associated with School Students and state characteristics from the School Health Policies and Practices Study and other national data sources using prevalence ratios and generalized linear models. Analyses were conducted in 2016. Cross-sector collaboration (i.e., state staff reports of working together on school nutrition or physical education activities) between state-level nutrition and physical education staff and ten types of organizations was not significantly associated with having state policies. Childhood obesity (RR=1.78, 95% CI[1.11,2.85]), high-school non-completion (RR=2.35, 95% CI[1.36,4.06]), poverty (RR=1.89, 95% CI[1.16,3.09]) and proportion non-white or Hispanic residents (RR=1.75, 95% CI[1.07, 2.85]) were positively associated with the presence of elementary school competitive food/beverage policies. Fewer indicators were associated with policies for middle and high schools. The large investment of time and resources required for cross-sector collaboration demands greater research evidence on how to structure and manage collaborative partnerships for the greatest impact.

  7. The human core of the shared socioeconomic pathways: Population scenarios by age, sex and level of education for all countries to 2100.

    PubMed

    Kc, Samir; Lutz, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    This paper applies the methods of multi-dimensional mathematical demography to project national populations based on alternative assumptions on future, fertility, mortality, migration and educational transitions that correspond to the five shared socioeconomic pathways (SSP) storylines. In doing so it goes a significant step beyond past population scenarios in the IPCC context which considered only total population size. By differentiating the human population not only by age and sex-as is conventionally done in demographic projections-but also by different levels of educational attainment the most fundamental aspects of human development and social change are being explicitly addressed through modeling the changing composition of populations by these three important individual characteristics. The scenarios have been defined in a collaborative effort of the international Integrated Assessment Modeling community with the medium scenario following that of a major new effort by the Wittgenstein Centre for Demography and Global Human Capital (IIASA, OEAW, WU) involving over 550 experts from around the world. As a result, in terms of total world population size the trajectories resulting from the five SSPs stay very close to each other until around 2030 and by the middle of the century already a visible differentiation appears with the range between the highest (SSP3) and the lowest (SSP1) trajectories spanning 1.5 billion. The range opens up much more with the SSP3 reaching 12.6 billion in 2100 and SSP1 falling to 6.9 billion which is lower than today's world population.

  8. Socioeconomic and urban-rural differentials in exposure to air pollution and mortality burden in England.

    PubMed

    Milojevic, Ai; Niedzwiedz, Claire L; Pearce, Jamie; Milner, James; MacKenzie, Ian A; Doherty, Ruth M; Wilkinson, Paul

    2017-10-06

    Socioeconomically disadvantaged populations often have higher exposures to particulate air pollution, which can be expected to contribute to differentials in life expectancy. We examined socioeconomic differentials in exposure and air pollution-related mortality relating to larger scale (5 km resolution) variations in background concentrations of selected pollutants across England. Ozone and particulate matter (sub-divided into PM10, PM2.5, PM2.5-10, primary, nitrate and sulphate PM2.5) were simulated at 5 km horizontal resolution using an atmospheric chemistry transport model (EMEP4UK). Annual mean concentrations of these pollutants were assigned to all 1,202,578 residential postcodes in England, which were classified by urban-rural status and socioeconomic deprivation based on the income and employment domains of the 2010 English Index of Multiple Deprivation for the Lower-level Super Output Area of residence. We used life table methods to estimate PM2.5-attributable life years (LYs) lost in both relative and absolute terms. Concentrations of the most particulate fractions, but not of nitrate PM2.5 or ozone, were modestly higher in areas of greater socioeconomic deprivation. Relationships between pollution level and socioeconomic deprivation were non-linear and varied by urban-rural status. The pattern of PM2.5 concentrations made only a small contribution to the steep socioeconomic gradient in LYs lost due to PM2.5 per 10(3) population, which primarily was driven by the steep socioeconomic gradient in underlying mortality rates. In rural areas, the absolute burden of air pollution-related LYs lost was lowest in the most deprived deciles. Air pollution shows modest socioeconomic patterning at 5 km resolution in England, but absolute attributable mortality burdens are strongly related to area-level deprivation because of underlying mortality rates. Measures that cause a general reduction in background concentrations of air pollution may modestly help narrow

  9. Socioeconomic differences in suicide mortality by sex in Finland in 1971-2000: a register-based study of trends, levels, and life expectancy differences.

    PubMed

    Mäki, Netta E; Martikainen, Pekka T

    2007-01-01

    Suicide is a common cause of death in many Western countries and it has been predicted to become even more common worldwide. The authors analysed socioeconomic differences and trends in Finnish suicide mortality, and assessed the relevance to public health by calculating socioeconomic differences in years of life expectancy lost attributable to suicide. Census records were used, linked with the death records of men and women aged 25 years and over in 1971-2000 in Finland. Suicide among male and female manual workers was 2.3 and 1.3 times higher respectively than among upper non-manual workers. The differences were largest among those in their thirties. Because of the decline in suicide among upper non-manual workers and a slower decrease or even an increase among other socioeconomic groups, the relative mortality differences increased somewhat during 1970-90, then decreased in the 1990s but remained higher than in the 1970s. In 1991-2000 the suicide-related life expectancy gap between the upper non-manual and manual male workers was 0.6 years, and this difference contributed 10% to the total difference in years of life expectancy lost between these socioeconomic groups. Large and persistent socioeconomic differences were found in suicide mortality and suicide was an important component of the socioeconomic difference in total mortality. Reducing these differences could significantly improve equity in health and reduce the burden of excess mortality.

  10. Exceptions to the rule: healthy deprived areas and unhealthy wealthy areas.