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Sample records for area luquillo experimental

  1. Annotated list of the flora of the Bisley Area, luquillo experimental forest, Puerto Rico 1987 to 1992. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Chinea, J.D.; Beymer, R.J.; Sastre de Jesus, I.; Scatena, F.N.

    1993-08-01

    The plant species of the Bisley area were surveyed for several years, mostly as a result of studies conducted under the Long-Term Ecological Research Program of the National Science Foundation. A list was prepared that contains a total of 336 plant species in 255 genera and 102 families of bryophytes and vascular plants. Within these species there are 107 tree species, 20 shrub species, 28 dicotyledonous vines, 86 herbs, 52 bryophytes, and 43 ferns. There are 22 introduced and 314 native species (of the later, 30 are endemic to Puerto Rico). Nine families account for 39 percent of all species found in the Bisley area. Forests of the Bisley area have been classified as subtropical wet forests, lower montane rain forests, and single-dominant forests. The Bisley watersheds are covered by a secondary forest of the tabonuco type (Dacryodes excelsa). This forest type is part of the Dacryodes-Sloanea association of Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, and higher elevation islands of the Lesser Antilles.

  2. Temporal and spatial stability of red-tailed hawk territories in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boal, C.W.; Snyder, H.A.; Bibles, B.D.; Estabrook, T.S.

    2003-01-01

    We mapped Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) territories in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF) of Puerto Rico in 1998. We combined our 1998 data with that collected during previous studies of Red-tailed Hawks in the LEF to examine population numbers and spatial stability of territorial boundaries over a 26-yr period. We also investigated potential relationships between Red-tailed Hawk territory sizes and topographic and climatic factors. Mean size of 16 defended territories during 1998 was 124.3 ?? 12.0 ha, which was not significantly different from our calculations of mean territory sizes derived from data collected in 1974 and 1984. Aspect and slope influenced territory size with the smallest territories having high slope and easterly aspects. Territory size was small compared to that reported for other parts of the species' range. In addition, there was remarkably little temporal change in the spatial distribution, area, and boundaries of Red-tailed Hawk territories among the study periods. Further, there was substantial boundary overlap (21-27%) between defended territories among the different study periods. The temporal stability of the spatial distribution of Red-tailed Hawk territories in the study area leads us to believe the area might be at or near saturation.

  3. Denudation rates determined from the accumulation of in situ-produced 10Be in the luquillo experimental forest, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Erik Thorson; Stallard, Robert F.; Larsen, Matthew C.; Raisbeck, Grant M.; Yiou, Francoise

    1995-01-01

    We present a simple method for estimation of long-term mean denudation rates using in situ-produced cosmogenic 10Be in fluvial sediments. Procedures are discussed to account for the effects of soil bioturbation, mass wasting and attenuation of cosmic rays by biomass and by local topography. Our analyses of 10Be in quartz from bedrock outcrops, soils, mass-wasting sites and riverine sediment from the Icacos River basin in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, are used to characterize denudation for major landform elements in that basin. The 10Be concentration of a discharge-weighted average of size classes of river sediment corresponds to a long-term average denudation of ≈ 43 m Ma −1, consistent with mass balance results. 

  4. Histories of Puerto Rican parrot nests in the Caribbean National Forest/Luquillo Experimental Forest, 1973-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wunderle, J.M.; Snyder, N.F.R.; Muiznieks, B.; Wiley, J.W.; Meyers, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This publication summarizes the histories of all known Puerto Rican parrot nests in the Caribbean National Forest/Luquillo Experimental Forest from 1973 through 2000. Included for each nest, when known, are the identifies of the pair, clutch size, known fertile and infertile eggs, number of eggs that hatched, number of chicks that survived, sources of mortality, fostering (source, destination. or both), number of young fledged from the pair and from the nest, and percentage of days the nest was guarded. This information is useful for detecting and assessing potential changes in reproductive output and nest threats and is fundamental for understanding some of the demographic and genetic factors influencing the wild parrot population.

  5. Probing the deep critical zone beneath the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Buss, Heather; Brantley, S. L.; Scatena, Fred; Bazilevskaya, Ekaterina; Blum, Alex; Schulz, M; Jimenez, M; White, Art; Rother, Gernot; Cole, David

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has suggested that weathering processes occurring in the subsurface produce the majority of silicate weathering products discharged to the world s oceans, thereby exerting a primary control on global temperature via the well-known positive feedback between silicate weathering and CO2. In addition, chemical and physical weathering processes deep within the critical zone create aquifers and control groundwater chemistry, watershed geometry and regolith formation rates. Despite this, most weathering studies are restricted to the shallow critical zone (e.g., soils, outcrops). Here we investigate the chemical weathering, fracturing and geomorphology of the deep critical zone in the Bisley watershed in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, Puerto Rico, from two boreholes drilled to 37.2 and 27.0 m depth, from which continuous core samples were taken. Corestones exposed aboveground were also sampled. Weathered rinds developed on exposed corestones and along fracture surfaces on subsurface rocks slough off of exposed corestones once rinds attain a thickness up to ~1 cm, preventing the corestones from rounding due to diffusion limitation. Such corestones at the land surface are assumed to be what remains after exhumation of similar, fractured bedrock pieces that were observed in the drilled cores between thick layers of regolith. Some of these subsurface corestones are massive and others are highly fractured, whereas aboveground corestones are generally massive with little to no apparent fracturing. Subsurface corestones are larger and less fractured in the borehole drilled on a road where it crosses a ridge compared to the borehole drilled where the road crosses the stream channel. Both borehole profiles indicate that the weathering zone extends to well below the stream channel in this upland catchment; hence weathering depth is not controlled by the stream level within the catchment and not all of the water in the watershed is discharged to the stream.

  6. Probing the deep critical zone beneath the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buss, Heather L.; Brantley, Susan L.; Scatena, Fred; Bazilevskaya, Katya; Blum, Alex E.; Schulz, Marjorie S.; Jiménez, Rafael; White, Arthur F.; Rother, G.; Cole, D.

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has suggested that weathering processes occurring in the subsurface produce the majority of silicate weathering products discharged to the world's oceans, thereby exerting a primary control on global temperature via the well-known positive feedback between silicate weathering and CO2. In addition, chemical and physical weathering processes deep within the critical zone create aquifers and control groundwater chemistry, watershed geometry and regolith formation rates. Despite this, most weathering studies are restricted to the shallow critical zone (e.g. soils, outcrops). Here we investigate the chemical weathering, fracturing and geomorphology of the deep critical zone in the Bisley watershed in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, Puerto Rico, from two boreholes drilled to 37.2 and 27.0 m depth, from which continuous core samples were taken. Corestones exposed aboveground were also sampled. Weathered rinds developed on exposed corestones and along fracture surfaces on subsurface rocks slough off of exposed corestones once rinds attain a thickness up to ~1 cm, preventing the corestones from rounding due to diffusion limitation. Such corestones at the land surface are assumed to be what remains after exhumation of similar, fractured bedrock pieces that were observed in the drilled cores between thick layers of regolith. Some of these subsurface corestones are massive and others are highly fractured, whereas aboveground corestones are generally massive with little to no apparent fracturing. Subsurface corestones are larger and less fractured in the borehole drilled on a road where it crosses a ridge compared with the borehole drilled where the road crosses the stream channel. Both borehole profiles indicate that the weathering zone extends to well below the stream channel in this upland catchment; hence weathering depth is not controlled by the stream level within the catchment and not all of the water in the watershed is discharged to the stream

  7. Slopewash, surface runoff and fine-litter transport in forest and landslide scars in humid-tropical steeplands, Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, M.C.; Torres-Sanchez, A. J.; Concepcion, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    Rainfall, slopewash (the erosion of soil particles), surface runoff and fine-litter transport at humid-tropical steepland sites in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico (18??20' N, 65??45' W) were measured from 1991 to 1995. Hillslopes underlain by (1) Cretaceous tuffaceous sandstone and siltstone in subtropical rain (tabonuco) forest with vegetation recovering from Hurricane Hugo (1989), and (2) Tertiary quartz diorite in subtropical lower montane wet (colorado and dwarf) forest with undisturbed forest canopy were compared to recent landslide scars. Monthly surface runoff on these very steep hillslopes (24??to 43??) was only 0.2 to 0.5 per cent of monthly rainfall. Slopewash was higher in sandy loam soils whose parent material is quartz diorite (averaging 46 g m-2 a-1) than in silty clay loam soils derived from tuffaceous sandstone and siltstone where the average was 9 g m-2 a-1. Annual slopewash of 100 to 349 g m-2 on the surfaces of two recent, small landslide scars was measured initially but slopewash decreased to only 3 to 4 g m-2 a-1 by the end of the study. The mean annual mass of fine litter (mainly leaves and twigs) transported downslope at the forested sites ranged from 5 to 8 g m-2 and was lower at the tabonuco forest site, where post-Hurricane Hugo recovery is still in progress. Mean annual fine-litter transport was 2.5 g m-2 on the two landslide scars.

  8. Controls on spatial and temporal variability in nitrous oxide fluxes across a tropical rainforest ecosystem in the Luquillo experimental forest, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSwiney, Claire Patricia

    1999-10-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a trace gas that contributes to the greenhouse effect and participates in the reactions that destroy stratospheric ozone. Soil microbial processes are significant producers of this trace gas, particularly in tropical areas, which are considered major sources in the global N2O budget. Nitrous oxide fluxes to the atmosphere are variable in space and time. In this study, spatial and temporal variability in surface N2O fluxes were assessed as well as the major environmental controls on N2O production for a tropical rainforest watershed in northeastern Puerto Rico. A static chamber technique was used to assess surface fluxes and soil air probes were installed at different depths to determine soil concentrations of N2O, methane (CH4), and oxygen (O2). Suction lysimeters were installed to sample soil water for the concentrations of the major regulators of the production of N2O, specifically, nitrate (NO3-), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and ammonium (NH4+). Water table heights were monitored manually over the course of the study. Patterns in surface N2O flux across three topographic sequences were stable through time. The three sequences had similar flux rates in aerobic, slope environments and the streambank, however, they differed in anaerobic, riparian environments. The greatest fluxes in two of the sites and lowest fluxes in the third site occurred at the junction between the slope and the riparian zone. In one of the sites, the slope-riparian break was where soil water NO3- and DOC concentrations decreased precipitously. Soil N2O concentrations were greatest in probes that had intermediate O2 concentrations. Over the course of storm events, there were no drastic changes in N2 O fluxes or the concentrations of the controllers of its production in the break between the slope and the riparian zone. Redox status is helpful in predicting where N2O fluxes will occur on the landscape, with sites that are intermediate in O2 status having the highest

  9. Non-indigenous bamboo along headwater streams of the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: Leaf fall, aquatic leaf decay and patterns of invasion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, P. J.; Covich, A.P.; Scatena, F.N.; Loope, L.L.

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of bamboo to montane rain forests of the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico in the 1930s and 1940s has led to present-day bamboo monocultures in numerous riparian areas. When a non-native species invades a riparian ecosystem, in-stream detritivores can be affected. Bamboo dynamics expected to influence stream communities in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF) were examined. Based on current distributions, bamboo has spread down-stream at a rate of 8 m y-1. Mean growth rate of bamboo culms was 15.3 cm d-1. Leaf fall from bamboo stands exceeded that of native mixed-species forest by c. 30% over a 10-mo study. Bamboo leaves (k = -0.021), and leaves from another abundant riparian exotic, Syzygium jambos (Myrtaceae) (k = -0.018), decayed at relatively slow rates when submerged in streams in fine-mesh bags which excluded macro-invertebrate leaf processors. In a second study, with leaf processors present, bamboo decay rates remained unchanged (k = -0.021), while decay rates of S. jambos increased (k = -0.037). Elemental losses from bamboo leaves in streams were rapid, further suggesting a change in riparian zone/stream dynamics following bamboo invasion. As non-indigenous bamboos spread along Puerto Rico streams, they are likely to alter aquatic communities dependent on leaf input.

  10. Insects of the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, J.A.

    1994-07-01

    In this review of the literature on forest entomology in Puerto Rico, emphasis is given to research conducted in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF). This review should serve as an introduction to the insects inhabiting the LEF for researchers and as a guide for the identification of possible insect pests. There are three sections to this review. The first deals with basic insect ecology; the second, forest insect pests; and the third, insect attacks on dry wood and during wood seasoning. The reference section and appendices contain information on the systematics and taxonomy of different insect orders found in Puerto Rico.

  11. Red-tailed Hawk movements and use of habitat in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vilella, Francisco; Nimitz, Wyatt F.

    2012-01-01

    The Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) is a top predator of upland ecosystems in the Greater Antilles. Little information exists on the ecology of the insular forms of this widely distributed species. We studied movements and resource use of the Red-tailed Hawk from 2000 to 2002 in the montane forests of northeastern Puerto Rico. We captured 32 and used 21 radio-marked Red-tailed Hawks to delineate home range, core area shifts, and macrohabitat use in the Luquillo Mountains. Red-tailed Hawks in the Luquillo Mountains frequently perched near the top of canopy emergent trees and were characterized by wide-ranging capabilities and extensive spatial overlap. Home range size averaged 5,022.6 6 832.1 ha (305–11,288 ha) and core areas averaged 564.8 6 90.7 ha (150–1,230 ha). This species had large mean weekly movements (3,286.2 6 348.5 m) and a preference for roadside habitats. Our findings suggest fragmentation of contiguous forest outside protected areas in Puerto Rico may benefit the Red-tailed Hawk

  12. Ecohydrology of the Luquillo Mountains of Northeast Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scatena, F. N.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal humid tropical mountains are major sources of sediment, particulate organic carbon, and dissolved fluxes to the ocean. They are also important sources of food, fiber, municipal and agricultural water. Unlike water-limited drylands their ecohydrology is influenced by excess water and a high frequency of natural and hydrologically induced disturbances. However, like water-limited drylands, the spatial distribution of water across the landscape can play a fundamental role on biogeochemical and ecological processes. This paper reviews the influence of water on the critical zones and ecohydrology of the Luquillo Mountains of Northeastern Puerto Rico. Over a horizontal distance of 10 to 20 km, Luquillo life zones change from subtropical dry conditions at the coast to cloud enshrouded mountain peaks where the vegetation is stunted, evapotranspiration is reduced, and cloud water interception adds to annual precipitation such that annual rainfall approaches annual runoff. Along this elevational gradient there are systematic changes in climate, vegetation structure and diversity, gross and net primary productivity, carbon storage, and hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles. At the scale of hillslopes within the elevational gradients, soil nutrients, soil moisture, and soil oxygen vary systematically from ridge tops to adjacent valleys and topographic position is correlated to landscape stability and vegetation composition and structure. At landscape scales, hurricanes are the major control on forest age and structure and their associated defoliation and biomass loss can have large influences on both hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles. Nevertheless, because of the rapid re-growth of hurricane disturbed forests, the fluxes of most hydrologic pathways return to pre-hurricane rates within a year. Biogeochemical can take years to decades to return to pre-hurricane conditions. This presentation reviews these relationships and the challenges and opportunities related to

  13. Sediment distribution on a storm-dominated insular shelf, Luquillo, Puerto Rico, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwab, W.C.; Rodriguez, R.W.; Danforthf, W.W.; Gowen, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    A sea-floor mapping investigation designed to assess the sediment distribution, the movement of the nearshore sand supply, and the fate of sediment eroded from the shoreline was conducted using high-resolution sidescan-sonar, seismic reflection, and sediment sampling techniques on the northern insular shelf of Puerto Rico, off the town of Luquillo. Sea-floor structures and the distribution of sediment texture and composition suggest that regional oceanographic processes result in a net offshore direction for cross-shelf sediment transport on the middle and outer shelf during storms. If these same processes are active on the inner shelf, mapping results indicate that this sediment is not transported seaward of a series of east-west trending Pleistocene-age eolianite ridges that outcrop on the middle shelf. The eolianite ridges may act as natural dams, preventing the removal of sediment from the nearshore area. Sand deposits behind the "dams" are up to 20 m thick on the shoreward flank of the ridges.

  14. ISABELLE. Volume 3. Experimental areas, large detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This section presents the papers which resulted from work in the Experimental Areas portion of the Workshop. The immediate task of the group was to address three topics. The topics were dictated by the present state of ISABELLE experimental areas construction, the possibility of a phased ISABELLE and trends in physics and detectors.

  15. Chemical weathering in a tropical watershed, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: II. Rate and mechanism of biotite weathering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, S.F.; Brantley, S.L.; Blum, A.E.; White, A.F.; Dong, H.

    1998-01-01

    Samples of soil, saprolite, bedrock, and porewater from a lower montane wet forest, the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF) in Puerto Rico, were studied to investigate the rates and mechanisms of biotite weathering. The soil profile, at the top of a ridge in the Rio Icacos watershed, consists of a 50-100-cm thick layer of unstructured soil above a 600-800 cm thick saprolite developed on quartz diorite. The only minerals present in significant concentration within the soil and saprolite are biotite, quartz, kaolinite, and iron oxides. Biotite is the only primary silicate releasing significant K and Mg to porewaters. Although biotite in samples of the quartz diorite bedrock is extensively chloritized, chlorite is almost entirely absent in the saprolite phyllosilicates. Phyllosilicate grains are present as 200-1000 ??m wide books below about 50 cm depth. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron microprobe analyses indicate that the phyllosilicate grains contain a core of biotite surrounded by variable amounts of kaolinite. Lattice fringe images under transmission electron microscope (TEM) show single layers of biotite altering to two layers of kaolinite, suggesting dissolution of biotite and precipitation of kaolinite at discrete boundaries. Some single 14-A?? layers are also observed in the biotite under TEM. The degree of kaolinitization of individual phyllosilicate grains as observed by TEM decreases with depth in the saprolite. This TEM work is the first such microstructural evidence of epitaxial growth of kaolinite onto biotite during alteration in low-temperature environments. The rate of release of Mg in the profile, calculated as a flux through the soil normalized per watershed land area, is approximately 500 mol hectare-1 yr-1 (1.6 ?? 10-9 molMg m-2soil s-1). This rate is similar to the flux estimated from Mg discharge out the Rio Icacos (1000 mol hectare-1 yr-1, or 3.5 ?? 10-9 molMg m-2soil s-1), indicating that scaling up from the soil to the watershed is

  16. The Relative Importance of Convective and Trade-wind Orographic Precipitation to Streamflow in the Luquillo Mountains, Eastern Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, M. A.; Shanley, J. B.; Occhi, M.; Scatena, F. N.

    2012-12-01

    Like many mountainous areas in the tropics, watersheds in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico (18.3° N) have abundant rainfall and stream discharge, but relatively little storage capacity. Therefore, the water supply is vulnerable to drought and water availability may be affected by projected changes in regional temperature and atmospheric dynamics due to global warming. To help determine the links between climate and water availability, precipitation patterns were analyzed, and stable-isotope signatures of precipitation from different seasonal weather systems were established to identify those that are most important in maintaining streamflow and groundwater recharge. Stable isotope data include cloud water, rainfall, throughfall, streamflow, and groundwater from the Rio Mameyes and Rio Icacos/ Rio Blanco watersheds. Precipitation inputs have a wide range of stable isotope values, from fog/cloud water with δ2H and δ18O averaging +3.2‰, -1.74‰ respectively, to tropical storm rain with values as low as -154‰, -20.4‰. Spatial and temporal patterns of water isotopic values on this Caribbean island are different than higher latitude, continental watersheds. The data exhibit a 'reverse seasonality', with higher isotopic values in winter and lower values in summer; and stable isotope values of stream water do not decrease as expected with increasing altitude, because of cloud water input. Rain isotopic values vary predictably with local and mesoscale weather patterns and correlate strongly with cloud altitude. This correlation allows us to assign isotopic signatures to different sources of precipitation, and to investigate which climate patterns contribute to streamflow and groundwater recharge. At a measurement site at 615 m in the Luquillo Mountains, the average length of time between rain events was 15 h, and 45% of the rain events were <2 mm, reflecting the frequent small rain events of the trade-wind orographic rainfall weather pattern. Long

  17. Chemical weathering in a tropical watershed, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: I. Long-term versus short-term weathering fluxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, A.F.; Blum, A.E.; Schulz, M.S.; Vivit, D.V.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Larsen, M.; Murphy, S.F.; Eberl, D.

    1998-01-01

    The pristine Rio Icacos watershed in the Luquillo Mountains in eastern Puerto Rico has the fastest documented weathering rate of silicate rocks on the Earth's surface. A regolith propagation rate of 58 m Ma-1 calculated from iso-volumetric saprolite formation from quartz diorite, is comparable to the estimated denudation rate (25-50 Ma-1) but is an order of magnitude faster than the global average weathering rate (6 Ma-1). Weathering occurs in two distinct environments; plagioclase and hornblende react at the saprock interface and biotite and quartz weather in the overlying thick saprolitic regolith. These environments produce distinctly different water chemistries, with K, Mg, and Si increasing linearly with depth in saprolite porewaters and with stream waters dominated by Ca, Na, and Si. Such differences are atypical of less intense weathering in temperate watersheds. Porewater chemistry in the shallow regolith is controlled by closed-system recycling of inorganic nutrients such as K. Long-term elemental fluxes through the regolith (e.g., Si = 1.7 ?? 10-8 moles m-2 s-1) are calculated from mass losses based on changes in porosity and chemistry between the regolith and bedrock and from the age of the regolith surface (200 Ma). Mass losses attributed to solute fluxes are determined using a step-wise infiltration model which calculates mineral inputs to the shallow and deep saprolite porewaters and to stream water. Pressure heads decrease with depth in the shallow regolith (-2.03 m H2O m-1), indicating that both increasing capillary tension and graviometric potential control porewater infiltration. Interpolation of experimental hydraulic conductivities produces an infiltration rate of 1 m yr-1 at average field moisture saturation which is comparable with LiBr tracer tests and with base discharge from the watershed. Short term weathering fluxes calculated from solute chemistries and infiltration rates (e.g., Si = 1.4 ?? 10-8 moles m-2 s-1) are compared to watershed

  18. Chemical Weathering in a Tropical Watershed, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: I. Long-Term Versus Short-Term Weathering Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Art F.; Blum, Alex E.; Schulz, Marjorie S.; Vivit, Davison V.; Stonestrom, David A.; Larsen, Matthew; Murphy, Sheila F.; Eberl, D.

    1998-01-01

    The pristine Rio Icacos watershed in the Luquillo Mountains in eastern Puerto Rico has the fastest documented weathering rate of silicate rocks on the Earth's surface. A regolith propagation rate of 58 m Ma -1, calculated from iso-volumetric saprolite formation from quartz diorite, is comparable to the estimated denudation rate (25-50 Ma -1) but is an order of magnitude faster than the global average weathering rate (6 Ma -1). Weathering occurs in two distinct environments; plagioclase and hornblende react at the saprock interface and biotite and quartz weather in the overlying thick saprolitic regolith. These environments produce distinctly different water chemistries, with K, Mg, and Si increasing linearly with depth in saprolite porewaters and with stream waters dominated by Ca, Na, and Si. Such differences are atypical of less intense weathering in temperate watersheds. Porewater chemistry in the shallow regolith is controlled by closed-system recycling of inorganic nutrients such as K. Long-term elemental fluxes through the regolith (e.g., Si = 1.7 × 10 -8 moles m -2 s -1) are calculated from mass losses based on changes in porosity and chemistry between the regolith and bedrock and from the age of the regolith surface (200 Ma). Mass losses attributed to solute fluxes are determined using a step-wise infiltration model which calculates mineral inputs to the shallow and deep saprolite porewaters and to stream water. Pressure heads decrease with depth in the shallow regolith (-2.03 m H 2O m -1), indicating that both increasing capillary tension and graviometric potential control porewater infiltration. Interpolation of experimental hydraulic conductivities produces an infiltration rate of 1 m yr -1 at average field moisture saturation which is comparable with LiBr tracer tests and with base discharge from the watershed. Short term weathering fluxes calculated from solute chemistries and infiltration rates (e.g., Si = 1.4 × 10 -8 moles m -2 s -1) are compared

  19. Case Studies of Ecological Integrative Information Systems: The Luquillo and Sevilleta Information Management Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Gil, Inigo; White, Marshall; Melendez, Eda; Vanderbilt, Kristin

    The thirty-year-old United States Long Term Ecological Research Network has developed extensive metadata to document their scientific data. Standard and interoperable metadata is a core component of the data-driven analytical solutions developed by this research network Content management systems offer an affordable solution for rapid deployment of metadata centered information management systems. We developed a customized integrative metadata management system based on the Drupal content management system technology. Building on knowledge and experience with the Sevilleta and Luquillo Long Term Ecological Research sites, we successfully deployed the first two medium-scale customized prototypes. In this paper, we describe the vision behind our Drupal based information management instances, and list the features offered through these Drupal based systems. We also outline the plans to expand the information services offered through these metadata centered management systems. We will conclude with the growing list of participants deploying similar instances.

  20. The stable isotope amount effect: New insights from NEXRAD echo tops, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schol, M.A.; Shanley, J.B.; Zegarra, J.P.; Coplen, T.B.

    2009-01-01

    The stable isotope amount effect has often been invoked to explain patterns of isotopic composition of rainfall in the tropics. This paper describes a new approach, correlating the isotopic composition of precipitation with cloud height and atmospheric temperature using NEXRAD radar echo tops, which are a measure of the maximum altitude of rainfall within the clouds. The seasonal differences in echo top altitudes and their corresponding temperatures are correlated with the isotopic composition of rainfall. These results offer another factor to consider in interpretation of the seasonal variation in isotopic composition of tropical rainfall, which has previously been linked to amount or rainout effects and not to temperature effects. Rain and cloud water isotope collectors in the Luquillo Mountains in northeastern Puerto Rico were sampled monthly for three years and precipitation was analyzed for ??18O and ??2H. Precipitation enriched in , 18O and 2H occurred during the winter dry season (approximately December-May) and was associated with a weather pattern of trade wind showers and frontal systems. During the summer rainy season (approximately June-November), precipitation was depleted in 18O and 2H and originated in low pressure systems and convection associated with waves embedded in the prevailing easterly airflow. Rain substantially depleted in 18O and 2H compared to the aforementioned weather patterns occurred during large low pressure systems. Weather analysis showed that 29% of rain input to the Luquillo Mountains was trade wind orographic rainfall, and 30% of rainfall could be attributed to easterly waves and low pressure systems. Isotopic signatures associated with these major climate patterns can be used to determine their influence on streamflow and groundwater recharge and to monitor possible effects of climate change on regional water resources.

  1. Stream Ammonium Uptake Across Scales in Headwater Catchments of a Tropical Rainforest, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brereton, R. L.; McDowell, W. H.; Wymore, A.

    2015-12-01

    Many tropical forest streams export high amounts of nitrogen relative to streams draining undisturbed watersheds of other biomes. With their low DOC concentrations and high rates of respiration, headwater streams in the Luquillo Mountains have been previously characterized as energy-limited, suggesting that NH4+ uptake is dominated not by N demand but by energy demand. In the Rio Icacos watershed, high concentrations of NH4+ (>1 mg N/L) are found in groundwater adjacent to the streams, making high inputs of NH4+ to the stream channel via groundwater seepage likely. Stream nutrient spiraling metrics can be used to quantify uptake and retention rates of specific nutrients, and can be measured by solute additions. Tracer Additions for Spiraling Curve Characterization (TASCC) is a recently developed method (Covino et al. 2010) for quantifying nutrient uptake with a single slug addition of nutrient and conservative tracer. Here we present NH4+ uptake metrics from TASCC additions in three Luquillo streams of different sizes, ranging from 2nd to 4th order: the Rio Icacos, a larger, 3rd order tributary and a smaller 2nd order tributary. Background NH4+ concentrations vary by up to an order of magnitude, with highest concentrations (27 μg N/L) found in the smaller tributary. Background DOC concentrations are uniformly low and show no difference between the three streams (500-600 μg C/L). The smaller tributary has the shortest uptake length (155 m) and highest uptake velocity (2.9 mm/min) of the three streams. Unexpectedly, the Rio Icacos has a higher uptake velocity (1.7 mm/min) than the larger tributary (1.0 mm/min), despite having an uptake length more than double (1400 m) that of the larger tributary (596 m). Overall, NH4+ uptake is substantial in all three streams and varies with background concentrations, not stream size.

  2. 36 CFR 251.23 - Experimental areas and research natural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Miscellaneous Land Uses Designation of Areas § 251.23 Experimental areas... series of areas on National Forest land to be known as experimental forests or experimental ranges... management of forest and range land in each forest region. Also, when appropriate, the Chief shall...

  3. 36 CFR 251.23 - Experimental areas and research natural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Miscellaneous Land Uses Designation of Areas § 251.23 Experimental areas... series of areas on National Forest land to be known as experimental forests or experimental ranges... management of forest and range land in each forest region. Also, when appropriate, the Chief shall...

  4. 36 CFR 251.23 - Experimental areas and research natural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Miscellaneous Land Uses Designation of Areas § 251.23 Experimental areas... series of areas on National Forest land to be known as experimental forests or experimental ranges... management of forest and range land in each forest region. Also, when appropriate, the Chief shall...

  5. 36 CFR 251.23 - Experimental areas and research natural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Miscellaneous Land Uses Designation of Areas § 251.23 Experimental areas... series of areas on National Forest land to be known as experimental forests or experimental ranges... management of forest and range land in each forest region. Also, when appropriate, the Chief shall...

  6. 36 CFR 251.23 - Experimental areas and research natural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Miscellaneous Land Uses Designation of Areas § 251.23 Experimental areas... series of areas on National Forest land to be known as experimental forests or experimental ranges... management of forest and range land in each forest region. Also, when appropriate, the Chief shall...

  7. A landscape-scale assessment of nutrient limitation in the tropical forests of Luquillo, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, C. A.; Goldsmith, S. T.; Porder, S.

    2013-12-01

    The nature and extent of nutrient limitation in tropical forest primary production has been explored for decades, but empirical data of growth responses to nutrient additions remains sparse. Forest fertilization, while appropriate for exploring plot-scale limitation, has only been implemented in a few sites, and does not lend itself to assessment of the multiple gradients in soil fertility and forest community composition that typify most tropical landscapes. For this reason, little is known about how nutrient limitation varies across tropical landscapes, or how biotic and abiotic factors influence this variation. Here we report on the results of a fertilized root ingrowth core experiment deployed across contrasts in soil parent material and topographic position in the Luquillo Mountains of eastern Puerto Rico. In June 2012, we placed 480 fertilized ingrowth cores filled with a mixture of silica sand and perlite in 8 sub-watersheds in El Yunque National Forest--4 underlain by quartz diorite and 4 by volcaniclastic bedrock. We selected sites to control for forest community type and mean annual precipitation. Fertilizer was supplied by adding pre-loaded weak anion and cation resin beads loaded with NH4+ or PO43- to each core. This technique produced elevated levels of available N and P after two months in the field, and avoided the problem of adding a counter ion (typically Na or K) with the P fertilizer treatment. Within each sub-watershed, we placed 10 cores each of control and both nutrient treatments at each topographic position. We retrieved the cores in January 2013 and quantified the mass of roots (<2mm) that grew into each core. Our data show no significant root growth response to either nutrient relative to control. There are three possible interpretations of our results. First, root ingrowth in Luquillo may only be stimulated by the addition of N and P together. Second, addition of some other nutrient (K, Ca, etc.) might promote root ingrowth, but not N or

  8. Using Hydrogeophysical Methods to Understand the Spatial Distribution of the Bedrock-regolith Interface in the Rio Icacos Watershed (Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, Puerto Rico).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comas, X.; Wright, W. J.; Hynek, S. A.; Orlando, J.; Buss, H. L.; Brantley, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Rio Icacos watershed in the Luquillo Mountains (Puerto Rico) is a unique location due to the rapid weathering rates and formation of altered materials (i.e. regolith) in the critical zone. The watershed is characterized by a quartz diorite bedrock with a system of heterogeneous fractures that apparently drive the formation of corestones and associated spheroidal fracturing and rindlets. Although spatially limited, direct observations along drilled boreholes from previous studies have conclusively shown that regolith thickness increases with topography, from 20-30 m at the hornfels-facies ridges to several m in the quartz diorite-dominated valleys to tens of centimeters on ridges near the major river knickpoint. In this study we used a suite of hydrogeophysical methods (mainly ground penetrating radar, GPR, and terrain conductivity measurements), to characterize regolith thickness and the lateral distribution of fracturing along km-long transects across topographic gradients. GPR common offset profiles detected vertical areas of concentrated chaotic reflections and diffraction hyperbolas (in contrast to reflection-free areas) associated with fracturing and corestone-rich zones. Terrain conductivity measurements also detected contrasts in electrical conductivity associated with both the presence of fractures/corestones and regolith thickness variability. This research demonstrates the potential of hydrogeophysical measurements for understanding variability of bedrock-regolith interface in the Icacos watershed at large (i.e. km) scales.

  9. Comparing Experimental and Simulated Pressure-Area Isotherms for DPPC

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Susan L.; Larson, Ronald G.

    2008-01-01

    Although pressure-area isotherms are commonly measured for lipid monolayers, it is not always appreciated how much they can vary depending on experimental factors. Here, we compare experimental and simulated pressure-area isotherms for dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) at temperatures ranging between 293.15 K and 323.15 K, and explore possible factors influencing the shape and position of the isotherms. Molecular dynamics simulations of DPPC monolayers using both coarse-grained (CG) and atomistic models yield results that are in rough agreement with some of the experimental isotherms, but with a steeper slope in the liquid-condensed region than seen experimentally and shifted to larger areas. The CG lipid model gives predictions that are very close to those of atomistic simulations, while greatly improving computational efficiency. There is much more variation among experimental isotherms than between isotherms obtained from CG simulations and from the most refined simulation available. Both atomistic and CG simulations yield liquid-condensed and liquid-expanded phase area compressibility moduli that are significantly larger than those typically measured experimentally, but compare well with some experimental values obtained under rapid compression. PMID:18199666

  10. Nonpainful wide-area compression inhibits experimental pain

    PubMed Central

    Honigman, Liat; Bar-Bachar, Ofrit; Yarnitsky, David; Sprecher, Elliot; Granovsky, Yelena

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Compression therapy, a well-recognized treatment for lymphoedema and venous disorders, pressurizes limbs and generates massive non-noxious afferent sensory barrages. The aim of this study was to study whether such afferent activity has an analgesic effect when applied on the lower limbs, hypothesizing that larger compression areas will induce stronger analgesic effects, and whether this effect correlates with conditioned pain modulation (CPM). Thirty young healthy subjects received painful heat and pressure stimuli (47°C for 30 seconds, forearm; 300 kPa for 15 seconds, wrist) before and during 3 compression protocols of either SMALL (up to ankles), MEDIUM (up to knees), or LARGE (up to hips) compression areas. Conditioned pain modulation (heat pain conditioned by noxious cold water) was tested before and after each compression protocol. The LARGE protocol induced more analgesia for heat than the SMALL protocol (P < 0.001). The analgesic effect interacted with gender (P = 0.015). The LARGE protocol was more efficient for females, whereas the MEDIUM protocol was more efficient for males. Pressure pain was reduced by all protocols (P < 0.001) with no differences between protocols and no gender effect. Conditioned pain modulation was more efficient than the compression-induced analgesia. For the LARGE protocol, precompression CPM efficiency positively correlated with compression-induced analgesia. Large body area compression exerts an area-dependent analgesic effect on experimental pain stimuli. The observed correlation with pain inhibition in response to robust non-noxious sensory stimulation may suggest that compression therapy shares similar mechanisms with inhibitory pain modulation assessed through CPM. PMID:27152691

  11. Experimentally Determined Interfacial Area Between Immiscible Fluids in Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, Dustin; Niessner, J; Hassanizadeh, S.M; Smith, Duane

    2008-01-01

    When multiple fluids flow through a porous medium, the interaction between the fluid interfaces can be of great importance. While this is widely recognized in practical applications, numerical models often disregard interactios between discrete fluid phases due to the computational complexity. And rightly so, for this level of detail is well beyond most extended Darcy Law relationships. A new model of two-phase flow including the interfacial area has been proposed by Hassarizadeh and Gray based upon thermodynamic principles. A version of this general equation set has been implemented by Nessner and Hassarizadeh. Many of the interfacial parameters required by this equation set have never been determined from experiments. The work presented here is a description of how the interfacial area, capillary pressure, interfacial velocity and interfacial permeability from two-phase flow experiments in porous media experiments can be used to determine the required parameters. This work, while on-going, has shown the possibility of digitizing images within translucent porous media and identifying the location and behavior of interfaces under dynamic conditions. Using the described methods experimentally derived interfacial functions to be used in larger scale simulations are currently being developed. In summary, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) by mapping a pore-throat geometry onto an image of immiscible fluid flow, the saturation of fluids and the individual interfaces between the fluids can be identified; (2) the resulting saturation profiles of the low velocity drainage flows used in this study are well described by an invasion percolation fractal scaling; (3) the interfacial area between fluids has been observed to increase in a linear fashion during the initial invasion of the non-wetting fluid; and (4) the average capillary pressure within the entire cell and representative elemental volumes were observed to plateau after a small portion of the volume was

  12. Chemical weathering in a tropical watershed, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico III: Quartz dissolution rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulz, M.S.; White, A.F.

    1999-01-01

    The paucity of weathering rates for quartz in the natural environment stems both from the slow rate at which quartz dissolves and the difficulty in differentiating solute Si contributed by quartz from that derived from other silicate minerals. This study, a first effort in quantifying natural rates of quartz dissolution, takes advantage of extremely rapid tropical weathering, simple regolith mineralogy, and detailed information on hydrologic and chemical transport. Quartz abundances and grain sizes are relatively constant with depth in a thick saprolite. Limited quartz dissolution is indicated by solution rounding of primary angularity and by the formation of etch pits. A low correlation of surface area (0.14 and 0.42 m2 g-1) with grain size indicates that internal microfractures and pitting are the principal contributors to total surface area. Pore water silica concentration increases linearly with depth. On a molar basis, between one and three quarters of pore water silica is derived from quartz with the remainder contributed from biotite weathering. Average solute Si remains thermodynamically undersaturated with respect to recently revised estimates of quartz solubility (17-81 ??M). Etch pitting is more abundant on grains in the upper saprolite and is associated with pore waters lower in dissolved silica. Rate constants describing quartz dissolution increase with decreasing depth (from 10-14.5-10-15.1 mol m-2 s-1), which correlate with both greater thermodynamic undersaturation and increasing etch pit densities. Unlike for many aluminosilicates, the calculated natural weathering rates of quartz fall slightly below the rate constants previously reported for experimental studies (10-12.4-10-14.2 mol m-2 s-1). This agreement reflects the structural simplicity of quartz, dilute solutes, and near-hydrologic saturation.

  13. The rf experimental program in the Fermilab mucool test area

    SciTech Connect

    J. Norem; R. Sandstrom; A. Bross; A. Moretti; Z. Qian; Y. Torun; R. Rimmer; D. Li; M. Zisman; R. Johnson

    2005-05-16

    The rf R&D program for high gradient, low frequency cavities to be used in muon cooling systems is underway in the Fermilab MUCOOL Test Area. Cavities at 805 and 201 MHz are used for tests of conditioning techniques, surface modification and breakdown studies. This work has the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) as its immediate goal and efficient muon cooling systems for neutrino sources and muon colliders as the long term goal. We study breakdown, and dark current production under a variety of conditions.

  14. The rf experimental program in the fermilab mucool test area

    SciTech Connect

    Norem, J.; Sandstrom, R.; Bross, A.; Moretti, A.; Qian, Z.; Torun, Y.; Rimmer, R.; Li, D.; Zisman, M.S.; Johnson, R.

    2005-05-20

    The rf R&D program for high-gradient, low frequency cavities to be used in muon cooling systems is underway in the Fermilab MUCOOL Test Area. Cavities at 805 and 201 MHz are used for tests of conditioning techniques, surface modification and breakdown studies. This work has the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) as its immediate goal and efficient muon cooling systems for neutrino sources and muon colliders as the long term goal. We study breakdown and dark current production under a variety of conditions.

  15. River Suspended Sediment and Particulate Organic Carbon Transport in Two Montane Catchments in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory of Puerto Rico over 25 years: 1989 to 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, K. E.; Plante, A. F.; Willenbring, J. K.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Gonzalez, G.; Stallard, R. F.; Murphy, S. F.; Vann, D. R.; Leon, M.; McDowell, W. H.

    2015-12-01

    Physical erosion in mountain catchments mobilizes large amounts of sediment, while exporting carbon and nutrients from forest ecosystems. This study expands from previous studies quantifying river suspended sediment and particulate organic carbon loads in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, in Puerto Rico. We evaluate the influences on river suspended load due to i) underlying basin geology, ii) hillslope debris and biomass supply, and iii) hurricanes and large storms. In the Mameyes and Icacos catchments of the Luquillo Mountains, we estimate suspended sediment and particulate organic carbon yields over a 25-year period using streamflow discharge determined from stage measurements at 15-intervals, with estimates of discharge replacing gaps in data, and over 3000 suspended sediment samples. We estimate variation in suspended sediment loads over time, and examine variation in particulate organic carbon loads. Mass spectrometry was used to determine organic carbon concentrations. We confirm that higher suspended sediment fluxes occurred i) in the highly weathered quartz diorite catchment rather than the predominantly volcaniclastic catchment, ii) on the rising limb of the hydrograph once a threshold discharge had been reached, and iii) during hurricanes and other storm events, and we explore these influences on particulate organic carbon transport. Transport of suspended sediment and particulate organic carbon in the rivers shows considerable hysteresis, and we evaluate the extent to which hysteresis affects particulate fluxes over time and between catchments. Because particulate organic carbon is derived from the critical zone and transported during high flow, our research highlights the role of major tropical storms in controlling carbon storage in the critical zone and the coastal ocean.

  16. Prediction of velopharyngeal orifice area: a re-examination of model experimentation.

    PubMed

    Smith, B E; Weinberg, B

    1980-10-01

    Warren has advanced a modification of the hydrokinetic equation for predicting velopharyngeal orifice area (Warren and DuBois, 1964). In the present work, this equation was subjected to extensive controlled model experimentation. The results of this experimentation show that, given the pressure differential across the orifice and the rate of airflow through the orifice, accurate predictions can be made of the area of the velopharyngeal port. These results were interpreted to provide strong support for both clinical and research use of the hydrokinetic equation for predicting velopharyngeal orifice area.

  17. Prediction of velopharyngeal orifice area: a re-examination of model experimentation.

    PubMed

    Smith, B E; Weinberg, B

    1980-10-01

    Warren has advanced a modification of the hydrokinetic equation for predicting velopharyngeal orifice area (Warren and DuBois, 1964). In the present work, this equation was subjected to extensive controlled model experimentation. The results of this experimentation show that, given the pressure differential across the orifice and the rate of airflow through the orifice, accurate predictions can be made of the area of the velopharyngeal port. These results were interpreted to provide strong support for both clinical and research use of the hydrokinetic equation for predicting velopharyngeal orifice area. PMID:6934041

  18. Airport-area airspace used in simulated operations with an experimental powered-lift STOL airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silsby, N. S.; Sawyer, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Simulation tests were made using an experimental powered-lift STOL airplane to help define airport-area airspace requirements for STOL operations. The operational feasibility and airspace used in take-offs followed by climbing turns, offset (bent localizer) approaches, missed approaches, and two-segment (bent glide-slope) approaches were studied. Flight-director guidance was provided for the approach maneuvers.

  19. Experimental performance of a high-area-ratio rocket nozzle at high combustion chamber pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.; Kazaroff, John M.; Pavli, Albert J.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the thrust coefficient of a high-area-ratio rocket nozzle at combustion chamber pressures of 12.4 to 16.5 MPa (1800 to 2400 psia). A nozzle with a modified Rao contour and an expansion area ratio of 1025:1 was tested with hydrogen and oxygen at altitude conditions. The same nozzle, truncated to an area ratio of 440:1, was also tested. Values of thrust coefficient are presented along with characteristic exhaust velocity efficiencies, nozzle wall temperatures, and overall thruster specific impulse.

  20. Understanding the architecture of the deep critical zone in the Rio Icacos watershed (Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, Puerto Rico) using a combination of hydrogeophysical methods.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comas, X.; Wright, W. J.; Hynek, S. A.; Orlando, J.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Buss, H. L.; Brantley, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Rio Icacos watershed in the Luquillo Mountains (Puerto Rico) is characterized by rapid weathering rates and the accelerated development of a regolith mainly originated from the alteration of quartz diorite bedrock. Regolith materials create a blanket on top of the bedrock with a thickness that depends on its spatial distribution along the watershed (i.e. proximity to the river nickpoint in the southermost part of the watershed). Furthermore bedrock along the watershed is characterized by a system of heterogeneous fractures that apparently drive the formation of corestones and associated spheroidal fracturing and rindlets. In this study we used a combination of geophysical methods to better understand changes in regolith thickness and how the spatial distribution and density of fractures varies with topography and proximity to the nickpoint. Indirect and non-invasive geophysical methods included ground penetrating radar, GPR, terrain conductivity, and electrical resistivity imaging, ERI, and were constrained with direct methods (i.e. boreholes) already available from previous studies. Geophysical methods were consistent in imaging lateral changes in regolith distribution and fracture density along the watershed and showed the potential of multi-method approaches to better understand critical zone processes at multiple scales of measurement and high spatial resolution.

  1. Experimental Analyses of Yellow Tuff Spandrels of Post-medieval Buildings in the Naples Area

    SciTech Connect

    Calderoni, B.; Cordasco, E. A.; Lenza, P.; Guerriero, L.

    2008-07-08

    Experimental analyses have been carried out on tuff masonry specimens in order to investigate the structural behaviour of historical buildings in the Naples area (Southern Italy). Spandrels of post-medieval buildings (late XVI to early XX century) have been analysed, with emphasis on morphological characteristics according to chronological indicators. Results of the experimentation on scaled models (1:10) are discussed and the better behaviour of historical masonry typologies on respect to the modern one is highlighted. Comparison with theoretical formulations of ultimate shear resistance are provided too.

  2. An experimental investigation of internal area ruling for transonic and supersonic channel flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. B.; Vanrintel, H. L.; Rizvi, G.

    1982-01-01

    A simulated transonic rotor channel model was examined experimentally to verify the flow physics of internal area ruling. Pressure measurements were performed in the high speed wind tunnel at transonic speeds with Mach 1.5 and Mach 2 nozzle blocks to get an indication of the approximate shock losses. The results showed a reduction in losses due to internal area ruling with the Mach 1.5 nozzle blocks. The reduction in total loss coefficient was of the order of 17 percent for a high blockage model and 7 percent for a cut-down model.

  3. Experimental thrust performance of a high-area-ratio rocket nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavli, Albert J.; Kacynski, Kenneth J.; Smith, Tamara A.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the thrust performance attainable from high-area-ratio rocket nozzles. A modified Rao-contoured nozzle with an expansion area of 1030 was test fired with hydrogen-oxygen propellants at altitude conditions. The nozzle was also tested as a truncated nozzle, at an expansion area ratio of 428. Thrust coefficient and thrust coefficient efficiency values are presented for each configuration at various propellant mixture ratios (oxygen/fuel). Several procedural techniques were developed permitting improved measurement of nozzle performance. The more significant of these were correcting the thrust for the aneroid effects, determining the effective chamber pressure, and referencing differential pressure transducers to a vacuum reference tank.

  4. Experimental Study of Coal and Gas Outbursts Related to Gas-Enriched Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Qingyi; Cheng, Yuanping; Guo, Pinkun; Jiang, Jingyu; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Rong

    2016-09-01

    A coal and gas outburst can lead to a catastrophic failure in a coal mine. These outbursts usually occur where the distribution of coal seam gas is abnormal, commonly in tectonic belts. To study the effects of the abnormal distribution of this gas on outbursts, an experimental apparatus to collect data on simulated coal seam outbursts was constructed. Experiments on specimens containing discrete gas-enriched areas were run to induce artificial gas outbursts and further study of these outbursts using data from the experiment was conducted. The results suggest that more gas and outburst energy are contained in gas-enriched areas and this permits these areas to cause an outburst easily, even though the gas pressure in them is lower. During mining, the disappearance of the sealing effect of a coal pillar establishes the occurrence conditions for an outburst. When the enriched gas and outburst energy in the gas-enriched area is released suddenly, a reverse unloading wave and a high gas pressure gradient are formed, which have tension effects on the coal. Under these effects, the fragmentation degree of the coal intensifies and the intensity of the outburst increases. Because a high gas pressure gradient is maintained near the exposed surface and the enriched energy release reduces the coal strength, the existence of a gas-enriched area in coal leads to a faster outburst and the average thickness of the spall is smaller than where is no gas-enriched area.

  5. An experimental and numerical investigation of velocity in an enclosed residential complex parking area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashrafi, Khosro; Motlagh, Majid Shafie Pour; Mousavi, Monireh Sadat; Niksokhan, Mohhamad hosein; Vosoughifar, Hamid Reza

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present research is analysis of velocity vector and magnitude in an enclosed residential complex parking in Tehran. Velocity parameters are key factor and can be helpful in proposing solutions to improve indoor air quality. Since The flow pattern determines that how and where the pollutants propagate. In this research at first, the proportion of vehicular exhaust emissions is estimated and then experimental and numerical analyses are performed. In experimental analysis, a full-scale experiment of parking area has been used; velocity is measured by calibrated measuring devices. Samples were performed in several times. In order to perform numerical calculation, a 3-dimensional model was created by Fluent software that solves flow equations with finite volume method. In this research, the flow condition is assumed to be incompressible and turbulent. Standard k-ɛ scheme was selected as turbulence modeling. In the Computational Fluid Dynamics technique the geometry of parking area is generated in ICEM-CFD software and hexahedral mesh type is used. Velocity vectors and magnitudes in an enclosed residential complex parking in Tehran are estimated. The findings obtained from numerical simulation are in complete accord with experimental results.

  6. Evaluation of the radiation field and shielding assessment of the experimental area of HIE-ISOLDE.

    PubMed

    Romanets, Y; Bernardes, A P; Dorsival, A; Gonçalves, I F; Kadi, Y; di Maria, S; Vaz, P; Vlachoudis, V; Vollaire, J

    2014-10-01

    The ISOLDE facility at CERN is one of the first facilities in the world dedicated to the production of the radioactive ion beams (RIB) and during all its working time underwent several upgrades. The goal of the latest proposed upgrade, 'The High Intensity and Energy ISOLDE' (HIE-ISOLDE), is to provide a higher performance facility in order to approximate it to the level of the next generation ISOL facilities, like EURISOL. The HIE-ISOLDE aims to improve significantly the quality of the produced RIB and for this reason the increasing of the primary beam power is one of the main objectives of the project. An increase in the nominal beam current (from 2 to 6 μA proton beam intensity) and energy (from 1.4 GeV to 2 GeV) of the primary proton beam will be possible due to the upgrade of CERN's accelerator infrastructure. The current upgrade means reassessment of the radiation protection and the radiation safety of the facility. However, an evaluation of the existing shielding configuration and access restrictions to the experimental and supply areas must be carried out. Monte Carlo calculations were performed in order to evaluate the radiation protection of the facility as well as radiation shielding assessment and design. The FLUKA-Monte Carlo code was used in this study to calculate the ambient dose rate distribution and particle fluxes in the most important areas, such as the experimental hall of the facility. The results indicate a significant increase in the ambient dose equivalent rate in some areas of the experimental hall when an upgrade configuration of the primary proton beam is considered. Special attention is required for the shielding of the target area once it is the main and very intensive radiation source, especially under the upgrade conditions. In this study, the access points to the beam extraction and beam maintenance areas, such as the mass separator rooms and the high voltage room, are identified as the most sensitive for the experimental hall from

  7. High-Area-Ratio Rocket Nozzle at High Combustion Chamber Pressure: Experimental and Analytical Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.; Smith, Timothy D.; Pavli, Albert J.

    1999-01-01

    Experimental data were obtained on an optimally contoured nozzle with an area ratio of 1025:1 and on a truncated version of this nozzle with an area ratio of 440:1. The nozzles were tested with gaseous hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellants at combustion chamber pressures of 1800 to 2400 psia and mixture ratios of 3.89 to 6.15. This report compares the experimental performance, heat transfer, and boundary layer total pressure measurements with theoretical predictions of the current Joint Army, Navy, NASA, Air Force (JANNAF) developed methodology. This methodology makes use of the Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) nozzle performance code. Comparisons of the TDK-predicted performance to experimentally attained thrust performance indicated that both the vacuum thrust coefficient and the vacuum specific impulse values were approximately 2.0-percent higher than the turbulent prediction for the 1025:1 configurations, and approximately 0.25-percent higher than the turbulent prediction for the 440:1 configuration. Nozzle wall temperatures were measured on the outside of a thin-walled heat sink nozzle during the test fittings. Nozzle heat fluxes were calculated front the time histories of these temperatures and compared with predictions made with the TDK code. The heat flux values were overpredicted for all cases. The results range from nearly 100 percent at an area ratio of 50 to only approximately 3 percent at an area ratio of 975. Values of the integral of the heat flux as a function of nozzle surface area were also calculated. Comparisons of the experiment with analyses of the heat flux and the heat rate per axial length also show that the experimental values were lower than the predicted value. Three boundary layer rakes mounted on the nozzle exit were used for boundary layer measurements. This arrangement allowed total pressure measurements to be obtained at 14 different distances from the nozzle wall. A comparison of boundary layer total pressure profiles and analytical

  8. Synthesis of Experimental and Model Results From The Esquif Project Over The Paris Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menut, L.; Esquif Team

    The ESQUIF research project follows mainly two goals: (i) To built a complete database of observations related to pollutants as all other parameters linked to the origin of this regional Paris area pollution, (ii) To improve our knowledge on regional atmospheric pollution events, focusing on the Paris area ("Ile de France", a zone of 150x150km, centered on the Paris city). The experimental part of the project (1998- 2000) is now over and the database freely available. The project now turns to improve and validate existing models dedicated to pollution analysis, scenarii and forecasting. From the whole set of studied topics, we will focus on some results: 1. The importance of the local "Paris area" emissions on the photochemical pollution, compared to long-range transport of polluted air mass, for which the source may be external to the studied area. A contrario the impact of parisian sources on the neigh- bouring areas and the potential extent of this influence (study of the parisian "plume"). 2. The sensitivity of photooxidant concentrations to the meteorology (local and synop- tic) and to emissions of primary pollutants by the way of modelling: it includes direct, adjoint and Monte-Carlo methodologies. 3. Some preliminary results on urban aerosols, estimated from numerous measure- ments during summer 2000. It includes the radiative impact of aerosols and cloudiness on photooxidant pollution. 4. A coupled approach, using chemistry-transport model and aircraft data, is presented for surface emissions optimization.

  9. Lattice-Boltzmann modeling of experimental fluid displacement patterns, interfacial area and capillary trapped CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, M. L.; Kang, Q.; Tarimala, S.; Abdel-Fattah, A.; Backhaus, S.; Carey, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Successful sequestration of CO2 into deep saline aquifers presents an enormous challenge that requires fundamental understanding of reactive-multiphase flow and transport across many temporal and spatial scales. Of critical importance is accurately predicting the efficiency of CO2 trapping mechanisms. At the pore scale (e.g., microns to millimeters) the interfacial area between CO2 and brine, as well as CO2 and the solid phase, directly influences the amount of CO2 trapped due to capillary forces, dissolution and mineral precipitation. In this work, we model immiscible displacement micromodel experiments using the lattice-Boltzmann (LB) method. We focus on quantifying interfacial area as a function of capillary numbers and viscosity ratios typically encountered in CO2 sequestration operations. We show that the LB model adequately predicts the steady-state experimental flow patterns and interfacial area measurements. Based on the steady-state agreement, we use the LB model to investigate interfacial dynamics (e.g., fluid-fluid interfacial velocity and the rate of production of fluid-fluid interfacial area). In addition, we quantify the amount of interfacial area and the interfacial dynamics associated with the capillary trapped nonwetting phase. This is expected to be important for predicting the amount of nonwetting phase subsequently trapped due to dissolution and mineral precipitation.

  10. Radio propagation at 900 MHz in urban areas: Models with a fixed frequency and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivier, P.; Tiffon, J.

    1984-09-01

    Models which describe multipath propagation are examined in order to design a 900 MHz mobile communication system adapted to urban areas. A justification of the experimental data treatment is derived from this analysis. The measurements were made at a fixed 855 MHz frequency, transmitting from three locations. The fast fluctuations of the received signals are well represented by a Rayleigh process, which means that there are practically no paths of direct transmission. The coherence length is 1 m. The statistical distribution of the average field is Gaussian and the normal deviation decreases with the distance emitter-receiver. The empiric Okumura-Hata prediction model agrees well with the experimental results, giving an average cell field decreasing with distance with a logarithmic law.

  11. Design and construction of an experimental pervious paved parking area to harvest reusable rainwater.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Ullate, E; Novo, A V; Bayon, J R; Hernandez, Jorge R; Castro-Fresno, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Pervious pavements are sustainable urban drainage systems already known as rainwater infiltration techniques which reduce runoff formation and diffuse pollution in cities. The present research is focused on the design and construction of an experimental parking area, composed of 45 pervious pavement parking bays. Every pervious pavement was experimentally designed to store rainwater and measure the levels of the stored water and its quality over time. Six different pervious surfaces are combined with four different geotextiles in order to test which materials respond better to the good quality of rainwater storage over time and under the specific weather conditions of the north of Spain. The aim of this research was to obtain a good performance of pervious pavements that offered simultaneously a positive urban service and helped to harvest rainwater with a good quality to be used for non potable demands.

  12. Influence of Soil Erosion and Landslide Occurrence on Soil Organic Carbon Storage and Loss in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dialynas, Y. G.; Bastola, S.; Bras, R. L.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Silver, W. L.; Arnone, E.; Noto, L. V.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical rainforests play a significant role in the global carbon (C) cycle. The Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory (LCZO) in Puerto Rico is characterized by intense erosion and landslide occurrence, which have been historically influenced by human activity and land use change, and drive the redistribution and burial of soil organic C (SOC) across the landscape. Estimates of regional C budgets do not systematically account for linkages between hydrological, geomorphological, and biogeochemical processes, which control the fate of eroded SOC. We quantify the impacts of erosion and rainfall-triggered landslides on SOC oxidation and accumulation at the Mameyes and Icacos watersheds. We developed and calibrated a spatially-explicit model of SOC dynamics, i.e. tRIBS-ECO (Triangulated Irregular Network-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator-Erosion and Carbon Oxidation), based on a coupled physically-based hydro-geomorphic model. The model inputs we used include measurements of SOC content at different horizons, and SOC oxidation and production rates derived from SOC turnover characteristics. We demonstrate the extent to which depth-dependent SOC oxidation and production are altered at eroding hillslopes and at landslide locations, and how this is being moderated by management practices. We estimated the SOC deposition rates at the floodplains of Mameyes and Icacos rivers, part of which is fluvially transported out of the system. The contrasting lithology of the two watersheds leads to different hydro-geomorphological behavior which controls the redistribution and storage of SOC. Results showed that topography and heterogeneity of tropical vegetation lead to significant spatial variability of the erosion-induced soil CO2 flux to the atmosphere. We highlight the importance of the representation of SOC redistribution driven by local variation in lithological and geomorphological characteristics and hydroclimatic conditions in attempts to quantify watershed-scale soil C

  13. Results of Experiments on Convective Precipitation Enhancement in the Camaguey Experimental Area, Cuba.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koloskov, Boris; Zimin, Boris; Beliaev, Vitaly; Seregin, Yury; Chernikov, Albert; Petrov, Victor; Valdés, Mario; Martínez, Daniel; Pérez, Carlos A.; Puente, Guillermo

    1996-09-01

    Experiments on randomized seeding of individual convective clouds and cloud clusters were conducted in the Camaguey experimental area, Cuba, from 1985 through 1990 in order to elucidate whether cold-cloud dynamic seeding can be used to augment convective rainfall. An information measuring system was set up, and primary tools included three instrumented aircraft (AN-26, AN-12 CYCLONE, IL-14), MRL-5 and ARS-3 radars, a system for radiosounding, two special rain gauge networks, and surface weather stations.A total of 232 randomized experiments were carried out during this experimentation period, and 117 individual clouds and 115 cloud clusters were studied during 136 `go' days. Pyrotechnic flares containing silver iodide were ejected in a selected cloud when the seeder aircraft was flying through its top. The seeding effects were monitored by the MRL-5 radar, which was equipped with an automated system for digital processing of data.A total of 46 convective clouds, 29 seeded and 17 nonseeded, were studied during an exploratory experiment in 1985. Analyses of the radar properties of seeded and nonseeded clouds have indicated that the response of convective clouds to AgI seeding is dependent on their type, and the treatment within the range of cloud tops from 6 to 8 km—that is, at top temperatures between 10° and 20°C, is found to increase their maximum height by 13% and the lifetime by 30%, and to enhance rainfall.A confirmatory phase of the experiment in the Camaguey experimental area was conducted during 1986 90. A total of 46 individual convective clouds, 24 seeded and 22 nonseeded, were identified, and their properties were determined using three-dimensional radar data. The results have shown that the AgI seeding of growing clouds with top temperatures over the range from 10° to 20°C increases their lifetime by 24%, maximum height by 9%, area by 64%, and rain volume by 120%, as compared to unseeded clouds. The lifetime, area, and rainfall results are

  14. Experimental investigation on the characteristics of a solar cell under different illumination intensities and shading areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, W. B.; Hu, F. Y.; He, X. D.; Zhang, H. M.; Wu, H. M.

    2015-06-01

    The characteristics of a solar cell, the short-circuit current ( I sc ), the open-circuit voltage ( V oc ), the maximum power point ( V m , I m ), the fill factor ( FF) and the photoelectric conversion efficiency ( η) under different illumination intensities and shading areas have been experimentally investigated. The work factor ω is given by ω = (1 - A/ A 0) × S/ S 0, where A 0 is the total solar cell area, A the shading area, S 0 the benchmark reference irradiation level, and S the new level of the irradiation, is introduced to take the light intensity and shading area into account. The results show that Isc and Im increase on an approximately linear increasing way with ω, but V oc and V m approach the saturation levels. The reason is that the current is a linear function of ω, and the relationship of the voltage to ω is logarithmic. We also found I sc ( V m ) to depend more on ω than I m ( V oc ). In addition, we observed that η tended to increase linearly with ω, but FF tended to converge to saturation. The reason for the behavior of η is the reduction in the contact resistance and in the electron-hole recombination with increasing ω. However, FF is mainly determined by V oc . The improvement in the solar cell performance with increasing ω results from an increase in the current, but not in the voltage or the fill factor.

  15. Experimental evaluation of heat transfer on a 1030:1 area ratio rocket nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kacynski, Kenneth J.; Pavli, Albert J.; Smith, Tamara A.

    1987-01-01

    A 1030:1 carbon steel, heat-sink nozzle was tested. The test conditions included a nominal chamber pressure of 2413 kN/sq m and a mixture ratio range of 2.78 to 5.49. The propellants were gaseous oxygen and gaseous hydrogen. Outer wall temperature measurements were used to calculate the inner wall temperature and the heat flux and heat rate to the nozzle at specified axial locations. The experimental heat fluxes were compared to those predicted by the Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) computer model analysis program. When laminar boundary layer flow was assumed in the analysis, the predicted values were within 15% of the experimental values for the area ratios of 20 to 975. However, when turbulent boundary layer conditions were assumed, the predicted values were approximately 120% higher than the experimental values. A study was performed to determine if the conditions within the nozzle could sustain a laminar boundary layer. Using the flow properties predicted by TDK, the momentum-thickness Reynolds number was calculated, and the point of transition to turbulent flow was predicted. The predicted transition point was within 0.5 inches of the nozzle throat. Calculations of the acceleration parameter were then made to determine if the flow conditions could produce relaminarization of the boundary layer. It was determined that if the boundary layer flow was inclined to transition to turbulent, the acceleration conditions within the nozzle would tend to suppress turbulence and keep the flow laminar-like.

  16. Edge Length and Surface Area of a Blank: Experimental Assessment of Measures, Size Predictions and Utility

    PubMed Central

    Dogandžić, Tamara; Braun, David R.; McPherron, Shannon P.

    2015-01-01

    Blank size and form represent one of the main sources of variation in lithic assemblages. They reflect economic properties of blanks and factors such as efficiency and use life. These properties require reliable measures of size, namely edge length and surface area. These measures, however, are not easily captured with calipers. Most attempts to quantify these features employ estimates; however, the efficacy of these estimations for measuring critical features such as blank surface area and edge length has never been properly evaluated. In addition, these parameters are even more difficult to acquire for retouched implements as their original size and hence indication of their previous utility have been lost. It has been suggested, in controlled experimental conditions, that two platform variables, platform thickness and exterior platform angle, are crucial in determining blank size and shape meaning that knappers can control the interaction between size and efficiency by selecting specific core angles and controlling where fracture is initiated. The robustness of these models has rarely been tested and confirmed in context other than controlled experiments. In this paper, we evaluate which currently employed caliper measurement methods result in the highest accuracy of size estimations of blanks, and we evaluate how platform variables can be used to indirectly infer aspects of size on retouched artifacts. Furthermore, we investigate measures of different platform management strategies that control the shape and size of artifacts. To investigate these questions, we created an experimental lithic assemblage, we digitized images to calculate 2D surface area and edge length, which are used as a point of comparison for the caliper measurements and additional analyses. The analysis of aspects of size determinations and the utility of blanks contributes to our understanding of the technological strategies of prehistoric knappers and what economic decisions they made

  17. Familiarity Breeds Contempt: Kangaroos Persistently Avoid Areas with Experimentally Deployed Dingo Scents

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Michael H.; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    Background Whether or not animals habituate to repeated exposure to predator scents may depend upon whether there are predators associated with the cues. Understanding the contexts of habituation is theoretically important and has profound implication for the application of predator-based herbivore deterrents. We repeatedly exposed a mixed mob of macropod marsupials to olfactory scents (urine, feces) from a sympatric predator (Canis lupus dingo), along with a control (water). If these predator cues were alarming, we expected that over time, some red kangaroos (Macropus rufous), western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) and agile wallabies (Macropus agilis) would elect to not participate in cafeteria trials because the scents provided information about the riskiness of the area. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the effects of urine and feces independently and expected that urine would elicit a stronger reaction because it contains a broader class of infochemicals (pheromones, kairomones). Finally, we scored non-invasive indicators (flight and alarm stomps) to determine whether fear or altered palatability was responsible for the response. Repeated exposure reduced macropodid foraging on food associated with 40 ml of dingo urine, X = 986.75±3.97 g food remained as compared to the tap water control, X = 209.0±107.0 g (P<0.001). Macropodids fled more when encountering a urine treatment, X = 4.50±2.08 flights, as compared to the control, X = 0 flights (P<0.001). There was no difference in effect between urine or feces treatments (P>0.5). Macropodids did not habituate to repeated exposure to predator scents, rather they avoided the entire experimental area after 10 days of trials (R2 = 83.8; P<0.001). Conclusions/Significance Responses to urine and feces were indistinguishable; both elicited fear-based responses and deterred foraging. Despite repeated exposure to predator-related cues in the absence of a predator, macropodids

  18. Soil Organic Matter Characterization by 13C-NMR and Thermal Analysis in Deep Tropical Soil Profiles from the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plante, A. F.; Hockaday, W. C.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical forest soils store large quantities of carbon (C) as soil organic matter (SOM), a substantial proportion of which is stored deep (> 30 cm) in the soil profile. Characterization of tropical SOM remains difficult, in part due to the analytical challenges associated high iron and low C concentrations. In this study, we combined solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with analytical thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimetry, DSC; evolved CO2 gas analysis, CO2-EGA) to explore patterns in SOM composition in deep soil profiles from two contrasting soil types at the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory (LCZO) in northeast Puerto Rico. Prior to 13C NMR, soils were repeatedly demineralized with hydrofluoric acid (HF) to remove paramagnetic compounds and concentrate organic matter. Given the scant information on tropical subsoil OM, we also sought to evaluate the effect of HF acid treatments on tropical subsoil SOM. HF treatments effectively enriched sample C and removed paramagnetic compounds, allowing us to obtain high-quality NMR spectra for low-C subsoils. C:N ratios before and after HF treatment were nearly identical (mean = 16.6 ± 0.8), suggesting that the SOM pool was not substantially fractionated, though C recoveries were low and variable. Thermal analyses confirmed the loss of a substantial fraction of the soil mineral matrix, however, retention of several endothermic regions in post-HF Inceptisol soils indicated that not all minerals were completely solubilized. In addition, important differences in the DSC and CO2-EGA thermograms were observed in comparing samples before versus after HF treatments. These results suggest that the organo-mineral associations were substantially altered, though it is not immediately clear the degree to which alterations in chemical composition versus binding association have changed. In addition to these qualitative changes, quantitative interpretations of 13C-NMR results from low-C and high

  19. 33 CFR 334.150 - Severn River at Annapolis, Md.; experimental test area, U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Marine Engineering Laboratory. (a) The restricted area. The waters of Severn River shoreward of a line... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Severn River at Annapolis, Md.; experimental test area, U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory. 334.150 Section 334.150 Navigation...

  20. 33 CFR 334.150 - Severn River at Annapolis, Md.; experimental test area, U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....; experimental test area, U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory. 334.150 Section 334.150 Navigation and... Marine Engineering Laboratory. (a) The restricted area. The waters of Severn River shoreward of a line beginning at the southeasternmost corner of the U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory sea wall and...

  1. 33 CFR 334.150 - Severn River at Annapolis, Md.; experimental test area, U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....; experimental test area, U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory. 334.150 Section 334.150 Navigation and... Marine Engineering Laboratory. (a) The restricted area. The waters of Severn River shoreward of a line beginning at the southeasternmost corner of the U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory sea wall and...

  2. 33 CFR 334.150 - Severn River at Annapolis, Md.; experimental test area, U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....; experimental test area, U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory. 334.150 Section 334.150 Navigation and... Marine Engineering Laboratory. (a) The restricted area. The waters of Severn River shoreward of a line beginning at the southeasternmost corner of the U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory sea wall and...

  3. 33 CFR 334.150 - Severn River at Annapolis, Md.; experimental test area, U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....; experimental test area, U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory. 334.150 Section 334.150 Navigation and... Marine Engineering Laboratory. (a) The restricted area. The waters of Severn River shoreward of a line beginning at the southeasternmost corner of the U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory sea wall and...

  4. A methodology for evacuation design for urban areas: theoretical aspects and experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, F.; Vitetta, A.

    2009-04-01

    of models for evacuation simulation; (c) to calibrate and validate system of model for evacuation simulation from a real experimentation. In relation to the proposed objectives in this paper: (a) a general framework about risk analysis is reported in the first part, with specific methods and models to analyze urban transportation system performances in emergency conditions when exogenous phenomena occur and for the specification of the risk function; (b) a formulation of the general evacuation problem in the standard simulation context of "what if" approach is specified in the second part with reference to the model considered for the simulation of transportation system in ordinary condition; (c) a set of models specified in the second part are calibrated and validated from a real experimentation in the third part. The experimentation was developed in the central business district of an Italian village and about 1000 inhabitants were evacuated, in order to construct a complete data-base. Our experiment required that socioeconomic information (population, number employed, public buildings, schools, etc.) and ‎transport supply characteristics (infrastructures, etc.) be measured before and during experimentation. The real data of evacuation were recorded with 30 video cameras for laboratory analysis. The results are divided into six strictly connected tasks: Demand models; Supply and supply-demand interaction models for users; Simulation of refuge areas for users; Design of path choice models for emergency vehicles; Pedestrian outflow models in a building; Planning process and guidelines.

  5. The San Niccolo' experimental area for studying the hydrology of coastal Mediterranean peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Barbagli, Alessio; Sabbatini, Tiziana; Silvestri, Nicola; Bonari, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    Starting from 1930, a large part of the Massaciuccoli Lake coastal area (Tuscany, Italy) has been drained for agricultural purposes by a complex network of artificial drains and pumping stations. In the drained areas, peat soils, with values of organic matter up to 50% in some cases, are largely present (Pistocchi et al., 2012). As a consequence of the human impact, environmental problems arose in the last 50 years: i. the eutrophication status of the Massaciuccoli lake caused by nutrient enrichment (N, P) in surface- and ground-water (Rossetto et al., 2010a); ii. the subsidence (2-3 m in 70 years) of the lake bordering areas due to soil compaction and mineralization (Rossetto et al., 2010b). As a potential solution to improve water quality and to decrease soil organic matter mineralization, a rewetted pilot experimental area of 15 ha with phyto-treatment functionalities has been set up. This pilot, adequately instrumented, now constitutes an open field lab to conduct research on the hydrology of coastal Mediterranean peatlands. Site investigation was performed and data on stratigraphy (from top on average: 1/2 m thick peat layer, 1/3 m organic matter-rich silt, 1/3 m stiff blue-gray clay, up to 30 m thick sand layer) and water (ground- and surface-water) quantity and quality were gathered and related to both local and regional groundwater flows. The inferred hydrological conceptual model revealed the pilot is set in a regional discharge area and the ground-water dependent nature of the agro-ecosystem, with mixing of waters with different origins. The site has been divided in three different phyto-treatment systems: a constructed wetland system, internally and externally banked in order to force water flow to a convoluted pattern where Phragmites australis L. and Thypha angustifolia L. constitute the sparse natural vegetation; a vegetation filter system based on the plantation of seven different no-food crops managed according to a periodic cutting and biomass

  6. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Wide Area Blunt Impact Damage to Composite Aircraft Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi Ming

    Due to their high performance and weight efficiency, carbon fiber composites are increasingly being used in aircraft primary structure applications. Exposed composite structures (e.g., fuselage lower body) are susceptible accidental impacts by ground service equipment (GSE). The very high mass (over 10,000 kg) of GSE impact can involve high energy (over 1000 J) and thus can induce significant internal damage. Furthermore, the large contact area potentially involved with GSE impact can create significant internal delamination and fiber failure without leaving exterior-visible signs that any damage has occurred. The objectives of the research described herein are to: (1) conduct experimental investigation into the composite aircraft damage caused by GSE impact, (2) examine the small-scale failure modes in focused, element-level studies, (3) establish a finite element modeling methodology involving detailed simulation capability that is validated via small-scale tests, and (4) apply these modeling capabilities to accurately predict full-scale structural behavior without adjustment (e.g., tuning) of modeling input parameters.

  7. Water quality and quantity assessment of pervious pavements performance in experimental car park areas.

    PubMed

    Sañudo-Fontaneda, Luis A; Charlesworth, Susanne M; Castro-Fresno, Daniel; Andres-Valeri, Valerio C A; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Pervious pavements have become one of the most used sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) techniques in car parks. This research paper presents the results of monitoring water quality from several experimental car park areas designed and constructed in Spain with bays made of interlocking concrete block pavement, porous asphalt, polymer-modified porous concrete and reinforced grass with plastic and concrete cells. Moreover, two different sub-base materials were used (limestone aggregates and basic oxygen furnace slag). This study therefore encompasses the majority of the materials used as permeable surfaces and sub-base layers all over the world. Effluent from the test bays was monitored for dissolved oxygen, pH, electric conductivity, total suspended solids, turbidity and total petroleum hydrocarbons in order to analyze the behaviour shown by each combination of surface and sub-base materials. In addition, permeability tests were undertaken in all car parks using the 'Laboratorio Caminos Santander' permeameter and the Cantabrian Portable Infiltrometer. All results are presented together with the influence of surface and sub-base materials on water quality indicators using bivariate correlation statistical analysis at a confidence level of 95%. The polymer-modified porous concrete surface course in combination with limestone aggregate sub-base presented the best performance. PMID:24718346

  8. Water quality and quantity assessment of pervious pavements performance in experimental car park areas.

    PubMed

    Sañudo-Fontaneda, Luis A; Charlesworth, Susanne M; Castro-Fresno, Daniel; Andres-Valeri, Valerio C A; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Pervious pavements have become one of the most used sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) techniques in car parks. This research paper presents the results of monitoring water quality from several experimental car park areas designed and constructed in Spain with bays made of interlocking concrete block pavement, porous asphalt, polymer-modified porous concrete and reinforced grass with plastic and concrete cells. Moreover, two different sub-base materials were used (limestone aggregates and basic oxygen furnace slag). This study therefore encompasses the majority of the materials used as permeable surfaces and sub-base layers all over the world. Effluent from the test bays was monitored for dissolved oxygen, pH, electric conductivity, total suspended solids, turbidity and total petroleum hydrocarbons in order to analyze the behaviour shown by each combination of surface and sub-base materials. In addition, permeability tests were undertaken in all car parks using the 'Laboratorio Caminos Santander' permeameter and the Cantabrian Portable Infiltrometer. All results are presented together with the influence of surface and sub-base materials on water quality indicators using bivariate correlation statistical analysis at a confidence level of 95%. The polymer-modified porous concrete surface course in combination with limestone aggregate sub-base presented the best performance.

  9. Vast Area Detection for Experimental Radiochemistry (VADER) at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbraith, Justin; Bettencourt, Ron; Shaughnessy, Dawn; Gharibyan, Narek; Talison, Bahram; Morris, Kevin; Smith, Cal

    2015-08-01

    At the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the flux of neutrons and charged particles at peak burn in an inertial confinement fusion capsule induces measureable concentrations of nuclear reaction products in the target material. Radiochemical analysis of post-shot debris can be used to determine diagnostic parameters associated with implosion of the capsule, including fuel areal density and ablator-fuel mixing. Additionally, analysis of debris from specially doped targets can support nuclear forensic research. We have developed and are deploying the Vast Area Detection for Experimental Radiochemistry (VADER) diagnostic to collect shot debris and interact with post-shot reaction products at the NIF. VADER uses quick release collectors that are easily reconfigured for different materials and geometries. Collectors are located ~50 cm from the NIF target; each of up to 9 collectors views ~0.005-0.0125 steradians solid angle, dependent upon configuration. Dynamic loading of the NIF target vaporized mass was modelled using LS-DYNA. 3-dimensional printing was utilized to expedite the design process. Model-based manufacturing was used throughout. We will describe the design and operation of this diagnostic as well as some initial results.

  10. The San Niccolo' experimental area for studying the hydrology of coastal Mediterranean peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Barbagli, Alessio; Sabbatini, Tiziana; Silvestri, Nicola; Bonari, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    Starting from 1930, a large part of the Massaciuccoli Lake coastal area (Tuscany, Italy) has been drained for agricultural purposes by a complex network of artificial drains and pumping stations. In the drained areas, peat soils, with values of organic matter up to 50% in some cases, are largely present (Pistocchi et al., 2012). As a consequence of the human impact, environmental problems arose in the last 50 years: i. the eutrophication status of the Massaciuccoli lake caused by nutrient enrichment (N, P) in surface- and ground-water (Rossetto et al., 2010a); ii. the subsidence (2-3 m in 70 years) of the lake bordering areas due to soil compaction and mineralization (Rossetto et al., 2010b). As a potential solution to improve water quality and to decrease soil organic matter mineralization, a rewetted pilot experimental area of 15 ha with phyto-treatment functionalities has been set up. This pilot, adequately instrumented, now constitutes an open field lab to conduct research on the hydrology of coastal Mediterranean peatlands. Site investigation was performed and data on stratigraphy (from top on average: 1/2 m thick peat layer, 1/3 m organic matter-rich silt, 1/3 m stiff blue-gray clay, up to 30 m thick sand layer) and water (ground- and surface-water) quantity and quality were gathered and related to both local and regional groundwater flows. The inferred hydrological conceptual model revealed the pilot is set in a regional discharge area and the ground-water dependent nature of the agro-ecosystem, with mixing of waters with different origins. The site has been divided in three different phyto-treatment systems: a constructed wetland system, internally and externally banked in order to force water flow to a convoluted pattern where Phragmites australis L. and Thypha angustifolia L. constitute the sparse natural vegetation; a vegetation filter system based on the plantation of seven different no-food crops managed according to a periodic cutting and biomass

  11. Parametric experimental studies on mixing characteristics within a low area ratio rectangular supersonic gaseous ejector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthick, S. K.; Rao, Srisha M. V.; Jagadeesh, G.; Reddy, K. P. J.

    2016-07-01

    We use the rectangular gaseous supersonic ejector as a platform to study the mixing characteristics of a confined supersonic jet. The entrainment ratio (ER) of the ejector, the non-mixed length (LNM), and potential core length (LPC) of the primary supersonic jet are measures to characterize mixing within the supersonic ejector. Experiments are carried out on a low area ratio rectangular supersonic ejector with air as the working fluid in both primary and secondary flows. The design Mach number of the nozzle (MPD = 1.5-3.0) and primary flow stagnation pressure (Pop = 4.89-9.89 bars) are the parameters that are varied during experimentation. Wall static pressure measurements are carried out to understand the performance of the ejector as well as to estimate the LNM (the spatial resolution is limited by the placement of pressure transducers). Well-resolved flow images (with a spatial resolution of 50 μm/pixel and temporal resolution of 1.25 ms) obtained through Planar Laser Mie Scattering (PLMS) show the flow dynamics within the ejector with clarity. The primary flow and secondary flow are seeded separately with acetone that makes the LNM and LPC clearly visible in the flow images. These parameters are extracted from the flow images using in-house image processing routines. A significant development in this work is the definition of new scaling parameters within the ejector. LNM, non-dimensionalized with respect to the fully expanded jet height hJ, is found to be a linear function of the Mach number ratio (Mach number ratio is defined as the ratio of design Mach number (MPD) and fully expanded Mach number (MPJ) of the primary jet). This definition also provides a clear demarcation of under-expanded and over-expanded regimes of operation according to [MPD/MPJ] > 1 and [MPD/MPJ] < 1, respectively. It is observed that the ER increased in over-expanded mode (to 120%) and decreased in under-expanded mode (to 68%). Similarly, LNM decreased (to 21.8%) in over-expanded mode

  12. Experimentally Measured Interfacial Area during Gas Injection into Saturated Porous Media: An Air Sparging Analogy

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H., Bromhal, Grant

    2010-01-01

    The amount of interfacial area (awn) between air and subsurface liquids during air-sparging can limit the rate of site remediation. Lateral movement within porous media could be encountered during air-sparging operations when air moves along the bottom of a low-permeability lens. This study was conducted to directly measure the amount of awn between air and water flowing within a bench-scale porous flow cell during the lateral movement of air along the upper edge of the cell during air injections into an initially water-saturated flow cell. Four different cell orientations were used to evaluate the effect of air injection rates and porous media geometries on the amount of awn between fluids. Air was injected at flow rates that varied by three orders of magnitude, and for each flow cellover this range of injection rates little change in awn was noted. A wider variation in awn was observed when air moved through different regions for the different flow cell orientations. These results are in good agreement with the experimental findings of Waduge et al. (2007), who performed experiments in a larger sand-pack flow cell, and determined that air-sparging efficiency is nearly independent of flow rate but highly dependent on the porous structure. By directly measuring the awn, and showing that awn does not vary greatly with changes in injection rate, we show that the lack of improvement to remediation rates is because there is a weak dependence of the awn on the air injection rate.

  13. The influence of experimental pain intensity in the local and referred pain area on somatosensory perception in the area of referred pain.

    PubMed

    Kosek, Eva; Hansson, Per

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of experimental pain intensity in the local and referred pain area on somatosensory perception thresholds in the area of referred pain. Pain was induced by intramuscular electrical stimulation of the left infraspinatus muscle in 12 healthy individuals. The stimulation corresponded to the local pain threshold ("mild local pain"), the referred pain threshold ("mild referred pain"), and a pain intensity corresponding to 2 on a 10-point category scale in the referred pain area ("moderate referred pain"). Quantitative sensory testing was performed to assess perception thresholds in the referred pain area and the homologous contralateral area before and during stimulation. Perception thresholds to light touch (LTTs), pressure pain (PPTs), and to innocuous as well as noxious warmth and cold were assessed. During stimulation the LTTs increased in the referred pain area compared to baseline, uninfluenced by pain intensity. Perception thresholds to innocuous cold and warmth increased bilaterally during the stimulation, without relation to pain intensity. Heat pain thresholds were not affected. Compared to baseline, PPTs increased bilaterally during stimulation corresponding to "mild local pain" and "mild referred pain", respectively, and a further increase was seen during "moderate referred pain". The decreased sensitivity to innocuous cold, warmth, and pressure pain was bilateral, indicating activation of endogenous net inhibitory mechanisms interacting bilaterally. We found no influence of pain intensity on somatosensory thresholds restricted to the referred pain area and light touch was the only affected modality in the referred pain area only.

  14. Experimental determination of the performance of a four-way diffuser with variable area

    SciTech Connect

    Kenyon, A.E.; Kirkpatrick, A.T.

    1998-10-01

    This paper examines how effectively a room air diffuser with a variable outlet area can produce a constant throw with varying flow rate. The diffuser for this study is a four-way diffuser with hinged surfaces providing a variable outlet area on two of its sides. The throws were measured downstream of one of the two fixed area outlets. Throw measurements for five fixed outlet areas were used to determine the outlet area variation with flow rate necessary for constant throw performance. These results were compared with the outlet area variation from measurements with a known spring restoring force on the surfaces to determine the variation of the restoring force needed for a constant throw. In order to provide this restoring force, a lever arm/counterweight mechanism was installed in the diffuser, and the diffuser throw performance was evaluated. In a given flow rate range (75 cfm to 160 cfm) the throw from the lever arm/counterweight diffuser was found to remain more constant than the stationary area or vertical spring throws.

  15. An Experimental Study of the Noise Due to Traffic in a Congested Urban Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangeetha, M.; Sankar, P.

    2016-03-01

    Noise pollution in an urban environment is an issue of serious concern in the major cities of India. There are various factors that contribute to the increase of noise levels in urban areas. The intensity of traffic is one of the factors which contributes to a drastic increase in environmental noise. The management of noise pollution has to be considered in the decision making process. In this paper, an attempt is made to study the existing noise level due to the traffic in Velachery which is declared as a sensitive area by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MoEF). The noise level data is collected using the MS6710 digital sound meter. The Custic simulation software version 3.2 is used for finding the propagation of noise. The spatial patterns of measurement were also calculated, in the sub-urban area of Velachery, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. A means of transmitting this data to vehicles moving in the area, through a wireless medium is simulated using NCTUns 6.0 (network simulator), to enable drivers to understand the environmental conditions. A hardware was also designed which can be used to transmit and receive the noise data using the Zigbee module. A noise transmitting station is placed at a junction, so that it can transmit this noise data to the receivers which are fitted inside the vehicles.

  16. Stable Isotopes (δ18O and δ2H) Help to Delineate Flow Paths and the Importance of Different Climate Patterns in Watersheds of the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, M. A.; Shanley, J. B.; Scatena, F. N.

    2009-12-01

    Precipitation isotopic signatures can help determine the relative importance of different rainfall regimes in the interactions between water, soils, and ecosystems in watersheds. The tropical forest in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico can receive over 5000 mm of precipitation per year. Recent modeling studies indicate that global climate change or local land use changes may lead to a decline in precipitation amounts. Weather analysis showed that 29% of rain input to the Luquillo Mountains was trade-wind orographic rainfall, and 30% of rainfall could be attributed to easterly waves and low pressure systems, with the remainder from fronts, troughs, and isolated thunderstorms. Trade-wind orographic precipitation usually occurs as frequent, low-intensity and low-volume rain events, whereas easterly waves and low-pressure systems have higher volume and more intense rainfall. To help determine the importance of different precipitation types in the forest water cycle, monthly precipitation samples from a network of rain and cloud water collectors and stream samples from two watersheds were collected and analyzed for δ18O and δ2H. Weekly throughfall and rain samples were also collected at one site during five periods of different rainfall intensity to determine whether isotopic fractionation occurs when rain falls through the forest canopy. Seasonal rainfall sources have distinct isotopic signatures, partly due to differences in cloud height associated with the seasonal climate patterns. Monthly precipitation samples during the dry season had average isotopic values of -1.5‰ δ18O and +2.3‰ δ2H, associated with the weather pattern of trade-wind showers and fronts. Rainy season precipitation, from easterly waves and low pressure systems, had average monthly values of -3.7‰ δ18O and -16‰ δ2H. Precipitation during months with significant low pressure systems had average values of -5.9‰ δ18O and -36‰ δ2H. Isotopic composition of stream water at higher

  17. [Practice of the use of remote telemedical consultations in "experimental area of work"].

    PubMed

    Kalachev, O V; Plakhov, A N; Pershin, I V; Agapitov, A A; Andreev, A I; Yakovlev, A E

    2016-02-01

    The article presents experimental results of telehealth technology of "medical company--military hospital--central military hospital". Requirements for the equipment, which is used for telehealth consultations and software are specified. Throughout the test were practiced emergency consultations of "physician-physician" interface, including the use of mobile video call and portable terminals of videoconference, remote diagnosis with the use of medical equipment and devices. Data transmission features and video definition are received. The authors determined main types of telecommunication equipment, which are supposed to prospective for the Armed Forces. Prospects of implementation of telecommunication technologies are shown.

  18. Area-averaged surface fluxes and their time-space variability over the FIFE experimental domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. A.; Hsu, A. Y.; Crosson, W. L.; Field, R. T.; Fritschen, L. J.; Gurney, R. J.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Kustas, W. P.; Nie, D.; Shuttleworth, W. J.

    1992-01-01

    The underlying mean and variance properties of surface net radiation, sensible-latent heat fluxes and soil heat flux are studied over the densely instrumented grassland region encompassing FIFE. Flux variability is discussed together with the problem of scaling up to area-averaged fluxes. Results are compared and contrasted for cloudy and clear situations and examined for the influence of surface-induced biophysical controls (burn and grazing treatments) and topographic controls (aspect ratios and slope factors).

  19. Experimental investigation of the influences of shape and surface area on the EGR cooler efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Sanghoon; Park, Sangki; Choi, Kapseung; Kim, Hyungman

    2011-06-01

    The cooled EGR system is one of the most effective techniques currently available for reducing NOx emissions. In this study, engine dynamometer experiments were performed to investigate the efficiencies of the shell and tube-type and stack-type EGR coolers. The results show that the heat exchange of the stack-type EGR cooler is much more effective than that of the shell and tube type because of the increased surface area and better mixing of the coolant flow, and also more PM is produced at low exhaust gas temperature than at high temperature.

  20. An experimental and numerical study of boundary layer structure over areas of inhomogeneous sensible heat fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, S.; Doran, J.C.

    1994-03-01

    In June of 1992 a boundary-layer experiment was carried out near Boardman, Oregon. The campaigns were part of a program of studies under the auspices of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, whose goal is to improve the treatment of radiative transfer, particularly as affected by clouds, in general circulation models (GCMs) used for climate studies. One aspect of this program is concerned with the determination of appropriate lower boundary conditions for such models and the representation of subgrid-scale variability in regions where the surface conditions are not uniform. To study this problem, boundary-layer and surface properties were measured over a region of two sharply contrasting land types: a large, dry, sagebrush steppe area and irrigated farmland that formed the east, northeast, and western borders of the steppe. A combination of surface flux instrumentation, airsondes, sodars, and near-surface wind and temperature sensors was used. Measurements were carried out over the eastern portion of this region, which featured a well-defined boundary between the dry and irrigated areas. In this paper, the authors present some results from those observations and from a set of numerical simulations that address the effects of inhomogeneous surface fluxes on boundary-layer structure.

  1. An analytical and experimental study of sound propagation and attenuation in variable-area ducts. [reducing aircraft engine noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Kaiser, J. E.; Marshall, R. L.; Hurst, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    The performance of sound suppression techniques in ducts that produce refraction effects due to axial velocity gradients was evaluated. A computer code based on the method of multiple scales was used to calculate the influence of axial variations due to slow changes in the cross-sectional area as well as transverse gradients due to the wall boundary layers. An attempt was made to verify the analytical model through direct comparison of experimental and computational results and the analytical determination of the influence of axial gradients on optimum liner properties. However, the analytical studies were unable to examine the influence of non-parallel ducts on the optimum linear conditions. For liner properties not close to optimum, the analytical predictions and the experimental measurements were compared. The circumferential variations of pressure amplitudes and phases at several axial positions were examined in straight and variable-area ducts, hard-wall and lined sections with and without a mean flow. Reasonable agreement between the theoretical and experimental results was obtained.

  2. High surface area electrodes in ionic polymer transducers: Numerical and experimental investigations of the electro-chemical behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akle, Barbar J.; Habchi, Wassim; Wallmersperger, Thomas; Akle, Etienne J.; Leo, Donald J.

    2011-04-01

    Ionomeric polymer transducer (IPT) is an electroactive polymer that has received considerable attention due to its ability to generate large bending strain (>5%) and moderate stress at low applied voltages (±2 V). Ionic polymer transducers consist of an ionomer, usually Nafion, sandwiched between two electrically conductive electrodes. A novel fabrication technique denoted as the direct assembly process (DAP) enabled controlled electrode architecture in ionic polymer transducers. A DAP built transducer consists of two high surface area electrodes made of electrically conducting particles uniformly distributed in an ionomer matrix sandwiching an ionomer membrane. The purpose of this paper is to investigate and simulate the effect of these high surface area particles on the electro-chemical response of an IPT. Theoretical investigations as well as experimental verifications are performed. The model used consists of a convection-diffusion equation describing the chemical field as well as a Poisson equation describing the electrical field. The two-dimensional model incorporates highly conductive particles randomly distributed in the electrode area. Traditionally, these kinds of electrodes were simulated with boundary conditions representing flat electrodes with a large dielectric permittivity at the polymer boundary. This model enables the design of electrodes with complicated geometrical patterns. In the experimental section, several transducers are fabricated using the DAP process on Nafion 117 membranes. The architecture of the high surface area electrodes in these samples is varied. The concentration of the high surface area RuO2 particles is varied from 30 vol% up to 60 vol% at a fixed thickness of 30 μm, while the overall thickness of the electrode is varied from 10 μm up to 40 μm at a fixed concentration of 45%. The flux and charge accumulation in the materials are measured experimentally and compared to the results of the numerical simulations. Trends of

  3. Shielding design of an underground experimental area at point 5 of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS).

    PubMed

    Mueller, Mario J; Stevenson, Graham R

    2005-01-01

    Increasing projected values of the circulating beam intensity in the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and decreasing limits to radiation exposure, taken with the increasing non-acceptance of unjustified and unoptimised radiation exposures, have led to the need to re-assess the shielding between the ECX and ECA5 underground experimental areas of the SPS. Twenty years ago, these experimental areas at SPS-Point 5 housed the UA1 experiment, where Carlo Rubbia and his team verified the existence of W and Z bosons. The study reported here describes such a re-assessment based on simulations using the multi-purpose FLUKA radiation transport code. This study concludes that while the main shield which is made of concrete blocks and is 4.8 m thick satisfactorily meets the current design limits even at the highest intensities presently planned for the SPS, dose rates calculated for liaison areas on both sides of the main shield significantly exceed the design limits. Possible ways of improving the shielding situation are discussed.

  4. An experimental study of Aurelia aurita feeding behaviour: Inference of the potential predation impact on a temperate estuarine nursery area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Rita; Teodósio, Maria Alexandra; Garrido, Susana

    2014-06-01

    Temperate estuaries are nursery areas for economically important fisheries resources. The common jellyfish Aurelia aurita is a resident species in many of these areas, where it can reach high abundances. This work aimed to determine the potential for predation of A. aurita on zooplanktonic organisms and early life stages of fishes, measuring feeding rates at concentrations that mimic those occurring for zooplankton, fish eggs and larvae in an estuarine nursery area. A set of experiments was aimed at determining the feeding selectivity of jellyfish when offered a mixture of fish eggs and larvae and wild plankton. Clearance rates varied markedly with prey availability and concentrations. When given mixtures of different prey types, jellyfish preferentially elected some taxa (copepods and fish eggs). Data obtained in the laboratory experiments were used to infer the potential impact of jellyfish predation upon zooplankton and ichthyoplankton in the Guadiana estuary (Southern Iberia). Repeated sampling of zooplankton, fish eggs and medusae was undertaken during the summer season of 2011. Abundance determinations were combined with experimentally estimated clearance rates of individual medusa to infer the potential jellyfish-induced mortality on prey in the area. In June and early August jellyfish-induced mortality rates were very high, and half-life times (t1/2) were consequently short for the zooplankton and ichthyoplankton. Although the potentially overestimation of our feeding rates typical of confined laboratory experiments, the results show high ingestion and clearance rates at high temperatures, typical from summer condition, and results also suggest that either by predation on early life stages of fish, or by competition for food resources, jellyfish may have a significant impact on estuarine communities and its nursery function.

  5. Status report of Area 15 experimental dairy farm: dairy husbandry January 1977-June 1979, agronomic practices January 1978-June 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    This is the final status report on the operation of the experimental dairy herd and farm in Area 15 of the Nevada Test Site. Operation of the farm was transferred from the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas to a contractor in September of 1979. The dairy herd portion of the report covers the period from January 1977 to June 1979. Improvement and addition to the facilities, production and reproduction statistics for individual cows and the herd, the veterinary medicine practices employed, and summaries of the metabolism studies that involved the dairy herd are discussed. The agronomic portion of the report covers the period January 1978 to June 1979. Topics include irrigation, fertilization, weed and insect control, and forage production.

  6. Component Performance Investigation of J71 Experimental Turbine I : Over-all Performance with 97-percent-design Stator Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schum, Harold J; Davison, Elmer H

    1956-01-01

    The over-all component performance characteristics of a J71 experimental three-stage turbine with 97 percent design stator areas were determined over a range of speed and pressure ratio at inlet-air conditions of approximately 35 inches of mercury absolute and 700 degrees R. The turbine break internal efficiency at design operating conditions was 0.877; the maximum efficiency of 0.886 occurred at a pressure ratio of 4.0 at 120 percent of design equivalent rotor speed. In general, the turbine yielded a wide range of efficient operation, permitting flexibility in the choice of different modes of engine operation. Limiting blade loading of the third rotor was approached but not obtained over the range of conditions investigated herein. At the design operating point, the turbine equivalent weight flow was approximately 105 percent of design. Choking of the third-rotor blades occurred at design speed and an over-all pressure ratio of 4.2.

  7. Optimizing low impact development (LID) for stormwater runoff treatment in urban area, Korea: Experimental and modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Baek, Sang-Soo; Choi, Dong-Ho; Jung, Jae-Woon; Lee, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Hyuk; Yoon, Kwang-Sik; Cho, Kyung Hwa

    2015-12-01

    Currently, continued urbanization and development result in an increase of impervious areas and surface runoff including pollutants. Also one of the greatest issues in pollutant emissions is the first flush effect (FFE), which implies a greater discharge rate of pollutant mass in the early part in the storm. Low impact development (LID) practices have been mentioned as a promising strategy to control urban stormwater runoff and pollution in the urban ecosystem. However, this requires many experimental and modeling efforts to test LID characteristics and propose an adequate guideline for optimizing LID management. In this study, we propose a novel methodology to optimize the sizes of different types of LID by conducting intensive stormwater monitoring and numerical modeling in a commercial site in Korea. The methodology proposed optimizes LID size in an attempt to moderate FFE on a receiving waterbody. Thereby, the main objective of the optimization is to minimize mass first flush (MFF), which is an indicator for quantifying FFE. The optimal sizes of 6 different LIDs ranged from 1.2 mm to 3.0 mm in terms of runoff depths, which significantly moderate the FFE. We hope that the new proposed methodology can be instructive for establishing LID strategies to mitigate FFE.

  8. The Experimental Lakes Area: Over 45 Years of Whole Ecosystem Monitoring and Manipulation Experiments and a Focus on the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmerton, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    The IISD Experimental Lakes Area is a unique facility which has existed since 1968 and consists of 58 lakes and their watersheds set aside for research purposes. The IISD-ELA also boasts an on-site water chemistry lab, accommodations and facilities for up to 60 personnel. Since its inception in 1968 over 50 whole ecosystem experiments have been conducted at the ELA including eutrophication, acidification of lakes, environmental mercury fates, hydro-electric reservoir impacts and much more. The recent partnership between IISD and ELA has allowed ELA to refocus on freshwater research and policy development in a time where the preservation of the earth's most precious resource is of the utmost concern. In addition to water quality monitoring, the ELA is also focused on autotrophic ecology, zooplankton community structures, fish population and behaviour and food-web interactions. Monitoring all of these disciplines and their inter-relationships gives the research facility a unique perspective and along with the long term dataset stretching back to 1968 the ELA can look at historical records to monitor long term changes in the environment.

  9. A study on the levels of radioactivity in fish samples from the experimental lakes area in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Rennie, Michael D; Sadi, Baki; Zhang, Weihua; St-Amant, Nadereh

    2016-03-01

    To better understand background radiation levels in country foods, a total of 125 fish samples were collected from three lakes (Lake 226, Lake 302 and Lake 305) in the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in Ontario of Canada during the summer of 2014. Concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides ((226)Ra, (210)Pb and (210)Po) as well as anthropogenic radionuclides ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) were measured. This study confirmed that (210)Po is the dominant contributor to radiation doses resulting from fish consumption. While concentrations of (210)Pb and (226)Ra were below conventional detection limits, (210)Po was measured in almost all fish samples collected from the ELA. The average concentration was about 1.5 Bq/kg fresh weight (fw). None of the fish samples analysed in this study contained any detectable levels of (134)Cs. An average (137)Cs level of 6.1 Bq/kg fw was observed in freshwater fishes harvested in the ELA, almost twice that of samples measured in the National Capital Region of Canada in 2014 and more than 20 times higher than the levels observed in marine fish harvested from the Canadian west coast in 2013 and 2014. However, it is important to note that the concentrations of (137)Cs in fish samples from these inland lakes are considered very low from a radiological protection perspective. The resulting radiation dose for people from fish consumption would be a very small fraction of the annual dose from exposure to natural background radiation in Canada. The results indicate that fishes from inland lakes do not pose a radiological health concern.

  10. Experimental investigation of factors limiting slow axis beam quality in 9xx nm high power broad area diode lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Winterfeldt, M. Crump, P.; Wenzel, H.; Erbert, G.; Tränkle, G.

    2014-08-14

    GaAs-based broad-area diode lasers are needed with improved lateral beam parameter product (BPP{sub lat}) at high power. An experimental study of the factors limiting BPP{sub lat} is therefore presented, using extreme double-asymmetric (EDAS) vertical structures emitting at 910 nm. Continuous wave, pulsed and polarization-resolved measurements are presented and compared to thermal simulation. The importance of thermal and packaging-induced effects is determined by comparing junction -up and -down devices. Process factors are clarified by comparing diodes with and without index-guiding trenches. We show that in all cases studied, BPP{sub lat} is limited by a non-thermal BPP ground-level and a thermal BPP, which depends linearly on self-heating. Measurements as a function of pulse width confirm that self-heating rather than bias-level dominates. Diodes without trenches show low BPP ground-level, and a thermal BPP which depends strongly on mounting, due to changes in the temperature profile. The additional lateral guiding in diodes with trenches strongly increases the BPP ground-level, but optically isolates the stripe from the device edges, suppressing the influence of the thermal profile, leading to a BPP-slope that is low and independent of mounting. Trenches are also shown to initiate strain fields that cause parasitic TM-polarized emission with large BPP{sub lat}, whose influence on total BPP{sub lat} remains small, provided the overall polarization purity is >95%.

  11. A new experimental method for the determination of the effective orifice area based on the acoustical source term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadem, L.; Knapp, Y.; Pibarot, P.; Bertrand, E.; Garcia, D.; Durand, L. G.; Rieu, R.

    2005-12-01

    The effective orifice area (EOA) is the most commonly used parameter to assess the severity of aortic valve stenosis as well as the performance of valve substitutes. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) may be used for in vitro estimation of valve EOA. In the present study, we propose a new and simple method based on Howe’s developments of Lighthill’s aero-acoustic theory. This method is based on an acoustical source term (AST) to estimate the EOA from the transvalvular flow velocity measurements obtained by PIV. The EOAs measured by the AST method downstream of three sharp-edged orifices were in excellent agreement with the EOAs predicted from the potential flow theory used as the reference method in this study. Moreover, the AST method was more accurate than other conventional PIV methods based on streamlines, inflexion point or vorticity to predict the theoretical EOAs. The superiority of the AST method is likely due to the nonlinear form of the AST. There was also an excellent agreement between the EOAs measured by the AST method downstream of the three sharp-edged orifices as well as downstream of a bioprosthetic valve with those obtained by the conventional clinical method based on Doppler-echocardiographic measurements of transvalvular velocity. The results of this study suggest that this new simple PIV method provides an accurate estimation of the aortic valve flow EOA. This new method may thus be used as a reference method to estimate the EOA in experimental investigation of the performance of valve substitutes and to validate Doppler-echocardiographic measurements under various physiologic and pathologic flow conditions.

  12. VITELLOGENIN GENE EXPRESSION IN FATHEAD MINNOWS AND PEARL DACE FROM CONTROL (NON-DOSED) AND LAKES DOSED WITH EE2 IN THE CANADIAN EXPERIMENTAL LAKES AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A whole-lake endocrine disruption experiment was conducted by Fisheries and Oceans Canada at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in northwestern Ontario for three years beginning in 2001. This experiment examined population, organismal, biochemical and cellular-level effects in la...

  13. Analysis of an Experimental Cortical Network: ii) Connections of Visual Areas 17 and 18 After Neonatal Injections of Ibotenic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Innocenti, G. M.; Berbel, P.

    1991-01-01

    Lesions of cortical areas 17 and 18 were produced in newborn kittens by local injections of the excitotoxin ibotenic acid. In the adult this results in a microcortex which consists of superficial layers I, II and III, in the absence of granular and infragranular layers. Horseradish peroxidase, alone or wheat germ agglutinin conjugated, was injected in the microcortex or in the contralateral, intact areas 17 and 18. The microcortex maintains several connections characteristic of normal areas 17 and 18 of the cat. It receives afferents from the dLGN, and several visual areas of the ipsilateral and contralateral hemisphere. However, it has lost its projections to dLGN, superior colliculus, and, at least in part, those to contralateral visual areas. Thus some parts of the microcortex receive from, but do not project into, the corpus callosum. In addition, the microcortex maintains afferents from ipsilateral and contralateral auditory areas AI and AII which are normally eliminated in development. PMID:1714302

  14. The Impact of Eutrophication on Mercury Cycling in Lake 227 at the Experimental Lakes Area in Northwestern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, J.; Lehnherr, I.; Gleason, A.; St. Louis, V. L.; Muir, D.

    2012-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a pollutant of global concern as concentrations of methyl mercury (MeHg), the toxic and bioaccumulative form of Hg, are often present in fish at levels high enough to pose health risks to consumers. Although we are beginning to understand the factors controlling MeHg production in freshwater lakes, the impacts of environmental disturbances, such as eutrophication, on Hg cycling are not known. As part of a larger project examining controls on eutrophication, we are studying Hg cycling and MeHg production in the artificially eutrophied Lake 227 at the Experimental Lakes Area in northwestern Ontario. In addition to 40 years of ancillary data, Lake 227 is ideal for this study as it has an anoxic hypolimnion which may be an important zone of microbial MeHg production. To determine sources and losses of inorganic Hg(II) and MeHg from the lake, we are using a mass balance approach including: detailed lake profiles to determine the water column pools of Hg(II) and MeHg, Hg(II) and MeHg inputs via precipitation, and losses of Hg(II) and MeHg from the lake via gaseous elemental Hg(0) evasion and MeHg photodemethylation, respectively. Rates of water column MeHg production are also being determined using Hg stable isotope tracer experiments. 2010-2011 water column profiles demonstrated that although total Hg (THg) and MeHg concentrations were fairly low in Lake 227 surface waters (2.42 ± 0.64 and 0.11 ± 0.06 ng/L, respectively), MeHg concentrations (1.08 ± 0.39 ng/L) and the % THg that was MeHg (16 ± 5%) were high in deep regions of the water column (6-9 m). The zone of elevated water column MeHg expanded throughout summers 2010-2011, closely following the zone of anoxia, suggesting MeHg is produced in the anoxic hypolimnion. The zone of high particulate-bound THg (62 ± 6%) also migrated with the zone of anoxia over the summer suggesting that particle sinking and sediment resuspension, which are controlled by the timing of algal blooms, are important

  15. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Area Suction for the Control of the Laminar Boundary Layer on an NACA 64a010 Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braslow, Albert L; Burrows, Dale L; Tetervin, Neal; Visconti, Fioravante

    1951-01-01

    A low-turbulence wind-tunnel investigation was made of an NACA 64a010 airfoil having a porous surface to determine the reduction in section total-drag coefficient that might be obtained at large Reynolds numbers by the use of suction to produce continuous inflow through the surface of the airfoil (area suction). In addition to the experimental investigation, a related theoretical analysis was made to provide a basis of comparison for the test results.

  16. EXPERIMENTAL AND MODEL-COMPUTED AREA AVERAGED VERTICAL PROFILES OF WIND SPEED FOR EVALUATION OF MESOSCALE URBAN CANOPY SCHEMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous urban canopy schemes have recently been developed for mesoscale models in order to approximate the drag and turbulent production effects of a city on the air flow. However, little data exists by which to evaluate the efficacy of the schemes since "area-averaged&quo...

  17. Experimental investigation of the impact of macroalgal mats on flow dynamics and sediment stability in shallow tidal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venier, C.; Figueiredo da Silva, J.; McLelland, S. J.; Duck, R. W.; Lanzoni, S.

    2012-10-01

    This study aims to quantify the impact of macroalgal mats of Ulva intestinalis on flow dynamics and sediment stability. Such mats are becoming increasingly common in many coastal and estuarine intertidal habitats, thus it is important to determine whether they increase flow resistance, promote bed stability and therefore reduce the risk of erosion leading to tidal flooding or to degradation of coastal lagoons. The study has been carried out through a systematic series of experiments conducted in the large open-channel flume of the Total Environment Simulator (TES) facility, University of Hull, UK. The experimental facility was set up with a bed of fine sand, partially covered by strands of U. intestinalis; living individuals attached to large clasts were collected from Budle Bay, in the Lindisfarne National Nature Reserve, UK, and transplanted to the flume. The TES was equipped with acoustic doppler velocimetry (ADV) and acoustic backscatter (ABS) sensors, which measured current velocity, water level, bed level, and suspended sediment concentration. The experiments consisted of several unidirectional flow runs, firstly with a mobile sediment bed covered with U. intestinalis, then with a bare sediment surface, conducted at three different water depths. Under the investigated experimental range of velocities, typical of tidal environments, the macroalgal filaments were bent parallel to the sediment bed. The resulting velocity profile departed from the classical logarithmic trend, implying an increase of the overall roughness. This result reflects the different vertical Reynolds shear stress profiles and energy spectra features of the turbulent flow with respect to a bare sandy bed configuration. Macroalgae are also found to affect the morphological configuration of bedforms. The overall result is significant bio-stabilization, with increased flow resistance and reduced sediment transport.

  18. Experimental determination of turbulent fluxes over the heterogeneous LITFASS area: Selected results from the LITFASS-98 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyrich, F.; Richter, S. H.; Weisensee, U.; Kohsiek, W.; Lohse, H.; de Bruin, H. A. R.; Foken, Th.; Göckede, M.; Berger, F.; Vogt, R.; Batchvarova, E.

    During the LITFASS-98 experiment, local flux measurements were performed over five different types of underlying surface (grass, barley, triticale, pine forest, water) in a heterogeneous landscape using eddy covariance and profile techniques over a three week time period in June, 1998. Estimates of the area-integrated sensible heat flux during daytime were obtained from continuous measurements with a large aperture scintillometer (LAS) along a 4.7km path. The calculation of a mean diurnal cycle of the fluxes during the experiment revealed significant differences between the main land use classes. A land-use weighted average of the sensible heat flux was found to be in good agreement with the LAS based estimate, which in turn was supported by other regionally integrated flux estimates from budget considerations and aircraft measurements for a few case studies. The profiles of turbulent quantities measured along a 99m-tower significantly deviate from ``idealised'' profiles measured over homogeneous terrain. Peculiarities in the profile structure could be attributed to the heterogeneity of the terrain, namely to the differences in the surface characteristics of the footprint areas for the different tower levels.

  19. The Influence of a Subslab Gravel Layer and Open Area on Soil-Gas and Radon Entry into Two Experimental Basements

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Allen L.; Sextro, R.G.

    1995-03-01

    Measurements of steady-state soil-gas and {sup 222}Rn entry rates into two room-sized, experimental basement structures were made for a range of structure depressurizations (0-40 Pa) and open floor areas (0-165 x 10{sup -4} m{sup 2}). The structures are identical except that in one the floor slab lies directly on native soil whereas in the other the slab lies on a high-permeability gravel layer. The subslab gravel layer greatly enhances the soil-gas and radon entry rate into the structure. The radon entry rate into the structure with the subslab gravel layer is four times greater than the entry rate into the structure without the gravel layer with an open floor area of 165 x 10{sup -4}m{sup 2}; however the ratio increases to 30 for an open floor area of 5.0 x 10{sup -4} m{sup 2}. The relationship between open area and soil-gas entry rate is complex. It depends on both the amount and distribution of the open area as well as the permeability of the soil near the opening. The entry rate into the experimental structures is largely determined by the presence or absence of a subslab gravel layer. Therefore open area is a poor indicator of radon and soil-gas entry into the structures. The extension of the soil-gas pressure field created by structure depressurization is a good measure of the radon entry. The measured normalized radon entry rate into both structures has the same linear relationship with the average subslab pressure coupling regardless of open area or the presence or absence of a subslab gravel layer. The average subslab pressure coupling is an estimate of the extension of the soil-gas pressure field. A three-dimensional finite-difference model correctly predicts the effect of a subslab gravel layer and different open area configurations on radon and soil-gas entry rate; however, the model underpredicts the absolute entry rate into each structure by a factor of 1.5.

  20. Do trace metals select for darker birds in urban areas? An experimental exposure to lead and zinc.

    PubMed

    Chatelain, Marion; Gasparini, Julien; Frantz, Adrien

    2016-07-01

    Trace metals from anthropogenic activities are involved in numerous health impairments and may therefore select for detoxification mechanisms or a higher tolerance. Melanin, responsible for the black and red colourations of teguments, plays a role in metal ion chelation and its synthesis is positively linked to immunity, antioxidant capacity and stress resistance due to pleiotropic effects. Therefore, we expected darker birds to (1) store higher amounts of metals in their feathers, (2) maintain lower metal concentrations in blood and (3) suffer less from metal exposure. We exposed feral pigeons (Columba livia) exhibiting various plumage darkness levels to low, but chronic, concentrations of zinc and/or lead, two of the most abundant metals in urban areas. First, we found negative and positive effects of lead and zinc, respectively, on birds' condition and reproductive parameters. Then, we observed positive relationships between plumage darkness and both zinc and lead concentrations in feathers. Interestingly, though darker adults did not maintain lower metal concentrations in blood and did not have higher fitness parameters, darker juveniles exhibited a higher survival rate than paler ones when exposed to lead. Our results show that melanin-based plumage colouration does modulate lead effects on birds' fitness parameters but that the relationship between metals, melanin, and fitness is more complex than expected and thus stress the need for more studies. PMID:27282322

  1. Estimation of radioactive contamination of soils from the "Balapan" and the "Experimental field" technical areas of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.

    PubMed

    Evseeva, T; Belykh, E; Geras'kin, S; Majstrenko, T

    2012-07-01

    In spite of the long history of the research, radioactive contamination of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS) in the Republic of Kazakhstan has not been adequately characterized. Our cartographic investigation has demonstrated highly variable radioactive contamination of the SNTS. The Cs-137, Sr-90, Eu-152, Eu-154, Co-60, and Am-241 activity concentrations in soil samples from the "Balapan" site were 42.6-17646, 96-18250, 1.05-11222, 0.6-4865, 0.23-4893, and 1.2-1037 Bq kg(-1), correspondingly. Cs-137 and Sr-90 activity concentrations in soil samples from the "Experimental field" site were varied from 87 up to 400 and from 94 up to 1000 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Activity concentrations of Co-60, Eu-152, and Eu-154 were lower than the minimum detectable activity of the method used. Concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides (K-40, Ra-226, U-238, and Th-232) in the majority of soil samples from the "Balapan" and the "Experimental field" sites did not exceed typical for surrounding of the SNTS areas levels. Estimation of risks associated with radioactive contamination based on the IAEA clearance levels for a number of key radionuclides in solid materials shows that soils sampled from the "Balapan" and the "Experimental field" sites might be considered as radioactive wastes. Decrease in specific activity of soil from the sites studied up to safety levels due to Co-60, Cs-137, Sr-90, Eu-152, Eu-154 radioactive decay and Am-241 accumulation-decay will occur not earlier than 100 years. In contrast, soils from the "Experimental field" and the "Balapan" sites (except 0.5-2.5 km distance from the "Chagan" explosion point) cannot be regarded as the radioactive wastes according safety norms valid in Russia and Kazakhstan.

  2. Six-circle diffractometer with atmosphere- and temperature-controlled sample stage and area and line detectors for use in the G2 experimental station at CHESS

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, D. E.; Blasini, D. R.; Vodnick, A. M.; Blank, B.; Tate, M. W.; Deyhim, A.; Smilgies, D.-M.; Abruna, H.; Gruner, S. M.; Baker, S. P.

    2006-11-15

    A new diffractometer system was designed and built for the G2 experimental station at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). A six-circle {kappa} goniometer, which provides better access to reciprocal space compared to Eulerian cradles, was chosen primarily to perform large angle Bragg diffraction on samples with preferred crystallographic orientations, and can access both horizontal and vertical diffraction planes. A new atmosphere- and temperature-controlled sample stage was designed for thin film thermomechanical experiments. The stage can be operated in ultrahigh vacuum and uses a Be dome x-ray window to provide access to all scattering vectors above a sample's horizon. A novel design minimizes sample displacements during thermal cycling to less than 160 {mu}m over 900 deg. C and the stage is motorized for easy height adjustments, which can be used to compensate for displacements from thermal expansion. A new area detector was built and a new line detector was purchased. Both detectors cover a large region in reciprocal space, providing the ability to measure time-resolved phenomena. A detailed description of the design and technical characteristics is given. Some capabilities of the diffractometer system are illustrated by a strain analysis on a thin metal film and characterization of organic thin films with grazing incidence diffraction. The G2 experimental station, as part of CHESS, is a national user facility and is available to external users by application.

  3. [AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE HISTOLOGICAL FIBRO GENESIS ABILITIES IN THE AREA OF IMPLANTATION OF ALOTRANSPLANTATES APPLYING INTRAABDOMINAL AND PREPERITONEAL PLASTIC SURGERY].

    PubMed

    Ioffe, Y; Shvets, I; Tarasiuk, T; Furmanov, A; Stetsenko, A; Tsura, Y

    2014-12-01

    The histological fibro genesis abilities in the area of implantation of allotransplantates applying intraabdominal and preperitoneal plastic surgery were examined during experimental research. The experiment involved 12 Russian chinchilla rabbits. The animals were spitted into two groups: I group--operated using IPOM methodology (intraperitonealonlaymesh, n = 6) with the installation "Proceed" mesh made by "Ethicon", group II--modeling preperitoneal plastics with the installation of "Ethicon's Ultrapro" mesh (n = 6). After removing the animals from the experiment, the implants with adhering musculo-aponeurotic tissue layer were excised and sent for histological examination. At the same time the severity of the inflammatory process were rated, the composition of the inflammatory infiltrate, germination of the connective tissue through the pores of the prosthesis and neovascularization. Analyzing the research data of histological connective abilities complexes formed in the area of the allotransplants implantation using intra-abdominal and pre-peritoneal plastic during the experiment, we can conclude that intra-abdominal installation of mesh prostheses reduces the severity of inflammatory changes surrounding tissues and reduces the probability of seroma formation in comparison with the placement of the pre-peritoneal implant. PMID:26638474

  4. [AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE HISTOLOGICAL FIBRO GENESIS ABILITIES IN THE AREA OF IMPLANTATION OF ALOTRANSPLANTATES APPLYING INTRAABDOMINAL AND PREPERITONEAL PLASTIC SURGERY].

    PubMed

    Ioffe, Y; Shvets, I; Tarasiuk, T; Furmanov, A; Stetsenko, A; Tsura, Y

    2014-12-01

    The histological fibro genesis abilities in the area of implantation of allotransplantates applying intraabdominal and preperitoneal plastic surgery were examined during experimental research. The experiment involved 12 Russian chinchilla rabbits. The animals were spitted into two groups: I group--operated using IPOM methodology (intraperitonealonlaymesh, n = 6) with the installation "Proceed" mesh made by "Ethicon", group II--modeling preperitoneal plastics with the installation of "Ethicon's Ultrapro" mesh (n = 6). After removing the animals from the experiment, the implants with adhering musculo-aponeurotic tissue layer were excised and sent for histological examination. At the same time the severity of the inflammatory process were rated, the composition of the inflammatory infiltrate, germination of the connective tissue through the pores of the prosthesis and neovascularization. Analyzing the research data of histological connective abilities complexes formed in the area of the allotransplants implantation using intra-abdominal and pre-peritoneal plastic during the experiment, we can conclude that intra-abdominal installation of mesh prostheses reduces the severity of inflammatory changes surrounding tissues and reduces the probability of seroma formation in comparison with the placement of the pre-peritoneal implant.

  5. Hydrogeology and water quality of the shallow aquifer system at the Explosive Experimental Area, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site, Dahlgren, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, C.F.

    1996-01-01

    In October 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study to characterize the hydrogeology of the shallow aquifer system at the Explosive Experimental Area, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site, Dahlgren, Virginia, which is located on the Potomac River in the Coastal Plain Physiographic Province. The study provides a description of the hydrogeologic units, directions of ground-water flow, and back-ground water quality in the study area to a depth of about 100 feet. Lithologic, geophysical, and hydrologic data were collected from 28 wells drilled for this study, from 3 existing wells, and from outcrops. The shallow aquifer system at the Explosive Experimental Area consists of two fining-upward sequences of Pleistocene fluvial-estuarine deposits that overlie Paleocene-Eocene marine deposits of the Nanjemoy-Marlboro confining unit. The surficial hydrogeologic unit is the Columbia aquifer. Horizontal linear flow of water in this aquifer generally responds to the surface topography, discharging to tidal creeks, marshes, and the Potomac River, and rates of flow in this aquifer range from 0.003 to 0.70 foot per day. The Columbia aquifer unconformably overlies the upper confining unit 12-an organic-rich clay that is 0 to 55 feet thick. The upper confining unit conformably overlies the upper confined aquifer, a 0- to 35-feet thick unit that consists of interbedded fine-grained to medium-grained sands and clay. The upper confined aquifer probably receives most of its recharge from the adjacent and underlying Nanjemoy-Marlboro confining unit. Water in the upper confined aquifer generally flows eastward, northward, and northeastward at about 0.03 foot per day toward the Potomac River and Machodoc Creek. The Nanjemoy-Marlboro confining unit consists of glauconitic, fossiliferous silty fine-grained sands of the Nanjemoy Formation. Where the upper confined system is absent, the Nanjemoy-Marlboro confining unit is directly overlain by the Columbia aquifer. In some parts of

  6. Experimental Plan: 300 Area Treatability Test: In Situ Treatment of the Vadose Zone and Smear Zone Uranium Contamination by Polyphosphate Infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Pierce, Eric M.; Oostrom, Mart; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2007-08-31

    The overall objectives of the treatability test is to evaluate and optimize polyphosphate remediation technology for infiltration either from ground surface, or some depth of excavation, providing direct stabilization of uranium within the deep vadose and capillary fringe above the 300 Area aquifer. Expected result from this experimental plan is a data package that includes: 1) quantification of the retardation of polyphosphate, 2) the rate of degradation and the retardation of degradation products as a function of water content, 3) an understanding of the mechanism of autunite formation via the reaction of solid phase calcite-bound uranium and aqueous polyphosphate remediation technology, 4) an understanding of the transformation mechanism, identity of secondary phases, and the kinetics of the reaction between uranyl-carbonate and –silicate minerals with the polyphosphate remedy under solubility-limiting conditions, 5) quantification of the extent and rate of uranium released and immobilized based on the infiltration rate of the polyphosphate remedy and the effect of and periodic wet-dry cycling on the efficacy of polyphosphate remediation for uranium in the vadose zone and capillary fringe, and 6) quantification of reliable equilibrium solubility values for autunite under hydraulically unsaturated conditions allowing accurate prediction of the long-term stability of autunite. Moreover, results of intermediate scale testing will quantify the transport of polyphosphate and degradation products, and yield degradation rates, at a scale that is bridging the gap between the small-scale UFA studies and the field scale. These results will be used to test and verify a site-specific, variable saturation, reactive transport model and to aid in the design of a pilot-scale field test of this technology. In particular, the infiltration approach and monitoring strategy of the pilot test would be primarily based on results from intermediate-scale testing. Results from this

  7. UAV-Based Estimation of Carbon Exports from Heterogeneous Soil Landscapes--A Case Study from the CarboZALF Experimental Area.

    PubMed

    Wehrhan, Marc; Rauneker, Philipp; Sommer, Michael

    2016-02-19

    The advantages of remote sensing using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are a high spatial resolution of images, temporal flexibility and narrow-band spectral data from different wavelengths domains. This enables the detection of spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental variables, like plant-related carbon dynamics in agricultural landscapes. In this paper, we quantify spatial patterns of fresh phytomass and related carbon (C) export using imagery captured by a 12-band multispectral camera mounted on the fixed wing UAV Carolo P360. The study was performed in 2014 at the experimental area CarboZALF-D in NE Germany. From radiometrically corrected and calibrated images of lucerne (Medicago sativa), the performance of four commonly used vegetation indices (VIs) was tested using band combinations of six near-infrared bands. The highest correlation between ground-based measurements of fresh phytomass of lucerne and VIs was obtained for the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) using near-infrared band b899. The resulting map was transformed into dry phytomass and finally upscaled to total C export by harvest. The observed spatial variability at field- and plot-scale could be attributed to small-scale soil heterogeneity in part.

  8. Development of experimental approach to examine U occurrence continuity over the extended area reconnoitory boreholes: Lostoin Block, West Khasi Hills district, Meghalaya (India).

    PubMed

    Kukreti, B M; Kumar, Pramod; Sharma, G K

    2015-10-01

    Exploratory drilling was undertaken in the Lostoin block, West Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya based on the geological extension to the major uranium deposit in the basin. Gamma ray logging of drilled boreholes shows considerable subsurface mineralization in the block. However, environmental and exploration related challenges such as climatic, logistic, limited core drilling and poor core recovery etc. in the block severely restricted the study of uranium exploration related index parameters for the block with a high degree confidence. The present study examines these exploration related challenges and develops an integrated approach using representative sampling of reconnoitory boreholes in the block. Experimental findings validate a similar geochemically coherent nature of radio elements (K, Ra and Th) in the Lostoin block uranium hosting environment with respect to the known block of Mahadek basin and uranium enrichment is confirmed by the lower U to Th correlation index (0.268) of hosting environment. A mineralized zone investigation in the block shows parent (refers to the actual parent uranium concentration at a location and not a secondary concentration such as the daughter elements which produce the signal from a total gamma ray measurement) favoring uranium mineralization. The confidence parameters generated under the present study have implications for the assessment of the inferred category of uranium ore in the block and setting up a road map for the systematic exploration of large uranium potential occurring over extended areas in the basin amid prevailing environmental and exploratory impediments. PMID:26164149

  9. UAV-Based Estimation of Carbon Exports from Heterogeneous Soil Landscapes--A Case Study from the CarboZALF Experimental Area.

    PubMed

    Wehrhan, Marc; Rauneker, Philipp; Sommer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The advantages of remote sensing using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are a high spatial resolution of images, temporal flexibility and narrow-band spectral data from different wavelengths domains. This enables the detection of spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental variables, like plant-related carbon dynamics in agricultural landscapes. In this paper, we quantify spatial patterns of fresh phytomass and related carbon (C) export using imagery captured by a 12-band multispectral camera mounted on the fixed wing UAV Carolo P360. The study was performed in 2014 at the experimental area CarboZALF-D in NE Germany. From radiometrically corrected and calibrated images of lucerne (Medicago sativa), the performance of four commonly used vegetation indices (VIs) was tested using band combinations of six near-infrared bands. The highest correlation between ground-based measurements of fresh phytomass of lucerne and VIs was obtained for the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) using near-infrared band b899. The resulting map was transformed into dry phytomass and finally upscaled to total C export by harvest. The observed spatial variability at field- and plot-scale could be attributed to small-scale soil heterogeneity in part. PMID:26907284

  10. UAV-based Estimation of Carbon Exports from Heterogeneous Soil Landscapes - A Case Study from the CarboZALF Experimental Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrhan, Marc; Rauneker, Philipp; Sommer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The advantages of remote sensing using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are a high spatial resolution of images, temporal flexibility and narrow-band spectral data from different wavelengths domains. This enables the detection of spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental variables, like plant-related carbon dynamics in agricultural landscapes. In this paper we quantify spatial patterns of fresh phytomass and related carbon (C) export using imagery captured by a 12-band multispectral camera mounted on the fixed wing UAV Carolo P360. The study was performed in 2014 at the experimental area CarboZALF-D in NE Germany. From radiometrically corrected and calibrated images of lucerne (Medicago sativa), the performance of four commonly used vegetation indices (VIs) was tested using band combinations of six near-infrared bands. The highest correlation (R² = 0.88) between ground-based measurements of fresh phytomass of lucerne and VIs was obtained for the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) using near-infrared band 11 (899 nm). The resulting map was transformed into dry phytomass and finally upscaled to total C export by harvest. The observed spatial variability (75-225 g C m-2) at field- and plot-scale could be attributed to small-scale soil heterogeneity in part. Soil effects were suppressed by the nearly optimal weather conditions for plant growth in 2014.

  11. UAV-Based Estimation of Carbon Exports from Heterogeneous Soil Landscapes—A Case Study from the CarboZALF Experimental Area

    PubMed Central

    Wehrhan, Marc; Rauneker, Philipp; Sommer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The advantages of remote sensing using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are a high spatial resolution of images, temporal flexibility and narrow-band spectral data from different wavelengths domains. This enables the detection of spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental variables, like plant-related carbon dynamics in agricultural landscapes. In this paper, we quantify spatial patterns of fresh phytomass and related carbon (C) export using imagery captured by a 12-band multispectral camera mounted on the fixed wing UAV Carolo P360. The study was performed in 2014 at the experimental area CarboZALF-D in NE Germany. From radiometrically corrected and calibrated images of lucerne (Medicago sativa), the performance of four commonly used vegetation indices (VIs) was tested using band combinations of six near-infrared bands. The highest correlation between ground-based measurements of fresh phytomass of lucerne and VIs was obtained for the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) using near-infrared band b899. The resulting map was transformed into dry phytomass and finally upscaled to total C export by harvest. The observed spatial variability at field- and plot-scale could be attributed to small-scale soil heterogeneity in part. PMID:26907284

  12. Evaluation of the MMF (Morgan-Morgan-Finney) model based on soil loss experimental data from vineyards in Alto Monferrato area (NW Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biddoccu, Marcella; Cavallo, Eugenio

    2010-05-01

    Soil erosion in sloping vineyards is a serious threat, made worse by climate change and mechanisation. Machinery traffic influences soil physical properties resulting in lower water infiltration capacity, higher runoff and soil losses. Between 2000 and 2008 measurements have been conducted at an experimental vineyard with rows along the slope in the 'Alto Monferrato' area (Piedmont, NW Italy) in order to evaluate runoff and soil losses. Three plots are monitored to compare different inter-rows management practices: controlled grass cover, conventional and reduced tillage. Agriculture soil management practices affect soil losses. Each plot is 1200 m2 wide and its average slope is about 25 %. Rainfall was recorded and runoff and sediments were collected at the bottom of each plot by a drain connected with a tipping bucket device. This was designed to measure total runoff and to sample a portion of the runoff-sediment mixture. Collected sediments were then ovendried and weighed. Collected data show that runoff generally increased with the rainfall amount and was lower from the grass covered plot than others, especially when the event rainfall was higher than 60 mm. Soil loss increased with the maximum rainfall intensity registered during the event. Mean annual soil losses measured over the 9 years period are 16.1 Mg ha-1in the reduced tilled plot, 13.4 Mg ha-1 in the traditionally tilled plot and 3.2 Mg ha-1 with the controlled grass cover. A single summer storm caused the highest soil losses, which were higher than 18 Mg ha-1 in the tilled plots. The maintenance of controlled grass cover inter-rows allows protecting soil from erosion: the total soil loss was up to 80% lower than in the tilled plots. The protective action of the grass cover is effective also during storms and intense rainfalls, which are more erosiveness. Soil physical properties were also measured. Field data about percentage of clay, silt and sand, soil moisture at field capacity, bulk density and

  13. Experimental and molecular genetic analysis of the impact of pyrethroid and non-pyrethroid insecticide impregnated bednets for mosquito control in an area of pyrethroid resistance.

    PubMed

    Kolaczinski, J H; Fanello, C; Hervé, J P; Conway, D J; Carnevale, P; Curtis, C F

    2000-04-01

    Experimental huts in Côte d'Ivoire were used to evaluate the pyrethroid alpha-cypermethrin, the non-ester pyrethroid etofenprox, the organophosphate pirimiphos-methyl and the carbamate carbosulfan on bednets against pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae Giles. To test for selection for the resistance gene by the treated nets, A. gambiae collected live or dead from the huts were kept and analysed for the presence of the kdr gene using a new polymerase chain reaction followed by sequence-specific oligonucleotide probing (PCR-SSOP) for kdr-genotyping. Deliberately holed bednets freshly treated with pirimiphos-methyl or carbosulfan caused over 90% kill of A. gambiae s.s. and Culex spp. However, the mortality with alpha-cypermethrin or etofenprox treated nets was similar to that with untreated nets. Bloodfeeding of A. gambiae s.s. on the sleepers under the nets was only significantly reduced by alpha-cypermethrin and carbosulfan. Tests of the residual activity of the bednets after seven months showed that pirimiphos-methyl had lost its efficacy while carbosulfan still performed well. Once again the pyrethroid treated nets gave similar results to the untreated nets. Selection for the kdr-allele by alpha-cypermethrin and etofenprox, but not by carbosulfan, was indicated by PCR-SSOP genotyping of mosquitoes. Thus carbamates such as carbosulfan, or organophosphates of longer persistence than pirimiphos-methyl and of low mammalian toxicity, would seem to be a promising alternative to be used on bednets, particularly in areas of pyrethroid resistance.

  14. Analyzing Sustainable Energy Opportunities for a Small Scale Off-Grid Facility: A Case Study at Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggirala, Bhanu

    This thesis explored the opportunities to reduce energy demand and renewable energy feasibility at an off-grid science "community" called the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in Ontario. Being off-grid, ELA is completely dependent on diesel and propane fuel supply for all its electrical and heating needs, which makes ELA vulnerable to fluctuating fuel prices. As a result ELA emits a large amount of greenhouse gases (GHG) for its size. Energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies can reduce energy consumption and consequently energy cost, as well as GHG. Energy efficiency was very important to ELA due to the elevated fuel costs at this remote location. Minor upgrades to lighting, equipment and building envelope were able to reduce energy costs and reduce load. Efficient energy saving measures were recommended that save on operating and maintenance costs, namely, changing to LED lights, replacing old equipment like refrigerators and downsizing of ice makers. This resulted in a 4.8% load reduction and subsequently reduced the initial capital cost for biomass by 27,000, by 49,500 for wind power and by 136,500 for solar power. Many alternative energies show promise as potential energy sources to reduce the diesel and propane consumption at ELA including wind energy, solar heating and biomass. A biomass based CHP system using the existing diesel generators as back-up has the shortest pay back period of the technologies modeled. The biomass based CHP system has a pay back period of 4.1 years at 0.80 per liter of diesel, as diesel price approaches $2.00 per liter the pay back period reduces to 0.9 years, 50% the generation cost compared to present generation costs. Biomass has been successfully tried and tested in many off-grid communities particularly in a small-scale off-grid setting in North America and internationally. Also, the site specific solar and wind data show that ELA has potential to harvest renewable resources and produce heat and power at competitive

  15. Perspectives on Advertising Education: Curricula, Research--Descriptive, Research--Experimental, Industry/Educators' Cooperation, Special Interest Areas, and Instruction; Proceedings of the 1974 National Conference for University Professors of Advertising at the Univ. of Rhode Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeigler, Sherilyn K., Ed.

    This document contains all of the presentations given at the 1974 National American Academy of Advertising Conference in Newport, Rhode Island. The theme of the conference was "Perspectives on Advertising" and the areas of focus were curricula and instruction, descriptive and experimental research, cooperation between educators and the advertising…

  16. Comparison of theoretical and experimental thrust performance of a 1030:1 area ratio rocket nozzle at a chamber pressure of 2413 kN/m2 (350 psia)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Tamara A.; Pavli, Albert J.; Kacynski, Kenneth J.

    1987-01-01

    The joint Army. Navy, NASA. Air Force (JANNAF) rocket engine peformnace prediction procedure is based on the use of various reference computer programs. One of the reference programs for nozzle analysis is the Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) Program. The purpose of this report is to calibrate the JANNAF procedure incorporated into the December l984 version of the TDK program for the high-area-ratio rocket engine regime. The calibration was accomplished by modeling the performance of a 1030:1 rocket nozzle tested at NASA Lewis Research Center. A detailed description of the experimental test conditions and TDK input parameters is given. The results show that the computer code predicts delivered vacuum specific impulse to within 0.12 to 1.9 percent of the experimental data. Vacuum thrust coefficient predictions were within + or - 1.3 percent of experimental results. Predictions of wall static pressure were within approximately + or - 5 percent of the measured values. An experimental value for inviscid thrust was obtained for the nozzle extension between area ratios of 427.5 and 1030 by using an integration of the measured wall static pressures. Subtracting the measured thrust gain produced by the nozzle between area ratios of 427.5 and 1030 from the inviscid thrust gain yielded experimental drag decrements of 10.85 and 27.00 N (2.44 and 6.07 lb) for mixture ratios of 3.04 and 4.29, respectively. These values correspond to 0.45 and 1.11 percent of the total vacuum thrust. At a mixture ratio of 4.29, the TDK predicted drag decrement was 16.59 N (3.73 lb), or 0.71 percent of the predicted total vacuum thrust.

  17. Experimental Study of the Effects of Finite Surface Disturbances and Angle of Attack on the Laminar Boundary Layer of an NACA 64A010 Airfoil with Area Suction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzberg, Milton A; Braslow, Albert L

    1952-01-01

    A Langley low-turbulence wind-tunnel investigation of a porous NACA 64A010 airfoil section has been made to determine the effectiveness of area suction in maintaining full-chord laminar flow behind finite disturbances and at angles of attacks other than 0 degrees. Aero suction resulted in only a small increase in the size of a finite disturbance required to cause premature boundary-layer transition as compared with that for the airfoil without suction. Combined wake and suction drags lower than the drag of the plain airfoil were obtained through a range of low lift coefficient by the use of area suction.

  18. In vivo experimental drug resistance study in Trypanosoma vivax isolates from tsetse infested and non-tsetse infested areas of Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dagnachew, Shimelis; Terefe, Getachew; Abebe, Getachew; Barry, Dave; McCulloch, Richard; Goddeeris, Bruno

    2015-06-01

    Ethiopia, particularly in the Northwest region, is affected by both tsetse fly and non-tsetse fly transmitted trypanosomosis with a significant impact on livestock productivity. The control of trypanosomosis in Ethiopia relies on either curative or prophylactic treatment of animals with diminazene aceturate (DA) or isometamidium chloride (ISM), respectively. However, since these two trypanocides have been on the market for more than 40 years, this may have resulted in drug-resistance. Therefore, in vivo drug resistance tests on two Ethiopian isolates of Trypanosoma vivax were completed, one from an area where tsetse flies are present and one from an area where tsetse flies are not present. Twenty four cattle (Bos indicus) aged between 6 and 12 months, purchased from a trypanosome-free area (Debre Brehan: Northcentral Ethiopia) and confirmed to be trypanosome-negative, were randomly assigned into four groups of six animals, which were infected with T. vivax isolated from a tsetse-infested or non-tsetse infested area, and in each case treated with curative doses of DA or ISM. Each animal were inoculated intravenously 3×10(6) trypanosomes from donor animals. Parasitaemia became patent earlier in infections with non-tsetse T. vivax (∼7 days post-infection) than tsetse (∼14 days post-infection). Both groups were treated at the highest peak parasitaemia with DA or ISM and nine cattle, four with non-tsetse T. vivax (two ISM- and two DA-treated) and five with tsetse T. vivax (three ISM- and two DA-treated) showed relapses of parasitaemia. Moreover, treatment did not improve diagnostic host markers of trypanosome infections in these animals. In conclusion, in vivo drug tests indicated the presence of resistant parasites (>20% of treated animals in each group relapsed) against recommended doses of both available trypanocidal drugs.

  19. An experimental study on the treatment and prevention of shimao zheng (fleece-eating) in sheep and goats in the Haizi area of Akesai county in China.

    PubMed

    Youde, Huang

    2002-01-01

    A series of experimental trials on methods of treatment and prevention of shimao zheng (fleece-eating) were carried out using various sulphates. The results confirmed the hypothesis that this is a local nutritional and metabolic disease, caused mainly by a sulphur deficiency, that could be prevented or cured with supplementary sulphur in the diet. In field studies, the clinical signs virtually disappeared within 14 days of the animals receiving medicated pellets. Over the same period, the concentrations of sulphur in the blood, liver and spleen returned to normal and the pathological changes in the skin improved. The condition of the controls became worse in each of these respects over this time. However, the pathological changes in the musculature were not allevated by the treatment.

  20. An experimental study on felsic rock artificial seawater interaction: implications for hydrothermal alteration and sulfate formation in the Kuroko mining area of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Yasumasa; Shikazono, Naotatsu; Ishiyama, Daizo; Sato, Hinako; Mizuta, Toshio

    2005-03-01

    Experimental studies on the interactions between artificial seawater (ASW) and fresh rhyolite, perlite and weakly altered dacitic tuff containing a small amount of smectite suggest changing cation transfer during smectite-forming processes. Initially, dissolution of K from the rocks accompanies incorporation of Mg and Ca from ASW during both earlier (devitrification stage) and later smectite formation, whereas Ca incorporated with early smectite formation redissolves with progressive reaction. Barium mobility increases toward the later smectite-forming reactions. Therefore, the large amounts of barite, anhydrite and gypsum in Kuroko ore deposits are considered to have precipitated from hydrothermal solutions derived from the interaction with previously altered felsic rocks during late smectite formation, rather than by the reaction with fresh felsic rocks.

  1. Is the increase in oil pollution a possibility of the presence of diverse microorganisms? An experimental dataset on oil prevalent areas of Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Rekadwad, Bhagwan N; Khobragade, Chandrahaysa N

    2016-12-01

    Survey data and wet lab reports presented in this paper were collected from Western coastlines of India from Goan beaches. Oil polluted areas were captured on camera as evidence for oil and tar pollution. Several microorganisms showing diverse characteristics such as pigment producers, salt tolerant and hydrocarbon resistance were isolated and cultured in the laboratory. The dataset presented in this paper supports "A case study on effects of oil spills and tar-ball pollution on beaches of Goa (India)" (Rekadwad and Khobragade, 2015) [1] and "Microbial diversity of oil spills and tar resistant bacteria isolated from beaches of Goa (India)" (Rekadwad and Khobragade, 2016) [2].

  2. Is the increase in oil pollution a possibility of the presence of diverse microorganisms? An experimental dataset on oil prevalent areas of Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Rekadwad, Bhagwan N; Khobragade, Chandrahaysa N

    2016-12-01

    Survey data and wet lab reports presented in this paper were collected from Western coastlines of India from Goan beaches. Oil polluted areas were captured on camera as evidence for oil and tar pollution. Several microorganisms showing diverse characteristics such as pigment producers, salt tolerant and hydrocarbon resistance were isolated and cultured in the laboratory. The dataset presented in this paper supports "A case study on effects of oil spills and tar-ball pollution on beaches of Goa (India)" (Rekadwad and Khobragade, 2015) [1] and "Microbial diversity of oil spills and tar resistant bacteria isolated from beaches of Goa (India)" (Rekadwad and Khobragade, 2016) [2]. PMID:27622205

  3. Effect of supply/regeneration section area ratio on the performance of desiccant wheels in hot and humid climates: an experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zendehboudi, Alireza; Esmaeili, Hossein

    2016-06-01

    Desiccant cooling system is a suitable alternative option for conventional cooling system in humid climates. It is an environmental protection technique for cooling buildings. This study has investigated the effect of supply/regeneration section area ratio on the performance of desiccant wheels in hot and humid climates, using Silica Gel (WSG) and Molecular Sieve (LT3) desiccants. To this end, some parameters such as outlet air humidity ratio, process removed moisture, process outlet temperature, reactivation outlet temperature and reactivation outlet moisture have been examined as a function of rotational speed and inlet air humidity ratio in 1:3, 1:2 and 1:1 split. In this study, desiccant materials are regenerated using a constant regeneration temperature of 80 °C, wheel rotation speed range of 4-12 RPH (revolutions per hour) and variable humidity. The results show that a rise in area ratio causes an increase in process removed moisture, process outlet temperature, reactivation outlet temperature and a drop in reactivation outlet moisture and outlet humidity ratio of process air.

  4. Analysis of an Experimental Cortical Network: i) Architectonics of Visual Areas 17 and 18 After Neonatal Injections of Ibotenic Acid; Similarities with Human Microgyria

    PubMed Central

    Innocenti, G. M.; Berbel, P.

    1991-01-01

    Lesions of cortical areas 17 and 18 have been produced in newborn kittens by local injections of the excitotoxin ibotenic acid (ibo). Twenty-four hours after an injection on postnatal days 2 or 3, the gray matter of areas 17 and 18 near the center of the injection appears completely destroyed, with the exception of a one-to-two cell-thick layer at the bottom of layer I. Intact migrating neurons and radial glia can be found light- and electron-microscopically in the region affected. During the following weeks a several hundred micron thick cortex reforms. In the adult, this cortex consists of superficial layers I, II and III as proven by cytoarchitectonics, continuity with the corresponding layers of the normal cortex and cellular composition. We believe that the recovery is due to completion of migration by neurons spared by the ibo injection. More severe destruction of cerebral cortex, i.e. complete loss of the neuronal layers or their reduction to a few cell-thick mantles can be obtained with ibo injections at the end of the second or, respectively, first postnatal week. Severity of lesion also depends on the dose of ibo injected. There are interesting similarities between the ibo-injured cortex and two human neocortical displasias: microgyria and ulegyria. PMID:1868117

  5. Experimental constraints on the rheology and mechanical properties of lava erupted in the Holuhraun area during the 2014 rifting event at Bárðarbunga, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavallee, Yan; Kendrick, Jackie; Wall, Richard; von Aulock, Felix; Kennedy, Ben; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn

    2015-04-01

    A fissure eruption began at Holuhraun on 16 August 2014, following magma drainage from the Bárðarbunga volcanic system (Iceland). Extrusion initiated as fire fountaining along a segment of the fracture and rapidly localised to a series of small, aligned cones containing a lava lake that over spilled at both ends, feeding a large lava field. The lava composition and flow behaviour put some constraints on its rheology and mechanical properties. The lava erupted is a nearly aphyric basalt containing approximately 2-3% plagioclase with traces of olivine and pyroxene in a quenched groundmass composed of glass and 20-25% microlites. The transition from fire fountaining to lava flow leads to lava with variable vesicularities; pyroclasts expelled during fire fountaining reach up to 80% vesicles whilst the lava contain up to 45% vesicles. Textures in the lava vary from a'a to slabby pahoehoe, and flow thicknesses from several meters to few centimetres. Tension gashes, crease structures and shear zones in the upper lava carapace reveal the importance of both compressive and tensional stresses. In addition, occasional frictional marks at the base of the lava flow as well as bulldozing of sediments along the flow hint at the importance of frictional properties of the rocks during lava flow. Flow properties, textures and failure modes are strongly dependent on the material properties as well as the local conditions of stress and temperature. Here we expand our field observation with preliminary high-temperature experimental data on the rheological and mechanical properties of the erupted lava. Dilatometric measurements are used to constrain the thermal expansion coefficient of the lava important to constrain the dynamics of cooling of the flow. Micropenetration is further employed to determine the viscosity of the melt at super-liquidus temperature, which is compared to the temperature-dependence of viscosity as constrained by geochemistry. Lastly, uniaxial compression and

  6. Experimental Study of Porosity Changes in Shale Caprocks Exposed to CO2-Saturated Brines I: Evolution of Mineralogy, Pore Connectivity, Pore Size Distribution, and Surface Area

    DOE PAGES

    Mouzakis, Katherine M.; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K.; Rother, Gernot; Bañuelos, José Leobardo; Wang, Xiuyu; Kaszuba, John P.; Heath, Jason E.; Miller, Quin R. S.; Alvarado, Vladimir; McCray, John E.

    2016-07-18

    Carbon capture, utilization, and storage, one proposed method of reducing anthropogenic emissions of CO2, relies on low permeability formations, such as shales, above injection formations to prevent upward migration of the injected CO2. Porosity in caprocks evaluated for sealing capacity before injection can be altered by geochemical reactions induced by dissolution of injected CO2 into pore fluids, impacting long-term sealing capacity. Therefore, long-term performance of CO2 sequestration sites may be dependent on both initial distribution and connectivity of pores in caprocks, and on changes induced by geochemical reaction after injection of CO2, which are currently poorly understood. This paper presentsmore » results from an experimental study of changes to caprock porosity and pore network geometry in two caprock formations under conditions relevant to CO2 sequestration. Pore connectivity and total porosity increased in the Gothic Shale; while total porosity increased but pore connectivity decreased in the Marine Tuscaloosa. Gothic Shale is a carbonate mudstone that contains volumetrically more carbonate minerals than Marine Tuscaloosa. Carbonate minerals dissolved to a greater extent than silicate minerals in Gothic Shale under high CO2 conditions, leading to increased porosity at length scales <~200 nm that contributed to increased pore connectivity. In contrast, silicate minerals dissolved to a greater extent than carbonate minerals in Marine Tuscaloosa leading to increased porosity at all length scales, and specifically an increase in the number of pores >~1 μm. Mineral reactions also contributed to a decrease in pore connectivity, possibly as a result of precipitation in pore throats or hydration of the high percentage of clays. Finally, this study highlights the role that mineralogy of the caprock can play in geochemical response to CO2 injection and resulting changes in sealing capacity in long-term CO2 storage projects.« less

  7. Mobility of Po and U-isotopes under acid mine drainage conditions: an experimental approach with samples from Río Tinto area (SW Spain).

    PubMed

    Barbero, L; Gázquez, M J; Bolívar, J P; Casas-Ruiz, M; Hierro, A; Baskaran, M; Ketterer, M E

    2014-12-01

    Under acid mine drainage (AMD) conditions, the solubilities and mobilities of many elements are vastly different from conditions prevailing in most natural waters. Studies are underway in the Río Tinto area (Iberian Pyrite Belt), in order to understand the behavior and mobility of long-lived U-series radionuclides under AMD conditions. A set of leaching experiments utilizing typical country rocks from the Tinto River basin, waste rock pile composite materials, iron-rich riverbed sediments and gossan (weathered naturally rock) were performed towards this purpose. Initial leaching experiments using distilled water kept in contact with solid material for 300, 100, 50 and 1 h resulted in very low concentrations of U with (234)U/(238)U activity ratios close to equilibrium and activity concentrations of (210)Po < 0.03 mBq/g. Leaching experiments performed with sulfuric acid media (0.1 and 0.01 M), and contact times between the solid and solution for 24 h were conducted to quantify the amount of U-isotopes and (210)Po leached, and the radioactive disequilibria generated between the radionuclides in the leachate. These experiments show that Po mobility in acidic conditions (pH around 1-2) is very low, with (210)Po activity in the leachate to be 6% in average for the solid sample. By contrast, mobility of U-isotopes is higher than that of Po, around 1.2%.

  8. Mobility of Po and U-isotopes under acid mine drainage conditions: an experimental approach with samples from Río Tinto area (SW Spain).

    PubMed

    Barbero, L; Gázquez, M J; Bolívar, J P; Casas-Ruiz, M; Hierro, A; Baskaran, M; Ketterer, M E

    2014-12-01

    Under acid mine drainage (AMD) conditions, the solubilities and mobilities of many elements are vastly different from conditions prevailing in most natural waters. Studies are underway in the Río Tinto area (Iberian Pyrite Belt), in order to understand the behavior and mobility of long-lived U-series radionuclides under AMD conditions. A set of leaching experiments utilizing typical country rocks from the Tinto River basin, waste rock pile composite materials, iron-rich riverbed sediments and gossan (weathered naturally rock) were performed towards this purpose. Initial leaching experiments using distilled water kept in contact with solid material for 300, 100, 50 and 1 h resulted in very low concentrations of U with (234)U/(238)U activity ratios close to equilibrium and activity concentrations of (210)Po < 0.03 mBq/g. Leaching experiments performed with sulfuric acid media (0.1 and 0.01 M), and contact times between the solid and solution for 24 h were conducted to quantify the amount of U-isotopes and (210)Po leached, and the radioactive disequilibria generated between the radionuclides in the leachate. These experiments show that Po mobility in acidic conditions (pH around 1-2) is very low, with (210)Po activity in the leachate to be 6% in average for the solid sample. By contrast, mobility of U-isotopes is higher than that of Po, around 1.2%. PMID:24308958

  9. [Occurrence and treatment of monogenoides in fingerlings of florida pompano (Trachinotus carolinus) cultivated experimentally in the north area of the state of São Paulo].

    PubMed

    Sanches, Eduardo G; Ostini, Sergio; Rodrigues, Vivian Carolina Dos S

    2007-01-01

    This work had as objective tests therapeutic treatments seeking the monogenea eradication in fingerlings Florida Pompano (Trachinotus carolinus) servants in cage net in the area of Ubatuba, State of São Paulo. The fingerlings presented an accentuated weigh loss and strong discoloration and through observation of scraped of gills under light microscope were identified a high amount of monogenea. Three treatments were tested in form of baths: T1 (fresh water for 5 minutes); T2 (formalin: 1:1.000 for 20 minutes) and T3: (formalin: 1:4.000 for 30 minutes). The treatments were appraised through scraped of gills, mounted among you laminate and lamínulas and observed to the light microscope. It was observed that in the tested conditions all of the treatments were efficient in the elimination of the monogenea without presenting lethality to the fish. The treatment is recommended T1 (take a bath in fresh water for 5 minutes) for the facility in the application and for the absence of use of chemical products.

  10. [Occurrence and treatment of monogenoides in fingerlings of florida pompano (Trachinotus carolinus) cultivated experimentally in the north area of the state of São Paulo].

    PubMed

    Sanches, Eduardo G; Ostini, Sergio; Rodrigues, Vivian Carolina Dos S

    2007-01-01

    This work had as objective tests therapeutic treatments seeking the monogenea eradication in fingerlings Florida Pompano (Trachinotus carolinus) servants in cage net in the area of Ubatuba, State of São Paulo. The fingerlings presented an accentuated weigh loss and strong discoloration and through observation of scraped of gills under light microscope were identified a high amount of monogenea. Three treatments were tested in form of baths: T1 (fresh water for 5 minutes); T2 (formalin: 1:1.000 for 20 minutes) and T3: (formalin: 1:4.000 for 30 minutes). The treatments were appraised through scraped of gills, mounted among you laminate and lamínulas and observed to the light microscope. It was observed that in the tested conditions all of the treatments were efficient in the elimination of the monogenea without presenting lethality to the fish. The treatment is recommended T1 (take a bath in fresh water for 5 minutes) for the facility in the application and for the absence of use of chemical products. PMID:17588314

  11. Sandstone compaction under actively controlled uniaxial strain conditions - an experimental study on the causes of subsidence in the Dutch Wadden Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hol, Sander; Mossop, Antony; van der Linden, Arjan; Zuiderwijk, Pedro; Makurat, Axel; van Eijs, Rob

    2016-04-01

    In the Wadden Sea, a tidal-flat area located between the North Sea and the Dutch mainland shore, and UNESCO World Heritage site, subsidence could potentially impact the ecological system. To guide the licensing process governing gas extraction for the area by a solid understanding of the system's response to production, Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij (NAM) has carried out a study on the magnitudes, timing, and mechanisms of subsidence related to gas production. As part of this study program, we address the effect of production-induced reservoir compaction, using core samples from the Moddergat field located at the Wadden Sea coastline, from a depth of ~3800 m TVDSS, to assess the nature of the compaction mechanisms that operate. In this contribution, we focus on the uniaxial strain response of Permian, Aeolian sandstone to pore pressure depletion. As the majority of experiments reported in the literature are conducted under triaxial stress conditions, this data set is somewhat unique, and can help confirm the validity of micromechanical processes found for triaxial stress conditions. We report over 30 data sets of experiments carried out using 1.0 and 1.5 inch diameter plugs, sub-sampled from the extracted sandstone core material. The experiments start at in-situ conditions of pore pressure (Pf=~57 MPa), stress (Sv=~80 MPa, Sh=~67 MPa) and temperature (T up to 100 °C), and deplete to a pore pressure of 3 MPa, under actively controlled lateral constraint boundary conditions (i.e. uniaxial strain). Care was taken to systematically vary porosity and sample morphology to ensure representation of the intra-reservoir variability. Our laboratory data show that pressure-depletion results in a strain in the range of 5·10-3-1·10-2 over the total duration of the experiments of 5-12 weeks, with approximately 80% of the total strain response being close to instantaneous, and 20% developing over time. The total strain response develops during depletion as a result of

  12. The effect of minimum impact education on visitor spatial behavior in parks and protected areas: An experimental investigation using GPS-based tracking.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Abigail M; Monz, Christopher; D'Antonio, Ashley; Manning, Robert E; Reigner, Nathan; Goonan, Kelly A; Jacobi, Charles

    2015-10-01

    The unmanaged impacts of recreation and tourism can often result in unacceptable changes in resource conditions and quality of the visitor experience. Minimum impact visitor education programs aim to reduce the impacts of recreation by altering visitor behaviors. Specifically, education seeks to reduce impacts resulting from lack of knowledge both about the consequences of one's actions and impact-minimizing best practices. In this study, three different on-site minimum impact education strategies ("treatments") and a control condition were applied on the trails and summit area of Sargent Mountain in Acadia National Park, Maine. Treatment conditions were designed to encourage visitors to stay on marked trails and minimize off-trail travel. Treatments included a message delivered via personal contact, and both an ecological-based message and an amenity-based message posted on signs located alongside the trail. A control condition of current trail markings and directional signs was also assessed. The efficacy of the messaging was evaluated through the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking of visitor spatial behavior on/off trails. Spatial analysis of GPS tracks revealed statistically significant differences among treatments, with the personal contact treatment yielding significantly less dispersion of visitors on the mountain summit. Results also indicate that the signs deployed in the study were ineffective at limiting off-trail use beyond what can be accomplished with trail markers and directional signs. These findings suggest that personal contact by a uniformed ranger or volunteer may be the most effective means of message delivery for on-site minimum impact education. PMID:26225933

  13. The effect of minimum impact education on visitor spatial behavior in parks and protected areas: An experimental investigation using GPS-based tracking.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Abigail M; Monz, Christopher; D'Antonio, Ashley; Manning, Robert E; Reigner, Nathan; Goonan, Kelly A; Jacobi, Charles

    2015-10-01

    The unmanaged impacts of recreation and tourism can often result in unacceptable changes in resource conditions and quality of the visitor experience. Minimum impact visitor education programs aim to reduce the impacts of recreation by altering visitor behaviors. Specifically, education seeks to reduce impacts resulting from lack of knowledge both about the consequences of one's actions and impact-minimizing best practices. In this study, three different on-site minimum impact education strategies ("treatments") and a control condition were applied on the trails and summit area of Sargent Mountain in Acadia National Park, Maine. Treatment conditions were designed to encourage visitors to stay on marked trails and minimize off-trail travel. Treatments included a message delivered via personal contact, and both an ecological-based message and an amenity-based message posted on signs located alongside the trail. A control condition of current trail markings and directional signs was also assessed. The efficacy of the messaging was evaluated through the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking of visitor spatial behavior on/off trails. Spatial analysis of GPS tracks revealed statistically significant differences among treatments, with the personal contact treatment yielding significantly less dispersion of visitors on the mountain summit. Results also indicate that the signs deployed in the study were ineffective at limiting off-trail use beyond what can be accomplished with trail markers and directional signs. These findings suggest that personal contact by a uniformed ranger or volunteer may be the most effective means of message delivery for on-site minimum impact education.

  14. Summary of experimental talks

    SciTech Connect

    Derrick, M.

    1999-12-08

    This final talk of the meeting briefly discussed a number of experimental topics that the author found particularly interesting in the area of High Energy Physics. It also includes some critical comments about the future direction of their discipline.

  15. Blois V: Experimental summary

    SciTech Connect

    Albrow, M.G.

    1993-09-01

    The author gives a summary talk of the best experimental data given at the Vth Blois Workshop on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering. He addresses the following eight areas in his talk: total and elastic cross sections; single diffractive excitation; electron-proton scattering; di-jets and rapidity gaps; areas of future study; spins and asymmetries; high-transverse momentum and masses at the Tevatron; and disoriented chiral condensates and cosmic radiation.

  16. Experimental Pi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corris, G.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the calculation of pi by means of experimental methods. Polygon circle ratios, Archimedes' method, Buffon's needles, a Monte Carlo method, and prime number approaches are used. Presents three BASIC programs for the calculations. (YP)

  17. Convenience experimentation.

    PubMed

    Krohs, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    Systems biology aims at explaining life processes by means of detailed models of molecular networks, mainly on the whole-cell scale. The whole cell perspective distinguishes the new field of systems biology from earlier approaches within molecular cell biology. The shift was made possible by the high throughput methods that were developed for gathering 'omic' (genomic, proteomic, etc.) data. These new techniques are made commercially available as semi-automatic analytic equipment, ready-made analytic kits and probe arrays. There is a whole industry of supplies for what may be called convenience experimentation. My paper inquires some epistemic consequences of strong reliance on convenience experimentation in systems biology. In times when experimentation was automated to a lesser degree, modeling and in part even experimentation could be understood fairly well as either being driven by hypotheses, and thus proceed by the testing of hypothesis, or as being performed in an exploratory mode, intended to sharpen concepts or initially vague phenomena. In systems biology, the situation is dramatically different. Data collection became so easy (though not cheap) that experimentation is, to a high degree, driven by convenience equipment, and model building is driven by the vast amount of data that is produced by convenience experimentation. This results in a shift in the mode of science. The paper shows that convenience driven science is not primarily hypothesis-testing, nor is it in an exploratory mode. It rather proceeds in a gathering mode. This shift demands another shift in the mode of evaluation, which now becomes an exploratory endeavor, in response to the superabundance of gathered data.

  18. Experimental errors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downie, Neil; Turner, Jez

    2014-07-01

    In reply to Matin Durrani's article “Experimental mistake” (May p15, see also http://ow.ly/vDYlM) criticizing plans to base A-level science exams in England entirely on written tests, with practical skills noted as a separate grade.

  19. SPHINX experimenters information package

    SciTech Connect

    Zarick, T.A.

    1996-08-01

    This information package was prepared for both new and experienced users of the SPHINX (Short Pulse High Intensity Nanosecond X-radiator) flash X-Ray facility. It was compiled to help facilitate experiment design and preparation for both the experimenter(s) and the SPHINX operational staff. The major areas covered include: Recording Systems Capabilities,Recording System Cable Plant, Physical Dimensions of SPHINX and the SPHINX Test cell, SPHINX Operating Parameters and Modes, Dose Rate Map, Experiment Safety Approval Form, and a Feedback Questionnaire. This package will be updated as the SPHINX facilities and capabilities are enhanced.

  20. Experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    MacPherson, B; Pfeiffer, C J

    1976-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are complex, problematic diseases of unknown etiology in man, and appropriate experimental models would be useful in elucidating their pathogenesis and treatment. Although there have been numerous attempts to produce inflammatory ulcerative colonic disease in laboratory animals resembling those human disease forms, none has been entirely successful. Investigators have conducted experiments involving almost every etiological factor suggested for initiation of these diseases. The methods reviewed in this paper include production of experimental colitis by vascular impairment, and immunological methods such as bacterial infection, allergic reactions, direct and indirect hypersensitivity reactions, as well as autoimmune mechanisms. The results of carrageenan-induced colitis, irradiation, dietary, and drug-induced techniques are also discussed and the frequency and nature of spontaneous colonic lesions in animals is summarized.

  1. Sensitive Small Area Photometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, M. D.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a simple photometer capable of measuring small light intensities over small areas. The inexpensive, easy-to- construct instrument is intended for use in a student laboratory to measure the light intensities in a diffraction experiment from single or multiple slits. Typical experimental results are presented along with the theoretical…

  2. Animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  3. Experimental macroevolution†

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Graham

    2016-01-01

    The convergence of several disparate research programmes raises the possibility that the long-term evolutionary processes of innovation and radiation may become amenable to laboratory experimentation. Ancestors might be resurrected directly from naturally stored propagules or tissues, or indirectly from the expression of ancestral genes in contemporary genomes. New kinds of organisms might be evolved through artificial selection of major developmental genes. Adaptive radiation can be studied by mimicking major ecological transitions in the laboratory. All of these possibilities are subject to severe quantitative and qualitative limitations. In some cases, however, laboratory experiments may be capable of illuminating the processes responsible for the evolution of new kinds of organisms. PMID:26763705

  4. Experimental macroevolution.

    PubMed

    Bell, Graham

    2016-01-13

    The convergence of several disparate research programmes raises the possibility that the long-term evolutionary processes of innovation and radiation may become amenable to laboratory experimentation. Ancestors might be resurrected directly from naturally stored propagules or tissues, or indirectly from the expression of ancestral genes in contemporary genomes. New kinds of organisms might be evolved through artificial selection of major developmental genes. Adaptive radiation can be studied by mimicking major ecological transitions in the laboratory. All of these possibilities are subject to severe quantitative and qualitative limitations. In some cases, however, laboratory experiments may be capable of illuminating the processes responsible for the evolution of new kinds of organisms. PMID:26763705

  5. Pigeon homing from unfamiliar areas

    PubMed Central

    Wallraff, Hans G

    2014-01-01

    The conclusion that pigeons and other birds can find their way home from unfamiliar areas by means of olfactory signals is well based on a variety of experiments and supporting investigations of the chemical atmosphere. Here I argue that alternative concepts proposing other sources of geopositional information are disproved by experimental findings or, at least, are not experimentally supported and hardly realistic. PMID:25346789

  6. EXPERIMENTAL THYROIDISM

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, R. H.

    1898-01-01

    From the results of the various experiments already detailed I feel justified in drawing the following conclusions: (1) Absolutely fresh thyroid gland is not poisonous, in the usual sense of the term, when absorbed through the alimentary canal. (2) The symptoms of induced thyroidism are manifestations of an intoxication resulting from the ingestion of decomposed thyroid material, a conclusion that agrees in part with the previously related observations of Lanz. (3) The so-called experimental thyroidism is not specific for the thyroid only, for the ingestion of many substances derived from animal tissues other than the thyroid gland may produce an intoxication strikingly similar in every respect to that of experimental thyroidism. (4) Most, if not all, animal tissues yield substances which, if injected in large quantities directly into the circulation or beneath the skin, will produce an intoxication often very similar to that produced by injections of various substances derived from the fresh thyroid tissue. (5) The effects resulting from the intravascular or subcutaneous injections of aqueous extracts, decoctions and the concentrated extractives of the thyroid tissue, of the thymus, of muscle, etc., are by no means necessarily indicative of the function and the action of the hypothetical internal secretions of the same tissues during life. (6) The utilization of the fact that ingestion of decomposed thyroid material produces on certain occasions an intoxication with certain symptoms similar to some of those of G-raves' disease is not justifiable for the furtherance of the theory that the symptoms of exophthalmic goitre result from an over-production of the thyroid secretion. (7) Our results lead us to conclude with Drechsel that the fresh thyroid tissue yields at least probably two substances that are capable of palliating the symptoms of the acute cachexia in totally thyroidless dogs. (8) The thymus tissue also yields one and probably two substances that are as

  7. Experimental radioimmunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Buchsbaum, D J; Langmuir, V K; Wessels, B W

    1993-01-01

    Radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies have been used for radioimmunotherapy studies with human tumor spheroids and murine and human tumor xenografts in experimental animals. This paper reviews the work that has been performed in these models with different types of cancer, and highlights those papers that have presented dosimetry estimates and attempts to correlate the findings. Radioimmunotherapy studies in multicell spheroids, as a model for micrometastases, have been performed in human neuroblastoma, colon cancer, and melanoma cell lines using 131I-, 125I-, 186Re-, and 212Bi-labeled antibodies. The uniform geometry of the spheroid has allowed radiation dose estimates to be made. Up to three logs of cell kill have been achieved with 131I- and 186Re-specific antibody with minimal toxicity from labeled nonspecific antibody, but 212Bi-antibody had little effect because of its short half-life as shown by Langmuir. It appears that the two most important factors for therapeutic efficacy in this model are good penetration of the radiolabeled antibody and an adequate radionuclide half-life to allow penetration of the immunoconjugate prior to significant radionuclide decay. Radioimmunotherapy studies in animals bearing transplants of colon cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, hepatoma, renal cell carcinoma, neuroblastoma, glioma, mammary carcinoma, small cell lung carcinoma, cervical carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, and bladder cancer have been performed with 131I, 90Y, 186Re, 153Sm, and 177Lu beta emitting, and 212Bi alpha emitting radionuclides conjugated to monoclonal antibodies. A few studies compared different radionuclides in the same model system. The approaches that have been used in these studies to estimate tumor dosimetry include the MIRD approach, thermoluminescent dosimetry, autoradiography, and comparison to external irradiation. The majority of investigators have estimated the dose to tumor and normal organs using MIRD-based calculations (time-activity curve and

  8. Experimental Summary and Outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Bosted

    2005-02-01

    A brief experimental overview of the workshop is given, with emphasis on polarized targets from the experimental equipment perspective, and kinematic coverage, precision, and newly investigated channels from the experimental results perspective.

  9. Experimental Model of the L-Area Outfall

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, B.S.

    2001-07-17

    A once-through cooling lake has been chosen to provide for thermal mitigation of the reactor effluent cooling water. This alternative provides satisfactory cooling performance and thermal buffering, with moderate construction time, cost, and maintenance. In the event that the cooling lake fails to meet South Carolina environmental requirements during the summer months, SRP will reduce reactor power until supplemental cooling can be provided. To minimize this further expense and delay, it is desirable to realize the best performance possible from the cooling lake.

  10. Experimental cultivation of cannabis plants in the Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Cortis, G; Luchi, P; Palmas, M

    1985-01-01

    In research carried out in 1982, which included the cultivation of cannabis plants with low, medium and high levels of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the authors have determined the parameters for individualization and classification of cannabis plants according to their intoxicant potential. This can help to provide courts of law with valid supportive expertise on cannabis trafficking cases. The parameters are the percentages of THC in cannabinoids and in the dried substance of a plant, as well as the percentage of cannabinoids in the dried substance. On the basis of these parameters, the authors have found that a cannabis plant in which the percentage of THC exceeds 50 per cent of the total amount of cannabinoids of the extractable resin and 0.3 per cent of the total amount of dried substance, and in which the amounts of resin and cannabinoids are substantial, has a considerable intoxicant potential and is liable to be used for illicit production of cannabis for abuse. On the contrary, a plant with a THC level below 50 per cent of the cannabinoids and 0.3 per cent of the dried substance, in addition to a low level of total cannabinoids, has low intoxicant potential and can be used in industry for the production of oil and rope. On the basis of these parameters it is also possible to predict the intoxicant potential of a young cannabis plant harvested at a relatively early stage of its development.

  11. Experimental realization of invisibility cloaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchelokova, A. V.; Melchakova, I. V.; Slobozhanyuk, A. P.; Yankovskaya, E. A.; Simovski, C. R.; Belov, P. A.

    2015-02-01

    Advances in the studies of metamaterials have pushed the development of invisibility cloaks, which suppress scattering by objects within certain frequency ranges. During recent years, there has been a transition from a purely theoretical consideration of the cloaking effect to its practical implementation. This paper is an overview of the current state of the art in the area of invisibility cloaks. Special emphasis is put on experimental realizations of such devices.

  12. Experimental medicine 1000 years ago

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Halim, Rabie E.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the state of experimentation in the field of medicine during the Medieval Islamic era. With few exceptions, most of the contemporary sources on history of medicine propagate the idea that the roots of experimental medicine in its modern form, including clinical trials and drug-potency studies, first started during the European Renaissance in the 16th to the 18th centuries. This study is part of an ongoing multidisciplinary primary-source investigation of the original Arabic works of 11 Islamic medical scholars who lived and practiced between the 9th and the 13th centuries. The study critically evaluated and documented their contributions to the development of the scientific method and experimental medicine during that medieval Islamic era in several areas including critical appraisal of previous knowledge, clinical observations and case reports, clinical therapeutic trials, drug potency trials, experimentation on animals, dissection and dissection experiments as well as postmortem examinations. In each of the above-mentioned areas, significant contributions were made during the Medieval Islamic era from as early as the ninth century AD. PMID:21747591

  13. Weathering of the Rio Blanco quartz diorite, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: Coupling oxidation, dissolution, and fracturing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buss, H.L.; Sak, P.B.; Webb, S.M.; Brantley, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    In the mountainous Rio Icacos watershed in northeastern Puerto Rico, quartz diorite bedrock weathers spheroidally, producing a 0.2-2 m thick zone of partially weathered rock layers (???2.5 cm thickness each) called rindlets, which form concentric layers around corestones. Spheroidal fracturing has been modeled to occur when a weathering reaction with a positive ??V of reaction builds up elastic strain energy. The rates of spheroidal fracturing and saprolite formation are therefore controlled by the rate of the weathering reaction. Chemical, petrographic, and spectroscopic evidence demonstrates that biotite oxidation is the most likely fracture-inducing reaction. This reaction occurs with an expansion in d (0 0 1) from 10.0 to 10.5 A??, forming 'altered biotite'. Progressive biotite oxidation across the rindlet zone was inferred from thin sections and gradients in K and Fe(II). Using the gradient in Fe(II) and constraints based on cosmogenic age dates, we calculated a biotite oxidation reaction rate of 8.2 ?? 10-14 mol biotite m-2 s-1. Biotite oxidation was documented within the bedrock corestone by synchrotron X-ray microprobe fluorescence imaging and XANES. X-ray microprobe images of Fe(II) and Fe(III) at 2 ??m resolution revealed that oxidized zones within individual biotite crystals are the first evidence of alteration of the otherwise unaltered corestone. Fluids entering along fractures lead to the dissolution of plagioclase within the rindlet zone. Within 7 cm surrounding the rindlet-saprolite interface, hornblende dissolves to completion at a rate of 6.3 ?? 10-13 mol hornblende m-2 s-1: the fastest reported rate of hornblende weathering in the field. This rate is consistent with laboratory-derived hornblende dissolution rates. By revealing the coupling of these mineral weathering reactions to fracturing and porosity formation we are able to describe the process by which the quartz diorite bedrock disaggregates and forms saprolite. In the corestone, biotite oxidation induces spheroidal fracturing, facilitating the influx of fluids that react with other minerals, dissolving plagioclase and chlorite, creating additional porosity, and eventually dissolving hornblende and precipitating secondary minerals. The thickness of the resultant saprolite is maintained at steady state by a positive feedback between the denudation rate and the weathering advance rate driven by the concentration of pore water O2 at the bedrock-saprolite interface. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Weathering of the Rio Blanco Quartz Diorite, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: Coupling Oxidation, Dissolution, And Fracturing

    SciTech Connect

    Buss, H.L.; Sak, P.B.; Webb, S.M.; Brantley, S.L.

    2009-05-12

    In the mountainous Rio Icacos watershed in northeastern Puerto Rico, quartz diorite bedrock weathers spheroidally, producing a 0.2-2 m thick zone of partially weathered rock layers ({approx}2.5 cm thickness each) called rindlets, which form concentric layers around corestones. Spheroidal fracturing has been modeled to occur when a weathering reaction with a positive {Delta}V of reaction builds up elastic strain energy. The rates of spheroidal fracturing and saprolite formation are therefore controlled by the rate of the weathering reaction. Chemical, petrographic, and spectroscopic evidence demonstrates that biotite oxidation is the most likely fracture-inducing reaction. This reaction occurs with an expansion in d (0 0 1) from 10.0 to 10.5 {angstrom}, forming 'altered biotite'. Progressive biotite oxidation across the rindlet zone was inferred from thin sections and gradients in K and Fe(II). Using the gradient in Fe(II) and constraints based on cosmogenic age dates, we calculated a biotite oxidation reaction rate of 8.2 x 10{sup -14} mol biotite m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Biotite oxidation was documented within the bedrock corestone by synchrotron X-ray microprobe fluorescence imaging and XANES. X-ray microprobe images of Fe(II) and Fe(III) at 2 {micro}m resolution revealed that oxidized zones within individual biotite crystals are the first evidence of alteration of the otherwise unaltered corestone. Fluids entering along fractures lead to the dissolution of plagioclase within the rindlet zone. Within 7 cm surrounding the rindlet-saprolite interface, hornblende dissolves to completion at a rate of 6.3 x 10{sup -13} mol hornblende m{sup -2} s{sup -1}: the fastest reported rate of hornblende weathering in the field. This rate is consistent with laboratory-derived hornblende dissolution rates. By revealing the coupling of these mineral weathering reactions to fracturing and porosity formation we are able to describe the process by which the quartz diorite bedrock disaggregates and forms saprolite. In the corestone, biotite oxidation induces spheroidal fracturing, facilitating the influx of fluids that react with other minerals, dissolving plagioclase and chlorite, creating additional porosity, and eventually dissolving hornblende and precipitating secondary minerals. The thickness of the resultant saprolite is maintained at steady state by a positive feedback between the denudation rate and the weathering advance rate driven by the concentration of pore water O{sub 2} at the bedrock-saprolite interface.

  15. Divide and conquer: strategic decision areas

    PubMed Central

    Kolling, Nils; Hunt, Laurence T

    2016-01-01

    Human decisions are often strategic, but this can prove difficult to study experimentally. The board game shogi is used to investigate the functional neuroanatomy of strategic decisions, revealing different brain areas to other forms of choice. PMID:25919959

  16. What Are the Moon's Dark Areas?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar, Varda; Evry, Zipora; Zinn, Barbara

    2000-01-01

    Presents activities designed to help children experimentally determine what the dark areas of the moon consist of, and compares primary children's ideas about the moon with those of early scientists. (WRM)

  17. 47 CFR 5.404 - Area of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Area of operation. 5.404 Section 5.404 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EXPERIMENTAL RADIO SERVICE Medical Testing Experimental Radio Licenses § 5.404 Area of operation. Applications must specify, and the Commission will grant authorizations for, a geographic area...

  18. Microexperiencia Educativa (Microeducational Experimentation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton Meis, Roberto

    1970-01-01

    Experimentation for educational reform in Argentina is limited to specifically designated schools which are to be in a permanent state of experimentation. This article presents the official statements designating the experimental schools and includes remarks covering administration, evaluation, and supervision. (VM)

  19. Students' Epistemologies about Experimental Physics: Validating the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Student learning in instructional physics labs represents a growing area of research that includes investigations of students' beliefs and expectations about the nature of experimental physics. To directly probe students' epistemologies about experimental physics and support broader lab transformation efforts at the University of Colorado Boulder…

  20. Land use, population dynamics, and land-cover change in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter B in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gould, William A.; Martinuzzi, Sebastián; Pares-Ramos, Isabel K.; Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.; Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed current and historic land use and land cover in the Luquillo Mountains and surrounding area in eastern Puerto Rico, including four small subwatersheds that are study watersheds of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program. This region occupies an area of 1,616 square kilometers, about 18 percent of the total land in Puerto Rico. Closed forests occupy about 37 percent of the area, woodlands and shrublands 7 percent, nonforest vegetation 43 percent, urban development 10 percent, and water and natural barrens total less than 2 percent. The area has been classified into three main land-use categories by integrating recent census information (population density per barrio in the year 2000) with satellite image analyses (degree of developed area versus natural land cover). Urban land use (in this analysis, land with more than 20 percent developed cover within a 1-square-kilometer area and population density greater than 500 people per square kilometer) covered 16 percent of eastern Puerto Rico. Suburban land use (more than 80 percent natural land cover, more than 500 people per square kilometer, and primarily residential) covers 50 percent of the area. Rural land use (more than 80 percent natural land cover, less than 500 people per square kilometer, and primarily active or abandoned agricultural, wetland, steep slope, or protected conservation areas) covered 34 percent of the area. Our analysis of land-cover change indicates that in the 1990s, forest cover increased at the expense of woodlands and grasslands. Urban development increased by 16 percent during that time. The most pronounced change in the last seven decades has been the shift from a nonforested to a forested landscape and the intensification of the ring of urbanization that surrounds the long-protected Luquillo Experimental Forest.

  1. The Experimental Hydrology Wiki

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blume, T.; Tromp-van Meerveld, I.

    2009-04-01

    The „Experimental Hydrology Wiki" is a forum for experimental hydrologists, which allows us to learn about, recommend, question and discuss methods and equipment of experimental hydrology. As a database of "lessons learned" it does not only contain short descriptions of specific experimental equipment but also information on encountered errors and problems and recommendations on how to deal with them. This makes valuable personal field experience accessible to a wider audience and thus helps us in not making the same mistakes others have made before us. The general idea and layout of the Experimental Hydrology Wiki is presented here along with an invitation to all experimental hydrologists to contribute with their knowledge and experience! http://www.experimental-hydrology.net/

  2. Experimental lithium system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kolowith, R.; Berg, J.D.; Miller, W.C.

    1985-04-01

    A full-scale mockup of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system was built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This isothermal mockup, called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS), was prototypic of FMIT, excluding the accelerator and dump heat exchanger. This 3.8 m/sup 3/ lithium test loop achieved over 16,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including the HEDL-supplied electromagnetic lithium pump, the lithium jet target, the purification and characterization hardware, as well as the auxiliary argon and vacuum systems. Experience with the test loop provided important information on system operation, performance, and reliability. This report presents a complete overview of the entire Experimental Lithium System test program and also includes a summary of such areas as instrumentation, coolant chemistry, vapor/aerosol transport, and corrosion.

  3. Experimental design methods for bioengineering applications.

    PubMed

    Keskin Gündoğdu, Tuğba; Deniz, İrem; Çalışkan, Gülizar; Şahin, Erdem Sefa; Azbar, Nuri

    2016-01-01

    Experimental design is a form of process analysis in which certain factors are selected to obtain the desired responses of interest. It may also be used for the determination of the effects of various independent factors on a dependent factor. The bioengineering discipline includes many different areas of scientific interest, and each study area is affected and governed by many different factors. Briefly analyzing the important factors and selecting an experimental design for optimization are very effective tools for the design of any bioprocess under question. This review summarizes experimental design methods that can be used to investigate various factors relating to bioengineering processes. The experimental methods generally used in bioengineering are as follows: full factorial design, fractional factorial design, Plackett-Burman design, Taguchi design, Box-Behnken design and central composite design. These design methods are briefly introduced, and then the application of these design methods to study different bioengineering processes is analyzed.

  4. Is animal experimentation fundamental?

    PubMed

    d'Acampora, Armando José; Rossi, Lucas Félix; Ely, Jorge Bins; de Vasconcellos, Zulmar Acciolli

    2009-01-01

    The understanding about the utilization of experimental animals in scientific research and in teaching is many times a complex issue. Special attention needs to be paid to attain the understanding by the general public of the importance of animal experimentation in experimental research and in undergraduate medical teaching. Experimental teaching and research based on the availability of animals for experimentation is important and necessary for the personal and scientific development of the physician-to-be. The technological arsenal which intends to mimic experimentation animals and thus fully replace their use many times does not prove to be compatible with the reality of the living animal. The purpose of this paper is to discuss aspects concerning this topic, bringing up an issue which is complex and likely to arouse in-depth reflections.

  5. Mainstreaming Caenorhabditis elegans in experimental evolution.

    PubMed

    Gray, Jeremy C; Cutter, Asher D

    2014-03-01

    Experimental evolution provides a powerful manipulative tool for probing evolutionary process and mechanism. As this approach to hypothesis testing has taken purchase in biology, so too has the number of experimental systems that use it, each with its own unique strengths and weaknesses. The depth of biological knowledge about Caenorhabditis nematodes, combined with their laboratory tractability, positions them well for exploiting experimental evolution in animal systems to understand deep questions in evolution and ecology, as well as in molecular genetics and systems biology. To date, Caenorhabditis elegans and related species have proved themselves in experimental evolution studies of the process of mutation, host-pathogen coevolution, mating system evolution and life-history theory. Yet these organisms are not broadly recognized for their utility for evolution experiments and remain underexploited. Here, we outline this experimental evolution work undertaken so far in Caenorhabditis, detail simple methodological tricks that can be exploited and identify research areas that are ripe for future discovery.

  6. 7. VIEW WEST, FERNOW EXPERIMENTAL FOREST WELL HOUSE, FERNOW EXPERIMENTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW WEST, FERNOW EXPERIMENTAL FOREST WELL HOUSE, FERNOW EXPERIMENTAL FOREST BUNKHOUSE, FERNOW EXPERIMENTAL FOREST GARAGE, AND FERNOW EXPERIMENTAL FOREST RESIDENCE. - Parsons Nursery, South side of U.S. Route 219, Parsons, Tucker County, WV

  7. The Experimental Hydrology Wiki

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blume, Theresa; van Meerveld, Ilja; Graeff, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The "Experimental Hydrology Wiki" is a forum for hydrologists to learn about, recommend, question and discuss new and established, basic and advanced methods and equipment for hydrological research. As a database of "lessons learned" it does not only contain short descriptions of specific experimental equipment but also information on encountered errors and problems and recommendations on how to deal with them. This makes valuable personal field experience accessible to a wider audience. The Wiki allows experimentalists to share and find solutions for common problems and thus helps us in not making the same mistakes others have made before us. At the same time modellers can use this platform to find information on sources of error and uncertainty in the data they use for model validation and calibration. The general idea and layout of the Experimental Hydrology Wiki is presented here along with an invitation to all experimental hydrologists to contribute their knowledge and experiences! http://www.experimental- hydrology.net/

  8. Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Li, Xiaowen; Li, Zengyuan; Ma, Mingguo; Wang, Jian; Xiao, Qing; Liu, Qiang; Che, Tao; Chen, Erxue; Yan, Guangjian; Hu, Zeyong; Zhang, Lixin; Chu, Rongzhong; Su, Peixi; Liu, Qinhuo; Liu, Shaomin; Wang, Jindi; Niu, Zheng; Chen, Yan; Jin, Rui; Wang, Weizhen; Ran, Youhua; Xin, Xiaozhou; Ren, Huazhong

    2009-11-01

    The Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER) is a simultaneous airborne, satellite-borne, and ground-based remote sensing experiment aiming to improve the observability, understanding, and predictability of hydrological and related ecological processes at a catchment scale. WATER consists of the cold region, forest, and arid region hydrological experiments as well as a hydrometeorology experiment and took place in the Heihe River Basin, a typical inland river basin in the northwest of China. The field campaigns have been completed, with an intensive observation period lasting from 7 March to 12 April, from 15 May to 22 July, and from 23 August to 5 September 2008: in total, 120 days. Twenty-five airborne missions were flown. Airborne sensors including microwave radiometers at L, K, and Ka bands, imaging spectrometer, thermal imager, CCD, and lidar were used. Various satellite data were collected. Ground measurements were carried out at four scales, that is, key experimental area, foci experimental area, experiment site, and elementary sampling plot, using ground-based remote sensing instruments, densified network of automatic meteorological stations, flux towers, and hydrological stations. On the basis of these measurements, the remote sensing retrieval models and algorithms of water cycle variables are to be developed or improved, and a catchment-scale land/hydrological data assimilation system is being developed. This paper reviews the background, scientific objectives, experiment design, filed campaign implementation, and current status of WATER. The analysis of the data will continue over the next 2 years, and limited revisits to the field are anticipated.

  9. Area contingency plan Chicago area. (COTP Chicago)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Chicago Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Chicago Coastal Zone.

  10. Area contingency plan Wisconsin area. (COTP Milwaukee)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-30

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Eastern Wisconsin Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Milwaukee Coastal Zone.

  11. Health Service Areas (HSAs) - Small Area Estimates

    Cancer.gov

    Health Service Areas (HSAs) are a compromise between the 3000 counties and the 50 states. An HSA may be thought of as an area that is relatively self-contained with respect to hospital care and may cross over state boundries.

  12. Experimental Semiotics: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Galantucci, Bruno; Garrod, Simon

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years a new line of research has appeared in the literature. This line of research, which may be referred to as experimental semiotics (ES; Galantucci, 2009; Galantucci and Garrod, 2010), focuses on the experimental investigation of novel forms of human communication. In this review we will (a) situate ES in its conceptual context, (b) illustrate the main varieties of studies thus far conducted by experimental semioticians, (c) illustrate three main themes of investigation which have emerged within this line of research, and (d) consider implications of this work for cognitive neuroscience. PMID:21369364

  13. Experimental semiotics: a review.

    PubMed

    Galantucci, Bruno; Garrod, Simon

    2011-01-01

    In the last few years a new line of research has appeared in the literature. This line of research, which may be referred to as experimental semiotics (ES; Galantucci, 2009; Galantucci and Garrod, 2010), focuses on the experimental investigation of novel forms of human communication. In this review we will (a) situate ES in its conceptual context, (b) illustrate the main varieties of studies thus far conducted by experimental semioticians, (c) illustrate three main themes of investigation which have emerged within this line of research, and (d) consider implications of this work for cognitive neuroscience.

  14. 47 CFR 5.404 - Area of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Area of operation. 5.404 Section 5.404 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EXPERIMENTAL RADIO SERVICE Medical Testing Experimental... experimentation will be conducted and that is under the applicant's control. Applications also may specify,...

  15. Innovation investment area: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The mission of Environmental Management`s (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Innovation Investment Area is to identify and provide development support for two types of technologies that are developed to characterize, treat and dispose of DOE waste, and to remediate contaminated sites. They are: technologies that show promise to address specific EM needs, but require proof-of-principle experimentation; and (2) already proven technologies in other fields that require critical path experimentation to demonstrate feasibility for adaptation to specific EM needs. The underlying strategy is to ensure that private industry, other Federal Agencies, universities, and DOE National Laboratories are major participants in developing and deploying new and emerging technologies. To this end, about 125 different new and emerging technologies are being developed through Innovation Investment Area`s (IIA) two program elements: RDDT&E New Initiatives (RD01) and Interagency Agreements (RD02). Both of these activities are intended to foster research and development partnerships so as to introduce innovative technologies into other OTD program elements for expedited evaluation.

  16. Automatic emotional expression analysis from eye area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkoç, Betül; Arslan, Ahmet

    2015-02-01

    Eyes play an important role in expressing emotions in nonverbal communication. In the present study, emotional expression classification was performed based on the features that were automatically extracted from the eye area. Fırst, the face area and the eye area were automatically extracted from the captured image. Afterwards, the parameters to be used for the analysis through discrete wavelet transformation were obtained from the eye area. Using these parameters, emotional expression analysis was performed through artificial intelligence techniques. As the result of the experimental studies, 6 universal emotions consisting of expressions of happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, anger and fear were classified at a success rate of 84% using artificial neural networks.

  17. Designing an Experimental "Accident"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picker, Lester

    1974-01-01

    Describes an experimental "accident" that resulted in much student learning, seeks help in the identification of nematodes, and suggests biology teachers introduce similar accidents into their teaching to stimulate student interest. (PEB)

  18. Nuclear test experimental science

    SciTech Connect

    Struble, G.L.; Middleton, C.; Bucciarelli, G.; Carter, J.; Cherniak, J.; Donohue, M.L.; Kirvel, R.D.; MacGregor, P.; Reid, S.

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory under the following topics: prompt diagnostics; experimental modeling, design, and analysis; detector development; streak-camera data systems; weapons supporting research.

  19. Experimental Calcification of the Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Bonucci, Ermanno; Sadun, Raffaele

    1973-01-01

    Focal areas of calcification are frequent in rat myocardium 30 and 60 days after administration of dihydrotachysterol. These areas are PAS-positive, stain deeply with alcian blue and show high affinity for colloidal iron. Calcification is almost completely confined to intracellular structures. Small clusters of needle-shaped crystals are first found in apparently undamaged mitochondria in undamaged myocardial cells. When all the mitochondria are calcified, the cell degenerates, and inorganic crystals are laid down in relationship with its myofilaments. In other myocardial cells, clusters of amorphous or finely granular inorganic substance are found in both mitochondria and myofibrils. Both structures show signs of advanced degeneration. Inorganic substance has only occasionally been found within the structures of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. These structures do not seem to be involved in myocardial calcification under the present experimental conditions. Calcification of myocardial cells gives rise to a cellular reaction. Many macrophagic cells surround the calcified areas, which are rapidly reabsorbed. The present results show that myocardial mitochondria are actively engaged in controlling the intracellular concentration and movement of calcium ions. Their role in the myocardial contraction-relaxation cycle and the possible mechanism of myocardial calcification are discussed. ImagesFig 14Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 13 PMID:4197422

  20. WHETSTONE ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wrucke, Chester T.; McColly, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey conducted has shown that areas in and adjacent to the Whetstone Roadless Area, Arizona have a substantiated resource potential for copper, lead, gold, silver, and quartz, and a probable mineral-resource potential for copper silver, lead, gold, molybdenum, tungsten, uranium, and gypsum. Copper and silver occur in a small vein deposit in the southwestern part of the roadless area. Copper, lead, silver, gold, and molybdenum are known in veins associated with a porphyry copper deposit in a reentrant near the southern border of the roadless area. Vein deposits of tungsten and uranium are possible in the northeast part of the roadless area near areas of known production of these commodities. Demonstrated resources of quartz for smelter flux extend into the roadless area from the Ricketts mine. Areas of probable potential for gypsum resources also occur within the roadless area. No potential for fossil fuel resources was identified in the study.

  1. CUCAMONGA ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Douglas M.; Peters, Thomas J.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical surveys and an investigation of mines, prospects, and mineralized areas, the Cucamonga Roadless Areas in California have two areas of probable mineral-resource potential. An area of probable mineral-resource potential for low-grade tungsten and gold resources is located in the northern part of the roadless areas, and an area of similar potential for small deposits of silver, lead, and zinc is located in the southwestern part of the roadless areas. An interpretation of an aeromagnetic survey of the Cucamonga Roadless Areas showed magnetic anomalies and patterns closely related to magnetic variation in rock units, but indicated no unknown areas of mineral-resource potential.

  2. Integrated Bayesian Experimental Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, R.; Dreier, H.; Dinklage, A.; Kurzan, B.; Pasch, E.

    2005-11-01

    Any scientist planning experiments wants to optimize the design of a future experiment with respect to best performance within the scheduled experimental scenarios. Bayesian Experimental Design (BED) aims in finding optimal experimental settings based on an information theoretic utility function. Optimal design parameters are found by maximizing an expected utility function where the future data and the parameters of physical scenarios of interest are marginalized. The goal of the Integrated Bayesian Experimental Design (IBED) concept is to combine experiments as early as on the design phase to mutually exploit the benefits of the other experiments. The Bayesian Integrated Data Analysis (IDA) concept of linking interdependent measurements to provide a validated data base and to exploit synergetic effects will be used to design meta-diagnostics. An example is given by the Thomson scattering (TS) and the interferometry (IF) diagnostics individually, and a set of both. In finding the optimal experimental design for the meta-diagnostic, TS and IF, the strengths of both experiments can be combined to synergistically increase the reliability of results.

  3. An experimental superconducting helical undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Taylor, C.

    1995-12-31

    Improvements in the technology of superconducting magnets for high energy physics and recent advancements in SC materials with the artificial pinning centers (APC){sup 2}, have made a bifilar helical SC device an attractive candidate for a single-pass free electron laser (FEL){sup 3}. Initial studies have suggested that a 6.5 mm inner diameter helical device, with a 27 mm period, can generate a central field of 2-2.5 Tesla. Additional studies have also suggested that with a stored energy of 300 J/m, such a device can be made self-protecting in the event of a quench. However, since the most critical area associated with high current density SC magnets is connected with quenching and training, a short experimental device will have to be built and tested. In this paper we discuss technical issues relevant to the construction of such a device, including a conceptual design, fields, and forces.

  4. Overview of Experimental Capabilities - Supersonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Daniel W.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of experimental capabilities applicable to the area of supersonic research. The contents include: 1) EC Objectives; 2) SUP.11: Elements; 3) NRA; 4) Advanced Flight Simulator Flexible Aircraft Simulation Studies; 5) Advanced Flight Simulator Flying Qualities Guideline Development for Flexible Supersonic Transport Aircraft; 6) Advanced Flight Simulator Rigid/Flex Flight Control; 7) Advanced Flight Simulator Rapid Sim Model Exchange; 8) Flight Test Capabilities Advanced In-Flight Infrared (IR) Thermography; 9) Flight Test Capabilities In-Flight Schlieren; 10) Flight Test Capabilities CLIP Flow Calibration; 11) Flight Test Capabilities PFTF Flowfield Survey; 12) Ground Test Capabilities Laser-Induced Thermal Acoustics (LITA); 13) Ground Test Capabilities Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV); 14) Ground Test Capabilities Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV); and 15) Ground Test Capabilities EDL Optical Measurement Capability (PIV) for Rigid/Flexible Decelerator Models.

  5. Experimental scattershot boson sampling

    PubMed Central

    Bentivegna, Marco; Spagnolo, Nicolò; Vitelli, Chiara; Flamini, Fulvio; Viggianiello, Niko; Latmiral, Ludovico; Mataloni, Paolo; Brod, Daniel J.; Galvão, Ernesto F.; Crespi, Andrea; Ramponi, Roberta; Osellame, Roberto; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Boson sampling is a computational task strongly believed to be hard for classical computers, but efficiently solvable by orchestrated bosonic interference in a specialized quantum computer. Current experimental schemes, however, are still insufficient for a convincing demonstration of the advantage of quantum over classical computation. A new variation of this task, scattershot boson sampling, leads to an exponential increase in speed of the quantum device, using a larger number of photon sources based on parametric down-conversion. This is achieved by having multiple heralded single photons being sent, shot by shot, into different random input ports of the interferometer. We report the first scattershot boson sampling experiments, where six different photon-pair sources are coupled to integrated photonic circuits. We use recently proposed statistical tools to analyze our experimental data, providing strong evidence that our photonic quantum simulator works as expected. This approach represents an important leap toward a convincing experimental demonstration of the quantum computational supremacy. PMID:26601164

  6. Experimental scattershot boson sampling.

    PubMed

    Bentivegna, Marco; Spagnolo, Nicolò; Vitelli, Chiara; Flamini, Fulvio; Viggianiello, Niko; Latmiral, Ludovico; Mataloni, Paolo; Brod, Daniel J; Galvão, Ernesto F; Crespi, Andrea; Ramponi, Roberta; Osellame, Roberto; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    Boson sampling is a computational task strongly believed to be hard for classical computers, but efficiently solvable by orchestrated bosonic interference in a specialized quantum computer. Current experimental schemes, however, are still insufficient for a convincing demonstration of the advantage of quantum over classical computation. A new variation of this task, scattershot boson sampling, leads to an exponential increase in speed of the quantum device, using a larger number of photon sources based on parametric down-conversion. This is achieved by having multiple heralded single photons being sent, shot by shot, into different random input ports of the interferometer. We report the first scattershot boson sampling experiments, where six different photon-pair sources are coupled to integrated photonic circuits. We use recently proposed statistical tools to analyze our experimental data, providing strong evidence that our photonic quantum simulator works as expected. This approach represents an important leap toward a convincing experimental demonstration of the quantum computational supremacy.

  7. Remote experimental site concept development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casper, Thomas A.; Meyer, William; Butner, David

    1995-01-01

    Scientific research is now often conducted on large and expensive experiments that utilize collaborative efforts on a national or international scale to explore physics and engineering issues. This is particularly true for the current US magnetic fusion energy program where collaboration on existing facilities has increased in importance and will form the basis for future efforts. As fusion energy research approaches reactor conditions, the trend is towards fewer large and expensive experimental facilities, leaving many major institutions without local experiments. Since the expertise of various groups is a valuable resource, it is important to integrate these teams into an overall scientific program. To sustain continued involvement in experiments, scientists are now often required to travel frequently, or to move their families, to the new large facilities. This problem is common to many other different fields of scientific research. The next-generation tokamaks, such as the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) or the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), will operate in steady-state or long pulse mode and produce fluxes of fusion reaction products sufficient to activate the surrounding structures. As a direct consequence, remote operation requiring robotics and video monitoring will become necessary, with only brief and limited access to the vessel area allowed. Even the on-site control room, data acquisition facilities, and work areas will be remotely located from the experiment, isolated by large biological barriers, and connected with fiber-optics. Current planning for the ITER experiment includes a network of control room facilities to be located in the countries of the four major international partners; USA, Russian Federation, Japan, and the European Community.

  8. Experimental probes of axions

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Aaron S.; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    Experimental searches for axions or axion-like particles rely on semiclassical phenomena resulting from the postulated coupling of the axion to two photons. Sensitive probes of the extremely small coupling constant can be made by exploiting familiar, coherent electromagnetic laboratory techniques, including resonant enhancement of transitions using microwave and optical cavities, Bragg scattering, and coherent photon-axion oscillations. The axion beam may either be astrophysical in origin as in the case of dark matter axion searches and solar axion searches, or created in the laboratory from laser interactions with magnetic fields. This note is meant to be a sampling of recent experimental results.

  9. Experimentation: the next step

    PubMed Central

    Marinker, Marshall

    1987-01-01

    General practice has entered a period of accelerating change, and those responsible for planning its development now put forward a variety of promising proposals. Unless provision is made for large scale experimentation and scientific evaluation, the direction of future change will be determined not by evidence but by rhetoric. A framework for creating and evaluating a substantial programme of experimentation is suggested. The programme is the logical next step in the process of change which was given impetus by the publication of the government green paper. It should be seen as a professional, moral and political priority. PMID:3681850

  10. Experimental approach to neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Leifels, Yvonne

    2014-05-09

    The equation of state (EOS) of nuclear matter is of fundamental importance in many areas of nuclear physics and astrophysics In the laboratory, there are different means to study the nuclearmatter equation of state and its density dependence in particular: nuclear masses, neutron skins, pygmy resonance, and nuclear structure at the drip line give access to nuclear matter properties at densities lower than and at saturation density ρ0. Heavy ion reactions at energies above 0.1 AGeV are the only means to study nuclear matter at densities larger than normal nuclear matter density ρ0. In the beamenergy range of 0.1 to 2A GeV nuclear matter is compressed upto three times ρ0. Access to nuclear matter properties is achieved by simulating nuclear collisions by means of microscopic transport codes, or statistical or hydrodynamicalmodels. Characteristics of heavy-ion collisions are discussed, and experimental observables which allow to constrain nuclear matter properties by comparing experimental results with those of transport codes are presented. Special emphasis will be given to the density dependence of the symmetry energy which is the most relevant connection between neutron stars and heavy ion collisions.

  11. Experimental approach to neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leifels, Yvonne

    2014-05-01

    The equation of state (EOS) of nuclear matter is of fundamental importance in many areas of nuclear physics and astrophysics In the laboratory, there are different means to study the nuclearmatter equation of state and its density dependence in particular: nuclear masses, neutron skins, pygmy resonance, and nuclear structure at the drip line give access to nuclear matter properties at densities lower than and at saturation density ρ0. Heavy ion reactions at energies above 0.1 AGeV are the only means to study nuclear matter at densities larger than normal nuclear matter density ρ0. In the beamenergy range of 0.1 to 2A GeV nuclear matter is compressed upto three times ρ0. Access to nuclear matter properties is achieved by simulating nuclear collisions by means of microscopic transport codes, or statistical or hydrodynamicalmodels. Characteristics of heavy-ion collisions are discussed, and experimental observables which allow to constrain nuclear matter properties by comparing experimental results with those of transport codes are presented. Special emphasis will be given to the density dependence of the symmetry energy which is the most relevant connection between neutron stars and heavy ion collisions.

  12. RATTLESNAKE ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karlstrom, Thor N.V.; McColly, Robert

    1984-01-01

    There is little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources in the Rattlesnake Roadless Area, Arizona, as judged from field studies. Significant concentrations of minerals within the roadless area are not indicated by geologic mapping, geochemical sampling, or aeromagnetic studies. Basalt, volcanic cinders, sand and gravel, and sandstone that may be suitable for construction materials occur in the area, but are more readily accessible outside the roadless area boundary.

  13. 99. ARAIII. Overall view of drilling area in reactor pit. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    99. ARA-III. Overall view of drilling area in reactor pit. Bridge over pit in use for operations. Shows water in pool, reactor, hoist, operators, and general view of interior of reactor pit area. August 12, 1963. Ineel photo no. 63-4454. Photographer: Benson. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. 142. ARAIII General plan of GCRE area, including electrical distribution ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    142. ARA-III General plan of GCRE area, including electrical distribution plan for power and lighting. Includes detail of floodlight and security lighting poles and fixtures. Aerojet-general 880-area/GCRE-406-1. Date: February 1958. Ineel index code no. 063-0406-00-013-102539. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. Developing Environmental Study Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wert, Jonathan M.

    This publication is designed to help the teacher in developing environmental study areas. Numerous examples of study areas, including airports, lakes, shopping centers, and zoos, are listed. A current definition of environmental study areas is given and guidelines for their development and identification are included. The appendix, which comprises…

  16. EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MAINTENANCE

    DOEpatents

    Finkel, M.P.

    1962-01-22

    A method of housing experimental animals such as mice in individual tube- like plastic enclosures is described. Contrary to experience, when this was tried with metal the mice did not become panicky. Group housing, with its attendant difficulties, may thus be dispensed with. (AEC)

  17. Communicating Uncertain Experimental Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Alexander L.; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2014-01-01

    Four experiments examined when laypeople attribute unexpected experimental outcomes to error, in foresight and in hindsight, along with their judgments of whether the data should be published. Participants read vignettes describing hypothetical experiments, along with the result of the initial observation, considered as either a possibility…

  18. Experimental Trends in Videoprogramming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalba, Kas

    A review of experimental activities in educational broadcasting shows that mass television and instructional television, as we think of them today, are likely to constitute two points on a greatly expanded spectrum of television concepts in the future. Television will become much more like the publishing industry, with its mix of pamphlets, art…

  19. Experimental fluvial geomorphology

    SciTech Connect

    Schumm, S.A.; Mosley, M.P.; Weaver, W.

    1987-01-01

    The authors bring together the results of several years of experimental work in drainage basin evolution, hydrology, river-channel morphology, and sedimentology. These investigations are related to real-world applications, particularly geological exploration and mapping. This text shows how awareness of natural phenomena can improve management of the natural environment, such as the control of rivers and eroding gullies.

  20. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, George W.

    1992-01-01

    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  1. Teaching experimental design.

    PubMed

    Fry, Derek J

    2014-01-01

    Awareness of poor design and published concerns over study quality stimulated the development of courses on experimental design intended to improve matters. This article describes some of the thinking behind these courses and how the topics can be presented in a variety of formats. The premises are that education in experimental design should be undertaken with an awareness of educational principles, of how adults learn, and of the particular topics in the subject that need emphasis. For those using laboratory animals, it should include ethical considerations, particularly severity issues, and accommodate learners not confident with mathematics. Basic principles, explanation of fully randomized, randomized block, and factorial designs, and discussion of how to size an experiment form the minimum set of topics. A problem-solving approach can help develop the skills of deciding what are correct experimental units and suitable controls in different experimental scenarios, identifying when an experiment has not been properly randomized or blinded, and selecting the most efficient design for particular experimental situations. Content, pace, and presentation should suit the audience and time available, and variety both within a presentation and in ways of interacting with those being taught is likely to be effective. Details are given of a three-day course based on these ideas, which has been rated informative, educational, and enjoyable, and can form a postgraduate module. It has oral presentations reinforced by group exercises and discussions based on realistic problems, and computer exercises which include some analysis. Other case studies consider a half-day format and a module for animal technicians. PMID:25541547

  2. Teaching experimental design.

    PubMed

    Fry, Derek J

    2014-01-01

    Awareness of poor design and published concerns over study quality stimulated the development of courses on experimental design intended to improve matters. This article describes some of the thinking behind these courses and how the topics can be presented in a variety of formats. The premises are that education in experimental design should be undertaken with an awareness of educational principles, of how adults learn, and of the particular topics in the subject that need emphasis. For those using laboratory animals, it should include ethical considerations, particularly severity issues, and accommodate learners not confident with mathematics. Basic principles, explanation of fully randomized, randomized block, and factorial designs, and discussion of how to size an experiment form the minimum set of topics. A problem-solving approach can help develop the skills of deciding what are correct experimental units and suitable controls in different experimental scenarios, identifying when an experiment has not been properly randomized or blinded, and selecting the most efficient design for particular experimental situations. Content, pace, and presentation should suit the audience and time available, and variety both within a presentation and in ways of interacting with those being taught is likely to be effective. Details are given of a three-day course based on these ideas, which has been rated informative, educational, and enjoyable, and can form a postgraduate module. It has oral presentations reinforced by group exercises and discussions based on realistic problems, and computer exercises which include some analysis. Other case studies consider a half-day format and a module for animal technicians.

  3. CHATTAHOOCHEE ROADLESS AREA, GEORGIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Arthur E.; Welsh, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey indicates that the Chattahoochee Roadless Area, Georgia, offers little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources even though gold, mica, sillimanite, soapstone, dunite, chromite, and nickel have been mined nearby, and source rocks for these commodities are present in the roadless area. Granite gneiss, gneiss, schist, and metasandstone in the roadless area are suitable for stone, crushed rock, or aggregate; however, other sources for these materials are available outside the roadless area, closer to present markets. The potential for the occurrence of hydrocarbons (probably gas) beneath the thick regional thrust sheets in this area cannot be adequately evaluated from available data.

  4. TROUBLESOME ROADLESS AREA, KENTUCKY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sigleo, W.R.; Hammack, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey identified resources of coal, oil and gas, sandstone, and shale in the Troublesome Roadless Area, Kentucky. Demonstrated resources of approximately 429,100 short tons of coal in an area of substantiated resource potential are contained in two major coal beds more than 28 in. thick and the area also contains an additional 483,900 short tons of coal in beds between 14 and 28 in. thick. A probable potential for oil and gas is assigned to the entire area as these fuels may be present in underlying rocks of Mississippian age. Sandstone for silica sand, construction sand, and dimension stone, and shale for structural clay products occur in the area, but these commodities also occur in abundance outside the roadless area. A geochemical survey indicates that there is little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources in the roadless area.

  5. Interfacial area transport in bubbly flow

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, M.; Wu, Q.; Revankar, S.T.

    1997-12-31

    In order to close the two-fluid model for two-phase flow analyses, the interfacial area concentration needs to be modeled as a constitutive relation. In this study, the focus was on the investigation of the interfacial area concentration transport phenomena, both theoretically and experimentally. The interfacial area concentration transport equation for air-water bubbly up-flow in a vertical pipe was developed, and the models for the source and sink terms were provided. The necessary parameters for the experimental studies were identified, including the local time-averaged void fraction, interfacial area concentration, bubble interfacial velocity, liquid velocity and turbulent intensity. Experiments were performed with air-water mixture at atmospheric pressure. Double-sensor conductivity probe and hot-film probe were employed to measure the identified parameters. With these experimental data, the preliminary model evaluation was carried out for the simplest form of the developed interfacial area transport equation, i.e., the one-dimensional transport equation.

  6. Two Challenges for Experimenters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, R. Stephen

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, several theoretical studies have indicated potentially interesting, even perhaps surprising phenomena that could be observed by experiment-but have not yet been studied in the laboratory. Here we give the background and motivation for two of these, with the admitted goal of stimulating those experimental studies. The two topics: (1) the production and study of amorphous alkali metal halide clusters; (2) Penning detachment, the analogue of the well-studied Penning ionization, but in which an electron is detached from a negative ion, rather than from a neutral atom, by energy transfer in collision with an excited atom. The latter phenomenon could be particularly relevant for stellar atmospheres where negative ions are abundant. In each case, we indicate the implications and potential of having substantive experimental information about each, in effect explaining the motivation to carry out the experiments.

  7. Geoengineering as Collective Experimentation.

    PubMed

    Stilgoe, Jack

    2016-06-01

    Geoengineering is defined as the 'deliberate and large-scale intervention in the Earth's climatic system with the aim of reducing global warming'. The technological proposals for doing this are highly speculative. Research is at an early stage, but there is a strong consensus that technologies would, if realisable, have profound and surprising ramifications. Geoengineering would seem to be an archetype of technology as social experiment, blurring lines that separate research from deployment and scientific knowledge from technological artefacts. Looking into the experimental systems of geoengineering, we can see the negotiation of what is known and unknown. The paper argues that, in renegotiating such systems, we can approach a new mode of governance-collective experimentation. This has important ramifications not just for how we imagine future geoengineering technologies, but also for how we govern geoengineering experiments currently under discussion.

  8. Geoengineering as Collective Experimentation.

    PubMed

    Stilgoe, Jack

    2016-06-01

    Geoengineering is defined as the 'deliberate and large-scale intervention in the Earth's climatic system with the aim of reducing global warming'. The technological proposals for doing this are highly speculative. Research is at an early stage, but there is a strong consensus that technologies would, if realisable, have profound and surprising ramifications. Geoengineering would seem to be an archetype of technology as social experiment, blurring lines that separate research from deployment and scientific knowledge from technological artefacts. Looking into the experimental systems of geoengineering, we can see the negotiation of what is known and unknown. The paper argues that, in renegotiating such systems, we can approach a new mode of governance-collective experimentation. This has important ramifications not just for how we imagine future geoengineering technologies, but also for how we govern geoengineering experiments currently under discussion. PMID:25862639

  9. Experimental adaptive Bayesian tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravtsov, K. S.; Straupe, S. S.; Radchenko, I. V.; Houlsby, N. M. T.; Huszár, F.; Kulik, S. P.

    2013-06-01

    We report an experimental realization of an adaptive quantum state tomography protocol. Our method takes advantage of a Bayesian approach to statistical inference and is naturally tailored for adaptive strategies. For pure states, we observe close to N-1 scaling of infidelity with overall number of registered events, while the best nonadaptive protocols allow for N-1/2 scaling only. Experiments are performed for polarization qubits, but the approach is readily adapted to any dimension.

  10. Experimental Neutrino Physics

    ScienceCinema

    Walter, Chris [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States

    2016-07-12

    In this talk, I will review how a set of experiments in the last decade has given us our current understanding of neutrino properties.  I will show how experiments in the last year or two have clarified this picture, and will discuss how new experiments about to start will address remaining questions.  I will particularly emphasize the relationship between various experimental techniques.

  11. Experimental Models of Cryptococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Sabiiti, Wilber; May, Robin C.; Pursall, E. Rhiannon

    2012-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is a life-threatening fungal disease that infects around one million people each year. Establishment and progression of disease involves a complex interplay between the fungus and a diverse range of host cell types. Over recent years, numerous cellular, tissue, and animal models have been exploited to probe this host-pathogen interaction. Here we review the range of experimental models that are available for cryptococcosis research and compare the relative advantages and limitations of the different systems. PMID:22007224

  12. MSFC Skylab experimenter's reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The methods and techniques for experiment development and integration that evolved during the Skylab Program are described to facilitate transferring this experience to experimenters in future manned space programs. Management responsibilities and the sequential process of experiment evolution from initial concept through definition, development, integration, operation and postflight analysis are outlined in the main text and amplified, as appropriate, in appendixes. Emphasis is placed on specific lessons learned on Skylab that are worthy of consideration by future programs.

  13. Area scalable optically induced photorefractive photonic microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Wentao; Xue, Yan Ling; Jiang, Dongdong

    2016-07-01

    A convenient approach to fabricate area scalable two-dimensional photonic microstructures was experimentally demonstrated by multi-face optical wedges. The approach is quite compact and stable without complex optical alignment equipment. Large-area square lattice microstructures are optically induced inside an iron-doped lithium niobate photorefractive crystal. The induced large-area microstructures are analyzed and verified by plane wave guiding, Brillouin-zone spectroscopy, angle-dependent transmission spectrum, and lateral Bragg reflection patterns. The method can be easily extended to generate other more complex area scalable photonic microstructures, such as quasicrystal lattices, by designing the multi-face optical wedge appropriately. The induced area scalable photonic microstructures can be fixed or erased even re-recorded in the photorefractive crystal, which suggests potential applications in micro-nano photonic devices.

  14. Protected area management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fagre, Daniel B.; Prato, Tony; Wang, Yeqiao

    2014-01-01

    Designated protected areas are diverse in scope and purpose and have expanded from Yellowstone National Park in the United States, the world’s first national park, to 157,897 parks and protected areas distributed globally. Most are publicly owned and serve multiple needs that reflect regional or national cultures. With ever-increasing threats to the integrity of protected areas, managers are turning to flexible management practices such as scenario planning and adaptive management.

  15. SUGARLOAF ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Robert E.; Campbell, Harry W.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations and a survey of mines, quarries, and prospects the Sugarloaf Roadless Area, California, has little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or energy resources. Units of carbonate rock and graphitic schist have demonstrated resources of magnesian marble and graphite. Sand, gravel, and construction stone other than carbonate rock are present in the roadless area, but similar or better quality materials are abundant and more accessible outside the area.

  16. CORNPLANTER ROADLESS AREA, PENNSYLVANIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lesure, Frank G.; Welsh, Robert A., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The Cornplanter Roadless Area is on the west shore of Allegheny Reservoir, Pennsylvania, in an area containing flat-lying sedimentary rocks of Devonian and Mississippian age. Based on mineral-resource studies, these rocks have a substantiated potential for natural gas and a probable potential for oil in the roadless area. Other identified mineral resources include various rocks suitable for crushed rock, conglomeratic sandstone suitable for high silica uses, and shale suitable for production of clay products.

  17. SAVANNAH ROADLESS AREA, FLORIDA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, Sam H.; Crandall, Thomas M.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey the Savannah Roadless Area in Florida was appraised to offer little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. The commodities identified in the area are deposits of sand and gravel; however, they are deeply buried, far from potential markets, and more readily accessible material exists outside the roadless area. The possibility that oil and gas might occur in the Jurassic Smackover Formation or in other formations at depth cannot be ruled out.

  18. Optimizing your reception area.

    PubMed

    Lachter, Jesse; Raldow, Ann; Molin, Niki

    2012-01-01

    Through the optimization of reception areas (waiting rooms), physicians can improve the medical experiences of their patients. A qualitative investigation identified issues relevant to improving the quality of the reception area and was used to develop a thorough questionnaire. Most patients were satisfied with accessibility, reception area conditions, and performance of doctors and nurses. The main reasons for dissatisfaction were due to remediable points. No correlations were found between patient satisfaction and age, sex, or religion. A 36-item checklist for satisfaction with reception areas is offered as a useful tool for health quality self-assessment.

  19. SCODIES ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Jocelyn A.; Capstick, Donald O.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic and geochemical studies carried out in the Scodies Roadless Area California indicate little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources within the area. Tungsten has been mined from tactite in pre-Cretaceous roof pendants in the Weldon tungsten district a few miles to the west and in the Indian Wells Canyon district to the northeast. Small outcrops of similar roof pendants occur in the Scodies Roadless Area, but no tungsten resource potential was identified. Three quartz veins occurring within the roadless area may be utilized for decorative stone.

  20. Northwest Area Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuentes, Tracy L.; van Heeswijk, Marijke; Grossman, Eric E.

    2010-01-01

    Northwest Area Facts * Population about 12 million * 43 federally recognized Tribes * Hydropower provides about two-thirds of electricity supply * 78 federally listed threatened and endangered species * 12 active or potentially active volcanoes * Columbia River system drains more than 260,000 square miles, an area about the size of Texas * More than 175 square miles covered by glaciers * More than 900 miles of Pacific Ocean coastline * More than 2,300 miles of greater Puget Sound coastline * Some forests store more carbon per unit area than any other area in the world, including the tropics * 51 percent federal lands * Significant lead, zinc, silver, and phosphate deposits

  1. Phoenix Lander Work Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander Robotic Arm work area with an overlay. The pink area is available for digging, the green area is reserved for placing the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) instrument. Soil can be dumped in the violet area.

    Images were displayed using NASA Ames 'Viz' visualization software.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Optimal Experimental Design for Model Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Myung, Jay I.; Pitt, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Models of a psychological process can be difficult to discriminate experimentally because it is not easy to determine the values of the critical design variables (e.g., presentation schedule, stimulus structure) that will be most informative in differentiating them. Recent developments in sampling-based search methods in statistics make it possible to determine these values, and thereby identify an optimal experimental design. After describing the method, it is demonstrated in two content areas in cognitive psychology in which models are highly competitive: retention (i.e., forgetting) and categorization. The optimal design is compared with the quality of designs used in the literature. The findings demonstrate that design optimization has the potential to increase the informativeness of the experimental method. PMID:19618983

  3. An experimental analysis of elliptical adhesive contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sümer, Bilsay; Onal, Cagdas D.; Aksak, Burak; Sitti, Metin

    2010-06-01

    The elliptical adhesive contact is studied experimentally utilizing two hemicylinders of elastomeric poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). Experimental results are compared with the recent approximate Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) theory for elliptical contacts, and the deviation of the experiments from this theory is discussed in detail. To do this, the cylinders are placed with different skew angles with respect to each other in order to emulate the effect of orientation. The maximum adhesion force and the size of the contact zone are determined experimentally under the action of surface energy. The difference of the maximum adhesion force between experiments and theory is found to increase as the contact area goes from mildly elliptical to slim elliptical contact. Similarly, it is observed that the contact area can be approximated to have elliptical geometry for a wide range of skew angles while a deviation is observed for slim elliptical contacts. Moreover, the reduction in the contact area is observed to be nonself-similar during detachment from an elliptical shape to a circular one.

  4. KSC Technology Area 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seibert, Marc A.

    2012-01-01

    Tracking, Timing, Communications and Navigation are critical to all NASA missions. Accurate weather prediction is critical to KSC launch activities. KSC is involved with and in several cases leading research and development in many exciting areas and with partners. We welcome new partners in all of these areas!

  5. Cleaning Physical Education Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, William R.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses techniques to help create clean and inviting school locker rooms. Daily, weekly or monthly, biannual, and annual cleaning strategies for locker room showers are highlighted as are the specialized maintenance needs for aerobic and dance areas, running tracks, and weight training areas. (GR)

  6. Creative Outdoor Play Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Peggy L.

    Considering the creation of proper play areas for children (school sites, municipal and mini parks, private homes and backyards, shopping centers, apartment complexes, recreational areas, roadside parks, nursery schools, churches, summer camps, and drive-in theaters) as one of today's major challenges, the author recommends that professional…

  7. Area Ratios of Quadrilaterals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, David R.; Arcidiacono, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Shows that the ratio of the area of the quadrilateral formed by joining the kth points to the area of the original quadrilateral is constant whether it is convex or concave quadrilateral. Presents many geoboard or dot paper diagrams and geometrical expresssions. (YP)

  8. EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL WATERING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Finkel, M.P.

    1964-04-01

    A device for watering experimental animals confined in a battery of individual plastic enclosures is described. It consists of a rectangular plastic enclosure having a plurality of fluid-tight compartments, each with a drinking hole near the bottom and a filling hole on the top. The enclosure is immersed in water until filled, its drinking holes sealed with a strip of tape, and it is then placed in the battery. The tape sealing prevents the flow of water from the device, but permits animals to drink by licking the drinking holes. (AEC)

  9. Electrodeless Experimental Thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Brainerd, Jerome J.; Reisz, Al

    2009-03-16

    An electrodeless experimental electric thruster has been built and tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The plasma is formed by Electron-Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) absorption of RF waves (microwaves). The RF source operates in the 1 to 2 kW range. The plasma is overdense and is confined radially by an applied axial dc magnetic field. The field is shaped by a strong magnetic mirror on the upstream end and a magnetic nozzle on the downstream end. Argon is used as the propellant. The velocity profile in the exhaust plume has been measured with Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF). An unusual bimodal velocity profile has been measured.

  10. Outsourcing of experimental work.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    With the development of new technologies for simultaneous analysis of many genes, transcripts, or proteins (the "omics" revolution), it has become common to outsource parts of the experimental work. In order to maintain the integrity of the research projects, it is important that the interphase between the researcher and the service is further developed. This involves robust protocols for sample preparation, an informed choice of analytical tool, development of standards for individual technologies, and transparent data analysis. This chapter introduces some of the problems related to analysis of RNA samples in the "omics" context and gives a few hints and key references related to sample preparation for the non-specialist.

  11. 47 CFR 5.304 - Area of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... experimentation will be conducted and that is under the applicant's control. If an applicant wants to conduct experiments in more than one defined geographic area, it shall apply for a license for each location....

  12. 47 CFR 5.304 - Area of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... experimentation will be conducted and that is under the applicant's control. If an applicant wants to conduct experiments in more than one defined geographic area, it shall apply for a license for each location....

  13. PYRAMID ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, Augustus K.; Scott, Douglas F.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and mineral survey was conducted in the Pyramid Roadless Area, California. The area contains mineral showings, but no mineral-resource potential was identified during our studies. Three granodiorite samples on the west side of the roadless area contained weakly anomalous concentrations of uranium. Two samples of roof-pendant rocks, one metasedimentary rock and one metavolcanic rock, contain low concentrations of copper, and of copper and molybdenum, respectively. Although none was identified, the geologic terrane is permissive for mineral occurrences and large-scale, detailed geologic mapping of the areas of metasedimentary and metavolcanic roof pendants in the Pyramid Roadless Area could define a mineral-resource potential for tungsten and precious metals.

  14. OLALLIE ROADLESS AREA, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, George W.; Neumann, Terry R.

    1984-01-01

    The Olallie Roadless Area, Oregon, is devoid of mines and mineral prospects, and a mineral-resource evaluation of the area did not identify any mineral-resource potential. There is no evidence that fossil fuels are present in the roadless area. Nearby areas in Clackamas, Marion, Jefferson, and Wasco Counties are characterized by higher-than-normal heat flow and by numerous thermal springs, some of which have been partly developed. this may indicate that the region has some, as yet undefined, potential for the development of geothermal energy. Lack of thermal springs or other evidence of localized geothermal anomalies within the roadless area may be the result of masking by young, nonconductive rock units and by the flooding out and dilution of rising thermal waters by cool meteoric water.

  15. [Animal experimentation in Israel].

    PubMed

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah

    2002-04-01

    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries.

  16. Some recent theoretical and experimental developments in fracture mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebowitz, H.; Eftis, J.; Hones, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental developments in four distinct areas of fracture mechanics research are described. These are as follows: experimental comparisons of different nonlinear fracture toughness measures, including the nonlinear energy, R curve, COD and J integral methods; the singular elastic crack-tip stress and displacement equations and the validity of the proposition of their general adequacy as indicated, for example, by the biaxially loaded infinite sheet with a flat crack; the thermodynamic nature of surface energy induced by propagating cracks in relation to a general continuum thermodynamic description of brittle fracture; and analytical and experimental aspects of Mode II fracture, with experimental data for certain aluminum, steel and titanium alloys.

  17. Protected areas and poverty

    PubMed Central

    Brockington, Daniel; Wilkie, David

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are controversial because they are so important for conservation and because they distribute fortune and misfortune unevenly. The nature of that distribution, as well as the terrain of protected areas themselves, have been vigorously contested. In particular, the relationship between protected areas and poverty is a long-running debate in academic and policy circles. We review the origins of this debate and chart its key moments. We then outline the continuing flashpoints and ways in which further evaluation studies could improve the evidence base for policy-making and conservation practice. PMID:26460124

  18. RUBICON ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harwood, David S.; Cather, Eric E.

    1984-01-01

    The Rubicon Roadless Area encompasses about 8 sq mi along the lower reaches of the Rubicon River, a major tributary of the Middle Fork of the American River that drains the west slope of the Sierra Nevada in eastern California. Based on mineral-resource surveys the area has little promise for the occurrence of metallic or energy resources. A very small demonstrated gold resource occurs at the Pigeon Roost mine. Glacial deposits, which occur in the eastern part of the area, are too bouldery and too small to be of value as construction materials.

  19. Experimental investigations of elastohydrodynamic lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1983-01-01

    Various experimental studies of elastohydrodynamic lubrication have been reviewed. The various types of machines used in these investigations, such as the disc, two and four ball, crossed-cylinders, and crossed-axes rolling disc machine, are described. The measurement of the most important parameters, such as film shape, film thickness, pressure, temperature, and traction, is considered. Determination of the film thickness is generally the most important of these effects since it dictates the extent to which the asperities on opposing surfaces can come into contact and thus has a direct bearing on wear and fatigue failure of the contacting surfaces. Several different techniques for measuring film thickness have been described, including electrical resistance, capacitance, X-ray, optical interferometry, laser beam diffraction, strain gage, and spring dynamometer methods. An attempt has been made to describe the basic concepts and limitations of each of these techniques. These various methods have been used by individual researchers, but there is no universally acceptable technique for measuring elastohydrodynamic film thickness. Capacitance methods have provided most of the reliable data for nominal line or rectangular conjunctions, but optical interferometry has proved to be the most effective procedure for elliptical contacts. Optical interferometry has the great advantage that it reveals not only the film thickness, but also details of the film shape over the complete area of the conjunction.

  20. Inverted annular flow experimental study

    SciTech Connect

    De Jarlais, G.; Ishii, M.

    1985-04-01

    Steady-state inverted annular flow of Freon 113 in up flow was established in a transparent test section. Using a special inlet configuration consisting of long aspect-ratio liquid nozzles coaxially centered within a heated quartz tube, idealized inverted annular flow initial geometry (cylindrical liquid core surrounded by coaxial annulus of gas) could be established. Inlet liquid and gas flowrates, liquid subcooling, and gas density (using various gas species) were measured and varied systematically. The hydrodynamic behavior of the liquid core, and the subsequent downstream break-up of this core into slugs, ligaments and/or droplets of various sizes, was observed. In general, for low inlet liquid velocities it was observed that after the initial formation of roll waves on the liquid core surface, an agitated region of high surface area, with attendant high momentum and energy transfers, occurs. This agitated region appears to propagate downsteam in a quasi-periodic pattern. Increased inlet liquid flow rates, and high gas annulus flow rates tend to diminish the significance of this agitated region. Observed inverted annular flow (and subsequent downstream flow pattern) hydrodynamic behavior is reported, and comparisons are drawn to data generated by previous experimenters studying post-CHF flow.

  1. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF DIATHERMY

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Ronald V.; Ehrich, Wilhelm; Binger, Carl A. L.

    1928-01-01

    1. An experimental pneumonia with more or less lobar distribution has been produced in dogs by the method of intrabronchial insufflation of B. friedlænderi, Type B, and Pneumococcus, Type I. 2. Such dogs as showed evidences of a pulmonary lesion when photographed by x-ray were selected for lung temperature measurements. 3. Measurements of lung temperature were made by means of thermocouples before and during diathermy. 4. The thermocouples which recorded the temperature in the consolidated lobes showed in most instances a more rapid rate of heating during diathermy than those in the normal lobes. The final increase in temperature in the pathological lobes over the normal lobes amounted to slightly more than 1°C. 5. When local heating occurred during diathermy it was of the order of magnitude found in a lung in which the branch of the pulmonary artery supplying it had been clamped. 6. Histological examination of the lungs showed the pathological reaction to consist of intraalveolar exudate composed of polymorphonuclear leucocytes and desquamated alveolar epithelium. In some sections the exudate was sufficient to cause compression and emptying of the alveolar capillaries. 7. The local heating, we believe, depends upon this ischemic state of the smaller vessels. 8. Further evidence for an imparied circulation in the pneumonic lung is furnished by injection preparations in which the uninjected area corresponded exactly to the gross pathological lesion. PMID:19869441

  2. [HERNIOPLASTIC MORFOLOGICAL FEATURES (EXPERIMENTAL STADY)].

    PubMed

    Gogoladze, M; Kiladze, M; Chkhikvadze, T; Tsivtsivadze, L; Jiqia, D

    2016-05-01

    Despite many years of experience in the field of hernia surgical treatment there still exist many unsolved problems such as a safe and non infected closure of defects of abdominal cavity wall. The aim of the study was to improve the result of treatment of abdominal wall hernias with the use of new antiseptic polymer, bio-composite protective mesh membrane covered with coladerm+chlorhexidine. Experimental study involved 21 rabbits. Meshes were fixed on anterior abdominal wall according to the following schewe: Option I: mesh size 10-20mm was put into both the groin area of the rabbits. Option II: A light standart mesh grid size 10-20mm covered with coladerm was placed on both sides of abdominal wall of the rabbits. Option III: A light mesh, covered with oladerm+Chlorhexidine was placed in to the abdominal wall of the rabbits. Removal dates of taking the animals from experiments were 14th, 30th, 45th, 90th and 180th days for further histomorpological and bacteriological research. The best result from these options was when implants we covered with coladerm+Chlorhexidine, which was shown on follow up period. In third control group experessed strong connective tissue formatting stromis picture,wich is the main task of modern hernia plastic. It is expected that new bio-composite meshes, covered with coladerm+Chlorhexidine, may be succesfuly used in clinical practice, which will reduce infectious complications of meshes and problems associated with them. PMID:27348172

  3. Experimental investigation of plasmofluidic waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Ku, Bonwoo; Kwon, Min-Suk; Shin, Jin-Soo

    2015-11-16

    Plasmofluidic waveguides are based on guiding light which is strongly confined in fluid with the assistance of a surface plasmon polariton. To realize plasmofluidic waveguides, metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal (MISIM) waveguides, which are hybrid plasmonic waveguides fabricated using standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology, are employed. The insulator of the MISIM waveguide is removed to form 30-nm-wide channels, and they are filled with fluid. The plasmofluidic waveguide has a subwavelength-scale mode area since its mode is strongly confined in the fluid. The waveguides are experimentally characterized for different fluids. When the refractive index of the fluid is 1.440, the plasmofluidic waveguide with 190-nm-wide silicon has propagation loss of 0.46 dB/μm; the coupling loss between it and an ordinary silicon photonic waveguide is 1.79 dB. The propagation and coupling losses may be reduced if a few fabrication-induced imperfections are removed. The plasmofluidic waveguide may pave the way to a dynamically phase-tunable ultracompact device.

  4. Experimental Quantum Coin Tossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Terriza, G.; Vaziri, A.; Ursin, R.; Zeilinger, A.

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter we present the first implementation of a quantum coin-tossing protocol. This protocol belongs to a class of “two-party” cryptographic problems, where the communication partners distrust each other. As with a number of such two-party protocols, the best implementation of the quantum coin tossing requires qutrits, resulting in a higher security than using qubits. In this way, we have also performed the first complete quantum communication protocol with qutrits. In our experiment the two partners succeeded to remotely toss a row of coins using photons entangled in the orbital angular momentum. We also show the experimental bounds of a possible cheater and the ways of detecting him.

  5. Experimental traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury, a leading cause of death and disability, is a result of an outside force causing mechanical disruption of brain tissue and delayed pathogenic events which collectively exacerbate the injury. These pathogenic injury processes are poorly understood and accordingly no effective neuroprotective treatment is available so far. Experimental models are essential for further clarification of the highly complex pathology of traumatic brain injury towards the development of novel treatments. Among the rodent models of traumatic brain injury the most commonly used are the weight-drop, the fluid percussion, and the cortical contusion injury models. As the entire spectrum of events that might occur in traumatic brain injury cannot be covered by one single rodent model, the design and choice of a specific model represents a major challenge for neuroscientists. This review summarizes and evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of the currently available rodent models for traumatic brain injury. PMID:20707892

  6. Experimental evolution gone wild.

    PubMed

    Scheinin, M; Riebesell, U; Rynearson, T A; Lohbeck, K T; Collins, S

    2015-05-01

    Because of their large population sizes and rapid cell division rates, marine microbes have, or can generate, ample variation to fuel evolution over a few weeks or months, and subsequently have the potential to evolve in response to global change. Here we measure evolution in the marine diatom Skeletonema marinoi evolved in a natural plankton community in CO2-enriched mesocosms deployed in situ. Mesocosm enclosures are typically used to study how the species composition and biogeochemistry of marine communities respond to environmental shifts, but have not been used for experimental evolution to date. Using this approach, we detect a large evolutionary response to CO2 enrichment in a focal marine diatom, where population growth rate increased by 1.3-fold in high CO2-evolved lineages. This study opens an exciting new possibility of carrying out in situ evolution experiments to understand how marine microbial communities evolve in response to environmental change.

  7. [Experimental stab wound].

    PubMed

    Hirt, Miroslav; Vorel, František; Zelený, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Stab wounds caused by knives and daggers are usually of different appearances. The knife wound has one edge sharp while the second one is blunt. The wound caused by blow of dagger has both edges sharp. The forensic expert must very often decide whether the knife or dagger was used. The aim of this experimental work was to show how a single-edged knife penetrates the skin and causes the wound typical for the double-edged dagger. The fact was verified. The wound typical for dagger can be found if the knife is used only according to the scheme. The forensic expert can say that a one cutting edge knife was used if the one edge of wound is squared and the other one is sharp. If the both of them are sharp, forensic expert must be very careful in his decision.Key words: stab wounds - knife - dagger - forensic expertise. PMID:25671417

  8. Experimental Quantum Error Detection

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xian-Min; Yi, Zhen-Huan; Yang, Bin; Zhou, Fei; Yang, Tao; Peng, Cheng-Zhi

    2012-01-01

    Faithful transmission of quantum information is a crucial ingredient in quantum communication networks. To overcome the unavoidable decoherence in a noisy channel, to date, many efforts have been made to transmit one state by consuming large numbers of time-synchronized ancilla states. However, such huge demands of quantum resources are hard to meet with current technology and this restricts practical applications. Here we experimentally demonstrate quantum error detection, an economical approach to reliably protecting a qubit against bit-flip errors. Arbitrary unknown polarization states of single photons and entangled photons are converted into time bins deterministically via a modified Franson interferometer. Noise arising in both 10 m and 0.8 km fiber, which induces associated errors on the reference frame of time bins, is filtered when photons are detected. The demonstrated resource efficiency and state independence make this protocol a promising candidate for implementing a real-world quantum communication network. PMID:22953047

  9. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  10. 300 AREA URANIUM CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    BORGHESE JV

    2009-07-02

    {sm_bullet} Uranium fuel production {sm_bullet} Test reactor and separations experiments {sm_bullet} Animal and radiobiology experiments conducted at the. 331 Laboratory Complex {sm_bullet} .Deactivation, decontamination, decommissioning,. and demolition of 300 Area facilities

  11. 300 Area Disturbance Report

    SciTech Connect

    LL Hale; MK Wright; NA Cadoret

    1999-01-07

    The objective of this study was to define areas of previous disturbance in the 300 Area of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site to eliminate these areas from the cultural resource review process, reduce cultural resource monitoring costs, and allow cultural resource specialists to focus on areas where subsurface disturbance is minimal or nonexistent. Research into available sources suggests that impacts from excavations have been significant wherever the following construction activities have occurred: building basements and pits, waste ponds, burial grounds, trenches, installation of subsurface pipelines, power poles, water hydrants, and well construction. Beyond the areas just mentioned, substrates in the' 300 Area consist of a complex, multidimen- sional mosaic composed of undisturbed stratigraphy, backfill, and disturbed sediments; Four Geographic Information System (GIS) maps were created to display known areas of disturbance in the 300 Area. These maps contain information gleaned from a variety of sources, but the primary sources include the Hanford GIS database system, engineer drawings, and historic maps. In addition to these maps, several assumptions can be made about areas of disturbance in the 300 Area as a result of this study: o o Buried pipelines are not always located where they are mapped. As a result, cultural resource monitors or specialists should not depend on maps depicting subsurface pipelines for accurate locations of previous disturbance. Temporary roads built in the early 1940s were placed on layers of sand and gravel 8 to 12 in. thick. Given this information, it is likely that substrates beneath these early roads are only minimally disturbed. Building foundations ranged from concrete slabs no more than 6 to 8 in. thick to deeply excavated pits and basements. Buildings constructed with slab foundations are more numerous than may be expected, and minimally disturbed substrates may be expected in these locations. Historic black

  12. Experimental Economics in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Joe

    1987-01-01

    Discusses and describes several studies regarding experimental economics. Recommends that economics teachers and textbook authors incorporate more of these projects into their work. Presents a consumer demand exercise that incorporates experimental economics into the classroom. (RKM)

  13. Shielding consideration for the SSCL experimental halls

    SciTech Connect

    Bull, J.; Coyne, J.; Mokhov, N.; Stapleton, G.

    1994-03-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider which is being designed and built in Waxahachie, Texas consists Of series of proton accelerators, culminating in a 20 Te proton on proton collider. The collider will be in a tunnel which will be 87 km in circumference and. on average about 30 meters underground. The present design calls for two large interaction halls on the east side of the ring. The shielding for these halls is being designed for an interaction rate of 10{sup 9} Hz or 10{sup 16} interactions per year, based on 10{sup 7} seconds per operational year. SSC guidelines require that the shielding be designed to meet the criterion of 1mSv per year for open areas off site 2mSv per year for open areas on site, and 2mSv per year for controlled areas. Only radiation workers will be routinely allowed to work in controlled areas. It should be pointed that there is a potential for an accidental full beam loss in either of the experimental halls, and this event would consist of the loss of the full circulating beam up to 4 {times} 10{sup 14} protons. With the present design. the calculated dose equivalent for this event is about 10% of the annual dose equivalent for the normal p-p interactions, so that die accident condition does not control the shielding. If, for instance, local shielding within the experimental hall is introduced into the calculations, this could change. The shielding requirements presented here are controlled by the normal p-p interactions. Three important questions were addressed in the present calculations. They are (1) the thickness of the roof over the experimental halls, (2) the configuration of the shafts and adits which give access to the halls, and (3) the problem of ground water and air activation.

  14. Antecedents and analogues - Experimental aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews the development of experimental aircraft from 1953 to the present. Consideration is given to the X-series experimental aircraft, to X-15 (the first aerospace plane), to the transition of experimental aircraft to high-speed flight, to XB-70 research, to lifting body research aircraft, and to current high-speed flight research.

  15. 5 CFR 591.205 - Which areas are nonforeign areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Which areas are nonforeign areas? 591.205... ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances and Post Differentials § 591.205 Which areas are nonforeign areas? (a) The nonforeign areas...

  16. 5 CFR 591.205 - Which areas are nonforeign areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Which areas are nonforeign areas? 591.205... ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances and Post Differentials § 591.205 Which areas are nonforeign areas? (a) The nonforeign areas...

  17. 5 CFR 591.207 - Which areas are COLA areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Which areas are COLA areas? 591.207... ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances § 591.207 Which areas are COLA areas? OPM has established the following COLA areas: (a) City...

  18. 5 CFR 591.205 - Which areas are nonforeign areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Which areas are nonforeign areas? 591.205... ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances and Post Differentials § 591.205 Which areas are nonforeign areas? (a) The nonforeign areas...

  19. 5 CFR 591.207 - Which areas are COLA areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Which areas are COLA areas? 591.207... ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances § 591.207 Which areas are COLA areas? OPM has established the following COLA areas: (a) City...

  20. 5 CFR 591.207 - Which areas are COLA areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Which areas are COLA areas? 591.207... ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances § 591.207 Which areas are COLA areas? OPM has established the following COLA areas: (a) City...

  1. 200 Area Interim Storage Area Technical Safety Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    CARRELL, R.D.

    2000-03-15

    The 200 Area Interim Storage Area Technical Safety Requirements define administrative controls and design features required to ensure safe operation during receipt and storage of canisters containing spent nuclear fuel. This document is based on the 200 Area Interim Storage Area, Annex D, Final Safety Analysis Report which contains information specific to the 200 Area Interim Storage Area.

  2. Experimental Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, Carl; Mishra, Sanjib R.; Petti, Roberto; Purohit, Milind V.

    2014-08-31

    The high energy physics group at the University of South Carolina, under the leadership of Profs. S.R. Mishra, R. Petti, M.V. Purohit, J.R. Wilson (co-PI's), and C. Rosenfeld (PI), engaged in studies in "Experimental Particle Physics." The group collaborated with similar groups at other universities and at national laboratories to conduct experimental studies of elementary particle properties. We utilized the particle accelerators at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Illinois, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in California, and the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. Mishra, Rosenfeld, and Petti worked predominantly on neutrino experiments. Experiments conducted in the last fifteen years that used cosmic rays and the core of the sun as a source of neutrinos showed conclusively that, contrary to the former conventional wisdom, the "flavor" of a neutrino is not immutable. A neutrino of flavor "e," "mu," or "tau," as determined from its provenance, may swap its identity with one of the other flavors -- in our jargon, they "oscillate." The oscillation phenomenon is extraordinarily difficult to study because neutrino interactions with our instruments are exceedingly rare -- they travel through the earth mostly unimpeded -- and because they must travel great distances before a substantial proportion have made the identity swap. Three of the experiments that we worked on, MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE utilize a beam of neutrinos from an accelerator at Fermilab to determine the parameters governing the oscillation. Two other experiments that we worked on, NOMAD and MIPP, provide measurements supportive of the oscillation experiments. Good measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters may constitute a "low energy window" on related phenomena that are otherwise unobservable because they would occur only at energies way above the reach of conceivable accelerators. Purohit and Wilson participated in the BaBar experiment

  3. Differential Abundance of Microbial Functional Groups along the Elevation Gradient from the Coast to the Luquillo Mountains

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial communities respond to multiple abiotic and biotic factors that change along elevation gradients. We compare changes in microbial community composition in soil and review previous research on differential abundance of microbial functional groups along an elevation gradi...

  4. A technique for determining prosthetic joint contact areas.

    PubMed

    Martin, S M; Moran, J M; Stahurski, T M; Cepulo, A J

    1984-01-01

    A technique to determine the contact areas of total joint replacements has been developed. A thin film of petroleum jelly is deposited by the metallic component on the plastic component when load is applied. Fingerprint powder is then used to highlight the petroleum jelly coated area. Experimental data produced using this technique was found to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  5. Texas Experimental Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Wootton, A.J.

    1993-04-01

    This progress report covers the period from November 1, 1990 to April 30, 1993. During that period, TEXT was operated as a circular tokamak with a material limiter. It was devoted to the study of basic plasma physics, in particular to study of fluctuations, turbulence, and transport. The purpose is to operate and maintain TEXT Upgrade as a complete facility for applied tokamak physics, specifically to conduct a research program under the following main headings: (1) to elucidate the mechanisms of working gas, impurity, and thermal transport in tokamaks, in particular to understand the role of turbulence; (2) to study physics of the edge plasma, in particular the turbulence; (3) to study the physics or resonant magnetic fields (ergodic magnetic divertors, intra island pumping); and (4) to study the physics of electron cyclotron heating (ECRH). Results of studies in each of these areas are reported.

  6. Experimental quantum data locking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Zhu; Wu, Cheng; Fukuda, Daiji; You, Lixing; Zhong, Jiaqiang; Numata, Takayuki; Chen, Sijing; Zhang, Weijun; Shi, Sheng-Cai; Lu, Chao-Yang; Wang, Zhen; Ma, Xiongfeng; Fan, Jingyun; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-08-01

    Classical correlation can be locked via quantum means: quantum data locking. With a short secret key, one can lock an exponentially large amount of information in order to make it inaccessible to unauthorized users without the key. Quantum data locking presents a resource-efficient alternative to one-time pad encryption which requires a key no shorter than the message. We report experimental demonstrations of a quantum data locking scheme originally proposed by D. P. DiVincenzo et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 067902 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.067902] and a loss-tolerant scheme developed by O. Fawzi et al. [J. ACM 60, 44 (2013), 10.1145/2518131]. We observe that the unlocked amount of information is larger than the key size in both experiments, exhibiting strong violation of the incremental proportionality property of classical information theory. As an application example, we show the successful transmission of a photo over a lossy channel with quantum data (un)locking and error correction.

  7. Experimental chloroquine retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, M; Ohkuma, M; Tsukahara, I

    1986-01-01

    Chloroquine retinopathy was produced experimentally in the eye of the albino corydoras (one of the tropical fish) by daily administration of chloroquine (0.1 mg per os). The enucleated eyes were examined from the 14th day to 3 months after the beginning of drug administration under light and electron microscopy. The first change of retina was the appearance of membraneous cytoplasmic body (MCB) in the cytoplasm of ganglion, amacrine, bipolar and horizontal cells. MCB might be degenerated lysosome. They showed lamellar figures or crystalline lattice-like structures. Secondarily, these MCB appeared in the inner segments of photoreceptor cells. The outer segments of rod cells disappeared, and then those of cone cells. Although photoreceptor cells were diminished in number in advanced degeneration, the cells of inner nuclear layer and ganglion cells were maintained in number. The presence of MCB dose not mean death of cells. The retinal pigment epithelial cells contained MCB in its cytoplasm only in severe degenerative cases, and did not show other remarkable changes. MCB also appeared in the cytoplasm of pericytes of retinal vessels. Chloroquine is considered to damage directly photoreceptor cells most severely. PMID:3018650

  8. Thrombocytopenia in Experimental Trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Charles E.; Robbins, Robert S.; Weller, Richard D.; Braude, Abraham I.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of experimental trypanosomiasis on coagulation was studied because a patient in this hospital with Rhodesian trypanosomiasis developed thrombocytopenia with disseminated intravascular coagulation. Rats injected intraperitoneally with this strain of Trypanosoma rhodesiense consistently developed trypanosomiasis and severe thrombocytopenia without changes in hematocrit or concentration of fibrinogen or fibrin split products. At the time of 50% mortality (4-5 days) mean platelet counts per cubic millimeter of infected rats were 18,000±9,000 (±2 SEM) compared to 1,091,000±128,000 in uninfected controls. In vitro, concentrated trypanosomes and trypanosomefree supernates of disrupted organisms added to normal rat, rabbit, or human blood produced platelet aggregation within 30 min. This platelet aggregation was not blocked by inhibitors of ADP, kinins, or early or late components of complement. In vivo thrombocytopenia also occurred in infected rabbits congenitally deficient in C6 and in infected, splenectomized rats. Although the aggregating substance obtained from disrupted trypanosomes is heat-labile, it is active in the presence of complement inhibitors, suggesting that this trypanosomal product may be a protein enzyme or toxin. Since the phenomenon is independent of immune complexes, complement, ADP, and kinins, it appears to represent a new mechanism of microbial injury of platelets and the induction of thrombocytopenia. Images PMID:4207622

  9. Experimental optical diabolos.

    PubMed

    Egorov, Roman I; Soskin, Marat S; Freund, Isaac

    2006-07-01

    The canonical point singularity of elliptically polarized light is an isolated point of circular polarization, a C point. As one recedes from such a point the surrounding polarization figures evolve into ellipses characterized by a major axis of length a, a minor axis of length b, and an azimuthal orientational angle alpha: at the C point itself, alpha is singular (undefined) and a and b are degenerate. The profound effects of the singularity in alpha on the orientation of the ellipses surrounding the C point have been extensively studied both theoretically and experimentally for over two decades. The equally profound effects of the degeneracy of a and b on the evolving shapes of the surrounding ellipses have only been described theoretically. As one recedes from a C point, a and b generate a surface that locally takes the form of a double cone (i.e., a diabolo). Contour lines of constant a and b are the classic conic sections, ellipses or hyperbolas depending on the shape of the diabolo and its orientation relative to the direction of propagation. We present measured contour maps, surfaces, cones, and diabolos of a and b for a random ellipse field (speckle pattern).

  10. Particle physics---Experimental

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, J.J.; Boynton, P.E.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.

    1991-08-21

    We are continuing a research program in particle astrophysics and high energy experimental particle physics. We have joined the DUMAND Collaboration, which is constructing a deep undersea astrophysical neutrino detector near Hawaii. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions using emulsion chamber techniques were also continued, using balloon flight exposures to ultra-high cosmic ray nuclei (JACEE) and accelerator beams. As members of the DUMAND Collaboration, we have responsibility for development a construction of critical components for the deep undersea neutrino detector facility. We have designed and developed the acoustical positioning system required to permit reconstruction of muon tracks with sufficient precision to meet the astrophysical goals of the experiment. In addition, we are making significant contributions to the design of the database and triggering system to be used. Work has been continuing in other aspects of the study of multiparticle production processes in nuclei. We are participants in a joint US/Japan program to study nuclear interactions at energies two orders of magnitude greater than those of existing accelerators, using balloon-borne emulsion chambers. On one of the flights we found two nuclear interactions of multiplicity over 1000 -- one with a multiplicity of over 2000 and pseudorapidity density {approximately} 800 in the central region. At the statistical level of the JACEE experiment, the frequency of occurrence of such events is orders of magnitude too large. We have continued our ongoing program to study hadronic interactions in emulsions exposed to high energy accelerator beams.

  11. SELKIRK ROADLESS AREA, IDAHO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Fred K.; Benham, John R.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of mineral-resource surveys the Selkirk Roadless Area, Idaho has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Molybdenum, lead, uranium, thorium, chromium, tungsten, zirconium, and several rare-earth elements have been detected in panned concentrates from samples of stream sediment, but no minerals containing the first five elements were found in place, nor were any conditions conducive to their concentration found. Zirconium, thorium, and the rare earths occur in sparsely disseminated accessory minerals in granitic rocks and no resource potential is identified. There is no history of mining in the roadless area and there are no oil, gas, mineral, or geothermal leases or current claims.

  12. OLED area illumination source

    DOEpatents

    Foust, Donald Franklin; Duggal, Anil Raj; Shiang, Joseph John; Nealon, William Francis; Bortscheller, Jacob Charles

    2008-03-25

    The present invention relates to an area illumination light source comprising a plurality of individual OLED panels. The individual OLED panels are configured in a physically modular fashion. Each OLED panel comprising a plurality of OLED devices. Each OLED panel comprises a first electrode and a second electrode such that the power being supplied to each individual OLED panel may be varied independently. A power supply unit capable of delivering varying levels of voltage simultaneously to the first and second electrodes of each of the individual OLED panels is also provided. The area illumination light source also comprises a mount within which the OLED panels are arrayed.

  13. Explosively activated egress area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Bailey, J. W. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A lightweight, add on structure which employs linear shaped pyrotechnic charges to smoothly cut an airframe along an egress area periphery is provided. It compromises reaction surfaces attached to the exterior surface of the airframe's skin and is designed to restrict the skin deflection. That portion of the airframe within the egress area periphery is jettisoned. Retention surfaces and sealing walls are attached to the interior surface of the airframe's skin and are designed to shield the interior of the aircraft during detonation of the pyrotechnic charges.

  14. X-38 Experimental Aerothermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Thomas J.; Berry, Scott A.; Merski, N. Ronald; Fitzgerald, Steve M.

    2000-01-01

    The X-38 program seeks to demonstrate an autonomously returned orbital test flight vehicle to support the development of an operational Crew Return Vehicle for the International Space Station. The test flight, anticipated in 2002, is intended to demonstrate the entire mission profile of returning Space Station crew members safely back to earth in the event of medical or mechanical emergency. Integral to the formulation of the X-38 flight data book and the design of the thermal protection system, the aerothermodynamic environment is being defined through a synergistic combination of ground based testing and computational fluid dynamics. This report provides an overview of the hypersonic aerothermodynamic wind tunnel program conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center in support of the X-38 development. Global and discrete surface heat transfer force and moment, surface streamline patterns, and shock shapes were measured on scaled models of the proposed X-38 configuration in different test gases at Mach 6, 10 and 20. The test parametrics include angle of attack from 0 to 50 degs, unit Reynolds numbers from 0.3 x 10 (exp 6) to 16 x 10 (exp 6)/ ft, rudder deflections of 0, 2, and 5 deg. and body flap deflections from 0 to 30 deg. Results from hypersonic aerodynamic screening studies that were conducted as the configuration evolved to the present shape at, presented. Heavy gas simulation tests have indicated that the primary real gas effects on X-38 aerodynamics at trim conditions are expected to favorably influence flap effectiveness. Comparisons of the experimental heating and force and moment data to prediction and the current aerodynamic data book are highlighted. The effects of discrete roughness elements on boundary layer transition were investigated at Mach 6 and the development of a transition correlation for the X-38 vehicle is described. Extrapolation of ground based heating measurements to flight radiation equilibrium wall temperatures at Mach 6 and 10 were

  15. Area scaling in N[sub 2] waveguide lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kukhlevsky, S.V.; Kozma, L. . Dept. of Physics)

    1994-03-01

    The area scaling in a nitrogen (N[sub 2]: 337.1 nm) laser excited by the similar longitudinal discharges in single- and multichannel laser structures has been experimentally studied. The results demonstrate the capability of the area scaling method for increasing the average power and pulse-repetition frequency (PRF) of the laser. The variation of the laser output with the channel area and the effects of similar discharges are analyzed.

  16. Areas of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, John

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the recommendations made by the Independent Review of the Primary Curriculum (the Rose Report in 2009) that the curriculum should be organised into areas of learning. The implications for teachers are considered. By drawing upon past experience some major weaknesses and strengths implicit in the approach are identified and…

  17. LOCATING AREAS OF CONCERN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple method to locate changes in vegetation cover, which can be used to identify areas under stress. The method only requires inexpensive NDVI data. The use of remotely sensed data is far more cost-effective than field studies and can be performed more quickly. Local knowledg...

  18. Areas and Brownies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, C. Kenneth

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity that connects area with cutting brownies which are in different shapes for different numbers, uses algebraic equations, and fixes the exact dimensions of brownies. Concludes with four different solutions from six people for the class of 16 and a trapezoidal brownie. (ASK)

  19. Local Area Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Kenneth E.; Nielsen, Steven

    1991-01-01

    Discusses cabling that is needed in local area networks (LANs). Types of cables that may be selected are described, including twisted pair, coaxial cables (or ethernet), and fiber optics; network topologies, the manner in which the cables are laid out, are considered; and cable installation issues are discussed. (LRW)

  20. Plutonium focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  1. Area Handbook for Guatemala.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombrowski, John; And Others

    This volume is one of a series of handbooks prepared by Foreign Area Studies of American University designed to be useful to military and other personnel who need a convenient compilation of basic facts about the social, economic, political, and military institutions and practices of various countries. Chapters focus on: (1) the general character…

  2. Area Handbook for Uganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrick, Allison Butler; And Others

    One of a series of handbooks prepared by Foreign Area Studies (FAS) of The American University, this book is an attempt to provide a comprehensive study of the dominant social, political, and economic aspects of Ugandan society, to present its strengths and weaknesses, and to identify the patterns of behavior characteristics of its members.…

  3. Tangrams and Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Charlotte

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity for demonstrating the area of five geometric figures--the square, the rectangle, the parallelogram, the triangle, and the trapezoid--that is based on a simple tangram puzzle. Suggests ways in which this activity can be used at several different levels. (ASK)

  4. Content Area Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Students' vocabulary knowledge is a significant predictor of their overall comprehension. The Common Core State Standards are raising the expectations for word learning and there are now 4 distinct standards related to vocabulary as well as expectations in other standards, including content areas. To address these expectations, teachers need…

  5. EDUCATION IN METROPOLITAN AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HAVIGHURST, ROBERT J.

    THIS BOOK DISCUSSES THE EFFECT OF METROPOLITANISM ON EDUCATION. METROPOLITANISM IS VIEWED BOTH AS A SET OF "EVENTS" AND AS A SET OF "GOALS" OR "TASKS" WHICH CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY SHOULD ACHIEVE. ONE PART OF THE BOOK DISCUSSES THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND GROWTH OF METROPOLITAN AREAS AND THE OPERATION OF METROPOLITAN SCHOOL SYSTEMS. SUCH ISSUES AS…

  6. Local Area Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, David

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of word processors, micro- and minicomputer systems, and other digital office equipment is causing major design changes in existing networks. Local Area Networks (LANs) which have adequately served terminal users in the past must now be redesigned. Implementation at Clemson is described. (MLW)

  7. Area Handbook for Laos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Donald P.; And Others

    The volume on Laos is one of a series of handbooks prepared by the Foreign Area Studies (FAS) of the American University. It is designed to be useful to military and other personnel who need a convenient compilation of basic facts about the social, economic, political, military institutions and practices of Laos. An objective description of the…

  8. Area Handbook for Iraq.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Harvey H.; And Others

    This volume is one of a series of handbooks prepared by Foreign Area Studies (FAS) of The American University, designed to be useful to military and other personnel who need a convenient compilation of basic facts about the social, economic, political and military institutions and practices of various countries. This particular handbook…

  9. Area Handbook for Ecuador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Thomas E.; And Others

    This volume on Ecuador is one of a series of handbooks prepared by the Foreign Area Studies (FAS) of the American University, designed to be useful to military and other personnel who need a convenient compilation of basic facts about the social, economic, political, and military institutions and practices of various countries. The emphasis is on…

  10. Education in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picot, Cynthia, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter presents information concerning the building and management of educational facilities in rural areas. The Programme on Educational Building (PEB) operates within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (Paris, France) and consists of members from 17 countries that promote the exchange of ideas, information,…

  11. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  12. Area Handbook for Syria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyrop, Richard; And Others

    This volume on Syria is one of a series of handbooks prepared by the Foreign Area Studies (FAS) of the American University, designed to be useful to military and other personnel who need a convenient compilation of basic facts about the social, economic, political, and military institutions and practices of various countries. The emphasis is on…

  13. Local Area Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasatir, Marilyn; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Four papers discuss LANs (local area networks) and library applications: (1) "Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers Standards..." (Charles D. Brown); (2) "Facilities Planning for LANs..." (Gail Persky); (3) "Growing up with the Alumni Library: LAN..." (Russell Buchanan); and (4) "Implementing a LAN...at the Health Sciences Library"…

  14. 7 CFR 966.4 - Production area and regulated area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area and regulated area. 966.4 Section 966... GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.4 Production area and regulated area. (a) Production area means the counties of Pinellas, Hillsborough, Polk, Osceola, and Brevard in the State...

  15. 7 CFR 966.4 - Production area and regulated area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area and regulated area. 966.4 Section 966... GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.4 Production area and regulated area. (a) Production area means the counties of Pinellas, Hillsborough, Polk, Osceola, and Brevard in the State...

  16. 7 CFR 966.4 - Production area and regulated area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area and regulated area. 966.4 Section 966... GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.4 Production area and regulated area. (a) Production area means the counties of Pinellas, Hillsborough, Polk, Osceola, and Brevard in the State...

  17. Remote sensing of potential aircraft icing areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuev, Vladimir V.; Nakhtigalova, Daria P.; Shelekhov, Alexander P.; Shelekhova, Evgeniya A.; Baranov, Nikolay A.; Kizhner, Lubov I.

    2015-11-01

    Remote sensing technique of detection of potential aircraft icing areas based on temperature profile measurements, using meteorological temperature profiler, and the data of the Airfield Measuring and Information System (AMIS-RF), was proposed, theoretically described and experimentally validated during the field project in 2012 - 2013 in the Tomsk Bogashevo Airport. Spatial areas of potential aircraft icing were determined using the RAP algorithm and Godske formula. The equations for the reconstruction of profiles of relative humidity and dew point using data from AMIS-RF are given. Actual data on the aircraft icing for the Tomsk Bogashevo Airport on 11 October 2012 and 17 March 2013 are presented in this paper. The RAP algorithm and Godske formula show similar results for the location of spatial areas of potential icing. Though, the results obtained using the RAP algorithm are closer to the actual data on the icing known from aircraft crew reports.

  18. An experimental approach to submarine canyon evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Steven Y. J.; Gerber, Thomas P.; Amblas, David

    2016-03-01

    We present results from a sandbox experiment designed to investigate how sediment gravity flows form and shape submarine canyons. In the experiment, unconfined saline gravity flows were released onto an inclined sand bed bounded on the downstream end by a movable floor that was used to increase relief during the experiment. In areas unaffected by the flows, we observed featureless, angle-of-repose submarine slopes formed by retrogressive breaching processes. In contrast, areas influenced by gravity flows cascading across the shelf break were deeply incised by submarine canyons with well-developed channel networks. Normalized canyon long profiles extracted from successive high-resolution digital elevation models collapse to a single profile when referenced to the migrating shelf-slope break, indicating self-similar growth in the relief defined by the canyon and intercanyon profiles. Although our experimental approach is simple, the resulting canyon morphology and behavior appear similar in several important respects to that observed in the field.

  19. Hanford Area 2000 Population

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas B.; Scott, Michael J.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2004-05-28

    This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office, Surface Environmental Surveillance Project, to provide demographic data required for ongoing environmental assessments and safety analyses at the DOE Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. This document includes 2000 Census estimates for the resident population within an 80-kilometer (50-mile) radius of the Hanford Site. Population distributions are reported relative to five reference points centered on meteorological stations within major operating areas of the Hanford Site - the 100 F, 100 K, 200, 300, and 400 Areas. These data are presented in both graphical and tabular format, and are provided for total populations residing within 80 km (50 mi) of the reference points, as well as for Native American, Hispanic and Latino, total minority, and low-income populations.

  20. NASA's Hypersonic Investment Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe; Hutt, John; McClinton, Charles

    2002-01-01

    NASA has established long term goals for access to space. The third generation launch systems are to be fully reusable and operational around 2025. The goal for third-generation launch systems represents significant reduction in cost and improved safety over the current first generation system. The Advanced Space Transportation Office (ASTP) at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has the agency lead to develop space transportation technologies. Within ASTP, under the Hypersonic Investment Area (HIA), third generation technologies are being pursued in the areas of propulsion, airframe, integrated vehicle health management (IVHM), avionics, power, operations and system analysis. These technologies are being matured through research and both ground and flight-testing. This paper provides an overview of the HIA program plans and recent accomplishments.

  1. Experimental Volcanology: 2010 and 2020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingwell, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    The advent of an experimental approach to volcanology has its roots in decades-old laboratory based approaches to characterising the properties of magmas and analog materials, together with the attempts at simulating volcanic processes in the lab. A little over ten years ago many new thrusts of experimental advance led to a new dawn for experimental science applied to volcanic eruptions. Along with that, new expectations, new goals and new strategies emerged about ten years ago. Ten years later, in 2010, many fruits have been born of this labour, and new frontiers are being unfolded as we meet here. Here are some of the youngest captivating themes being explored in experimental programs today: 1) interfacing volcanic monitoring systems to experimentally generated eruptions. 2) elucidating the physicochemical behavior of experimentally generated volcanic ash as an agent in the earth system. 3) blending experimental rock deformation and magmatology studies to understand the strength and stability of volcanic materials and volcanic structures 4) exploiting the kinematics of experimentally-generated versus natural volcanic products to understand flow style and strain history. The past ten years of experimental developments in volcanology have prepared us for great advances in the future, most of which were not perceived as likely avenues of investigation as little as ten years ago! The situation is likely to repeat itself in 2020.

  2. 3. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, VIEW OF PICNIC AREA WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, VIEW OF PICNIC AREA WITH COMMUNITY KITCHEN IN BACKGROUND. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Eagle Creek Recreation Area, Historic Columbia River Highway at Eagle Creek, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  3. Experimental Design and Some Threats to Experimental Validity: A Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skidmore, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Experimental designs are distinguished as the best method to respond to questions involving causality. The purpose of the present paper is to explicate the logic of experimental design and why it is so vital to questions that demand causal conclusions. In addition, types of internal and external validity threats are discussed. To emphasize the…

  4. Frostbites in circumpolar areas

    PubMed Central

    Ikäheimo, Tiina Maria; Hassi, Juhani

    2011-01-01

    Circumpolar areas are associated with prolonged cold exposure where wind, precipitation, and darkness further aggravate the environmental conditions and the associated risks. Despite the climate warming, cold climatic conditions will prevail in circumpolar areas and contribute to adverse health effects. Frostbite is a freezing injury where localized damage affects the skin and other tissues. It occurs during occupational or leisure-time activities and is common in the general population among men and women of various ages. Industries of the circumpolar areas where frostbite occurs frequently include transportation, mining, oil, and gas industry, construction, agriculture, and military operations. Cold injuries may also occur during leisure-time activities involving substantial cold exposure, such as mountaineering, skiing, and snowmobiling. Accidental situations (occupational, leisure time) often contribute to adverse cooling and cold injuries. Several environmental (temperature, wind, wetness, cold objects, and altitude) and individual (behavior, health, and physiology) predisposing factors are connected with frostbite injuries. Vulnerable populations include those having a chronic disease (cardiovascular, diabetes, and depression), children and the elderly, or homeless people. Frostbite results in sequelae causing different types of discomfort and functional limitations that may persist for years. A frostbite injury is preventable, and hence, unacceptable from a public health perspective. Appropriate cold risk management includes awareness of the adverse effects of cold, individual adjustment of cold exposure and clothing, or in occupational context different organizational and technical measures. In addition, vulnerable population groups need customized information and care for proper prevention of frostbites. PMID:21994485

  5. High surface area calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, L. N.; Andersson, M. P.; Dalby, K. N.; Müter, D.; Okhrimenko, D. V.; Fordsmand, H.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2013-05-01

    Calcite (CaCO3) is important in many fields—in nature, because it is a component of aquifers, oil reservoirs and prospective CO2 storage sites, and in industry, where it is used in products as diverse as paper, toothpaste, paint, plastic and aspirin. It is difficult to obtain high purity calcite with a high surface area but such material is necessary for industrial applications and for fundamental calcite research. Commercial powder is nearly always contaminated with growth inhibitors such as sugars, citrate or pectin and most laboratory synthesis methods deliver large precipitates, often containing vaterite or aragonite. To address this problem, we (i) adapted the method of carbonating a Ca(OH)2 slurry with CO2 gas to develop the first simple, cheap, safe and reproducible procedure using common laboratory equipment, to obtain calcite that reproducibly had a surface area of 14-17 m2/g and (ii) conducted a thorough characterization of the product. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed nanometer scale, rhombohedral crystals. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) confirmed highly crystalline, pure calcite that more closely resembles the dimensions of the biogenic calcite produced by algae in coccoliths than other methods for synthesizing calcite. We suggest that this calcite is useful when purity and high surface area are important.

  6. The flaws and human harms of animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2015-10-01

    Nonhuman animal ("animal") experimentation is typically defended by arguments that it is reliable, that animals provide sufficiently good models of human biology and diseases to yield relevant information, and that, consequently, its use provides major human health benefits. I demonstrate that a growing body of scientific literature critically assessing the validity of animal experimentation generally (and animal modeling specifically) raises important concerns about its reliability and predictive value for human outcomes and for understanding human physiology. The unreliability of animal experimentation across a wide range of areas undermines scientific arguments in favor of the practice. Additionally, I show how animal experimentation often significantly harms humans through misleading safety studies, potential abandonment of effective therapeutics, and direction of resources away from more effective testing methods. The resulting evidence suggests that the collective harms and costs to humans from animal experimentation outweigh potential benefits and that resources would be better invested in developing human-based testing methods.

  7. The flaws and human harms of animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2015-10-01

    Nonhuman animal ("animal") experimentation is typically defended by arguments that it is reliable, that animals provide sufficiently good models of human biology and diseases to yield relevant information, and that, consequently, its use provides major human health benefits. I demonstrate that a growing body of scientific literature critically assessing the validity of animal experimentation generally (and animal modeling specifically) raises important concerns about its reliability and predictive value for human outcomes and for understanding human physiology. The unreliability of animal experimentation across a wide range of areas undermines scientific arguments in favor of the practice. Additionally, I show how animal experimentation often significantly harms humans through misleading safety studies, potential abandonment of effective therapeutics, and direction of resources away from more effective testing methods. The resulting evidence suggests that the collective harms and costs to humans from animal experimentation outweigh potential benefits and that resources would be better invested in developing human-based testing methods. PMID:26364776

  8. Experimental analysis of computer system dependability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyer, Ravishankar, K.; Tang, Dong

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews an area which has evolved over the past 15 years: experimental analysis of computer system dependability. Methodologies and advances are discussed for three basic approaches used in the area: simulated fault injection, physical fault injection, and measurement-based analysis. The three approaches are suited, respectively, to dependability evaluation in the three phases of a system's life: design phase, prototype phase, and operational phase. Before the discussion of these phases, several statistical techniques used in the area are introduced. For each phase, a classification of research methods or study topics is outlined, followed by discussion of these methods or topics as well as representative studies. The statistical techniques introduced include the estimation of parameters and confidence intervals, probability distribution characterization, and several multivariate analysis methods. Importance sampling, a statistical technique used to accelerate Monte Carlo simulation, is also introduced. The discussion of simulated fault injection covers electrical-level, logic-level, and function-level fault injection methods as well as representative simulation environments such as FOCUS and DEPEND. The discussion of physical fault injection covers hardware, software, and radiation fault injection methods as well as several software and hybrid tools including FIAT, FERARI, HYBRID, and FINE. The discussion of measurement-based analysis covers measurement and data processing techniques, basic error characterization, dependency analysis, Markov reward modeling, software-dependability, and fault diagnosis. The discussion involves several important issues studies in the area, including fault models, fast simulation techniques, workload/failure dependency, correlated failures, and software fault tolerance.

  9. Assessing Pupils' Skills in Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammann, Marcus; Phan, Thi Thanh Hoi; Ehmer, Maike; Grimm, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    This study is concerned with different forms of assessment of pupils' skills in experimentation. The findings of three studies are reported. Study 1 investigates whether it is possible to develop reliable multiple-choice tests for the skills of forming hypotheses, designing experiments and analysing experimental data. Study 2 compares scores from…

  10. MEASUREMENT AND PRECISION, EXPERIMENTAL VERSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    THIS DOCUMENT IS AN EXPERIMENTAL VERSION OF A PROGRAMED TEXT ON MEASUREMENT AND PRECISION. PART I CONTAINS 24 FRAMES DEALING WITH PRECISION AND SIGNIFICANT FIGURES ENCOUNTERED IN VARIOUS MATHEMATICAL COMPUTATIONS AND MEASUREMENTS. PART II BEGINS WITH A BRIEF SECTION ON EXPERIMENTAL DATA, COVERING SUCH POINTS AS (1) ESTABLISHING THE ZERO POINT, (2)…

  11. Majorana Thermosyphon Prototype Experimental Setup

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Douglas J.; Guzman, Anthony D.; Munley, John T.

    2011-08-01

    This report presents the experimental setup of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR thermosyphon prototype cooling system. A nitrogen thermosyphon prototype of such a system has been built and tested at PNNL. This document presents the experimental setup of the prototype that successfully demonstrated the heat transfer performance of the system.

  12. Experimental Mathematics and Computational Statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2009-04-30

    The field of statistics has long been noted for techniques to detect patterns and regularities in numerical data. In this article we explore connections between statistics and the emerging field of 'experimental mathematics'. These includes both applications of experimental mathematics in statistics, as well as statistical methods applied to computational mathematics.

  13. 6. "EXPERIMENTAL ROCKET ENGINE TEST STATION AT AFFTC." A low ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. "EXPERIMENTAL ROCKET ENGINE TEST STATION AT AFFTC." A low oblique aerial view of Test Area 1-115, looking south, showing Test Stand 1-3 at left, Instrumentation and Control building 8668 at center, and Test Stand 15 at right. The test area is under construction; no evidence of railroad line in photo. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Leuhman Ridge near Highways 58 & 395, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. Large area bulk superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Dean J.; Field, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  15. A brief review on experimental fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Perumal, Ekambaram; Paul, Vanaja; Govindarajan, Vimal; Panneerselvam, Lakshmikanthan

    2013-11-25

    Fluoride (F) is a naturally occurring contaminant in the water. F is essential for normal maintenance of teeth and bones. However, prolonged exposure to high concentration of F is found to be deleterious to teeth, bones and other organs. Besides drinking water, F can enter the body through food, dental products, drugs and industrial emission. People living in areas where F contamination is much higher than the expected level, are found to suffer from not only teeth and bone problem but also other systems, including brain and its functions. Since animals respond to the toxic effects of F like human beings, the deleterious effects of F have been produced experimentally in animals in order to determine the mechanism involved in the action of F. The reports indicating the chronic harmful effects of F in teeth, bones, heart, liver, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, lungs, brain, blood, hormones and biochemical parameters of experimental animals and in in vitro studies have been reviewed in this article. The neurotoxic action of F that produces chiefly learning and memory impairment has also been included. The review also points out the harmful effects of F on reproduction, its teratogenic action and in inducing premature ageing. Finally, the reports indicating a reversal of certain toxicities of F in experimental animals after withdrawal of its exposure has been included.

  16. Area Community College and Area Vocational School Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Public Instruction, Des Moines.

    The purpose of this guideline is to assist in the planning process, to encourage good school plant design, and to serve as criteria in the evaluation of area community college and area vocational school plans. It is divided into the following five sections--(1) area plant planning, (2) area sites, (3) physical facilities, (4) service systems, and…

  17. Uncratered Area on Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A dark, smooth, relatively uncratered area on Mercury was photographed (FDS 226) two hours after Mariner 10 flew by the planet on March 29 from a range of 86,000 kilometers (54,000 miles). Above and to the left of center is a surface similar to the mane material of Earth's moon. It embays and covers rougher, older, heavily cratered topography like that, which can be seen in both upper corners of this picture. The history of heavy cratering seems to be followed by volcanic filling, similar to the process on the Moon. The prominent, sharp crater with a central peak (center) is 30 kilometers (19 miles) across. It is located on the upper left edge of a very bright surface area. The bright crater, to its right is 10 kilometers (6 miles) in diameter. The sun is from the right.

    The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.

    Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Northwestern University

  18. Experimental practices in economics: a methodological challenge for psychologists?

    PubMed

    Hertwig, R; Ortmann, A

    2001-06-01

    This target article is concerned with the implications of the surprisingly different experimental practices in economics and in areas of psychology relevant to both economists and psychologists, such as behavioral decision making. We consider four features of experimentation in economics, namely, script enactment, repeated trials, performance-based monetary payments, and the proscription against deception, and compare them to experimental practices in psychology, primarily in the area of behavioral decision making. Whereas economists bring a precisely defined "script" to experiments for participants to enact, psychologists often do not provide such a script, leaving participants to infer what choices the situation affords. By often using repeated experimental trials, economists allow participants to learn about the task and the environment; psychologists typically do not. Economists generally pay participants on the basis of clearly defined performance criteria; psychologists usually pay a flat fee or grant a fixed amount of course credit. Economists virtually never deceive participants; psychologists, especially in some areas of inquiry, often do. We argue that experimental standards in economics are regulatory in that they allow for little variation between the experimental practices of individual researchers. The experimental standards in psychology, by contrast, are comparatively laissez-faire. We believe that the wider range of experimental practices in psychology reflects a lack of procedural regularity that may contribute to the variability of empirical findings in the research fields under consideration. We conclude with a call for more research on the consequences of methodological preferences, such as the use on monetary payments, and propose a "do-it-both-ways" rule regarding the enactment of scripts, repetition of trials, and performance-based monetary payments. We also argue, on pragmatic grounds, that the default practice should be not to deceive

  19. SPERTI Control Area. Contextual view of desert from control area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SPERT-I Control Area. Contextual view of desert from control area to reactor pit and terminal building area 1/2 mile away. A four-inch water line is being installed between the two areas. Photographer: R.G. Larsen. Date: April 22, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-999 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. Wide area sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Nix, Tricia; Junker, Robert; Brentano, Josef; Khona, Dhiren

    2006-05-01

    The technical concept for this project has existed since the Chernobyl accident in 1986. A host of Eastern European nations have developed countrywide grid of sensors to monitor airborne radiation. The objective is to build a radiological sensor network for real-time monitoring of environmental radiation levels in order to provide data for warning, and consequentially the assessment of a nuclear event. A network of radiation measuring equipment consisting of gamma, neutron, alpha, and beta counters would be distributed over a large area (preferably on fire station roof tops) and connected by a wireless network to the emergency response center. The networks would be deployed in urban environments and would supply first responders and federal augmentation teams (including those from the U.S. Departments of Energy, Defense, Justice, and Homeland Security) with detailed, accurate information regarding the transport of radioactive environmental contaminants, so the agencies can provide a safe and effective response. A networked sensor capability would be developed, with fixed sensors deployed at key locations and in sufficient numbers, to provide adequate coverage for early warning, and input to post-event emergency response. An overall system description and specification will be provided, including detector characteristics, communication protocols, infrastructure and maintenance requirements, and operation procedures. The system/network can be designed for a specifically identified urban area, or for a general urban area scalable to cities of specified size. Data collected via the network will be transmitted directly to the appropriate emergency response center and shared with multiple agencies via the Internet or an Intranet. The data collected will be managed using commercial off - the - shelf Geographical Information System (GIS). The data will be stored in a database and the GIS software will aid in analysis and management of the data. Unique features of the

  1. Preclinical electrogastrography in experimental pigs

    PubMed Central

    Květina, Jaroslav; Varayil, Jithinraj Edakkanambeth; Ali, Shahzad Marghoob; Kuneš, Martin; Bureš, Jan; Tachecí, Ilja; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Kopáčová, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    Surface electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive means of recording gastric myoelectric activity or slow waves from cutaneous leads placed over the stomach. This paper provides a comprehensive review of preclinical EGG. Our group recently set up and worked out the methods for EGG in experimental pigs. We gained our initial experience in the use of EGG in assessment of porcine gastric myoelectric activity after volume challenge and after intragastric administration of itopride and erythromycin. The mean dominant frequency in pigs is comparable with that found in humans. EGG in experimental pigs is feasible. Experimental EGG is an important basis for further preclinical projects in pharmacology and toxicology. PMID:21217873

  2. Phoenix Work Area Animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This animation from Sol 1 shows a mosaic of the Phoenix digging area in the Martian terrain. Phoenix scientists are very pleased with this view as the terrain features few rocks an optimal place for digging. The mast of the camera looks disjointed because the photos that comprise this mosaic were taken at different times of day. This video also show some of the lander's instrumentation.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Variable area exhaust nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, E. A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    An exhaust nozzle for a gas turbine engine comprises a number of arcuate flaps pivotally connected to the trailing edge of a cylindrical casing which houses the engine. Seals disposed within the flaps are spring biased and extensible beyond the side edges of the flaps. The seals of adjacent flaps are maintained in sealing engagement with each other when the flaps are adjusted between positions defining minimum nozzle flow area and the cruise position. Extensible, spring biased seals are also disposed within the flaps adjacent to a supporting pylon to thereby engage the pylon in a sealing arrangement. The flaps are hinged to the casing at the central portion of the flaps' leading edges and are connected to actuators at opposed outer portions of the leading edges to thereby maximize the mechanical advantage in the actuation of the flaps.

  4. T-1 Training Area

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-07

    Another valuable homeland security asset at the NNSS is the T-1 training area, which covers more than 10 acres and includes more than 20 separate training venues. Local, County, and State first responders who train here encounter a variety of realistic disaster scenarios. A crashed 737 airliner lying in pieces across the desert, a helicopter and other small aircraft, trucks, buses, and derailed train cars are all part of the mock incident scene. After formal classroom education, first responders are trained to take immediate decisive action to prevent or mitigate the use of radiological or nuclear devices by terrorists. The Counterterrorism Operations Support Center for Radiological Nuclear Training conducts the courses and exercises providing first responders from across the nation with the tools they need to protect their communities. All of these elements provide a training experience that cannot be duplicated anywhere else in the country.

  5. T-1 Training Area

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Another valuable homeland security asset at the NNSS is the T-1 training area, which covers more than 10 acres and includes more than 20 separate training venues. Local, County, and State first responders who train here encounter a variety of realistic disaster scenarios. A crashed 737 airliner lying in pieces across the desert, a helicopter and other small aircraft, trucks, buses, and derailed train cars are all part of the mock incident scene. After formal classroom education, first responders are trained to take immediate decisive action to prevent or mitigate the use of radiological or nuclear devices by terrorists. The Counterterrorism Operations Support Center for Radiological Nuclear Training conducts the courses and exercises providing first responders from across the nation with the tools they need to protect their communities. All of these elements provide a training experience that cannot be duplicated anywhere else in the country.

  6. The Large Area Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Michelson, Peter F.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL

    2007-11-13

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of two instruments on the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view, high-energy pair-conversion telescope, covering the energy range from {approx}20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. The LAT is being built by an international collaboration with contributions from space agencies, high-energy particle physics institutes, and universities in France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, and the United States. The scientific objectives the LAT will address include resolving the high-energy gamma-ray sky and determining the nature of the unidentified gamma-ray sources and the origin of the apparently isotropic diffuse emission observed by EGRET; understanding the mechanisms of particle acceleration in celestial sources, including active galactic nuclei, pulsars, and supernovae remnants; studying the high-energy behavior of gamma-ray bursts and transients; using high-energy gamma-rays to probe the early universe to z {ge} 6; and probing the nature of dark matter. The components of the LAT include a precision silicon-strip detector tracker and a CsI(Tl) calorimeter, a segmented anticoincidence shield that covers the tracker array, and a programmable trigger and data acquisition system. The calorimeter's depth and segmentation enable the high-energy reach of the LAT and contribute significantly to background rejection. The aspect ratio of the tracker (height/width) is 0.4, allowing a large field-of-view and ensuring that nearly all pair-conversion showers initiated in the tracker will pass into the calorimeter for energy measurement. This paper includes a description of each of these LAT subsystems as well as a summary of the overall performance of the telescope.

  7. Experimental atomic physics in heavy-ion storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Datz, S.; Andersen, L.H.; Briand, J.P.; Liesen, D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper outlines the discussion which took place at the ''round table'' on experimental atomic physics in heavy-ion storage rings. Areas of discussion are: electron-ion interactions, ion-ion collisions, precision spectroscopy of highly charged ions, beta decay into bound final states, and atomic binding energies from spectroscopy of conversion elections. 18 refs., 1 tab. (LSP)

  8. Open-Ended Experimentation with the Fungus Pilobolus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coble, Charles R.; Bland, Charles E.

    This paper describes open-ended experimentation with the fungus Pilobolus for laboratory work by high school students. The fungus structure and reproduction is described and sources of the fungus are suggested. Four areas for investigation are suggested: the effect of a diffuse light source, the effect of a point light source, the effect of light…

  9. Electronic Texts or Learning through Textbooks: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartes-Enriquez, Ninette; Rodriguez, M. I. Solar; Letelier, R. Quintana

    2004-01-01

    This is an experimental study in the area of Didactics applied to the learning of English as a foreign language and complemented by CALL. The main objective of this work is to know the degree of incidence existing between two groups of students: one, based on conference-style classes where students, guided by the teacher, have to search for…

  10. Selecting Intervention Strategies: Using Brief Experimental Analysis for Mathematics Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codding, Robin S.; Baglici, Stephanie; Gottesman, Dana; Johnson, Mitchelle; Kert, Allison Schaffer; Lebeouf, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Although brief experimental analysis (BEA) procedures have been effective for aiding instructional decision making in the area of reading, there is a paucity of research extending this technology to mathematics. This study extends the literature on mathematics BEA by using an abridged data series that compares skill- and performance-based…

  11. The Beginnings of Experimental Petrology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eugster, Hans P.

    1971-01-01

    An account of Van't Hoff's change from theoretical chemistry to petrology provides data on the European intellectual climate of the early 1900's and shows how his work laid the foundation for experimental petrology of hard rocks." (AL)

  12. Animal Experimentation in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansevin, Kystyna D.

    1970-01-01

    Recommends that teacher and student be provided with the broadest possible spectrum of meaningful and feasible experiments in which the comfort of the experimental animal is protected by the design of the experiment. (BR)

  13. Mega-joule experiment area study, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Slaughter, D.; Oirth, C.; Woodworth, J.

    1995-03-09

    This document contains Chapters 3 and 4 from the Mega-Joule Experiment Area Study, 1989. Water frost on the first containment wall is studied in detail in Chapter 3. Considered topics are the computer modeling of frost ablation and shock propagation and the experimental characterization of water frost. The latter is broken down into: frost crystal morphology, experiment configuration, growth rate results, density results, thermal conductivity, crush strength of frost, frost integrity, frost response to simulated soft x-rays. Chapter 4 presents information on surrounding shielding and structures to include: cryogenic spheres for first wall and coolant containment; shield tank concerning primary neutron and gamma ray shielding; and secondary shielding.

  14. [Experimental studies of micromotor headpieces].

    PubMed

    Kanaev, V F; Repin, V A

    1982-01-01

    Experimental studies of handpieces for micromotors have been performed to make more precise their operating parameters. The special stand has been used for the measurements of the following data: head temperature, power losses in handpieces at no-load, and operating power required for machining by means of spherical burrs. The experimental results made it possible to specify more exactly the range of handpiece rotational speeds and to select optimum loads under reliability testing. PMID:7050601

  15. The experimental status of |Vub|

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Eunil

    2009-12-01

    In this presentation, we review the current experimental status in the measurements of |Vcb| from semileptonic B??? decays to DX ℓv???. Over 10 years of impressive progress in both theoretical and experimental approaches, now less than 2% precision is achieved. In order to further improve these measurements to test standard model, one expects to have better understanding of theoretical uncertainties and to have much more data from future higher luminosity B-factories and LHCb experiment.

  16. [The ethics of animal experimentation].

    PubMed

    Goffi, Jean-Yves

    2013-01-01

    The paper starts with a short definition of animal experimentation, then three main approaches to the practice are considered: unconditional approval (as advocated by Claude Bernard), conditional and restricted approval (as advocated by Peter Singer) and strict prohibition (as advocated by Tom Regan and Gary Francione). It is argued that what is actually approved or condemned in animal experimentation is the value of the scientific enterprise.

  17. CLOUD PEAK PRIMITIVE AREA AND ADJACENT AREAS, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiilsgaard, Thor H.; Patten, Lowell L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral survey of the Cloud Peak Primitive Area and adjacent areas in Wyoming indicated little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. There are some prospect workings, particularly in the northern part of the area, but in none of them were there indications that ore had been mined. Samples from the workings, from nearby rocks and sediments from streams that drain the area did not yield any metal values of significance. The crystalline rocks that underlie the area do not contain oil and gas or coal, products that are extracted from the younger rocks that underlie basins on both sides of the study area.

  18. Squeeze elastic deformation and contact area of a rubber adhesive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tordjeman, P.; Papon, E.; Villenave, J.-J.

    2000-12-01

    New experimental results show that the tack energy of a nonstringing rubber adhesive is proportional to the square function of the contact area. However, this area seems only to be controlled by the contact force and the thickness of the adhesive. A study of how the contact area depends on physical parameters is of great interest for the modeling of the tack properties of pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs). With this objective, we give a mechanical analysis of the tack test in the framework of elasticity. This analysis leads to an analytical expression of force versus thickness of material that is in agreement with the experimental data. Based on this mechanical analysis, a model is proposed to take into account the dependence of the contact area with the contact force and the adhesive thickness. This model is based on the idea that, in confined geometry, the adhesive behaves like an elastic solid and the contact area is a function of the elastic squeeze deformation close to the probe surface. The confrontation with experimental results is good and shows the relevance of this approach. Finally, the model underlines the importance of the roughness, the thickness and the Young's modulus of the adhesive according to the experimental results.

  19. Large area Czochralski silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rea, S. N.; Gleim, P. S.

    1977-01-01

    The overall cost effectiveness of the Czochralski process for producing large-area silicon was determined. The feasibility of growing several 12 cm diameter crystals sequentially at 12 cm/h during a furnace run and the subsequent slicing of the ingot using a multiblade slurry saw were investigated. The goal of the wafering process was a slice thickness of 0.25 mm with minimal kerf. A slice + kerf of 0.56 mm was achieved on 12 cm crystal using both 400 grit B4C and SiC abrasive slurries. Crystal growth experiments were performed at 12 cm diameter in a commercially available puller with both 10 and 12 kg melts. Several modifications to the puller hoz zone were required to achieve stable crystal growth over the entire crystal length and to prevent crystallinity loss a few centimeters down the crystal. The maximum practical growth rate for 12 cm crystal in this puller design was 10 cm/h, with 12 to 14 cm/h being the absolute maximum range at which melt freeze occurred.

  20. AREA RADIATION MONITOR

    DOEpatents

    Manning, F.W.; Groothuis, S.E.; Lykins, J.H.; Papke, D.M.

    1962-06-12

    S>An improved area radiation dose monitor is designed which is adapted to compensate continuously for background radiation below a threshold dose rate and to give warning when the dose integral of the dose rate of an above-threshold radiation excursion exceeds a selected value. This is accomplished by providing means for continuously charging an ionization chamber. The chamber provides a first current proportional to the incident radiation dose rate. Means are provided for generating a second current including means for nulling out the first current with the second current at all values of the first current corresponding to dose rates below a selected threshold dose rate value. The second current has a maximum value corresponding to that of the first current at the threshold dose rate. The excess of the first current over the second current, which occurs above the threshold, is integrated and an alarm is given at a selected integrated value of the excess corresponding to a selected radiation dose. (AEC)

  1. Global protected area impacts.

    PubMed

    Joppa, Lucas N; Pfaff, Alexander

    2011-06-01

    Protected areas (PAs) dominate conservation efforts. They will probably play a role in future climate policies too, as global payments may reward local reductions of loss of natural land cover. We estimate the impact of PAs on natural land cover within each of 147 countries by comparing outcomes inside PAs with outcomes outside. We use 'matching' (or 'apples to apples') for land characteristics to control for the fact that PAs very often are non-randomly distributed across their national landscapes. Protection tends towards land that, if unprotected, is less likely than average to be cleared. For 75 per cent of countries, we find protection does reduce conversion of natural land cover. However, for approximately 80 per cent of countries, our global results also confirm (following smaller-scale studies) that controlling for land characteristics reduces estimated impact by half or more. This shows the importance of controlling for at least a few key land characteristics. Further, we show that impacts vary considerably within a country (i.e. across a landscape): protection achieves less on lands far from roads, far from cities and on steeper slopes. Thus, while planners are, of course, constrained by other conservation priorities and costs, they could target higher impacts to earn more global payments for reduced deforestation.

  2. EAGLE ROCK ROADLESS AREA, WASHINGTON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Johnson, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of geologic, geochemical, aeromagnetic, and mine and prospect investigations define the mineral-resource potential of the Eagle Rock Roadless Area of north-central Washington. The area has probable and substantiated resource potential for base and precious metals where the eastern part of the Index mining district extends into the roadless area; the Sunset mine, 400 ft outside the area, has inferred copper resources, and 10 other properties in the roadless area have demonstrated resources for base and precious metals. The resource potential in the area is related to the Index batholith, which makes up the western part of the roadless area, and rocks to the east in the roadless area that are intruded by the Index batholith. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources in the roadless area.

  3. 203. ATTIC, AREA OVER WOOD SHOP AND STORAGE AREA LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    203. ATTIC, AREA OVER WOOD SHOP AND STORAGE AREA LOOKING NORTH. ELEVATOR SHAFT IS AGAINST FAR WALL. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  4. 5. INTERIOR, LOBBY AREA IN SOUTHEAST AREA OF BUILDING, FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR, LOBBY AREA IN SOUTHEAST AREA OF BUILDING, FROM SOUTHWESTERN WALL, EAST OF ENTRY, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Administrative Offices, On Seventh Street East of Maritime Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  5. CANNIBAL PLATEAU ROADLESS AREA AND POWDERHORN WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharp, William N.; Lane, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Cannibal Plateau Roadless Area and the adjoining Powderhorn Wilderness study area are on the Gunnison-Hinsdale County boundary, approximately 50 mi southwest of Gunnison and a few miles east of Lake City. Part of the area has been known as the Powderhorn Primitive Area. The mineral-resource potential involved a basic geologic study, a geophysical survey, and a geochemical survey. No mining districts exist within the two areas, but the Lake City mining district adjoins the Cannibal Plateau Roadless Area at the southwest edge. The mineral-resource survey indicates that the southwest part of the Cannibal Plateau Roadless Area has probable mineral-resource potential, for gold, silver, and molybdenum. There is little promise for the occurrence of mineral and energy resources for the remainder of the areas.

  6. Physical modeling of gas dispersion over urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michálek, Petr; Zacho, David

    2016-06-01

    Experimental study of gas dispersion over urban area model was conducted in boundary layer wind tunnel in VZLU Prague. A scale model of urban area near the Centre of Liberec was made and dispersion of gas emissions from nearby heating plant was measured. The measurements included velocity field and concentration field by means of hot wire anemometer and flame ionization detector. The purpose of this work was to validate and verify a new computational dispersion model, which was developed in VZLU.

  7. Combustion modeling for experimentation in a space environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berlad, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    The merits of combustion experimentation in a space environment are assessed, and the impact of such experimentation on current theoretical models is considered. It is noted that combustion theory and experimentation for less than normal gravitational conditions are incomplete, inadequate, or nonexistent. Extensive and systematic experimentation in a space environment is viewed as essential for more adequate and complete theoretical models of such processes as premixed flame propagation and extinction limits, premixed flame propagation in droplet and particle clouds, ignition and autoignition in premixed combustible media, and gas jet combustion of unpremixed reactants. Current theories and models in these areas are described, and some combustion studies that can be undertaken in the Space Shuttle Program are proposed, including crossed molecular beam, turbulence, and upper pressure limit (of gases) studies.

  8. 14. INTERIOR, IN TRIANGULAR STORAGE AREA, IN SOUTHEAST AREA OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR, IN TRIANGULAR STORAGE AREA, IN SOUTHEAST AREA OF BUILDING (EAST OF LOCKER/OFFICE/HEAD AREA), LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Pier Transit Shed, South of D Street between First & Second Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  9. 75. Rocky Knob Recreation area picnic area. View of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    75. Rocky Knob Recreation area picnic area. View of the picnic tables set amongst the area's rock fins and the narrow service road. Looking north-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  10. STUDY AREAS CONTIGUOUS TO THE UNCOMPAHGRE PRIMITIVE AREA, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steven, Thomas A.; Bieniewski, Carl L.

    1984-01-01

    Important mineral deposits of several ages have been exploited at many places in the western San Juan Mountains, including the originally studied Uncompahgre Primitive Area, Colorado. Although the three contiguous areas - western, central, and eastern - considered here are largely outside the more productive mining areas, a mineral study indicated that there are areas of probable resource potential for base and precious metals near the margins of the areas. Results of this study indicate that there is little promise for the occurrence of fossil fuels and geothermal energy.

  11. COMBUSTION AREA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report identifies, documents, and evaluates data sources for stationary area source emissions, including solid waste and agricultural burning. Area source emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, reactive volatile organic compounds, and carbon mon...

  12. Facial Areas and Emotional Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Jerry D.; Ekman, Paul

    1975-01-01

    Provides strong support for the view that there is no one area of the face which best reveals emotion, but that the value of the different facial areas in distinguishing emotions depends upon the emotion being judged. (Author)

  13. Experimental plug and play quantum coin flipping.

    PubMed

    Pappa, Anna; Jouguet, Paul; Lawson, Thomas; Chailloux, André; Legré, Matthieu; Trinkler, Patrick; Kerenidis, Iordanis; Diamanti, Eleni

    2014-04-24

    Performing complex cryptographic tasks will be an essential element in future quantum communication networks. These tasks are based on a handful of fundamental primitives, such as coin flipping, where two distrustful parties wish to agree on a randomly generated bit. Although it is known that quantum versions of these primitives can offer information-theoretic security advantages with respect to classical protocols, a demonstration of such an advantage in a practical communication scenario has remained elusive. Here we experimentally implement a quantum coin flipping protocol that performs strictly better than classically possible over a distance suitable for communication over metropolitan area optical networks. The implementation is based on a practical plug and play system, developed by significantly enhancing a commercial quantum key distribution device. Moreover, we provide combined quantum coin flipping protocols that are almost perfectly secure against bounded adversaries. Our results offer a useful toolbox for future secure quantum communications.

  14. Geothermal Loop Experimental Facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    Research at the Geothermal Loop Experimental Facility was successfully concluded in September 1979. In 13,000 hours of operation over a three and one half year period, the nominal 10 megawatt electrical equivalent GLEF provided the opportunity to identify problems in working with highly saline geothermal fluids and to develop solutions that could be applied to a commercial geothermal power plant producing electricity. A seven and one half year period beginning in April 1972, with early well flow testing and ending in September 1979, with the completion of extensive facility and reservoir operations is covered. During this period, the facility was designed, constructed and operated in several configurations. A comprehensive reference document, addressing or referencing documentation of all the key areas investigated is presented.

  15. Experimental polyurethane foam roof systems, part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alumbaugh, R. L.; Keeton, J. R.; Humm, E. F.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental roofing installation is described in which polyurethane foam (PUF) was spray-applied directly to metal Butlerib-type metal decks, the roof divided into five approximately equal areas, and the PUF protected with five different elastomeric coating systems. Three of the coating systems were damaged by hailstones about a year after installation; these systems were recoated within 3 years of the initial installation. The current coatings include two of the original coating systems - a plural component silicone and a single component silicone - and those applied over the three systems damaged by hail - a single component silicone, an aluminum filled, hydrocarbon-extended catalyzed urethane, and a catalyzed urethane. The performance of these five PUF systems over a 7-year period is reported. The temperature distributions throughout the roof systems are described. The decay in the thermal conductivity of the PUF roof over a 5-year period is presented, and the energy savings realized by foaming the roof are presented.

  16. Experimental plug and play quantum coin flipping.

    PubMed

    Pappa, Anna; Jouguet, Paul; Lawson, Thomas; Chailloux, André; Legré, Matthieu; Trinkler, Patrick; Kerenidis, Iordanis; Diamanti, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    Performing complex cryptographic tasks will be an essential element in future quantum communication networks. These tasks are based on a handful of fundamental primitives, such as coin flipping, where two distrustful parties wish to agree on a randomly generated bit. Although it is known that quantum versions of these primitives can offer information-theoretic security advantages with respect to classical protocols, a demonstration of such an advantage in a practical communication scenario has remained elusive. Here we experimentally implement a quantum coin flipping protocol that performs strictly better than classically possible over a distance suitable for communication over metropolitan area optical networks. The implementation is based on a practical plug and play system, developed by significantly enhancing a commercial quantum key distribution device. Moreover, we provide combined quantum coin flipping protocols that are almost perfectly secure against bounded adversaries. Our results offer a useful toolbox for future secure quantum communications. PMID:24758868

  17. Program for Experimentation With Expert Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engle, S. W.

    1986-01-01

    CERBERUS is forward-chaining, knowledge-based system program useful for experimentation with expert systems. Inference-engine mechanism performs deductions according to user-supplied rule set. Information stored in intermediate area, and user interrogated only when no applicable data found in storage. Each assertion posed by CERBERUS answered with certainty ranging from 0 to 100 percent. Rule processor stops investigating applicable rules when goal reaches certainty of 95 percent or higher. Capable of operating for wide variety of domains. Sample rule files included for animal identification, pixel classification in image processing, and rudimentary car repair for novice mechanic. User supplies set of end goals or actions. System complexity decided by user's rule file. CERBERUS written in FORTRAN 77.

  18. Experimental Models for Neurotrauma Research.

    PubMed

    Davidsson, Johan; Risling, Mårten

    2016-01-01

    Physical trauma in the central nervous system (CNS) is usually the result of a number of forces in different directions and dimensions. A large number of experimental models have been developed to improve the possibilities to understand the outcome of CNS trauma. In this chapter, we will describe the need for a variety of experimental models for research on traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury (SCI). Models can serve different needs, such as: to test new treatments for injuries, to reveal thresholds for injuries, to provide a better understanding of injury mechanisms, or to test tools and methods for translation between experiments and clinical data. In this chapter, we will discuss on the validation of models and translation between experimental and clinical studies. PMID:27604724

  19. Experimental verification of quantum computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barz, Stefanie; Fitzsimons, Joseph F.; Kashefi, Elham; Walther, Philip

    2013-11-01

    Quantum computers are expected to offer substantial speed-ups over their classical counterparts and to solve problems intractable for classical computers. Beyond such practical significance, the concept of quantum computation opens up fundamental questions, among them the issue of whether quantum computations can be certified by entities that are inherently unable to compute the results themselves. Here we present the first experimental verification of quantum computation. We show, in theory and experiment, how a verifier with minimal quantum resources can test a significantly more powerful quantum computer. The new verification protocol introduced here uses the framework of blind quantum computing and is independent of the experimental quantum-computation platform used. In our scheme, the verifier is required only to generate single qubits and transmit them to the quantum computer. We experimentally demonstrate this protocol using four photonic qubits and show how the verifier can test the computer's ability to perform quantum computation.

  20. Experimentation on humans and nonhumans.

    PubMed

    Pluhar, Evelyn B

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I argue that it is wrong to conduct any experiment on a nonhuman which we would regard as immoral were it to be conducted on a human, because such experimentation violates the basic moral rights of sentient beings. After distinguishing the rights approach from the utilitarian approach, I delineate basic concepts. I then raise the classic "argument from marginal cases" against those who support experimentation on nonhumans but not on humans. After next replying to six important objections against that argument, I contend that moral agents are logically required to accord basic moral rights to every sentient being. I conclude by providing criteria for distinguishing ethical from unethical experimentation. PMID:16988895

  1. DINKEY LAKES ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodge, F.C.W.; Federspiel, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Dinkey Lakes Roadless Area occupies an area of about 184 sq mi on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada, California. The results of a mineral survey show that parts of the area have substantiated resource potential for tungsten and marble and probable resource potential for quartz crystal gemstones. A probable resource potential for geothermal energy exists in one small area. No potential for other metallic mineral or energy resources was identified in this study.

  2. Public Services in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, Kenneth D.

    The paper examines issues in the delivery of public services in rural areas. The importance of access to urban areas in identifying differences in rural delivery problems is emphasized. It is no longer accurate to equate "rural" with agriculture and farming, drawing a distinction between those who have easy access to an urban area and those who…

  3. Finding Areas on Dot Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagni, David L.

    2007-01-01

    This article contains investigative activities to assist students in constructing formulas out of an understanding of the area of geometric shapes. Included with this article are a "Finding Areas on Square Dot Paper Activity Sheet" and a "Finding Areas on Triangle Dot Paper Activity Sheet." (Contains 1 table and 11 figures.)

  4. Animal experimentation ethics from an experimenter's point of view.

    PubMed

    Ehinger, B E

    1986-01-01

    The experimental biologist faces two kinds of ethical problems: practical and philosophical. The practical problems comprise increased costs of experimental animals, and the risk of being harassed or even raided by animal activists. There is also today a growing bureaucratic ethics overhead that has to be paid for, one way or another. The philosophical problems are the true ethical problems. Most laws and regulations emphasize that pain and agony should be minimized, but it is shown that this is neither always necessary nor always adequate. Scientists expect logical reasoning and opinions based on facts, but it is easy to find examples that the public opinion is quite illogical concerning pain and agony. For instance, you may under certain circumstances very well torture and kill animals just for pleasure. Our present legislation should be amended so as to concur better with current public views on how animals should be treated. The Swedish Committees on Animal Experimentation Ethics were intended to help scientists understand the demands of the public opinion. It is doubtful if they have been successful. The ethics of animal experimentation are perforce centered on the experimenter. He alone, at the final moment, makes the decision whether or not to use and, eventually, to kill the animal. When he kills, he obviously has a reason for doing so, and has decided that the purpose justifies the action. With the very large increase in the number of animal experiments in the last few decades, society has justifiably become increasingly concerned about the ethical considerations involved.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Experimental Approach to Teaching Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Catalina

    2015-11-01

    For the last 15 years we have promoted experimental work even in the theoretical courses. Fluids appear in the Physics curriculum of the National University of Mexico in two courses: Collective Phenomena in their sophomore year and Continuum Mechanics in their senior year. In both, students are asked for a final project. Surprisingly, at least 85% choose an experimental subject even though this means working extra hours every week. Some of the experiments were shown in this congress two years ago. This time we present some new results and the methodology we use in the classroom. I acknowledge support from the Physics Department, Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM.

  6. Graphical Models for Quasi-Experimental Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yongnam; Steiner, Peter M.; Hall, Courtney E.; Su, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Experimental and quasi-experimental designs play a central role in estimating cause-effect relationships in education, psychology, and many other fields of the social and behavioral sciences. This paper presents and discusses the causal graphs of experimental and quasi-experimental designs. For quasi-experimental designs the authors demonstrate…

  7. Immunology of experimental and natural human hookworm infection.

    PubMed

    Gaze, S; Bethony, J M; Periago, M V

    2014-08-01

    Human hookworm infection is one amongst the most prevalent of the neglected tropical diseases. An informative experimental animal model, that is, one that parallels a human infection, is not available for the study of human hookworm infection. Much of our current understanding of the human immune response during hookworm infection relies on the studies from experimental infection of hookworm-naïve individuals or the natural infections from individuals residing in hookworm-endemic areas. The experimental human infections tend to be acute, dose-controlled infections, often with a low larval inoculum so that they are well tolerated by human volunteers. Natural hookworm infections usually occur in areas where hookworm transmission is constant and infection is chronic. In cases where there has been drug administration in an endemic area, re-infection often occurs quickly even amongst those who were treated. Hence, although many of the characteristics of experimental and natural hookworm infection differ, both models have elements in common: mainly an intense Th2 response with the production of total and specific IgE as well as elevated levels of eosinophilia, IL-5, IL-10 and TNF. While hookworm infection affects millions of individuals worldwide, much of the human immunology of this infection still needs to be studied and understood.

  8. Upper washita river experimental watersheds: physiography data.

    PubMed

    Moriasi, Daniel N; Starks, Patrick J; Steiner, Jean L; Guzman, Jorge A; Allen, Paul B; Naney, James W

    2014-07-01

    Physiographic data such as digital elevation models (DEMs), soils, geology, stream channel network characteristics, channel stability, and land use data are essential for understanding the complex hydrologic cycle and chemical transport processes of any given study area. We describe the physiographic data available in the Little Washita River Experimental Watershed (LWREW) and Fort Cobb Reservoir Experimental Watershed (FCREW) in Oklahoma. Specifically, we describe (i) available raw and post-processed DEM products (), (ii) available soils data ( and ) and associated error analysis based on limited measured data, (iii) geologic formations in the LWREW and FCREW ( and ), and (iv) available rapid geomorphic assessment measurements () and their uses. Data collection is a collaborative effort among USGS, NRCS, and ARS. These data sets have been used for several research applications by USDA-ARS scientists and researchers from other institutions and agencies. Plans for detailed geomorphic assessment of stream channel networks in the FCREW are underway in collaboration with Oklahoma State University in Stillwater. The collected data will enable updating of the channel stability stage condition since there have been several major rainfall events in the watershed since the last geomorphic assessment.

  9. A Experimental Study of Viscous Vortex Rings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziedzic, Mauricio

    Motivated by the role played by vortex rings in the process of turbulent mixing, the work is focused on the problem of stability and viscous decay of a single vortex ring. A new classification is proposed for vortex rings which is based on extensive hot-wire measurements of velocity in the ring core and wake and flow visualization. Vortex rings can be classified as laminar, wavy, turbulence-producing, and turbulent. Prediction of vortex ring type is shown to be possible based on the vortex ring Reynolds number. Linear growth rates of ring diameter with time are observed for all types of vortex rings, with different growth rates occurring for laminar and turbulent vortex rings. Data on the viscous decay of vortex rings are used to provide experimental confirmation of the accuracy of Saffman's equation for the velocity of propagation of a vortex ring. Experimental data indicate that instability of the vortex ring strongly depends on the mode of generation and can be delayed by properly adjusting the generation parameters. A systematic review of the literature on vortex-ring interactions is presented in the form of an appendix, which helps identify areas in which further research may be fruitful.

  10. Colonic perianastomotic carcinogenesis in an experimental model

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Holanda, Sergio; Rodrigo, Luis; Pinyol-Felis, Carme; Vinyas-Salas, Joan

    2008-01-01

    Background To examine the effect of anastomosis on experimental carcinogenesis in the colon of rats. Methods Forty-three 10-week-old male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were operated on by performing an end-to-side ileorectostomy. Group A:16 rats received no treatment. Group B: 27 rats received 18 subcutaneous injections weekly at a dose of 21 mg/kg wt of 1–2 dimethylhydrazine (DMH), from the eighth day after the intervention. Animals were sacrificed between 25–27 weeks. The number of tumours, their localization, size and microscopic characteristics were recorded. A paired chi-squared analysis was performed comparing tumoral induction in the perianastomotic zone with the rest of colon with faeces. Results No tumours appeared in the dimethylhydrazine-free group. The percentage tumoral area was greater in the perianastomotic zone compared to tumours which had developed in the rest of colon with faeces (p = 0.014). Conclusion We found a cocarcinogenic effect due to the creation of an anastomosis, when using an experimental model of colonic carcinogenesis induced by DMH in rats. PMID:18667092

  11. The Experimental Control of Littering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Roger N.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Behavior, incentives, and education programs were researched as factors relating to littering. Experiments in theaters, forest campgrounds, and hiking and dispersed car camping areas indicate incentive systems are necessary and feasible for curbing litter problems. (BL)

  12. KANAB CREEK ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Billingsley, George H.; Ellis, Clarence E.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, the Kanab Creek Roadless Area in north-central Arizona has a probable mineral-resource potential for uranium and copper in four small areas around five collapse structures. Gypsum is abundant in layers along the canyon rim of Snake Gulch, but it is a fairly common mineral in the region outside the roadless area. There is little promise for the occurence of fossil fuels in the area. Studies of collapse structures in surrounding adjacent areas might reveal significant mineralization at depth, such as the recent discovery of the uranium ore body at depth in the Pigeon Pipe.

  13. Fractal cartography of urban areas

    PubMed Central

    Encarnação, Sara; Gaudiano, Marcos; Santos, Francisco C.; Tenedório, José A.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    2012-01-01

    In a world in which the pace of cities is increasing, prompt access to relevant information is crucial to the understanding and regulation of land use and its evolution in time. In spite of this, characterization and regulation of urban areas remains a complex process, requiring expert human intervention, analysis and judgment. Here we carry out a spatio-temporal fractal analysis of a metropolitan area, based on which we develop a model which generates a cartographic representation and classification of built-up areas, identifying (and even predicting) those areas requiring the most proximate planning and regulation. Furthermore, we show how different types of urban areas identified by the model co-evolve with the city, requiring policy regulation to be flexible and adaptive, acting just in time. The algorithmic implementation of the model is applicable to any built-up area and simple enough to pave the way for the automatic classification of urban areas worldwide. PMID:22829981

  14. Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, E.W.; Light, T.D.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral survey conducted in 1980 in the Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas, Arizona, indicate little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or fossil fuel resources in the area. The area contains deposits of cinder, useful for the production of aggregate block, and for deposits of decorative stone; however, similar deposits occur in great abundance throughout the San Francisco volcanic field outside the roadless areas. There is a possibility that the Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas may overlie part of a crustal magma chamber or still warm pluton related to the San Francisco Mountain stratovolcano or to basaltic vents of late Pleistocene or Holocene age. Such a magma chamber or pluton beneath the Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas might be an energy source from which a hot-, dry-rock geothermal energy system could be developed, and a probable geothermal resource potential is therefore assigned to these areas.

  15. Fractal cartography of urban areas.

    PubMed

    Encarnação, Sara; Gaudiano, Marcos; Santos, Francisco C; Tenedório, José A; Pacheco, Jorge M

    2012-01-01

    In a world in which the pace of cities is increasing, prompt access to relevant information is crucial to the understanding and regulation of land use and its evolution in time. In spite of this, characterization and regulation of urban areas remains a complex process, requiring expert human intervention, analysis and judgment. Here we carry out a spatio-temporal fractal analysis of a metropolitan area, based on which we develop a model which generates a cartographic representation and classification of built-up areas, identifying (and even predicting) those areas requiring the most proximate planning and regulation. Furthermore, we show how different types of urban areas identified by the model co-evolve with the city, requiring policy regulation to be flexible and adaptive, acting just in time. The algorithmic implementation of the model is applicable to any built-up area and simple enough to pave the way for the automatic classification of urban areas worldwide.

  16. STRAWBERRY CRATER ROADLESS AREAS, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, Edward W.; Light, Thomas D.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral survey conducted in the Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas, Arizona, indicate little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or fossil fuel resources in the area. The area contains deposits of cinder, useful for the production of aggregate block, and for deposits of decorative stone; however, similar deposits occur in great abundance throughout the San Francisco volcanic field outside the roadless areas. There is a possibility that the Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas may overlie part of a crustal magma chamber or still warm pluton related to the San Francisco Mountain stratovolcano or to basaltic vents of late Pleistocene or Holocene age. Such a magma chamber or pluton beneath the Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas might be an energy source from which a hot-, dry-rock geothermal energy system could be developed, and a probable geothermal resource potential is therefore assigned to these areas. 9 refs.

  17. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-31

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  18. Experimental investigations of ICRF effects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The goal of the Phaedrus program is to establish the relative efficiency of helicity and momentum current drive for rf near and below omega{sub ci} and compare to theory. This paper discusses major accomplishments in the rf program; extension of operating parameters; facility improvements; and additional experimental activities. (LSP)

  19. The drawing of experimental curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, F H

    1921-01-01

    This report presents a discussion of how to determine the location of a line or surface from experimental data. What we desire to know practically is the number of ordinates required to obtain a certain probable precision in drawing a line or surface.

  20. Experimental Neutrino Physics: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Charles E.; Maricic, Jelena

    2012-09-05

    Experimental studies of neutrino properties, with particular emphasis on neutrino oscillation, mass and mixing parameters. This research was pursued by means of underground detectors for reactor anti-neutrinos, measuring the flux and energy spectra of the neutrinos. More recent investigations have been aimed and developing detector technologies for a long-baseline neutrino experiment (LBNE) using a neutrino beam from Fermilab.

  1. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  2. Evaluating E-Labs' Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plaisent, Michel; Maguiraga, Lassana; Bernard, Prosper; Larhrib, Samir

    2004-01-01

    This communication discusses preliminary results on an experimentation of e-Learning with MIS students, mainly in order to cope with the logistics of lab organization. A learning management software was installed which changed completely the learning process, from content to logistics. Students have expressed their satisfaction with the e-Learning…

  3. An experimenter and his methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filonovich, S. R.

    1990-12-01

    A review of experimental works by Ernst Mach has been given. The works reffer to optics and acoustics. The author is representing Ernst Mach as a physicist rather than a phylosopher, which contradicts the point of view obviously accepted in Soviet history of sciences and philosophy.

  4. Skylab mission report, second visit. [postflight analysis of engineering, experimentation, and medical aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of the operational and engineering aspects of the second Skylab flight. Other areas described include: the performance of experimental hardware; the crew's evaluation of the flight; medical aspects; and hardware anomalies.

  5. Quiet Clean Short-Haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE). Preliminary analyses and design report, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The experimental and flight propulsion systems are presented. The following areas are discussed: engine core and low pressure turbine design; bearings and seals design; controls and accessories design; nacelle aerodynamic design; nacelle mechanical design; weight; and aircraft systems design.

  6. Experimental study of water fluxes in a residential area: 2. Road infiltration, runoff and evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragab, R.; Rosier, P.; Dixon, A.; Bromley, J.; Cooper, J. D.

    2003-08-01

    Lack of accurate data has led some hydrologists and city planners to assume that urban infiltration is zero and runoff is 100% of the rainfall. These assumptions lead to an over estimation of road runoff volume and an underestimation of direct recharge to groundwater, which is already rising under some UK cities. This study investigates infiltration and runoff processes and quantifies the percentage of rainfall that contributes to storm drainage, and that which infiltrates through different types of road surface. Access tubes were installed for measuring soil water content using a neutron probe in three car parks, a road and a grass site at the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford. Storm drainage was recorded at the exit of the Thamesmead Estate in Crowmarsh Gifford, just before the drain joins the River Thames at Wallingford. Rainfall and water table depth were also recorded. Weekly measurements of soil moisture content indicated that the top 40 cm layer is not influenced by water-table fluctuations and, therefore, positive changes in soil moisture could be attributed to infiltration of rainfall through the surface. Depending on the nature of the surface, subsurface layers, level of traffic, etc., between 6 and 9% of rainfall was found to infiltrate through the road surfaces studied. The storm drainage generated by road runoff revealed a flow pattern similar to that of the receiving watercourse (River Thames) and increased with the increase of infiltration and soil water content below the road surface. The ratio of runoff to rainfall was 0·7, 0·9 and 0·5 for annual, winter (October-March) and summer (April-September) respectively. As the results of the infiltration indicated that 6 to 9% of annual rainfall infiltrates through the road surface, this means that evaporation represents, 21-24% of annual rainfall, with more evaporation taking place during summer than winter.

  7. Experimental Plan: Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection 300 Area Uranium Plume Treatability Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Vermeul, Vince R.

    2006-09-20

    This Test Plan describes a laboratory-testing program to be performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of the 300-FF-5 Feasibility Study (FS). The objective of the proposed treatability test is to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to treat uranium contaminated groundwater in situ. This study will be used to: (1) Develop implementation cost estimates; (2) Identify implementation challenges; and (3) Investigate the technology's ability to meet remedial objectives These activities will be conducted in parallel with a limited field investigation, which is currently underway to more accurately define the vertical extent of uranium in the vadose zone, and in the capillary fringe zone laterally throughout the plume. The treatability test will establish the viability of the method and, along with characterization data from the limited field investigation, will provide the means for determining how best to implement the technology in the field. By conducting the treatability work in parallel with the ongoing Limited Field Investigation, the resulting Feasibility Study (FS) will provide proven, site-specific information for evaluating polyphosphate addition and selecting a suitable remediation strategy for the uranium plume within the FS time frame at an overall cost savings.

  8. FATHEAD MINNOW AND PEARL DACE PILOT AT CANADIAN EXPERIMENTAL LAKES AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is increasing concern about the potential impact of EDCs on aquatic organisms. Among the EDCs found in aquatic habitats are synthetic estrogens, which are used in contraceptives and other pharmaceuticals. These chemicals enter waterways through sewage treatment plants and s...

  9. Post-Messinian evolution of the Florence Rise area (Western Cyprus Arc) Part II: Experimental modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellier, N. C.; Vendeville, B. C.; Loncke, L.

    2013-04-01

    The Florence rise is located southwest of the island of Cyprus and belongs to the western part of the Cyprus arc. The Florence rise is an accretionary prism, with some amount of strike slip, where the thick layer of evaporitic Messinian decouples deformation in the post-Messinian cover from that in the pre-Messinian "basement." The basement structural highs, whether presently active or inactive, influence the deformation and displacement patterns of the salt and its overburden. Our first experiment focused on the presence, in nature, of normal faults located above basement thrusts. Deformation of the salt layer and its overburden was influenced by several processes. On one hand, the entire model was subjected to regional shortening, and basement thrusts formed. On the other hand, the local vertical rise associated with basement thrusts created local slopes down which the salt and overburden glided gravitationally, in some places leading to the formation of normal faults in an otherwise compressional regional setting. Our second experiment was designed to model the buttressing effect of the Florence rise and the Eratosthenes Seamount on thin-skinned displacement patterns during regional gravity spreading of the Nile cone. Results indicate that in the Northeastern distal region, buttressing by these two basement highs forced the salt and its overburden to flow northeastward, as a lateral escape toward the free boundary of the region.

  10. Characterization of Field Experimental Sites at Hanford’s 300-Area IFC Site

    SciTech Connect

    Andy Ward; and Roelof Versteeg

    2007-04-19

    The primary goal is to develop quantitative model of heterogeneity that incorporates dominant features at the significant scales, and reflects geologic variability; reflects multi-scale nature of stratigraphy; honors core and well log data; and forms basis of conceptual hydrostratigraphic models.

  11. Impact of the e-p option on Isabelle experimental areas

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, K.J.; Kantardjian, G.; Lanou, R.; Paar, H.; Stevens, A.

    1981-01-01

    There have been many suggestions for the expansion of existing or planned storage rings to include high energy e-p collisions. We will not discuss the physics potential here, but there is a general concensus that a facility with protons colliding with electrons and positrons of selectible helicity would provide great insight into weak interactions, nucleon structure, etc., in a way not duplicated at e/sup +/e/sup -/, pp, nor anti pp machines. In this report, some aspects of the addition of a 10 to 20 GeV electron ring to Isabelle are discussed.

  12. Experimental investigation of the effect of nucleation surface area on nonequilibrium phenomena in flashing water

    SciTech Connect

    Sanai, M.; Tobin, R.J.

    1980-09-01

    The nonequilibrium phenomena that occur in flashing water and the effect of nucleation surfaces on the flashing process were studied using a chamber and a piston. Following the piston release, the pressure dropped abruptly, but started to rise shortly after the piston was stopped. The pressure then reached a plateau and remained essentially constant during the 300-ms observation period. It was calculated that the flashing mixture is in a state of thermal nonequilibrium throughout the expansion and observation period. Addition of coaxial cylindrical inserts lowered the plateau pressure, indicating the formation of large, and hence cooler, vapor voids, contradicting the expectation that by merely adding surfaces and nucleation sites within the flashing mixture, the flashing process would approach equilibrium because a greater number of smaller-sized bubbles would be produced. A possible explanation for the observed behavior is the formation on the surfaces of vapor films, which tend to join and produce large vapor voids within the mixture. Similar vapor films and large voids may also occur during a prototypic core disruptive accident. This would tend to diminish the lower core pressure and hence reduce the slug impact on the cover.

  13. Ramping of solid iron analysis magnets in experimental areas: BM109 preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, A.T.

    1988-01-15

    The long main ring TeV pulse period of 60 sec with a 20 sec flattop makes it attractive to ramp solid iron magnets, such as BM109's, etc., in synchronisms with the main ring pulse. Annual energy cost savings for a BM109 could be up to a maximum of $6.6 per hour or %58,000 per year. Are there 10 or more magnets we could ramp. What is the lag between the magnet excitation current and the magnet field. It is probably small because these magnets have large air gaps and therefore relatively short (short of one second) time constants. Some preliminary measurements showing the lag between the excitation current and the magnet field for a BM109 are included. Ramping BM109's seems practical if they are programmed up to 5 seconds ahead of the main ring pulse. Maybe ramping BM109's should be tried at a few locations to gain some experience. 4 figs.

  14. Defining Dose across Different Experimental Designs: Fiber Equivalent Diameter and Surface Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhaled fibers (elongated bio-durable particles) of all lengths have been shown to induce pathological responses, but different sizes are respirable in different species. To be able to accurately assess the health effects observed in toxicological or epidemiological studies,...

  15. Geothermal resource area 9: Nye County. Area development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Pugsley, M.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal Resource area 9 encompasses all of Nye County, Nevada. Within this area there are many different known geothermal sites ranging in temperature from 70/sup 0/ to over 265/sup 0/ F. Fifteen of the more major sites have been selected for evaluation in this Area Development Plan. Various potential uses of the energy found at each of the resource sites discussed in this Area Development Plan were determined after evaluating the area's physical characteristics, land ownership and land use patterns, existing population and projected growth rates, and transportation facilities, and comparing those with the site specific resource characteristics. The uses considered were divided into five main categories: electrical generation, space heating, recreation, industrial process heat, and agriculture. Within two of these categories certain subdivisions were considered separately. The findings about each of the 15 geothermal sites considered in this Area Development Plan are summarized.

  16. SAPPHIRE WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND CONTIGUOUS ROADLESS AREAS, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, C.A.; Bannister, D'Arcy P.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic and mineral studies located sulfide-bearing quartz veins with demonstrated metallic mineral resources in granitic and metasedimentary rocks in several parts of the Sapphire Wilderness Study Area and contiguous roadless areas, Montana. Mines and prospects contain demonstrated resources of gold, silver, lead, copper, and zinc. Gold-bearing placers occur downstream from each of these vein occurrences; most of the gold placers have a probable mineral-resource potential. A replacement body of sulfide minerals is present at the Senate mine adjacent to the Sapphire Wilderness Study Area. Around the Senate mine is an area of probable mineral-resource potential that extends into the study area. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources in the study area.

  17. Fire Hazards Analysis for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, D.M.

    2000-01-06

    This documents the Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area. The Interim Storage Cask, Rad-Vault, and NAC-1 Cask are analyzed for fire hazards and the 200 Area Interim Storage Area is assessed according to HNF-PRO-350 and the objectives of DOE Order 5480 7A. This FHA addresses the potential fire hazards associated with the Interim Storage Area (ISA) facility in accordance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480 7A. It is intended to assess the risk from fire to ensure there are no undue fire hazards to site personnel and the public and to ensure property damage potential from fire is within acceptable limits. This FHA will be in the form of a graded approach commensurate with the complexity of the structure or area and the associated fire hazards.

  18. Experimentally simulating quantum walks with self-collimated light

    PubMed Central

    Qi, F.; Wang, Y. F.; Ma, Q. Y.; Zheng, W. H.

    2016-01-01

    In self-collimated photonic crystal, periodically arranged air holes of sub-wavelength scale provide flattened equi-frequency curves perpendicular to the ΓM direction, which allow light or photons propagating in a quasi-uniform medium without diffraction. Here we for the first time experimentally simulate four-step single-photon discrete time quantum walks with classical light in such a photonic crystal chip fabricated on silicon-on-insulator. Similarities between theoretical expectations and experimental results are higher than 0.98. The functional area is compact and can be extended to construct more complicated linear quantum circuits. PMID:27353428

  19. Experimental approaches for studying non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma jets

    SciTech Connect

    Shashurin, A.; Keidar, M.

    2015-12-15

    This work reviews recent research efforts undertaken in the area non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma jets with special focus on experimental approaches. Physics of small non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma jets operating in kHz frequency range at powers around few Watts will be analyzed, including mechanism of breakdown, process of ionization front propagation, electrical coupling of the ionization front with the discharge electrodes, distributions of excited and ionized species, discharge current spreading, transient dynamics of various plasma parameters, etc. Experimental diagnostic approaches utilized in the field will be considered, including Rayleigh microwave scattering, Thomson laser scattering, electrostatic streamer scatterers, optical emission spectroscopy, fast photographing, etc.

  20. Experimentation and concept formation by an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Spelt, P.F.; deSaussure, G.; Oliver, G.; Silliman, M.

    1990-01-01

    The Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) conducts basic research in the area of intelligent machines. In this paper, we describe our approach to a class of machine learning which involves autonomous concept formation using feedback from trial-and-error experimentation with the environment. Our formulation was experimentally validated on an autonomous mobile robot, which learned the task of control panel monitoring and manipulation for effective process control. Conclusions are drawn concerning the applicability of the system to a more general class of learning problems, and implications for the use of autonomous mobile robots in hostile and unknown environments are discussed. 11 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Experimental characterization of edge force on the Crookes radiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Ventura, Austin L.; Ketsdever, Andrew D.; Gimelshein, Natalia E.; Gimelshein, Sergey F.

    2014-12-09

    The contribution of edge force on the Crookes radiometer is experimentally investigated with three vane geometries. This work examines increasing the force per unit weight of a radiometer vane for applications such as near-space propulsion by increasing the vane’s perimeter while decreasing the total surface area of the vane by means of machined holes in the vanes. Experimental results are given for three vane geometries. These results indicate that although force to vane weight ratios can be improved, the maximum force is achieved by a vane geometry that contains no hole features.

  2. Experimental and theoretical research in high energy astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, George W.

    1990-01-01

    NASA grants to MIT for investigations in experimental and theoretical high energy astrophysics have, over the years, nurtured the infrastructure development and experimental activities that have led to successful proposals for the OSO 7, SAS 3, HEAO 1, and HEAO 2 missions and to the achievements in high energy astrophysics of the MIT Group. This report consists of excerpts from the progress reports of 1988 through 1990 that have been submitted as a regular feature of the renewal requests. These excerpts convey the flavor of the grant-supported activities, and a sense of the progress that has been made in each of the areas investigations.

  3. Experimental Channel Response to Tectonic Uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turowski, J. M.; Lague, D.; Crave, A.; Hovius, N.

    2004-12-01

    We performed a series of experiments to investigate the relationship between channel geometry and tectonic forcing in steady state landscapes at various uplift rates. The experiment consists of uniformly uplifted silica paste eroded by artificial rainfall. The landscape evolves by growth and amalgamation of incisions and organises into a drainage network. High precision (0.5mm pixel size) digital elevation models were taken by a stereometric camera system. Channel bed slope is found to be independent of discharge and position on the experimental surface and increases linearly with uplift rate. This suggests it is controlled by global conditions rather than local channel processes. Using hydraulic assumptions the channel parameters width, depth, cross-sectional area, wetted perimeter and hydraulic radius were derived. We find that the channel width, cross-sectional area and wetted perimeter decay exponentially with uplift rate. The hydraulic radius is approximately constant and the channel depth rises linearly with uplift rate. These results are qualitatively consistent with recent field surveys.

  4. Analytical and experimental investigation of soil reinforcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtz, R. D.; Harr, M. E.

    1983-10-01

    Significant improvements in the capacity and service life of reinforced earth structures require an improved understanding of the fundamental behavior of these systems. Both experimental and analytical investigations were carried out to develop models for the interaction of geotextile-type reinforcement and granular soils. Reinforcement configurations and systems investigated were thought to be applicable to alternate launch and recovery surfaces (ALRS). Model ALRS systems using geotextiles and geogrids as reinforcement were tested in the laboratory in a variety of configurations. These were loaded to failure, quasi-statically, by both plane strain and axisymmetric rigid plates. Load-deformation characteristics as well as the shape of the deflected basin are reported. Significant increases in bearing capacity and modulus of subgrade reaction as a function of depth and number of layers of reinforcement were observed. However, there was a decrease in improvement as the depth to the first layer increased. Edge fixity conditions were found to be relatively unimportant, and the benefit of multiple-reinforcement layers was greater if the depth and spacing were small compared to the diameter of the loaded area. Surprisingly, little difference was observed in the response of the geogrids and geotextiles, probably because sand was used in the experiments. Geometric scaling of bearing capacity, based on the diameters of the loaded areas, was not possible.

  5. Rural medical care: an experimental delivery system.

    PubMed

    Reid, R A; Eberle, B J; Gonzales, L; Quenk, N L; Oseasohn, R

    1975-05-01

    The experimental medical care delivery system has been operational since February, 1969. An average of over 200 patient visits per month were managed at the clinic during the past year. The average visit cost is $23.00, which is competitive with cost rates at neighborhood health centers. The average time per patient visit has been approximately 1 hr and 20 min. Of persons using the clinic, the largest number are women of childbearing age. Elderly patients have visited the clinic most frequently. Illness problems have accounted for the majority of patient visits. The program represents a cooperative effort between a rural community and a university to solve a problem of national interest. The implementation of this program has provided the opportunity to operationalize the family nurse practitioner concept in a system of medical care delivery. The feasibility of providing high quality medical care in a rural community by extending medical resources concentrated in an urban area has been demonstrated. This type of delivery system does provide a viable alternative for extending medical care to rural communities. A clinic manned by paramedical personnel offers the urban medical center along with concerned physicians the opportunity to extend their resources to rural areas which have been unable to attract and retain physicians.

  6. 4. TEST AREA 1120 OVERVIEW, TEST AREA 1115 IN MIDDLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. TEST AREA 1-120 OVERVIEW, TEST AREA 1-115 IN MIDDLE DISTANCE, AND TEST AREA 1-110 IN FAR DISTANCE AT EXTREME LEFT. ROGERS DRY LAKE AND THE HANGARS AT MAIN BASE ARE VISIBLE IN THE FAR RIGHT DISTANCE. TEST STANDS 2-A AND 1-A ARE NEAREST THE CAMERA. Looking west southwest. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Leuhman Ridge near Highways 58 & 395, Boron, Kern County, CA

  7. SSL Demonstration: Area Lighting, Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area, AZ

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-28

    Along the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona, the GATEWAY program conducted a trial demonstration in which the incumbent quartz metal halide area lighting was replaced with LED at three pole locations at the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona. The retrofit was documented to better understand LED technology performance in high-temperature environments. This document is a summary brief of the Phase 1.0 and 1.1 reports previously published on this demonstration.

  8. Influence of resolution in irrigated area mapping and area estimation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Velpuri, N.M.; Thenkabail, P.S.; Gumma, M.K.; Biradar, C.; Dheeravath, V.; Noojipady, P.; Yuanjie, L.

    2009-01-01

    The overarching goal of this paper was to determine how irrigated areas change with resolution (or scale) of imagery. Specific objectives investigated were to (a) map irrigated areas using four distinct spatial resolutions (or scales), (b) determine how irrigated areas change with resolutions, and (c) establish the causes of differences in resolution-based irrigated areas. The study was conducted in the very large Krishna River basin (India), which has a high degree of formal contiguous, and informal fragmented irrigated areas. The irrigated areas were mapped using satellite sensor data at four distinct resolutions: (a) NOAA AVHRR Pathfinder 10,000 m, (b) Terra MODIS 500 m, (c) Terra MODIS 250 m, and (d) Landsat ETM+ 30 m. The proportion of irrigated areas relative to Landsat 30 m derived irrigated areas (9.36 million hectares for the Krishna basin) were (a) 95 percent using MODIS 250 m, (b) 93 percent using MODIS 500 m, and (c) 86 percent using AVHRR 10,000 m. In this study, it was found that the precise location of the irrigated areas were better established using finer spatial resolution data. A strong relationship (R2 = 0.74 to 0.95) was observed between irrigated areas determined using various resolutions. This study proved the hypotheses that "the finer the spatial resolution of the sensor used, greater was the irrigated area derived," since at finer spatial resolutions, fragmented areas are detected better. Accuracies and errors were established consistently for three classes (surface water irrigated, ground water/conjunctive use irrigated, and nonirrigated) across the four resolutions mentioned above. The results showed that the Landsat data provided significantly higher overall accuracies (84 percent) when compared to MODIS 500 m (77 percent), MODIS 250 m (79 percent), and AVHRR 10,000 m (63 percent). ?? 2009 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  9. Students' epistemologies about experimental physics: Validating the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for experimental physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2016-06-01

    Student learning in instructional physics labs represents a growing area of research that includes investigations of students' beliefs and expectations about the nature of experimental physics. To directly probe students' epistemologies about experimental physics and support broader lab transformation efforts at the University of Colorado Boulder and elsewhere, we developed the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for experimental physics (E-CLASS). Previous work with this assessment has included establishing the accuracy and clarity of the instrument through student interviews and preliminary testing. Several years of data collection at multiple institutions has resulted in a growing national data set of student responses. Here, we report on results of the analysis of these data to investigate the statistical validity and reliability of the E-CLASS as a measure of students' epistemologies for a broad student population. We find that the E-CLASS demonstrates an acceptable level of both validity and reliability on measures of item and test discrimination, test-retest reliability, partial-sample reliability, internal consistency, concurrent validity, and convergent validity. We also examine students' responses using principal component analysis and find that, as expected, the E-CLASS does not exhibit strong factors (a.k.a. categories).

  10. SAN JOAQUIN ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Edwin H.; Capstick, Donald O.

    1984-01-01

    The San Joaquin Roadless Area is composed of three noncontiguous areas on the eastern side of the Sierra Nevada in Madera County, California. The results of geologic, geochemical, and mining-activity and production surveys in the central part of the area indicate little promise for the occurrence of metallic-mineral or energy resources in the area. Sand, gravel, and pumice exist in the area but occurrences are small and isolated and farther from major markets than similar deposits outside the roadless area. Rocks in the area are exhibited in exposures of unaltered and nonmineralized granitic and metavolcanic rock along the steep western wall of the glacially carved valley of the Middle Fork of the San Joaquin River. Drainage in the area consists of seeps along fractures in the cliff or small cascading streams, a hydraulic setting not favorable for the development of placer deposits. No mines or prospect workings were found in the roadless area. Alteration zones within the granitic and metamorphic rock that crop out within the area are small, isolated, and consist only of limonitic staining and bleached quartzose rock.

  11. Experimental models of repetitive brain injuries.

    PubMed

    Weber, John T

    2007-01-01

    this area of TBI research continues to evolve, it will be imperative that models of repetitive injury replicate injuries in humans as closely as possible. For example, it will be important to model appropriately concussive episodes versus even lower level injuries (such as those that might occur during boxing matches). Suitable inter-injury intervals will also be important parameters to incorporate into models. Additionally, it will be crucial to design and utilize proper controls, which can be more challenging than experimental approaches to single mild TBI. It will also be essential to combine, and compare, data derived from in vitro experiments with those conducted with animals in vivo. These issues, as well as a summary of findings from repeated TBI research, are discussed in this review. PMID:17618983

  12. Industrial Noise and Tooth Wear - Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Cavacas, Maria Alzira; Tavares, Vitor; Borrecho, Gonçalo; Oliveira, Maria João; Oliveira, Pedro; Brito, José; Águas, Artur; dos Santos, José Martins

    2015-01-01

    Tooth wear is a complex multifactorial process that involves the loss of hard dental tissue. Parafunctional habits have been mentioned as a self-destructive process caused by stress, which results in hyperactivity of masticatory muscles. Stress manifests itself through teeth grinding, leading to progressive teeth wear. The effects of continuous exposure to industrial noise, a “stressor” agent, cannot be ignored and its effects on the teeth must be evaluated. Aims: The aim of this study was to ascertain the effects of industrial noise on dental wear over time, by identifying and quantifying crown area loss. Material and Methods: 39 Wistar rats were used. Thirty rats were divided in 3 experimental groups of 10 animals each. Animals were exposed to industrial noise, rich in LFN components, for 1, 4 and 7 months, with an average weekly exposure of 40 hours (8h/day, 5 days/week with the weekends in silence). The remaining 9 animals were kept in silence. The areas of the three main cusps of the molars were measured under light microscopy. Statistical analysis used: A two-way ANOVA model was applied at significance level of 5%. Results: The average area of the molar cusps was significantly different between exposed and non-exposed animals. The most remarkable differences occurred between month 1 and 4. The total crown loss from month 1 to month 7 was 17.3% in the control group, and 46.5% in the exposed group, and the differences between these variations were significant (p<0.001). Conclusions: Our data suggest that industrial noise is an important factor in the pathogenesis of tooth wear. PMID:25798052

  13. Paper area density measurement from forward transmitted scattered light

    DOEpatents

    Koo, Jackson C.

    2001-01-01

    A method whereby the average paper fiber area density (weight per unit area) can be directly calculated from the intensity of transmitted, scattered light at two different wavelengths, one being a non-absorpted wavelength. Also, the method makes it possible to derive the water percentage per fiber area density from a two-wavelength measurement. In the optical measuring technique optical transmitted intensity, for example, at 2.1 microns cellulose absorption line is measured and compared with another scattered, optical transmitted intensity reference in the nearby spectrum region, such as 1.68 microns, where there is no absorption. From the ratio of these two intensities, one can calculate the scattering absorption coefficient at 2.1 microns. This absorption coefficient at this wavelength is, then, experimentally correlated to the paper fiber area density. The water percentage per fiber area density can be derived from this two-wavelength measurement approach.

  14. Quiet Clean Short-Haul Experimental Engine (QSCEE). Preliminary analyses and design report, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The experimental propulsion systems to be built and tested in the 'quiet, clean, short-haul experimental engine' program are presented. The flight propulsion systems are also presented. The following areas are discussed: acoustic design; emissions control; engine cycle and performance; fan aerodynamic design; variable-pitch actuation systems; fan rotor mechanical design; fan frame mechanical design; and reduction gear design.

  15. The "Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior" at Zero, Fifty, and One Hundred

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catania, A. Charles

    2008-01-01

    The experimental content areas represented in "JEAB" in its first volume (1958) and fifty 50 years later in Volume 87 are in many ways similar with regard to research on schedules of reinforcement, research with human subjects, and several other topics. Experimental analysis has not been displaced by quantitative analysis. Much less research on…

  16. FLINT MILL ROADLESS AREA, TENNESSEE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffitts, Wallace R.; Jones, Jay G.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey was made on the Flint Mill Roadless Area in northeastern Tennessee. Studies of known manganese deposits, most of which are small and mined out, evaluation of iron prospects, and the results of a geochemical survey for other metals in stream sediments indicate there is probable resource potential for the occurrence of small iron-manganese resources in the roadless area. Nonmetallic minerals such as clay, carbonate rock, and other industrial raw material are found in the area but, similar commodites are found outside the area. The remote possibility of deep oil or gas in the southern Appalachians, of which the roadless area is a part, cannot be evaluated with existing data. Further geophysical study and possibly drilling would be necessary to evaluate the resource potential for gas and oil in the roadless area.

  17. Los Creek Roadless Area, California

    SciTech Connect

    Muffler, L.J.P.; Campbell, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic and mineral-resource investigations in 1981-1982 by the USGS and USBM identified no mineral-resource potential in the Lost Creek Roadless Area. Sand and gravel have been mined from alluvial flood-plain deposits less than 1 mi outside the roadless area; these deposits are likely to extend into the roadless area beneath a Holocene basalt flow that may be as much as 40 ft thick. An oil and gas lease application which includes the eastern portion of the roadless area is pending. Abundant basalt in the area can be crushed and used as aggregate, but similar deposits of volcanic cinders or sand and gravel in more favorable locations are available outside the roadless area closer to major markets. No indication of coal or geothermal energy resources was identified.

  18. CONDREY MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, R.G.; Mayerle, Ron

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource study indicates that the Condrey Mountain Roadless Area has areas of probable resource potential for copper, zinc, gold, and silver in the westernmost extremities of the area. Although there are no presently exposed chromite concentrations in the serpentinite bodies within the roadless area, the possibility that chromite occurs in the subsurface within these bodies should not be overlooked and they are shown as areas of probable chromite resource potential. No potential for energy resources was identified in the study. The common association of the silver schist and copper-zinc mineralization suggests the two are genetically related. Further study of favorable lithologies in the westernmost part of the roadless area are warranted to refine the estimate of resource potential. 4 refs.

  19. ARROYO SECO ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Robert E.; Gabby, Peter N.

    1984-01-01

    Situated in the southwestern San Gabriel Mountains in Los Angeles County, California, the Arroyo Seco Roadless Area encompasses about 8 sq mi within the Angeles National Forest. On the basis of geologic mapping, a geochemical stream-sediment survey, and a survey of mines, quarries, and prospects, the area has a probable resource potential for small gold occurrences in the southern part of the area. Sand, gravel, and stone suitable for construction materials are found in the roadless area. Because of their regional association with gold mineralization, the thin and poorly exposed mafic dikes in the Echo Granite, the Mount Lowe Granodiorite, and the Precambrian gneiss in and around the roadless area offer the most promising avenue for additional study of the resource potential of the area.

  20. LOST CREEK ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Campbell, Harry W.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic and mineral-resource investigations identified no mineral-resource potential in the Lost Creek Roadless Area, California. Sand and gravel have been mined from alluvial flood-plain deposits less than 1 mi outside the roadless area; these deposits are likely to extend into the roadless area beneath a Holocene basalt flow that may be as much as 40 ft thick. An oil and gas lease application which includes the eastern portion of the roadless area is pending. Abundant basalt in the area can be crushed and used as aggregate, but similar deposits of volcanic cinders or sand and gravel in more favorable locations are available outside the roadless area closer to major markets. No indication of coal or geothermal energy resources was identified.

  1. HIGH SIERRA PRIMITIVE AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, James G.; Marks, Lawrence Y.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral-resource survey, the High Sierra Primitive Area, California was found to have an area of probable mineral-resource potential for tungsten. A small demonstrated tungsten resource is present on the Obelisk claims near the contact of limy metasedimentary rock and granitic rock in the northwest part of the area, and additional small deposits may be expected to occur to the south, in a similar geologic setting.

  2. SYCAMORE CANYON PRIMITIVE AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, Lyman C.; Raabe, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Sycamore Canyon Primitive Area, which occupies about 74 sq mi, lies about 24 mi southwest of Flagstaff, Arizona. To help evaluate the area for mineral resources, sediment samples were collected along Sycamore Creek and its tributaries. These were analyzed for traces of the ore metals without finding any local concentrations. In addition, a scintillometer was used to test rocks in the area without finding any abnormal radioactivity.

  3. WET BEAVER ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulrich, George E.; Bielski, Alan M.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of field studies there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources in the Wet Beaver Roadless Area, Arizona. No significant concentrations of metals were indicated by geochemical sampling or aeromagnetic data within the area. Basaltic cinders and sandstone have been quarried for construction materials near the area but are readily available and more accessible outside the precipitous canyons of Wet Beaver Creek and its tributaries.

  4. 12. VIEW WEST, AREA SOUTH OF RECESS AREA, SHOWING CUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW WEST, AREA SOUTH OF RECESS AREA, SHOWING CUT STONE AND RUBBLESTONE CONSTRUCTION - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  5. BUILDING 122 CONTAINS THREE GENERAL AREAS: OFFICE AREAS, INTERNAL DOSIMETRY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BUILDING 122 CONTAINS THREE GENERAL AREAS: OFFICE AREAS, INTERNAL DOSIMETRY, AND MEDICAL/HEALTH. BUILDING 122 SHARES A COMMON WALL WITH BUILDING 121, THE PLANT SECURITY BUILDING. THE TWO-STORY BUILDING IN THE BACKGROUND IS BUILDING 111. (9/26/52) - Rocky Flats Plant, Emergency Medical Services Facility, Southwest corner of Central & Third Avenues, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  6. 7 CFR 966.4 - Production area and regulated area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area and regulated area. 966.4 Section 966.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  7. 7 CFR 966.4 - Production area and regulated area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area and regulated area. 966.4 Section 966.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  8. Interpreting physicochemical experimental data sets.

    PubMed

    Colclough, Nicola; Wenlock, Mark C

    2015-09-01

    With the wealth of experimental physicochemical data available to chemoinformaticians from the literature, commercial, and company databases an increasing challenge is the interpretation of such datasets. Subtle differences in experimental methodology used to generate these datasets can give rise to variations in physicochemical property values. Such methodology nuances will be apparent to an expert experimentalist but not necessarily to the data analyst and modeller. This paper describes the differences between common methodologies for measuring the four most important physicochemical properties namely aqueous solubility, octan-1-ol/water distribution coefficient, pK(a) and plasma protein binding highlighting key factors that can lead to systematic differences. Insight is given into how to identify datasets suitable for combining. PMID:26054297

  9. Experimental multiparty sequential state discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solís-Prosser, M. A.; González, P.; Fuenzalida, J.; Gómez, S.; Xavier, G. B.; Delgado, A.; Lima, G.

    2016-10-01

    Recently, a protocol for quantum state discrimination (QSD) in a multiparty scenario has been introduced [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 100501 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.100501]. In this protocol, Alice generates a quantum system in one of two predefined nonorthogonal qubit states, and the goal is to send the generated state information to different parties without classical communication exchanged between them during the protocol's session. The interesting feature is that, by resorting to sequential generalized measurements onto this single system, there is a nonvanishing probability that all observers identify the state prepared by Alice. Here, we present the experimental implementation of this protocol based on polarization single-photon states. Our scheme works over an optical network, and since QSD lies in the core of many protocols, it represents a step towards experimental multiparty quantum information processing.

  10. Experimental research on air propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durand, William F

    1918-01-01

    The purposes of the experimental investigation on the performance of air propellers described in this report are as follows: (1) the development of a series of design factors and coefficients drawn from model forms distributed with some regularity over the field of air-propeller design and intended to furnish a basis of check with similar work done in other aerodynamic laboratories, and as a point of departure for the further study of special or individual types and forms; (2) the establishment of a series of experimental values derived from models and intended for later use as a basis for comparison with similar results drawn from certain selected full-sized forms and tested in free flight.

  11. Experimental unconditionally secure bit commitment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adán; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2014-01-10

    Quantum physics allows for unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when the parties do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment scenario, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security unless extra assumptions are made. Unconditionally secure bit commitment only becomes feasible when quantum physics is combined with relativistic causality constraints. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment protocol with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. The security of the protocol relies on the properties of quantum information and relativity theory. In each run of the experiment, a bit is successfully committed with less than 5.68×10(-2) cheating probability. This demonstrates the experimental feasibility of quantum communication with relativistic constraints.

  12. Experimental Unconditionally Secure Bit Commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adán; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Quantum physics allows for unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when the parties do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment scenario, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security unless extra assumptions are made. Unconditionally secure bit commitment only becomes feasible when quantum physics is combined with relativistic causality constraints. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment protocol with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. The security of the protocol relies on the properties of quantum information and relativity theory. In each run of the experiment, a bit is successfully committed with less than 5.68×10-2 cheating probability. This demonstrates the experimental feasibility of quantum communication with relativistic constraints.

  13. Experimental unconditionally secure bit commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adan; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2014-03-01

    Quantum physics allows unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when they do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security. Only when relativistic causality constraints combined, the unconditional secure bit commitment becomes feasible. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. Bits are successfully committed with less than 5 . 68 ×10-2 cheating probability. This provides an experimental proof of unconditional secure bit commitment and demonstrates the feasibility of relativistic quantum communication.

  14. KRITZ-2 Experimental Benchmark Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovichev, A.M.

    2001-09-28

    The KRITZ-2 experiment has been adopted by the OECD/NEA Task Force on Reactor-Based Plutonium Disposition for use as a benchmark exercise. The KRITZ-2 experiment consists of three different core configurations (one with near-weapons-grade MOX) with critical conditions a 20 C and 245 C. The KRITZ-2 experiment has calculated the MCU-REA code, which is a continuous energy Monte Carlo code system developed at the Russian Research Center--Kurchatov Institute and is used extensively in the Fissile Materials Disposition Program. The calculated results for k{sub eff} and fission rate distributions are compared with the experimental data and results of other codes. The results are in good agreement with the experimental values.

  15. Experimental unconditionally secure bit commitment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adán; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2014-01-10

    Quantum physics allows for unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when the parties do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment scenario, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security unless extra assumptions are made. Unconditionally secure bit commitment only becomes feasible when quantum physics is combined with relativistic causality constraints. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment protocol with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. The security of the protocol relies on the properties of quantum information and relativity theory. In each run of the experiment, a bit is successfully committed with less than 5.68×10(-2) cheating probability. This demonstrates the experimental feasibility of quantum communication with relativistic constraints. PMID:24483878

  16. GRANITE PEAK ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huber, Donald F.; Thurber, Horace K.

    1984-01-01

    The Granite Peak Roadless Area occupies an area of about 5 sq mi in the southern part of the Trinity Alps of the Klamath Mountains, about 12 mi north-northeast of Weaverville, California. Rock and stream-sediment samples were analyzed. All streams draining the roadless area were sampled and representative samples of the rock types in the area were collected. Background values were established for each element and anomalous values were examined within their geologic settings and evaluated for their significance. On the basis of mineral surveys there seems little likelihood for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources.

  17. HELLS GATE ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conway, Clay M.; McColly, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    Although no mineral-resource potential was identified in the Hells Gate Roadless Area during mineral surveys, the area is largely underlain by a regionally extensive Proterozoic granite-rhyolite complex which is tin-bearing. The geologic setting precludes the occurrence of fossil fuel resources and no other energy resources were identified. The potential for tin and associated metals in the Hells Gate Roadless Area and the region cannot be fully evaluated at this point. The granophyre and the upper part of the granite pluton along the northwestern margin of the area should be explored.

  18. TUOLUMNE RIVER ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harner, Joy L.; Hyndman, Paul C.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of mineral-resource surveys the western part of the Tuolumne River Roadless Area, California has a substantiated potential for the occurrence of gold and silver resources and has numerous mines and prospects with demonstrated or inferred gold resources. The gold is localized in high-grade shoots within quartz veins in the Calaveras Complex of metasedimentary rocks and as placer gold in Tertiary and recent river beds. The Tuolumne River bed has a probable placer gold resource potential. Limestone and dolomite deposits occur within the roadless area, and similar deposits are found outside the area. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources in the roadless area.

  19. BENTON RANGE ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Edwin H.; Rains, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, two parts of the Benton Range Roadless Area, California are considered to have mineral-resource potential. The central and southern part of the roadless area, near several nonoperating mines, has a probable potential for tungsten and gold-silver mineralization in tactite zones. The central part of the area has a substantiated resource potential for gold and silver in quartz veins. Detailed mapping and geochemical sampling for tungsten, gold, and silver in the central and southern part of the roadless area might indicate targets for shallow drilling exploration.

  20. SANDY CREEK ROADLESS AREA, MISSISSIPPI.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haley, Boyd R.; Bitar, Richard F.

    1984-01-01

    The Sandy Creek Roadless Area includes about 3. 7 sq mi in the southeastern part of Adams County, Mississippi. On the basis of a mineral survey, the area offers little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources but has a probable resource potential for oil and natural gas. It is possible that wells drilled deep enough to penetrate the older reservoirs will encounter significant quantities of oil and natural gas in the roadless area. The deposits of gravel, sand, and clay present in the area could be utilized in the construction industry, but similar deposits elsewhere are much closer to available markets.

  1. SNOWBIRD ROADLESS AREA, NORTH CAOLINA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lesure, Frank G.; Chatman, Mark L.

    1984-01-01

    The Snowbird Roadless Area includes all the upper reaches of Snowbird Creek and the surrounding rugged ridges of the Unicoi Mountains, North Carolina. Mineral-resource surveys show that the area contains folded metasedimentary rocks of the Great Smoky Group of Late Proterozoic age and that the area has little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. Abundant rock suitable for crushed rock and rough building stone is the only identified mineral resource, but extensive deposits of this commodity occur throughout the region outside the roadless area. Oil and gas and massive sulfide deposits are possible resources.

  2. Does experimental research support psychoanalysis?

    PubMed

    Cohen, David

    2011-12-01

    The question of whether a psychodynamic view is compatible with experimental research is still a challenging issue-especially for child and adolescent psychopathology-despite the influence of psychoanalytic theory in this field until the 1980s. In this article, is explored the relationship between psychodynamic theory and experimental research using examples of evidence-based studies in the fields of (i) psychotherapeutic intervention assessment, (ii) placebo response in children and adolescents, (iii) unconscious lasting traumatic effects in children and adolescents, (iv) psychodynamic-oriented psychological testing. There are now a sufficient number of evidence-based studies to support the use of psychodynamic therapy in mental disorders, particularly in personality disorder and anxious/depressive disorder. In addition, placebo responses in children and adolescents with internalizing disorders are significantly higher in major depression compared to obsessive-compulsive disorder or other anxiety disorders, which highlights differential psychopathologies regarding the experience of loss. Also, using an experimental task, psychoanalysts are able to identify, without explicit knowledge and above the level of chance, healthy adults whose siblings had experienced cancer during childhood. This experiment suggests that implicit information regarding a participant's history is conveyed in interpersonal exchanges that can be intuitively perceived by judges experienced in listening to free associations from a psychodynamic perspective. Finally, psychodynamic-oriented psychological testing may predict the transition to schizophrenia in adolescents with a history of manic/mixed episodes. It can be concluded that there are no discrepancies between psychodynamic views and experimental data, whether one tests psychotherapeutic approaches, discusses data from other fields such as psychopharmacology, or designs experiments based on psychodynamic theory. PMID:21963530

  3. Elements of Bayesian experimental design

    SciTech Connect

    Sivia, D.S.

    1997-09-01

    We consider some elements of the Bayesian approach that are important for optimal experimental design. While the underlying principles used are very general, and are explained in detail in a recent tutorial text, they are applied here to the specific case of characterising the inferential value of different resolution peakshapes. This particular issue was considered earlier by Silver, Sivia and Pynn (1989, 1990a, 1990b), and the following presentation confirms and extends the conclusions of their analysis.

  4. Experimental tests of quantum chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Dorfan, J.

    1987-04-01

    Experimental tests of quantum chromodynamics are discussed in the e/sup +/e/sup -/ continuum, in pp and anti p p collisions, in measurements of ..cap alpha../sub s/ from UPSILON decays, in deep inelastic lepton scattering, and in the measurement of the photon structure function. A large body of data relating to the testing of quantum chromodynamics is reviewed, showing qualitative agreement between the data from a wide range of processes and QCD. 66 refs., 79 figs. (LEW)

  5. Experimental observation of fractional echoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karras, G.; Hertz, E.; Billard, F.; Lavorel, B.; Siour, G.; Hartmann, J.-M.; Faucher, O.; Gershnabel, Erez; Prior, Yehiam; Averbukh, Ilya Sh.

    2016-09-01

    We report the observation of fractional echoes in a double-pulse excited nonlinear system. Unlike standard echoes, which appear periodically at delays which are integer multiples of the delay between the two exciting pulses, the fractional echoes appear at rational fractions of this delay. We discuss the mechanism leading to this phenomenon, and provide experimental demonstration of fractional echoes by measuring third harmonic generation in a thermal gas of CO2 molecules excited by a pair of femtosecond laser pulses.

  6. Experimental data confronts nuclear structure

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    The physical content of experimental data for a variety of excitation energies and angular momenta is summarized. The specific nuclear structure questions which these data address are considered. The specific regions discussed are: low-spin data near the particle separation thresholds; low-spin data at intermediate excitation energies; high-spin, near-yrast data and high-spin data at larger excitation energies. 63 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Experimental Crystallization of Yamato 980459

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, John H.; Galenas, M. G.; Danielson, L. R.

    2009-01-01

    Currently, only two martian meteorites QUE 94201 (QUE) and Yamato 980459 (Y98) have been experimentally shown to me true melt compositions. Most martian meteorites are instead, cumulates or partial cumulates. We have performed experiments on a Y98 composition to assess whether QUE could be related to Y98 by some fractionation process [1]. Y98 is a basaltic shergottite from the SNC (Shergotty, Nakhla, Chassigny) meteorite group. Y98 is composed of 26% olivine, 48% pyroxene, 25% mesostasis, and no plagioclase [2]. The large size of the olivine megacrysts and absence of plagioclase suggest that the parental melt which formed this meteorite had begun cooling slowly until some mechanism, such as magma ascent, caused rapid cooling [3]. Y98 s olivines have the highest Mg content of all the shergottites suggesting that it is the most primitive [4]. Y98 has been determined to be a melt composition by comparing the composition of experimental liquidus olivines with the composition of the cores of Y98 olivines [4]. The liquidus of Y98 is predicted by MELTS [5] and by experimentation [6] to be 1450 C. Analyses of Y98 show it to be very depleted in LREEs and it has similar depleted patterns as other shergottites such as QUE [7].

  8. National Ignition Facility: Experimental plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    As part of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE), and EG&G formed an NIF Target Diagnostics Working Group. The purpose of the Target Diagnostics Working Group is to prepare conceptual designs of target diagnostics for inclusion in the facility CDR and to determine how these specifications impact the CDR. To accomplish this, a subgroup has directed its efforts at constructing an approximate experimental plan for the ignition campaign of the NIF CDR. The results of this effort are contained in this document, the Experimental Plan for achieving fusion ignition in the NIF. This group initially concentrated on the flow-down requirements of the experimental campaign leading to ignition, which will dominate the initial efforts of the NIF. It is envisaged, however, that before ignition, there will be parallel campaigns supporting weapons physics, weapons effects, and other research. This plan was developed by analyzing the sequence of activities required to finally fire the laser at the level of power and precision necessary to achieve the conditions of an ignition hohlraum target, and to then use our experience in activating and running Nova experiments to estimate the rate of completing these activities.

  9. Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of Cavitation in Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackeret, J.

    1945-01-01

    The cavitation in nozzles on airfoils of various shape and on a sphere are experimentally investigated. The limits of cavitation and the extension of the zone of the bubbles in different stages of cavitation are photographically established. The pressure in the bubble area is constant and very low, jumping to high values at the end of the area. The analogy with the gas compression shock is adduced and discussed. The collapse of the bubbles under compression shock produces very high pressures internally, which must be contributory factors to corrosion. The pressure required for purely mechanical corrosion is also discussed.

  10. Experimental astrophysics with high power lasers and Z pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Remington, B A; Drake, R P; Ryutov, D D

    2004-12-10

    With the advent of high energy density (HED) experimental facilities, such as high-energy lasers and fast Z-pinch, pulsed-power facilities, mm-scale quantities of matter can be placed in extreme states of density, temperature, and/or velocity. This has enabled the emergence of a new class of experimental science, HED laboratory astrophysics, wherein the properties of matter and the processes that occur under extreme astrophysical conditions can be examined in the laboratory. Areas particularly suitable to this class of experimental astrophysics include the study of opacities relevant to stellar interiors; equations of state relevant to planetary interiors; strong shock driven nonlinear hydrodynamics and radiative dynamics, relevant to supernova explosions and subsequent evolution; protostellar jets and high Mach-number flows; radiatively driven molecular clouds and nonlinear photoevaporation front dynamics; and photoionized plasmas relevant to accretion disks around compact objects, such as black holes and neutron stars.

  11. Joint computational and experimental aerodynamics research on a hypersonic vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Oberkampf, W.L.; Aeschliman, D.P.; Walker, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    A closely coupled computational and experimental aerodynamics research program was conducted on a hypersonic vehicle configuration at Mach 8. Aerodynamic force and moment measurements and flow visualization results were obtained in the Sandia National Laboratories hypersonic wind tunnel for laminar boundary layer conditions. Parabolized and iterative Navier-Stokes simulations were used to predict flow fields and forces and moments on the hypersonic configuration. The basic vehicle configuration is a spherically blunted 10{degrees} cone with a slice parallel with the axis of the vehicle. On the slice portion of the vehicle, a flap can be attached so that deflection angles of 10{degrees}, 20{degrees}, and 30{degrees} can be obtained. Comparisons are made between experimental and computational results to evaluate quality of each and to identify areas where improvements are needed. This extensive set of high-quality experimental force and moment measurements is recommended for use in the calibration and validation of computational aerodynamics codes. 22 refs.

  12. Experimental methods for phase equilibria at high pressures.

    PubMed

    Dohrn, Ralf; Fonseca, José M S; Peper, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of high-pressure phase equilibria is crucial in many fields, e.g., for the design and optimization of high-pressure chemical and separation processes, carbon capture and storage, hydrate formation, applications of ionic liquids, and geological processes. This review presents the variety of methods to measure phase equilibria at high pressures and, following a classification, discusses the measurement principles, advantages, challenges, and error sources. Examples of application areas are given. A detailed knowledge and understanding of the different methods is fundamental not only for choosing the most suitable method for a certain task but also for the evaluation of experimental data. The discrepancy between the (sometimes low) true accuracy of published experimental data and the (high) accuracy claimed by authors is addressed. Some essential requirements for the generation of valuable experimental results are summarized.

  13. Experimental Infections of Wild Birds with West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Llorente, Francisco; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Avian models of West Nile virus (WNV) disease have become pivotal in the study of infection pathogenesis and transmission, despite the intrinsic constraints that represents this type of experimental research that needs to be conducted in biosecurity level 3 (BSL3) facilities. This review summarizes the main achievements of WNV experimental research carried out in wild birds, highlighting advantages and limitations of this model. Viral and host factors that determine the infection outcome are analyzed in detail, as well as recent discoveries about avian immunity, viral transmission, and persistence achieved through experimental research. Studies of laboratory infections in the natural host will help to understand variations in susceptibility and reservoir competence among bird species, as well as in the epidemiological patterns found in different affected areas. PMID:24531334

  14. Socialization instances linked to cannabis experimentation among French teenagers.

    PubMed

    Jovic, Sonia; Genolini, Christophe; Delpierre, Cyrille; Spilka, Stanislas; Ehlinger, Virginie; Ross, Jim; Arnaud, Catherine; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2014-11-01

    France presents one of the highest prevalence of teenagers aged 15-year-olds who report they already have experienced cannabis in Europe. Data from the French 2010 Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HSBC) survey and environmental parameters typifying schools' neighborhoods were used to study cannabis experimentation. We conducted a two-level logistic regression (clusters being schools) on 4,175 French 8th-10th graders from 156 schools. Several individual parameters were linked to cannabis experimentation. Living in a non-intact family, feeling insufficiently monitored, having poor communication with mother and being from a family with a high socio-economic status (SES) were all associated with increased risk of cannabis experimentation. At environmental level, only being in a priority education area was linked to this behavior, without explaining differences among schools.

  15. 47 CFR 73.1510 - Experimental authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the degree required for the particular type of station. (3) The experimental operations may be... for the class and type of station must be met. AM stations also may conduct experimental operations... experimental transmissions. (d) The FCC may request a report of the research, experimentation and results...

  16. Experimental results for correlation-based wavefront sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Poyneer, L A; Palmer, D W; LaFortune, K N; Bauman, B

    2005-07-01

    Correlation wave-front sensing can improve Adaptive Optics (AO) system performance in two keys areas. For point-source-based AO systems, Correlation is more accurate, more robust to changing conditions and provides lower noise than a centroiding algorithm. Experimental results from the Lick AO system and the SSHCL laser AO system confirm this. For remote imaging, Correlation enables the use of extended objects for wave-front sensing. Results from short horizontal-path experiments will show algorithm properties and requirements.

  17. Experimental and Analytical Studies of Solar System Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, Donald S.

    2003-01-01

    The cosmochemistry research funded by this grant resulted in the publications given in the attached Publication List. The research focused in three areas: (1) Experimental studies of trace element partitioning. (2) Studies of the minor element chemistry and O isotopic compositions of MgAlO4 spinels from Ca-Al-Rich Inclusions in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, and (3) The abundances and chemical fractionations of Th and U in chondritic meteorites.

  18. Why SRS Matters - E Area

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, Steve; Mooneyhan, Verne; Tempel, Kevin; Bullington, Michele

    2015-03-09

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode features E Area's mission and operations.

  19. Why SRS Matters - L Area

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Paul

    2015-01-28

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode features L Area's mission and operations.

  20. Why SRS Matters - F Area

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, Steve; Tadlock, Bill; Beeler, Dewitt; Gardner, Curt

    2015-02-17

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode features F Area's mission and operations.

  1. Dinkey Lakes Roadless Area, California

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, F.C.W.; Federspiel, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral survey conducted in 1980, show that parts of the Dinkey Lakes Roadless Area have substantiated resource potential for tungsten and marble and probable resource potential for quartz crystal gemstones. A probable resource potential for geothermal energy exists in one small area. No potential for other metallic mineral or energy resources was identified in this study.

  2. Historical problem areas lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sackheim, Bob; Fester, Dale A.

    1991-01-01

    Historical problem areas in space transportation propulsion technology are identified in viewgraph form. Problem areas discussed include materials compatibility, contamination, pneumatic/feed system flow instabilities, instabilities in rocket engine combustion and fuel sloshing, exhaust plume interference, composite rocket nozzle failure, and freeze/thaw damage.

  3. Youth Migration from Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, Emil J.; Monk, David H.

    The persistent net loss of young people from rural areas has potentially contradictory implications for educational policy. Believing that youth migration to urban areas is inevitable, one school board might feel obligated to prepare students for urban jobs. Another board might view such actions as community suicide and attempt to slow…

  4. Tech Area II: A history

    SciTech Connect

    Ullrich, R.

    1998-07-01

    This report documents the history of the major buildings in Sandia National Laboratories` Technical Area II. It was prepared in support of the Department of Energy`s compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Technical Area II was designed and constructed in 1948 specifically for the final assembly of the non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons, and was the primary site conducting such assembly until 1952. Both the architecture and location of the oldest buildings in the area reflect their original purpose. Assembly activities continued in Area II from 1952 to 1957, but the major responsibility for this work shifted to other sites in the Atomic Energy Commission`s integrated contractor complex. Gradually, additional buildings were constructed and the original buildings were modified. After 1960, the Area`s primary purpose was the research and testing of high-explosive components for nuclear weapons. In 1994, Sandia constructed new facilities for work on high-explosive components outside of the original Area II diamond-shaped parcel. Most of the buildings in the area are vacant and Sandia has no plans to use them. They are proposed for decontamination and demolition as funding becomes available.

  5. Why SRS Matters - K Area

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Paul; Lawson, Janice

    2015-02-04

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode features K Area's mission and operations.

  6. The Histogram-Area Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratzer, William; Carpenter, James E.

    2008-01-01

    This article demonstrates an alternative approach to the construction of histograms--one based on the notion of using area to represent relative density in intervals of unequal length. The resulting histograms illustrate the connection between the area of the rectangles associated with particular outcomes and the relative frequency (probability)…

  7. The philosophy of scientific experimentation: a review

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Practicing and studying automated experimentation may benefit from philosophical reflection on experimental science in general. This paper reviews the relevant literature and discusses central issues in the philosophy of scientific experimentation. The first two sections present brief accounts of the rise of experimental science and of its philosophical study. The next sections discuss three central issues of scientific experimentation: the scientific and philosophical significance of intervention and production, the relationship between experimental science and technology, and the interactions between experimental and theoretical work. The concluding section identifies three issues for further research: the role of computing and, more specifically, automating, in experimental research, the nature of experimentation in the social and human sciences, and the significance of normative, including ethical, problems in experimental science. PMID:20098589

  8. BIG SNOWIES WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND CONTIGUOUS ROADLESS AREAS, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, David A.; Federspiel, Francis E.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey determined that the Big Snowies Wilderness study area in Montana had little promise for the occurrence of mineral or fossil fuel resources. This assessment was based on consideration of geologic environments where minerals and fossil fuels might be expected, on geochemical and geophysical surveys of the study areas, and on examination of claims and prospects. Seismic-reflection studies across the Big Snowy anticline are recommended to better assess the nature and magnitude of offset along the faulted southern flank of the anticline. Discovery of a large offset would place strata and structures favorable for oil and gas beneath the southern part of the study areas.

  9. INDIAN HEAVEN ROADLESS AREA, WASHINGTON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Barnes, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and mining activity surveys the Indian Heaven Roadless Area, Washington offers little promise for the occurrence of metallic or nonmetallic mineral resources. Preliminary investigations of the geothermal potential of the area are inconclusive; however, a hot spring is located approximately 10 mi south of the roadless area, and the data indicate an aquifer of unknown extent at a temperature of less than 212 degree F. Geothermal lease applications were filed on about 23. 5 sq mi of the roadless area indicating potential interest in the development of a geothermal resource. In addition, about 39 sq mi of the roadless area have been leased for oil and gas exploration.

  10. SOUTHERN MASSANUTTEN ROADLESS AREA, VIRGINIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lesure, Frank G.; Chatman, Mark L.

    1984-01-01

    The Southern Massanutten Roadless Area is in the George Washington National Forest in the Shenandoah Valley of Page and Rockingham Counties, Virginia. According to mineral surveys of the area, inferred resources of low-grade iron occur at two mines in folded Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. The iron resources consist of 120,000 long tons of clayey and sandy limonite. Other mineral resources occur in the area including extensive areas of high-silica sandstone, shale suitable for making brick, and limestone suitable for crushed stone and agricultural lime. The potential for the occurrence of oil or natural gas resources cannot be evaluated from the available data. The nonmetallic mineral resources are of limited importance because of relative inaccessibility as compared to large accessible resources outside the roadless area.

  11. Geometry of area without length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Pei-Ming; Inami, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    To define a free string by the Nambu-Goto action, all we need is the notion of area, and mathematically the area can be defined directly in the absence of a metric. Motivated by the possibility that string theory admits backgrounds where the notion of length is not well defined but a definition of area is given, we study space-time geometries based on the generalization of a metric to an area metric. In analogy with Riemannian geometry, we define the analogues of connections, curvatures, and Einstein tensor. We propose a formulation generalizing Einstein's theory that will be useful if at a certain stage or a certain scale the metric is ill defined and the space-time is better characterized by the notion of area. Static spherical solutions are found for the generalized Einstein equation in vacuum, including the Schwarzschild solution as a special case.

  12. FOSSIL SPRINGS ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beard, L.S.; Ellis, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    Based on field studies, the Fossil Springs Roadless Area in central Arizona is concluded to have little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Rocks in the Supai Formation (Pennsylvanian-Permian) near the central part of the roadless area contain widespread but spotty copper mineralization and trace amounts of uranium. Analyses obtained during the study define geochemical anomalies in two portions of the area that remain unexplained. The suites of anomalous metals suggest the possibility of hydrothermal veins and the presence of ultramafic rocks; neither were found in the field. Although there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources in the Fossil Springs Roadless Area, studies to identify the source of the geochemical anomalies could have valuable implications for regional studies and mineral exploration in the surrounding area.

  13. WEAVER BALLY ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blake, M.C.; Peters, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Weaver Bally Roadless Area includes approximately 22 sq mi in the Shasta-Trinity National Forest, Trinity County, California. A mineral survey indicates that an area of less than 1 sq mi in the northern part of the Weaver Bally Roadless Area has a substantiated mineral-resource potential for gold and silver; a much larger area has a probable mineral-resource potential for the same elements. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuel resources and there is little promise for the occurrence of additional metallic, energy, or nonmetallic resources in the roadless area. Detailed studies, including further geochemical sampling and drilling could be done in the region of the Globe mines. In addition, the outcrops of dacite porphyry dikes and sills and associated hydrothermal alteration should be mapped in detail.

  14. Experimental research of multiphase flow with cavitation in the nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozubkova, Milada; Bojko, Marian; Jablonska, Jana; Homa, Dorota; Tůma, Jiří

    2016-03-01

    The paper deals with the problems of cavitation in water flow in the nozzle. The area of research is divided into two directions (experimental and numerical research). During the experimental research the equipment with the nozzle is under the measurement and basic physical quantities such as pressure and volume flow rate are recorded. In the following phase measuring of noise which is generated during flow through the nozzle in the area of cavitation is measured at various operating conditions of the pump. In the second part the appropriate multiphase mathematical model including the consideration of cavitation is defined. Boundary conditions for numerical simulation are defined on the basis of experimental measurements. Undissolved air in the flow is taken into account to obtain pressure distribution in accordance to measured one. Results of the numerical simulation are presented by means of basic current quantities such as pressure, velocity and volume fractions of each phase. The conclusions obtained from experimental research of cavitation were applied to modify the multiphase mathematical model.

  15. The CLAS12 large area RICH detector

    SciTech Connect

    M. Contalbrigo, E. Cisbani, P. Rossi

    2011-05-01

    A large area RICH detector is being designed for the CLAS12 spectrometer as part of the 12 GeV upgrade program of the Jefferson Lab Experimental Hall-B. This detector is intended to provide excellent hadron identification from 3 GeV/c up to momenta exceeding 8 GeV/c and to be able to work at the very high design luminosity-up to 1035 cm2 s-1. Detailed feasibility studies are presented for two types of radiators, aerogel and liquid C6F14 freon, in conjunction with a highly segmented light detector in the visible wavelength range. The basic parameters of the RICH are outlined and the resulting performances, as defined by preliminary simulation studies, are reported.

  16. The CLAS12 large area RICH detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contalbrigo, M.; Cisbani, E.; Rossi, P.

    2011-05-01

    A large area RICH detector is being designed for the CLAS12 spectrometer as part of the 12 GeV upgrade program of the Jefferson Lab Experimental Hall-B. This detector is intended to provide excellent hadron identification from 3 GeV/ c up to momenta exceeding 8 GeV/ c and to be able to work at the very high design luminosity-up to 10 35 cm 2 s -1. Detailed feasibility studies are presented for two types of radiators, aerogel and liquid C 6F 14 freon, in conjunction with a highly segmented light detector in the visible wavelength range. The basic parameters of the RICH are outlined and the resulting performances, as defined by preliminary simulation studies, are reported.

  17. Experimental Study of Alluvial Fan Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delorme, P.; Devauchelle, O.; Barrier, L.; Métivier, F.

    2015-12-01

    At the outlet of mountain ranges, rivers flow onto flatter lowlands. The associated change of slope causes sediment deposition. As the river is free to move laterally, it builds conical sedimentary structures called alluvial fans. Their location at the interface between erosional and depositional areas makes them valuable sedimentary archives. To decipher these sedimentary records, we need to understand the dynamics of their growth. Most natural fans are built by braided streams. However, to avoid the complexity of braided rivers, we develop a small-scale experiment in which an alluvial fan is formed by a single channel. We use a mixture of water and glycerol to produce a laminar river. The fluid is mixed with corindon sand (~ 300 μm) in a tilted channel and left free to form a fan around its outlet. The sediment and water discharges are constant during an experimental run. We record the fan progradation and the channel morphology with top-view pictures. We also generate an elevation map with an optical method based on the deformation of a moiré pattern. We observe that, to leading order, the fan remains self-affine as it grows, with a constant slope. We compare two recent studies about the formation of one-dimensionnal fan [Guerit et al. 2014] and threshold rivers [Seizilles et al. 2013] to our experimental findings. In particular, we propose a theory witch relates the fan morphology to the control parameters ( fluid and sediment discharges, grain size). Our observation accord with the predictions, suggesting that the fan is built near the threshold of sediment motion. Finally, we intend to expand our interpretation to alluvial fans build by single-thread channels ( Okavango, Bostwana; Taquari and Paraguay, Brasil; Pastaza, Peru).

  18. Low level laser therapy on experimental myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Dávila, Soledad; Vignola, María Belén; Cremonezzi, David; Simes, Juan C.; Soriano, Fernando; Campana, Vilma R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present work was to study the effect of Helium-Neon (HeNe) and Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) laser upon nitric oxide (NO) plasma levels, an inflammatory biomarker associated with oxidative stress, in rats with experimental myopathy. These were evaluated through histological assessment. Materials and Methods: The groups studied were: (A) control (intact rats that received LLLT sham exposures), (B) rats with myopathy and sacrificed at 24 h later, (C) rats with myopathy and sacrificed 8 days later, (D) rats with myopathy and treated with HeNe laser, (E) rats with myopathy and treated with GaAs laser, (F) intact rats treated with HeNe laser and (G) intact rats treated with GaAs laser. Myopathy was induced by injecting 50μl of 1% carrageenan λ (type IV) in the left gastrocnemius muscle. Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) was applied with 9.5 J.cm−2 daily for 10 consecutive days with each laser. The determination of the NO was made by spectrophotometry. The muscles were stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin and examined by optic microscopy. Quantitative variables were statistically analyzed by the Fisher test, and categorical by applying Pearson's Chi Squared test at p <0.05 for all cases. Results: In groups B and C, NO was significantly increased compared to groups A, D, E, F and G (p<0.05). In group C, the percentage of area with inflammatory infiltration was significantly increased compared to the other groups (p<0.001). Conclusions: LLLT decreased plasma levels of NO in rats with experimental myopathies and significant muscle recovery. PMID:24155539

  19. 76 FR 17439 - Nonessential Experimental Populations of Gray Wolves in the Northern Rocky Mountains; Lethal Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA; U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) (January 4, 1974; 39 FR 1171). In 1978... endangered (March 9, 1978; 43 FR 9607). The ESA Amendments of 1982 (Pub. L. 97-304) made significant changes... Population Area (November 22, 1994; 59 FR 60252) and the Central Idaho Experimental Population Area...

  20. Modification of Disputing and Talking Out Behaviors with the Teacher as Observer and Experimenter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, R. Vance; And Others

    Disputing and talking out behaviors of individual pupils and entire classroom groups in special education classes and regular classes from white middle class areas and from all Negro disadvantaged areas ranging from the first grade to junior high school were studied. The classroom teacher in each case acted as the experimenter and primary…

  1. A&M. TAN607. Process experimental pilot plant (PREPP) in north machine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. TAN-607. Process experimental pilot plant (PREPP) in north machine shop of TAN-607. First floor plan shows kiln area, internal room dividers, air locks, and other features integrated within TAN-607. Ralph M. Parsons A-2. Date: February 1984. INEEL index no. 034-0607-00-693-147021 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. EXPERIMENTAL MODELLING OF AORTIC ANEURYSMS

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Barry J; Corbett, Timothy J; Cloonan, Aidan J; O’Donnell, Michael R; Walsh, Michael T; Vorp, David A; McGloughlin, Timothy M

    2009-01-01

    A range of silicone rubbers were created based on existing commercially available materials. These silicones were designed to be visually different from one another and have distinct material properties, in particular, ultimate tensile strengths and tear strengths. In total, eleven silicone rubbers were manufactured, with the materials designed to have a range of increasing tensile strengths from approximately 2-4MPa, and increasing tear strengths from approximately 0.45-0.7N/mm. The variations in silicones were detected using a standard colour analysis technique. Calibration curves were then created relating colour intensity to individual material properties. All eleven materials were characterised and a 1st order Ogden strain energy function applied. Material coefficients were determined and examined for effectiveness. Six idealised abdominal aortic aneurysm models were also created using the two base materials of the study, with a further model created using a new mixing technique to create a rubber model with randomly assigned material properties. These models were then examined using videoextensometry and compared to numerical results. Colour analysis revealed a statistically significant linear relationship (p<0.0009) with both tensile strength and tear strength, allowing material strength to be determined using a non-destructive experimental technique. The effectiveness of this technique was assessed by comparing predicted material properties to experimentally measured methods, with good agreement in the results. Videoextensometry and numerical modelling revealed minor percentage differences, with all results achieving significance (p<0.0009). This study has successfully designed and developed a range of silicone rubbers that have unique colour intensities and material strengths. Strengths can be readily determined using a non-destructive analysis technique with proven effectiveness. These silicones may further aid towards an improved understanding of the

  3. Engine Combustion Network Experimental Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Maintained by the Engine Combustion Department of Sandia National Laboratories, data currently available on the website includes reacting and non-reacting sprays in a constant-volume chamber at conditions typical of diesel combustion. The data are useful for model development and validation because of the well-defined boundary conditions and the wide range of conditions employed. A search utility displays data based on experimental conditions such as ambient temperature, ambient density, injection pressure, nozzle size, fuel, etc. Experiment-related visualizations are also available. (Specialized Interface)

  4. Thinnest optical waveguide: experimental test.

    PubMed

    Sumetsky, M; Dulashko, Y; Domachuk, P; Eggleton, B J

    2007-04-01

    A thin dielectric waveguide with a subwavelength diameter can exhibit very small transmission loss only if its diameter is greater than a threshold value, while for smaller diameters, waveguide loss grows dramatically. The threshold diameter of transition between these waveguiding and nonwaveguiding regimes is primarily determined by the wavelength of propagating light and, to a much lesser degree, by the characteristic length of the waveguide's long-range nonuniformity. For this reason, the transmission spectrum of a thin waveguide allows immediate and quite accurate determination of its thickness. An experimental test of these facts is performed for a tapered microfiber. Good agreement with the recently developed theory of adiabatic microfiber tapers is demonstrated.

  5. The updated experimental proteinoid model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.; Nakashima, T.; Przybylski, A.; Syren, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    The experimental proteinoid model includes new results indicating that polymers sufficiently rich in basic amino acid catalyze the synthesis of peptides from ATP and amino acids and of oligonucleotides from ATP. The need for simulation syntheses of amino acids yielding significant proportions of basic amino acids is now in focus. The modeled simultaneous protocellular synthesis of peptides and polynucleotides is part of a more comprehensive proposal for the origin of the coded genetic mechanism. The finding of membrane and action potentials in proteinoid microspheres, with or without added lecithin, is reported. The crucial nature of a nonrandom matrix for protocells is developed.

  6. CDF experimental results on diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Gallinaro, Michele; /Rockefeller U.

    2009-04-01

    Experimental results on diffraction from the Fermilab Tevatron collider obtained by the CDF experiment are reviewed and compared. We report on the diffractive structure function obtained from dijet production in the range 0 < Q{sup 2} < 10,000 GeV{sup 2}, and on the |t| distribution in the region 0 < |t| < 1 GeV{sup 2} for both soft and hard diffractive events up to Q{sup 2} {approx} 4,500 GeV{sup 2}. Results on single diffractive W/Z production, forward jets, and central exclusive production of both dijets and diphotons are also presented.

  7. Experimental test accelerator (ETA) II

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.J.; Atchison, W.L.; Birx, D.L.

    1981-03-06

    The Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) is designed to produce a 10 kAmp electron beam at an energy of 4.5 MeV in 40 nsec pulses at an average rate of 2 pps. The accelerator also operates in bursts of 5 pulses spaced by as little as one millisec at an average rate of 5 pps. The machine is currently operating near 80% of its design values and has accumulated over 2.5 million pulses - mostly at a rate of one pps. The plasma cathode electron source, the remainder of the accelerator, and the operating characteristics of the machine are discussed.

  8. Experimental studies of glass refining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanian, R. S.; Cole, R.; Kondos, P.

    1984-01-01

    The basic components of the experimental apparatus were selected and acquired. Techniques were developed for the fabrication of the special crucibles necessary for the experiments. Arrangements were made for the analysis of glass and gas bubble samples for composition information. Donations of major equipment were received for this project from Owens, Illinois where a similar study had been conducted a few year ago. Decisions were made regarding the actual glass composition to be used, the gas to be used in the first experiments, and the temperatures at which the experiments should be conducted. A microcomputer was acquired, and work was begun on interfacing the video analyzer to it.

  9. Experimental Parallel-Processing Computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgregor, J. W.; Salama, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    Master processor supervises slave processors, each with its own memory. Computer with parallel processing serves as inexpensive tool for experimentation with parallel mathematical algorithms. Speed enhancement obtained depends on both nature of problem and structure of algorithm used. In parallel-processing architecture, "bank select" and control signals determine which one, if any, of N slave processor memories accessible to master processor at any given moment. When so selected, slave memory operates as part of master computer memory. When not selected, slave memory operates independently of main memory. Slave processors communicate with each other via input/output bus.

  10. Experimental Plasma Research project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities supported by the Experimental Plasma Research Branch of APP. The individual project summaries were prepared by the principal investigators and include objectives and milestones for each project. The projects are arranged in six research categories: Plasma Properties; Plasma Heating; Plasma Diagnostics; Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics; Advanced Superconducting Materials; and the Fusion Plasma Research Facility (FPRF). Each category is introduced with a statement of objectives and recent progress and followed by descriptions of individual projects. An overall budget summary is provided at the beginning of the report.

  11. Experimental study of vortex diffusers

    SciTech Connect

    Shakerin, S.; Miller, P.L.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents experimental research performed on vortex diffusers used in ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The main objectives of the research were (1) to study the flow characteristics of isothermal jets issuing from vortex diffusers, (2) to compare the vortex diffuser`s performance with that of a conventional diffuser, and (3) to prepare a report that disseminates the results to the designers of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The researchers considered three diffusers: a conventional round ceiling diffuser and two different styles of vortex diffusers. Overall, the vortex diffusers create slightly more induction of ambient air in comparison to the conventional diffuser.

  12. A simple Cavendish experimental apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossler, W. J.; Klein, Susann; Morrow, Dominick; Juliao, Andre

    2016-03-01

    A simple Cavendish apparatus is described that allows measurement of the gravitational constant G and makes observable the gravitational attraction between commonplace objects. The apparatus consists of a torsion balance constructed from readily available materials, including lead bricks and fishing weights ("sinkers"). A computer program is used to determine the gravitational field at the location of the small mass due to a nearby lead brick, which allows students to gain experience with numerical methods. Experimental results obtained are compatible with the accepted value of G.

  13. Measurement of Interfacial Area Production and Permeability within Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H.

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the pore-level interactions that affect multi-phase flow in porous media is important in many subsurface engineering applications, including enhanced oil recovery, remediation of dense non-aqueous liquid contaminated sites, and geologic CO2 sequestration. Standard models of two-phase flow in porous media have been shown to have several shortcomings, which might partially be overcome using a recently developed model based on thermodynamic principles that includes interfacial area as an additional parameter. A few static experimental studies have been previously performed, which allowed the determination of static parameters of the model, but no information exists concerning the interfacial area dynamic parameters. A new experimental porous flow cell that was constructed using stereolithography for two-phase gas-liquid flow studies was used in conjunction with an in-house analysis code to provide information on dynamic evolution of both fluid phases and gas-liquid interfaces. In this paper, we give a brief introduction to the new generalized model of two-phase flow model and describe how the stereolithography flow cell experimental setup was used to obtain the dynamic parameters for the interfacial area numerical model. In particular, the methods used to determine the interfacial area permeability and production terms are shown.

  14. Molecular simulations and experimental studies of zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moloy, Eric C.

    Zeolites are microporous aluminosilicate tetrahedral framework materials that have symmetric cages and channels with open-diameters between 0.2 and 2.0 nm. Zeolites are used extensively in the petrochemical industries for both their microporosity and their catalytic properties. The role of water is paramount to the formation, structure, and stability of these materials. Zeolites frequently have extra-framework cations, and as a result, are important ion-exchange materials. Zeolites also play important roles as molecular sieves and catalysts. For all that is known about zeolites, much remains a mystery. How, for example, can the well established metastability of these structures be explained? What is the role of water with respect to the formation, stabilization, and dynamical properties? This dissertation addresses these questions mainly from a modeling perspective, but also with some experimental work as well. The first discussion addresses a special class of zeolites: pure-silica zeolites. Experimental enthalpy of formation data are combined with molecular modeling to address zeolitic metastability. Molecular modeling is used to calculate internal surface areas, and a linear relationship between formation enthalpy and internal surface areas is clearly established, producing an internal surface energy of approximately 93 mJ/m2. Nitrate bearing sodalite and cancrinite have formed under the caustic chemical conditions of some nuclear waste processing centers in the United States. These phases have fouled expensive process equipment, and are the primary constituents of the resilient heels in the bottom of storage tanks. Molecular modeling, including molecular mechanics, molecular dynamics, and density functional theory, is used to simulate these materials with respect to structure and dynamical properties. Some new, very interesting results are extracted from the simulation of anhydrous Na6[Si6Al 6O24] sodalite---most importantly, the identification of two distinct

  15. Hanford 200 Areas Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Rinne, C.A.; Daly, K.S.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of the Hanford 200 Areas Development Plan (Development Plan) is to guide the physical development of the 200 Areas (which refers to the 200 East Area, 200 West Area, and 200 Area Corridor, located between the 200 East and 200 West Areas) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4320.lB (DOE 1991a) by performing the following: Establishing a land-use plan and setting land-use categories that meet the needs of existing and proposed activities. Coordinating existing, 5-year, and long-range development plans and guiding growth in accordance with those plans. Establishing development guidelines to encourage cost-effective development and minimize conflicts between adjacent activities. Identifying site development issues that need further analysis. Integrating program plans with development plans to ensure a logical progression of development. Coordinate DOE plans with other agencies [(i.e., Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)]. Being a support document to the Hanford Site Development Plan (DOE-RL 1990a) (parent document) and providing technical site information relative to the 200 Areas.

  16. [Interfacial area and interfacial transfer in two-phase flow

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, M.

    1993-09-01

    A joint research program funded by the DOE/BES at Purdue University and the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee has been underway. The main efforts of the Purdue program were concentrated on the following tasks. Development of Four Sensor Measurement Method; Experimental Study of Axial Changes of Transverse Void and Interfacial Area Profiles in Bubbly Flow; Modeling of the Probe-Particle Interaction Using Monte Carlo Numerical Simulation; and Experimental Study of the Stability of Interface of Very Large Bubbles. Highlights of these research results are reported.

  17. Landslide Monitoring with ALOS/PALSAR data in Mountain Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, X.; Qi, H.; Yu, B.

    2015-12-01

    InSAR is a relatively new technique with a high potential in earth observation, which has made great success in monitoring urban areas deformation. At present, although there are a considerable number of applications in the complicated mountain areas, it is hard to obtain sufficiently high-density stable point targets in these regions. So scientists have been trying to solve this bottleneck problem and improve accuracy in mountain areas. In this work, we present the landslide measurement result in complicated topographic region using ALOS/PALSAR data. The test area is selected around highlands of the boundary between China and India. We choose 13 scenes of ALOS/PALSAR images from May 2007 to February 2011. The main landforms in this experimental region are bare rock and soil, ice and snow, the vegetation in the alpine area. Due to the lithology of the strata and the undulations extent of the terrain, it is prone to cause landslides in the event of rainfall, earthquakes, snow melt or human activities. The traditional PS algorithm has a higher requirement for a long time series data collection, especially in low-coherence area of vegetation cover. As the collected data and stable points are relatively less in this experimental area, we plan to study the time series InSAR analysis coherence model and error model, and extend its application to the extra-urban regions. The approach has been carried out to increase the density of stable points, which are mainly distributed on the top of mountain and ridge areas. And using the 13 images we find several subsidence areas by this technique. The result shows that the top of mountain is relatively stable and the suspected landslide areas are mainly along the ridge, which is in accordance with the actual situation. Then the mechanism and stability analysis of landslide is discussed. Meanwhile, some other measurement data in experimental area is available for cross validation, such as optical data and TerraSAR-X data. And a

  18. Pigeon homing from unfamiliar areas: An alternative to olfactory navigation is not in sight.

    PubMed

    Wallraff, Hans G

    2014-01-01

    The conclusion that pigeons and other birds can find their way home from unfamiliar areas by means of olfactory signals is well based on a variety of experiments and supporting investigations of the chemical atmosphere. Here I argue that alternative concepts proposing other sources of geopositional information are disproved by experimental findings or, at least, are not experimentally supported and hardly realistic. PMID:25346789

  19. An example in surface area.

    PubMed

    Goffman, C

    1969-05-01

    For length and area, a central fact is that the value of the length of a curve or the area of a surface, as given by the Lebesgue theory, is at least as great as that given by the classical formula, whenever the latter has meaning. This is now found not to be valid in higher dimensions. We give an example of a continuous mapping of the unit cube into itself for which the value given by the formula exceeds the three-dimensional Lebesgue area of the corresponding suface.

  20. Android Based Area Web Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanigoro, Bayu; Galih Salman, Afan; Moniaga, Jurike V.; Chandra, Eric; Rezky Chandra, Zein

    2014-03-01

    The research objective is to develop an application that can be used in the monitoring of an area by using a webcam. It aims to create a sense of security on the user's application because it can monitor an area using mobile phone anywhere. The results obtained in this study is to create an area with a webcam monitoring application that can be accessed anywhere as long as the monitoring results have internet access and can also be accessed through Android Based Mobile Phone.