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Sample records for area qinghai province

  1. Study of infectious conjunctivitis among children in rural areas of Qinghai province.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qingfeng; Lu, Xinxin; Wang, Mei; Tian, Lei; Labbé, Antoine; Hu, Ailian

    2016-06-01

    Infectious conjunctivitis is no longer a common eye disease in cities and developed areas, but in remote mountainous regions of China where living conditions are relatively under-developed, the occurrence of infectious conjunctivitis remains a public health issue. Here, we evaluate the ratio of infectious conjunctivitis among primary school students in the rural areas of Xunhua, Huangyuan, and Huzhu Counties in the Qinghai province of China, and report the microorganisms involved in causing infection. Of the 765 eligible primary school students, 694 participated to this study (a response rateof 90.7%), 381 boys and 313 girls, with a mean age of 7.52 years (range 7-9 years). A clinical diagnosis of infectious conjunctivitis was returned for 238 of the 694 children examined. The ratio of infectious conjunctivitis in Xunhua County (46.64%) was higher compared to that in Huangyuan (26.67%; P=0.03) and Huzhu Counties (23.61%; P=0.02). The leading cause of conjunctivitis was bacterial, followed by chlamydial and viral. Our results show that there is a high ratio of infectious conjunctivitis among rural primary school students in Qinghai province.

  2. [Tourism function zoning of Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area in Qinghai Province based on ecological sensitivity analysis].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Lin-sheng; Tang, Cheng-cai; Guo, Hua

    2010-07-01

    Based on the statistical data of natural ecology and social economy in Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area in Qinghai Province in 2008, an evaluation index system for the ecological sensitivity of this area was established from the aspects of protected area rank, vegetation type, slope, and land use type. The ecological sensitivity of the sub-areas with higher tourism value and ecological function in the area was evaluated, and the tourism function zoning of these sub-areas was made by the technology of GIS and according to the analysis of eco-environmental characteristics and ecological sensitivity of each sensitive sub-area. It was suggested that the Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area could be divided into three ecological sensitivity sub-areas (high, moderate, and low), three tourism functional sub-areas (restricted development ecotourism, moderate development ecotourism, and mass tourism), and six tourism functional sub-areas (wetland protection, primitive ecological sightseeing, agriculture and pasture tourism, grassland tourism, town tourism, and rural tourism).

  3. Prevalence of Selenium, T-2 Toxin, and Deoxynivalenol in Kashin-Beck Disease Areas in Qinghai Province, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Lei, Ronghui; Jiang, Ning; Zhang, Qiang; Hu, Senke; Dennis, Bannel Sando; He, Shanshan; Guo, Xiong

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of selenium, T-2 toxin, and deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination in Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) areas and provide information for understanding the high prevalence of KBD in Qinghai Province. A total of 183 subjects were chosen in a KBD-prevalent county (Guide County) and a non-KBD county (Huangzhong County) in Qinghai Province, northwestern China, and the samples of wheat flour, soil, drinking water and blood, urine, and hair of children were collected from these residents. The selenium concentrations from all these sources were determined using atomic fluorescence spectrophotometry. The levels of T-2 toxin and DON contamination in the wheat flour samples were assayed using HPLC-MS/MS. The average selenium content in the soil, drinking water, and wheat flour samples from KBD areas were 26.93 ± 10.06 μg/kg, 0.097 ± 0.038 μg/L, and 9.50 ± 7.17 μg/kg, respectively. Among these, the selenium levels in the drinking water and wheat flour samples from the KBD endemic county were significantly lower than those from the non-KBD county. For the selenium nutrient status, only the hair selenium concentration of children from the KBD endemic county was significantly lower than that from the non-KBD county. The contents of T-2 toxin in all wheat samples were below the detection limit (0.4 μg/kg). The levels of DON contamination in wheat flour samples from KBD and non-KBD children's households within the KBD endemic county were relatively higher, with average levels of 302 ± 49 and 280 ± 48 μg/kg, respectively. The DON level of wheat flour samples from the children's households in the non-KBD county was significantly lower than that from the KBD endemic county. These results suggest that the lower selenium status in Guide County still remains. While the selenium nutritional status of the local children has improved to some extent, partly due to the introduction of food produce from nonlocal areas. DON

  4. Analysis on the Change of Vegetation Coverage in Qinghai Province from 2000 TO 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Yan, Q.; Liu, Z.; Luo, C.

    2013-07-01

    Qinghai Province is one of the important provinces on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. Its unique alpine meadow ecosystem makes it become the most concentrated areas of biodiversity in high altitudes in the world. Researching the vegetation coverage and changes of Qinghai province can reflect effectively and timely processing of changes and problems of ecological quality in the region. This research will give a long time series monitoring of the vegetation coverage of Qinghai province based on maximum value composite (MVC) and S-G filtering algorithm using MODIS data of the year of 2000-2012, then analyze the change using coefficient of variability(CV) and trend line analysis. According to research, during the past 13 years, more than half of Qinghai Province's vegetation coverage is well, both the east and south have a high coverage, while the northwest is lower. The changing of vegetation coverage also has showed a steady and improving trend in 13 years. The largest area is slight improved area is about 29.08% of the total area, and the second largest area is significant improved area is about 21.09% of the total area. In this research can learn directly the vegetation coverage and changes of Qinghai province and provide reference and scientific basis for the protection and governance of ecological environment.

  5. [Prediction of potential geographic distribution of Lyme disease in Qinghai province with Maximum Entropy model].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Hou, Xuexia; Liu, Huixin; Liu, Wei; Wan, Kanglin; Hao, Qin

    2016-01-01

    To predict the potential geographic distribution of Lyme disease in Qinghai by using Maximum Entropy model (MaxEnt). The sero-diagnosis data of Lyme disease in 6 counties (Huzhu, Zeku, Tongde, Datong, Qilian and Xunhua) and the environmental and anthropogenic data including altitude, human footprint, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and temperature in Qinghai province since 1990 were collected. By using the data of Huzhu Zeku and Tongde, the prediction of potential distribution of Lyme disease in Qinghai was conducted with MaxEnt. The prediction results were compared with the human sero-prevalence of Lyme disease in Datong, Qilian and Xunhua counties in Qinghai. Three hot spots of Lyme disease were predicted in Qinghai, which were all in the east forest areas. Furthermore, the NDVI showed the most important role in the model prediction, followed by human footprint. Datong, Qilian and Xunhua counties were all in eastern Qinghai. Xunhua was in hot spot areaⅡ, Datong was close to the north of hot spot area Ⅲ, while Qilian with lowest sero-prevalence of Lyme disease was not in the hot spot areas. The data were well modeled in MaxEnt (Area Under Curve=0.980). The actual distribution of Lyme disease in Qinghai was in consistent with the results of the model prediction. MaxEnt could be used in predicting the potential distribution patterns of Lyme disease. The distribution of vegetation and the range and intensity of human activity might be related with Lyme disease distribution.

  6. T-2 toxin contamination in grains and selenium concentration in drinking water and grains in Kaschin-Beck disease endemic areas of Qinghai Province.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Yan; Li, Qiang; Meng, Fan-Gang; Fu, Ying; Zhao, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Li-Hua

    2012-12-01

    It has been strongly suggested that two factors are involved in the development of Kaschin-Beck Disease (KBD), namely grains contamination with T-2 toxin and selenium deficiency. So our team undertook a survey about grains and drinking water in three rural KBD endemic villages and one non-KBD village in Qinghai Province. The level of T-2 toxin contamination in 364 grain samples was assayed using an ELISA kit. The selenium concentration in these grains and 15 drinking water samples from three KBD endemic villages were determined using the 2,3-diaminonaphthalene fluorometric assay. The results revealed that the level of T-2 toxin contamination in the samples from three KBD endemic villages was relatively high with an average level of 78.91 ng/g in wheat and 47.47 ng/g in flour. The T-2 toxin level in samples from the non-KBD village (12.23 ng/g) was significantly lower than that of local grains from the three KBD endemic villages. The average selenium content in wheat and flour from KBD areas was 0.0045 and 0.0067 μg/g, respectively. The selenium concentration in local grain samples was significantly lower than that in samples from the non-KBD village (0.0604 μg/g). In addition, the selenium concentration in drinking water from three KBD endemic villages was also low (0.156 μg/L). These results support a potential role of T-2 toxin contamination and selenium deficiency in KBD. Compared with non-KBD endemic areas, health hazards in grains and in the environment of KBD endemic areas were observed.

  7. Eimeria spp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Plateau pika, Ochotona curzoniae, from Haibei Area, Qinghai Province, China, with the description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yi-Fan; Ye, Run-Roung; Wu, Jian-Hua; Bian, Jiang-Hui; Duszynski, Donald W

    2009-10-01

    Fifty-two fecal samples from the Plateau pika, Ochotona curzoniae, collected in the Haibei Area, Qinghai Province, China, were examined for the presence of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). Five distinct morphotypes, all Eimeria species, were distinguished based on the structure of their sporulated oocysts. Three of these included Eimeria banffensis, Eimeria calentinei, and Eimeria cryptobarretti, all of which have been described previously from other Ochotona species. We also studied 2 morphotypes that we feel have sufficient qualitative and quantitative characters to distinguish them from all previously described species; herein, we identify them as putative new species. Eimeria qinghaiensis n.sp. was found in 18/52 (35%) O. curzoniae. It has ovoidal oocysts with a 3-layered wall, with a rough outermost layer and a micropyle, approximately 9 microm wide. Sporulated oocysts are 37.2 x 27.2 (34-41 x 24-32) microm; 1 polar granule is present, but an oocyst residuum is absent. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 16.6 x 9.8 (14-19 x 9-11) microm with a Stieda body; sporocyst residuum and sporozoites have 2 refractile bodies. Eimeria haibeiensis n. sp. was found in 21/52 (40%) pikas. It has ellipsoidal to ovoidal oocysts, with a 2-layered smooth wall and a micropyle, 3.9 microm wide. Oocysts are 22.2 x 16.2 (20-24 x 15-18) microm; polar granule and oocyst residuum are both absent. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 11.6 x 6.6 (10-13 x 5-7) microm, with a Stieda body; sporocyst residuum and sporozoites each have 2 refractile bodies, 1 at each end. The 5 eimerian species we discovered in O. curzoniae in China all represent new host and locality records.

  8. [Investigation and identification of varieties of wulingzhi in Qinghai Province].

    PubMed

    Wan, S

    1998-06-01

    This paper reports the investigation and identification of varieties of Wulingzhi used as drugs in Qinghai province. The results show Wulingzhi varieties from the province and the parts of northwest districts are different with the Wulinzhi recorded in China Pharmacopoeia, which has itself special varieties and identified standard, their originals are the excrements from Petaurista xanthotis, Ochotona erythrotis, O. curzoniae. O. daurica and O. causus.

  9. Four new coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Plateau zokor, Myospalax baileyi Thomas (Rodentia: Myospalacinae), a subterranean rodent from Haibei area, Qinghai Province, China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yi-Fan; Nie, Xu-Heng; Zhang, Tong-Zuo; Du, Shou-Yang; Duszynski, Donald W; Bian, Jiang-Hui

    2014-02-01

    Thirty-eight faecal samples from the Plateau zokor, Myospalax baileyi Thomas, collected in the Haibei Area, Qinghai Province, China, were examined for the presence of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). Seventeen of 38 faecal samples (44.7%) were found to contain coccidian oöcysts representing four new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875, and four of 17 (23.5%) infected zokors were concurrently infected with two or three of these eimerian species. The sporulated oöcysts of Eimeria myospalacensis n. sp. are ovoidal, 9.5-17.0 × 8.0-13.0 (mean 13.0 × 10.4) μm; a polar granule is present, oöcyst residuum is absent; sporocysts are ovoidal, 4.5-7.5 × 3.0-5.0 (mean 6.3 × 4.2) μm and have both a Stieda body and residuum. Oöcysts of Eimeria fani n. sp. are ellipsoidal to cylindroidal, 12.5-16.0 × 8.0-11.0 (mean 14.6 × 9.9) μm; a polar granule is present, but micropyle and residuum are lacking; sporocysts are ovoidal, 4.5-7.5 × 3.0-5.3 (mean 6.7 × 4.4) μm; a residuum and a Steida body are present. Oöcysts of Eimeria baileyii n. sp. are ellipsoidal, 15.0-23.0 × 12.0-18.0 (mean 18.2 × 13.7) μm; a polar granule is present but oöcyst residuum is absent; sporocysts are ovoidal, 8.0-11.0 × 5.0-7.0 (mean 9.5 × 5.9) μm and have both a Stieda body and residuum. Oöcysts of Eimeria menyuanensis n. sp. are ovoidal, 12.5-21.0 × 11.0-18.0 (mean 17.1 × 14.6) μm, with a distinct micropyle c.2.5 μm wide; a polar granule is present but a residuum is absent; sporocysts are ovoidal, 8.0-12.0 × 5.0-7.0 (mean 10.2 × 6.4) μm, and have both a Stieda body and residuum.

  10. [Analysis of vegetation spatial and temporal variations in Qinghai Province based on remote sensing].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-wen; Wei, Ya-xing; Niu, Zheng

    2008-06-01

    1 km MODIS NDVI time series data combining with decision tree classification, supervised classification and unsupervised classification was used to classify land cover type of Qinghai Province into 14 classes. In our classification system, sparse grassland and sparse shrub were emphasized, and their spatial distribution locations were labeled. From digital elevation model (DEM) of Qinghai Province, five elevation belts were achieved, and we utilized geographic information system (GIS) software to analyze vegetation cover variation on different elevation belts. Our research result shows that vegetation cover in Qinghai Province has been improved in recent five years. Vegetation cover area increases from 370047 km2 in 2001 to 374576 km2 in 2006, and vegetation cover rate increases by 0.63%. Among five grade elevation belts, vegetation cover ratio of high mountain belt is the highest (67.92%). The area of middle density grassland in high mountain belt is the largest, of which area is 94 003 km2. Increased area of dense grassland in high mountain belt is the greatest (1280 km2). During five years, the biggest variation is the conversion from sparse grassland to middle density grassland in high mountain belt, of which area is 15931 km2.

  11. [Epidemiological survey on echinococcosis in Darlag County of Qinghai Province].

    PubMed

    Han, Xiu-min; Wang, Hu; Cai, Hui-xia; Ma, Xiao; Liu, Yu-fang; Wei, Bing-hui; Ito, A; Craig, P S

    2009-02-28

    To make an epidemiological investigation on echinococcosis in Darlag County, Guoluo Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Qinghai Province. Local participants were screened for echinococcosis using B ultrasound from August to September in 2007. IHA was carried out to detect antibody in human sera. Indirect ELISA using recombinant-AgB and Em18 antigen was conducted to further diagnose the human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) and cystic echinococcosis (CE) . The prevalence of echinococcosis in wild rodents, yaks, sheep and dogs was examined either by dissection or through slaughterhouses. Adult worms and hydatid cysts were detected by PCR-RFLP to discriminate 3 Echinococcus species and genotype of Eg. Dog feces were tested by double antibody sandwich ELISA method to confirm the coproantigen positive rate. 1723 people were examined by ultrasound and 236 were clinically diagnosed as hydatid diseases with an overall morbidity of 13.7%, of which 5.5% were CE and 8.2% were AE. Prevalence in males and females was 11.6% and 15.6% respectively with a statistically significant difference (chi2=7.0, P< 0.05) . Prevalence in herdsmen and monks/nuns was as high as 23.0% and 13.2%, respectively. Adult worms were found in 5 out of 9 stray dogs by necropsy. 27 of 239 pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) were infected by E. shiquicus (11.3%). CE prevalence in sheep and yaks was 26.4% and 5/16 respectively. The Eg genotype was G1 (sheep strain). Three species of Echinococcus, e.g. E. granulosus, E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus are all prevalent in Darlag County. The prevalence of both AE and CE in human population is high in the area. Domestic dogs are the primary definitive host for both E. granulosus and E. multilocularis.

  12. Environmental cost and pollution risk caused by the industrial transfer in Qinghai Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qun'ou; Tang, Chengcai; Zhan, Jinyan; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Feng

    2014-09-01

    With the rising pressure due to energy consumption and costs of environmental protection and recovery, industrial transfer from the eastern to central and western areas has surged in China. However, extremely fragile ecological conditions and severe water shortage are significant hurdles for industry development in Western China. Whether the vulnerable environment can bear the pollution caused by the transferred industry from Eastern China becomes a significant issue. This study firstly estimates energy and environmental costs in different areas of China, and assesses the necessity to upgrade the industrial structure of Qinghai Province. Then the emissions of waste water, waste gas, and smoke caused by transferred industries are calculated by Input-Output Model. On the basis of the effect analysis of waste emission on environment, pollution risks of Qinghai province are assessed. The results illustrate that the costs of environmental protection and recovery in China have a gradient distribution, of which the energy efficiency is lower while environmental costs are higher in Western China. Industrial structure adjustment has different impacts on the pollution of different sectors. Although the development of machinery and equipment, hotels and catering services, and real estate, leasing, and business services has increased the emission of pollutants, it is offset by the decreasing emissions caused by other industries such as construction and metal products. Therefore, although economic development will increase environmental pollution, industrial adjustments can effectively decrease waste water and waste gas emissions to reduce the pollution risk. It should be noted that there are still tremendous challenges for industrial transfer in Qinghai Province to coordinate the environment and industry development.

  13. Effectiveness of complementary food supplements and dietary counselling on anaemia and stunting in children aged 6–23 months in poor areas of Qinghai Province, China: a controlled interventional study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Wu, Qiong; Wang, Wei; van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Chang, Suying; Han, Huijun; Xing, Min; Chen, Li; Scherpbier, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of dietary counselling and complementary food supplements on anaemia and stunting prevalence in children aged 6–23 months. Design A controlled intervention study with measurements of height and haemoglobin levels, and cross-sectional surveys in August 2012 (baseline), 2013 (mid-term) and 2014 (end-line). Setting One intervention county and one control county in rural Qinghai Province, China. Intervention Complementary food supplements (containing protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamin A, B1, B2, B12, D3, folic acid, iron, zinc and calcium) and complementary feeding counselling were given in the intervention county. Participants Caregivers and their children aged 6–23 months. Primary and secondary outcome measures Effect of the interventions on the prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin <110 g/L) and stunting (z-score of height-for-age <−2.0) (controlled for differences between the counties), and on infant feeding practices. Results The surveys were conducted on 1804, 2187 and 2186 children aged 6–23 months in the intervention county in August 2012, 2013 and 2014, respectively, and 804, 680 and 790 children in the control county, respectively. Between the baseline and end-line surveys, anaemia prevalence decreased more in the intervention county than in the control county (71.1% to 47.8% vs 86.3% to 75.3%, respectively; p<0.0001). There was no difference in the decrease in stunting prevalence between the counties (9.7% to 7.1% vs 17.0% to 15.0%; p=0.7954). The proportions of children given iron-rich or iron-fortified food, introduced to (semi-) solid food at 6–8 months, and given food with minimum dietary diversity increased from 43.2% to 88.8% (p<0.0001), 81.4% to 96% (p=0.0470) and 53.0% to 59.8% (p<0.0001), respectively in the intervention county. Conclusions We found much higher anaemia prevalence in poor rural areas of Qinghai Province compared with the national data. Community-based complementary food supplements

  14. [Molecular epidemiological study of measles viruses isolated in Qinghai Province during 2000-2011].

    PubMed

    Fan, Li-Xia; Ba, Zhuo-Ma; Zhao, Sheng-Cang; Yi, Hu; Jiang, Shuang-Ying; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Hui-Ling; Xu, Wen-Bo

    2013-08-01

    To carry out the molecular epidemiological study of the wild-type measles virus isolated in Qinghai Province during 2000-2011, and provide a scientific basis for the measles elimination. Measles viruses were isolated using B95a cell line or Vero/SLAM cell line from throat swabs collected from suspected measles cases during measles outbreak and sporadic in 6 prefectures during 2000-2011. The fragment of 696 nucleotides of N gene carboxy terminal was amplified by using RT-PCR methods. The PCR products were sequenced and analyzed. The phylogenetic tree was conducted with the viruses isolated in viruses from other province. Total 19 measles viruses were isolated during 2000-2011 in Qinghai province and all belong to genotype H1a. The results of phylogenetic tree showed that viruses in 2000-2005 and in 2009-2011 were distributed in two different lineages, and it revealed that these strains belonged to at least 2 viral transmission chains and the viruses circulated during 2000-2005 were not detected after 2005. Genotype H1a was the predominant genotype circulated in Qinghai province during 2000-2011. Qinghai measles virus strains had not evolved independently, but coevolved with the measles virus strains in other provinces in mainland China. The variation of important amino acid sites of measles virus should be continuous monitored and provide the scientific strategy for the measles elimination.

  15. Maternal and child health in Yushu, Qinghai Province, China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Surmang, Qinghai Province is a rural nomadic Tibetan region in western China recently devastated by the 2010 Yushu earthquake; little information is available on access and coverage of maternal and child health services. Methods A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in August 2004. 402 women of reproductive age (15-50) were interviewed regarding their pregnancy history, access to and utilization of health care, and infant and child health care practices. Results Women's access to education was low at 15% for any formal schooling; adult female literacy was <20%. One third of women received any antenatal care during their last pregnancy. Institutional delivery and skilled birth attendance were <1%, and there were no reported cesarean deliveries. Birth was commonly attended by a female relative, and 8% of women delivered alone. Use of unsterilized instrument to cut the umbilical cord was nearly universal (94%), while coverage for tetanus toxoid immunization was only 14%. Traditional Tibetan healers were frequently sought for problems during pregnancy (70%), the postpartum period (87%), and for childhood illnesses (74%). Western medicine (61%) was preferred over Tibetan medicine (9%) for preventive antenatal care. The average time to reach a health facility was 4.3 hours. Postpartum infectious morbidity appeared to be high, but only 3% of women with postpartum problems received western medical care. 64% of recently pregnant women reported that they were very worried about dying in childbirth. The community reported 3 maternal deaths and 103 live births in the 19 months prior to the survey. Conclusions While China is on track to achieve national Millennium Development Goal targets for maternal and child health, women and children in Surmang suffer from substantial health inequities in access to antenatal, skilled birth and postpartum care. Institutional delivery, skilled attendance and cesarean delivery are virtually inaccessible, and

  16. Spatial transmission and meteorological determinants of tuberculosis incidence in Qinghai Province, China: a spatial clustering panel analysis.

    PubMed

    Rao, Hua-Xiang; Zhang, Xi; Zhao, Lei; Yu, Juan; Ren, Wen; Zhang, Xue-Lei; Ma, Yong-Cheng; Shi, Yan; Ma, Bin-Zhong; Wang, Xiang; Wei, Zhen; Wang, Hua-Fang; Qiu, Li-Xia

    2016-06-02

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the notifiable infectious disease with the second highest incidence in the Qinghai province, a province with poor primary health care infrastructure. Understanding the spatial distribution of TB and related environmental factors is necessary for developing effective strategies to control and further eliminate TB. Our TB incidence data and meteorological data were extracted from the China Information System of Disease Control and Prevention and statistical yearbooks, respectively. We calculated the global and local Moran's I by using spatial autocorrelation analysis to detect the spatial clustering of TB incidence each year. A spatial panel data model was applied to examine the associations of meteorological factors with TB incidence after adjustment of spatial individual effects and spatial autocorrelation. The Local Moran's I method detected 11 counties with a significantly high-high spatial clustering (average annual incidence: 294/100 000) and 17 counties with a significantly low-low spatial clustering (average annual incidence: 68/100 000) of TB annual incidence within the examined five-year period; the global Moran's I values ranged from 0.40 to 0.58 (all P-values < 0.05). The TB incidence was positively associated with the temperature, precipitation, and wind speed (all P-values < 0.05), which were confirmed by the spatial panel data model. Each 10 °C, 2 cm, and 1 m/s increase in temperature, precipitation, and wind speed associated with 9 % and 3 % decrements and a 7 % increment in the TB incidence, respectively. High TB incidence areas were mainly concentrated in south-western Qinghai, while low TB incidence areas clustered in eastern and north-western Qinghai. Areas with low temperature and precipitation and with strong wind speeds tended to have higher TB incidences.

  17. A new species of Zagrammosoma Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) from Qinghai Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Huan-Xi; La Salle, John; Zhu, Chao-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The new species Zagrammosoma dulanense Cao & Zhu, sp. n., from Qinghai Province, China, is described and illustrated. All type specimens were reared from the pupae of Micrurapteryx sophorivora Kuznetzov & Tristan (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), a leafmining moth attacking the plant Thermopsis lanceolata R. Br. (Fabaceae). A key to the three known Asian species of Zagrammosoma is provided. All specimens are deposited in the Insect Collection, the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. PMID:25061354

  18. [Analysis on the results of etiology and serology of plague in Qinghai province from 2001 to 2010].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yonghai; Wang, Mei; Zhao, Xiaolong; Zhao, Zhongzhi; Zhang, Aiping; Wei, Rongjie; Wei, Baiqing; Wang, Zuyun

    2014-02-01

    To analyze the results of etiology and serology of plague among human and infected animals in Qinghai province from 2001 to 2010. Thirty-seven cases of human infected with plague, 53 541 different animal samples, 5 685 sets of vector insects flea and 49 039 different animal serum samples were obtained between 2001 and 2010. A total of 7 811 samples of serum from healthy farmers and herdsmen in 14 counties in Qinghai from 2005 to 2007 were collected. Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) were detected in visceral and secretions from human, infected animals and vector insects, respectively. Plague antigen was detected by reverse indirect hemagglutination assay (RIHA) in those samples. Indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) was used to test plague FI antibody in serum of human and infected animals. 37 human plague cases were confirmed, 21 strains of plague Y. pestis were isolated from human cases and 14 positive were detected out. 133 of 7 811 samples of human serum were IHA positive, with the positive rate at 1.7%. A total of 146 strains of plague were isolated from infected animals and vector insects, 99 out of which were from infected animals, with a ratio of Marmota himalayan at 72.7% (72/99) and the other 47 were from vector insects, with a ratio of callopsylla solaris at 68.1% (32/47). The number of IHA and PIHA positive were 300 and 10, respectively. A total of 3 animals and 3 insects species were identified as new epidemic hosts for plague. The natural plague focus of Microtus fuscus was discovered and confirmed and coexisted with natural focus of Marmota himalayan in Chengduo county, Yushu prefecture. The epidemic situation of plague is distributed mainly in Haixi, Yushu and Hainan prefectures. From 2001 to 2010, animal infected with plague was detected in successive years and human plague was very common in Qinghai. New infected animals and vector insects species and new epidemic areas were confirmed, hence the trend of plague prevalence for humans and animals is very

  19. Parasite species associated with wild plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) in southeastern Qinghai Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengmin; He, Hongxuan; Li, Ming; Lei, Fumin; Root, J Jeffrey; Wu, Yanyun; Qin, Jianhua

    2009-04-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence and seasonal abundance of egg, larval, and adult stages of helminths; oocyts of protozoans; and ectoparasites of plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) in seven areas of southeastern Qinghai Province, China, during August 2006 and May 2007. Fecal samples collected from 430 plateau pikas were examined by the modified McMaster technique, which revealed that 83% of the samples contained eggs from two or more helminth species. Mean fecal egg counts were generally moderate and showed the same trend irrespective of the age or sex of the pikas. The prevalence and counts of cestode eggs showed strong seasonal relationships that corresponded with the rainfall pattern in the study area during the study period. Of the 430 plateau pika examined at necropsy, 89% contained adult nematode or cestode species, but none of these contained adult trematode species or protozoans. Overall, six genera of adult nematodes including Oesophagostomum sp., Cephaluris coloradensis, Eugenuris schumakowiescsi, Haemonchus sp., Trichuris sp., and Chbertiinae sp.; three genera of adult cestodes including Schizorchis sp., Ochotonae sp., and Hymenolepis nana; three ectoparasite species including Hypoderma curzonial, Pulex sp., and Ixodes ovatus; and one proscolex stage of a cestode, Echinococcus multilocularis or Echinococcus shiquicus, were encountered during the study. Other genera examined occurred in low numbers, which did not allow any meaningful comparisons. Overall, results suggest that four parasite species, Hypoderma curzonial, Pulex sp., Ixodes ovatus Neumann, and Cephaluris coloradensis, may be regulating factors in controlling future numbers of plateau pika in this study area. These data provide evidence of a natural biologic control mechanism of plateau pika on grassland habitats, and may be of use for identifying the mechanism of transmission of parasites between plateau pika, livestock, and humans.

  20. Detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in agricultural and water environments in the Qinghai area of China by IFT and PCR.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liqing; Sotiriadou, Isaia; Cai, Qigang; Karanis, Gabriele; Wang, Geping; Wang, Guanghua; Lu, Yan; Li, Xiuping; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2014-09-01

    Qinghai Province in northwest China is strongly influenced by agricultural activities and is an important source of food and drinking water. Here, we present findings regarding the occurrence and molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium and Giardia species based on a large-scale investigation of areas of Qinghai Province. The diagnosis and molecular detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts was carried out using immunofluorescence microscopy (IFT), whereas nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in fecal smears and water samples was used for the detection and molecular characterization of the species. In total, 561 samples (260 water samples and 301 fecal samples from animals) were collected and analyzed. Of the 260 water samples, 66 samples were Cryptosporidium-positive by IFT and 71 samples were positive by nested PCR; in addition, 39 samples were Giardia-positive by IFT and 40 samples were positive by nested PCR. Of the 301 fecal samples from animals, 98 samples were Cryptosporidium-positive by IFT and 61 samples were positive by nested PCR, whereas 52 samples were Giardia-positive by IFT and 31 samples were positive by nested PCR. We showed that the water supplies and animals investigated contained Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts. Thus, we recommend that the Chinese Government and Chinese health authorities undertake control measures to protect the food and drinking water sources in Qinghai from these pathogenic protozoa.

  1. [Species identification of Echinococcus isolates collected from canines and Tibetan foxes in Chengduo County, Qinghai Province].

    PubMed

    Feng, Kai; Huang, Fu-Qiang; Duo, Hong; Fu, Yong; Shen, Xiu-Ying; Peng, Mao; Li, Wei

    2013-06-01

    To identify Echinococcus isolates collected from Tibetan foxes(Vulpes ferrilata) and dogs in Chengduo county, Yushu Prefecture, Qinghai Province. Six Tibetan foxes and 6 Tibetan dogs died accidently. Small intestines were dissected from the animals. The adult tap-worms were collected by sedimentation technique. The worms were stained with borax carmine and observed under microscope. The isolates were identified initially by morphology and the infection intensity for each animal was calculated. Eight isolates of E. multilocularis and 2 isolates of E. shiquicus were selected for the extraction of total DNA. The mitochondrion DNA CO I gene was amplified with specific primers by PCR, then sequenced and analyzed. E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus were found. Two out of 6 Tibetan foxes were infected with E. multilocularis, the infection intensity was 1,640 and 839. One Tibetan fox was infected by E. shiquicus with an infection intensity of 833. Two Tibetan dogs were infected with E. multilocularis, and the infection intensity was 10,195 and 78, respectively. The obtained partial sequences of CO I gene were 450 bp. The CO I gene from 8 isolates of E. multilocularis shared 100% homology with the isolates collected from Tibetan dogs in Sichuan Province (Accession No. AB461417). The CO I gene from 2 isolates of E. shiquicus showed high sequence homology (99.2%) with the isolates collected from Ochotona curzoniae in Shiqu County, Sichuan Province(Accession No. AB159136). E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus have been identified in the small intestines of wild foxes, and E. multilocularis in Tibetan dogs.

  2. Epidemiological study and control trial of taeniid cestode infection in farm dogs in Qinghai Province, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhihong; Li, Wei; Peng, Mao; Duo, Hong; Shen, Xiuying; Fu, Yong; Irie, Takao; Gan, Tiantian; Kirino, Yumi; Nasu, Tetsuo; Horii, Yoichiro; Nonaka, Nariaki

    2014-03-01

    An epidemiological study and control trial were conducted to assess taeniid infection in farm dogs in Qinghai Province, China. To improve egg detection by fecal examination, a deworming step with praziquantel was incorporated into the sampling methodology. As a result, a marked increase in the number of egg-positive samples was observed in samples collected at 24 hr after deworming. Then, the fecal examination and barcoding of egg DNA were performed to assess the prevalence of taeniid species in dogs from Xinghai, Haiyan, Gangcha and Chengduo counties. Analysis of 277 dog feces revealed that taeniid cestodes, including Taenia spp. and Echinococcus granulosus, were highly prevalent in Xinghai (34.4%), but eggs were not found in Haiyan where a control trial on canine echinococcosis had been conducted 20 years previously. A control trial involving the administration of 5-10 mg/kg praziquantel to 90 farm dogs at 45-day intervals was conducted in Xinghai. The prevalence of taeniid cestodes in the dogs was reduced to 9.6% and 4.9% after one and two years, respectively, indicating that some dogs were not administered praziquantel properly. A questionnaire survey of farmers in Xinghai and Haiyan revealed that most farmers in Xinghai were not familiar with echinococcosis or the transmission route of the disease, while most farmers in Haiyan had a more thorough understanding of the disease. The findings implied that a program for educating local farmers would be important for efficiently controlling canine taeniid infection in the region.

  3. Characterization of H5N1 influenza viruses isolated from migratory birds in Qinghai province of China in 2006.

    PubMed

    Lei, Fumin; Tang, Shuang; Zhao, Delong; Zhang, Xiaowei; Kou, Zheng; Li, Yongdong; Zhang, Zhong; Yin, Zuohua; Chen, Shengliang; Li, Sandan; Zhang, Dehai; Yan, Baoping; Li, Tianxian

    2007-06-01

    Avian influenza H5N1 viruses pose a significant threat to human health because of their ability to infect humans directly. In the paper, three highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses were isolated from three species of migratory birds in Qinghai Province of China in 2006. The analysis of the genome sequences indicated that the three isolates shared high homology with each other (94% to 99%). Three isolates shared a common ancestor and were closest to strains isolated from Qinghai and Siberia in 2005, but distinct from poultry viruses found in Southeast Asia. In experimental infection, all three viruses were highly pathogenic to chickens and mice. The results suggest that highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses still exist in the migratory birds and could spread to other regions with wild bird migration.

  4. Survey, Culture, and Genome Analysis of Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis in Tibetan Boarding Primary Schools in Qinghai Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Le; Lu, Xinxin; Yu, Yonghui; Wang, Tao; Luo, Shengdong; Sun, Zhihui; Duan, Qing; Wang, Ningli; Song, Lihua

    2017-01-01

    Trachoma, the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide, is an ancient human disease. Its existence in China can be traced back to as early as the twenty-seventh century BC. In modern China, the overall prevalence of trachoma has dramatically reduced, but trachoma is still endemic in many areas of the country. Here, we report that 26 (8%) of 322 students from two rural boarding schools of Qinghai province, west China, were identified as having ocular C. trachomatis infection; and 15 ocular C. trachomatis strains were isolated from these trachoma patients. Chlamydiae in 37 clinical samples were genotyped as type B based on ompA gene analyses. Three ompA variants with one or two in-between SNP differences in the second or fourth variable domain were found. C. trachomatis strains QH111L and QH111R were from the same patient's left and right conjunctival swabs, respectively, but their ompA genes have a non-synonymous base difference in the second variable domain. Moreover, this SNP only exists in this single sample, suggesting QH111L is a newly emerged ompA variant. Interestingly, chromosomal phylogeny analysis found QH111L clusters between a branch of two type B strains and a branch of both A and C strains, but is significantly divergent from both branches. Comparative chromosome analysis found that compared to sequences of reference B/TZ1A828/OT strain, 12 of 22 QH111L's chromosomal genes exhibiting more than nine SNPs have the best homology with reciprocal genes of UGT strains while 9 of 22 genes are closest to those of type C strains. Consistent with findings of UGT-type genetic features in the chromosome, the QH111L plasmid appears to be intermediate between UGT and classical ocular plasmids due to the existence of UGT-type SNPs in the QH111L plasmid. Moreover, the QH111L strain has a unique evolutionarily older cytotoxin region compared to cytotoxin regions of other C. trachomatis strains. The genome analyses suggest that the QH111L strain is derived from

  5. Research trend analysis of study areas in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau based on the spatial information mining from scientific literatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuemei; Ma, Mingguo; Li, Xin

    2011-11-01

    The subject intersection becomes one of the hot research topics recently. It is a new direction to integrate the GIS technologies with Bibliometrics. The literatures concerned with geosciences normally involve some spatial related information. In this paper, the spatial information of the study area and sampling or observing points was extracted. Then these data were analyzed and presented by using the GIS technologies. The results indicate that there are big variations of the spatial distribution. For the whole Qinghai-Tibet plateau, the degree of interest increase as follow: southwest, northwest, southeast, and northeast. For the regions, Qilian Mountains, Qiangtang plateau, Qinghai-Tibet Road and Qinghai-Tibet Railway, Qinghai Lake, and Sichuan-Tibet Road are the hotspot regions. There are differences of the distribution characteristics in the different segments along the latitudinal direction and longitudinal direction. There is transfer tendency from middle Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Most of sampling and observing points are close to the traffic lines. The point numbers decrease quickly along with the increasing distance to the traffic lines.

  6. Morphological and molecular characterization of Oestromyia leporina (Pallas, 1778) (Diptera: Hypodermatinae) from wild plateau pikas(Ochotona curzoniae) in Qinghai province, China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yong; Li, Wei; Duo, Hong; Guo, Zhihong; Dang, Zhisheng; Shen, Xiuying; Peng, Mao; Zhang, Yanming

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this article was to investigate the morphological and molecular characterization of Oestromyia leporina (Pallas, 1778) from wild plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) in Qinghai province, China. The third-stage larvae of O. leporina were examined by scanning electron microscopy revealing morphology characteristics of the spines on the cephalic, the thoracic segments, the abdominal segments and the spiracular plates. The coding regions of 25 cytochrome oxidase I (COI) genes of O. leporina were investigated. Eighty-one variable sites and 21 haplotypes were identified and the nucleotide and haplotype diversities were 0.04456 and 0.9767, respectively, indicating a rich genetic diversity in O. leporina. Phylogenetic analysis utilizing sequences of COI revealed two distinct lineages. These findings revealed ultrastructure and molecular characterization among the O. leporina from plateau pikas in Qinghai province, China and had implications for studying morphological identification, molecular epidemiology and population genetics of O. leporina. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic diversity and population genetics of the warble flies Hypoderma bovis and H. sinense in Qinghai Province, China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yong; Li, Wei; Duo, Hong; Guo, Zhi-Hong; Li, Ying; Zhang, Yan-Ming

    2016-03-12

    Hypoderma bovis and H. sinense (Diptera: Oestridae) mainly parasitise cattle and yaks. The two parasites are pathogenic and cause economic losses that result from reduced amounts of livestock products, including milk, meat, and skin. Genetic diversity and population genetic structure of H. bovis and H. sinense have not been evaluated, but could be used to inform appropriate strategies to control these parasites. We cloned and sequenced part of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from 60 H. bovis isolates and 52 H. sinense isolates from five locations in Qinghai Province, China, to identify polymorphisms, and infer their phylogenetic relationships, historical population expansions, and divergence time. We identified 17 COI haplotypes from the H. bovis samples, and 23 COI haplotypes from the H. sinense samples. The haplotype and nucleotide diversities were 0.738 and 0.00202 for H. bovis, and 0.867 and 0.00300 for H. sinense, respectively, which indicates rich genetic diversity in H. bovis and H. sinense populations. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis revealed that the two species are monophyletic, and geographical structuring of haplotypes was significantly different in H. sinense (P < 0.05), but not H. bovis. Neutrality tests and mismatch distribution statistical analysis revealed that populations of the two species have undergone demographic expansions. The divergence three Hypoderma spp. (H. bovis, H. lineatum, and H. sinense) was estimated to have occurred approximately 4.5 million years ago (Mya), which indicates that the rapid uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau during the late Miocene-Pliocene was associated with divergence of Hypoderma species. Results of the present study revealed that both H. bovis and H. sinense displayed high genetic diversity and widespread population genetic differentiation within and among populations; these data, along with the molecular phylogeny, demographic history, and divergence time estimation

  8. The relations between natural gas hydrate distribution and structure on Muli basin Qinghai province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, C.; Li, Y.; Lu, Z.; Luo, S.; Qu, C.; Tan, S.; Zhang, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Muli area is located in a depression area which between middle Qilian and south Qilian tectonic elements. The natural gas hydrate stratum belongs the Jurassic series coal formation stratum, the main lithological character clamps the purple mudstone, the siltstone, the fine grain sandstone and the black charcoal mudstone for the green gray. The plutonic metamorphism is primarily deterioration function of the Muli area coal, is advantageous in forming the coal-bed gas. Cretaceous system, the Paleogene System and Neogene System mainly include the fine grain red clastic rock and clay stone. The distribution of Quaternary is widespread. The ice water - proluvial and glacier deposit are primarily depositional mode. The Qilian Montanan Muli permafrost area has the good gas source condition (Youhai Zhu 2006) and rich water resources. It is advantage to forming the natural gas hydrate. The natural gas hydrate is one kind of new latent energy, widely distributes in the mainland marginal sea bottom settlings and land permanent tundra. Through researching the area the structure ,the deposition carries on the analysis and responds the characteristic analysis simulation in the rock physics analysis and the seismic in the foundation, and then the reflected seismic data carried by tectonic analysis processing and the AVO characteristic analysis processing reveal that the research area existence natural gas hydrate (already by drilling confirmation) and the natural gas hydrate distribution and the structure relations is extremely close. In the structure development area, the fault and the crevasse crack growing, the natural gas hydrate distribution characteristic is obvious (this is also confirmed the storing space of natural gas hydrate in this area is mainly crevasse crack). This conclusion also agree with the actual drilling result. The research prove that the distribution of natural gas hydrate in this area is mainly controlled by structure control. The possibility of fault

  9. [Micirobial diversity and screening of antitumor activity of actinomycete strains from saline and alkaline environments in the Qinghai Province, P. R. China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Guang; Jiang, Yi; Li, Wen-Jun; Cui, Xiao-Long; Xu, Li-Hua

    2007-10-01

    Soil and sediment samples were collected from saline and alkaline soils or lakes in the Qinghai Province, northwestern China. 145 actinomycete strains were isolated using Glucose-Peptone-Yeast extract agar (GPY) and ISP medium 2 agar supplemented with 1.0 - 3.0 mol/L NaCl at pH 7.5 - 10. The antitumor activities in vitro of the fermentation broth extracts from the 145 test strains were detected in 6 human tumor cell lines (gastric cancer GXF251L, lung cancer LXFL529L, mammary cancer MAXF401NL, melanoma cancer MEXF462NL, renal cancer RXF486L and uterus cancer UXF1138L). Out of 145 test strains, 26 strains were positive in antitumor activities (17.9%), among them 19 strains belong to the genus Nocardiopsis, 7 strains belong to the genus Streptomyces. Then 8 antitumor-positive strains were submitted for 16S rRNA gene amplification and phylogenetic analysis after a comparison of antitumor activities, morphological, physiological characteristics and whole cell amino acids analysis. The results suggested that strain YIM 80139 is a member of a known Streptomyces species S. griseus, while strain YIM 80038 may represent a potential new Streptomyce species, and that the other 6 strains may represent 4 potential new species of the genus Nocardiopsis. The results presented above showed that actinomycetes isolated from saline and alkaline samples are important resources for bioactive compounds, and the abundant microbial diversity in the saline and alkaline environments in the Qinghai Province, Northwestern China is attractive for further investigation.

  10. Wetland evolution in the Qinghai Lake area, China, in response to hydrodynamic and eolian processes during the past 1100 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Dada; Wünnemann, Bernd; Hu, Yanbo; Frenzel, Peter; Zhang, Yongzhan; Chen, Kelong

    2017-04-01

    The Daotanghe riverine wetland in close proximity to the Qinghai Lake was investigated to demonstrate the interrelationships between Qinghai Lake hydrodynamic processes, eolian mobility and ecological conditions during the past 1100 years in response to climate change. We used ostracod assemblages from various sites east of Qinghai Lake and from the sediment core QW15 of Daotanghe Pond and combined them with grain size and geochemical data from the same core. The statistical extraction of grain size endmembers (EM) revealed three different transportation processes responsible for pond-related fluvio-lacustrine, pure fluvial and eolian deposits. Identified seasonal effects (eolian mobility phase) and timing of ice cover are possible tracers for the competing influence between the Asian summer monsoon and the Westerlies in the Daotanghe Wetland and surrounding area. Our results show that ostracod associations and sediment properties are evidence of a fluvio-lacustrine fresh water environment without ingression of Qinghai Lake into the wetland. Hydrodynamic variations coupled with phases of eolian input indicate highly variable water budgets in response to climate-induced effective moisture supply. The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) until about 1270 CE displays generally moist and warm climate conditions with minor fluctuations, likely in response to variations in summer monsoon intensity. The three-partite period of the Little Ice Age (LIA), shows hydrologically unstable conditions between 1350 and 1530 CE with remarkably colder periods, assigned to a prolonged seasonal ice cover. Pond desiccation and replacement by fluvial deposits occurred between 1530 and 1750 CE, superimposed by eolian deposits. The phase 1730-1900 CE is recorded by the re-occurrence of a pond environment with reduced eolian input. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on ostracod abundances shows similar trends. All three phases of the LIA developed during a weak summer monsoon influence, favoring

  11. Relative importance of meteorological and geographical factors in the distribution of Fasciola hepatica infestation in farmed sheep in Qinghai province, China

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Hongyu; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Hongbin; Xiao, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is an important trematode parasite of economic importance that infests sheep and cattle worldwide. We conducted a detailed investigation into the spatial distribution of F. hepatica infestation in farmed sheep in Qinghai (Wutumeiren) province, Mainland China. Mathematical modelling was used to assess the inter-relationships between meteorological and geographical factors and the risk of F. hepatica infestation across the province. A capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test (MM3-SERO) was used to detect F. hepatica infestation. A niche model based on the maximum entropy method (MaxEnt) was used to estimate the influence of meteorological and geographical factors on the observed spatial distribution of F. hepatica infestation. Results of jackknife analysis indicated that temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, digital elevation and slope were associated with the occurrence of F. hepatica infestation, and that infestation rates were significantly higher among animals from districts with a high percentage of grassland habitat. The findings indicate that meteorological and geographical factors may be important variables affecting the distribution of F. hepatica infestation and should be taken into account in the development of future surveillance and control programmes for fascioliasis. PMID:28000591

  12. Relative importance of meteorological and geographical factors in the distribution of Fasciola hepatica infestation in farmed sheep in Qinghai province, China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hongyu; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Hongbin; Xiao, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is an important trematode parasite of economic importance that infests sheep and cattle worldwide. We conducted a detailed investigation into the spatial distribution of F. hepatica infestation in farmed sheep in Qinghai (Wutumeiren) province, Mainland China. Mathematical modelling was used to assess the inter-relationships between meteorological and geographical factors and the risk of F. hepatica infestation across the province. A capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test (MM3-SERO) was used to detect F. hepatica infestation. A niche model based on the maximum entropy method (MaxEnt) was used to estimate the influence of meteorological and geographical factors on the observed spatial distribution of F. hepatica infestation. Results of jackknife analysis indicated that temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, digital elevation and slope were associated with the occurrence of F. hepatica infestation, and that infestation rates were significantly higher among animals from districts with a high percentage of grassland habitat. The findings indicate that meteorological and geographical factors may be important variables affecting the distribution of F. hepatica infestation and should be taken into account in the development of future surveillance and control programmes for fascioliasis. © H. Qin et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  13. Structural model of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system beneath the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and its adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuemei; Teng, Jiwen; Sun, Ruomei; Romanelli, Fabio; Zhang, Zhongjie; Panza, Giuliano F.

    2014-11-01

    The deep structure of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system, as imaged from geophysical data, of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the highest on the Earth, provides important clues in understanding its orogenic processes. Here we reconstruct the main features of the structure of the crust and upper mantle from surface wave tomography in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and its adjacent areas, in order to understand the modality of the convergence and collision process between the Indian and Eurasian plates. Based on Rayleigh waves dispersion theory, we collected long period and broad-band seismic data from the global and regional seismic networks surrounding the study area (20°N-50°N, 70°E-110°E). After applying instrument response calibration and filtering, group velocities of the fundamental mode of Rayleigh waves are measured using the frequency-time analysis (FTAN). Combining the published dispersion data, a 2-D surface-wave tomography method is applied to calculate the lateral variations of group velocity distribution at different periods, in the range from 8 s to 150 s. The Hedgehog non-linear inversion method is performed to obtain shear wave velocity (Vs) versus depth models of the crust and upper mantle for 181 cells, with size 2° × 2°. In order to identify the cellular representative models, we applied the local smoothness optimization method (LSO). Fairly detailed structural models of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system have been defined. The Vs models demonstrate the lateral variation of the thickness of the metasomatic lid between the south and north of the Bangong-Nujiang Suture (BNS) and the west and east of Tibet. The variation in thickness of the metasomatic lid may suggest that the leading edge of the subducting Indian slab reaches up to BNS.

  14. Predicted areas of potential distributions of alpine wetlands under different scenarios in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Zhenshan; Zhang, Zhongsheng; Lu, Xianguo; Zou, Yuanchun; Lu, Yonglei; Jiang, Ming; Tong, Shouzheng; Zhang, Kun

    2014-12-01

    Wetlands are vulnerable ecosystems to climate change for they would normally adapt slowly to keep pace with changing environmental conditions especially wetlands located at high altitudes which are under threat of severe warming. In this paper, we used distribution data of four types of wetlands in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and ensemble habitat distribution models (HDMs) to assess the potential impacts of climate change under three IPCC scenarios. The baseline year was 2000s and the scenarios were used for 3 periods (2020s, 2050s and 2080s) at a spatial resolution of 1 × 1 km. The simulation results show that severe warming will happen in mid-21st century and annual average temperature will be above 0 °C. Areas climatically suitable for alpine wetlands tend to shift and shrink generally in the QTP in the future. Even under the optimistic scenario, the total area of wetland is predicted to decline by 35.7%. Nearly all wet meadow and saltmarsh will disappear under all scenarios in the Qiangtang basin. Vital functions of alpine wetlands such as carbon sequestration, water maintain, and habitats provide will be at severe risk. This research provides valuable information for the future conservation of the alpine wetlands within the QTP.

  15. The Prevention Effect of Selenium on Prevalence of Children Kaschin-Beck Disease in Active Endemic Areas in Qinghai Plateau.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Zhao, Zhi-jun; Yang, Pei-zhen; Xu, Xiao-qing; Liu, Yu-fang; Yu, Hui-zhen; Ma, Xiao; Du, Rui; Zhu, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Selenium deficiency is an important environmental risk factor of Kaschin-Beck disease (KBD), and appropriate selenium supplement can reduce the prevalence of KBD. Guide and Xinghai counties, active endemic areas of KBD in Qinghai Plateau, are characteristic with low level of selenium. The aim of this article was to explore the relationship between selenium content and prevalence of children KBD in some active endemic areas from Guide and Xinghai counties. The historical data of KBD were collected, including the detectable rates of KBD and selenium contents of the hair of children, and then the relationship between the prevalence of KBD and selenium contents of hair was analyzed. In KBD endemic areas of Guide County, the detectable rates of X-ray and metaphysic lesion were declined from 25.00 and 16.96% in 2000 to 13.75 and 13.75% in 2010, respectively. Similarly, in KBD endemic areas of Xinghai County, the detectable rates of X-ray and metaphysic lesion were declined from 46.51 and 40.31% in 2000 to 10.64 and 8.51% in 2010, respectively. The selenium contents of hair in Xinghai county were increased from 130.01 ± 48.08 μg/kg in 2003 to 211.8 ± 86.64 μg/kg in 2010(t = 2.98, P < 0.05); the selenium content of hair in Guide County were increased from 142.30 ± 62.02 μg/kg in 2003 to 182.09 ± 78.46 μg/kg in 2010 (t = 3.12, P < 0.05). There was a negative correlation between the prevalence of KBD and selenium contents of hair (r = -0.785). There was a close relationship between selenium content and prevalence of KBD. Selenium could reduce the prevalence of KBD, so it is very necessary to supplement selenium appropriately for KBD prevention.

  16. The volcano-sedimentary succession of Upper Permian in Wuli area, central Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: Sedimentology, geochemistry and paleogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shengqian; Jiang, Zaixing; Gao, Yi

    2017-04-01

    Detailed observations on cores and thin sections well documented a volcano-sedimentary succession from Well TK2, which is located in Wuli area, central Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The TK2 volcano-sedimentary succession reflects an active sedimentary-tectonic setting in the north margin of North Qiangtang-Chamdo terrane in the late Permian epoch. Based on the observation and recognition on lithology and mineralogy, the components of TK2 succession are mainly volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks and four main lithofacies are recognized, including massive volcanic lithofacies (LF1), pyroclastic tuff lithofacies (LF2), tuffaceous sandstone lithofacies (LF3) and mudstone lithofacies (LF4). LF1 is characterized by felsic components, massive structure and porphyrotopic structure with local flow structure, which indicates submarine intrusive domes or extrusion-fed lavas that formed by magma ascents via faults or dykes. Meanwhile, its eruption style may reflect a relative high pressure compensation level (PCL) that mainly determined by water depth, which implies a deep-water environment. LF2 is composed of volcanic lapilli or ash and featured with massive structure, parallel bedding and various deformed laminations including convolve structure, slide deformation, ball-and-pillow structure, etc.. LF2 indicates the sedimentation of initial or reworked explosive products not far away from volcano centers, reflecting the proximal accumulation of volcano eruption-fed clasts or their resedimentation as debris flows. In addition, the submarine volcano eruptions may induced earthquakes that facilitate the resedimentation of unconsolidated sediments. LF3 contains abundant pyroclastic components and is commonly massive with rip-up mudstone clasts or usually interbedded with LF4. In addition, typical flute casts, scour structures and graded beddings in thin-interbedded layers of sandstone and mudstone are commonly observed, which also represents the sedimentation of debris flows or

  17. [PS II photochemical efficiency in flag leaf of wheat varieties and its adaptation to strong sun- light intensity on farmland of Xiangride in Qinghai Province, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Shi, Sheng-Bo; Chen, Wen-Jie; Shi, Rui; Li, Miao; Zhang, Huai-Gang; Sun, Ya-Nan

    2014-09-01

    Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area.

  18. Relationship between convective clouds and precipitation over the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau area from satellite remote sensing and ground-based observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Liu, J. M.; Tsao, D. Y.; Smith, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Results of this study show that heavy rainfall in the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau area is usually preceded by a high growth rate of the convective clouds followed by a rapid collapse of the cloud top. The tops of the convective clouds associated with heavy rainfall over the plateau usually lie between the altitudes of the two tropopauses which exist over the plateau. Undoubtedly the double tropopause restricts the vertical growth of the clouds and this may be the reason why tornadoes rarely occur there.

  19. Tree-Ring Dating of the Reshui-1 Tomb in Dulan County, Qinghai Province, North-west China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, M.; Xuemei, S.; Yin, Z. Y.; Xu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Tuyuhun and Tubo were two important states that thrived in north-western China during AD 311-900 in parallel with the Han Chinese dynasties of Sui and Tang periods. The Reshui Tomb Cluster located in Dulan County of the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau is an important cultural relic of the Tuyuhun-Tubo age. The official excavations of the Reshui tombs were regarded as top events in archaeology in the 1980s and 1990s in China. The Reshui-1 Tomb is the largest one among the tombs in the area. Since its excavation, there have been debates on whether the owner of the tomb belonged to the Tuyuhun or Tubo ethnicity. Therefore, accurately dating the Reshui-1 Tomb has a critical place in studying the Tubo and Tuyuhun histories. We collected 7 discs and 11 increment cores of Qilian juniper (Juniperus przewalskii Kom.) from the exposed and fallen beams of the roof of the Reshui-1Tomb. The lengths of the 16 tree-ring records are between 69 and 152 years. Based on a previously developed master dating chronology using Qilian juniper samples from the eastern Qaidam Basin, the calendar dates of the 16 specimens were determined by the COFECHA program and visual dating procedure. The average inter-series correlation among the dated sample series is 0.696, indicating good quality of cross-dating. The year of the outermost rings is AD 715 for the 7 discs and 4 out of the 9 increment cores. Moreover, the ring-width variations of the samples are consistent with the existing chronologies from the region. The presence of late-wood of AD 715 in the samples indicated that the Reshui-1 Tomb was completed in late AD 715 or early 716, which means that the Reshui-1 Tomb was finished in the Tubo age. This date provides direct evidence for archaeologists to determine the owner's ethnicity and identify of the Reshui-1 Tomb.

  20. Tree-Ring Dating of the Reshui-1 Tomb in Dulan County, Qinghai Province, North-West China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingqi; Shao, Xuemei; Yin, Zhi-Yong; Xu, Xinguo

    2015-01-01

    Tuyuhun and Tubo were two important states that thrived in north-western China during AD 311-900 in parallel with the Han Chinese dynasties of Sui and Tang periods. The Reshui Tomb Cluster located in Dulan County of the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau is an important cultural relic of the Tuyuhun-Tubo age. The official excavations of the Reshui tombs were regarded as top events in archaeology in the 1980s and 1990s in China. The Reshui-1 Tomb is the largest one among the tombs in the area. Since its excavation, there have been debates on whether the owner of the tomb belonged to the Tuyuhun or Tubo ethnicity. Therefore, accurately dating the Reshui-1 Tomb has a critical place in studying the Tubo and Tuyuhun histories. We collected 7 discs and 11 increment cores of Qilian juniper (Juniperus przewalskii Kom.) from the exposed and fallen beams of the roof of the Reshui-1Tomb. The lengths of the 16 tree-ring records are between 69 and 152 years. Based on a previously developed master dating chronology using Qilian juniper samples from the eastern Qaidam Basin, the calendar dates of the 16 specimens were determined by the COFECHA program and visual dating procedure. The average inter-series correlation among the dated sample series is 0.696, indicating good quality of cross-dating. The year of the outermost rings is AD 715 for the 7 discs and 4 out of the 9 increment cores. Moreover, the ring-width variations of the samples are consistent with the existing chronologies from the region. The presence of late-wood of AD 715 in the samples indicated that the Reshui-1 Tomb was completed in late AD 715 or early 716, which means that the Reshui-1 Tomb was finished in the Tubo age. This date provides direct evidence for archaeologists to determine the owner’s ethnicity and identify of the Reshui-1 Tomb. PMID:26244548

  1. Geochemical evolution of closed-basin lakes: general model and application to Lakes Qinghai and Turkana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, J. P.; Hinderer, M.; Einsele, G.

    2002-04-01

    In contrast to most previous models for the evolution of closed-basin lakes, we present an integrated model which considers various water budget patterns, clay regradation, SO 4 reduction and subbottom leakage in addition to the classical equilibrium approach of mineral precipitation. The model was applied to Lakes Qinghai and Turkana, which significantly differ in the lithologies of their drainage areas but are representative of the carbonate-rich sedimentary rock province of the Tibet-Qinghai Plateau and the silicate rock province of Eastern Africa. Both lakes are now topographically closed, but to some degree hydrologically open (subbottom leakage). Major results of the mode calculations show that: the lithology controls the ultimate brine which is of Na-(K)-Cl-type for Qinghai Lake and of Na-HCO 3-Cl-type for Lake Turkana. SO 4 reduction delays the onset of sulfatic mineral precipitation and favours the formation of Na-carbonates such as trona at the expense of calcite. Clay mineral regradation plays an important role before the saturation of sulfatic or chlorine minerals is reached. In particular, magnesite formation may be in competition with Mg-bearing clay minerals. Finally, simulations with various hydrological scenarios have shown that the modern hydrochemistry of both lakes cannot be reproduced by simply evaporating inflow water, but reflects long-term accumulation and evolution of solutes by continuous inflow over several thousand years. The diversity of lake water composition within a uniform lithological province can thus be largely ascribed to varying hydrological conditions.

  2. Late Quaternary Lake History of Hala Lake, Qinghai Province, China, Evidenced by Ostracod Assemblages and Sediment Properties in Multiple Sediment Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YAN, Dada; Wuennemann, Bernd

    2014-05-01

    Hala Lake, a closed 65 m deep lake basin in the western Qilian Mountains, Qinghai Province, is considered a monitor of climate-driven hydrological and environmental changes during the past 24 kyr BP. The distribution patterns of ostracod assemblages, sediment-geochemical properties in four sediment records from different water depths and the unique limnological setting (green algae layer between 25 and 32 m water depth and seasonally anoxic conditions) enabled us to reconstruct four major phases of centennial-scale water depth fluctuations from the global Last Glacial Maximum (ca. 24 kyr BP) to the Present. Our results show that Hala Lake experienced a very shallow and small water body during the LGM and Late Glacial under cold and dry climate conditions. Rapid increase of water depth and contemporaneous lake expansion started at around 15 kyr BP (Phase I), most likely as a result of glacier melt due to the onset of climate warming. The lake reached >45 m water depth at around 13.5 kyr BP, followed by a decline (5-6 m) during the Younger Dryas spell (ca. 12 kyr BP), which may be attributed to a short-term return to cooler and drier conditions. During the early Holocene (Phase II), water depth increased again towards lake highstands close to its present level. Besides continued glacier melt supply, we assume that summer monsoon effective moisture contributed to the overall water budget, but remained relatively unstable, favoring water depth fluctuations of about 10-15 m. A pronounced lower water depth falls into the period between 9 and 8 kyr BP, perhaps the result of weak monsoon influence or its complete absence, although the warming trend continued towards its optimum at ca. 8-7 kyr BP. A distinct mass flow, most likely triggered by an earthquake, occurred during a lake lowstand between 8.1 kyr BP and 7.0 kyr BP. The mid-Holocene (Phase III) was characterized by deepened water between 7.5 and 4.5 kyr BP, interrupted by short-term declines at around 7 and 6

  3. The deforestation of rural areas in the Lower Congo Province.

    PubMed

    Iloweka, Ernest Manganda

    2004-12-01

    The Lower Congo is one of eleven provinces in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and is located southwest of Kinshasa Town Province. It has an area of approximately 53.947 km2 with a population of 1,504,361 at an estimated 237 persons per km2. The Province comprises five districts, including Lukaya and Cataracts where rural poverty is severe and the population struggle to make a living through agriculture and woodcutting. These activities result in excessive resource exploitation. The high demand for foodstuffs and the high consumption of wood (for energy, construction and export) in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of Congo and the expanding towns of Matadi and Boma in the Lower Congo Province, are speeding the deforestation rate and unbalancing forest ecosystems. In addition there is the stress resulting from reduced josher (the rest period for agriculture ground), plus climate change and erosion. The phenomena that that we need to address in these two districts include deforestation, reduced josher, excessive agriculture, erosion, burning and climate change which taken together largely explain the current soil degradation. These areas are marked by excessive post deforestation savannah formation and extended areas of sandy soil, distributed throughout grass and shrub savannahs. This desertification, which is rampant in Lukaya and Cataracts, risks imprisoning the rural population in a vicious cycle of poverty if adequate solutions are not found.

  4. Hydrocarbon provinces and productive trends in Libya and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Missallati, A.A. Ltd., Tripoli )

    1988-08-01

    According to the age of major reservoirs, hydrocarbon occurrences in Libya and adjacent areas can be grouped into six major systems which, according to their geographic locations, can be classified into two major hydrocarbon provinces: (1) Sirte-Pelagian basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from middle-late Mesozoic to early Tertiary, and (2) Murzog-Ghadames basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from early Paleozoic to early Mesozoic. In the Sirte-Pelagian basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped in structural highs or in stratigraphic wedge-out against structural highs and in carbonate buildups. Here, hydrocarbon generation is characterized by the combined effect of abundant structural relief and reservoir development in the same hydrocarbon systems of the same age, providing an excellent example of hydrocarbon traps in sedimentary basins that have undergone extensive tensional fracturing in a shallow marine environment. In the Murzog-Ghadames basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped mainly in structural highs controlled by paleostructural trends as basement arches which acted as focal points for oil migration and accumulation.

  5. Characterization of H7N2 Avian Influenza Virus in Wild Birds and Pikas in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Area

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shuo; Xing, Gang; Wang, Junhua; Li, Zengkui; Gu, Jinyan; Yan, Liping; Lei, Jing; Ji, Senlin; Hu, Boli; Gray, Gregory C.; Yan, Yan; Zhou, Jiyong

    2016-01-01

    Qinghai Lake is a major migrating bird breeding site that has experienced several recent highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) epizootics. From 2006 to 2009 we studied Qinghai’s wild birds and pikas for evidence of AIV infections. We sampled 941 healthy wild animals and isolated seventeen H7N2 viruses (eight from pikas and nine from wild birds). The H7N2 viruses were phylogenetically closely related to each other and to viruses isolated in Hong Kong in the 1970s. We determined the pathogenicity of the H7N2 viruses by infecting chickens and mice. Our results suggest that pikas might play an important role in the ecology of AIVs, acting as intermediate hosts in which viruses become more adapted to mammals. Our findings of AI infection in pikas are consistent with previous observations and raise the possibility that pikas might play a previously unrecognized role in the ecology of AIVs peridomestic aquatic environments. PMID:27553660

  6. Metabolic Alterations of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Pikas in Adaptation to High Altitude.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xue-Feng; Bai, Zhen-Zhong; Ma, Lan; Ma, Shuang; Ge, Ri-Li

    2017-09-01

    Cao, Xue-Feng, Zhen-Zhong Bai, Lan Ma, Shuang Ma, and Ri-Li Ge. Metabolic alterations of Qinghai-Tibet plateau pikas in adaptation to high altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 18:219-225, 2017.-To determine specific metabolic alterations in the myocardium of plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) and potential metabolic biomarkers involved in their adaptation to the high-altitude environment of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Ten pikas were captured by traps in the Kekexili Reserve (4630 m a.s.l; n = 5) and at the foot of the Laji Mountain (2600 m a.s.l; n = 5) on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Qinghai Province, China. Metabolite levels were determined by gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) metabolomics, and multivariate statistical analysis was performed. Several metabolites involved in carbohydrate, fat, energy, and redox homeostasis pathways were significantly altered in pikas living at 4630 m. In addition, those pikas showed increased levels of lactic acid, sarcosine, 4-hydroxybutyrate, methionine, tartaric acid, ribose, tyrosine, pentadecanoic acid, 2-monoolein, 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine, trehalose-6-phosphate, succinic acid, myoinositol, fumaric acid, taurine, 2-hydroxybutanoic acid, gluconic acid, citrulline, and glutathione, but decreased levels of oleic acid and 2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-monophosphate. Metabolic activity is significantly altered in the myocardium of pikas in the high-altitude areas of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. This study provides important insights into metabolic biomarkers related to the adaptation of pikas to high-altitude hypoxia.

  7. Hydrology of area 25, Eastern Region, Interior Coal Province, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zuehls, E.E.; Ryan, G.L.; Peart, D.B.; Fitzgerald, K.K.

    1981-01-01

    The eastern region of the Interior Coal Province has been divided into 11 hydrologic study areas. Area 25, located in west-central Illinois, includes the Spoon River and small tributaries to the Illinois River. Pennsylvanian age rocks underlie most of the study area. Illinois, with the largest reserves of bituminous coal, is second only to Montana in total coal reserves. Loess soils cover most of the study area. Agriculture is the dominant land use. Surface water provides 97% of all the water used. Precipitation averages 34 to 35 inches. Water-quality data has been collected at over 31 sites. Analysis for specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, iron, manganese, sulfate and many trace elements and other water-quality constituents have been completed. These data are available from computer storage through the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE). (USGS)

  8. Spatial Modeling in The Coastal Area of East Java Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadlilah Kurniawati, Ummi

    2017-07-01

    The existence of gaps that occur between regions, shows that it is a reasonable process considering that each region has different initial endowment factors. The first step that can be done to controll disparity is know what is the benchmark of the gap. The revenue growth indicator is one of benchmark for measuring regional disparities. The regional output is represented by the gross domestic regional income per capita. Concerning the phenomenon of regional disparity, East Java Province is concentrated in the north-south part, especially in coastal areas is an early indication of the gap. This is what prompted the analysis of predictor factors affecting the disparity in East Java Coastal Areas through a spatial modeling approach. Spatial modeling is done on the consideration that there are different local characteristics or potentials in each regency / city. Factors Economic growth, social factors, and physical development factors are the main factors in this study will be described in derived variables to obtain a clear picture of the influence of each factor to the disparity that occurred in the Coastal Region of East Java Province.

  9. Population Differentiations and Phylogenetic Analysis of Tibet and Qinghai Tibetan Groups Based on 30 InDel Loci.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuxin; Shen, Chunmei; Meng, Haotian; Dong, Qian; Kong, Tingting; Yang, Chunhua; Wang, Hongdan; Jin, Rui; Zhu, Bofeng

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, Insertion/Deletion (InDel) polymorphisms have become a hot area of forensic research. In this study, 30 InDel loci were selected to investigate the genetic polymorphisms of Tibetan groups, which are from Tibet Autonomous Region and Qinghai province of China, and explore the genetic relationships between Tibetan groups and other groups. Allele frequencies of the 30 InDel loci ranged from 0.1219 (HLD111) to 0.5609 (HLD57) in the Tibet Tibetan group and 0.1639 (HLD118) to 0.5655 (HLD124) in the Qinghai Tibetan group. The combined power of discrimination, matching probability, and power of exclusion were 0.999999999986, 0.999999988, and 0.9913 in the Tibet Tibetan group, respectively, and 0.99999999999204, 0.9999999796, and 0.9862 in the Qinghai Tibetan group. The results of principal component analysis, phylogenetic tree, and population structure demonstrated that the four Tibetan groups (Tibetan1, Tibetan2, Tibet, and Qinghai Tibetan groups) clustered together and had relatively close genetic relationships with nine Asian groups and then European and Amerindian groups.

  10. Hydrology of area 18, Eastern Coal Province, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, V.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Eastern Coal Province is divided into 24 hydrologic reporting areas. This report describes the hydrology of area 18 which is located in the Cumberland River basin in central Tennessee near the southern end of the Province. Hydrologic information and sources are presented as text, tables, maps, and other illustrations designed to be useful to mine owners, operators, and consulting engineers in implementing permit applications that comply with the environmental requirements of the ' Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. ' Area 18 encompasses parts of three physiographic regions; from east to west the Cumberland Plateau, Highland Rim, and Central Basin. The Plateau is underlain by sandstones and shales, with thin interbedded coal beds, of Pennsylvanian age. The Highland Rim and Central Basin are underlain by limestone and dolomite of Mississippian age. Field and laboratory analyses of chemical and physical water-quality parameters of streamflow samples show no widespread water quality problems. Some streams, however, in the heavily mined areas have concentrations of sulfate, iron, manganese, and sediment above natural levels, and pH values below natural levels. Mine seepage and direct mine drainage were not sampled. Ground water occurs in and moves through fractures in the sandstones and shales and solution openings in the limestones and dolomites. Depth to water is variable, ranging from about 5 to 70 feet below land-surface in the limestones and dolomites, and 15 to 40 feet in the coal-bearing rocks. The quality of ground water is generally good. Locally, in coal-bearing rocks, acidic water and high concentrations of manganese, chloride, and iron have been detected. (USGS)

  11. Hydrology of area 14, Eastern Coal Province, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinones, F.

    1981-01-01

    The general hydrology of Area 14, Eastern Coal Province, in Kentucky, is described. The area includes 4,423 square miles in the Kentucky, Licking, and Red River basins. Coal-bearing rocks of Pennsylvanian age underlie most of the area. Coal production in 1978 was about 38 million tons, 65% of which was from surface mining. The drainage from the mined areas contains large amounts of dissolved solids. Sulfate, manganese, and iron concentrations in most of the area streams exceed background levels, with the higher concentrations in streams draining the headwaters of the North and Middle Forks of the Kentucky River. The pH of most of the streams is near neutral acid-mine drainage being partially neutralized close to its source. Ground waters in the upper 300 feet of the aquifers are generally suitable for most purposes, although dissolved iron is generally high. Below 300 feet, the water is saline. Yields to wells range from 1 to 325 gallons per minute. A network of 66 surface quantity and quality of water stations was implemented in 1979 in response to the Surface Mining and Reclamation Act of 1977. An intensive study of the ground water resources of the area is also in progress. (USGS)

  12. Hydrology of Area 7, Eastern Coal Province, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engelke, Morris J.; Roth, D.K.; ,

    1981-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey established 24 study areas in Eastern Appalachian Coal Province to appraise the hydrology and water resources from Alabama to Pennsylvania. Chemical, physical, biological, and streamflow data were collected from 138 synoptic sites in Area 7, eastern Ohio. The data are evaluated and presented in this report. Area 7 lies within the drainage basins of Muskingum Rivers and Duck and Willis Creeks in eastern Ohio. Walhounding, Tuscarawas, and Little Muskingum, and Muskingum Rivers and Wills and Duck Creeks are the major streams draining the study area. In Ohio, surface and subsurface coal mining has altered the environment. In areas where land has been reclaimed, the environmental stress expected to be temporary. Hydrologic problems related to coal mining are erosion and sedimentation which degrade water-quality. Based on available sediment data, suspended sediment concentration were highest in abandoned mine areas, followed by currently mined and reclaimed areas, and lowest in unmined areas. Low pH, high specific conductance, high concentrations of iron, sulfate and manganese, increased sediment yields, discoloration of streambeds, limited aquatic vegetation and animal life typify streams draining areas with abandoned mines. In abandoned mine areas, the specific conductance of water ranged from 800 to 2,300 micromhos; pH ranged from 2.8 to 5.8; dissolved-iron concentrations ranged from 1,000 to 85,000 micrograms per liter; dissolved-sulfate concentrations ranged from 14 to 1,200 milligrams per liter and dissolved-manganese concentration commonly exceeded 2,000 micrograms per liter. Red and yellow coloration on the streambeds were precipitates from the hydrolysis of iron, manganese, and sulfate minerals carried into the stream channel by increased sediment erosion from abandoned coal mines. Trace metal concentrations (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc) were generally low. Degradation of fish habitat

  13. [Studies of genetic polymorphism of CYP450 2E1 among the Tibetan populations in Qinghai Province and its effect on drinking behavior].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lili; Liu, Hui; Jia, Shizhong; Zhang, Benzhong

    2013-05-01

    In order to explore the effect of genetic polymorphism of CYP450 2El among the Tibetan population in Qinghai and its relationship to drinking behavior. By the self-reported questionnaires of 325 Tibetan male who contain 193 drinkers and 132 non-drinkers, we analyzed the relationship between drinking behavior and the genetic polymorphism of CYP450 2El by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. So does the 266 Han nationalism. Single variable analysis showed the drinking prevalence was related to occupation, educational status, economic income, marital status and smoking (P<0.05). There were no statistical significant differences of genotypes and alleles between male Tibetan and Han population (P>0.05). The three genotypes (cl/cl, cl/c2, c2/c2) and the two alleles (cl, c2) of CYP450 2El had statistical significant differences (P<0.05) between drinkers and non-drinkers in Tibetan population, and the drinkers had higher frequencies of cl/c2 genotype and c2 allele than that of the opposite group. Compared with safe drinkers, the frequency of c2 allele in the group of dangerous was higher. The related degree of drinking behavior and amount with c2 allele were 0.17 and 0.20. The multivariate statistical analysis showed that CYP450 2E1, incomes and smoking were independent. CYP450 2E1 is the mostly influence factor to drinking behavior in male Tibetan population.

  14. Hydrology of area 3, Eastern Coal Province, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herb, William J.; Shaw, L.C.; Brown, Deborah E.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrologic data are presented for area 3 of the Eastern Coal Province, 4,077 square miles of the lower Allegheny River basin in western Pennsylvania. Seventy-three streams were sampled three times during the 1979 and 1980 water years for specific conductance, pH, acidity, alkalinity, dissolved and total iron, dissolved and total manganese, dissolved sulfate, and dissolved solids. Benthic invertebrate populations were determined and botom material samples were analyzed for metals. Sixteen streams had pH, acidity, alkalinity, total iron, total manganese, and dissolved sulfate indicative of acid-mine drainage. These streams were most common in the Redbank and Blacklick Creek basins and in the Conemaugh and lower Kiskiminetas River basins. Benthic invertebrates were not found in 11 of 64 streams sampled. An additional 13 streams had low benthic invertebrate diversity indices. Low diversity indices were most common in the southern part of area 3. Low flow, mean flow, peak flow, and flow duration data are presented for gaging stations in area 3. Techniques for estimating these data for ungaged sites are presented and referenced. The functions of, and access to, the National Water Data Exchange, National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System, and Office of Water Data Coordination are explained. (USGS)

  15. Quaternary geomorphological evolution of the Kunlun Pass area and uplift of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yongqiu; Cui, Zhijiu; Liu, Gengnian; Ge, Daokai; Yin, Jiarun; Xu, Qinghai; Pang, Qiqing

    2001-02-01

    There is a set of Late Cenozoic sediments in the Kunlun Pass area, Tibetan Plateau, China. Paleomagnetic, ESR and TL dating suggest that they date from the Late Pliocene to the Early Pleistocene. Analyses of stratigraphy, sedimentary characteristic, and evolution of the fauna and flora indicate that, from the Pliocene to the early Quaternary (about 5-1.1 Ma BP), there was a relatively warm and humid environment, and a paleolake occurred around the Kunlun Pass. The elevation of the Kunlun Pass area was no more than 1500 m, and only one low topographic divide existed between the Qaidam Basin and the Kunlun Pass Basin. The geomorphic pattern in the Kunlun Pass area was influenced by the Kunlun-Yellow River Tectonic Movement 1.1-0.6 Ma BP. The Wangkun Glaciation (0.7-0.5 Ma) is the maximum Quaternary glaciation in the Pass and in other areas of the Plateau. During the glaciation, the area of the glaciers was 3-5 times larger than that of the present glacier in the Pass area. There was no Xidatan Valley that time. The extreme geomorphic changes in the Kunlun Pass area reflect an abrupt uplift of the Tibet Plateau during the Early and Middle Pleistocene. This uplift of the Plateau has significance on both the Plateau itself and the surrounding area.

  16. Prevalence, Associated Risk Factors, and Phylogenetic Analysis of Toxocara vitulorum Infection in Yaks on the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Lan, Yanfang; Luo, Houqiang; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Dongyu; Zhang, Lihong; Gui, Rui; Wang, Lei; Shahzad, Muhammad; Sizhu, Suolang; Li, Jiakui; Chamba, Yangzom

    2016-10-01

    Toxocara vitulorum has been rarely reported in yaks at high altitudes and remote areas of Sichuan Province of Tibetan Plateau of China. The current study was designed to investigate the prevalence, associated risk factors, and phylogenetic characteristics of T. vitulorum in yak calves on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau. Fecal samples were collected from 891 yak calves and were examined for the presence of T. vitulorum eggs by the McMaster technique. A multivariable logistic regression model was employed to explore variables potentially associated with exposure to T. vitulorum infection. T. vitulorum specimens were collected from the feces of yaks in Hongyuan of Sichuan Province, China. DNA was extracted from ascaris. After PCR amplification, the sequencing of ND1 gene was carried out and phylogenetic analyses was performed by MEGA 6.0 software. The results showed that 64 (20.1%; 95% CI 15.8-24.9%), 75 (17.2; 13.8-21.1), 29 (40.9; 29.3-53.2), and 5 (7.6; 2.5-16.8) yak calves were detected out to excrete T. vitulorum eggs in yak calve feces in Qinghai, Tibet, Sichuan, and Gansu, respectively. The present study revealed that high infection and mortality by T. vitulorum is wildly spread on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau, China by fecal examination. Geographical origin, ages, and fecal consistencies are the risk factors associated with T. vitulorum prevalence by logistic regression analysis. Molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of ND1 gene of T. vitulorum indicated that T. vitulorum in the yak calves on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau are homologous to preveiously studies reported.

  17. Prevalence, Associated Risk Factors, and Phylogenetic Analysis of Toxocara vitulorum Infection in Yaks on the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kun; Lan, Yanfang; Luo, Houqiang; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Dongyu; Zhang, Lihong; Gui, Rui; Wang, Lei; Shahzad, Muhammad; Sizhu, Suolang; Li, Jiakui; Chamba, Yangzom

    2016-01-01

    Toxocara vitulorum has been rarely reported in yaks at high altitudes and remote areas of Sichuan Province of Tibetan Plateau of China. The current study was designed to investigate the prevalence, associated risk factors, and phylogenetic characteristics of T. vitulorum in yak calves on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau. Fecal samples were collected from 891 yak calves and were examined for the presence of T. vitulorum eggs by the McMaster technique. A multivariable logistic regression model was employed to explore variables potentially associated with exposure to T. vitulorum infection. T. vitulorum specimens were collected from the feces of yaks in Hongyuan of Sichuan Province, China. DNA was extracted from ascaris. After PCR amplification, the sequencing of ND1 gene was carried out and phylogenetic analyses was performed by MEGA 6.0 software. The results showed that 64 (20.1%; 95% CI 15.8–24.9%), 75 (17.2; 13.8–21.1), 29 (40.9; 29.3–53.2), and 5 (7.6; 2.5–16.8) yak calves were detected out to excrete T. vitulorum eggs in yak calve feces in Qinghai, Tibet, Sichuan, and Gansu, respectively. The present study revealed that high infection and mortality by T. vitulorum is wildly spread on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau, China by fecal examination. Geographical origin, ages, and fecal consistencies are the risk factors associated with T. vitulorum prevalence by logistic regression analysis. Molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of ND1 gene of T. vitulorum indicated that T. vitulorum in the yak calves on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau are homologous to preveiously studies reported. PMID:27853122

  18. Seasonal Variation of Arsenic Concentrations in Natural Water of the Source Area of the Yellow River on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, C.

    2015-12-01

    Seasonal variation of Arsenic concentrations in natural water of the Source Area of the Yellow River on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, ChinaCongrong Yu[a*], Lei Wen[a], Xiaoyan Zhong[a]a College of Hydrology and Water Resource in Hohai University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China *Email: congrongyu@126.com AbstractSeasonal variation in the arsenic (As) concentrations of natural water has been studied in the source area of the Yellow River (SAYR) in China. Samples were collected in the lake, river and spring in April and July, 2014. In April the average values of As concentrations in SAYR from high to low are: lake (29.1μg/L, n=17, range 8.6-66.4μg/L) > river (25.0μg/L, n=31, range 6.0-77.1μg/L) > spring (15.7μg/L, n=5, range 12.7-21.6μg/L). In July the same order of the average values of As concentrations in SAYR was found: lake (15.1μg/L, n=17, range 7.3-60.6μg/L) > river (7.3μg/L, n=31, range 3.6-16.3μg/L) > spring (7.5μg/L, n=5, range 6-8.2μg/L). The arsenic concentration in the lake kept the same in both season, but the arsenic in the river and spring decreased remarkably in summer compared with that in winter. It was mainly due to the dilution effect of the precipitation. Because the export arsenic from SAYR in summer (15.4t) are higher than that in winter (14.7t), when the temperature increased, permafrost thawing might contribute to the arsenic flux in the SAYR area. The seasonal variation of arsenic is obvious and further investigation is needed.

  19. A Model for coupled heat and moisture transfer in permafrost regions of three rivers source areas, Qinghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X. L.; Xiang, X. H.; Wang, C. H.; Shao, Q. Q.

    2012-04-01

    Soil freezing occurs in winter in many parts of the world. The transfer of heat and moisture in freezing and thawing soil is interrelated, and this heat and moisture transport plays an important role in hydrological activity of seasonal frozen region especially for three rivers sources area of China. Soil freezing depth and ice content in frozen zone will significantly influence runoff and groundwater recharge. The purpose of this research is to develop a numerical model to simulate water and heat movement in the soil under freezing and thawing conditions. The basic elements of the model are the heat and water flow equations, which are heat conduction equation and unsaturated soil fluid mass conservation equation. A full-implicit finite volume scheme is used to solve the coupled equations in space. The model is calibrated and verified against the observed moisture and temperature of soil during freezing and thawing period from 2005 to 2007. Different characters of heat and moisture transfer are testified, such as frozen depth, temperature field of 40 cm depth and topsoil moisture content, et al. The model is calibrated and verified against observed value, which indicate that the new model can be used successfully to simulate numerically the coupled heat and mass transfer process in permafrost regions. By simulating the runoff generation process and the driven factors of seasonal changes, the agreement illustrates that the coupled model can be used to describe the local phonemes of hydrologic activities and provide a support to the local Ecosystem services. This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51009045; 40930635; 41001011; 41101018; 51079038), the National Key Program for Developing Basic Science (No. 2009CB421105), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 2009B06614; 2010B00414), the National Non Profit Research Program of China (No. 200905013-8; 201101024; 20101224).

  20. 76 FR 80870 - Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Mendoza Province, Argentina

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Province in Argentina as pest-free areas for Mediterranean fruit fly and South American fruit fly. Based on... recognition as pest-free areas for Mediterranean fruit fly and South American fruit fly. DATES: Effective Date... additional areas as pest-free areas for Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) in Argentina.......

  1. Spatio-temporal evolution on geographic boundaries of HFRS endemic areas in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan Xun; Wang, Zhi Qiang; Guo, Jing; Tang, Fang; Sun, Xiu Bin; Xue, Fu Zhong; Kang, Dian Min

    2013-12-01

    To take effective strategies and measures for the prevention and control of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) endemic areas by investigating its dynamic geographical boundaries in Shandong Province, China. The incidence of HFRS from 1982 to 2008 in Shandong Prvince, China, was detected with inverse distance weighting (IDW) interpolation based on geographical information system (GIS). Dynamic geographical boundaries of HFRS endemic areas in Shandong Province, China, were analyzed by geographical boundary analysis. The HTN-type endemic areas of HFRS were located in Linyi City in phase 1 (1982-1986), the SEO-type endemic areas of HFRS were located in Jining City in phase 2 (1987-2003), and the endemic areas of HFRS in Jining City gradually disappeared and the endemic areas of HFRS with mixed-types of reservoir rodents were located in Linyi City in phase 3 (2004-2008). Meanwhile, new endemic areas emerged in the northwestern Shandong province, China. The SEO-type endemic areas of HFRS are located in western Shandong Province, China, and the HTN-type endemic areas of HFRS are located eastern Shandong Province, Chin, indicating that the endemic areas of HFRS should be vaccinated and rodents should be controlled. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  2. Promotion of Primary Education for Girls and Children in Disadvantaged Areas in Gansu Province, China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Tiedao; Jing, Min

    Universalizing primary education for girls and children in disadvantaged areas remains the most challenging task for developing countries in Asia and the Pacific. This evaluation report reviews the processes and outcomes of the Pilot Project on Promotion of Primary Education for Girls and Children in Disadvantaged Areas in Gansu Province, China, a…

  3. Hydrology of Area 25: eastern region, Interior Coal Province, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Zuehls, E.E.; Ryan, G.L.; Peart, D.B.; Fitzgerald, K.K.

    1981-09-01

    A nationwide need for information characterizing hydrologic conditions in mined and potential mine areas has become paramount with the enactment of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. This report is designed to be useful to the mine owners, mine operators, and others by presenting information about the existing hydrologic conditions and by identifying sources of hydrologic information. General hydrologic information is presented using a brief text with an accompanying map, chart, graph, or other illustration for each of a series of water-resources-related topics. The summation of the topical discussions provides a description of the hydrology of the area. Study area 25 is located in west-central Illinois. It includes parts of three physiographic divisions; the Galesburg Plain, the Springfield Plain, and the Bloomington Ridged Plain. The drainage basins in the area are the Spoon River, Sugar Creek, Kickapoo Creek, and small tributaries to the Illinois River. Coal is found in Pennsylvanian rocks underlying most of the study area. Water from surface-water impoundments and rivers makes up 97 percent of all the water used. Precipitation averages 34 to 35 inches across the area with about 22 inches occurring from April to September. The US Geological Survey operates a network of eight hydrologic monitoring stations in the study area. Streamflow, water levels, and water-quality data are collected. The major hydrologic problems related to surface mining are degradation of water quality and sedimentation. Water quality can be altered as a result of drainage of mine sites into the surrounding area and into the streams. Natural conditions may neutralize acidic waters but increased concentrations of dissolved trace elements can remain in the waters. High rates of sedimentation can result from the lack of soil cover and the disturbed conditions left by mining operations.

  4. Hydrology of area 15, Eastern Coal province, Kentucky and Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leist, David W.; Quinones, Ferdinand; Mull, D.S.; Young, Mary

    1982-01-01

    Area 15, in Eastern Kentucky and Tennessee consists of 3,095 square miles in the Cumberland, Rockcastle and Laurel River basins. The area is underlain by Permian, Pennsylvanian, Mississippian rocks. The Breathitt Formation of Pennsylvanian age crops out in about 75% of the area and contains most of the coal. About 22 million tons of coal were produced in the area in 1978, 52% from surface mines. The terrain is steep with acidic soils. Forestry and pastures are the principal land uses. Precipitation ranges from 47 to 54 inches per year, and the 24-hour 10-year frequency storm averages 4.5 inches. Flood prone areas along the rivers have been defined or can be determined from relations with drainage area and physiography. Low flows are poorly sustained, with most streams draining less than 100 square miles approaching a 7-day 10-year minimum flow of zero. Ground water is generally of good quality, although high iron concentrations are common. Sandstones are the principal aquifers. Water levels fluctuate seasonally, and yields of wells are usually less than 50 gallons per minute but range from about 1 to 250. Mine drainage affects the quality of streamflow at most sites in mined basins. Sulfate concentrations are as high as 1,000 milligrams per liter. Other constituents such as iron and manganese also occur in higher concentrations in waters of mined basins. Acid mine drainage generally is neutralized near its source. Most of the water in streams has pH values in the 7-8 range. (USGS)

  5. Assessment of tsunami hazard for coastal areas of Shandong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xingru; Yin, Baoshu

    2017-04-01

    Shandong province is located on the east coast of China and has a coastline of about 3100 km. There are only a few tsunami events recorded in the history of Shandong Province, but the tsunami hazard assessment is still necessary as the rapid economic development and increasing population of this area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential danger posed by tsunamis for Shandong Province. The numerical simulation method was adopted to assess the tsunami hazard for coastal areas of Shandong Province. The Cornell multi-grid coupled tsunami numerical model (COMCOT) was used and its efficacy was verified by comparison with three historical tsunami events. The simulated maximum tsunami wave height agreed well with the observational data. Based on previous studies and statistical analyses, multiple earthquake scenarios in eight seismic zones were designed, the magnitudes of which were set as the potential maximum values. Then, the tsunamis they induced were simulated using the COMCOT model to investigate their impact on the coastal areas of Shandong Province. The numerical results showed that the maximum tsunami wave height, which was caused by the earthquake scenario located in the sea area of the Mariana Islands, could reach up to 1.39 m off the eastern coast of Weihai city. The tsunamis from the seismic zones of the Bohai Sea, Okinawa Trough, and Manila Trench could also reach heights of >1 m in some areas, meaning that earthquakes in these zones should not be ignored. The inundation hazard was distributed primarily in some northern coastal areas near Yantai and southeastern coastal areas of Shandong Peninsula. When considering both the magnitude and arrival time of tsunamis, it is suggested that greater attention be paid to earthquakes that occur in the Bohai Sea. In conclusion, the tsunami hazard facing the coastal area of Shandong Province is not very serious; however, disasters could occur if such events coincided with spring tides or other

  6. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Rural Areas of Alborz Province of Iran and Implication to Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Aliehsan; Mohebali, Mehdi; Kabir, Kourosh; Barati, Hojatallah; Soultani, Yousef; Keshavarz, Hossein; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Hajjaran, Homa; Reisi, Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar mainly affects children in endemic areas. This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of VL using direct agglutination test (DAT) in children living in rural districts of Alborz Province located 30 km from Tehran capital city of Iran. Multi-stage cluster random sampling was applied. Blood samples were randomly collected from 1,007 children under 10 years of age in the clusters. A total of 37 (3.7%) of the studied population showed anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies with titers of ≥1:800. There was a significant association between positive sera and various parts of the rural areas of Alborz Province (P<0.002). Two children with anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies titers of ≥1:3,200 indicated kala-azar clinical features and treated with anti-leishmaniasis drugs in pediatric hospital. The findings of this study indicated that Leishmania infection is prevalent in rural areas of Alborz Province. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the awareness and alertness among physicians and public health managers, particularly in high-risk rural areas of the province in Iran. PMID:26323835

  7. Anomalous plutonium isotopic ratios in sediments of Lake Qinghai from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fengchang; Zheng, Jian; Liao, Haiqing; Yamada, Masatoshi; Wan, Guojiang

    2011-11-01

    The vertical profiles of (239+240)Pu and (137)Cs activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratios are determined for three sediment cores of Lake Qinghai from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China, and compared with those in sediments of another three lakes (Lakes Bosten, Sugan, and Shuangta), the only existing ones closest to Lop Nor area, China's nuclear weapons test site in the northwestern part of the country. The mean inventory of 47.7 ± 18.7 MBq km(-2) for (239+240)Pu activity in Lake Qinghai is comparable to the average value of global fallout expected at the same latitude, yet the mean inventory of 1112.0 ± 78.0 MBq km(-2) for (137)Cs is slightly lower than that of global fallout. Anomalously low (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratios (0.038-0.125) were found in the 3-6.5 cm deep sediment layers, indicating the trace Pu input from early nuclear weapons research activities at Atomic City in the lake's watershed during the 1950-60s. Model calculation indicated that the Pu input accounted for approximately 5-16% of the total Pu inventory. The observation of low (240)Pu/(239)Pu ratio in the deep sediment layer provided a new time marker for recent sediment dating in the lake and around the area. The results are of great significance to the further understanding of sources, records, and environmental impacts of global and regional nuclear activities in the environment and provide important chronological information for further studies on the water eutrophication process and climatic change, and reconstruction of pollution history of organic contaminants and heavy metals in the watershed of Lake Qinghai.

  8. [Numerical taxonomy of medicinal plants from Areae in Zhejiang Province].

    PubMed

    Sun, H; Xue, X; Ye, Y

    2000-12-01

    Numerical taxonomic studies were done on 13 species from 3 genera of tribe Areae in Zhejiang, used as 13 operational taxonomic units (OTUS). 40 morphological characters were used for analysis. Euclid distance coefficients used to show quantitative index of similarity among OTUS were computed by standardized data. The dendrograms from 8 systematic cluster methods including single linkage method, complete linkage method, median method (beta = 0 WPGMA) and (beta = -0.25 WPGMA), centroid method, group average method, variable group average method (beta = -0.25) and variable method (beta = 0.25) were constructed respectively. WPGMA was slected as the optimal one by computing the comparative coefficients of every cluster result and the boundary of taxa in its dendrogram determined by a method to treated IBM computer with the program by BASIC language. The Results showed that 13 OTUs were classified as 3 clusters by broken line L2, namely, cluster I: Typhonium; cluster II: Arisaema; cluster III: Pinellia, and cluster II further as 4 groups by L1, which belong to Section Pistillata, Arisaema, Sinarisaema and Tortuosa respectively. Being consistent with those from classical taxonomy, the results in this study may be helpful to the classification and identification of the medicinal plants from tribe Areae in Zhejiang Privince.

  9. [Dermatophytosis in the greater Resistencia area, Chaco Province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Mangiaterra, M L; Giusiano, G E; Alonso, J M; Pons de Storni, L; Waisman, R

    1998-01-01

    Epidemiological characteristics of dermatophytoses in the metropolitan area of Resistencia city are described. Hair fragments, skin, scalp or nail scrapings were collected from 3.507 persons with dermatological symptoms of probable fungal origin. The mycological studies were performed by three mycological laboratories, one from a university Institute and two from private laboratories. Direct microscopic examinations showed fungi in 39.66% of samples, while the recovering of dermatophytes from cultures was 40.66%. Microsporum canis was the most prevalent species among dermatophytes, isolated in 217 samples (41.73% of cultures) while Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes were present in 38.46%, 6.35%, 5.58% and 4.81%, respectively. Microsporum and Trichophyton genus were clearly predominant over Epidermophyton. Variations in prevalences of fungal genus from different places of the world probably reflect the existence of particular environmental situations defined by biotic and abiotic factors that influence the settlement of endemic mycoses.

  10. [Analysis of total alkaloids in Meconopsis quintuplinervia from different localtites of Qinghai].

    PubMed

    Yang, Shi-bing; Liu, De-ming; Liu, Yang; Lu, Xue-feng; Hu, Feng-zu; Peng, Min

    2006-05-01

    The contents of total alkaloids in Meconopsis quintuplinervia Regel, grown in the different localtites of Qinghai Province, are detected by the method of spectrophometry. The result showed that total alkaloid in different localities were 0. 0262% to approximately 0.0788% , its mean was 0.0502%. The content of total alkaloids in the herb increased with elevation, not with latitude.

  11. Hydrology of Area 6, Eastern Coal Province, Maryland, West Virginia, and Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Staubitz, W.W.; Sobashinski, J.R.

    1983-09-01

    This report broadly characterizes the hydrology of Area 6, the 1329 square-mile North Branch Potomac River basin. Area 6 comprises parts of Maryland, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia and is almost evenly divided between two physiographic provinces. The allegheny Mountain section of the Appalachian Plateaus physiographic province encompasses the western half of the area and contains coal-bearing rocks of Pennsylvanian age. The area contains two coal-producing regions. Coal production from the area amounted to 3.8 million tons in 1978 and has been steadily increasing in the last several years. Area 6 has a continental, temperate climate and receives between 36 and 45 inches of precipitation depending on elevation. The soils of the area were formed from noncarbonate, sedimentary rocks and are generally of high acidity and low fertility. Forest land occupies over 80% of the land surface, whereas surface mining occupies only about 1.5% of the land surface. The area is drained entirely by the North Branch Potomac River. Water used in the area is mostly from surface-water resources. Ground-water accounts for only 0.5% of total water withdrawals. Seventy-two percent of ground-water withdrawals are used by the coal-mining industry. More than 140 miles of streams in Area 6 are affected by mine drainage. These streams are devoid of fish life and otherwise have severely reduced biological communities. The mean dissolved-solids concentrations and specific conductances were more than three times greater for streams draining coal mining areas than for streams draining unmined areas. The mean pH and net alkalinity of streams draining unmined areas were higher than those of streams draining mined areas. Although concentrations of trace metals in water and bottom sediments were generally low for streams draining both mined and unmined areas, those from unmined areas were noticeably higher.

  12. Potential fluoride contamination in the drinking water of Naranji area, NorthWest Frontier Province, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mohammad Tahir; Danishwar, Shuhab

    2003-12-01

    The drinking water of Naranji village and surrounding areas of the NorthWest Frontier Province (NWFP), Pakistan, was analyzed for its fluoride content. The fluoride content of water samples from the springs in the Naranji village goes up to 13.52 mg kg(-1), which exceeds the permissible limit (1.5 mg kg(-1)) set by the World Health Organization (WHO). This study explores the source of fluoride contamination and attributes it to the alkaline rocks of the Ambela granitic complex and the Koga complex. The low-lying areas towards the south have a fluoride content within the permissible limit. The Naranji area therefore needs urgent remedial measures.

  13. Hydrology of area 51, northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain coal provinces, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, David A.; Mora, K.L.; Lowry, Marlin E.; Rankl, James G.; Wilson, James F.; Lowham, H.W.; Ringen, Bruce H.

    1987-01-01

    This report is one of a series designed to characterize the hydrology of drainage basins within coal provinces, nationwide. Area 51 (in the Rocky Mountain Coal Province) includes all or part of the Shoshone, Bighorn, Greybull, Wind, and Popo Agie River drainage basins - a total of 11,800 sq mi. Area 51 contains more than 18 million tons of strippable bituminous coal and extensive deposits of subbituminous coal, in the arid and semiarid basins. The report represents a summary of results of water resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey, some of which were conducted in cooperation with State and other Federal agencies. More than 30 individual topics are discussed in brief texts that are accompanied by maps, graphs, photographs , and illustrations. Primary topics in the reports are physiography, resources and economy, surface-water quantity and quality, and groundwater. (USGS)

  14. Hydrology of area 52, Rocky Mountain coal province Wyoming, Colorado, Idaho, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowham, H.W.; Peterson, D.A.; Larson, L.R.; Zimmerman, E.A.; Ringen, B.H.; Mora, K.L.

    1985-01-01

    This report is one of a series designed to characterize the hydrology of drainage basins within coal provinces, nationwide. Area 52 (in the Rocky Mountain Coal Province) includes the Green River Basin upstream from the Yampa River, and the Bear River upstream from the Bear Lake - a total of 23,870 sq mi. Area 52 contains over 3 billion tons of strippable coal, most of which is located in the arid and semiarid plains. The report represents a summary of results of the water resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey, carried out in cooperation with State and other Federal agencies. More than 40 individual topics are discussed in a brief text that is accompanied by maps, graphs, photographs, and other illustrations. Primary topics in the report are: general features, resources and economy, surface-water quantity and quality, and groundwater. (USGS)

  15. Vegetation Changes in the Permafrost Regions of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau from 1982-2012: Different Responses Related to Geographical Locations and Vegetation Types in High-Altitude Areas

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaodong; Zhao, Lin; Yue, Guangyang; Nan, Zhuotong; Wang, Puchang; Yi, Shuhua; Zou, Defu; Qin, Yu; Wu, Tonghua; Shi, Jianzong

    2017-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) contains the largest permafrost area in a high-altitude region in the world, and the unique hydrothermal environments of the active layers in this region have an important impact on vegetation growth. Geographical locations present different climatic conditions, and in combination with the permafrost environments, these conditions comprehensively affect the local vegetation activity. Therefore, the responses of vegetation to climate change in the permafrost region of the QTP may be varied differently by geographical location and vegetation condition. In this study, using the latest Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) product based on turning points (TPs), which were calculated using a piecewise linear model, 9 areas within the permafrost region of the QTP were selected to investigate the effect of geographical location and vegetation type on vegetation growth from 1982 to 2012. The following 4 vegetation types were observed in the 9 selected study areas: alpine swamp meadow, alpine meadow, alpine steppe and alpine desert. The research results show that, in these study areas, TPs mainly appeared in 2000 and 2001, and almost 55.1% and 35.0% of the TPs were located in 2000 and 2001. The global standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) and 7 meteorological variables were selected to analyze their correlations with NDVI. We found that the main correlative variables to vegetation productivity in study areas from 1982 to 2012 were precipitation, surface downward long-wave radiation and temperature. Furthermore, NDVI changes exhibited by different vegetation types within the same study area followed similar trends. The results show that regional effects rather than vegetation type had a larger impact on changes in vegetation growth in the permafrost regions of the QTP, indicating that climatic factors had a larger impact in the permafrost regions than the

  16. Vegetation Changes in the Permafrost Regions of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau from 1982-2012: Different Responses Related to Geographical Locations and Vegetation Types in High-Altitude Areas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Qian; Wu, Xiaodong; Zhao, Lin; Yue, Guangyang; Nan, Zhuotong; Wang, Puchang; Yi, Shuhua; Zou, Defu; Qin, Yu; Wu, Tonghua; Shi, Jianzong

    2017-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) contains the largest permafrost area in a high-altitude region in the world, and the unique hydrothermal environments of the active layers in this region have an important impact on vegetation growth. Geographical locations present different climatic conditions, and in combination with the permafrost environments, these conditions comprehensively affect the local vegetation activity. Therefore, the responses of vegetation to climate change in the permafrost region of the QTP may be varied differently by geographical location and vegetation condition. In this study, using the latest Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) product based on turning points (TPs), which were calculated using a piecewise linear model, 9 areas within the permafrost region of the QTP were selected to investigate the effect of geographical location and vegetation type on vegetation growth from 1982 to 2012. The following 4 vegetation types were observed in the 9 selected study areas: alpine swamp meadow, alpine meadow, alpine steppe and alpine desert. The research results show that, in these study areas, TPs mainly appeared in 2000 and 2001, and almost 55.1% and 35.0% of the TPs were located in 2000 and 2001. The global standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) and 7 meteorological variables were selected to analyze their correlations with NDVI. We found that the main correlative variables to vegetation productivity in study areas from 1982 to 2012 were precipitation, surface downward long-wave radiation and temperature. Furthermore, NDVI changes exhibited by different vegetation types within the same study area followed similar trends. The results show that regional effects rather than vegetation type had a larger impact on changes in vegetation growth in the permafrost regions of the QTP, indicating that climatic factors had a larger impact in the permafrost regions than the

  17. [Characteristics of soil nematode community of different agricultural areas in Jiangsu Province, China].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jia-guo; Liu, Bei-bei; Mao, Miao; Ye, Cheng-long; Yu, Li; Hu, Feng

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigated the genus diversity of soil nematodes of different agricultural areas in Jiangsu Province, analyzed the relationship between soil nematodes and soil environmental factors, and discussed the roles of soil nematodes as biological indicators of soil health. The results showed that, a total of 41 nematode genera were found in all six agricultural areas, belonging to 19 families, 7 orders, 2 classes. The numbers and community compositions of nematodes were obviously influenced by soil texture, fertilization and tillage practices. In all six agricultural areas, the numbers of nematodes in coastal agricultural area (400 individuals per 100 g dry soil) were significantly larger than that in Xuhuai, Ningzhenyang, and riverside agricultural areas. While the smallest number of nematodes was found in Yanjiang agricultural area (232 individuals per 100 g dry soil), which might be due to the differences in soil texture, annual rainfall and annual air temperature and other factors. The dominant genera of nematodes were similar in the adjacent agricultural areas. Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the number of soil nematodes and levels of soil nutrients (soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, available potassium and available phosphorus). Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated the total nitrogen, available potassium and pH obviously affected some soil nematode genera. The analysis of spatial distribution characteristics of soil nematode community in farmland of Jiangsu Province could provide data for health assessment of agricultural ecosystems.

  18. Small area estimation (SAE) model: Case study of poverty in West Java Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhartini, Titin; Sadik, Kusman; Indahwati

    2016-02-01

    This paper showed the comparative of direct estimation and indirect/Small Area Estimation (SAE) model. Model selection included resolve multicollinearity problem in auxiliary variable, such as choosing only variable non-multicollinearity and implemented principal component (PC). Concern parameters in this paper were the proportion of agricultural venture poor households and agricultural poor households area level in West Java Province. The approach for estimating these parameters could be performed based on direct estimation and SAE. The problem of direct estimation, three area even zero and could not be conducted by directly estimation, because small sample size. The proportion of agricultural venture poor households showed 19.22% and agricultural poor households showed 46.79%. The best model from agricultural venture poor households by choosing only variable non-multicollinearity and the best model from agricultural poor households by implemented PC. The best estimator showed SAE better then direct estimation both of the proportion of agricultural venture poor households and agricultural poor households area level in West Java Province. The solution overcame small sample size and obtained estimation for small area was implemented small area estimation method for evidence higher accuracy and better precision improved direct estimator.

  19. The utilization and management of plant resources in rural areas of the Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most rural people in the Limpopo Province depend on plant resources to meet their livelihood needs. However, there is insufficient recorded information regarding their use and management. The current study therefore was carried out in selected villages of the Limpopo Province, to close this knowledge gap. Methods Information was collected from 60 people residing in two villages, using a semi-structured questionnaire, supplemented with field observations. Results A total of 47 wild plant species (95% indigenous and 5% exotics) from 27 families, mostly from the Fabaceae (17%), Anacardiaceae (9%), and Combretaceae (9%) were documented. These species were used primarily for firewood (40%), food (36%) and medicine (29%). Significantly used species included Sclerocarya birrea (85%), Combretum kraussii (35%) and Harpephyllum caffrum (35%). Local traditional rules and regulations including taboos, social beliefs and fines are in place to aid in the management of communal resources. However, a significant number (67%) of participants mentioned that they were not pleased with these rules and regulations. Conclusion The current study concluded that plant resources still play an important role in the surveyed rural areas of the Limpopo Province. Furthermore, for sustainable utilization and long-term conservation of plants in these areas the government should assist communities in the management of their plant resources. PMID:23590903

  20. The utilization and management of plant resources in rural areas of the Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Rasethe, Marula T; Semenya, Sebua S; Potgieter, Martin J; Maroyi, Alfred

    2013-04-16

    Most rural people in the Limpopo Province depend on plant resources to meet their livelihood needs. However, there is insufficient recorded information regarding their use and management. The current study therefore was carried out in selected villages of the Limpopo Province, to close this knowledge gap. Information was collected from 60 people residing in two villages, using a semi-structured questionnaire, supplemented with field observations. A total of 47 wild plant species (95% indigenous and 5% exotics) from 27 families, mostly from the Fabaceae (17%), Anacardiaceae (9%), and Combretaceae (9%) were documented. These species were used primarily for firewood (40%), food (36%) and medicine (29%). Significantly used species included Sclerocarya birrea (85%), Combretum kraussii (35%) and Harpephyllum caffrum (35%). Local traditional rules and regulations including taboos, social beliefs and fines are in place to aid in the management of communal resources. However, a significant number (67%) of participants mentioned that they were not pleased with these rules and regulations. The current study concluded that plant resources still play an important role in the surveyed rural areas of the Limpopo Province. Furthermore, for sustainable utilization and long-term conservation of plants in these areas the government should assist communities in the management of their plant resources.

  1. A Newly Discovered Epidemic Area of Echinococcus multilocularis in West Gansu Province in China

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jian; Bao, Genshu; Zhang, Duoqiang; Gao, Pengcheng; Wu, Tinjun; Craig, Philip; Giraudoux, Patrick; Chen, Xiao; Xin, Qi; He, Lili; Chen, Gen; Jing, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a lethal parasitic disease. In Gansu Province of China, all AE cases reported in literature were from Zhang and Min Counties, the southern part of the province. Here, we report the discovery of nine AE cases and one cystic echinococcosis (CE) case from Nanfeng Town of Minle County, in the middle of Hexi Corridor in west Gansu Province. The diagnosis of these cases were confirmed by serology, histopathology, computed tomography, B-ultrasound, immunohistochemistry method, DNA polymerase chain reaction and sequencing analysis. Because eight of nine AE cases came from First Zhanglianzhuang (FZLZ) village, we conducted preliminary epidemiological analyses of 730 persons on domestic water, community and ecology such as 356 dogs’ faeces of FZLZ, in comparison with those of other five villages surrounding FZLZ. Our studies indicate that Nanfeng Town of Minle County is a newly discovered focus of AE in China as a CE and AE co-epidemic area. Further research of Echinococcus multilocularis transmission pattern in the area should be carried for prevention of this parasitic disease. PMID:26186219

  2. A Newly Discovered Epidemic Area of Echinococcus multilocularis in West Gansu Province in China.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian; Bao, Genshu; Zhang, Duoqiang; Gao, Pengcheng; Wu, Tinjun; Craig, Philip; Giraudoux, Patrick; Chen, Xiao; Xin, Qi; He, Lili; Chen, Gen; Jing, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a lethal parasitic disease. In Gansu Province of China, all AE cases reported in literature were from Zhang and Min Counties, the southern part of the province. Here, we report the discovery of nine AE cases and one cystic echinococcosis (CE) case from Nanfeng Town of Minle County, in the middle of Hexi Corridor in west Gansu Province. The diagnosis of these cases were confirmed by serology, histopathology, computed tomography, B-ultrasound, immunohistochemistry method, DNA polymerase chain reaction and sequencing analysis. Because eight of nine AE cases came from First Zhanglianzhuang (FZLZ) village, we conducted preliminary epidemiological analyses of 730 persons on domestic water, community and ecology such as 356 dogs' faeces of FZLZ, in comparison with those of other five villages surrounding FZLZ. Our studies indicate that Nanfeng Town of Minle County is a newly discovered focus of AE in China as a CE and AE co-epidemic area. Further research of Echinococcus multilocularis transmission pattern in the area should be carried for prevention of this parasitic disease.

  3. [Effect of agroforestry model on inhibition of Oncomelania snails in plateau mountainous area of Yunnan Province].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Hua; Tang, Guo-Yong; Liu, Fang-Yan; Li, Kun

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of agroforestry models on the inhibition of Oncomelania snails in the plateau mountainous area of Yunnan Province. The experimental field was established at Sanying Village of Eryuan County, Yunnan Province, where the "Flourishing Forest and Controlling Snails Project" was implemented. Different drought crops (alfalfa, vegetables, broad bean, garlic, lettuce, celery, green onions, and wheat) were intercropped under walnut forest in experimental groups, and the crops were not intercropped under walnut forest in a control group. The growth of forest, the change of snails and short-term income of residents were investigated. Agroforestry models promoted the forestry growth and effectively inhibited the growth of snails. There was a little snail in one of the experimental group that forest was intercropped with alfalfa (the occurrence rate of frames with living snails was 3.33%, the average density of living snails was 0.004/0.1 m2, and the declining rates were both 50.00%). The snails were not found in other intercropped models. The income of residents in the experimental groups increased (900-6 800 Yuan per year) compared with that in the control group. The model of walnut forest intercropped with crops not only has the obvious effect on inhibition of snails, but also has good economic and ecological benefits in the plateau mountainous area of Yunnan Province.

  4. Movement patterns of Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus during breeding and post-breeding periods at Qinghai Lake, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cui, Peng; Hou, Yuansheng; Tang, Mingjie; Zhang, Haiting; Zuohua, Yuanchun; Yin, Zuohua; Li, Tianxian; Guo, Shan; Xing, Zhi; He, Yubang; Prosser, Diann J.; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Yan, Baoping; Lei, Fumin

    2011-01-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreak at Qinghai Lake, China, in 2005 caused the death of over 6,000 migratory birds, half of which were Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus. Understanding the movements of this species may inform monitoring of outbreak risks for HPAI viruses; thus, we investigated the movement patterns of 29 Bar-headed Geese at Qinghai Lake, China during 2007 and 2008 by using high resolution GPS satellite telemetry. We described the movements and distribution of marked Bar-headed Geese during the pre-nesting, nesting, and moulting periods. Of 21 Bar-headed Geese with complete transmission records, 3 moved to other areas during the nesting period: 2 to Jianghe wetland (50 km northwest of Qinghai Lake) and 1 to Cuolongka Lake (220 km northwest of Qinghai Lake) during the nesting period. We identified nesting attempts of 7 of the marked geese at Qinghai Lake. Four completed successful nesting attempts according to our rules of judgment for the breeding status, and 2 geese lost broods soon after hatching (hereafter referred to as unsuccessful breeders). Of 18 geese present at Qinghai Lake during the nesting period, 9 (6 non-breeders, 2 successful breeders and 1 unsuccessful breeder) remained at Qinghai Lake during the moulting period; and 9 (5 non-breeders, 4 unsuccessful breeders) left Qinghai Lake for moulting. Kuhai Lake, Donggeicuona Lake, Alake Lake, Zhaling-Eling Lake area and Huangheyuan wetland area were used as moulting sites. Geese that moulted at Qinghai Lake, Cuolongka Lake, Kuhai Lake, Donggeicuona Lake and Alake Lake also moved to Zhaling-Eling Lake area or Huangheyuan wetland area and stayed there for several days prior to autumn migration. Mean home range and core area estimates did not differ significantly by sex, year and between breeders and non-breeders.

  5. Movement patterns of Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus during breeding and post-breeding periods at Qinghai Lake, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cui, P.; Hou, Y.; Tang, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, Y.; Yin, Z.; Li, T.; Guo, S.; Xing, Z.; He, Y.; Prosser, D.J.; Newman, S.H.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Yan, B.; Lei, F.

    2011-01-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreak at Qinghai Lake, China, in 2005 caused the death of over 6,000 migratory birds, half of which were Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus. Understanding the movements of this species may inform monitoring of outbreak risks for HPAI viruses; thus, we investigated the movement patterns of 29 Bar-headed Geese at Qinghai Lake, China during 2007 and 2008 by using high resolution GPS satellite telemetry. We described the movements and distribution of marked Bar-headed Geese during the pre-nesting, nesting, and moulting periods. Of 21 Bar-headed Geese with complete transmission records, 3 moved to other areas during the nesting period: 2 to Jianghe wetland (50 km northwest of Qinghai Lake) and 1 to Cuolongka Lake (220 km northwest of Qinghai Lake) during the nesting period. We identified nesting attempts of 7 of the marked geese at Qinghai Lake. Four completed successful nesting attempts according to our rules of judgment for the breeding status, and 2 geese lost broods soon after hatching (hereafter referred to as unsuccessful breeders). Of 18 geese present at Qinghai Lake during the nesting period, 9 (6 non-breeders, 2 successful breeders and 1 unsuccessful breeder) remained at Qinghai Lake during the moulting period; and 9 (5 non-breeders, 4 unsuccessful breeders) left Qinghai Lake for moulting. Kuhai Lake, Donggeicuona Lake, Alake Lake, Zhaling-Eling Lake area and Huangheyuan wetland area were used as moulting sites. Geese that moulted at Qinghai Lake, Cuolongka Lake, Kuhai Lake, Donggeicuona Lake and Alake Lake also moved to Zhaling-Eling Lake area or Huangheyuan wetland area and stayed there for several days prior to autumn migration. Mean home range and core area estimates did not differ significantly by sex, year and between breeders and non-breeders. ?? 2010 Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V.

  6. Hydrology of area 4, Eastern Coal Province, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roth, Donald K.; Engelke, Morris J.; ,

    1981-01-01

    Area 4 (one of the 24 hydrologic areas defining the Eastern Coal Province) is located at the northern end of the Eastern Coal Province in eastern Ohio, northern West Virginia, and western Pennsylvania. It is part of the upper Ohio River basin, which includes the Beaver, Mahoning, and Shenango Rivers. The area is underlain by rocks of the Pottsville, Allegheny, Conemaugh, Monongahela Groups (or Formations) and Dunkard Group. Area 4 has a temperate climate with an annual average rainfall of 38 to 42 inches, most of its area is covered by forest. The soils have a high erosion potential where the vegetation cover is removed. In response to Public Law 95-87, 132 sites were added to the existing surface-water data-collection network in area 4. At these added sites, collected data includes discharge, water quality, sediment, and biology. The data are available from computer storage through the National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX) or the published annual Water Resources Data reports for Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. Hydrologic problems related to mining are: (1) Erosion and increased sedimentation, and (2) degradation of water quality. Erosion and sedimentation are associated chiefly with surface mining. Sediment yields increase drastically when vegetation is removed from the highly erosive soils. Degradation of water quality can be caused by acid-mine drainage from underground and surface mining. More than half the acid-mine drainage effluent in area 4 comes from underground mines. The rest seeps from abandoned surface mines. Usually in reclaimed surface mines the overburden is replaced in such a short time after the coal is taken out that oxidation of acid-forming minerals, commonly pyrite or marcasite, is not complete or is neutralized by the buffering action of calcareous minerals in the soils. (USGS)

  7. Seroepidemiological investigation of lyme disease and human granulocytic anaplasmosis among people living in forest areas of eight provinces in China.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qin; Geng, Zhen; Hou, Xue Xia; Tian, Zhen; Yang, Xiu Jun; Jiang, Wei Jia; Shi, Yan; Zhan, Zhi Fei; Li, Guo Hua; Yu, De Shan; Wang, Hua Yong; Xu, Jian Guo; Wan, Kang Lin

    2013-03-01

    Lyme disease and Human granulocytic anaplasmosis are tick-borne diseases caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum respectively. We have investigated infection and co-infection of the two diseases in the population of forest areas of eight provinces in China by measuring seroprevalence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum. Forest areas in 8 provinces were chosen for investigation using whole sampling and questionnaire survey methods. 3 669 serum samples from people in the forest areas were tested for the presence of antibodies by indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA). Seroprevalence against B. burgdorferi was 3% to 15% and against A. phagocytophilum was 2% to 18% in the study sites in the 8 provinces in China. We also found co-infection of B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum in 7 of the 8 provinces (the exception being the Miyun area in Beijing). The seroprevalence for both B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum was significantly higher among people exposed to ticks than among people who were not exposed to ticks. We conclude that both pathogens are endemic in the forest areas in the eight provinces, but the prevalence of B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum differs between the provinces. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of Undiscovered Natural Gas Resources of the Arkoma Basin Province and Geologically Related Areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, David W.; Coleman, James L.; Milici, Robert C.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Rouse, William A.; Fulk, Bryant R.; Paxton, Stanley T.; Abbott, Marvin M.; Mars, John L.; Cook, Troy A.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered natural gas, 159 million barrels of natural gas liquid (MMBNGL), and no oil in accumulations of 0.5 million barrels (MMBO) or larger in the Arkoma Basin Province and related areas. More than 97 percent of the undiscovered gas occurs in continuous accumulations-70 percent in shale gas formations, 18 percent in a basin-centered accumulation with tight sandstone reservoirs, and 9 percent in coal beds. Less than 3 percent of the natural gas occurs in conventional accumulations.

  9. Distribution of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting domestic ruminants in mountainous areas of Golestan province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sarani, Moslem; Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh; Moghaddam, Abdolreza Salahi; Azam, Kamal; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of ticks on cattle in the mountainous areas of Golestan province and their geographical distribution. Methods In total, 498 animals from 25 herds were selected to search for ticks in 2009-2010. Tick collection was carried out during four seasons, twice per season over a period of 12 month from March 2009 through February 2010 in two districts, Azadshahr and Ramian. Meteorological data were obtained from Iran Meteorological Organization. The geographical points recorded using a Garmin eTrex®H GPS. Results A total of 255 ticks were collected from a total of 219 ruminants including 44 sheep, 63 goats, 99 cows and 13 camels in two districts of the mountainous area of Golestan province, including Azadshahr and Ramian. Five species of ixodid ticks were identified: Rhipicephalus sanguineus (66.5%), Rhipicephalus bursa (4.6%), Hyalomma marginatum (19.9%), Hyalomma anatolicum (6%) and Hyalomma asiaticum (4%). The densities of infestations were calculated for sheep, goats, cows and camels 0.9, 0.79, 0.16 and 0.43 respectively. Seasonal activity of each ixodid tick infesting domestic ruminants was determined. The distribution maps showed ixodid ticks on domestic ruminants, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were dominant species in the area. Conclusions Such research provides necessary information for human and animal health service mangers to have a better understanding of prevention and control of vector borne diseases especially during the outbreaks. PMID:25183090

  10. A checklist of the flora of Shanjan protected area, East Azerbaijan Province, NW Iran.

    PubMed

    Bibalani, Ghassem Habibi; Taheri, Elnaz

    2013-01-01

    The flora of protected Shanjan rangeland in Shabestar district, Azerbaijan Province, NW Iran was studied using a 1 m × 1 m quadrate in spring and summer 2011. The climate of this area is cold and dry. In this area 94 plant species belonging to 25 families were identified as constituting the major part of the vegetation. The families in the area are Amaryllidaceae, Boraginaceae, Campanulaceae, Caryophllaceae, Cistaceae, Compositea, Cruciferae, Cyperaceae, Dipesaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Geraniaceae, Hypericaceae, Linaceae, Melvaceae, Orobachaceae, Papaveraceae, Paronychiaceae, Plantaginaceae, Polygolaceae, Ranunculaceae, Resedaceae, Rubiaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae and Valerianacea. Floristic composition is Irano-Turanian elements. Detailed analysis showed that Biennial plants were 3.19%, Annual 41.49% and Perennial 55.32%.

  11. Archaeoseismological Study of Prehistoric Earthquakes in Anhui Province, China and Adjacent Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, D.; Shen, X.; Gong, X.; Wu, W.; Hu, Z.; Zheng, H.; Chen, A.; Zhao, P.; Yang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Damaging earthquakes on faults typically recur at intervals of centuries to millennia but the seismographs that record them have only been around for about hundred years. Complete records of earthquakes of Ms5 or above for Anhui Province of China and its adjacent areas began in 1336 and most previous records were lost. To reduce the hazard from earthquakes we need a longer record of them than can be provided from such instruments. Archaeoseismological evidence has the potential to determine earthquake activity over millennial time spans, especially when integrated with historical documents and geological evidence. In recent years, taking advantage of large-scale civil excavations, our research team including earthquake and archaeological scientists have cataloged, identified, and analyzed deformation relics of the late-Quaternary period, especially the Neolithic Age. Prehistoric earthquake traces were found in the cultural layers of the Western Zhou Dynasty and the Spring and Autumn Period in Southwest Anhui, the late Dawenkou cultural period in North Anhui, and the Eastern Zhou in South Henan. Along the segment of the Tanlu Fault Zone on the border of Jiangsu-Anhui Provinces, several rapid deformation events mainly in the form of oblique translational thrust had occurred since Late Pleistocene, which was confirmed by microscopic studies. The research findings have partly filled the gap of earthquake records in the area and enriched research methodologies in archaeology, prehistoric earthquakes and earthquake prediction. The project was sponsored by China Earthquake Science Special Research Funding Program (#201308012)

  12. Hydrology of Area 5, Eastern Coal Province, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herb, William J.; Shaw, L.C.; Brown, Deborah E.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrologic data are presented for area 5 of the Eastern Coal Province, the 7,384 square-mile Monongahela River basin in western Pennsylvania, western Maryland, and north-central West Virginia. One hundred thirty-four streams were sampled about three times during the 1979 and 1980 water years for specific conductance, pH, acidity, alkalinity dissolved and total iron, dissolved and total manganese, dissolved sulfate, and dissolved solids. Benthic invertebrate populations were determined and bottom material samples were analyzed for metals. Eleven streams had pH, acidity, alkalinity, total iron, total manganese, and dissolved-sulfate levels indicative of acid-mine drainage. These streams were most common in the Tygart Valley River basin, although indicators of acid-mine drainage were found throughout the Monongahela basin. No benthic invertebrates were found in 25 of 129 streams sampled. Such streams were most common in the Cheat and Tygart Valley River basins. Low flow, mean flow, peak flow, and flow duration data are presented for gaging stations in area 5. Techniques for estimating these data for ungaged sites are presented and referenced. The functions of, and access to, the National Water Data Exchange, WATSTORE, and indexes to water-data activities in coal provinces are presented. (USGS)

  13. Records from Lake Qinghai: Holocene climate history of Northeastern Tibetan Plateau linking to global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Z.; Colman, S.; Zhou, W.; Brown, E.; Li, X.; Jull, T.; Wang, S.; Liu, W.; Sun, Y.; Lu, X.; Song, Y.; Chang, H.; Cai, Y.; Xu, H.; Wang, X.; Liu, X.; Wu, F.; Han, Y.; Cheng, P.; Ai, L.; Wang, Z.; Qiang, X.; Shen, J.; Zhu, Y.; Wu, Z.; Liu, X.

    2008-12-01

    Lake Qinghai (99°36'-100°16'E, 36°32'-37°15'N ) of the north eastern margin of Tibet Plateau is the largest inland lake of China. It sits on the transitional zone of Asian monsoon- arid areas, receives influences of Asian monsoons and Westerlies, thus sensitive to global climate changes. Although previous studies had investigated Holocene climate change of Lake Qinghai area, it is rare to see precise Holocene climatic sequences of Lake Qinghai, nor in-depth discussions on controlling factors of Lake Qinghai climate changes. In Year 2005, with support from ICDP, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) and National Science Foundation of China (NSFC), Drilling, Observation and Sampling of the Earths Continental Crust Corporation (DOSECC) and Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IEECAS) took a series of shallows cores from the southern basin of Lake Qinghai. West sub-basin sediments display Holocene lacustrine feature for the upper 5m, while the 5-18m are interbeded sediments of shallow lake, eolian-lacustrine and eolian loess. Chinese and US scientists with support from NSFC, MOST, CAS and NSF analysed 1F core from west sub-basin depocenter of the south basin with multiple physical, chemical, biological approaches. By comparing with modern process observation records, we obtained proxies that respectfully reflect precipitation, temperature and lake salinity changes, etc., reconstructed high resolution time sequences of magnetic susceptibility, colour scale, grain size, Corg, C/N, δ13Corg, carbonate, δ13C and δ18O of carbonate and ostracodes, elements, char-soot,Uk'37 and %C37:4 as well as pollen of the last 13Ka. They indicate the climatic change history of Lake Qinghai since past 13Ka, and agreeable evidences are found from adjacent tree ring and stalagmite records. Comparison of Lake Qinghai Holocene climate change sequence with those from high altitude ice core, stalagmites and ocean

  14. Mapping risk of plague in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Qian, Quan; Zhao, Jian; Fang, Liqun; Zhou, Hang; Zhang, Wenyi; Wei, Lan; Yang, Hong; Yin, Wenwu; Cao, Wuchun; Li, Qun

    2014-07-10

    Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China is known to be the plague endemic region where marmot (Marmota himalayana) is the primary host. Human plague cases are relatively low incidence but high mortality, which presents unique surveillance and public health challenges, because early detection through surveillance may not always be feasible and infrequent clinical cases may be misdiagnosed. Based on plague surveillance data and environmental variables, Maxent was applied to model the presence probability of plague host. 75% occurrence points were randomly selected for training model, and the rest 25% points were used for model test and validation. Maxent model performance was measured as test gain and test AUC. The optimal probability cut-off value was chosen by maximizing training sensitivity and specificity simultaneously. We used field surveillance data in an ecological niche modeling (ENM) framework to depict spatial distribution of natural foci of plague in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Most human-inhabited areas at risk of exposure to enzootic plague are distributed in the east and south of the Plateau. Elevation, temperature of land surface and normalized difference vegetation index play a large part in determining the distribution of the enzootic plague. This study provided a more detailed view of spatial pattern of enzootic plague and human-inhabited areas at risk of plague. The maps could help public health authorities decide where to perform plague surveillance and take preventive measures in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  15. Mapping risk of plague in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China is known to be the plague endemic region where marmot (Marmota himalayana) is the primary host. Human plague cases are relatively low incidence but high mortality, which presents unique surveillance and public health challenges, because early detection through surveillance may not always be feasible and infrequent clinical cases may be misdiagnosed. Methods Based on plague surveillance data and environmental variables, Maxent was applied to model the presence probability of plague host. 75% occurrence points were randomly selected for training model, and the rest 25% points were used for model test and validation. Maxent model performance was measured as test gain and test AUC. The optimal probability cut-off value was chosen by maximizing training sensitivity and specificity simultaneously. Results We used field surveillance data in an ecological niche modeling (ENM) framework to depict spatial distribution of natural foci of plague in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Most human-inhabited areas at risk of exposure to enzootic plague are distributed in the east and south of the Plateau. Elevation, temperature of land surface and normalized difference vegetation index play a large part in determining the distribution of the enzootic plague. Conclusions This study provided a more detailed view of spatial pattern of enzootic plague and human-inhabited areas at risk of plague. The maps could help public health authorities decide where to perform plague surveillance and take preventive measures in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. PMID:25011940

  16. Widespread co-endemicity of human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis on the eastern Tibetan Plateau, northwest Sichuan/southeast Qinghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Zhen, Ren; Qiu, Jiamin; Qiu, Dongchuan; Xiao, Ning; Ito, Akira; Wang, Hu; Giraudoux, Patrick; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Craig, Philip S

    2010-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) or hydatid disease is known to be cosmopolitan in its global distribution, while alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a much rarer though more pathogenic hepatic parasitic disease restricted to the northern hemisphere. Both forms of human echinococcosis are known to occur on the Tibetan Plateau, but the epidemiological characteristics remain poorly understood. In our current study, abdominal ultrasound screening programs for echinococcosis were conducted in thirty-one Tibetan townships in Ganze and Aba Tibetan Autonomous Prefectures of northwest Sichuan Province during 2001-2008. Hospital records (1992-2006) in a major regional treatment centre for echinococcosis in Sichuan Province were also reviewed. Of 10,186 local residents examined by portable ultrasound scan, 645 (6.3%) were diagnosed with echinococcosis: a prevalence of 3.2% for CE, 3.1% for AE and 0.04% for dual infection (both CE and AE). Human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis in pastoral areas was highly co-endemic, in comparison to much lower prevalences in semi-pastoral or farming regions. The high ultrasound prevalence in these co-endemic areas in northwest Sichuan Province was also reflected in the hospital study, and hospital records furthermore indicated another possible highly co-endemic focus in Guoluo Prefecture of Qinghai Province, located at the border of northwest Sichuan. These chronic cestode zoonoses constitute an unparalleled major public health problem for pastoral Tibetan communities, and pose great difficulties for adequate treatment access and effective transmission control in such remote regions. PMID:19941830

  17. [Performance evaluation of rural latrine renovation in key schistosomiasis control areas, Jiangsu Province].

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiao-Lin; Xu, Xiang-Zhen; Chen, Xiao-Jin; Cao, Han-Jun; Shen, Ming-Xue; Jiang, Wen-Cai; Jiang, Gang

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the hygienic, environmental, social and economic benefits achieved by rural latrine renovation in key schistosomiasis control areas, Jiangsu Province. Eights villages (evaluation villages) that finished and the three villages (control villages) that did not finish the latrine renovation work were sampled and investigated through field visits, questionnaire, referring to information and so on, to collect relevant data, and human waste samples were detected for laboratory indicators in hygiene and environment, in key schistosomiasis control areas in three counties (cities, districts), Jiangsu Province. A total of 11 villages and 220 households were investigated. In the evaluation villages, the owning rate and quality conformity rate of three-format sanitary latrines were 98.6% and 98.8%, respectively. The human schistosome infection rate, intestinal parasite infection rate, the incidence of intestinal infectious diseases, and related medical costs decreased by 100%, 44.5%, 34.2% and 82.8%, respectively, compared with those before latrine renovation. In laboratory testing, the removal rates of fecal coliform values, CODcr, BOD5 and ammonia nitrogen in the third cell of household latrine were 99.99%, 68.50%, 63.17% and 52.30%, respectively, compared to those in the first cell. The village appearance had changed fundamentally, the villagers were satisfied with the latrine renovation, and their health knowledge and health behavior improved significantly. Rural latrine renovation in key schistosomiasis control areas has got great achievements in hygienic, environmental, social and economic benefits. It plays an important role in the promotion of schistosomiasis control, economic development and social harmony.

  18. Stability mechanisms of barchan dunes: A case study of Hexi Desert area in Gansu Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Z. F.; Zhang, J. H.; Wang, Q.; Zhang, D. K.; Tang, J. N.; Zhang, J. H.; Wang, Q. Q.

    2017-08-01

    Barchan dunes, an important type of dunes, are distributed on the edge of oases. Research of stability mechanisms of barchan dunes is of great importance to the determination of regulation of aeolian sand movement on the edge of oases. However, the stability of barchan dunes remains an unresolved scientific issue. In this paper, the stability mechanisms of the top of barchan dunes in Hexi desert area of Gansu Province were analyzed. The results showed that: (1) in Hexi desert area of Gansu Province, patches of barchan dunes were distributed downwind on the edge of desert. The distribution areas were flat sandy-clay or sandy-gravel beaches. The lowlands among the dunes were wide and had the prominent prevailing wind. (2) The prevailing northwestern wind caused the highest point and sand ridge line of the dunes to coincide, and the dunes to move forward and become lower. The southeastern wind (opposite to the prevailing wind) caused the highest point and sand ridge line of the dunes to separate, the leeward slope to be eroded by wind and the dunes to rise. (3) The higher the barchan dunes were, the longer the two flanks were, and the smaller the angle was. (4) The wide flat beaches were vital to the formation of barchan dunes and a chain of barchan dunes. The largely prevailing wind was the key factor for the stability of barchan dunes and a chain of barchan dunes. The opposite wind and the corridor effect of the two flanks were key factors for the increase of barchan dunes in size and height. The speed and distribution frequency of the prevailing and opposite winds were factors restraining the height of barchan dunes and a chain of barchan dunes here.

  19. Monitoring Ground Surface Displacement in the Three Gorges Area, Dangxiong-Lhasa and Jiangsu Province Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, A.; Muller, J.-P.; Zeng, Q.; Zhang, J.; Li, Z.; Larkin, H.; Li, X.; Liu, P.; Kincal, C.; Yan, D.; Liang, C.; Cui, X.; Zhou, X.; Wang, Q.; Gao, S.; Yun, Y.; Xiong, S.; Gong, L.; Jiang, W.; Luo, Y.; He, X.; He, M.

    2013-01-01

    A variety of small-scale projects have been running during the DRAGON-2 project term involving collaborations between 6 different research groups. There has been continuing interest in geohazards throughout the Three Gorges region and this has stimulated much research focused on the use of frequently acquired SAR images from a variety of sensors. Their analysis has been able to identify the unstable and currently actively deforming slopes and this has been backed up by fieldwork. Different processing strategies, involving pixel correlation/pixel offset techniques have been applied to this region given the characteristically low interferometric phase coherence due to very dense vegetation and heavy rainfall. Alongside this focus, a number of algorithms have been developed and validated in both similar and different terrain types throughout China. Finally, comparisons of various DEM products have been made using GPS and spaceborne lidar (ICESat) over steep sided slopes. Given the relocation of communities throughout the Three Gorges region, we hope that this work can be used to help target the vulnerable areas for future land-use planning.

  20. Flora, life forms and chorotypes of plants of Salok protected area (North Khorassan Province Iran).

    PubMed

    Nadaf, M; Mortazavi, M; Halimi, M Khalilabad

    2011-01-01

    Salok protected Area is located in the 37 degrees 15' to 37 degrees 08' of the North latitude and 57 degrees 16' to 57 degrees 06' of East longitude, in West North Esfarayen in North khorassan province. In this research 52 families, 174 genera and 213 species were identified. The largest plant family is Asteraceae (34 species), Poaceae (18 species), Brassicaceae (17 species) and Fabaceae (17 species), respectively. Chief life forms are Hemicryptopytes (49.29%), Therophytes 23.47% and cryptophytes (12.67%). The most of plants chorotype with 62.91% is influenced by Irano-Touranina elements. Among 213 identified species of this region and 15 species endemic of Iran contain 0.87% of total endemic species of Iran's flora.

  1. Geology of Area A, Catak iron deposit, Egrigoz Mountains Kutahya Province, Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barosh, Patrick James

    1972-01-01

    The Catak iron deposit consist of magnetite-bearing lenses distributed along the northeast-trending contact of the north end of. the Egrigoz granitic massif in Kutahya Province. Area A is near the northeast end of the deposit and contains three main irregular magnetite lenses. A body of talc-silicate hornfels, almost surrounded by quartzite and schist , lies a short distance from the contact with quartz monzonite and contains the magnetite-bearing lenses west-northwest to northwest-trending structural grain is expressed by schistosity, joints, shears, lithologic contacts and outcrop patterns, although the mineralized rock and general intrusive contact trend northeast. The ranges of the average content of Fe, Si, and S, determined from drill data are 33.54-53.95 percent; 5.86-12.25 percent; and. 8.33-9.49 percent, respectively.

  2. Environmental boron contamination in waters of Hisarcik area in the Kutahya Province of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cöl, Meltem; Cöl, Cavit

    2003-10-01

    Our aim was to determine boron levels in waters of rich boron mine areas in Turkey. There is a naturally occurring high level of boron in the ground waters of some parts of Turkey. Our study area is Hisarcik village in the Kutahya Province of Turkey which has a large number of boron mines. Boron occurs in combined form, usually borax (Na2B4O7 x 10H2O) and colemanite (Ca2B6O11 x 5H2O). Water samples were collected from many springs in order to determine boron concentrations and the amount of boron that is exposed to 88 samples from the drinking water (tap water), 37 from ground water and 257 from stream or pond water (surface water). Urine samples taken from 42 residents in this area were analyzed for boron and compared with its levels in drinking waters. The inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) method was used for the analysis of boron concentrations. Water boron contents at differing locations of this area ranged from 2.05 to 29.00 mg B/l. Mean value of boron was 10.20+/-4.08 mg B/l. Total urinary boron excretion was ranged from 0.04 to 50.70 mg B/l and mean value was 8.30+/-10.91 mg B/l. Current information on sources, occurrence, pollution potential and toxicity of environmental boron is discussed.

  3. The epidemiology of scorpion stings in tropical areas of Kermanshah province, Iran, during 2008 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Khatony, Alireza; Abdi, Alireza; Fatahpour, Tahereh; Towhidi, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    Scorpion stings are an acute health problem in tropical regions. Awareness of this problem is fundamental for establishing preventive interventions, thus prompting the present study to determine the scorpion-sting incidence in tropical areas of Kermanshah province during 2008 and 2009. In a retrospective study, all records related to scorpion sting patients from the health centers of tropical areas of Kermanshah were studied by a census and checklist. Data were analyzed by the software SPSS-16 using descriptive and inferential tests. The incidence of scorpion stings was 334.37/100,000 inhabitants in 2008 and 339.07/100000 in 2009. Mean and standard deviation of age were 30.55 ± 16.99. Scorpion stings were more common in rural areas (59.6 %) and occurred more often in summer (52.9 %). Nearly 48 % of bites were to patients' hands and 47.5 % of patients were injured between midnight and 6 a.m. While 92.9 % of patients had mild symptoms, scorpion antivenom was prescribed to 88.8 % of victims, 94.5 % of whom were discharged after outpatient treatment. The relationship between antivenom therapy and clinical symptoms was not significant. Due to the relatively high incidence of scorpion stings in tropical areas of Kermanshah, it is recommended that the inhabitants be educated through the mass media about how to prevent the stings and apply preliminary treatment.

  4. Oesophageal cancer in Golestan Province, a high-incidence area in northern Iran - a review.

    PubMed

    Islami, Farhad; Kamangar, Farin; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Møller, Henrik; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2009-12-01

    Golestan Province, located in the south-east littoral of the Caspian Sea in northern Iran, has one of the highest rates of oesophageal cancer (OC) in the world. We review the epidemiologic studies that have investigated the epidemiologic patterns and causes of OC in this area and provide some suggestions for further studies. Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) constitutes over 90% of all OC cases in Golestan. In retrospective studies, cigarettes and hookah smoking, nass use (a chewing tobacco product), opium consumption, hot tea drinking, poor oral health, low intake of fresh fruit and vegetables, and low socioeconomic status have been associated with higher risk of OSCC in Golestan. However, the association of tobacco with OSCC in this area is not as strong as that seen in Western countries. Alcohol is consumed by a very small percentage of the population and is not a risk factor for OSCC in this area. Other factors, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitroso compounds, drinking water contaminants, infections, food contamination with mycotoxins, and genetic factors merit further investigation as risk factors for OSCC in Golestan. An ongoing cohort study in this area is an important resource for studying some of these factors and also for confirming the previously found associations.

  5. Time-dependent probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, China, and the surrounding area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changlong; Xu, Weijin; Wu, Jian; Gao, Mengtan

    2017-07-01

    Taiyuan is a city in Shanxi Province, China, and possesses serious seismic hazard. In this study, we constructed a time-dependent seismic hazard model for Taiyuan and the surrounding area based on several major-earthquake seismogenic structures for which historical and paleoseismic event data were available. With the time-dependent model, we calculated the distribution of peak ground acceleration with 10% probability of exceedance in the next 50 years in Taiyuan and the surrounding area, and compared the results with those calculated using the time-independent model. The results showed that the entire area around Taiyuan has a higher seismic hazard with the time-dependent model than that with the time-independent model. The Jiaocheng and Hengshan faults have much higher seismic hazard. Applying the model only to Taiyuan showed that the city has higher seismic hazard with the time-dependent model than that with the time-independent model. In particular, in the western part of Taiyuan, the seismic hazard is quite high because of the proximity of the area to the Jiaocheng Fault.

  6. Time-dependent probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, China, and the surrounding area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changlong; Xu, Weijin; Wu, Jian; Gao, Mengtan

    2017-03-01

    Taiyuan is a city in Shanxi Province, China, and possesses serious seismic hazard. In this study, we constructed a time-dependent seismic hazard model for Taiyuan and the surrounding area based on several major-earthquake seismogenic structures for which historical and paleoseismic event data were available. With the time-dependent model, we calculated the distribution of peak ground acceleration with 10% probability of exceedance in the next 50 years in Taiyuan and the surrounding area, and compared the results with those calculated using the time-independent model. The results showed that the entire area around Taiyuan has a higher seismic hazard with the time-dependent model than that with the time-independent model. The Jiaocheng and Hengshan faults have much higher seismic hazard. Applying the model only to Taiyuan showed that the city has higher seismic hazard with the time-dependent model than that with the time-independent model. In particular, in the western part of Taiyuan, the seismic hazard is quite high because of the proximity of the area to the Jiaocheng Fault.

  7. Seasonal variation of Arsenic concentrations in natural water of the Source Area of the Yellow River on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Congrong

    2017-04-01

    Seasonal variation in the arsenic (As) concentrations of natural water has been studied in the source area of the Yellow River (SAYR) in China. Samples were collected in the lake, river and spring in April and July, 2014. In April the average values of As concentrations in SAYR from high to low are: lake (29.1μg/L, n=17, range 8.6-66.4μg/L) > river (25.0μg/L, n=31, range 6.0-77.1μg/L) > spring (15.7μg/L, n=5, range 12.7-21.6μg/L). In July the same order of the average values of As concentrations in SAYR was found: lake (15.1μg/L, n=17, range 7.3-60.6μg/L) > river (7.3μg/L, n=31, range 3.6-16.3μg/L) > spring (7.5μg/L, n=5, range 6-8.2μg/L). The arsenic concentration in the lake kept the same in both season, but the arsenic in the river and spring decreased remarkably in summer compared with that in winter. It was mainly due to the dilution effect of the precipitation. Because the export arsenic from SAYR in summer (15.4t) are higher than that in winter (14.7t), when the temperature increased, permafrost thawing might contribute to the arsenic flux in the SAYR area. The seasonal variation of arsenic is obvious and further investigation is needed.

  8. Hydrology of area 2, Eastern Coal Province, Pennsylvania and New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herb, W.J.; Brown, D.E.; Shaw, L.C.; Stoner, J.E.; Felbinger, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    Provisions of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 recognized a nationwide need for hydrologic information in mined and potentially mined areas. This report is designed to be useful to mine owners, operators, regulatory authorities, citizens groups, and others by presenting information on existing hydrologic conditions and by identifying additional sources of hydrologic information. General hydrologic information is presented in a brief text accompanied by a map, chart, graph, or other illustration for each of a series of water-resourcesrelated topics. The summation of the topical discussions provides a description of the hydrology of the area. The Eastern Coal Province has been divided into 24 hydrologic study areas which are shown on the cover of this report. The divisions are based on hydrologic factors, location, and size. Hydrologic units (surface drainage basins) or parts of units are combined to form each study area. Study Area 2 covers northwestern Pennsylvania and a small part of southwestern New York. Most exposed bedrock is of Pennsylvanian, Mi;;sissippian, or Devonian ages. Glacial drift covers most of the bedrock in the northwestern part of the area. During 1979, more than 7 million tons of bituminous coal was produced from about 230 mines in Area 2 counties. Over 99 percent of the area's coal production is from surface mining. Streamflow data are available for 18 continuousrecord stations; 1 crest-stage, partial-record station; 1 low-flow, partial-record station; and 65 miscellaneous sites. Water-quality data are available for 78 locations. Streams having the highest median specific conductance, highest median dissolved-solids concentrations, lowest median pH, highest median total-iron concentration, highest median total-manganese concentration, and highest dissolved-sulfate concentrations were found in Clarion County, the leading coal-producing county in the area. Statistics on low flow, mean flow, peak flow, and flow duration for

  9. Mantle xenoliths from Marosticano area (Northern Italy): a comparison with Veneto Volcanic Province lithospheric mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brombin, Valentina; Bonadiman, Costanza; Coltorti, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    The Tertiary Magmatic Province of Veneto, known as Veneto Volcanic Province (VVP), in the North-East of Italy, represents the most important volcanic distric of Adria Plate. It is composed by five volcanic bodies: Val d'Adige, Marosticano, Mts. Lessini, Berici Hills and Euganean Hills. Most of the volcanic products are relatively undifferentiated lavas and range in composition from nephelinites to tholeiites. Often VVP nephelinites and basanites carry mantle xenoliths (mainly harzburgites and lherzolite). This study reports petrological comparison between Marosticano xenoliths (new outcrop) and xenoliths from the Lessinean and Val d'Adige areas already studied by many Authors (Siena & Coltorti 1989; Beccaluva et al., 2001, Gasperini et al., 2006). Mineral major elements analyses show that the Marosticano lherzolites and harzburgites reflect "more restitic" composition than the mantle domain beneath the other VVP districts (Lessini Mts. and Val d'Adige). In fact, olivine and pyroxene of Marosticano xenoliths have the highest mg# values of the entire district (Marosticano→90-93; literature→86-92). At comparable mg# (45-85 wt%) Marosticano spinels tend to be higher in Cr2O3 (23-44 wt%) contents with respect to the other VVP sp (7-25 wt%). It is worth noting that, Ni contents of Marosticano olivines in both harzburgites and lherzolites are higher (2650-3620 ppm) than those of the Lessinean xenoliths (1500- 3450 ppm), and similar to that of Val d'Adige lherzolites (3000-3500 ppm), approaching the contents of Archean cratonic mantle (Kelemen, 1998). In turn, Lessinean olivines properly fall in the Ni-mg# Phanerozoic field. At fixed pressure of 15 kbar, the equilibration temperature of Marosticano xenoliths are similar (Brey & Köhler: 920-1120°C) to those of Lessini (O'Neill & Wall: 990-1110°C; Beccaluva et al., 2007), but higher than those of Val d'Adige (Wells: 909-956°C; Gasperini et al., 2006). Finally, Marosticano mantle fragment show similar relatively high

  10. Late Permian basalts in the Yanghe area, eastern Sichuan Province, SW China: Implications for the geodynamics of the Emeishan flood basalt province and Permian global mass extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Zhaochong; Santosh, M.; Lü, Linsu; Han, Liu; Liu, Wei

    2017-02-01

    We report the finding of a ∼20 m thick sequence of massive pyroxene-plagioclase-phyric basalt lava flows in the Yanghe area of the northeastern Sichuan Basin, within the Yangtze craton of SW China, which were previously considered to be located outside the Emeishan flood basalt province. This basaltic sequence above the middle Permian Maokou Formation (Fm.) is overlain by the late Permian Longtan Fm. Thus, the Yanghe basalts should be stratigraphically correlated with the Emeishan flood basalts. The Yanghe basalts show typical oceanic island basalt (OIB) affinity, and geochemically resemble Emeishan basalts, especially in the case of high-Ti (HT) basalts from the eastern domain of the Emeishan flood basalt province. The rocks have low age-corrected (87Sr/86Sr)t (t = 260 Ma) ratios (0.704158-0.704929) and Pb isotopic ratios [206Pb/204Pb(t) (18.264-18.524), 207Pb/204Pb(t) (15.543-15.58), and 208Pb/204Pb(t) (38.147-38.519)], and positive εNd(t) values (+3.15 to +3.61), suggesting that the lavas have not undergone any significant crustal contamination. The crystallization temperature of clinopyroxene is estimated to be 1368-1420 °C, suggesting anomalously thermal inputs from a mantle source and a possible plume-head origin. The fractionation of middle rare earth elements (MREE) to heavy REE (HREE) suggests that these rocks were produced by small degrees of partial melting of mantle peridotite within the garnet-spinel transition region. The stratigraphic relationships and similar geochemical signatures with the Emeishan flood basalts suggest that the Yanghe basalts are part of the Emeishan flood basalt province and can be considered as the northeastern limit of the Emeishan flood basalt province. Our finding extends the diameter of the Emeishan flood basalt province to ∼1200-1400 km, covering an area of up to ∼7 × 105 km2, two times more than previously estimated. The larger areal extent and giant eruption volume, incorporating the Sichuan Basin, lend support

  11. Vulnerability assessment of storm surges in the coastal area of Guangdong Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, K.; Li, G. S.

    2011-07-01

    Being bordered by the South China Sea and with long coastline, the coastal zone of Guangdong Province is often under severe risk of storm surges, as one of a few regions in China which is seriously threatened by storm surges. This article systematically analyzes the vulnerability factors of storm surges in the coastal area of Guangdong (from Yangjing to Shanwei). Five vulnerability assessment indicators of hazard-bearing bodies are proposed, which are social economic index, land use index, eco-environmental index, coastal construction index, and disaster-bearing capability index. Then storm surge vulnerability assessment index system in the coastal area of Guangdong is established. Additionally, the international general mode about coastal vulnerability assessment is improved, and the vulnerability evolution model of storm surges in the coastal area of Guangdong is constructed. Using ArcGIS, the vulnerability zoning map of storm surges in the study region is drawn. Results show that there is the highest degree of storm surge vulnerability in Zhuhai, Panyu, and Taishan; second in Zhongshan, Dongguan, Huiyang, and Haifeng; third in Jiangmen, Shanwei, Yangjiang, and Yangdong; fourth in Baoan, Kaiping, and Enping; and lowest in Guangzhou, Shunde, Shenzhen, and Longgang. This study on the risk of storm surges in these coastal cities can guide the land use of coastal cities in the future, and provide scientific advice for the government to prevent and mitigate the storm surge disasters. It has important theoretical and practical significance.

  12. Hydrology of area 50, Northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain coal provinces, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowry, Marlin E.; Wilson, James F.; ,

    1983-01-01

    This report is one of a series designed to characterize the hydrology of drainage basins within coal provinces, nationwide. Area 50 includes all of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana and the upstream parts of the Cheyenne and Belle Fourche River Basins - a total of 20,676 sq mi. The area has abundant coal (81.2 million tons mined in 1982), but scarce water. The information in the report is intended to describe the hydrology of the ' general area ' of any proposed mine. The report represents a summary of results of the water resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey, carried out in cooperation with State and other Federal agencies. Each of more than 50 topics is discussed in a brief text that is accompanied by maps, graphs, and other illustrations. Primary topics in the report are: physiography, economic development, surface-water data networks, surface water quantity and quality, and groundwater. The report also contains an extensive description of sources of additional information. (USGS)

  13. Hydrology of area 54, Northern Great Plains, and Rocky Mountain coal provinces, Colorado and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuhn, Gerhard; Daddow, P.D.; Craig, G.S.; ,

    1983-01-01

    A nationwide need for information characterizing hydrologic conditions in mined and potential mine areas has become paramount with the enactment of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. This report, one in a series covering the coal provinces nationwide, presents information thematically by describing single hydrologic topics through the use of brief texts and accompanying maps, graphs, or other illustrations. The summation of the topical discussions provides a description of the hydrology of the area. Area 54, in north-central Colorado and south-central Wyoming, is 1 of 20 hydrologic reporting areas of the Northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain coal provinces. Part of the Southern Rocky Mountains and Wyoming Basin physiographic provinces, the 8,380-square-mile area is one of contrasting geology, topography, and climate. This results in contrasting hydrologic characteristics. The major streams, the North Platte, Laramie, and Medicine Bow Rivers, and their principal tributaries, all head in granitic mountains and flow into and through sedimentary basins between the mountain ranges. Relief averages 2,000 to 3,000 feet. Precipitation in the mountains may exceed 40 inches annually, much of it during the winter, which produces deep snowpacks. Snowmelt in spring and summer provides most streamflow. Precipitation in the basins averages 10 to 16 inches annually, insufficient for sustained streamflow; thus, streams originating in the basins are ephemeral. Streamflow quality is best in the mountains where dissolved-solids concentrations generally are least. These concentrations increase as streams flow through sedimentary basins. The increases are mainly natural, but some may be due to irrigation in and adjacent to the flood plains. In the North Platte River, dissolved-solids concentrations are usually less than 300 milligrams per liter; in the Laramie and the Medicine Bow Rivers, the concentrations may average 500 to 850 milligrams per liter. However

  14. Nutritional Status among Rural Community Elderly in the Risk Area of Liver Fluke, Surin Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Namwichaisirikul, Niwatchai; Loyd, Ryan A; Churproong, Seekaow; Ueng-Arporn, Naporn; Matrakool, Likit; Tongtawee, Taweesak; Rujirakul, Ratana; Nimkhuntod, Porntip; Wakhuwathapong, Parichart; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2015-01-01

    Thailand is becoming an aging society, this presenting as a serious problem situation especially regarding health. Chronic diseases found frequently in the elderly may be related to dietary intake and life style. Surin province has been reported as a risk area for liver fluke with a high incidence of cholangiocarcinma especially in the elderly. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the nutritional status and associated factors among elderly in Surin province, northeast of Thailand. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 405 people aged 60 years and above, between September 2012 and July 2014. The participants were selected through a randomized systematic sampling method and completed a pre-designed questionnaire with general information, food recorded, weight, height, waist circumference, and behavior regarding to food consume related to liver fluke infection. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. The majority of participants was female (63.5%), age between 60-70 years old (75.6%), with elementary school education (96.6%), living with their (78.9%), and having underlying diseases (38.3%). Carbohydrate (95.3%) was need to improve the consumption. The participants demonstrated under-nutrition (24.4%), over-nutrition (16.4%), and obesity (15.4%). Elderly had a waist circumference as the higher than normal level (34.0%). Gender, female, age 71-80 years old, elementary school and underlying diseases were significantly associated with poor nutritional status. The majority of them had a high knowledge (43.0%), moderate attitude (44.4%), and moderate practice (46.2%) regarding food consumption related to liver fluke infection. In conclusion, these findings data indicated that elderly age group often have an under- or over-nutritional status. Carbohydrate consumption needs to be improved. Some elderly show behavior regarding food consumption that is related to liver fluke infection hat needs

  15. Hydrology of Area 62, Northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain Coal Provinces, New Mexico and Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roybal, F.E.; Wells, J.G.; Gold, R.L.; Flager, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes available hydrologic data for Area 62 and will aid leasing decisions, and the preparation and appraisal of environmental impact studies and mine-permit applications. Area 62 is located at the southern end of the Rocky Mountain Coal Province in parts of New Mexico and Arizona and includes approximately 9,500 square miles. Surface mining alters, at least temporarily, the environment; if the areas are unreclaimed, there can be long-term environmental consequences. The land-ownership pattern in Area 62 is complicated. The checkerboard pattern created by several types of ownership makes effective management of these lands difficult. The climate generally is semiarid with average annual precipitation ranging from 10 to 20 inches. Pinons, junipers, and grasslands cover most of the area, and much of it is used for grazing by livestock. Soils vary with landscape, differing from flood plains and hillslopes to mountain slopes. The major structural features of this area were largely developed during middle Tertiary time. The main structural features are the southern San Juan Basin and the Mogollon slope. Coal-bearing rocks are present in four Cretaceous rock units of the Mesaverde Group: the Gallup Sandstone, the Dileo Coal Member, and the Gibson Coal Member of the Crevasse Canyon Formation, and the Cleary Coal Member of the Menefee Formation. Area 62 is drained by Black Creek, the Puerco River, the Zuni River, Carrizo Wash-Largo Creek, and the Rio San Jose. Only at the headwaters of the Zuni River is the flow perennial. The streamflow-gaging station network consists of 25 stations operated for a variety of needs. Streamflow changes throughout the year with variation related directly to rainfall and snowmelt. Base flow in Area 62 is zero indicating no significant ground-water discharge. Mountainous areas contribute the highest mean annual runoff of 1.0 inch. Very few water-quality data are available for the surface-water stations. Of the nine surface

  16. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Cherokee Platform Province area of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake II, Ronald M.; Hatch, Joseph R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Potter, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2015-09-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 463 million barrels of oil, 11.2 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 35 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Cherokee Platform Province area of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri.

  17. Research on the impact of impervious surface area on urban heat island in Jiangsu Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yingbao; Pan, Ping

    2011-10-01

    Land surface temperature (LST), vegetation index, and other surface characteristics that obtained from remote sensing data have been widely used to describe urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon, but through impervious surface area (ISA) to describe the phenomenon has only used in a few study areas in our country. In a high urbanization and high population density region like Jiangsu Province, a wide range of extraction of ISA to study its relationship with UHI is less. In this paper, we use multi-temporal remote sensing images as data sources, and extract ISA from it in a large-scale by using decision tree classifier (DTC) and linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA). Then combine the average surface temperature from the sixth band of Landsat TM by mono-window algorithm for spatial analysis, to assess the change of the urban heat island temperature amplitude and its relationship with the urban development density, size and ecological environment. Finally we use statistical methods to analyze the relationship between ISA, LST and UHI. The results show that ISA has a positive correlation with surface temperature. The ratio of ISA is higher and the difference value of the temperature is larger, thus the UHI will be more obvious.

  18. Use of traditional veterinary medicine in Nhema communal area of the Midlands province, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Maroyi, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    This study documents the use of ethno-veterinary medicine to treat livestock in Nhema communal area in the Midlands province of Zimbabwe. This study employed oral interviews and detailed discussions with 69 smallholder farmers and 3 traditional healers. The local people use 23 plant species belonging to 16 families as ethno-veterinary remedies. Two plant families were particularly frequent in usage: Fabaceae and Solanaceae, while the most utilized plant species were Aloe chabaudii (UV = 0.69), Aloe greatheadii (UV = 0.65), Adenium multiflorum (UV = 0.63), Vernonia amygdalina (UV = 0.61), Nicotiana tabacum (UV = 56), Solanum lycopersicum (UV = 55), Capsicum annum (UV = 53) and Pouzolzia hypoleuca (UV = 51). Fourteen animal conditions were identified in the surveyed area. The major and most common animal diseases were tick-borne diseases, eye problems, retained afterbirth, fleas, lice and diarrhoea. The majority of ethno-veterinary remedies (78%) were collected from the wild, with respondents mostly using herbs (11 species, 48%), followed by 6 trees (26%), 4 shrubs (17%), and 2 climbers (9%). The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (51%), followed by bark (16%), roots (13%) and fruits (10%). These remedies were mostly administered as decoctions or infusions of single plants. These plants were used not only as alternatives to conventional veterinary drugs but also because in certain diseases they were thought to be more efficacious. In view of many and widespread uses of wild plants as ethnoveterinary remedies, further research into their pharmacological activities may prove worthwhile.

  19. Human hair mercury levels in the Wanshan mercury mining area, Guizhou Province, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Guangle; Shang, Lihai; Li, Guanghui

    2009-12-01

    The total mercury (T-Hg) and methyl mercury (Me-Hg) concentrations in the hair were measured to evaluate mercury (Hg) exposure for the residents in Da-shui-xi Village (DSX) and Xia-chang-xi Village (XCX) in the Wanshan Hg mining area, Guizhou Province, Southwestern China. The mean concentrations in the hair of DSX residents were 5.5 ± 2.7 μg/g and 1.9 ± 0.9 μg/g for T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. The concentrations in the hair of XCX residents were 3.3 ± 1.4 μg/g and 1.2 ± 0.5 μg/g for T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. Hair Me-Hg concentrations were significantly correlated to T-Hg (r = 0.42, P < 0.01) in the two sites; on average, hair Me-Hg concentration accounted for 40 and 44% of T-Hg for DSX and XCX residents, respectively. Age has no obvious correlation with hair Hg and the hair Hg levels showed a significant gender difference, with higher T-Hg and Me-Hg concentrations in the hair from males than females. The rice collected from the two sites showed high levels of T-Hg and Me-Hg concentration. The results indicated a certain Hg exposure for the residents in DSX and XCX in the Wanshan Hg mining area.

  20. [Geochemical characteristics of rare earth elements on sunflower growing area in the west of Jilin Province].

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Jie; Dou, Sen; Wang, Li-Min; Liu, Zhao-Shun

    2011-07-01

    Soil and plant samples were collected from the sunflower growing area in the west of Jilin province. A variety of ancillary methods were used to determine the soil element content. Then the rare earth elements geochemistry in soil was studied, and the correlation of REEs in this region with other elements and the quality of plant was investigated. The results show that, (1) REE content of the soil in Nong'an is relatively higher to those in Daan and Tongyu. Distribution pattern of rare earth elements in soil for the right tilt of the light rare earth enrichment patterns which is consistent with the national distribution pattern of rare earth elements; (2) REE contents in the three studying areas in the soil are different, and this primarily relates to the soil parent materials; (3) The REEs which positively correlate with soil available potassium are Se, Fe2O3, Ti, P, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr, Mo, B, F. The protein content of sunflower seeds has a negative correlation with REE. With the exception of Lu, all REEs show a similar correlation.

  1. Tidal triggering of earthquakes in the Ning'er area of Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Chaodi; Lei, Xinglin; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Ma, Qingbo; Yang, Simeng; Wang, Yingnan

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the potential effect of tidal modulation on the seismicity in the Ning'er area, a seismically and geothermally active zone in Yunnan Province, China, we studied the correlation between Earth tides and the occurrence of M ≥ 6.0 earthquakes dating back to 1970, as well as their aftershock sequences, using theoretically calculated tidal stresses and a statistical test. The results show a significant correlation between Earth tides and the occurrence of earthquakes. Six of seven main events occurred when the Earth tide increased the Coulomb failure stress on the source fault. Four main events occurred in a narrow range of phase angle corresponding to the maximum loading rate of tidal stress. Furthermore, the histories of the aftershock sequence as a function of the tidal phases demonstrate clear tidal modulation with a high significance. Thus, we conclude that Earth tides have a clear role in triggering (or modulating) the rupture of the fault systems in the Ning'er area.

  2. Educational Investment in Conflict Areas of Indonesia: The Case of West Papua Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollet, Julius Ary

    2007-01-01

    Education has become a central issue in West Papua. During the Suharto regime, the Indonesian government paid little attention to educational investment in the province which led to poor educational infrastructure and a shortage of teachers. As a result, the quality of human resources in the province is poor. Since 2001, the adoption of the…

  3. [Geographic distribution and gene sequencing of Paragonimus westermani in some areas of Guangdong Province].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yu-Yun; Liu, Qiao; Tang, Gao-Xing; Shen, Hao-Xian; Zhong, Jian-Xin; Xie, Quan-Chao; Fu, Guang-Hua; Chen, Yu-Lian; Li, Hao-Bin; He, Hai-Feng

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the current distribution of Paragonimus westermani in Guangdong Province. Snails and crabs collected from mountain streams in regional survey sites were dissected to detect cercarial and metacercarial infections of P. westermani. Domestic cats and dogs artificially infected with the collected metacercariae were also dissected to detect adult worms of P. westermani. The COI and ITS2 gene sequences of those adult worms were compared with those of known Paragonimus specimen deposited in the GenBank. All of the first intermediate hosts in five survey sites of Liangkou, Nankun, Mountain, Dadong, Muxi, Guowu, were identified as Semisulcospira libertina, whose cercariae infection rates were 0.33%, 0.15%, 0.058%, 0.10%, and 0.05%, respectively; the second intermediate hosts in above five sites were all identified as Sinopotamon denticulatum, whose metacercariae infection rates were 100%, 100%, 38.09%, 55.36%, and 65.26%, respectively. The numbers of metacercariae in the five sites were 79.4, 105.66, 9.16, 16.18, and 15.6 per positive crab, respectively, and 11.12, 7.87, 0.58, 0.69, and 0.85 per gram of crab, respectively. All the metacercariae were identical to those of P. westermani. Adult worms and eggs of P. westermani were found in both reservoir hosts of domestic cats and dogs infected artificially. By comparing the COI genes of five representative samples from each survey site with that of Paragonimus #AF219379.21, AF540958.1 from GenBank, we found out the homology to be 99%, 99%, 99%, 98%, and 99%, respectively. In addition, a comparison of the ITS2 gene sequences between the above five samples and Paragonimus #DQ836243.1, DQ351845.1, AB354217.1 from GenBank revealed 98%, 99%, 98%, 98%, and 98% gene homology, respectively. Two ultra-high and three high endemic areas of P. westermani are discovered in Guangdong Province. No obvious differences were found among the types of P. westermani in the above five endemic areas.

  4. Climate-driven changes in grassland vegetation, snow cover, and lake water of the Qinghai Lake basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuelu; Liang, Tiangang; Xie, Hongjie; Huang, Xiaodong; Lin, Huilong

    2016-07-01

    Qinghai Lake basin and the lake have undergone significant changes in recent decades. We examine MODIS-derived grassland vegetation and snow cover of the Qinghai Lake basin and their relations with climate parameters during 2001 to 2010. Results show: (1) temperature and precipitation of the Qinghai Lake basin increased while evaporation decreased; (2) most of the grassland areas improved due to increased temperature and growing season precipitation; (3) weak relations between snow cover and precipitation/vegetation; (4) a significantly negative correlation between lake area and temperature (r=-0.9, p<0.05) and (5) a positive relation between lake level (lake-level difference) and temperature (precipitation). Compared with Namco Lake (located in the inner Tibetan Plateau) where the primary water source of lake level increases was the accelerated melt of glacier/perennial snow cover in the lake basin, for the Qinghai Lake, however, it was the increased precipitation. Increased precipitation explained the improvement of vegetation cover in the Qinghai Lake basin, while accelerated melt of glacier/perennial snow cover was responsible for the degradation of vegetation cover in Namco Lake basin. These results suggest different responses to the similar warming climate: improved (degraded) ecological condition and productive capacity of the Qinghai Lake basin (Namco Lake basin).

  5. [Epidemiological investigation on thyroid disease among fertile women in different iodine intake areas of Shanxi province].

    PubMed

    Ren, Yanting; Jia, Qingzhen; Zhang, Xiangdong; Guo, Baisuo; Wen, Xinping; Zhang, Fengfeng; Wang, Yongping; Wang, Juanjuan

    2014-01-01

    To understand the prevalence of thyroid diseases and its influencing factors of iodine on thyroid gland function and autoimmune among fertile women in different iodine intake areas. Cross-sectional method was used for descriptive epidemiology. 236 women aged 19 to 45 years were sampled in 2011, in Shanxi province. Questionnaire was used to include general data on place, name, age etc. Sample of water from home, one time random urine sample and venous blood were collected to test the iodine contents using arsenic and cerium catalysis spectrophotometric methods. Finally, in blood, free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyrotrophin (TSH) in blood were tested under auto-CLIA and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), anti-thyroglobulin (anti-TG) through radio-immunological methods. 1)The urine iodine's medians were 486.9 µg/L for fertile women in high iodine areas, and 192.6 µg/L in low iodine areas, with difference on urine iodine level statistically significant (Z = -10.676, P = 0.000). 2) Levels of blood FT3 and FT4 in women from high iodine areas were obviously lower than those from proper iodine areas(t = -2.884, P = 0.004; t = -2.862, P = 0.005), but the level of TSH in high iodine areas was higher than that of proper iodine areas(t = 2.332, P = 0.021). 3) In both areas, the rate of the thyroid dysfunction with positive antibodies was obviously higher than those with negative antibodies (χ² = 20.941, P = 0.000;χ² = 5.596, P = 0.018), while the rate of the thyroid dysfunction with positive antibodies and the level of TSH in the blood for high iodine women higher than those in women with proper iodine level(χ² = 5.708, P = 0.37;t = -2.177, P = 0.031). 4)The morbidity rate of inferior clinical hyperthyroidism for women in high iodine areas was obviously higher than those in proper iodine areas(χ² = 9.542, P = 0.003), while the morbidity rate of inferior clinical hypothyroidism for women with positive antibodies in two areas obviously higher than

  6. Hydrology of area 53, Northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain coal provinces, Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driver, N.E.; Norris, J.M.; Kuhn, Gerhard; ,

    1984-01-01

    Hydrologic information and analysis are needed to aid in decisions to lease Federally owned coal and for the preparation of the necessary Environmental Assessments and Impact Study Reports. This need has become even more critical with the enactment of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-87). This report, one in a series of nationwide coal province reports, presents information thematically by describing single hydrologic topics through the use of brief texts and accompanying maps, graphs, or other illustrations. The report broadly characterizes the hydrology of Area 53 in northwestern Colorado, south-central Wyoming, and northeastern Utah. The report area, located primarily in the Wyoming Basin and Colorado Plateau physiographic provinces, consists of 14,650 square miles of diverse geology, topography, and climate. This diversity results in contrasting hydrologic characteristics. The two major rivers, the Yampa and the White Rivers, originate in humid granitic and basaltic mountains, then flow over sedimentary rocks underlying semiarid basins to their respective confluences with the Green River. Altitudes range from 4,800 to greater than 12,000 feet above sea level. Annual precipitation in the mountains, as much as 60 inches, is generally in the form of snow. Snowmelt produces most streamflow. Precipitation in the lower altitude sedimentary basins, ranging from 8 to 16 inches, is generally insufficient to sustain streamflow; therefore, most streams originating in the basins (where most of the streams in coal-mining areas originate) are ephemeral. Streamflow quality is best in the mountains where dissolved-solids concentrations generally are small. As streams flow across the sedimentary basins, mineral dissolution from the sedimentary rocks and irrigation water with high mineral content increase the dissolved-solids concentrations in a downstream direction. Due to the semiarid climate of the basins, soils are not adequately leached

  7. Cystic and alveolar echinococcosis: an epidemiological survey in a Tibetan population in southeast Qinghai, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Sen-Hai; Wang, Hu; Wu, Xian-Hong; Ma, Xiao; Liu, Pei-Yun; Liu, Yu-Fang; Zhao, Yan-Mei; Morishima, Yasuyuki; Kawanaka, Masanori

    2008-05-01

    An epidemiological investigation on echinococcosis was made in Jiuzhi County of Qinghai Province, western China. Ultrasonography and an indirect hemagglutination test revealed a morbidity of 8.0% (124/1,549) and a seroprevalence of 25.8% (287/1,113), respectively, in the Tibetan population. The morbidity in herdsmen (16.6%) and Buddhist priests (15%) was significantly higher than that in other occupation groups (3.2%), and it was higher in females (9.8%) than in males (6.2%). The ultrasound images showed a coexistence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE), occupying 69 and 31% of the cases, respectively. An Echinococcus Western blot assay was performed as a serological backup test for differentiating CE and AE. The assay revealed that serum samples from most cases with a positive AE image showed a specific antibody against antigen bands at 16/18 kDa. Autopsy proved that 9 out of 12 stray dogs were infected with Echinococcus granulosus (n = 8) and E. multilocularis (n = 1). Inspection at the abattoirs demonstrated a hydatid rate of 78.5% in yaks and 82.6% in sheep. The data indicate that Jiuzhi County is an important endemic area for both CE and AE, in both human and animal populations.

  8. Delayed treatment of tuberculosis patients in rural areas of Yogyakarta province, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Mahendradhata, Yodi; Syahrizal, Bobby M; Utarini, Adi

    2008-11-26

    In year 2000, the entire population in Indonesia was 201 million and 57.6 percent of that was living in rural areas. This paper reports analyses that address to what extent the rural structure influence the way TB patients seek care prior to diagnosis by a DOTS facility. We documented healthcare utilization pattern of smear positive TB patients prior to diagnosis and treatment by DOTS services (health centre, chest clinic, public and private hospital) in Yogyakarta province. We calculated the delay in treatment as the number of weeks between the onset of symptoms and the start of DOTS treatment. Statistical analysis was carried out with Epi Info version 3.3 (October 5, 2004). The only factor which was significantly associated with total delay was urban-rural setting (p = < 0.0001). The median total delay for TB patients in urban districts was 8 (1st Quartile = 4; 3rd Quartile = 12) weeks compared to 12 (1st Quartile = 7; 3rd Quartile = 23) weeks for patients in rural districts. Multivariate analysis suggested no confounding between individual factors and urban-rural setting remained as the main factor for total delay (p = < 0.0001). Primary health centre was the first choice provider for most (38.7%) of these TB patients. Urban-rural setting was also the only factor which was significantly associated with choice of first provider (p = 0.03). Improving access to DOTS services in rural areas is an area of vital importance in aiming to make progress toward achieving TB control targets in Indonesia.

  9. Delayed treatment of tuberculosis patients in rural areas of Yogyakarta province, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Mahendradhata, Yodi; Syahrizal, Bobby M; Utarini, Adi

    2008-01-01

    Background In year 2000, the entire population in Indonesia was 201 million and 57.6 percent of that was living in rural areas. This paper reports analyses that address to what extent the rural structure influence the way TB patients seek care prior to diagnosis by a DOTS facility. Methods We documented healthcare utilization pattern of smear positive TB patients prior to diagnosis and treatment by DOTS services (health centre, chest clinic, public and private hospital) in Yogyakarta province. We calculated the delay in treatment as the number of weeks between the onset of symptoms and the start of DOTS treatment. Statistical analysis was carried out with Epi Info version 3.3 (October 5, 2004). Results The only factor which was significantly associated with total delay was urban-rural setting (p = < 0.0001). The median total delay for TB patients in urban districts was 8 (1st Quartile = 4; 3rd Quartile = 12) weeks compared to 12 (1st Quartile = 7; 3rd Quartile = 23) weeks for patients in rural districts. Multivariate analysis suggested no confounding between individual factors and urban-rural setting remained as the main factor for total delay (p = < 0.0001). Primary health centre was the first choice provider for most (38.7%) of these TB patients. Urban-rural setting was also the only factor which was significantly associated with choice of first provider (p = 0.03). Conclusion Improving access to DOTS services in rural areas is an area of vital importance in aiming to make progress toward achieving TB control targets in Indonesia. PMID:19036164

  10. Assessment of groundwater quality in the coastal area of Sindh province, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Alamgir, Aamir; Khan, Moazzam Ali; Schilling, Janpeter; Shaukat, S Shahid; Shahab, Shoaib

    2016-02-01

    Groundwater is a highly important resource, especially for human consumption and agricultural production. This study offers an assessment of groundwater quality in the coastal areas of Sindh province in Pakistan. Fifty-six samples of groundwater were taken at depths ranging from 30 to 50 m. Bacteriological and physico-chemical analyses were performed using the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. These were supplemented with expert interviews and observations to identify the usage of water and potential sources of pollution. The quality of the groundwater was found to be unsuitable for human consumption, despite being used for this purpose. The concentrations of sulfate and phosphate were well within the tolerance limits. Most critical were the high levels of organic and fecal pollution followed by turbidity and salinity. Metal concentrations (As, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were also determined, and Ni and Pb strongly exceeded health standards. The study stresses the need for significant improvements of the irrigation, sanitation, and sewage infrastructure.

  11. Bovine virus diarrhoea (BVD) control programme in an area in the Rome province (Italy).

    PubMed

    Ferrari, G; Scicluna, M T; Bonvicini, D; Gobbi, C; Della Verità, F; Valentini, A; Autorino, G L

    1999-01-01

    A BVD control programme based on the identification and removal of persistently infected (PI) animals is being undertaken in an area in the Rome province, where BVD outbreaks had been previously detected. It involves 174 mainly dairy herds, from which blood samples of all bovines older than 1 year are obtained through the national brucellosis and leukosis eradication programme. Samples sufficient to detect the presence of seropositive animals at a prevalence of 5% or more are initially screened for antibodies against BVD virus (BVDV) using an immunoenzymatic assay. Upon identification of seroreagents additional blood samples are tested from the 6-12-month age category not included in the initial samples. Animals are considered immunotolerant if BVDV is demonstrated twice at a minimum 30-day interval. When no seropositive animals are detected during the first serological screening the herd is declared BVD-free if a second testing, preferably carried on the same animals previously tested, confirms the seronegative status of the herd. At present 147 farms have been tested, of which 63 (42.9%) are negative with respect to antibodies against BVDV. Of the 84 remaining herds in which one or more seropositives are detected, 13 are classified as recently infected. In eight of these recently infected herds, 22 PI animals have been identified.

  12. Reconnaissance investigation of the placer gold deposits in the Zarkashan Area of Interest, Ghazni Province, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malpeli, Katherine C.; Chirico, Peter G.; McLoughlin, Isabel H.

    2013-01-01

    This study is a reconnaissance investigation of the placer gold deposits in the Zarkashan Area of Interest (AOI) in Ghazni Province, Afghanistan. Detailed investigations of the Zarkashan gold deposits were conducted by Soviet and Afghan geologists in the 1960s and 1970s, prior to the development of satellite-based remote-sensing platforms and new methods of geomorphic mapping. The purpose of this study was to integrate new mapping techniques with previously collected concentration and borehole sampling data and geomorphologic interpretations to reassess the placer gold deposits in the Zarkashan AOI. A methodology combining the collection and analysis of historical sampling data, digital database development, hydrologic analysis, and geomorphic modeling was used. The analysis led to the reinterpretation of four gold-bearing seams along the Zarkashan River, and the calculation of an estimated gold reserve of approximately 3,000 kilograms (kg). This estimate is approximately 1,500 kg greater than the Soviet estimate. The result differs in large part due to the reinterpretation of the seams based on a much lower cutoff grade of 100 mg/m3. Because cutoff grade is dependent in part on the price of gold, the sevenfold increase in the price of gold since the undertaking of the Soviet investigation warranted our re-evaluation of their 500 mg/m3 cutoff grade.

  13. [Hydrochemistry and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Stable Isotope of Shibing Dolomite Karst Area in Guizhou Province].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shi-zhen; Lan, Jia-cheng; Yuan, Dao-xian; Wang, Yun; Yang, Long; Ao, Xiang-hong

    2015-06-01

    Totally 49 water samples were collected in Shibing Dolomite Karst World Natural Heritage Site in Guizhou Province to analyze the characteristics and controlling factors of both the surface and underground waters, as well as the features and their origins of the dissolved inorganic carbon isotope. It was found that the pH of the study area was neutral to alkaline with low concentrations of total dissolved solids. The cations were dominated by Ca2+, Mg2 and anions by HCO3-, featured by HCO3-Ca x Mg type water. The ratios of Cl-, NO3- and SO4(2-) in the allogenic water from the shale area in the northern catchment were higher than those in autogenic water from the dolomite karst area, so did the concentration of Si. The SIc and SId of the allogenic waters in the shale area were negative. After the waters entered into and flew by the dolomite karst area, both the SIc and SId increased to over 0. It could be told by the water chemistry that the hydrochemistry was little impacted by the rainfall and human activities. The Gibbs plot revealed that the chemical composition of the waters was mainly controlled by rock weathering. The δ(13)C(DIC) of the surface waters ranged from -8.27% to -11.55% per hundred, averaging -9.45% per hundredo, while that of the underground waters ranged from -10.57% per hundred to -15.59% per hundred, averaging -12.04% per hundred, which was lighter than that of surface water. For the distribution features, it was found the δ(13)C(DIC), of the upper reaches of branches of Shangmuhe River was lighter than that of the lower reach, while that of the main river Shangmuhe River was relatively complex. Based on the mass balance of stable isotopes and the δ(13)C(DIC), the ratio of the origin of DIC of the ground water was calculated. It was found that 51.2% was from soil CO2, and 48.8% was from the rock itself.

  14. Assessment of elemental background values and their relation with lifespan indicators: A comparative study of Jining in Shandong Province and Guanzhong area in Shaanxi Province, northern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaobin; Luo, Kunli; Ni, Runxiang; Tian, Yuan; Gao, Xing

    2017-10-01

    The remarkably high proportions of centenarians are found in the Jining Prefecture in southwestern Shandong province, demonstrating remarkable regional longevity differentiation. In this paper, census data at county-level, samples of drinking water and staple grains in Jining Prefecture were collected. Guanzhong area in Shaanxi Province, a non-longevity region in northern China was chosen as the contrast area. The major and trace elements in the samples were determined by using ICP-MS, ICP-OES and HG-AFS. The major results show that Jinxiang County in Jining Prefecture exhibit obviously higher longevity level than adjacent counties and Chinese average level based on temporal and spatial variation of lifespan indicators. Meanwhile, the contents of Na, Mg, Mo and Cu in wheat, corn and drinking water show a similar decline trend in the order of Jinxiang County, non-longevity counties of Jining Prefecture and Guanzhong area. In addition, Na/Ca and Mg/Ca show obvious difference both in staple grains and drinking ground water, and Ca(2+) is the most abundance of major cations in drinking water samples from non-longevity counties which was different with the Jinxiang County showing Na(+) as of major cations. The principal component analysis (PCA) shows that the difference of elemental concentrations in drinking water was more remarkable than in staple grains between Jining and Guanzhong areas. Na, Li, Ni, and Zn in staple grains and Mg, Co, Cu, Mn, and Sr in drinking ground water can explain most of the total variance as principal component between Jining and Guanzhong areas. These findings may help to provide further insight into the elemental background values and their relation with lifespan indicators especially in northern China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Effects of tourism disturbance on plant diversity in Qingshan Lake scenic area of Zhejiang Province].

    PubMed

    Lu, Qing-Bin; You, Wei-Yun; Zhao, Chang-Jie; Wang, Xiang-Wei; Meng-Xiang, Xiu

    2011-02-01

    From May 2007 to June 2008, an investigation was made on the changes of plant community in Qingshan Lake scenic area of Zhejiang Province under the effects of tourism disturbance. With the increase of tourism disturbance, the importance value of the plants was mainly fastened on a few species such as Pinus hwangshanensis, apt to decrease for tree and shrub species and to increase for herb species, and the individuals of the plants increased. The values of richness index (D) and diversity index (H) were in the order of medium disturbance > slight disturbance > severe disturbance, while the evenness index (J) value was in the order of medium disturbance > severe disturbance > slight disturbance. At the same vegetation layers, only a few species such as Cinnamomum camphora existed under different disturbances, and thereby, the similarity index values were smaller than 0.500. Slight disturbance affected coniferous forest most, with the average values of D, H, and J being the lowest (1.188, 1.056, and 0.697, respectively); severe disturbance affected broadleaf forest and shrub-herbage most, with the D value (2.013) of shrub-herbage and the H value (1.286) and J value (0.807) of broadleaf forest being the lowest; while medium disturbance was favorable to the increase of plant diversity and to the normal exertion of ecosystem function. The eco-safety of the structural elements of plant community in the scenic area was threatened to some extent, resulting in the reduction of indigenous species such as Sinocalycanthus chinensis and the incursion of exotic species as Setaria viridis.

  16. Intestinal parasitic infections in Srimum suburban area of Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kitvatanachai, Sirima; Boonslip, Siriphan; Watanasatitarpa, Suphatra

    2008-12-01

    A survey on intestinal parasitic infections and some risk factors of infection (social, economic and behavioral) was conducted in suburban area at Simum subdistrict, Mueang district, Nakhon Ratchasima Province during the period of April 3rd to April 11th, 2007. A total of 214 stool samples, from 85 males and 129 females were examined using simple direct smear, Kato's thick smear and modified Harada-Mori Filter Paper Strip culture technique. The results showed that the prevalence rate of protozoa infections by simple direct smear method was 17.3% (37 infected samples) in 11 males and 26 females and were from all age groups. Mixed infections (56.8%), showed higher results than single infection. The highest number of intestinal protozoan infections was Entamoeba histolytica (11.7%), followed by Blastocystis hominis (5.6%). Fifty four percent of protozoan infection was at a moderate to high level. Ninety five percent of infected cases consumed unboiled water. The prevalence rate of helminthic infections was 7% total by Kato's thick smear and Modified Harada-Mori Filter Paper Strip culture technique. Kato's Thick smear Technique showed the highest rate of Strongyloides stercolaris (2.8%), followed by hookworm infection (1.4%) Taenia spp. (0.9%), and Enterobius vermicularis (0.5%), respectively. All infections showed a light intensity, (< 200 epg), using Kato-Katz thick smear. Although Modified Harada-Mori's culture Technique showed higher S. stercolaris (3.3%) and hookworm infection (2.3%) than Kato's thick smear in the area where there is low Soil transmitted helminthes, we recommend using Simple or Kato's thick smear to determine the prevalence of parasitic infection due to these techniques being able to detect various groups of parasites, and being inexpensive and less time consuming.

  17. Spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of reference evapotranspiration trends in Karst area: a case study in Guizhou Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiaoli; Peng, Shizhang; Wang, Weiguang; Xu, Junzeng; Yang, Shihong

    2016-10-01

    Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is the essential part of hydrological cycle and crop irrigation system (watering system framework). To reveal the change pattern of annual and seasonal ET0 and its corresponding dominated factors aspects of karst regions in China, daily meteorological data of 19 meteorological stations during 1959-2011 in Guizhou Province were collected. ET0 trends in seasonal and annual time series were detected by nonparametric Mann-Kendall test. The results indicated (demonstrated) that the annual ET0 for the entire Guizhou Province performed a decreasing trend by 0.4476 mm/year. The seasonal ET0 in spring and summer performed the an alike decreasing trend, while it presented an increasing trend in autumn and winter. According to the rotated empirical orthogonal function clustering method, Guizhou Province was divided into four parts. Annual ET0 performed (executed) the ascendant trend in western area, while the descendent trend occurred in middle, northwestern, and southwestern areas. The sensitivity and the attribution analysis indicated (specified) that the relative humidity was identified as the most sensitive variable to the annual ET0 and sunshine duration as the essential main thrusts for the declined annual ET0 in Guizhou Province. In addition, the more severe of karst landform development, the more obvious decreasing trend in ET0.

  18. Active Features of Guguan-Guizhen Fault at the Northeast Margin of Qinghai-Tibet Block since Late Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yaqin; Feng, Xijie; Li, Gaoyang; Ma, Ji; Li, Miao; Zhang, Yi

    2015-04-01

    Guguan-Guizhen fault is located at the northeast margin of Qinghai-Tibet Block and northwest margin of Ordos Block; it is the boundary of the two blocks, and one of the multiple faults of northwest Haiyuan-Liupanshan-Baoji fault zone. Guguan-Guizhen fault starts from Putuo Village, Huating County, Gansu Province, and goes through Badu Town, Long County in Shaanxi Province ends in Guozhen Town in Baoji City, Shaanxi Province. The fault has a full length of about 130km with the strike of 310-330°, the dip of SW and the rake of 50-60°, which is a sinistral slip reverse fault in the north part, and a sinistral slip normal fault in the southeast part. Guguan-Guizhen fault has a clear liner structure in satellite images and significant landform elevation difference with a maximum difference of 80m, and is higher in the east lower in the west. The northwest side of Guguan-Guizhen fault is composed of purplish-red Lower Cretaceous sandstones and river terrace; the northeast side is composed of Ordovician Limestone. Shigou, Piliang, Songjiashan, Tianjiagou and Chenjiagou fault profiles are found to the south of Badu Village. After 14C and optically stimulated luminescence dating, the fault does not dislocate the stratum since late Pleistocene (90.5±4.4ka) in Shigou, Piliang and Songjiashan fault profiles, and does not dislocate the cobble layer of Holocene first terrace and recent sliderock (3180±30 BP). But the fault dislocated the stratum of middle Pleistocene in some of the fault profiles. All the evidences above indicate that the fault is active in middle Pleistocene, and being silence since late Pleistocene. It might be active in Holocene to the north of Badu Village due to collapses are found in a certain area. The cause of these collapses is Qinlong M6-7 earthquake in 600 A.D., and might be relevant with Guguan-Guizhen fault after analysis of the scale, feature and age determination of the collapse. If any seismic surface rupture and ancient earthquake traces

  19. [Fever monitoring program in areas with high incidence of typhoid and paratyphoid fever in Guizhou province].

    PubMed

    Yao, Guang-hai; Tang, Guang-peng; Tian, Ke-cheng; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Jun-ling; Wang, Zi-jun; Jiang, You-qin; Zhao, Qi-liang; Chen, Xue; Chen, Shao-fen; Liu, Ming-qiang; Lu, Rong; Li, Ming; Wang, Ding-ming

    2013-03-01

    To understand the incidence rates of both typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever in the high prevalent areas of Guizhou province so as to provide evidence for the development of programs on comprehensive intervention and effectiveness evaluation. Six townships in Pingba county were selected as intervention areas while six townships in Kaiyang county were taken as control. All hospitals and clinics were classified into A, B and C types according to its level and the capacity of the blood culture. Surveillance on typhoid and paratyphoid fever was conducted based on all population and all hospitals, clinics and county CDCs among the patients with unknown fever. In the surveillance area in those two counties, there were 12 944 blood samples from patients with unknown fever which have been tested and cultured. Among them, 200 strains of Salmonella including 16 typhoid strains, 184 paratyphoid A strains were identified, with the total positive rate as 1.55%. The positive rate before the intervention program was higher than the after. The detection rate was 1.91% in the type A hospitals. 39 strains of Salmonella have been cultured from 2039 samples which accounting for 19.50% (39/200) of the total strains. 4315 blood samples were cultured at the 'Class B' sites which isolated 82 strains of Salmonella, accounting for 41.00% (82/200), with a detection rate as 1.90%. 6590 samples were cultured at the 'Class C' sites, which identified 79 strains of Salmonella, accounting for 39.50% (79/200), with a detection rate as 1.20%. The detection rate was much higher before the use of antibiotics than after using them (P < 0.05). The annual peak time of positive detection was in spring and fall. The outbreaks or epidemics often appeared in the same places, with farmers, students as the high-risk populations. Symptoms of both typhoid and paratyphoid fever were not typical. Typhoid and paratyphoid monitoring programs which covered primary health care institutions in the high incidence area

  20. Petrological and geochemical study of doleritic intrusions of Moatize area, Tete Province, Mozambique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilídio Mário, Rui; Mendes, Maria Helena; Francisco Santos, Jose; Ribeiro, Sara

    2017-04-01

    The dolerite samples studied in this work are part of drilling cores, obtained during exploration campaigns by the Ncondezi Coal Company, in the prospect area 805L, located at NE of Moatize, Tete Province, Mozambique. The dolerite bodies are intrusive into sedimentary formations of the Karoo Supergroup. The intrusions have a probable Jurassic age, around 180 Ma, based on a geochronological information (GTK Consortium, 2006) from a similar body cropping out in another area of the Tete Province. The studied rocks were affected by hydrothermal alteration, testified by the pervasive occurrence of the assemblage serpentine + chlorite + sericite + sphene + calcite ± epidote ± tremolite-actinolite, and by filling of vesicles and fractures by calcite, pyrite or calcite + pyrite ± quartz. However, the selected samples preserve igneous intergranular textures. Petrographic evidence suggests that the primary mineral associations included plagioclase, titanaugite, olivine, apatite, opaques, biotite and hornblende. These assemblages are variably preserved and, in the samples most intensely altered, the igneous minerals were almost totally replaced. Whole-rock major and trace element data, with particular emphasis on immobile elements, indicate that the analysed samples are basic and that they can be seen as cogenetic, belonging to the alkaline series and showing compositions similar to present-day intraplate basalts. The Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd data seem to confirm the cogenetic nature of the studied dolerites. In fact, in the least altered samples, both [87Sr/86Sr]180Ma and ɛNd180Ma define relatively small ranges: +0.7050 ≥ [87Sr/86Sr]180Ma ≥ 0.7038 +10 ≥ ɛSr180Ma ≥ -7 and +3.6 ≥ ɛNd180Ma ≥ +1.7. In addition, this clearly indicates that parental melts were generated in a mantle source and that magmas did not undergo significant crustal contamination during their ascent and emplacement. The described isotopic compositions, besides plotting in an area common to OIB, are

  1. Classification of hydrogeologic areas and hydrogeologic flow systems in the basin and range physiographic province, southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anning, David W.; Konieczki, Alice D.

    2005-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province in parts of Arizona, California, New Mexico, Utah, and most of Nevada was classified at basin and larger scales to facilitate information transfer and to provide a synthesis of results from many previous hydrologic investigations. A conceptual model for the spatial hierarchy of the hydrogeology was developed for the Basin and Range Physiographic Province and consists, in order of increasing spatial scale, of hydrogeologic components, hydrogeologic areas, hydrogeologic flow systems, and hydrogeologic regions. This hierarchy formed a framework for hydrogeologic classification. Hydrogeologic areas consist of coincident ground-water and surface-water basins and were delineated on the basis of existing sets of basin boundaries that were used in past investigations by State and Federal government agencies. Within the study area, 344 hydrogeologic areas were identified and delineated. This set of basins not only provides a framework for the classification developed in this report, but also has value for regional and subregional purposes of inventory, study, analysis, and planning throughout the Basin and Range Physiographic Province. The fact that nearly all of the province is delineated by the hydrogeologic areas makes this set well suited to support regional-scale investigations. Hydrogeologic areas are conceptualized as a control volume consisting of three hydrogeologic components: the soils and streams, basin fill, and consolidated rocks. The soils and streams hydrogeologic component consists of all surface-water bodies and soils extending to the bottom of the plant root zone. The basin-fill hydrogeologic component consists of unconsolidated and semiconsolidated sediment deposited in the structural basin. The consolidated-rocks hydrogeologic component consists of the crystalline and sedimentary rocks that form the mountain blocks and basement rock of the structural basin. Hydrogeologic areas were

  2. Uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic Conodont Zonation from Enshi area, western Hubei Province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Z.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Z. Q.; Ma, D.; Yan, P.; Zhan, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Permian-Triassic transition witnessed the largest biotic turnover of Earth life during the Phanerozoic history. Ecosystems in sea and on land have also experienced the most protected restoration following the end-Permian mass extinction. These biocrises were also associated with climatic and environmental extremes through the latest Permian to Middle Triassic. In order to uncover the links among these extreme events, we need to establish high-resolution biochronostratigraphy, which offers precise timescales for reconstructing event sequences and probing the possible causes. Of these, conodont biostratigraphy is an operational tool in enhancing stratigraphic resolution. Although their ancestors and phylogeny remain unclear, conodonts are a rapid evolutionary lineage and extremely abundant in the Triassic marine carbonate successions. Here, we present recent study results of the Lower Triassic conodont zonation from the Ganxi and Jianshi areas, western Hubei Province, South China, which were situated on a carbonate ramp at the southern northern margin of the Upper Yangtze Platform. Therein, the uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic successions are well exposed and yield abundant conodonts. A total of nine conodont zones was established: (1) Clarkina yini-Clarkina zhangi Zone, (2) Hindeodus changxingensis Zone, (3) Hindeodus parvus Zone, (4) Isarcicella staeschei Zone, (5) Clarkina planata Zone, (6) Neoclarkina discrete Zone, (7) Neospathodus dieneri Zone, (8) Novispathodus waageni Zone, and (9) Triassospathodus homeri Zone. The Ns. dieneri M1, Ns. dieneri M2 and Ns. dieneri M3 subzones have also been distinguished from the Ns. dieneri Zone. Both Nv. waageni eowaageni subzones and Nv. waageni waageni subzones are also recognizable from the Nv. waageni Zone. The first occurrence of H. parvus marks the Permian-Triassic boundary(PTB), while the first occurrence of Nv. waageni eowaageni defines the Induan-Olenekian boundary. These conodont zones correlate well with

  3. Regional environmental change and human activity over the past hundred years recorded in the sedimentary record of Lake Qinghai, China.

    PubMed

    Sha, ZhanJiang; Wang, Qiugui; Wang, Jinlong; Du, Jinzhou; Hu, Jufang; Ma, Yujun; Kong, Fancui; Wang, Zhuan

    2017-04-01

    Environmental change and human activity can be recorded in sediment cores in aquatic systems such as lakes. Information from such records may be useful for environmental governance in the future. Six sediment cores were collected from Lake Qinghai, China and its sublakes during 2012 and 2013. Measurements of sediment grain-size fractions indicate that sedimentation in the north and southwest of Lake Qinghai is dominated by river input, whereas that in Lake Gahai and Lake Erhai is dominated by dunes. The sedimentation rates in Lake Qinghai were calculated to be 0.101-0.159 cm/y, similar to the rates in other lakes on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Using these data and sedimentation rates from the literature, we compiled the spatial distribution of sedimentation rates. Higher values were obtained in the three main areas of Lake Qinghai: two in river estuaries and one close to sand dunes. Lower values were measured in the center and south of the lake. Measurements of total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), phosphorus concentrations, and TOC/TN ratios in three cores (QH01, QH02, and Z04) revealed four horizons corresponding to times of increased human activity. These anthropogenic events were (1) the development of large areas of cropland in the Lake Qinghai watershed in 1960, (2) the beginning of nationwide fertilizer use and increases in cropland area in the lake watershed after 1970, (3) the implementation of the national program "Grain to Green," and (4) the rapid increase in the tourism industry from 2000. Profiles of Rb, Sr concentrations, the Rb/Sr ratio, and grain-size fraction in core Z04 indicate that the climate has become drier over the past 100 years. Therefore, we suggest that lake sediments such as those in Lake Qinghai are useful media for high-resolution studies of regional environmental change and human activity.

  4. Epidemiological Investigation and Risk Factors for Cervical Lesions: Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women in Rural Areas of Henan Province China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingwei; Xie, Wenyan; Wang, Feng; Li, Rong Hong; Cui, Lina; Wang, Huifen; Fu, Xiuhong; Song, Jiayu

    2016-06-01

    BACKGROUND This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence of cervical lesions and evaluate risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) among women taking part in cervical cancer screening in rural areas of Henan province, China. MATERIAL AND METHODS Cervical cancer screening using the ThinPrep cytologic test (TCT) and gynecologic exam was conducted on 1315 women age 20-68 years in rural areas of Henan province, China. Colposcopy and biopsies were carried out for histopathologic diagnosis when indicated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to evaluate risk factors associated with cervical lesions. RESULTS Among 1315 women screened, CIN prevalence detected by histopathology was 1.22% (0.38% of CIN 1, 0.76% of CIN 2, and 0.08% of CIN 3). Cervical cancer prevalence was 2.66%. Multivariate analysis confirmed risk factors for cervical lesions included older age (the 21-40 age group vs. the 41-66 age group, OR=0.13, 95% CI: 0.03~0.57), postmenopause (OR=0.11, 95% CI: 0.03~0.45), cervical inflammation (OR=0.06, 95% CI: 0.01~0.31), and smoking (OR=6.78, 95% CI: 1.20~38.23). CONCLUSIONS Older age (41-66 years), presence of HPV infection, postmenopause, cervical inflammation, and smoking are strong risk factors for cervical lesions among women in rural areas of Henan province, China. Particular efforts should be made to provide cervical cancer screening for these women.

  5. [Ecosystem services valuation of Qinghai Lake].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Lu; Ouyang, Zhi-yun

    2015-10-01

    Qinghai Lake is the largest inland and salt water lake in China, and provides important ecosystem services to beneficiaries. Economic valuation of wetland ecosystem services from Qinghai Lake can reveal the direct contribution of lake ecosystems to beneficiaries using economic data, which can advance the incorporation of wetland protection of Qinghai Lake into economic tradeoffs and decision analyses. In this paper, we established a final ecosystem services valuation system based on the underlying ecological mechanisms and regional socio-economic conditions. We then evaluated the eco-economic value provided by the wetlands at Qinghai Lake to beneficiaries in 2012 using the market value method, replacement cost method, zonal travel cost method, and contingent valuation method. According to the valuation result, the total economic values of the final ecosystem services provided by the wetlands at Qinghai Lake were estimated to be 6749.08 x 10(8) yuan RMB in 2012, among which the value of water storage service and climate regulation service were 4797.57 x 10(8) and 1929.34 x 10(8) yuan RMB, accounting for 71.1% and 28.6% of the total value, respectively. The economic value of the 8 final ecosystem services was ranked from greatest to lowest as: water storage service > climate regulation service > recreation and tourism service > non-use value > oxygen release service > raw material production service > carbon sequestration service > food production service. The evaluation result of this paper reflects the substantial value that the wetlands of Qinghai Lake provide to beneficiaries using monetary values, which has the potential to help increase wetland protection awareness among the public and decision-makers, and inform managers about ways to create ecological compensation incentives. The final ecosystem service evaluation system presented in this paper will offer guidance on separating intermediate services and final services, and establishing monitoring programs for

  6. Study on suitable distribution areas of Notopterygium incisum in Sichuan province based on remote sensing and GIS.

    PubMed

    Shang, Xue; Dong, Li-jun; Wen, Lu-jun; Peng, Wen-fu; Xu, Xin-liang; Fang, Qing-mao

    2015-07-01

    Notopterygium incisum is the important medicinal materials of the Tibetan-Qiang medical system in China, also one of the rare and endangered medicinal materials in the Plateau areas in the meantime. Taking the planting of in Sichuan province as an example, research on the N. incisum in Sichuan utilize remote sensing and GIS techniques, bind growth environment factor, including height factor, average annual precipitation, average annual temperature, forest information, were chosen according to habitat conditions. And combine field measurement to verify. The results indicate that N. incisum resources in Sichuan province were mainly distributed in the alpine valley and the northwest of the plateau, which suitability distribution areas of 4145 km2 approximately and accounting for 2% of the total area. Suitability areas accounting for more than 2% of the respective total area in Heishui county, Lixian county, Xiaojin county, Kangding county, ect. According to the field investigation and the related document information record, drawn that the suitability distribution based on RS and GIS were corresponded with the actual distribution areas of N. incisum resources. It's feasible to divide the suitability distribution area of N. incisum using RS and GIS, which will provide a scientific basis for a comprehensive investigation of the distribution as well as its rational exploitation and protection.

  7. Hydrology of area 59, northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain coal provinces, Colorado and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaggiani, Neville G.; Britton, Linda J.; Minges, Donald R.; Kilpatrick, F.A.; Parker, Randolph S.; Kircher, James E.

    1987-01-01

    Hydrologic information and analysis aid in decisions to lease federally owned coal and to prepare necessary Environmental Assessments and Impact Study reports. This need has become even more critical with the enactment of Public Law 95-87, the "Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977." This act requires an appropriate regulatory agency to issue permits, based on the review of permit-application data to assess hydrologic impacts. This report, which partially fulfills this requirement, is one in a series of nationwide coal province reports that present information thematically, through the use of a brief text and accompanying maps, graphs, charts, or other illustrations for single hydrologic topics. The report broadly characterizes the hydrology of Area 59 in north-central Colorado and southeastern Wyoming.The report area, located within the South Platte River basin, covers a 16,000-square-mile area of diverse geology, topography, and climate. This diversity results in contrasting hydrologic characteristics.The South Platte River, the major stream in the area, and most of its tributaries originate in granitic mountains and flow into and through the sedimentary rocks of the Great Plains. Altitudes range from less than 5,000 feet to more than 14,000 feet above sea level. Precipitation in the mountains may exceed 40 inches annually, much of it during the winter, and produces deep snowpacks. Snowmelt during the spring and summer produces most streamflow. Transmountain diversion of water from the streams on the western slope of the mountains also adds to the streamflow. Precipitation in the plains is as little as 10 inches annually. Streams that originate in the plains are ephemeral.Streamflow quality is best in the mountains, where dissolved-solids concentrations are generally small. Concentrations increase in the plains as streams flow through sedimentary basins, and as urbanization and irrigation increase. The quality of some mountain streams is affected by

  8. Inorganic pollution around the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau: An overview of the current observations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Duan, Dongping; Lu, Jian; Luo, Yongming; Wen, Xiaohu; Guo, Xiaoying; Boman, Brian J

    2016-04-15

    The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the highest geographical unit in the world. Thus, it serves an important role in evaluating long-term ecologic conditions and environmental status and changes over time. This study summarizes major and trace element concentrations in biota and in water and soil. It also pays attention to gaseous pollutant and particle concentrations in air around the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The degree of soil heavy metal contamination and the water heavy metal hazard index were respectively evaluated. The contamination degrees of two sampling areas around the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau reached extremely high levels with soil mCd (modified degree of contamination) values exceeding 20. Surprisingly, over 54% of sampling areas showed moderate or more serious soil contamination degree (mCd>1.5). Moreover, the hazard indexes of two important rivers were 1.56 and 7.59, reaching unacceptable level. The potential risk might be beyond our expectation. Therefore, it should be an urgent and top priority to identify and confirm possible pollution sources around the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Then, it is imperative to implement feasible and effective environmental quality control strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Seasonal movements and migration of Pallas's Gulls Larus ichthyaetus from Qinghai Lake, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muzaffar, S.B.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Prosser, D.J.; Douglas, D.C.; Yan, B.; Xing, Z.; Hou, Y.; Palm, E.C.; Newman, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the seasonal movements and migration often Pallas's Gulls Larus ichthyaetus trom Qinghai Lake to assess migratory routes and stopover areas. Each individual was captured and equipped with an 18 g solar-powered Platform Transmitter Terminal (PIT) to track its movements from September 2007 to May 2008. Six individuals remained near Qinghai Lake until the PTTs stopped transmitting. Three individuals flew 50-330 km from Qinghai Lake to nearby salt lakes. One individual departed on 8 December and flew over 1,700 km south-west to arrive at coastal Bangladesh on 9 January 2008. Two individuals flew in October to the Brahmaputra River in Assam, India, remaining in the area for at least one month until one stopped transmitting. The second individual travelled southwest to coastal Bangladesh. Of the two individuals overwintering in Bangladesh, one remained for 67 days before migrating north. The second bird departed after 96 days, and it returned to Qinghai on 10 May 2008 after 48 days in migration. Both individuals that overwintered in coastal Bangladesh arrived much later than the outbreaks of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HP AI H5N I) in poultry in 2007. This disparity in timing would tentatively suggest that this species was not involved in long-distance movements of the virus. Instead, the converse may be true: previous work demonstrates the potential for virus spill-over trom poultry into gulls and other wild bird species upon arrival into locations with widespread HPAI H5NI outbreaks and environmental contamination.

  10. Ecological footprint analysis applied to a sub-national area: the case of the Province of Siena (Italy).

    PubMed

    Bagliani, Marco; Galli, Alessandro; Niccolucci, Valentina; Marchettini, Nadia

    2008-01-01

    This work is part of a larger project, which aims at investigating the environmental sustainability of the Province of Siena and of its communes, by means of different indicators and methods of analysis. The research presented in this article uses ecological footprint and biocapacity as indicators to monitor the environmental conditions of the area of Siena, thus complementing previous studies carried out using Emergy, greenhouse gases balance and other methods. The calculations have been performed in such a way as to enable a disaggregation of the final results according to the classical categories of ecologically productive land and of consumption, but also according to citizen's and public administration's areas of influence. This information allows us to investigate in detail the socio-economic aspects of environmental resource use. Among the notable results, the Siena territory is characterized by a nearly breakeven total ecological balance, a result contrasting with the national average and most of the other Italian provinces. Furthermore, the analysis has been carried out at different spatial scales (province, districts and communes), highlighting an inhomogeneous territorial structure consisting of subareas in ecological deficit compensated by zones in ecological surplus.

  11. [Changes of schistosomiasis endemic situation in Sichuan Province and impact on schistosomiasis transmission in Three Gorges Reservoir area after construction of Three Gorges Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Lu, Ding; Xu, Jia; Duan, Bin; Zhong, Bo

    2014-10-01

    To understand the changes of schistosomiasis endemic situation in Sichuan Province, the upstream of Yangtze River basin, and the impact on schistosomiasis transmission in Three Gorges Reservoir area after the construction of Three Gorges Reservoir. The annual reports of the schistosomiasis endemic situation in Sichuan Province from 2000-2012, the data of the schistosomiasis surveillance sites in Sichuan Province from 2001-2012, the data of the schistosomiasis sampling survey in Sichuan Province in 2001, and the relevant reference of Three Gorges Reservoir were collected. The schistosomiasis prevalence in human and cattle, and Oncomelania hupensis snail status were investigated. The snail survey was implemented in Qianjin Village, Jianyang City, Sichuan Province, the nearest village to Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The schistosomiasis endemic situation presented a continuous declining state in Sichuan Province from 2000-2012, and reached the criteria of schistosomiasis transmission controlled in 2008. From 2012, 65.07% of endemic counties reached the criteria of schistosomiasis transmission interrupted. From 2006, no schistosome infected snails were found. In Qianjin Village, 1714 m2 environments were surveyed and no snails were found. The schistosomiasis endemic area and snail area are significantly reduced in Sichuan Province, the upstream of Yangtze River basin, after the construction of Three Gorges Reservoir. Therefore, the possibility of schistosomiasis endemic diffusing to Three Gorges Reservoir area is minimum.

  12. Opisthorchis viverrini Infection Among People in the Border Areas of Three Provinces, Northeast of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Rujirakul, Ratana; Wakkuwattapong, Rujirakul; Matrakool, Likit; Tongtawee, Taweesak; Panpimanmas, Sukij; Pengsaa, Prasit; Jomkoa, Darawan; Joosiri, Apinya; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini is still a serious problem in Northeastern and Northern Thailand. Active surveillance is required to determine updated data for further prevention and control planning. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the prevalence and risk factors for O. viverrini in three provinces, Northeastern Thailand. A cross- sectional survey was conducted during October 2015 to March 2016 at Kaeng Sanam Nang district of Nakhon Ratchasima province, Waeng Noi district of Khon Kaen province, and Khon Sawan district of Chaiyaphum province, Thailand. Stool samples were examined by using a modified Kato-Katz Thick smear technique. From a total of 978 participants screened, O. viverrini infection was found in 1.74%, the majority opf positive cases being male (6.62%), age group 51-60 years old (4.21%), educated at primary school (8.43%), occupied with agriculture (9.62%),having an income <4,000 baht per month (4.82%), and living in Khon Sawan district (8.43%). Participants had a high knowledge level (42.43%), good attitude level (34.76%), and fair level (38.04%). The present study indicates the O. viverrini infection rate is low, but elderly males with primary school education involved in agriculture are still frequently effected particularly in Khon Sawan district. Therefore, this risk group requires behavior modification and continued monitoring.

  13. The effect of gold mining and processing on biogeochemical cycles in Muteh area, Isfahan province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarzi, B.; Moore, F.

    2009-04-01

    The environmental impacts of gold mining and processing on geochemical and biogeochemical cycles in Muteh region located northwest of Esfahan province and northeast of Golpaygan city is investigated. For this purpose systematic sampling was carried out in, rock, soil, water, and sediment environments along with plant, livestocks and human hair samples. Mineralogical and Petrological studies show that ore mineral such as pyrite and arsenopyrite along with fluorine-bearing minerals like tremolite, actinolite, biotite and muscovite occur in green schist, amphibolite and lucogranitic rocks in the area. The hydrochemistry of the analysed water samples indicate that As and F display the highest concentrations among the analysed elements. Indeed arsenic has the highest concentration in both topsoil and subsoil samples when compared with other potentially toxic elements. Anthropogenic activity also have it s greatest effect on increasing arsenic concentration among the analysed samples. The concentration of the majority of the analysed elements in the shoots and leaves of two local plants of the region i.e Artemesia and Penagum is higher than their concentration in the roots. Generally speaking, Artemesia has a greater tendency for bioaccumulating heavy metals. The results of cyanide analysis in soil samples show that cyanide concentration in the soils near the newly built tailing dam is much higher than that in the vicinity of the old tailing dam. The high concentration of fluorine in the drinking water of the Muteh village is the main reason of the observed dental fluorosis symptoms seen in the inhabitants. One of the two drinking water wells which is located near the metamorphic complex and supplies part of the tap water in the village, probably has the greatest impact in this regard. A decreasing trend in fluorine concentration is illustrated with increasing distance from the metamorphic complex. Measurements of As concentration in human hair specimens indicate that As

  14. [Effect of comprehensive schistosomiasis control measures based on infection source control in mountainous areas of Yunnan Province].

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-rong; Li, Bing-gui; Luo, Jia-jun; Li, Wen-bao; Mu, Liang-Xian; Tian, Shu-hui; Li, Ping; Liu Yu-Hua; Yang, Hui; Wang, Shang-wei; Chen, Feng; Luo, Bing-rong; Li, Ke-rong; Duan, Yu-chun

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of comprehensive schistosomiasis control measures based on infection source control in plateau mountain areas of Yunnan Province. From 2006 to 2004, four administrative villages were selected as test areas from plateau canyon and plateau basin endemic areas in Jindun Town, Heqing County, two villages each type, and the comprehensive control measures were implemented, including the examination and treatment of schistosomiasis, Oncomelania hupensis snail survey and control, health education, improving drinking water and lavatories, banning grazing, constructing sanitary pen of livestock, replacing cattle with machine, etc. The schistosome infection state and snail status in 2006 were treated as the baseline information, and the effect of the comprehensive measures were evaluated. Results The infection rate of human in plateau canyon areas decreased from 4.94% in 2006 to 0.06% in 2014, and that of livestock decreased from 1.11% to 0. In plateau basin areas, there was only 1 case of schistosomiasis found in Xiaolian Village in 2007, and no any other cases found in the other years, the infection rates of livestock dropped from 7.38% to 0. Compared with 2006, the snail areas in the two type areas decreased by 74.89% and 75.30%, respectively, meanwhile, the percentage of snail area, the occurrence rate of frames with snails, as well as the average density of living snails also decreased, and no infected snails were found since 2008. Xidian and Xinzhuang villages in plateau canyon area reached the criteria of schistosomiasis transmission controlled in 2009, and Xiao-lian and Kangfu villages in plateau basin reached the criteria of transmission interrupted in 2014. The comprehensive schistosomiasis control measures based on infection source control can effectively control the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in plateau areas of Yunnan Province. In the future, we should pay an equal attention to the infection sources control and snail control to

  15. [Study on suitable distribution areas of Grifola umbellate in Sichuan province based on remote sensing and GIS].

    PubMed

    Zhang, You; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Jie; Peng, Wen-Fu; Xu, Xin-Liang; Fang, Qing-Mao

    2016-09-01

    Grifola umbellate is the important medicinal materials in China which has a very high medicinal value. This study analyzedthe suitable distribution areasof G. umbellate and provided scientific basis for determining G. umbellate planting regions and planning production distribution reasonably. The suitable distribution areas of G. umbellate in Sichuan province was researched based on TM, ETM+, and DEM data,the key ecological factors that affect the growth of G. umbellate were extracted, including elevation, slope, aspect, average annual temperature,average annual precipitation,forest information,soil information, following remote sensing and GIS techniques, combining field researchdata. The results showed that the G. umbellate resources in Sichuan province were mainly distributed in Pingwu, Beichuan, Licountry, Yanyuan, Xichang, Dechang, Yanbian, Miyi, Huidong, Panzhihua and so on, the suitability distribution areas is 276.214 4 km² approximately and accounting for more than 0.143 3% of the total area.According to the related document information and the field investigation, showed that the suitability distribution based on RS and GIS were corresponded with the actual distribution areas of G. umbellate. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. [The epidemiology and etiology research of Tibetan sheep plague in Qinghai plateau].

    PubMed

    Wei, Baiqing; Xiong, Haoming; Yang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yonghai; Qi, Meiying; Jin, Juan; Xin, Youquan; Li, Xiang; Yang, Hanqing; Han, Xiumin; Dai, Ruixia

    2015-03-01

    To identify the epidemiology and etiology characteristics of Tibetan sheep plague in Qinghai plateau. The background materials of Qinghai Tibetan sheep plague found during 1975 to 2009 were summarized, the regional, time and interpersonal distribution, infection routes, ecological factors for the spread were used to analyze; followed by choosing 14 Yersinia pestis strains isolated from such sheep for biochemical test, toxicity test, virulence factors identification, plasmid analysis, and DFR genotype. From 1975 to 2009, 14 Yersinia pestis strains were isolated from Tibetan sheep in Qinghai province. Tibetan sheep, as the infection source, had caused 10 cases of human plague, 25 plague patients, and 13 cases of death. All of the initial cases were infected due to eating Tibetan sheep died of plague; followed by cases due to contact of plague patients, while all the initial cases were bubonic plague. Cases of bubonic plague developed into secondary pneumonic plague and septicemia plague were most popular and with high mortality. Most of the Tibetan sheep plague and human plague occurred in Gannan ecological zone in southern Gansu province, which was closely related to its unique ecological and geographical landscape. Tibetan sheep plague coincided with human plague caused by Tibetan sheep, especially noteworthy was that November (a time for marmots to start their dormancy) witnesses the number of Yersinia pestis strains isolated from Tibetan sheep and human plague cases caused by Tibetan sheep. This constituted the underlying cause that the epidemic time of Tibetan sheep plague lags obviously behind that of the Marmot plague. It was confirmed in the study that all the 14 strains were of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau ecotype, with virulence factors evaluation and toxicity test demonstrating strains as velogenic. As found in the (Different Region) DFR genotyping, the strains isolated from Yushu county and Zhiduo county were genomovar 5, the two strain isolated from Nangqian

  17. Exploring the geomorphological processes of Qinghai Lake and surrounding lakes in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, using Multitemporal Landsat Imagery (1973-2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Bu-Li; Xiao, Bei; Li, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Zhan, Chao; Li, Xiao-Dong

    2017-05-01

    Studies of lake's coastline and shape changes and the influencing factors will contribute to knowledge about the geomorphological and hydrological evolutions of those lakes. This study extracted coastlines of Qinghai Lake and surrounding lakes in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau from multitemporal remote sensing data from 1973 to 2015. The geomorphological processes and the reasons for area and coastline variations were then analyzed. The results showed that: the changes of the total lake area were divided into three stages: the stable decrease stage (1973-1988), the fluctuant decrease stage (1988-2005), and the rapidly increase stage (2005-2015). The changes of Qinghai Lake area and Gahai Lake area showed a similar trend as the total lake area. The Erhai Lake area fluctuated from 1973 to 2004 and then increased from 2004 to 2015. Haiyanwan Lake was isolated from Qinghai Lake in 2003 and was linked into Qinghai Lake in 2006, again. The lakes area variations, excluding Erhai Lake and Shadao Lake, were positively correlated with the variation of the Qinghai Lake level, and estuary area variations were significantly negatively correlated to the lake level, indicating that the higher lake level led to more land being submerged. The evolutionary processes of lakes in the Shadao Region were influenced by aeolian sand and lake water balance experiencing relatively low precipitation and strong evaporation. Erhai Lake was also influenced by river runoff from Daotang River. Sediment loads from rivers flowing into Qinghai Lake, except for Buha River, were relative low and only slightly influenced the estuary. Aeolian sand transported by the lake waves and currents from west coast to east coast will form subaqueous barriers, the Shadao Region land area will increase slowly, and the coastline of the Shadao Region will extend towards the lake. Therefore, the diameter of Qinghai Lake from the west to east coast will become shorter, while the diameter from the south to north coast

  18. The new petrographic data about the Maymecha-Kotuy area of the Siberian flood-basalt province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latyshev, Anton; Veselovskiy, Roman

    2010-05-01

    The Maymecha-Kotuy area of the Siberian flood-basalt province is of great interest because of its exceptional composition of igneous rocks. Alkaline-ultramafic rocks prevail there over basalts. It seems to be the only such trap province in the world. Investigation of the magma evolution and revealing of sources of magma is the task of an immense importance. Now there is a discussion about possible connections between the mass extinction on the boundary between Paleozoic and Mesozoic and magmatic activity expressed in formation of the largest Siberian flood-basalt province. Absence of the precise correlation of Maymecha-Kotuy area with other areas of the Siberian province does not allow estimating duration and volumes of the eruption of traps. Another question is if eruption of traps was uninterrupted or it had several pulses of magmatic activity. The solution of this problem will let estimate the degree of possible influence of the flood-basalt eruption to the environment. The represented results of investigations comprise all five igneous suites of Maymecha-Kotuy area. Petrographic investigation included research of thin sections and microprobe analyzes. The most entire sequences of Arydzhangsky and Kogotoksky suites and partly sequences of Pravoboyarsky, Delkansky and Maymechinsky suites were studied. This research allowed to reveal that the section of "Truba" on the Kotuy River belongs to Onkuchaksky suite (former lower Kogotoksky subsuite) and to reconsider the petrography of Arydzhangsky suite. Also, the research of geochemistry based on data of Fedorenko et al. (1997, 2000) lets suggest the sources of magma and its evolution. According to the new paleomagnetic data (Pavlov, Veselovskiy, Fetisova, EGU-2010), the new scheme of correlation of Maymecha-Kotuy trap section with Norilsk trap section was worked out and it became possible to estimate character of the magmatic activity in this region. In addition, it makes the contribution into the working out the

  19. [Characteristics and Inputs of Cd Contamination in Paddy Soils in Typical Mining and Industrial Areas in Youxian County, Hunan Province].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Wang Mei-e; Chen, Wei-ping; Niu, Jun-jie

    2015-04-01

    In order to explore input pathways and pollution characteristics of Cd contamination in paddy soil in Youxian, Hunan Province, Cd contents in paddy soils, sediments of irrigation canals, typical mineral and industrial products such as coal, gangue and cement were analyzed. It was suggested that the average contents of Cd both in surface paddy soil and the corresponding natural soil were higher than the soil quality standard 0.3 mg x kg(-1). Cd contents in gangue and cement were similar as those in the corresponding natural soils. The atmosphere deposition of Cd was the highest in factory area. The profiles of Cd in 0-100 cm paddy soil and 0-40 cm in natural soils varied significantly from the upper to the lower layer. Cd contents in 0-40 cm layer in paddy soil were much higher than those in corresponding natural soils in mineral and mineral-factory areas. The potentiality for downward movement of Cd in soils in mineral area was the highest among the three studied areas. It suggested Cd contents in surface paddy soil were higher in upwind areas than those in downwind areas in mineral-factory and factory areas. It could be concluded that the main input pathways of Cd in mineral and mineral-factory. areas were from irrigation water, while contribution of atmosphere deposition in mineral-factory and factory areas was also very significant.

  20. Effects of Yak grazing on plant community characteristics of meadow grasslands in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Linrong; Hou, Fujiang; Bowatte, Saman; Cheng, Yunxiang

    2017-04-01

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) is an important part of the global terrestrial ecosystem that provides many ecological roles such as biodiversity protection, upper watersheds for large rivers, circulation of materials, energy balance and provision of forage and habitat for livestock and wildlife. Approximately 40% of the QTP is alpine meadow grasslands and yak farming is one of the dominant land use activities. In recent years, the rapid increase in the number of yaks grazing on meadow grasslands has raised concerns about grassland degradation. In this study we examined the effects of yak grazing on the grassland community characteristics to evaluate the degradation potential of alpine meadow in the QTP. The experiment was carried out on three farms, in close proximity to each other, that were operating at different grazing intensities in Maqu county (N35°58', E101°53', altitude 3650m) of the QTP in the Gansu province in China. We tested 4 levels of yak grazing intensities; control (no grazing), light (2.6yak/ha), moderate (3.5yak/ha) and high (6.5yak/ha ). We hypothesized that greater intensity of grazing would significantly impact the plant community characteristics through trampling effects above and below ground. We found grazing significantly (P<0.05) impacted the above and below ground biomass. Above ground biomass was highest in the non grazed area and lowest in the high grazing farm. In contrast, below ground biomass was significantly greater (p<0.05) in the moderate grazing farm compared to the non grazed area. The plant community density and the proportion of edible grass biomass were not significantly affected by the grazing treatments. The species richness was significantly reduced (p<0.05) in the moderate and high intensity grazing farms compared to the non grazed area. The soil moisture at 0-10 cm depth was significantly lower at the high grazing intensity farm compared to the non grazed area and in contrast soil temperature was significantly

  1. Zoonotic intestinal protozoan of the wild boars, Sus scrofa, in Persian Gulf's coastal area (Bushehr province), Southwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Yaghoobi, Kambiz; Sarkari, Bahador; Mansouri, Majid; Motazedian, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-10-01

    Wild boars, Sus scrofa, are potential reservoirs of many zoonotic diseases, and there are a possibility of transmission of the zoonotic diseases from these animals to humans and also domestic animals. This study aimed to evaluate the protozoan contamination of wild boars in the Persian Gulf's coastal area (Bushehr Province), southwestern Iran. A total of 25 crossbred boars were collected during a course of vertebrate pest control in Bushehr province, in 2013. Samples were collected from the gastrointestinal tracts of each boar in 5% formalin, Bouin's solution, sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, and polyvinyl alcohol fixatives. Fixed stool smears examined by trichrome and Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Each of the 25 wild boars was infected with at least one of the intestinal protozoans. The rate of contamination with intestinal protozoan was 64% for Balantidium coli, 76% for Iodamoeba sp., 52% for Entamoeba polecki, 44% for Blastocystis sp. and 8% for Chilomastix sp. No intestinal coccidian was detected in studied boars when the stool samples were evaluated by Ziehl-Neelsen staining method. Findings of this study demonstrated that wild boars in the Persian Gulf coastal area are contaminated by many protozoans, including zoonotic protozoan, which poses a potential risk to locals as well as the domestic animals of the area.

  2. Zoonotic intestinal protozoan of the wild boars, Sus scrofa, in Persian Gulf’s coastal area (Bushehr province), Southwestern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Yaghoobi, Kambiz; Sarkari, Bahador; Mansouri, Majid; Motazedian, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Wild boars, Sus scrofa, are potential reservoirs of many zoonotic diseases, and there are a possibility of transmission of the zoonotic diseases from these animals to humans and also domestic animals. This study aimed to evaluate the protozoan contamination of wild boars in the Persian Gulf’s coastal area (Bushehr Province), southwestern Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 crossbred boars were collected during a course of vertebrate pest control in Bushehr province, in 2013. Samples were collected from the gastrointestinal tracts of each boar in 5% formalin, Bouin’s solution, sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, and polyvinyl alcohol fixatives. Fixed stool smears examined by trichrome and Ziehl–Neelsen staining. Results: Each of the 25 wild boars was infected with at least one of the intestinal protozoans. The rate of contamination with intestinal protozoan was 64% for Balantidium coli, 76% for Iodamoeba sp., 52% for Entamoeba polecki, 44% for Blastocystis sp. and 8% for Chilomastix sp. No intestinal coccidian was detected in studied boars when the stool samples were evaluated by Ziehl–Neelsen staining method. Conclusion: Findings of this study demonstrated that wild boars in the Persian Gulf coastal area are contaminated by many protozoans, including zoonotic protozoan, which poses a potential risk to locals as well as the domestic animals of the area. PMID:27847411

  3. Distribution and source of heavy metals in the surface sediments from the near-shore area, north Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang; Liu, Jian; Pei, Shaofeng; Kong, Xianghuai; Hu, Gang

    2014-06-15

    Samples of surface sediment and vibrocore were collected in the near-shore area of north Jiangsu Province for grain size, elements, (210)Pbexcess and (137)Cs analyses. In our study area, the diversity of metal concentration was controlled not by the grain size, but by the source. The element content of the old Yellow River Delta was used as baseline for our study area. Geoaccumulation indexes indicate that no station was polluted by Cu, Pb, Zn and As, but the Igeo values of As were close to zero in some stations. Slight pollution caused by Cd was observed in some stations. Correlation and enrichment factors suggest that Cu, Pb and Zn are lithogenic in origin, while As and Cd are mixed in origin. Especially, in some polluted stations Cd was obviously anthropogenic in origin.

  4. Goitre and urinary iodine in coastal and inland areas with low and high iodized salt coverage in Zhejiang province, China.

    PubMed

    Mo, Zhe; Wang, Xiao F; Mao, Guang M; Zhu, Wen M; Xu, Pei W; Zou, Yan; Wang, Yuan Y; Lou, Xiao M

    WHO recommended that iodized salt are more than 90% of households in USI programs, which may not be suitable for all regions, especially in coastal areas. This study intended to find out levels of iodine nutrition and give advice from the USI programs for areas with different iodized salt coverage. Coastal and inland areas were selected according to geographical regions in Zhejiang Province, China. The water iodine concentration (spectrophotometer analysis), salt iodine concentration (the colorimetric titration method), salt intake, urinary iodine concentration (spectrophotometer analysis), and thyroid volume examination (ultrasonography), as well as questionnaire, were measured in the two areas. Mean Urinary Iodine concentration (MUIs) of children in coastal areas was 149 μg/L, which was significantly lower than that in inland areas (191 μg/L). MUIs of pregnant women in coastal and inland areas were111 and 138 μg/L, respectively. Pregnant women who consumed iodine-containing supplements had higher MUIs (207 μg/L) than those did not (134 μg/L) in inland areas. Prevalence of goitre in children reached 7.0% and 6.6% in coastal and inland areas, respectively. The lowest prevalence of goitre was reached when the urinary iodine concentration was approximately 120-160 μg/L in coastal areas. Iodine levels of coastal and inland areas were in the adequate range. Advice from the USI program should be specialized for different areas to appropriately reduce the salt iodine concentrations in inland areas and to determine an appropriate proportion of households using iodized salt in coastal areas. Moreover, iodine supplement intake during pregnancy should officially be recommended.

  5. Selenium geochemical distribution in the environment and predicted human daily dietary intake in northeastern Qinghai, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dasong; Liang, Dongli; Lei, Lingming; Zhang, Rong; Sun, Xiaofeng; Lin, Zhiqing

    2015-08-01

    Ping'an is a selenium (Se)-rich region located in northeastern Qinghai Province of China. To better understand the selenium geochemical distribution and its potential ecological effects, this field study investigated the Se distribution in the local environment, soil Se bioavailability, and the daily dietary Se intake of Ping'an residents. Concentrations of total Se were determined in soil, plant, water, and food samples. Results showed that Ping'an is generally a Se-rich region in China. High-Se soil mainly distributes in the north of Hongshuiquan Town in the study region. Se concentration in 43 plant samples varied significantly from not detected (nd) to 904 μg/kg, following a descending order of pasture > grain > vegetable > fruit, which was much lower than other regions in China. The drinking water Se concentrations were also significantly lower than the European and Chinese surface water Se standards of 10 and 50 μg/L. The predicted daily dietary Se intake (48 ± 20 μg per person) in Ping'an met the demand of the WHO-recommended Se amount of 55 μg per person. The Se content is high in soil, but low in different kinds of plants and Se intake, indicating that Se that can be taken up by plants was very low. The K2HPO4-KH2PO4-extractable Se in the soil accounted for only 3% of the total soil Se, indicating that a low soil bioavailable Se might result in low Se accumulation in plant tissues in Ping'an. This might be due to the influences of geochemistry and the inherent properties of the parent materials of these soils. Therefore, further studies need to focus on better understanding the process and influential factors to soil Se bioavailability to successfully utilize the soil Se resource in low-Se-availability areas.

  6. Flooding Mitigation of seawalls and river embankments to storm surges in the coastal areas of Guangdong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianwei; Wang, Xina

    2017-04-01

    The coastal areas of Guangdong Province, China are susceptible to the destructions of tropical cyclones and storm surges. The projected global warming, coastal subsidence and sea level rise together will bring about greater flooding risk to these areas. The seawall and river embankment have played a significant role in mitigating and preventing the coastal low-land areas from the impairment of storm surges flooding and wave runup. However, few risk assessment studies in this region consider the existence of seawall and river embankment and often overestimate the risk and potential economic loss and population affected due to storm surge flooding. This study utilizes a hydraulic model to simulate the overtop flooding and compare those without seawall and river embankment using several specific tropic storm events and extreme events of tropic storm surges in different return periods of 2, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 and 500 years. Most seawalls are 4 or 5 meters plus another meter of wave levee above the local mean sea level. The river embankments are usually 4 or 5 meter higher than the local mean sea level as well and decrease from the outer estuary to the inner riverine. The modeling results considering seawall and river embankments and from real storm surges are in agreement with on-site survey and observations, while those without infusing seawall and river embankments overestimate the inundation condition and economic loss. Modeling results demonstrate that seawall and river embankment greatly reduce the flooding risk and prevent the low-land area from inundation for most tropic storm events, e.g., for extreme events less than 20 to 50 years, in the coastal areas of Guangdong Province, China. However, the seawall and river embankment may also cause catastrophic disasters once there is an engineering failure of seawalls and river embankment, especially once encountering with an extreme typhoon event, e.g., the 1969 super typhoon Viola in Shantou China and the 2005

  7. Perfluorinated Compounds in Greenhouse and Open Agricultural Producing Areas of Three Provinces of China: Levels, Sources and Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanwei; Tan, Dongfei; Geng, Yue; Wang, Lu; Peng, Yi; He, Zeying; Xu, Yaping; Liu, Xiaowei

    2016-12-10

    Field investigations on perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) levels in various environmental matrixes were reported, but there is still a lack of PFAA level data for agricultural environments, especially agricultural producing areas, so we collected soil, irrigation water and agricultural product samples from agricultural producing areas in the provinces of Liaoning, Shandong and Sichuan in China. The background pollution from instruments was removed and C₄-C18 PFAAs were detected by LC-MS/MS. The concentrations of PFAAs in the top and deep layers of soil were compared, and the levels of PFAAs in different agricultural environments (greenhouses and open agriculture) were analyzed. We found the order of PFAA levels by province was Shandong > Liaoning > Sichuan. A descending trend of PFAA levels from top to deep soil and open to greenhouse agriculture was shown and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) was considered as a marker for source analysis. Bean vegetables contribute highly to the overall PFAA load in vegetables. A significant correlation was shown between irrigation water and agricultural products. The EDI (estimated daily intake) from vegetables should be of concern in China.

  8. Assessment of heavy metal contamination and bioaccumulation in soybean plants from mining and smelting areas of southern Hunan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hang; Zeng, Min; Zhou, Xin; Liao, Bo-Han; Liu, Jun; Lei, Ming; Zhong, Qian-Yun; Zeng, Hui

    2013-12-01

    Soybean is one of most important dicotyledonous food crops and is widely planted in Hunan Province, China. However, mining activity causes contamination of the soil in which soybean grows. To assess the impact of mining-induced soil contamination on soybean plants, a geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) was used to evaluate 20 soil samples from the mining and smelting areas of southern Hunan Province. The results indicated that Zn ranged from uncontaminated to a moderately contaminated level (I(geo)<1), Pb was at a strongly contaminated level (I(geo)>3), and Cd was at an extremely contaminated level (I(geo)>5) across the whole study area. All of the studied soybean plants were affected by heavy metal Pb and Cd contamination, and the mean concentrations in seeds were 13.9 mg/kg and 2.95 mg/kg, respectively. The estimated bioconcentration factor and translocation factor showed that the soybean roots had a strong Cd bioconcentration capability and the stems had a strong translocation capability in terms of Pb, Cd, and Zn, with preferential transference of metals to the soybean leaves. The bioavailable fraction in the soil was characterized by the exchangeable fraction of heavy metals. In the present study, the bioavailable fractions of Pb, Cd, and Zn were significantly positively correlated with the concentration of these metals in soybean tissues (roots, stems, leaves, husks, and seeds). © 2013 SETAC.

  9. Perfluorinated Compounds in Greenhouse and Open Agricultural Producing Areas of Three Provinces of China: Levels, Sources and Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanwei; Tan, Dongfei; Geng, Yue; Wang, Lu; Peng, Yi; He, Zeying; Xu, Yaping; Liu, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    Field investigations on perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) levels in various environmental matrixes were reported, but there is still a lack of PFAA level data for agricultural environments, especially agricultural producing areas, so we collected soil, irrigation water and agricultural product samples from agricultural producing areas in the provinces of Liaoning, Shandong and Sichuan in China. The background pollution from instruments was removed and C4–C18 PFAAs were detected by LC-MS/MS. The concentrations of PFAAs in the top and deep layers of soil were compared, and the levels of PFAAs in different agricultural environments (greenhouses and open agriculture) were analyzed. We found the order of PFAA levels by province was Shandong > Liaoning > Sichuan. A descending trend of PFAA levels from top to deep soil and open to greenhouse agriculture was shown and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) was considered as a marker for source analysis. Bean vegetables contribute highly to the overall PFAA load in vegetables. A significant correlation was shown between irrigation water and agricultural products. The EDI (estimated daily intake) from vegetables should be of concern in China. PMID:27973400

  10. Reconnaissance investigation of the alluvial gold deposits in the North Takhar Area of Interest, Takhar Province, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Moran, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    This study is a reconnaissance assessment of the alluvial gold deposits of the North Takhar Area of Interest (AOI) in Takhar Province, Afghanistan. Soviet and Afghan geologists collected data and calculated the gold deposit reserves in Takhar Province in the 1970s, prior to the development of satellite-based remote-sensing platforms and new methods of geomorphic mapping. The purpose of this study was to integrate new mapping techniques with previously collected borehole sampling and concentration sampling data and geomorphologic interpretations to reassess the alluvial gold placer deposits in the North Takhar AOI. Through a combination of historical borehole and cross-section data and digital terrain modeling, the Samti, Nooraba-Khasar-Anjir, and Kocha River placer deposits were reassessed. Resource estimates were calculated to be 20,927 kilograms (kg) for Samti, 7,626 kg for Nooraba-Khasar-Anjir, 160 kg for the mouth of the Kocha, 1,047 kg for the lower Kocha, 113 kg for the middle Kocha, and 168 kg for the upper Kocha. Previous resource estimates conducted by the Soviets for the Samti and Nooraba-Khasar-Anjir deposits estimated 30,062 kg and 802 kg of gold, respectively. This difference between the new estimates and previous estimates results from the higher resolution geomorphic model and the interpretation of areas outside of the initial work zone studied by Soviet and Afghan geologists.

  11. GIS-based spatial statistical analysis of risk areas for liver flukes in Surin Province of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rujirakul, Ratana; Ueng-arporn, Naporn; Kaewpitoon, Soraya; Loyd, Ryan J; Kaewthani, Sarochinee; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2015-01-01

    It is urgently necessary to be aware of the distribution and risk areas of liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, for proper allocation of prevention and control measures. This study aimed to investigate the human behavior, and environmental factors influencing the distribution in Surin Province of Thailand, and to build a model using stepwise multiple regression analysis with a geographic information system (GIS) on environment and climate data. The relationship between the human behavior, attitudes (<50%; X111), environmental factors like population density (148-169 pop/km2; X73), and land use as wetland (X64), were correlated with the liver fluke disease distribution at 0.000, 0.034, and 0.006 levels, respectively. Multiple regression analysis, by equations OV=-0.599+0.005(population density (148-169 pop/km2); X73)+0.040 (human attitude (<50%); X111)+0.022 (land used (wetland; X64), was used to predict the distribution of liver fluke. OV is the patients of liver fluke infection, R Square=0.878, and, Adjust R Square=0.849. By GIS analysis, we found Si Narong, Sangkha, Phanom Dong Rak, Mueang Surin, Non Narai, Samrong Thap, Chumphon Buri, and Rattanaburi to have the highest distributions in Surin province. In conclusion, the combination of GIS and statistical analysis can help simulate the spatial distribution and risk areas of liver fluke, and thus may be an important tool for future planning of prevention and control measures.

  12. [Diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis in faeces scattered in areas of Puna and Quebrada. Province of Jujuy, Argentina].

    PubMed

    de Costas, Silvia Frison; Matas, Norma Riveros; Ricoy, Gerardo; Sosa, Sonia; Santillan, Graciela

    2014-01-01

    Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease common in livestock, caused by the cestode Echinococcus granulosus, the dog being the principal definitive host. The province of Jujuy is an endemic area located in the Northwest of Argentina. Due to the restricted ecological conditions of Quebrada and Puna, the most important activity of the population is formal cattle pastoralism and transhumance, especially of sheep and camelids. The dog acquires the double function of company and shepherd in these communities. The objective of the present study was to conduct a diagnosis of the situation in areas of La Quebrada and Puna where the circulation of E. granulosus is suspected. Five hundred and twenty three (523) samples of canine fecal material scattered in the environment were collected from 2002 to 2012. Prevalence varied from 2% in Susques to 27.7% in Humahuaca, the largest in the province. In Tumbaya, prevalence was 21% in the year 2007, reaching 0% in the year 2010 but increasing again to 10.5% in the year 2011. These results may be related to health education on preventive measures and mass deworming held prior to sample taking in the year 2010. A prevalence between 19.4% and 2% was observed in the rest of the regions studied, suggesting that a lack of strategies for echinococcosis control has allowed the spread of the disease. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. 76 FR 51934 - Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Mendoza Province, Argentina; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... recognize additional areas as pest- free areas for South American fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus) and all... of that country as being free of Ceratitis capitata, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly). Specifically... recognize additional areas as pest-free areas for Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) in...

  14. Opisthorchis viverrini infections and associated risk factors in a lowland area of Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Dao, Thanh Thi Ha; Bui, Tuan Van; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Gabriël, Sarah; Nguyen, Thanh Thi Giang; Huynh, Quang Hong; Nguyen, Chuong Van; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    Opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is a major public health problem in the Mekong Basin in South East Asia. It is associated with cholangiocarcinoma, a fatal cancer of the bile duct, which is very common in some areas of Thailand and Lao PDR. Although there is evidence of opisthorchiasis in the central and Southern provinces of Vietnam, data are scarce and Vietnam is often not considered an opisthorchiasis endemic area in the international literature. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in June 2015 in a lowland rural area of Binh Dinh Province in Central Vietnam to investigate the apparent prevalence of O. viverrini infection in the population and the associated risk factors. A total of 254 stool samples were collected and examined by the Kato Katz method. Consenting people shedding Opisthorchis-like eggs with their stools were treated with praziquantel and MgSO4 and adult worms were collected from stools for morphological and molecular identifications. Risk factors were studied with a structured questionnaire and the association with infection was evaluated by univariate and multivariate Firth's logistic regression analysis. The apparent prevalence in the investigated population determined by stool examination was 11.4% (CI: 8-16%). Infection with O. viverrini was confirmed in all 11 individuals consenting to receive praziquantel treatment and subsequent worm recovery from stools. The mean number of worms recovered after treatment/purgation was 14.5 (range 2-44). Male gender and the consumption of dishes prepared from raw small wild-caught freshwater fish (Carassius auratus) were found to be significant risk factors associated with opisthorchiasis in the area. These findings confirm the presence of O. viverrini infection in Central Vietnam related to the consumption of raw fish dishes. Awareness campaigns and control programs should be implemented in the region to combat this potentially fatal fluke infection.

  15. [Medicoecological studies in the assessment of biogeochemical province in the area of a toxic waste ground].

    PubMed

    Nagornyĭ, S V; Maĭmulov, V G; Tsybul'skaia, E A; Tigden, V P; Gorbanev, S A

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents the results of complex sanitary-and-epidemiological, toxicological-and-hygienic, and medical diagnostic studies of health and the environment, by taking into account the activity of a toxic industrial waste ground. Toxic waste burning on primitive unfiltered apparatuses was shown to lead to the formation of a biogeochemical province that is characterized by pollution of soil, bottom sediment, subsoil well water and snow with heavy metals, the components of toxic waste. Burning of waste and its storage in the open trenches resulted in ambient air pollution with organic solvents, nitric oxide and sulfur oxide had a negative impact on the health of children living at a distance of 3 km from the ground.

  16. Human Trypanosomiasis in the Eastern Region of the Panama Province: New Endemic Areas for Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Calzada, José E.; Pineda, Vanesa; Garisto, Juan D.; Samudio, Franklyn; Santamaria, Ana Maria; Saldaña, Azael

    2010-01-01

    The epidemiology of Chagas disease was studied in five rural communities located in the eastern region of the Panama Province. Serological tests for Trypanosoma cruzi infection revealed a prevalence of 5.88% (12/204). Hemocultures coupled with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis showed a Trypanosoma rangeli infection rate of 5.88% (12/204). An overall trypanosome infection index of 11.76% (24/204) was detected in this population. A total of 121 triatomine specimens were collected in domestic and peridomestic habitats. Rhodnius pallescens was confirmed as the predominant species. Molecular analysis showed that 17.8% (13/73) of the examined insects were positive for T. cruzi, 17.8% (13/73) for T. rangeli, and 35.6% (26/73) presented mixed infections. Among 73 R. pallescens evaluated, 16.4% (12/73) contained opossum blood meals. The epidemiological implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:20348502

  17. Rice from mercury contaminated areas in Guizhou Province induces c-jun expression in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jin-Ping; Wang, Wen-Hua; Qu, Li-Ya; Jia, Jin-Ping; Zheng, Min; Ji, Xiu-Ling; Yuan, Tao

    2005-04-01

    Mercury (Hg), as one of the priority pollutants and also a hot topic of frontier environmental research in many countries, has been paid higher attention in the world since the middle of the last century. Guizhou Province (at N24 degrees 30'-29 degrees 13', E103 degrees 1'-109 degrees 30', 1 100 m above the sea level, with subtropical humid climate) in southwest China is an important mercury production center. It has been found that the mercury content in most media of aquatics, soil, atmosphere and in biomass of corns, plants and animals, is higher than the national standard. The present study aims to explore the influence of mercury pollution on the health of local citizens. The effect of rice from two mercury polluted experimental plots of Guizhou Province on the expression of c-jun mRNA in rat brain and c-jun protein in cortex, hippocampus and ependyma was observed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunocytochemical methods. The results showed that the mercury polluted rice induced expression of c-jun mRNA and its protein significantly. Selenium can reduce Hg uptake, an antagonism between selenium and mercury on the expression of c-jun mRNA and c-jun protein. c-jun participates in the toxicity process of brain injury by mercury polluted rice, the expression of c-jun mRNA in brain, and c-jun protein in rat cortex and hippocampus can predict neurotoxicity of mercury polluted rice. People should be advised to be cautious in eating any kind of Hg-polluted foods. To reveal the relationship between c-jun induction and apoptosis, further examinations are required.

  18. The effects of biotic and abiotic factors on the spatial heterogeneity of alpine grassland vegetation at a small scale on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), China.

    PubMed

    Wen, Lu; Dong, Shi Kui; Li, Yuan Yuan; Sherman, Ruth; Shi, Jian Jun; Liu, De Mei; Wang, Yan Long; Ma, Yu Shou; Zhu, Lei

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the complex effects of biotic and abiotic factors on the composition of vegetation is very important for developing and implementing strategies for promoting sustainable grassland development. The vegetation-disturbance-environment relationship was examined in degraded alpine grasslands in the headwater areas of three rivers on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in this study. The investigated hypotheses were that (1) the heterogeneity of the vegetation of the alpine grassland is due to a combination of biotic and abiotic factors and that (2) at a small scale, biotic factors are more important for the distribution of alpine vegetation. On this basis, four transects were set along altitudinal gradients from 3,770 to 3,890 m on a sunny slope, and four parallel transects were set along altitudinal gradients on a shady slope in alpine grasslands in Guoluo Prefecture of Qinghai Province, China. It was found that biological disturbances were the major forces driving the spatial heterogeneity of the alpine grassland vegetation and abiotic factors were of secondary importance. Heavy grazing and intensive rat activity resulted in increases in unpalatable and poisonous weeds and decreased fine forages in the form of sedges, forbs, and grasses in the vegetation composition. Habitat degradation associated with biological disturbances significantly affected the spatial variation of the alpine grassland vegetation, i.e., more pioneer plants of poisonous or unpalatable weed species, such as Ligularia virgaurea and Euphorbia fischeriana, were found in bare patches. Environmental/abiotic factors were less important than biological disturbances in affecting the spatial distribution of the alpine grassland vegetation at a small scale. It was concluded that rat control and light grazing should be applied first in implementing restoration strategies. The primary vegetation in lightly grazed and less rat-damaged sites should be regarded as a reference for devising vegetation

  19. Epidemiology of Echinococcosis among Schoolchildren in Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Huixia; Guan, Yayi; Ma, Xiao; Wang, Liying; Wang, Hu; Su, Guoming; Zhang, Xuefei; Han, Xiumin; Ma, Junying; Liu, Yu Fang; Li, Jun; Zhang, Jingxiao; Wang, Yongshun; Wang, Wei; Du, Rui; Lei, Wen; Wu, Weiping

    2017-01-01

    Echinococcosis is a serious zoonotic parasitic disease that is highly endemic in Qinghai Province. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of echinococcosis among schoolchildren in Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture to improve early diagnosis and treatment of patients and to provide information for echinococcosis prevention and control. A total of 11,260 schoolchildren from five counties (Maqin, Gander, Dari, Jiuzhi, and Banma) in Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai Province, were screened for echinococcosis. Screening involved ultrasound imaging combined with serologic examination as an auxiliary diagnostic test. The prevalence of echinococcosis in the schoolchildren was 2.1% (235/11,260), with a rate of 0.8% for cystic echinococcosis (CE; 89/11,260) and 1.3% for alveolar echinococcosis (AE; 146/11,260). Additionally, one child had a mixed infection. The prevalence ranged between 1.1% and 4.1% among the five investigated counties, and was highest in Dari County (4.1%). The prevalence of echinococcosis was higher in girls than in boys and gradually increased with age. In addition, children with CE mainly had type 1 (CE1) and type 3 (CE3) lesions, and children with AE mainly had small-diameter calcified lesions, suggesting that they were in the early asymptomatic stage of echinococcosis. In conclusion, children of Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture appear to exhibit the highest recorded prevalence of CE and AE globally. Ultrasound is useful for screening populations in regions where both CE and AE are endemic. PMID:28070013

  20. Remote sensing of severe convective storms over Qinghai-Xizang Plateau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Liu, J. M.; Tsao, D. Y.; Smith, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The American satellite, GOES-1 was moved to the Indian Ocean at 58 deg E during the First GARP Global Experiment (FGGE). The Qinghai-Xizang Plateau significantly affects the initiation and development of heavy rainfall and severe storms in China, just as the Rocky Mountains influence the local storms in the United States. Satelite remote sensing of short-lived, meso-scale convective storms is particularly important for covering a huge area of a high elevation with a low population density, such as the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. Results of this study show that a high growth rate of the convective clouds, followed by a rapid collapse of the cloud top, is associated with heavy rainfall in the area. The tops of the convective clouds developed over the Plateau lie between the altitudes of the two tropopauses, while the tops of convective clouds associated with severe storms in the United States usually extend much above the tropopause.

  1. The 2010 Qinghai, China earthquake: a moderate supershear earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Mori, J.

    2010-12-01

    A moderately large (Mw6.9) strike-slip earthquake in eastern Qinghai province, China occurred on April 13, 2010 and caused extensive damage to structures with over 2200 deaths. The severe ground motions and resultant damage in the town of Yushu may be at least partially attributed to the extremely fast speed of the rupture front as it propagated along the fault toward this location. A nearfield seismogram recorded at station Yushu clearly documents that the rupture speed is faster than the S velocity. From analyses using both near-field and teleseismic data, we estimate the very fast speed to be 4.6 to 5.4 km/sec, depending on the length of the super-shear segment. The higher estimate is close to, or possibly greater than the local P velocity. We examined teleseismic records for this earthquake using an empirical Green function deconvolution of the P waves of teleseismic records, we can identify two pulses of high frequency radiation that show the rupture directivity toward the southeast. The two high frequency centroids were generated from fault segments that are 6.5 km and 41.8 km southeast of the epicenter, respectively. We suggest that the sources of high frequency waves are related to the change of rupture velocity to supershear speed.

  2. Anaemia among Students of Rural China's Elementary Schools: Prevalence and Correlates in Ningxia and Qinghai's Poor Counties

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Renfu; Liu, Chengfang; Zhao, Qiran; Shi, Yaojiang; Miller, Grant; Yu, Elaine; Sharbono, Brian; Medina, Alexis; Rozelle, Scott; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2011-01-01

    Although the past few decades have seen rising incomes and increased government attention to rural development, many children in rural China still lack regular access to micronutrient-rich diets. Insufficient diets and poor knowledge of nutrition among the poor result in nutritional problems, including iron-deficiency anaemia, which adversely affect attention and learning of students in school. Little research has been conducted in China documenting the prevalence of nutritional problems among vulnerable populations, such as school-age children, in rural areas. The absence of programmes to combat anaemia among students might be interpreted as a sign that the Government does not recognize its severity. The goals of this paper were to measure the prevalence of anaemia among school-age children in poor regions of Qinghai and Ningxia, to identify individual-, householdand school-based factors that correlate with anaemia in this region, and to report on the correlation between the anaemic status and the physical, psychological and cognitive outcomes. The results of a cross-sectional survey are reported here. The survey involved over 4,000 fourth and fifth grade students from 76 randomly-selected elementary schools in 10 poor counties in rural Qinghai province and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, located in the northwest region of China. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and standardized tests. Trained professional nurses administered haemoglobin (Hb) tests (using Hemocue finger prick kits) and measured heights and weights of children. The baseline data showed that the overall anaemia rate was 24.9%, using the World Health Organization's blood Hb cut-offs of 120 g/L for children aged 12 years and older and 115 g/L for children aged 11 years and under. Children who lived and ate at school had higher rates of anaemia, as did children whose parents worked in farms or were away from home. Children with parents who had lower levels of education were more

  3. [Study on hospitalization expenses of flood disaster areas' residents of Dongting Lake in Hunan province in 1998].

    PubMed

    Meng, Wei; Yang, Tu-bao; Tan, Hong-zhuan; Li, Shuo-qi; Liu, Ai-zhong; Zhou, Jia; Xie, Mei-zhi; Tang, Xue-min; Tang, Sen-lin; Zhang, Xiu-min; Xiang, Bao-lin; He, Hua-xian; Li, Lin-lin

    2003-08-01

    To study the expenses of hospitalization among the population in the flood disaster areas of Dongting Lake in Hunan province in 1998. Descriptive epidemiologic study were conducted to analyze hospitalization expenses of the residents of 55 villages in flood disaster areas in 1998; single factors analysis and logarithmic linear regression analysis were carried out to explore influencing factors about hospitalization expenses of the residents. The hospitalization rate was 4.59% with an average hospitalization expenses of 667.42 Yuan in the flood disaster areas' residents of Dongting Lake in 1998. Compared with populations without suffering from flood, hospitalization rate and the average hospitalization expenses of flood disaster Areas' residents of Dongting Lake in 1998 were higher and had significant difference. The average hospitalization expenses in 1998 was affected by flood types, family income, gender, age, literacy, occupation, outcome after leaving the hospital and hospital ranks. These results implied that the flood disease aggravated inhabitants' burden of disease in Dongting Lake areas; the factors influencing the average hospitalization expenses were multiple, and synthetic measures should be taken in the prevention and control of flood disaster.

  4. Prospective study of asbestos-related diseases incidence cases in primary health care in an area of Barcelona province

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Asbestos related diseases include a number of conditions due to inhalation of asbestos fibres at work, at home or in the environment, such as pleural mesothelioma, asbestosis and calcified pleural plaques. Few epidemiological studies have established the incidence of asbestos related diseases in our area. The present proposal is based on a retrospective study externally funded in 2005 that is currently taking place in the same area and largely carried out by the same research team. The aim of the study is to achieve a comprehensive and coordinated detection of all new cases of Asbestos Related Diseases presenting to primary care practitioners. Methods/design This is a multicentre, multidisciplinary and pluri-institutional prospective study. Setting 12 municipalities in the Barcelona province within the catchment area of the health facilities that participate in the study. Sample This is a population based study, of all patients presenting with diseases caused by asbestos in the study area. Measurements A clinical and epidemiological questionnaire will be filled in by the trained researchers after interviewing the patients and examining their clinical reports. Discussion Data on the incidence of the different Asbestos Related Diseases in this area will be obtained and the most plausible exposure source and space-time-patient profile will be described. The study will also improve the standardization of patient management, the coordination between health care institutions and the development of preventive activities related with asbestos exposure and disease. PMID:20412567

  5. [Influencing factors of malnutrition of the children within 6 years in pour rural areas of Yunnan Province].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiang; Wan, Rong; Wan, Qingqing; Li, Juanjuan

    2012-07-01

    To analyze the status of malnutrition for the children within 6 years in pour rural areas of Yunnan during 2006 - 2009 and to study it's influencing factors. By the random cluster sampling and stratified sampling methods, 4873 children within 6 years in rural areas were selected from four poverty-stricken counties in Yunnan Province. The questionnaire survey including questionnaire, anthropometric measurement and dietary survey such as body height and weight were used respectively for the survey. Z scores were calculated to evaluate the nutritional status. The prevalence of malnutrition was calculated by statistics software. Multiple factors analysis were finished by non condition logistic regression in software. During 2006 - 2009, of all children under the age of 6 years, the underweight rate is 15.2%, stunted growth rate is 11.5% and emaciation rate is 7.1% in impoverished rural area of Yunnan Province. Removing other variables, the result indicated: (1) The children with breastfeeding in first six months are less possible to get malnutrition than the children with formula feeding or mixed breastfeeding and formula feeding. (2) The children who are complemented grains, eggs, fruits and zinc supplement are less possible to get malnutrition than those children who are not. (3) Comparing these children who are provided with calcium supplement, the children who are not are more possible to get malnutrition. (4) Supplying supplementary such as animal liver and blood in earlier period can decrease the possibility to get malnutrition among 2-5 years old children. The main influencing factors of Children malnutrition include feeding ways in first six months, increasing supplementary food in recent one month among the children younger than 2 years old, month age when supplementary food were introduced in 2-5 years old children, and the types and frequency of introducing supplementary food among 2-5 years old children.

  6. [Epidemiological survey on clonorchiasis sinensis in an endemic area of South Hunan Province].

    PubMed

    Duan, Ji-Hui; Tang, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Qiao-Zhi; Tang, Yang; Zhang, Zong-Si; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Liu, Ai-Hua; Wu, Yan-Jun; Chen, Wen-Hua; Huang, Qi-Rong

    2009-12-01

    To make an epidemiological investigation on clonorchiasis sinensis and relevant factors in the south of Hunan Province. One village from each of Lengshuitan District and Qiyang County was selected for the survey from November to December in 2006. Stool samples from villagers were collected and examined by modified Kato-Katz method. Questionnairing was performed for relevant knowledge and attitude among residents. The infection rate in animal reservoirs and intermediate hosts were detected. A total of 586 cases with Clonorchis sinensis infection were found from 777 people with a prevalence of 75.4%. The average egg density was 451 eggs per gram (EPG) feces. Light, moderate and heavy infections occupied 85.5% (501/586), 14.0% (82/586), and 0.5% (3/586) respectively. Prevalence in males and females was 76.9% (316/411) and 73.8% (270/366) respectively with no significant difference (chi2 = 1.013, P > 0.05). Infections were found in all age groups, with the highest prevalence in the group of 70 to 79 years (85.7%, 30/35). By occupations, the prevalence was 82.5% (447/542) in peasants, 79.3% (42/53) in doctors, 73.7% (28/38) in teachers, and 73.5% (25/34) in local cadres. The infection rate was 17.4% (29/167) and 7.4% (2/27) in Parafossarulus seriatulus and Alocinma longicornis, and 69.2% (9/13) and 5.3% (1/19) in Carassius auratus and Cyprinus carpios respectively. Adult worms were found in all 3 dogs dissected. Over 80% inhabitants did not know that this disease can be acquired by eating raw fish. 95.6% (153/160) of the farmers and 56.7% (349/616) of the students had a history of eating raw fish. The water was contaminated with C. sinensis eggs by using untreated feces as fertilizer for farming and by scrubbing pail latrines in the ponds. The prevalence of clonorchiasis in human population is high in Lengshuitan District and Qiyang County of Hunan Province. Eating raw fish and using untreated feces as fertilizer are the most important epidemiological factors of the

  7. Using multi-temporal remote sensing for mining area monitoring and management: the Yunnan Province case study (China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianping; Tarolli, Paolo; Li, Ke; Yang, Xiaofei

    2014-05-01

    Abundant mineral resource is the basis for high-speed social and economic development, and huge economic benefits promoted the rapid development of modern mining industry. However, mining leaves the most significant signature on the Earth, by strongly changing and influencing landscapes and eco-systems. Disasters like water/soil pollution, soil erosion, landslides and land subsidence are often induced by mining activities. Multi-temporal remote sensing surveys can offer a basis upon which develop methodologies for better understanding the influences of mining on landscapes and related Earth surface processes. The aim of the study is to monitor a mining area using multi-temporal remote sensing data, for discovering and evaluating the influence of the mining activities on the environment. Our research area is located in Yunnan Province, China, where open-pit mining activities have been going on for about 10 years. For the study area there is the availability of multi-temporal spatial adjusted remote sensing images (2001 TM with resolution of 30m/pix, 2009 TM with resolution of 30m/pix, 2011 WV-II with resolution of 0.5m/pix, 2012 WV-II with resolution of 0.5m/pix). Through photo interpretation, it was possible to collect the evolutions of mining area, and to recognize areas subject to erosion and landsliding. The results have been validated using field surveys carried out in 2011 and 2012. The multi-temporal image interpretation indicates that the mining activities started between 2001 and 2009, with a significant increasing of land degradation between 2009 and 2012. This study represents the first step of a long-term analysis of Yunnan Province mining area. The goal is to arrange a multi-sensor yearly survey using different platforms and technologies (e.g. ground GPS, Structure from Motion photogrammetric technique SfM, UAV, and airborne and terrestrial laser scanner), in order to better understand the landscape evolution of the area, and analyze in detail the Earth

  8. [Species-area and species-abundance relationships of arthropod community in various vegetation restoration areas in Zhifanggou watershed, Shaanxi province of Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Hong, Bo; Li, Ying-Mei; Chen, Zhi-Jie; Zhang, Shu-Lian; Zhao, Hui-Yan

    2013-02-01

    Taking the Zhifanggou watershed in Ansai, Shaanxi Province of Northwest China as a study unit, an investigation on the arthropods in 8 forest stands was conducted from 2006 to 2008, with the species-area and species-abundance relationships of the arthropods in these stands analyzed by various mathematical models. In these forest stands, the species-area relationship of the arthropods accorded with the formula S= CAm With the increase of investigation area, the species number approached to a constant, and the corresponding smallest investigation area was in the order of natural bush > natural forest > Populus davidiana+Robinia pseudoacacia forest > Hippaphae rhamnoides +Caragana mocrophylla forest> Periploca sepium forest > Hippaphae rhamnoides forest > Robinia pseudoacacia forest > Caragana mocrophylla forest, indicating that the more complex the stands, the larger the minimum area needed to be investigated. Based on sampling investigation, the species-abundance models of the arthropods in various stands were established. Lognormal distribution model (LN) was most suitable to fit the arthropod community in natural recovery stands, suggesting that in the arthropod community, there were more species with medial individual amount and fewer abundant species and rare species, and no obvious dominant species. LogCauchy distribution model (LC) was most suitable to fit the arthropod community in mixed and pure stands. As compared with natural recovery stand, mixed and pure stands had more abundant and rare species, and more dominant species.

  9. [Species-area relationship at different succession stages of monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest in south subtropical area of Yunnan Province].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wan-De; Su, Jian-Rong; Li, Shuai-Feng; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Lang, Xue-Dong

    2011-02-01

    Based on the investigation data of monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest at its different succession stages (primary, CP; 15 years of succession, CF; and 30 years of succession, CT) in Pu' er of Yunnan Province, this paper studied the species-area relationship of this forest at each succession stage. It was found that in the communities at each succession stage, the number of total species, trees, shrubs, and lianas had a significant correlation with sampling area, with the area explained over 94% of the total variation. The Z value of the total species (0.334) and trees (0.394) was the lowest at CT, whereas that of shrubs (0.437) and lianas (0.326) was the lowest at CF. No significant differences were observed in the intercepts of the species-area curve of total species, trees, shrubs, and lianas among different succession stages, but the coefficient of determination (R2) of the species-area curve of total species and lianas was the highest at CP. The richness of trees and shrubs at CF explained 99.9% of the variance of Z value, but the richness of total species, trees, shrubs, and lianas at CP and CT had no significant correlations with the Z value.

  10. Factors affecting utilization of health centers in a rural area of Chon Buri Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, D R; Ittiravivongs, A

    1994-06-01

    A descriptive study was carried out in two subdistricts of Nong Heng and Nong Kakha, Phan Thong District, Chon Buri Province eastern Thailand with the aim to determine factors affecting health center utilization. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 206 randomly selected households in which household head or senior person in each household was interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The study household was classified as either high or low health center utilization group on the basis of using health services more than 50% of total health services needed in each household. The results revealed that age group, sex, education, family size, and distance from household to health center were not associated with the utilization of health center, whereas occupation, economic status, knowledge and attitude towards health center and quality as well as convenience of health services were found to be associated with health center utilization. It was seemed that underutilization of health centers was multifactorial, in which some factors were related with the personality of individual whereas others were concerned with the health center itself.

  11. [Mid-term evaluation on schistosomiasis control effect in Lushan earthquake-stricken areas in Sichuan Province].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Xu, Bao-hua; Chen, Lin; Wu, Zi-song; Xiao, Zhi-yong; Wang, Chao-fu; Xie, Ming-kang; Zhang, Yi; Lu, Ding; Xu, Liang; Mao, Yong; Li, Rong-zhi; Yang, Yuh; Xu, Jia; Wan, Jia-jia; Qiu, Dong-chuan; Zhong, Bo

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of schistosomiasis control in Lushan earthquake-stricken areas in Sichuan Province, so as to provide the evidence for formulating appropriate measures for schistosomiasis prevention and control. According to the data of historical schistosomiasis prevalence, 5 villages were selected as research sites and field investigations were conducted. The average density of Oncomelania hupensis snails was 0.41 snails/0.1 m2, and there were no schistosome-infected snails. There were no acute schistosomiasis cases in these five villages. For local residents, the health education leaflets were more suitable than warning signs, and for migrant population, they were more concerned about the warning signs. After the implementation of effective prevention and control works, the epidemic risks of schistosomiasis have been controlled. However, the health education, surveillance, and prevention measures for schistosomiasis still need to be persisted in.

  12. 75 FR 36347 - Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Mendoza Province, Argentina; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... recognize additional areas as pest- free areas for Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) in Argentina... being free of Ceratitis capitata, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly).\\1\\ Specifically, the Government of... ``Subpart-Fruits and Vegetables'' (7 CFR 319.56-1 through 319.56-50, referred to below as the...

  13. Hydrology of Area 61, Northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain Coal Provinces, Colorado and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, P.O.; Geldon, Arthur L.; Cain, Doug; Hall, Alan P.; Edelmann, Patrick

    1983-01-01

    Area 61 is located on the Colorado-New Mexico boundary in Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, Colorado, and Colfax County, New Mexico, and includes the Raton Mesa coal region. The 5 ,900-square-mile area is an asymmetrical structural trough bounded by the Rocky Mountains on the west and the Great Plains on the east. The area is drained by the Huerfano, Apishapa, Purgatoire, and Canadian Rivers (and their tributaries), all tributary to the Arkansas River. The principal coal-bearing formations are the Vermejo Formation of Late Cretaceous age and the Raton Formation of Late Cretaceous and Paleocene age. Much of the coal in the area is of coking quality, important to the metallurgical industry. Topographic relief in the area is greater than 8,700 feet, and this influences the climate which in turn affects the runoff pattern of area streams. Summer thunderstorms often result in flash floods. Virtually all geologic units in the region yield water. Depth to ground water ranges from land surface to 400 feet. Surface and ground water in the area contain mostly bicarbonate and sulfate ions; locally in the ground water, chloride ions predominate. Potential hydrologic problems associated with surface coal mining in the area are water-quality degradation, water-table decline, and increased erosion and sedimentation. (USGS)

  14. [Etiological analysis of the children with non-specific chronic cough in Fuzhou area of Fujian province].

    PubMed

    Tang, Su-ping; Liu, Yan-lin; Dong, Li; Hua, Yun-han; Guo, Yi-hua; Lu, Quan

    2011-02-01

    Chronic cough in children is a common pediatric symptom with complex causes and its diagnosis is difficult; chronic cough affects the life of children in both physical and mental health and also learning. Therefore this study aimed to investigate the causes of chronic cough in children in Fuzhou area of Fujian province. Data were collected from 364 children with chronic cough who visited the asthma specialist clinic of Children's Hospital of Fuzhou, Fujian Province from March 2009 to April 2010. The diagnosis was made according to Guideline for Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Cough in Pediatrics published in 2008. Among the patients, 241 were boys and 123 girls. The patients were divided into 3 age groups: group 1, 1 to 3 years old (infants and young children group, n = 75); group 2, 4 to 6 years old (pre-school group, n = 215); and group 3, over 7 years (school-age group, n = 74), the mean age was (4.8 ± 1.1) years (3 months to 14 years), course of the illness was (4.5 ± 1.8) months (4 weeks to 38 months). Mycoplasma pneumoniae was detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The causes of chronic cough were as follows: 171 cases (46.98%) had cough variant asthma; 104 cases (28.57%) had upper airway cough syndrome; 58 cases (15.93%) had respiratory infections; 17 cases (4.67%) had gastroesophageal reflux; 3 cases (0.82%) had foreign bodies. Totally 9 cases (2.47%) had chronic cough associated with 3 causes; 56 cases (15.38%) had 2 causes and 299 cases (82.14%) had single cause. The main causes of cough in the group of pre-school children were cough variant asthma and upper airway cough syndrome. The proportion of the upper airway cough syndrome in school-age children group was the highest among the 3 age groups, which is flowed by cough variant asthma. The causes of chronic cough in children were cough variant asthma, upper airway cough syndrome, respiratory infections, cough after infection, gastroesophageal reflux and foreign bodies in Fuzhou area

  15. Interprovincial transfer of embodied energy between the Jing-Jin-Ji area and other provinces in China: A quantification using interprovincial input-output model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiming; Wu, Sanmang; Lei, Yalin; Li, Shantong

    2017-04-15

    Commodity trade between regions implies a large amount of energy transfer. As an important economic growth pole of China, the Jing-Jin-Ji area (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei) is also one of the areas with the largest energy consumption in China. Moreover, the primary energy consumer goods in this area are fossil fuels, such as coal. This has led to serious air pollution in the area. Therefore, the reduction of energy consumption under the premise of maintaining sustained economic growth is an important task of the Jing-Jin-Ji area. In this study, an interprovincial input-output model was applied to quantitatively estimate the embodied energy transfer between Jing-Jin-Ji area and other provinces in China. The results indicated that the Metal and nonmetal mineral processing industry and the Electrical, gas and water industry in the Jing-Jin-Ji area exported a large amount of embodied energy to the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta. However, the embodied energy export of the Jing-Jin-Ji area mainly exported by Hebei province. Beijing and Tianjin even have some net import of embodied energy. The embodied energy transfer between Tianjin, Hebei and other provinces was mainly driven by investment, while the main media of embodied energy transfer between Beijing and other provinces was consumption. Therefore, we suggest that the Jing-Jin-Ji area should further increase the degree of dependence on other provinces' energy-intensive products and reduce the export of energy-intensive products. In addition, there should be difference in the energy and industrial policies among Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, and the problems of high energy consumption and high proportion of heavy industry in Hebei should be first resolved.

  16. High prevalence of cattle fascioliasis in coastal areas of Thua Thien Hue province, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    NGUYEN, Nga Thi; LE, Thinh Cong; VO, Minh Duc Co; VAN CAO, Hoang; NGUYEN, Ly Thi; HO, Khanh Thi; NGUYEN, Quyet Ngoc; TRAN, Vui Quang; MATSUMOTO, Yasunobu

    2017-01-01

    In Vietnam, especially central Vietnam, patients with fascioliasis are increasingly being reported. Since the fascioliasis is zoonotic, survey on the cattle fascioliasis should be informative for the control of human fascioliasis. In this study, the prevalence of cattle fascioliasis as well as the density of the intermediate host snails, Lymnaea swinhoei and L. viridis, were studied in Thua Thien Hue (TTH) province during 2014–2015. A total of 572 cattle feces were examined from 27 communes in 9 districts. Fasciola eggs were detected in cattle from 24 communes with an average prevalence of 23.4% (134/ 572). The highest prevalence was detected in cattle in the coastal plain terrain (31.0%) followed by plain (25.5%), mountain (21.7%), and low hilly (16.2%) terrains. The highest proportion of heavy infection (>200 EPG) was observed in the coastal plain terrain (36.1%), followed by mountains (20.0%), low hills (13.0%), and plains (8.9%). Low number of heavy infection, as well as relatively low prevalence in low hills and plains were associated with the extensive use of anti-fluke treatments. High number of intermediate host snails in low hilly and plain terrains also indicate high risk of fascioliasis. In this study, the density of Lymnaea snails in the coastal plain terrain was found to be very high (17.3 snails/m2) compared to that in previous studies. This is the first report indicating the recent expansion of cattle fascioliasis in the coastal region in Vietnam. PMID:28458272

  17. Vegetation mapping of the Mond Protected Area of Bushehr Province (south-west Iran).

    PubMed

    Mehrabian, Ahmadreza; Naqinezhad, Alireza; Mahiny, Abdolrassoul Salman; Mostafavi, Hossein; Liaghati, Homan; Kouchekzadeh, Mohsen

    2009-03-01

    Arid regions of the world occupy up to 35% of the earth's surface, the basis of various definitions of climatic conditions, vegetation types or potential for food production. Due to their high ecological value, monitoring of arid regions is necessary and modern vegetation studies can help in the conservation and management of these areas. The use of remote sensing for mapping of desert vegetation is difficult due to mixing of the spectral reflectance of bright desert soils with the weak spectral response of sparse vegetation. We studied the vegetation types in the semiarid to arid region of Mond Protected Area, south-west Iran, based on unsupervised classification of the Spot XS bands and then produced updated maps. Sixteen map units covering 12 vegetation types were recognized in the area based on both field works and satellite mapping. Halocnemum strobilaceum and Suaeda fruticosa vegetation types were the dominant types and Ephedra foliata, Salicornia europaea-Suaeda heterophylla vegetation types were the smallest. Vegetation coverage decreased sharply with the increase in salinity towards the coastal areas of the Persian Gulf. The highest vegetation coverage belonged to the riparian vegetation along the Mond River, which represents the northern boundary of the protected area. The location of vegetation types was studied on the separate soil and habitat diversity maps of the study area, which helped in final refinements of the vegetation map produced.

  18. Hydrology of area 8, eastern Coal Province, West Virginia and Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friel, E.A.; Ehlke, T.A.; Hobba, W.A.; Ward, S.M.; Schultz, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The hydrology of Area 8 in the Ohio River basin in northwestern West Virginia and southeastern Ohio, is influenced by geology and geologic structure. Rocks underlying the area consist of alternating beds of sandstone, siltstone, shale, limestone, and mudstone. Minable coal is contained within the Pennsylvania and Permian rocks. Coal production in 1980 totaled 6.7 million tons from underground mines and one million tons from surface mines. There is a wide range of soil types (29 soil associations) in five land-resource areas. Precipitation averages about 41 inches annually and is greatest at higher altitudes along the eastern boundary of the area. Average annual runoff ranges from 13 to 29 inches per year. The principal land uses are forest and agriculture. Estimated water use during 1980 was 1,170 million gallons per day. Surface-water quality ranges from excellent to poor. The highest iron, manganese and sulfate concentrations were present in mined areas. Well yields range from less than 1 to 350 gallons per minute. Groundwater from the Mississippian rocks contain lesser amounts of dissolved solids than water from the Lower Pennsylvanian rocks. Water high in chloride content is present in some valley areas. (USGS)

  19. A cohort study of infant feeding practices in city, suburban and rural areas in Zhejiang Province, PR China

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Liqian; Zhao, Yun; Binns, Colin W; Lee, Andy H; Xie, Xing

    2008-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is the basis for appropriate nutrition for infants and is strongly supported by the Ministry of Health in China. However, there are differences in infant feeding practices in different areas of the country. The aim of this study was to compare the infant feeding practices and the prevalence of determinants of initiation and continuing to breastfeed until six months of age in city, suburb and rural areas in Zhejiang Province, PRC. Methods A longitudinal cohort study of infant feeding practices was undertaken in city, suburban and rural areas in 2004/2005. Mothers were recruited and interviewed before discharge from hospitals. A total of 1520 mothers were recruited into the study. Follow-up interviews were administered at 1, 3 and 6 months after birth to obtain details of infant feeding practices. Results 'Any breastfeeding' rates were high before discharge at all three locations, 96.5% in city, 96.8% in suburb and 97.4% in the rural area. The 'exclusive breastfeeding' rates in the city, suburban and rural areas before discharge were 38.0%, 63.4% and 61.0% respectively. By sixth months the 'any breastfeeding' rates had declined to 62.8%, 76.9% and 83.6% and the 'exclusive breastfeeding' rates had fallen to 0.2%, 0.5% and 7.2% in city, suburb and rural areas respectively. There were differences in feeding practices between the three locations, including the use of prelacteal feeds and the introduction of supplementary feeds. Conclusion Mothers who lived in the city were least likely to be 'exclusive breastfeeding' at discharge. At six months the city infants also had lower rates of 'any breastfeeding' and 'exclusive breastfeeding'. PMID:18315865

  20. Tracking data from nine free-roaming Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) collared in the Thabazimbi area, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Marnewick, Kelly; Roxburgh, Lizanne; Somers, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background In partnership with the University of Pretoria, the Endangered Wildlife Trust’s Carnivore Conservation Programme collared six male and three female free-roaming Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Thabazimbi area in Limpopo Province, South Africa. This study was undertaken to determine the spatial ecology of free-roaming Cheetahs that occur outside of formal protected areas on private ranchland, where they frequently come into conflict with, and are sometimes killed by, private landowners. The data were collected between September 2003 and November 2008, resulting in a total of 3165 location points (65 points from VHF collars and 3100 from GPS collars) for nine individual Cheetahs. New information This dataset provides distribution information about this Vulnerable species occurring outside of protected areas within South Africa. The dataset has been published to the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (www.GBIF.org) and provides the largest dataset on Cheetahs thus far, and, although it is spatially limited to a relatively small region on the African continent, it is the first study of its kind within South Africa. Also of significance is that the fate of 6 of the 9 collared Cheetahs is known, all except one of which died of anthropogenic causes. PMID:28325981

  1. Tracking data from nine free-roaming Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) collared in the Thabazimbi area, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Marnewick, Kelly; Page-Nicholson, Samantha; Roxburgh, Lizanne; Somers, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    In partnership with the University of Pretoria, the Endangered Wildlife Trust's Carnivore Conservation Programme collared six male and three female free-roaming Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Thabazimbi area in Limpopo Province, South Africa. This study was undertaken to determine the spatial ecology of free-roaming Cheetahs that occur outside of formal protected areas on private ranchland, where they frequently come into conflict with, and are sometimes killed by, private landowners. The data were collected between September 2003 and November 2008, resulting in a total of 3165 location points (65 points from VHF collars and 3100 from GPS collars) for nine individual Cheetahs. This dataset provides distribution information about this Vulnerable species occurring outside of protected areas within South Africa. The dataset has been published to the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (www.GBIF.org) and provides the largest dataset on Cheetahs thus far, and, although it is spatially limited to a relatively small region on the African continent, it is the first study of its kind within South Africa. Also of significance is that the fate of 6 of the 9 collared Cheetahs is known, all except one of which died of anthropogenic causes.

  2. Study on the extraction method of tidal flat area in northern Jiangsu Province based on remote sensing waterlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Zhiqiang; Liu, Xiangyang; Xu, Ning; Liu, Chaoshun; Gao, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Reclamation caused a significant dynamic change in the coastal zone, the tidal flat zone is an unstable reserve land resource, it has important significance for its research. In order to realize the efficient extraction of the tidal flat area information, this paper takes Rudong County in Jiangsu Province as the research area, using the HJ1A/1B images as the data source, on the basis of previous research experience and literature review, the paper chooses the method of object-oriented classification as a semi-automatic extraction method to generate waterlines. Then waterlines are analyzed by DSAS software to obtain tide points, automatic extraction of outer boundary points are followed under the use of Python to determine the extent of tidal flats in 2014 of Rudong County, the extraction area was 55182hm2, the confusion matrix is used to verify the accuracy and the result shows that the kappa coefficient is 0.945. The method could improve deficiencies of previous studies and its available free nature on the Internet makes a generalization.

  3. Ferropicrite from the Lalibela area in the Ethiopian large igneous province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desta, M. T.; Ishiwatari, A.; Arai, S.; Akihiro, T.; Ayalew, D.

    2013-12-01

    Ferropicrite and picritic ferrobasalt lava flows near Lalibela in the Oligocene (~ 30 Ma) Ethiopian large igneous provence (LIP) are associated with ultratitaniferous transitional basalt and picrites of the second high-Ti (HT2) series. The dominant phenocryst in the studied samples is Mg-rich olivine (up to Mg# 88.4) with high CaO contents (to 0.42 wt. %) and kink band structure is absent, indicating that olivines are crystalized from a melt. Spinel inclusions and microphenocrysts are characterized by extremely high Cr# (79-84), moderate Mg# (18-51), moderate Fe3+# (11-26) and contains 3.6-14.8 wt. % TiO2. The clinopyroxene phenocrysts are Mg#=73-88, TiO2=0.84-2.9 wt. %, and Al2O3= 1.2-4.1 wt. % in the cores. The REE contents of clinopyroxenes display enrichment in LREE (LaN/YbN=1.2-1.9) and MREE (EuN/YbN=3.3-4.3) relative to HREE. Relative depletion of HFSE (e.g. Nb and Zr) is also observed. In general, these trace element characteristics of clinopyroxene are similar with those of high-Ti 2 basalts. The estimated MgO content of liquid is about 23.5 wt. % and mantle potential temperature may have been as high as ~ 1638 OC. This temperature (Tp) is higher (by some 100 OC) than those estimated for the African-Arabian traps (~ 1520 OC). The studied samples exhibit very low Al2O3/TiO2 (1.8-2.2) and high Zr/Y (8.2-10.2) ratios. These may indicate the important role for garnet during melting and that the lavas were formed by small degree of partial melting which apparently contradicts to the high Cr# of spinel. In view of low Cr/Al ratio of the bulk rock, the high Cr# of spinel suggests very high temperature of the magma (and the plume). The origin of these ferropicrite and picritic ferrobasalt rocks could be attributed to high pressure partial melting of pyroxenite that possibly incorporate recycled oceanic crust components. Keywords: Ferropicrite, large igneous province, Oligocene, pyroxinite, Lalibela

  4. [Soil-transmitted nematode infection of children and its influencing factors in poverty-stricken areas in two provinces of southwest China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-bing; Zhang, Lin-xiu; Wang, Guo-fei; Luo, Ren-fu; Alexis, Medina; Scott, Rozelle

    2014-06-01

    To understand the infection status and the main risk factors of soil-transmitted nematodes in children in the poverty-stricken areas of Guizhou Province and Sichuan Province, so as to provide the evidences for making suitable control strategies in these areas. A total of 95 villages and 6 primary schools in 6 poor counties in the two provinces were selected as investigation sites according to the stratified random sampling method. Eleven preschool children aged 3-5 years in each sample village and 11 school children aged 8-10 years in each sample school were chose as investigation objectives, their feces were collected and examined by Kato-Katz technique. In addition, the village doctor and cadres in each village were investigated by a standardized questionnaire to understand the deworming condition of children and the social economy and sanitary status in 2009. Then the correlation between average soil-transmitted nematode infection rate and its influencing factors was analyzed by the Tobit model. A total of 1 707 children from 95 villages in the two provinces were examined. In Guizhou Province, the total infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodes in children was 46.1%, and the infection rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, Hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura were 31.1%, 4.1% and 10.8% respectively, and the corresponding rates in Sichuan Provinces were 9.8%, 3.6%, 3.5%, 2.7%, respectively. In the dimension of school, a total of 890 school-aged kids from 46 schools in the two provinces were examined, the infection rates of soil-transmitted nematodes, Ascaris lumbricoides, Hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura in Guizhou Province were 53.8%, 32.7%, 6.6% and 14.4%, respectively, and the corresponding rates in Sichuan Province were 7.3%, 2.2%, 2.9% and 2.2%, respectively. The results from Tobit analysis indicated that the proportion of children accepted deworming treatment and the paddy field in the cultivated area were statistically correlated to the infections of soil

  5. [Analysis on the status of vitamin A deficiency among children under 5 years old in poor rural areas of 6 Western Chinese provinces in 2009].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji-guo; Zhang, Bing; Du, Wen-wen; Su, Chang; Liu, Ai-dong; Zhang, Ji; Ma, Yu-xia; Zhai, Feng-Ying

    2011-12-01

    To analyze the status of vitamin A deficiency among children under 5 years old in poor rural areas of 6 Western Chinese provinces in 2009. The study subjects involved 2091 children from a program - 'Appropriate measurements in improving children under-nutrition in poor rural areas'. In 2009, prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among children under 5 years old from the poor rural areas of 6 western Chinese provinces was 20.2%, with boys as 20.6% and girls as 19.7%. Prevalence rates of vitamin A deficiency among children under 5 years old in the highest and lowest areas were seen in Gansu (25.5%) and Guangxi (12.2%) provinces, respectively. The peak of vitamin A deficiency prevalence fell in the 6 - 11 months age group. The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency declined along with the increase of age. from this study demonstrated that vitamin A deficiency among children under 5 years old appeared to be a serious public health problem in the poor rural areas of 6 Western Chinese provinces. Education on reasonable ways of feeding and provision of complementary nutrients to children with vitamin A deficiency, should be the key points in the prevention and control programs on this problem.

  6. Geological evolution of the Coombs Allan Hills area, Ferrar large igneous province, Antarctica: Debris avalanches, mafic pyroclastic density currents, phreatocauldrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Pierre-Simon; White, James D. L.; McClintock, Murray

    2008-05-01

    The Jurassic Ferrar large igneous province of Antarctica comprises igneous intrusions, flood lavas, and mafic volcaniclastic deposits (now lithified). The latter rocks are particularly diverse and well-exposed in the Coombs-Allan Hills area of South Victoria Land, where they are assigned to the Mawson Formation. In this paper we use these rocks in conjunction with the pre-Ferrar sedimentary rocks (Beacon Supergroup) and the lavas themselves (Kirkpatrick Basalt) to reconstruct the geomorphological and geological evolution of the landscape. In the Early Jurassic, the surface of the region was an alluvial plain, with perhaps 1 km of mostly continental siliciclastic sediments underlying it. After the fall of silicic ash from an unknown but probably distal source, mafic magmatism of the Ferrar province began. The oldest record of this event at Allan Hills is a ≤ 180 m-thick debris-avalanche deposit (member m1 of the Mawson Formation) which contains globular domains of mafic igneous rock. These domains are inferred to represent dismembered Ferrar intrusions emplaced in the source area of the debris avalanche; shallow emplacement of Ferrar magmas caused a slope failure that mobilized the uppermost Beacon Supergroup, and the silicic ash deposits, into a pre-existing valley or basin. The period which followed ('Mawson time') was the main stage for explosive eruptions in the Ferrar province, and several cubic kilometres of both new magma and sedimentary rock were fragmented over many years. Phreatomagmatic explosions were the dominant fragmentation mechanism, with magma-water interaction taking place in both sedimentary aquifers and existing vents filled by volcaniclastic debris. At Coombs Hills, a vent complex or 'phreatocauldron' was formed by coalescence of diatreme-like structures; at Allan Hills, member m2 of the Mawson Formation consists mostly of thick, coarse-grained, poorly sorted layers inferred to represent the lithified deposits of pyroclastic density currents

  7. Shallow ground water in the Zamin Dawar area, Helmand Province, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McClymonds, N.E.

    1972-01-01

    The Zamin Dawar area lies between Kajakai Reservoir and Musa Qala Rud (river) in southcentral Afghanistan, about 90 km (kilometers) northeast of Lashkar Gab. The area comprises two main stream drainage areas: that of Gulmesh Mandeh (ephemeral stream) to the east which includes mostly plains with low hills on the east and north slopes and a high limestone scarp on the west slope; and Baghni Rud to the west which drains a mountainous area to the north and spreads onto a large alluvial fan with distributaries leading both to Helmand Rud to the southeast and Musa Qala Rud to the west. Most of the cultivated lands in the Zamin Dawar area lie in the southern part of the Gulmesh plains and in the Baghni alluvial fan, as well as a ribbon of cultivation on the flood plain of Baghni Rud in the mountains. The southern end of the Zamin Dawar area with high terraces and sharply incised ephemeral stream valleys is uninhabited. Karezes provide the chief source of water in the plains. Some 80 were examined and inventoried during the course of the present investigation. Several springs and one large-yield well also contribute to the water supply on the plains. In Baghni valley, developed springs provide the main source of water supply. During the present investigation, conducted in 1971,. it was found that the karezes yield a total of about 20,000 ac-ft (acre-feet) (25 million cu m (cubic meters)) of water The springs on the plains yield about 3,000 ac-ft (4 million cu m) per year, and the wells yield about 300 ac-ft (375,000 cu m) per year. The inventoried springs in Baghni valley yield about 6,500 ac-ft (8 million cu m) per year, and probably supply about 70 percent of the total water used in the valley. Therefore,the total amount of water used in the Zamin Dawar area in 1971 was about 32,000 ac-ft (40 million cu m). This amount of water was used to irrigate about i0,000 jiribs (approximately 5,000 acres or 2,000 hectares) of cultivated land and served a population of about 40

  8. Human exposure to methylmercury through rice intake in mercury mining areas, Guizhou province, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xinbin; Li, Ping; Qiu, Guangle; Wang, Shaofeng; Li, Guanghui; Shang, Lihai; Meng, Bo; Jiang, Hongmei; Bai, Weiyang; Li, Zhonggen; Fu, Xuewu

    2008-01-01

    The toxicity of methylmercury (Me-Hg) has caused widespread public human concern as a result of several widely publicized disasters. Me-Hg is highly toxic, and the nervous system is its principal target tissue for humans. Although the general population is primarily exposed to Me-Hg through contaminated fish and marine mammals, in Hg mining areas a long history of mining activities can produce serious Hg pollution to the local environment In a study of 98 persons from the Wanshan Hg mining area, hair Me-Hg levels indicated Me-Hg exposure. Rice, the staple food of the local inhabitants also showed high total Hg (T-Hg) and Me-Hg levels. The geometric mean concentration of T-Hg and mean concentration of Me-Hg in rice samples collected from 3 villages in Wanshan Hg mining area were 36.2 (ranging from 4.9 to 214.7), and 8.5 (ranging from 1.9 to 27.6) microg/kg, respectively, which were significantly elevated compared to the rice samples collected from a reference area, where the mean T-Hg and Me-Hg concentrations were 7.0 (3.2-15.1) and 2.5 (0.8-4.3) microg/kg, respectively. Pork meat, vegetable, and drinking water samples collected in Wanshan Hg mining area contained highly elevated T-Hg, but very low levels of Me-Hg. The relationships between the estimated rice Me-Hg intake and hair Me-Hg levels (r = 0.65, p < 0.001) confirmed rice with high Me-Hg levels indeed was the main route of Me-Hg exposure for the local residents in the Wanshan Hg mining area. From our study, we can conclude that the main human exposure to Me-Hg via food consumption is not restricted to fish, but in some cases in mining areas of China to frequent rice meals.

  9. Hydrology of area 38, Western Region, Interior Coal Province, Iowa and Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Detroy, M.G.; Skelton, John

    1983-01-01

    In Area 38 dissolved-solids concentrations in water from the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer range from 300 to 15,000 milligrams per liter; in southcentral Iowa and where the aquifer underlies the Missouri River alluvium, as in Boone County, Missouri, dissolved-solids concentrations are less than 1,000 milligrams per liter. In these areas the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer is suitable for domestic and other uses. Chemical quality of water from Quaternary aquifers generally is suitable for domestic uses and other uses, dissolved-solids concentrations averaged less than 1,000 milligrams per liter. Iron, manganese and nitrate are excessive in some instances. Chemical quality of water from Mississippian and Pennsylvanian aquifers is unsuitable for domestic use and may be unsuitable for other uses. The Pennsylvanian and Misissippian aquifers have average sulfate concentrations in excess of 1,000 milligrams per liter.

  10. [Microbiological monitoring of mussels and clams collected from the shellfish-growing marine areas in Rimini Province].

    PubMed

    Legnani, P P; Leoni, E; Villa, G C

    2002-01-01

    A 5 years survey (1996-2000) was performed on the microbiological quality of shellfish (mussels and clams) collected from authorized shellfish-growing area of the North Adriatic Sea (province of Rimini). 7.0% of mussel samples (33/474) and 21.9% of clam samples (218/996) exceeded the legal limits for faecal indicators (Dlgs 530/92). The faecal contamination of shellfish was related to the organic pollution arriving from inland surface waters. In fact shellfish harvested near the coast were more contaminated, as well as shellfish grown in the surface layers of the open sea, where the fresh waters of the streams tend to stratify. Faecal contamination was also directly correlated with rainfall, probably because the atmospheric precipitation, increasing the flow of the streams, favoured the transport of organic substances and micro-organisms deriving from the soil washing and the municipal sewage effluents. Furthermore, when rainfall was particularly plentiful, sewage inflow could also exceed the hydraulic capacity of the treatment plants; thus making necessary to discharge untreated waste directly into surface waters. Salmonellae were found in 0.7% of clam samples. Although this percentage is very low, it shows that pathogenic micro-organisms are present in this area of sea. This finding, together with the high variability of shellfish pollution due to occasional factors as rainfall, emphasise the importance of the systematic monitoring of the microbiological quality of shellfish.

  11. [Thyroid function and serum lipids of adults living in areas of excessive iodine in water in Hebei province].

    PubMed

    Li, Haiqiang; Sang, Zhongna; Tan, Long; Zhao, Na; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Guiqin; Liu, Hua; Wen, Songchen; Zhang, Wanqi

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the iodine status and the prevalence of thyroid disease and dyslipidemia in adults living in areas of excessive iodine in water in Hebei Province, and to explore the impact of excessive iodine intake on dyslipidemia. Subjects were selected from Haixing County in Cangzhou, Hebei. Fasting morning urine and venous blood were collected to test the levels of urinary iodine and serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), and sensitive thyroid-stimulating hormone (sTSH). Thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb) and total cholesterol (CHO), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were also measured. The median of urinary iodine was 1094.92 (627.38 - 1511.81) microg/L. There were 66 (22.0%) adults diagnosed as thyroid disorder, including 3 (1.0%) hyperthyroidism patients, 7 (2.3%) subclinical hyperthyroidism patients, 12 (4.0%) hypothyroidism patients and 44 (14.7%) subclinical hypothyroidism patients. The levels of CHO, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C were (5.46 +/- 1.06) mmol/L, 2.19 (1.70 - 2.96) mmol/L, 1.18 (1.03 - 1.45) mmol/L and (3.08 +/- 1.05) mmol/L respectively, no significant difference was observed between the thyroid disorder patients or non-patients. The prevalence of dyslipidemia in adults living in areas of excessive iodine in water was high.

  12. [The disposition of natural foci of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in different landscape areas of Tyumen Province].

    PubMed

    Miasnikov, Iu A; Apekina, N S; Zuevskiĭ, A P; Khitrin, A V; Bernshteĭn, A D

    1992-01-01

    Lungs of 3159 animals of the forest complex from 90 areas of 30 administrative districts of Tyumen Province were examined by enzyme immunoassays for antigen of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) during 5 years, 1985-1989. The antigen of HERS virus was detected in the lungs of mammals of 8 species: Clethrionomys glareolus and Cl. rutilus, Siberian and Arctic lemmings (first findings in the world), M. oeconomus, field mouse, common and pygmy shrews. Nearly all the findings refer to the subzone of southern taiga and adjacent areas of subtaiga subzone where Cl. glareolus is the main reservoir of infection and Cl. rutilus an additional one. In the tundra zone, Siberian lemming is the main reservoir of infection and Arctic lemming an additional one. No natural foci of HFRS were found in forest steppe and forest tundra zones. In the subzone of the northern and middle taiga, the antigen was found only on 4 occasions: 3 in common shrews and one in Cl. glareolus (near the town of Khanty-Mansisk). An irregular annual infection rate with HFRS virus was observed in Cl. glareolus as well as its decline from spring to autumn. It cannot be ruled out that lemmings are carriers of a distinct HFRS virus serotype.

  13. A modern regional geological analysis of Venezuela - lessons from a major new world oil province on exploration in mature areas

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, M. ); Audemard, F. ); Valdes, G. )

    1993-09-01

    Venezuela has produced some 44 billion bbl of oil since the early part of the century. As such, it represents one of the world's major oil producers and a mature petroleum province. However, major tracts of Venezuela's sedimentary basins remain underexplored and large discoveries are still being made in new and old reservoir systems. A regional geological analysis of Venezuela, focusing on basin evolution and sequence stratigraphy and incorporating data from the three national oil companies, is presented. The analysis presents a regionally consistent tectonostratigraphic model capable of explaining the evolution of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins of Venezuela and placing the major reservoir facies in their regional tectonic and sequence stratigraphic context. Four regional cross sections describe the stratigraphic and structural model. The model recognizes a Jurassic rifting event and inversion, succeeded by an Early Cretaceous passive margin. In western Venezuela, the Early Cretaceous passive subsidence is enhanced locally by extension related to the Colombian active margin. Venezuela experienced a major change in the Campanian with the initial collision of the Caribbean arc, recorded by foreland structuring and widespread stratigraphic changes. From the Campanian onward, the tectonostratigraphic evolution can be modeled in terms of a progressive southeast-directed arc-continent collision and the migration of the associated foredeep and rift basins. Within the tectonic framework, the major sequence stratigraphic units are identified and the reservoir distribution interpreted. This model provides a strong predictive tool to extrapolate reservoir systems into Venezuela's underexplored areas and to readdress its traditional areas.

  14. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Infection by Opisthorchis viverrini in an Urban Area of Mahasarakham Province, Northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chaiputcha, Kusumaporn; Promthet, Supannee; Bradshaw, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional analytic study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) infection in an urban area of Northeastern Thailand. The participants were 254 household representatives aged 15 years or older living in the most urbanised part of Chiang Yuen municipality in Mahasarakham Province. All participants provided stool samples which were examined using the modified Kato-Katz procedure, and a structured interview questionnaire was used to collection demographic information, knowledge about OV infection, and the consumption of unsafely prepared freshwater fish. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. The overall prevalence of OV infection was 15.0%, and in the multivariate analysis male gender was found to be significantly and positively associated with OV infection (ORadj=9.75, 95%CI: 34.03-23.58) while education to secondary school level or above was a significant protective factor (ORadj=0.30, 95%CI: 0.12-0.74). The eating of unsafely prepared fish and knowledge about OV were not significantly related to infection status. The findings were discussed in terms of issues for future research, especially the need to consider the possibility of higher rates of OV infection in urban areas than might be expected and to investigate the sources of infected fish products which may well be different from those in rural villages.

  15. [Responses of Picea likiangensis radial growth to climate change in the Small Zhongdian area of Yunnan Province, Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Jiang; Tan, Liu-Yi; Kang, Dong-Wei; Liu, Qi-Jing; Li, Jun-Qing

    2012-03-01

    Picea likiangensis (Franch. ) Pritz. primary forest is one of the dominant forest types in the Small Zhongdian area in Shangri-La County of Yunnan Province. In this paper, the responses of P. likiangensis tree-ring width to climate change were analyzed by dendrochronological methods, and the dendrochronology was built by using relatively conservative detrending negative exponential curves or linear regression. Correlation analysis and response function analysis were applied to explore the relationships between the residual chronology series (RES) and climatic factors at different time scales, and pointer year analysis was used to explain the reasons of producing narrow and wide rings. In the study area, the radial growth of P. likiangensis and the increasing air temperature from 1990 to 2008 had definite 'abruption'. The temperature and precipitation in previous year growth season were the main factors limiting the present year radial growth, and especially, the temperature in previous July played a negative feedback role in the radial growth, while the sufficient precipitation in previous July promoted the radial growth. The differences in the temperature variation and precipitation variation in previous year were the main reasons for the formation of narrow and wide rings. P. likiangensis radial growth was not sensitive to the variation of PDSI.

  16. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in Arjan – Parishan protected area in Fars Province of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Dolatkhahi, Mehdi; Dolatkhahi, Ali; Nejad, Javad Bagher

    2014-01-01

    Objective : Today, medicinal plants are widely used in remedies for several ailments and improvement of human health because of their pharmaceutical properties. This study aimed to document important useful medicinal plants and their medicinal characteristics for treatment of human ailments in the Arjan _ Parishan protected area in Fars province of Iran during 2010-2012. Materials and Methods : Data were obtained using direct interviews with 80 informants particularly those who were more familiar with the herbs and their medicinal properties. Collected plants were recognized and families, genera, and species determined using indispensable references. In this paper, scientific name, local name, parts used, and ways of application and ailments treated using traditional medicinal plant species have been provided. Results : We documented 85 plant species belonging to 39 families and 78 genera used for treating ailments. Among which, Asteraceae with 13 species was the most frequently used family and fruits and leaves were the favored parts for local users. Our results indicated that in this area, the highest compliance in the use of plants in treating ailments were related to the intestinal digestive system (40.8%). Conclusion : The present study is the first contribution to the ethnobotany of this region. Our results showed that some plants are used for medicinal purposes in this region, either for the same or for different purposes. Generally, the results of the present investigation can be used as a basis for selecting useful medicinal plants and also help to preserve precious information that may otherwise be lost to future generations. PMID:25386404

  17. [Serotype identification and antibiotic susceptibility of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in the Weishan area in Shandong Province, China].

    PubMed

    Shao, C C; Hu, B; Bi, Z W; Kou, Z Q; Fang, M; Chen, B L; Bi, Z Q

    2017-01-06

    Objective: To determine the serotypes and drug resistance profiles of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in animal stools from the Weishan area in Shandong Province, China. To provide the basis for further study. Methods: Five hundred animal stool samples (from pigs, cattle, sheep, dogs and birds) were collected from the Weishan area and STEC strains were isolated from these samples. Strains were serotyped by a serum agglutination test, and their drug resistance profiles were determined through antimicrobial sensitivity experiments. In this study, PCR was used to detect tetracycline resistance genes (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetD) and beta-lactam resistance genes (blaSHV-1, blaCTX-M, blaTEM). Results: Sixteen strains of STEC were isolated from animal stool samples. Thirteen strains were isolated from pig stool samples, two from bovine stool samples and one from a sheep stool sample. Two of the strains were identified as E. coli O157:H7, and other 14 strains were non-O157 STEC of different serotypes. Antimicrobial sensitivity experiments showed that 15 of the strains were multidrug resistant. The rates of resistance were as follows: nalidixic acid (12/16 strains), sulfisoxazole (11/16), trimethoprim and sulphame-thoxazole (11/16), doxycycline (9/16), azithromycin (9/16), tetracycline (9/16), chloramphenicol (8/16) and streptomycin (8/16). Therefore, nalidixic acid showed the highest rate of resistance among the strains, followed by trimethoprim and sulphame-thoxazole, and sulfisoxazole. Resistance to cefepime or imipenem was not detected. In total, three types of drug resistance genes (tetA, tetB and tetC) were detected among the 16 strains. Conclusion: The results showed that STEC strains isolated from animals in the Weishan area were of a range of serotypes. The 16 strains of STEC isolated from animal stools in this area were resistant to a number of antibiotics, with many strains displaying multidrug resistance.

  18. Effect of degradation intensity on grassland ecosystem services in the alpine region of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Wen, Lu; Dong, Shikui; Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Xiaoyan; Shi, Jianjun; Wang, Yanlong; Liu, Demei; Ma, Yushou

    2013-01-01

    The deterioration of alpine grassland has great impact on ecosystem services in the alpine region of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. However, the effect of grassland degradation on ecosystem services and the consequence of grassland deterioration on economic loss still remains a mystery. So, in this study, we assessed four types of ecosystem services following the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment classification, along a degradation gradient. Five sites of alpine grassland at different levels of degradation were investigated in Guoluo Prefecture of Qinghai Province, China. The species composition, aboveground biomass, soil total organic carbon (TOC), and soil total nitrogen (TN) were tested to evaluate major ecological services of the alpine grassland. We estimated the value of primary production, carbon storage, nitrogen recycling, and plant diversity. The results show the ecosystem services of alpine grassland varied along the degradation gradient. The ecosystem services of degraded grassland (moderate, heavy and severe) were all significantly lower than non-degraded grassland. Interestingly, the lightly degraded grassland provided more economic benefit from carbon maintenance and nutrient sequestration compared to non-degraded. Due to the destruction of the alpine grassland, the economic loss associated with decrease of biomass in 2008 was $198/ha. Until 2008, the economic loss caused by carbon emissions and nitrogen loss on severely degraded grassland was up to $8 033/ha and $13 315/ha, respectively. Urgent actions are required to maintain or promote the ecosystem services of alpine grassland in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  19. Effect of Degradation Intensity on Grassland Ecosystem Services in the Alpine Region of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Lu; Dong, Shikui; Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Xiaoyan; Shi, Jianjun; Wang, Yanlong; Liu, Demei; Ma, Yushou

    2013-01-01

    The deterioration of alpine grassland has great impact on ecosystem services in the alpine region of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. However, the effect of grassland degradation on ecosystem services and the consequence of grassland deterioration on economic loss still remains a mystery. So, in this study, we assessed four types of ecosystem services following the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment classification, along a degradation gradient. Five sites of alpine grassland at different levels of degradation were investigated in Guoluo Prefecture of Qinghai Province, China. The species composition, aboveground biomass, soil total organic carbon (TOC), and soil total nitrogen (TN) were tested to evaluate major ecological services of the alpine grassland. We estimated the value of primary production, carbon storage, nitrogen recycling, and plant diversity. The results show the ecosystem services of alpine grassland varied along the degradation gradient. The ecosystem services of degraded grassland (moderate, heavy and severe) were all significantly lower than non-degraded grassland. Interestingly, the lightly degraded grassland provided more economic benefit from carbon maintenance and nutrient sequestration compared to non-degraded. Due to the destruction of the alpine grassland, the economic loss associated with decrease of biomass in 2008 was $198/ha. Until 2008, the economic loss caused by carbon emissions and nitrogen loss on severely degraded grassland was up to $8 033/ha and $13 315/ha, respectively. Urgent actions are required to maintain or promote the ecosystem services of alpine grassland in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. PMID:23469278

  20. Airborne PCDD/F profiles in rural and urban areas of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, N; Astoviza, M; Migoya, M C; Colombo, J C

    2016-12-15

    Passive air samplers were deployed in 18 rural and urban locations in the densely populated Buenos Aires district to investigate airborne polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated-dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) profiles, sources and spatial patterns. Atmospheric concentrations reported as total toxic equivalents (TEQs), 2378-substituted (∑17PCDD/F) and 4-8 homologous groups (∑4-8PCDD/F) were highly variable and significantly correlated to urban scale. The rural average (3.0±2.7fgTEQm(-3)) was thirty times less than metropolitan values (90±51fgTEQm(-3)), with urban cluster (5.4±4.0fgTEQm(-3)) and urbanized area (33±50fgTEQm(-3)) in an intermediate position. A rural outlier exhibited the highest TEQ values (295-296fgTEQm(-3)) suggesting a local source. Principal component analyses (PCA) performed for ∑17PCDD/F and ∑4-8PCDD/F to identify source contributions showed more significant results for homologue groups compared to 17 congeners (83 and 45% of total variability explained, respectively) pointing to dominant diesel emissions enriched in TeCDF in rural areas, and open burning and industrial sources characterized by TeCDD, PeCDD contributing most in urbanized and metropolitan areas. Homologue group PCA also performed better clustering samples according to sources and TEQ concentrations. The PCDD/Fs profile of the rural outlier dominated by HxCDF and HpCDD/F showed a typical municipal incineration signature confirming the presence of local source. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Geothermic analysis of high temperature hydrothermal activities area in Western plateau of Sichuan province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.

    2016-12-01

    There is a high temperature hydrothermal activity area in the western plateau of Sichuan. More than 200 hot springs points have been found in the region, including 11 hot spring water temperature above local boiling point. Most of these distribute along Jinshajjiang fracture, Dege-Xiangcheng fracture, Ganzi-Litang fracture as well as Xianshuihe fracture, and form three high-temperature hydrothermal activity strips in the NW-SE direction. Using gravity, magnetic, seismic and helium isotope data, this paper analyzed the crust-mantle heat flow structure, crustal heat source distribution and water heating system. The results show that the geothermal activity mainly controlled by the "hot" crust. The ratio of crustal heat flow and surface heat flow is higher than 60%. In the high temperature hydrothermal activities area, there is lower S wave velocity zone with Vs<3.2 km/s in 15 30 km depth in middle and lower crust. Basing on the S wave velocity inversion temperature of crust-mantle, it has been found that there is a high temperature layer with 850 1000 ° in 20 40 km depth. It is the main heat source of high temperature hydrothermal activity area of western Sichuan. Our argument is that atmospheric precipitation, surface water infiltrated along the fault fracture into the crustal deep, heating by crustal hot source, and circulation to surface become high temperature hot water. Geothermal water mainly reserve in the Triassic strata of the containing water good carbonate rocks, and in the intrusive granite which is along the fault zone. The thermal energy of Surface heat thermal activities mainly comes from the high-temperature hot source which is located in the middle and lower crust. Being in the deep crustal fracture, the groundwater infiltrated to the deep crust and absorbed heat, then, quickly got back to the surface and formed high hot springs.

  2. Overuse of antibiotics for the common cold - attitudes and behaviors among doctors in rural areas of Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiang; Dyar, Oliver J; Zhao, Lingbo; Tomson, Göran; Nilsson, Lennart E; Grape, Malin; Song, Yanyan; Yan, Ling; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2015-03-31

    Irrational antibiotic use is common in rural areas of China, despite the growing recognition of the importance of appropriate prescribing to contain antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze doctors' attitudes and prescribing practices related to antibiotics in rural areas of Shandong province, focusing on patients with the common cold. A survey was conducted with doctors working at thirty health facilities (village clinics, township health centers and county general hospitals) in three counties within Shandong province. Questions were included on knowledge and attitudes towards antibiotic prescribing. Separately, a random selection of prescriptions for patients with the common cold was collected from the healthcare institutions at which the doctors worked, to investigate actual prescribing behaviors. A total of 188 doctors completed the survey. Most doctors (83%, 149/180) had attended training on antibiotic use since the beginning of their medical practice as a doctor, irrespective of the academic level of their undergraduate training. Of those that had training, most had attended it within the past three years (97%, 112/116). Very few doctors (2%, 3/187) said they would give antibiotics to a patient with symptoms of a common cold, and the majority (87%, 156/179) would refuse to prescribe an antibiotic even if patients were insistent on getting them. Doctors who had attended training were less likely to give antibiotics in this circumstance (29% vs. 14%, p < 0.001). A diagnosis of common cold was the only diagnosis reported on 1590 out of 8400 prescriptions. Over half (55%, 869/1590) of them included an antibiotic. Prescriptions from village clinics were more likely to contain an antibiotic than those from other healthcare institutions (71% vs. 44% [township] vs. 47% [county], p < 0.001). Most doctors have recently attended training on antibiotic use and report they would not prescribe antibiotics for patients with a common cold, even when placed

  3. [Structural equation model analysis on psychological resilience of left-behind children in rural areas in Sichuan Province].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiaolan; Zhou, Huan; Yang, Yang; Hu, Bingshuang; Ma, Xiao; Chen, Huihui

    2011-07-01

    To explore the influencing factors on psychological resilience of left-behind children in rural areas and to find protective factors for psychological resilience by Structural Equation Model. 349 left-behind children of two rural middle schools in Zizhong County, Sichuan Province were measured in group by the Social Support Appraisals (SS-A) Scale and California Health Kids Survey Resilience Assessment Module (HKRA) and other appraisal scales as well as cross-section investigated by self-made questionnaire, using Structural Equation Model for statistical analysis. Psychological resilience of left-behind children in rural areas was divided into two parts which were external protective factor and internal characteristic of individual. The latter was directly impacted by the former (beta = 1.138, P < 0.001) and gender (beta = 0.086, P = 0.048). External protective factor of psychological resilience was directly impacted by family support (beta = 0.076, P = 0.047), parents concern (beta = 0.092, P < 0.001), parental relationship (beta = 0.024, P = 0.043) and mother requiring (beta = 0.050, P = 0.065) and indirectly impacted by friends support, other support, the time of mothers working outside and guardian requiring. There was positive relationship between academic performance and internal characteristics of psychological resilience of left-behind children (r = 0.026, P = 0.055). Psychological resilience of left-behind children in rural areas was influenced by multidimensional factors. Family support, especially mother's care was the key protective factor. Guardians, teachers and friends support and care were also protective factors. Gender difference occurred as to internal characteristic of psychological resilience of the female left-behind children was higher than that of the male.

  4. [Nitrogen uptake and allocation characteristics of flue-cured tobacco in Nanxiong tobacco-planting area of Guangdong Province].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-Xiao; Liu, Hua-Bing; Ke, You-Song; Wu, Wen-Bin; Zhang, Xiao-Quan; Qiu, Miao-Wen; Zhao, Wei-Cai; Yang, Tie-Zhao

    2011-06-01

    By the method of field in situ culture and 15N isotopic tracer technique, and taking flue-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum) cultivar K326 as test material, a field experiment was conducted in the Nanxiong tobacco-planting area of Guangdong Province to study the characteristics of soil nitrogen (N) mineralization, the patterns of N accumulation and allocation in tobacco plants, and the allocation of plant-absorbed fertilizer N applied in current growth season. In the study area, the amount of soil mineralized N increased with tobacco growth, peaked at 75 days after transplanting, and decreased thereafter. The soil mineralized N at each tobacco growth stage was significantly higher in the control than in the N fertilization treatment. The N accumulation in tobacco plant organs was in the order of leaf > stalk > root. Tobacco plants mainly absorbed fertilizer N at rosette stage and topping stage, and mainly absorbed soil N at mature stage. The absorbed N in tobacco whole growth period was mainly derived from soil N, and the absorbed soil N and its proportion to the total absorbed N increased evidently with extending growth stage and ascending leaf position. The fertilizer N use efficiency per plant and the residual rate and loss rate of applied fertilizer N were 30. 8%, 32. 3% , and 36. 9% , respectively. In the study area, soil N mineralization rate was relatively high, and soil N had greater effects on the quality of upper tobacco leaves. Under the application rate of 150 kg N x hm(-2), the residual amount and loss amount of applied fertilizer N were relatively high.

  5. Dietary Intake and Food Habits of Pregnant Women Residing in Urban and Rural Areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haoyue; Stiller, Caroline K.; Scherbaum, Veronika; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Wang, Qi; Hormann, Elizabeth; Bellows, Anne C.

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected) in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19–42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) within the normal range (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25), 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in rural areas), while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ≥30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs) the women’s overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%), was low in carbohydrates (49.6%), and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%). Compared to rural areas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI) fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%), fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%), protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%), vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%), Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%), Fe (56.3% vs. 48%), Ca (55.1% vs. 41%) and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%). The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80%) than in urban (65.1%) areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both

  6. Estimating groundwater levels using system identification models in Nzhelele and Luvuvhu areas, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makungo, Rachel; Odiyo, John O.

    2017-08-01

    This study was focused on testing the ability of a coupled linear and non-linear system identification model in estimating groundwater levels. System identification provides an alternative approach for estimating groundwater levels in areas that lack data required by physically-based models. It also overcomes the limitations of physically-based models due to approximations, assumptions and simplifications. Daily groundwater levels for 4 boreholes, rainfall and evaporation data covering the period 2005-2014 were used in the study. Seventy and thirty percent of the data were used to calibrate and validate the model, respectively. Correlation coefficient (R), coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), percent bias (PBIAS), Nash Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (NSE) and graphical fits were used to evaluate the model performance. Values for R, R2, RMSE, PBIAS and NSE ranged from 0.8 to 0.99, 0.63 to 0.99, 0.01-2.06 m, -7.18 to 1.16 and 0.68 to 0.99, respectively. Comparisons of observed and simulated groundwater levels for calibration and validation runs showed close agreements. The model performance mostly varied from satisfactory, good, very good and excellent. Thus, the model is able to estimate groundwater levels. The calibrated models can reasonably capture description between input and output variables and can, thus be used to estimate long term groundwater levels.

  7. Human exposure pathways of heavy metals in a lead-zinc mining area, Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Qu, Chang-Sheng; Ma, Zong-Wei; Yang, Jin; Liu, Yang; Bi, Jun; Huang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution is becoming a serious issue in developing countries such as China, and the public is increasingly aware of its adverse health impacts in recent years. We assessed the potential health risks in a lead-zinc mining area and attempted to identify the key exposure pathways. We evaluated the spatial distributions of personal exposure using indigenous exposure factors and field monitoring results of water, soil, food, and indoor and outdoor air samples. The risks posed by 10 metals and the contribution of inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact pathways to these risks were estimated. Human hair samples were also analyzed to indicate the exposure level in the human body. Our results show that heavy metal pollution may pose high potential health risks to local residents, especially in the village closest to the mine (V1), mainly due to Pb, Cd and Hg. Correspondingly, the residents in V1 had higher Pb (8.14 mg/kg) levels in hair than those in the other two villages. Most of the estimated risks came from soil, the intake of self-produced vegetables and indoor air inhalation. This study highlights the importance of site-specific multipathway health risk assessments in studying heavy-metal exposures in China.

  8. Human Exposure Pathways of Heavy Metals in a Lead-Zinc Mining Area, Jiangsu Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Chang-Sheng; Ma, Zong-Wei; Yang, Jin; Liu, Yang; Bi, Jun; Huang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution is becoming a serious issue in developing countries such as China, and the public is increasingly aware of its adverse health impacts in recent years. We assessed the potential health risks in a lead-zinc mining area and attempted to identify the key exposure pathways. We evaluated the spatial distributions of personal exposure using indigenous exposure factors and field monitoring results of water, soil, food, and indoor and outdoor air samples. The risks posed by 10 metals and the contribution of inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact pathways to these risks were estimated. Human hair samples were also analyzed to indicate the exposure level in the human body. Our results show that heavy metal pollution may pose high potential health risks to local residents, especially in the village closest to the mine (V1), mainly due to Pb, Cd and Hg. Correspondingly, the residents in V1 had higher Pb (8.14 mg/kg) levels in hair than those in the other two villages. Most of the estimated risks came from soil, the intake of self-produced vegetables and indoor air inhalation. This study highlights the importance of site-specific multipathway health risk assessments in studying heavy-metal exposures in China. PMID:23152752

  9. Survey of Trichinella infection from domestic pigs in the historical endemic areas of Henan province, central China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Peng; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Li Ang; Han, Lu Hong; Yang, Mei; Duan, Jiang Yang; Sun, Ge Ge; Qi, Xin; Liu, Ruo Dan; Wang, Zhong Quan; Cui, Jing

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the current situation of Trichinella infection from domestic pigs in the historical endemic areas of Henan province, central China. A total of 823 diaphragm samples from the indoor-raised pigs were collected in five cities of Henan during 2014-2015 and examined by artificial digestion method. The overall prevalence of Trichinella infection in pigs was 0.61 % (5/823). Trichinella larvae were detected in 0.91 % (5/550) of pigs from Nanyang city of Henan. The larval burden in infected animals was 0.03 larvae per gram (lpg) of muscles with a range from 0.02 to 0.05 lpg. The larvae were identified as Trichinella spiralis by multiple PCR. Our study confirms the existence of swine trichinellosis in Henan, but the infection level was under the minimum level for defining infectious sources for humans. However, the prevalence of swine Trichinella infection in Henan need to be further evaluated with a large scale of pork samples for ensuring meat food safety.

  10. Clinical characteristics and risk factors of an outbreak with scrub typhus in previously unrecognized areas, Jiangsu province, China 2013.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianli; Tan, Zhongming; Ren, Dafei; Zhang, Xiang; He, Yilin; Bao, Changjun; Liu, Dapeng; Yi, Qianhua; Qian, Weijuan; Yin, Jun; Xu, Zhen; Yu, Chunxia; Wang, Shenjiao; Wu, Bin; Yang, Haiyu; Yue, Ming; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Wendong; Zhu, Yefei; Zhou, Minghao; Tang, Fenyang

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, has emerged recently in Jingjiang City, China where the disease had not been known to exist. We analyzed epidemiological data, clinical characteristics and risk factors of scrub typhus outbreak in Jingjiang City, 2013. The 271 clinically diagnosed patients were predominantly farmers 50 to 69 years old and the peak of onset was early to mid-November. For the 187 laboratory-confirmed cases, the major clinical manifestations of the patients were fever (100%), eschar (88.2%), rash (87.7%), chills (87.7%), and headache (66.8%). A community-based case-control study was carried out to investigate the risk factors of the scrub typhus outbreak. Bundling or moving waste straw (OR=9.0, 95%CI 4.6-17.8) and living at the edge of village (OR=0.6, 95%CI 0.4-0.9) posed the highest risks through single- and multi-variable conditional logistic regression. Phylogenetic analysis of the 56-kDa TSA gene showed that the new cluster (GB-C2) and the previously reported cluster (GB-C1) of O. tsutsugamushi were associated with this outbreak. These findings are useful for the establishment of a detailed control strategy for scrub typhus infection in previously unrecognized areas of Jiangsu Province, China.

  11. Hantaan virus surveillance targeting small mammals at Dagmar North Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    Klein, Terry A; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sungsil; Shim, So-Hee; Park, Yon Mi; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; O'Guinn, Monica; Lee, John S; Turell, Michael J; Song, Jin-Won

    2011-12-01

    In response to a hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome case in November 2000, a seasonal rodent-borne disease surveillance program was initiated at Dagmar North Training Area (DNTA), Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea. From April 2001-December 2005, 1,848 small mammals were captured. Apodemus agrarius accounted for 92.5%, followed by Mus musculus (3.6%), Crocidura lasiura (2.1%), and Microtus fortis (1.1%). Three species of rodents were found to be antibody-positive (Ab+) for Hantaan virus (HTNV): A. agrarius (22.3%), M. musculus (9.1%), and M. fortis (5.0%). Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with increasing weight (age), except for those weighing <10 g. The peak HTNV transmission period in Korea coincided with the peak reproductive potential of A. agrarius during the fall (August/September) surveys. HTNV strains from DNTA were distinct from HTNV strains from the People's Republic of China. From these studies, more accurate risk assessments can be developed to better protect personnel from rodent-borne diseases. © 2011 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  12. Factors associated with low cure rate of tuberculosis in remote poor areas of Shaanxi Province, China: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The directly observed therapy-short course (DOTS) strategy was introduced in Shaanxi province, China to improve tuberculosis (TB) control by means of improved case detection (target: > = 70%) and treatment success rates (target: > = 85%) in new smear positive (SS+) TB patients. At a provincial level the targets were both reached in 2005. However in 30 (28%) out of 107 counties of Shaanxi province the cure rate was below 85%. This study aimed to investigate patient and treatment characteristics associated with non-cure after tuberculosis (TB) treatment in these counties. Methods In this case-control study, new smear positive TB cases in 30 counties with a cure rate <85% were included. Cured patients were compared to non-cured patients using logistic regression analysis to assess determinants for non-cure. Results Of the 659 patients included, 153 (23.2%) did not have cure as treatment outcome. Interruption of treatment was most strongly associated with non-cure (OR = 8.7, 95% CI 3.9-18.4). Other independent risk factors were co-morbidity, low education level, lack of appetite as an initial symptom of TB disease, diagnosis of TB outside of the government TB control institutes, missing sputum re-examinations during treatment, and not having a treatment observer. Twenty-six percent of patients did not have a treatment observer. The non-cure rate was better for those with a doctor (odds ratio (OR) 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.17-0.88) as treatment observer than for those with a family member (OR 0.62, 95%CI 0.37-1.03). The main reason for interrupted treatment mentioned by patients was presence of adverse effects during treatment (46.5%). Conclusions Interruption of treatment was most strongly associated with non-cure. Although treatment observation by medical staff is preferred, in order to diminish the proportion of patients who do not have a treatment observer and thereby reduce the proportion of patients who interrupt treatment, we suggest making

  13. Characteristics of ground motion at permafrost sites along the Qinghai-Tibet railway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, L.; Wu, Z.; Sun, Jielun; Liu, Xiuying; Wang, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Based on 14 typical drilling holes distributed in the permafrost areas along the Qinghai-Tibet railway, the distribution of wave velocities of soils in the permafrost regions were determined. Using results of dynamic triaxial tests, the results of dynamic triaxiality test and time histories of ground motion acceleration in this area, characteristics of ground motion response were analyzed for these permafrost sites for time histories of ground accelerations with three exceedance probabilities (63%, 10% and 2%). The influence of ground temperature on the seismic displacement, velocity, acceleration and response spectrum on the surface of permafrost were also studied. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Geological and geochemical characteristics of high arsenic coals from endemic arsenosis areas in southwestern Guizhou Province, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ding, Z.; Zheng, B.; Long, J.; Belkin, H.E.; Finkelman, R.B.; Chen, C.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Southwest Guizhou Province is one of the most important areas of disseminated, sediment-hosted-type Au deposits in China and is an important area of coal production. The chemistry of most of the coals in SW Guizhou is similar to those in other parts of China. Their As content is near the Chinese coal average, but some local, small coal mines contain high As coals. The highest As content is up to 3.5 wt.% in the coal. The use of high As coals has caused in excess of 3000 cases of As poisoning in several villages. The high As coals are in the Longtan formation, which is an alternating marine facies and terrestrial facies. The coals are distributed on both sides of faults that parallel the regional anticlinal axis. The As content of coal is higher closer to the fault plane. The As content of coal changes greatly in different coal beds and different locations of the same bed. Geological structures such as anticlines, faults and sedimentary strata control the distribution of high As coals. Small Au deposits as well as Sb, Hg, and Th mineralization, are found near the high As coals. Although some As-bearing minerals such as pyrite, arsenopyrite, realgar (?), As-bearing sulfate, As-bearing clays, and phosphate are found in the high As coals, their contents cannot account for the abundance of As in some coals. Analysis of the coal indicates that As mainly exists in the form of As5+ and As3+, perhaps, combined with organic compounds. The occurrence of such exceptionally high As contents in coal and the fact that the As is dominantly organically associated are unique observations. ?? 201 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  15. Physicochemical properties of soils in the sago palm (Metroxylon spp.) growing area of Surat Thani province Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruairuen, W.; Sparrow, E. B.; Fochesatto, G. J.

    2016-12-01

    Sago palm is one of the most important plants for sustainable agriculture and rural development in tropical swampy and peaty soils. Where no major crops can grow without drainage or soil improvement. It stores large quantities of starch which can be further processed into various basic raw materials for food, animal feed, industrial uses and alternative energy. This study aims to investigate the physicochemical properties of soil across the sago palm growing areas at Surat Thani province Thailand, where major of sago palms growth naturally exists. The soil samples from three districts Khiri Rat Nikhom (KR; 9 sampling sites), Kanchanadit (KD; 5 sampling sites), and Khian Sa (KS; 2 sampling sites) were studied and compared at 0-15 cm depth during March to June 2016. Observations indicated that the physicochemical properties of soil varied in each growing area. Soil bulk densities averages were lower in KD (0.52 g cm-3) than those in KR (0.58 g cm-3) and KS (0.57 g cm-3). Soil texture around KD and KS were dominated by silty loam. While in KR soil texture was dominated by sandy loam. The average soil conductivity in KS (5.68 mS m-1) was higher than KR (2.62 mS m-1) and KD (1.65 mS m-1). Furthermore, we found the sago palms grow well in a range of soil pH from 5.52 to 7.15, average soil pH: KS (6.8) and KD (6.96), while acid in KR (5.84). We also discuss the conservation activities to adequately protect sago palm, most of which are significantly threatened by habitat destruction and unsustainable harvesting.

  16. Distribution of 222Rn concentration in an inhabited area adjacent to the Aja granitic heights of Hail Province, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Kinsara, Abdulraheem Abdulrahman; Shabana, El-Said Ibrahim; Abulfaraj, Waleed Hussain; Qutub, Maher Mohammad Taher

    2015-01-01

    Radon-222 has been measured in groundwater, dwellings, and atmosphere of an inhabited area adjacent to the granitic Aja heights of Hail province, Saudi Arabia. The measurements were carried out in the field using a RAD7 instrument. Twenty-eight water samples, collected from drilled wells scattered in the region, were analyzed. Radon-222 concentration ranged from 2.5-95 kBq m(-3) with an average value of about 30.3 kBq m(-3). The higher values were found in wells drawing water from granitic aquifers. Indoor 222Rn was measured in 20 dwellings of rural areas in Hail city and other towns. Concentrations ranged from 12-125.6 Bq m(-3), with an average value of 54.6 Bq m(-3). Outdoor air 222Rn was measured at 16 sites, with values ranging from 6.2-13.3 Bq m(-3), with an average value of 10.5 Bq m(-3). The estimated average effective dose due to inhalation of 222Rn released from water was 0.08 mSv y(-1). The estimated average annual effective dose due to indoor 222Rn was 1.35 mSv, which lies below the effective dose range (3-10 mSv) given as the recommended action level. Based on the average dose rate values, the excess lifetime cancer risk values were estimated as 69.8 × 10(-4) due to indoor radon and 13.4 × 10(-4) due to outdoor radon.

  17. Mercury pollution in two typical areas in Guizhou province, China and its neurotoxic effects in the brains of rats fed with local polluted rice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jinping; Yuan, Tao; Wang, Wenhua; Jia, Jinping; Lin, Xueyu; Qu, Liya; Ding, Zhenhua

    2006-12-01

    Guizhou province, which located in southwestern of China, is an important mercury (Hg) production center. This study was to investigate the environmental levels and ecological effects of mercury in two typical Hg polluted areas in Guizhou province. In addition, to improve the understanding of the neurotoxic effects of Hg, a rats based laboratory study was also carried out in this study. Samples of water, soil, plants, crops and animals collected from Wanshan mercury mine area, Guzhou province, were analyzed by mercury analyzer. The effects of Hg contaminated rice on the expression of c-jun mRNA in rat's brain and the expression of c-JUN protein in cortex, hippocampus were observed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunocytochemical methods. The results showed that the mercury contents in most environmental samples of aquatics, soil, atmosphere and the biomass of corn, plant and animals, were higher than the national standard and the corresponding data from unpolluted area. It was found mercury pollutions were significant in soil and air. In the laboratory study, the expression of c-jun mRNA and its protein was significantly induced by Hg polluted rice collected from local area. Selenium could reduce the Hg accumulation in the body and had antagonist effect on Hg in terms of the expression of c-jun mRNA and c-JUN protein. The environmental data and Hg levels in different creatures collected in this study will facilitate the environmental and ecological risk assessment of Hg in the polluted areas. It was urged to be alert of mental health problem in human beings when any kind of Hg-polluted food was taken. More efforts should be performed to protect the local ecosystem and human health in the mercury polluted area of Wanshan, Guizhou province of China.

  18. A new species of the genus Discolaimus Cobb, 1913 (Nematoda: Dorylaimida: Qudsianematidae) from Qinghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Jia; Yan, Lin; Xu, Chun-Ling; Wang, Ke; Jin, Sheng-Ying; Xie, Hui

    2016-03-07

    A new species of the family Qudsianematidae Jairajpuri, 1965 collected from soil from Qinghai Province, China is described as Discolaimus anemaqen n. sp. It is mainly characterized by having a disc-like lip region with six labial sectors separated by six Y-shaped radial grooves; amphid fovea an inverted-stirrup shape; odontostyle aperture 53-59% of its length; anterior part of pharynx with two swellings, basal part expanded gradually with a sheath of tissue visible ventrally and at the base; no groups of large cells observed in cardiac region; female genital system amphidelphic; tail dorsally convex, conoid, with flat ventral side and bluntly rounded terminus, and males not found. The new species is close to D. major Thorne, 1939, D. similis Thorne, 1939 and D. silvicolus Sauer & Annells, 1985 in most measurements, but can be differentiated from them by lip morphology, pharynx structure, body size, and tail shape. A key to the species of Discolaimus is also provided.

  19. Land Use and Land Cover Change in the Qinghai Lake Region of the Tibetan Plateau and Its Impact on Ecosystem Services

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jian; Yang, Jianxin; Tang, Wenwu

    2017-01-01

    Exploration of land use and land cover change (LULCC) and its impacts on ecosystem services in Tibetan plateau is valuable for landscape and environmental conservation. In this study, we conduct spatial analysis on empirical land use and land cover data in the Qinghai Lake region for 1990, 2000, and 2010 and simulate land cover patterns for 2020. We then evaluate the impacts of LULCC on ecosystem service value (ESV), and analyze the sensitivity of ESV to LULCC to identify the ecologically sensitive area. Our results indicate that, from 1990 to 2010, the area of forest and grassland increased while the area of unused land decreased. Simulation results suggest that the area of grassland and forest will continue to increase and the area of cropland and unused land will decrease for 2010–2020. The ESV in the study area increased from 694.50 billion Yuan in 1990 to 714.28 billion Yuan in 2000, and to 696.72 billion Yuan in 2020. Hydrology regulation and waste treatment are the top two ecosystem services in this region. The towns surrounding the Qinghai Lake have high ESVs, especially in the north of the Qinghai Lake. The towns with high ESV sensitivity to LULCC are located in the northwest, while the towns in the north of the Qinghai Lake experienced substantial increase in sensitivity index from 2000–2010 to 2010–2020, especially for three regulation services and aesthetic landscape provision services. PMID:28754029

  20. Land Use and Land Cover Change in the Qinghai Lake Region of the Tibetan Plateau and Its Impact on Ecosystem Services.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jian; Li, Jingye; Yang, Jianxin; Li, Shicheng; Tang, Wenwu

    2017-07-21

    Exploration of land use and land cover change (LULCC) and its impacts on ecosystem services in Tibetan plateau is valuable for landscape and environmental conservation. In this study, we conduct spatial analysis on empirical land use and land cover data in the Qinghai Lake region for 1990, 2000, and 2010 and simulate land cover patterns for 2020. We then evaluate the impacts of LULCC on ecosystem service value (ESV), and analyze the sensitivity of ESV to LULCC to identify the ecologically sensitive area. Our results indicate that, from 1990 to 2010, the area of forest and grassland increased while the area of unused land decreased. Simulation results suggest that the area of grassland and forest will continue to increase and the area of cropland and unused land will decrease for 2010-2020. The ESV in the study area increased from 694.50 billion Yuan in 1990 to 714.28 billion Yuan in 2000, and to 696.72 billion Yuan in 2020. Hydrology regulation and waste treatment are the top two ecosystem services in this region. The towns surrounding the Qinghai Lake have high ESVs, especially in the north of the Qinghai Lake. The towns with high ESV sensitivity to LULCC are located in the northwest, while the towns in the north of the Qinghai Lake experienced substantial increase in sensitivity index from 2000-2010 to 2010-2020, especially for three regulation services and aesthetic landscape provision services.

  1. Snow effects on alpine vegetation in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Kun; Zhang, Li; Qiu, Yubao; Ji, Lei; Tian, Feng; Wang, Cuizhen; Wang, Zhiyong

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between snow and vegetation is important for interpretation of the responses of alpine ecosystems to climate changes. The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is regarded as an ideal area due to its undisturbed features with low population and relatively high snow cover. We used 500 m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) datasets during 2001–2010 to examine the snow–vegetation relationships, specifically, (1) the influence of snow melting date on vegetation green-up date and (2) the effects of snow cover duration on vegetation greenness. The results showed that the alpine vegetation responded strongly to snow phenology (i.e., snow melting date and snow cover duration) over large areas of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Snow melting date and vegetation green-up date were significantly correlated (p < 0.1) in 39.9% of meadow areas (accounting for 26.2% of vegetated areas) and 36.7% of steppe areas (28.1% of vegetated areas). Vegetation growth was influenced by different seasonal snow cover durations (SCDs) in different regions. Generally, the December–February and March–May SCDs played a significantly role in vegetation growth, both positively and negatively, depending on different water source regions. Snow's positive impact on vegetation was larger than the negative impact.

  2. [Survey of intestinal parasitic infections and related knowledge and behavior of residents in Jiaodong area of Shandong Province].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-bin; Xu, Yan; Kong, Xiang-li; Zhang, Ben-guang; Bu, Xiu-qin; Zhao, Chang-lei; Zhang, Dian-bo; Miao, Fengi; Chen, Xi-xin; Wan, Gong-qun; Huang, Bing-cheng

    2014-08-01

    To understand the status of intestinal parasitic infections and the related knowledge and behavior in residents of Jiaodong area of Shandong Province, so as to provide the evidence for making an appropriate preventive and control strategy. A total of 18 villages from 6 counties in Jiaodong area were selected as investigation sites according to the stratified sampling method. The feces samples of the permanent residents aged above 3 years were collected and examined by Kato-Katz technique to find the intestinal parasite eggs, and the children under 12 years old were examined by the method of cellophane anal swab to detect the Enterobius vennrmicularis eggs. In addition, 50 households in each survey sites were randomly selected to investigate the basic family situation and the condition of awareness on prevention knowledge and formation of correct behavior of residents by using a structured questionnaire. Totally 6 163 residents involved in the feces examinations, and the total infection rate of intestinal parasites was 6.91%. The infection rates of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm were 6.56%, 0.62% and 0.21%, respectively. The infection rate of E. vermicularis in children under 12 years old was 0.51%. The eggs of Clonorchis sinensis and Taenia solium were not found in this survey. The awareness rate of knowledge about preventing parasitic diseases was 49.54%. The formation rates of washing hands before eating, washing hands after using the toilet, never eating raw fruit and vegetable without washing clean, never working in the field with bare feet, and never drinking unboiled water were 97.78%, 91.95%, 88.81%, 92.42% and 86.48% respectively. The infection rate of intestinal parasites is low in Jiaodong area, but there is a significant difference among different counties. The awareness rate of knowledge about preventing parasitic diseases is low, but the formation rate of healthy behavior is high. In the future, the health education and the

  3. Relationships between soil heavy metal pollution and enzyme activities in mining areas of northern Hunan province, Central South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xue-Feng; Jiang, Ying; Shu, Ying

    2014-05-01

    Hunan province, Central South China, is a well-known nonferrous metal base in China. Mine exploiting and processing there, however, often lead to heavy metal pollution of farmland. To study the effects of mining activities on the soil environmental quality, four representative paddy fields, the HSG, SNJ, NT and THJ, in Y county, northern Hunan province, were investigated. It was found that the streams running through the HSG, SNJ and NT are severely contaminated due to the long-term discharge of untreated mineral wastewater from local indigenous mining factories. The stream at the HSG, for example, is brownish red in color, with high concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn. The concentrations of Cu, Zn and Cd in all the stream water of the HSG, SNJ and NT exceed the maximum allowable levels of the Agricultural Irrigation Water Criteria of China. Correspondingly, the HSG, SNJ and NT are heavily polluted by Cu, Zn and Cd due to the long-term irrigation with the contaminated stream water. In comparison, both stream water and paddy fields of the THJ, far away from mining areas, are not contaminated by any heavy metals and hence regarded as a control in this study. The rice grain produced at the HSG, SNJ and NT has a high risk of Cd contamination. The rate of rice grain produced in the four paddy fields in Y county with Cd exceeding the safe level (Cd, 0.2 μg g-1) specified by the National Standards for Rice Quality and Safety of China reaches 90%. Cd content in the rice grain is positively significantly correlated with that in the paddy fields, especially with the content of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) - extracted Cd, suggesting that the heavy metal pollution of paddy fields has already posed a high risk to rice safety and human health. Soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass are significantly inhibited by the heavy metal pollution of the paddy fields. Microbial biomass C and N (MBC and MBN) at a severely contaminated site of the HSG are only 31

  4. Low mortality in the poorest areas of Spain: adults residing in provinces with lower per capita income have the lowest mortality.

    PubMed

    Regidor, Enrique; Vallejo, Fernando; Giráldez-García, Carolina; Ortega, Paloma; Santos, Juana M; Astasio, Paloma; de la Fuente, Luis

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study is to ascertain whether income inequality and per capita income of area of residence show a relationship with mortality in Spain. Data are from a nation-wide prospective study with a 7-year mortality follow-up covering all persons living in Spain's 50 provinces in 2001. In total 28,944,854 subjects aged 25 years or over at baseline were studied. Rate ratio for total mortality and cause-specific mortality, according to provincial income inequality and per capita income in two age groups, 25-64 years (adult population) and 65 years and over (elderly population). Provincial income inequality was not related to total mortality or cause-specific mortality. Total mortality rate ratios among residents of the poorest versus the richest provinces were 0.89 (95% CI 0.95-0.93) in men and 0.91 (0.87-0.96) in women, among the adult population; and 1.02 (0.97-1.08) in men and 1.08 (1.02-1.16) in women, among the elderly population. With the exception of cardiovascular-disease mortality for which no association with per capita income was observed, adult residents of the poorest provinces registered the lowest mortality rate ratio for other causes of death. Elderly residents of the poorest provinces registered the highest mortality rate ratio for cardiovascular disease and the lowest mortality rate ratio for cancer and external causes. Aside from cardiovascular-disease mortality, the lowest mortality for most causes of death was registered by residents of the poorest provinces. Nevertheless, these findings need to be confirmed by similar studies using smaller areas as the unit of analysis.

  5. Molecular Analysis of Sarcocystis Spp. Isolated from Sheep (Ovis aries) in Babol Area, Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran

    PubMed Central

    KALANTARI, Narges; KHAKSAR, Mohaddeseh; GHAFFARI, Salman; HAMIDEKISH, Seyed Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: To differentiate Sarcocystis macro-cyst-forming species in slaughtered sheep in Babol area, Mazandaran Province, sequence analysis of 18S rRNA gene was performed. Methods: Overall, 150 slaughtered sheep were examined macroscopically in slaughterhouse, Babol and intra-abdominal and diaphragm muscles tissues infected with macro-cyst of Sarcocystis spp. were collected in 2013. One macro-cyst was isolated from the infected muscles of each sheep. The partial 18S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR and sequenced afterward. Results: The rate of infection with macro-cyst producing Sarcocystis spp. was 33.3% (50 / 150). The partial 18S rRNA gene of Sarcocystis species was amplified at the expected PCR product size (∼1100 bp) from all 50 macroscopic cysts samples. From 30 sequences DNA samples, 20 samples (66.7%), six (20%) and four (13.3%) isolates were identified as S. gigantea, S. moulei and Sarcocystis spp., respectively. Eight and thirty-four variations in nucleotide position were seen in partial sequence of the18S rRNA gene of S. gigantea and S. moulei. Conclusion: Sheep can be considered as an alternative intermediate host for S. moulei. Furthermore, multiple alignments showed some variations in the consensus sequences of the isolates obtained in the current study compared with previously published isolates. To understand better the genetic diversity among Sarcocystis species complete sequences of the18S rRNA gene or sequence analysis of other genetic loci would be beneficial. PMID:27095971

  6. Soil arsenic availability and the transfer of soil arsenic to crops in suburban areas in Fujian Province, southeast China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rui-Qing; Gao, Shu-Fang; Wang, Wei-Ling; Staunton, S; Wang, Guo

    2006-09-15

    The bioavailability, soil-to-plant transfer and associated health risks of arsenic in soils collected from paddy rice fields and vegetable fields in suburban areas of some major cities of Fujian Province were investigated. The total soil concentrations of arsenic ranged from 1.29 to 25.28 mg kg(-)(1) with a mean of 6.09 mg kg(-)(1). Available (NaH(2)PO(4)-extractable) arsenic content accounted for 0.7-38.2% of total soil arsenic and was significantly correlated with total soil arsenic content. For the vegetable soils, the available fraction (ratio of available As to total As) of arsenic decreased with decreasing silt (particle size 0.02-0.002 mm) and free iron (DCB extractable) contents and with increasing soil pH and organic matter content. The available fraction of arsenic in the paddy rice soils increased with increasing free iron and organic matter contents and decreasing soil pH and silt content. The correlation of NaH(2)PO(4)-extractable arsenic with the arsenic concentration of the vegetables was much better than that of total As. The transfer factor based on the soil available arsenic (TF(avail)) was chosen to compare the accumulation ability of the various crops. The TF(avail) values of rice grains (air-dried weight basis) ranged between 0.068 and 0.44 and were higher than those of the vegetables, ranging from 0.001 to 0.12. The accumulation ability of the crops decreased in the order of rice>radish>water spinach>celery>onion>taro>leaf mustard>fragrant-flowered garlic>pakchoi>Chinese cabbage>lettuce>garlic>cowpea>cauliflower>bottle gourd>towel gourd>eggplant. Daily consumption of rice and other As-rich vegetables could result in an excessive intake of arsenic, based on the provisional tolerable intake for adults for arsenic recommended by WHO.

  7. Concentration estimation of heavy metal in soils from typical sewage irrigation area of Shandong Province, China using reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Li, Chunfang; Wang, Jining; Cao, Wentao; Wu, Quanyuan

    2017-07-01

    Since sewage irrigation can markedly disturb the status of heavy metals in soils, a convenient and accurate technique for heavy metal concentration estimation is of utmost importance in the cropland using wastewater for irrigation. This study therefore assessed the feasibility of visible and near infrared reflectance (VINR) spectroscopy for predicting heavy metal contents including Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, As, Cd, and Hg in the north plain of Longkou city, Shandong Province, China. A total of 70 topsoil samples were taken for in situ spectra measurement and chemical analysis. Stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) and principal component regression (PCR) algorithms were applied to establish the associations between heavy metals and reflectance spectral data pretreated by different transformation methods. Based on the criteria that minimal root mean square error (RMSE), maximal coefficient of determination (R (2)) for calibration, and greater ratio of standard error of performance to standard deviation (RPD) is related to the optimal model, SMLR model using first deviation data (RD1) provided the best prediction for the contents of Ni, Pb, As, Cd, and Hg, calibration using SNV data for Cr and continuum removal spectra for Zn, while PCR equation employed RD1 values was fit for prediction of the contents of Cu. The determination coefficients of all the reasonable models were beyond 0.6, and RPD indicated a fair or good result. In general, first deviation preprocessing tool outperformed other methods in this study, while raw spectra reflectance performed unsatisfactory in all models. Overall, VINR reflectance spectroscopy technique could be applicable to the rapid concentration assessment of heavy metals in soils of the study area.

  8. Mercury methylation in paddy soil: source and distribution of mercury species at a Hg mining area, Guizhou Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lei; Anderson, Christopher W. N.; Qiu, Guangle; Meng, Bo; Wang, Dingyong; Feng, Xinbin

    2016-04-01

    Rice paddy plantation is the dominant agricultural land use throughout Asia. Rice paddy fields have been identified as important sites for methylmercury (MeHg) production in the terrestrial ecosystem and a primary pathway of MeHg exposure to humans in mercury (Hg) mining areas. We compared the source and distribution of Hg species in different compartments of the rice paddy during a complete rice-growing season at two different typical Hg-contaminated mining sites in Guizhou province, China: an abandoned site with a high Hg concentration in soil but a low concentration in the atmosphere and a current-day artisanal site with a low concentration in soil but a high concentration in the atmosphere. Our results showed that the flux of new Hg to the ecosystem from irrigation and atmospheric deposition was insignificant relative to the pool of old Hg in soil; the dominant source of MeHg to paddy soil is in situ methylation of inorganic Hg (IHg). Elevated MeHg concentrations and the high proportion of Hg as MeHg in paddy water and the surface soil layer at the artisanal site demonstrated active Hg methylation at this site only. We propose that the in situ production of MeHg in paddy water and surface soil is dependent on elevated Hg in the atmosphere and the consequential deposition of new Hg into a low-pH anoxic geochemical system. The absence of depth-dependent variability in the MeHg concentration in soil cores collected from the abandoned Hg mining site, consistent with the low concentration of Hg in the atmosphere and high pH of the paddy water and irrigation water, suggested that net production of MeHg at this site was limited. We propose that the concentration of Hg in ambient air is an indicator for the risk of MeHg accumulation in paddy rice.

  9. [Effects of land use change on soil readily oxidizable carbon in a coastal area of northern Jiangsu Province, East China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Bing; Zhao, Xiao-Long; Wang, Ming-Hui; Ruan, Hong-Hua; Xu, Chang-Bai; Xu, Ya-ming

    2013-04-01

    Soil readily oxidizable carbon (ROC) is a sensitive index to indicate the early changes of soil organic carbon (SOC), and has important value to research the stability and dynamics of SOC pool under the backgrounds of human disturbance and global climate change. To further understand the effects of land use change on soil ROC, an investigation was conducted on the soil ROC content and related factors in four different land use types (grassland, farmland, poplar-agriculture system and pure poplar plantation) in a coastal area of northern Jiangsu Province, East China. The soil ROC content was in the order of grassland < farmland

  10. [Spatial-temporal pattern and obstacle factors of cultivated land ecological security in major grain producing areas of northeast China: a case study in Jilin Province].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong-Bo; Ma, Yan-Ji

    2014-02-01

    According to the cultivated land ecological security in major grain production areas of Northeast China, this paper selected 48 counties of Jilin Province as the research object. Based on the PSR-EES conceptual framework model, an evaluation index system of cultivated land ecological security was built. By using the improved TOPSIS, Markov chains, GIS spatial analysis and obstacle degree models, the spatial-temporal pattern of cultivated land ecological security and the obstacle factors were analyzed from 1995 to 2011 in Jilin Province. The results indicated that, the composite index of cultivated land ecological security appeared in a rising trend in Jilin Province from 1995 to 2011, and the cultivated land ecological security level changed from being sensitive to being general. There was a pattern of 'Club Convergence' in cultivated land ecological security level in each county and the spatial discrepancy tended to become larger. The 'Polarization' trend of cultivated land ecological security level was obvious. The distributions of sensitive level and critical security level with ribbon patterns tended to be dispersed, the general security level and relative security levels concentrated, and the distributions of security level scattered. The unstable trend of cultivated land ecological security level was more and more obvious. The main obstacle factors that affected the cultivated land ecological security level in Jilin Province were rural net income per capita, economic density, the proportion of environmental protection investment in GDP, degree of machinery cultivation and the comprehensive utilization rate of industrial solid wastes.

  11. Role of Remote Sensing and Geographyc Information System Mapping for Protected Areas Land Rice Field Subak, Buffer Zones, and Area Conversion (Case Studies In Gianyar Regency, Bali Province)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanya, Indayati; Netera Subadiyasa, N.

    2016-11-01

    Conversion of rice fields in Bali 2579 ha/year, Law Number 41 of 2009 [1] and five of Government Regulation (GR), mandates the Local Government (LG) has a Regional Regulation (RR) or Rule Regent/Mayor, on the protection of agricultural land sustainable food (PALSF). Yet none provincial government of Bali has PALSF; although Subak as world cultural heritage. Similarly, Gianyar regency development strategy directed to integrate agriculture with tourism. Landsat 8 images, Word View Coverage 2015 Gianyar district and ArcGIS 10.3 software used for of rice field mapping and zoning of land protection Subak. Ten thematic maps (watersheds, land use, irrigation, relief/slope, rainfall, spatial planning, land suitability, productivity, the distance from downtown) as a variable parameter, weighted and balanced numerically. Numerical classification agricultura land using for the overlay menu and reselek. The total value of >125 as rice need to be protected, 100-125 value for buffer zone, and the value of <100 rice fields can be converted to 40 next year. For the 20 next year, the total value of> 100, 50-100 and <50 respectively to rice fields that need to be protected, wetland buffer, and rice fields can be converted. Region Subak sustainable of rice field protection, buffer and can be converted in a row for the next 20 years is 10973 ha, 3855 ha and 311 ha. For the next 40 years Subak conserved of rice field (8019 ha), buffer (5855 ha), and can be converted (3124 ha). Subak land pattern of spread can be converted to an supply of land for non-agricultural development of the region downstream to the access road Ida Bagus Matera (Jln. Province / national) in the coastal areas of Gianyar.

  12. Study on the association of p53 codon 72 polymorphisms with risk of gastric cancer in high incidence Hexi area of Gansu Province in China.

    PubMed

    Ke-Xiang, Zhu; Yu-Min, Li; Xun, Li; Wen-Ce, Zhou; Yong, Shan; Tao, Liu

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the possible association of P53 codon 72 Arg/Pro polymorphisms with risk of gastric cancer in the high incidence Hexi area of Gansu province in China. Blood samples from 140 patients with gastric carcinoma and 125 healthy controls were collected in Hexi area of Gansu province. Polymorphism of P53Arg72Pro was genotyped by PCR-TaqMan. For detection Helicobacter pylori infection, Warhin-Starry staining was used. Three kinds of polymorphisms of P53Arg72Pro were Arg/Arg, Arg/Pro, Pro/Pro. The frequencies in gastric cancer group were 15.7, 60.0, 24.3%, and the frequencies in healthy controls were 25.6, 54.4, 20.0%, respectively. P53 codon 72 Pro carrier genotype (Arg/Pro+Pro/Pro) increased risk of gastric carcinoma with an odds ratio 1.840 (95% CI: 1.006-3.387). Helicobacter pylori infection rate was 68.6% in patients group and 50.4% in healthy controls. Helicobacter pylori infection rate in gastric cancer patients was remarkably higher than that in the controls (OR: 2.147, 95% CI: 1.302-3.541, P=0.003). Stratification analysis showed that P53 codon 72 Pro carrier genotype with Helicobacter pylori infection was significantly higher in cases than that in the controls (OR: 4.182, 95% CI: 1.850-9.454). P53Arg72Pro polymorphisms could be a risk factor for gastric cancer in high incidence Hexi area of Gansu Province in China. P53 codon 72 Pro carrier genotype and Helicobacter pylori positive infection may have a synergistic effect on gastric cancer in high incidence Hexi area of Gansu Province in China.

  13. Miocene woods from the Qaidam Basin on northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with implications for paleoenvironmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ye-Ming; Yang, Xiao-Nan

    2016-02-01

    The Qaidam Basin with the most complete Cenozoic sedimentary preservation in northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is a key area for studying uplift and environmental change of the plateau. Three types of woods, Ulmus (Ulmaceae), Leguminosae (?) (angiosperm) and Cupressaceae (gymnosperm) were recognized from the large-scale preservation of fossil woods in late Miocene Shang Youshashan Formation in northern Qaidam Basin on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Both investigations of their Nearest Living Relatives (NLRs) and previous grassland mammal evidences suggest that there have been temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest and needle-leaved forest with grass in northern Qaidam Basin during the late Miocene in contrast to the desert vegetation found there nowadays. The presence of the ancient forest steppe further implies that the southern part of the plateau used to be adequately low, so that the Indian and East Asian monsoons could approach the northern area and to accommodate the vegetation in late Miocene.

  14. [Investigation on rates of awareness, treatment and control of diabetes mellitus and the influence factors in rural areas of Jilin province].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang; Li, Yong; He, Huan; Tang, Yuan; Yan, Zhihui; Lv, Le; Zhang, Huihui; Liu, Fanyu; Meng, Tingyu; Gu, Yulu; Guan, Chaoling; Zhen, Qing; Yu, Yaqin; Liu, Yawen

    2014-09-01

    Assess the rates of awareness, treatment and control of diabetes mellitus and the influence factors in rural areas of Jilin province. Multistage stratified random cluster sampling design was used to select participants that carried out with questionnaire interview and physical examination. The analysis was based on a representative sample of 923 diabetes mellitus. Multiple logistic regressions were used to examine socio-demographic factors associated with the levels of awareness, treatment and control of diabetes. Diabetes awareness, treatment, control and control among treated were 68. 9% ,57. 7% ,23. 9% and 41. 5% , respectively in rural area of Jilin province. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the main effect factors on the rates of awareness were gender, family history of diabetes, smoke, drink and exercise. The rates of treatment were associated with age, occupation, family history of diabetes, drink and exercise, and the rates of control were associated gender. The rates of awareness, treatment and control of diabetes mellitus were expected to be improved in rural areas of Jilin province. The effective preventive strategies which concentrate on the influence factors should be taken to control their blood glucose level.

  15. Detection of Giardia duodenalis assemblage E infections at the Tibetan Plateau Area: Yaks are suitable hosts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanghua; Wang, Ge-Ping; Li, Xiu-Ping; Ma, Li-Qing; Karanis, Gabriele; Christodoulou-Vafeiadou, Eleni; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2017-05-01

    The prevalence of Giardia duodenalis (G. duodenalis) assemblages in yaks is poorly known. The present study examined 297 fecal samples from weaned yak, 4-7 months of age, from 3 different farms, in Tibetan Plateau Area (TPA) of the Qinghai Province in Western China. The prevalence of infection was determined by light and immunofluorescence microscopy, and nested-PCR. PCR was performed for the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU) amplified 16 positive for G. duodenalis products. The prevalence of Giardia species was 5.0% (15/297) on light microscopic analysis, 6.1% (18/297) on immunofluorescence test (IFT) and 5.4% (16/297) on nested-PCR. The overall prevalence with the three methods was 5.5%. Ten of the 16 PCR products have been successfully sequenced. Sequence results and phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rRNA sequence data using MEGA5.0 and DNAstar7.0 identified all samples of interest as G. duodenalis assemblage E. This study revealed for the first time the presence of G. duodenalis in yaks from the Qinghai province in China and confirmed that yak is a suitable host for Giardia parasites. The results provide useful information about G. duodenalis prevalence and the epidemiological significance of yak a suitable host to harbor Giardia infections.

  16. Paleogene volcanic ash layers in the Danish Basin: compositions and source areas in the North Atlantic Igneous Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Lotte M.; Fitton, J. Godfrey; Pedersen, Asger K.

    2003-11-01

    The Paleogene mo clay basin in Denmark contains ca. 200 layers of mostly well-preserved volcanic ash. Of these, ca. 77 layers have been analysed for major and trace elements by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), 22 for rare-earth elements (REE), and 11 for Sr and Nd isotopes. The 'negative' ash series (layers -39 to -1) comprise tholeiitic basalt, crustally contaminated trachyte, and rhyolite; alkaline basalt, trachybasalt, trachyte, and rhyolite; and Ti-rich nephelinite and phonolite. The 'positive' ash series (layers +1 to +140) comprise enriched tholeiitic ferrobasalt and two rhyolite layers. The ferrobasalts form one comagmatic group; however, oscillations are seen up-section between less-enriched and more-enriched compositions, as indicated by variations in Zr/Nb, REE contents, and isotope compositions, suggesting heterogeneities in the mantle source. Two samples of Eocene ash from Greifswalder Oie in northern Germany are identical to the positive series ashes. By comparison of the ash compositions with other rocks from the North Atlantic Igneous Province, probable source areas can be identified. Four stages of deposition can be distinguished. In stage 1 (layers -39 to -22), basalts and rhyolites were sourced from centres on the NW European shelf. In stage 2 (layers -21b to -15), trachytes and rhyolites were still sourced from centres on the shelf, whereas the strongly alkaline layers could all have originated in the Gardiner Complex in East Greenland. In stage 3, alkali basalts (layers -13 to -11) may be the products of a failed or propagating part of the opening oceanic rift. In stage 4 (layers +1 to +140), we suggest that the comagmatic suite of voluminous ferrobasalts were sourced from a gigantic volcanic system representing the nascent Proto-Iceland within the opening ocean. The cataclysmic character of stage 4 can be understood if the areas of extremely high magma production associated with the Proto-Icelandic mantle plume, which had until then

  17. [Analysis of iodine nutrition and thyroid function of adults in urban areas of Wuwei city Gansu province].

    PubMed

    Dou, Yugui; Wang, Yanling; Wang, Tingcai; Liang, Liping; Ren, Xudong; Li, Hongbo; Zhu, Xiaonan

    2014-01-01

    To find out the iodine nutrition and thyroid function of adults in urban areas of Wuwei city Gansu province and to provide a basis for scientific iodine supplementation. A cross-sectional survey was performed in 104 adults in Wuwei city form the April 2009 to January 2010. The morning blood samples and one urine samples selected randomly of different people were collected and three free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroid hormone (FT4), total triiodothyronine (TT3), total thyroxine (TT4), the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin antibodies (TGAb), thyroid microsomal antibodies (TMAb) in blood samples and iodine in urine samples were detected. The medians of urinary iodine were respectively 139.3 microg/L and 212.6 microg/L for male and female, female was significantly higher than male, there were statisticant differences (P < 0.05). TT3, TT4, FT4, FT3 and TSH's mean values were in the normal range, the abnormal ratio of TT3, TT4, FT3, FT4, TSH were respectively 1.9%, 1.0%, 3.8%, 1.9%, 16.3%. The positive rate of TGAb and TMAb in female were all higher than male, there were statisticant differences (P < 0.05). Subclinical hypothyroidism in all thyroid function disorders was most and accounted for 14.4% and female were all higher than male (P < 0.05). The survey were divided into iodine deficiency group, adequate iodine group, over adequate iodine group and iodine excess group for urinary iodine level. The abnormal ratio of TT3, TT4, FT3, FT4, TSH in four groups had no statistically differences, but the positive rate of TGAb and TMAb raised with increased urinary iodine level. Thyroid function disorders occurred in the other three groups except iodine deficiency group, and there were statisticant differences. Iodine nutrition level is appropriate for adults in urban areas, but the female was higher than male. Subclinical hypothyroidism in all thyroid function disorders was most, the positive rate of TGAb and TMAb raised with increased urinary iodine

  18. [Study of the relevant factors of behavioral development among 30-month-old infants in rural area of Shaanxi Province].

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Zhu, Z H; Zhang, M; Li, D Y; Liu, D L; Cheng, Y; Yan, H; Zeng, L X

    2017-07-06

    Objective: To explore the relevant factors of behavioral development among 30-month-old infants in rural area, Shaanxi Province. Methods: The behavioral development among 977 infants aged 30-month-old was evaluated in Changwu and Binxian of Shaanxi province from July 2006 to August 2008. The inclusion criteria included single live birth between January 2004 and February 2006, mother had participated in a community-based intervention study named "Impact of multi-micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy on low birth weight and premature delivery" . Infants who had obvious deformity or other birth defects, infants who could not complete the questionnaire survey, physical examination were excluded from the study. The self-designed questionnaire was used to investigate the information of feeding patterns, disease status, physical development, and immunization status of the infants, and their behavioral development were assessed by Bayley scales of infant development (BSID). General Linear Model was used to adjust the possible confounding factors, and the analysis of variance was performed to explore the effects on the behavioral development among infants aged 30-month-old. Results: Among the infants in the study, the average age was (30.6±0.6) months old, the mean birth weight was (3 199.1±405.9)g. After adjusted the mothers' age of delivery, educational level and occupation of the parents, family ecnomic conditions and the number of children, infants whose mother exposed to toxic chemicals during pregnancy had lower score in activity (-0.179±0.961) and lower score in concentration (-0.177±1.099) compared with infants with unexposed mother (0.058±1.006, P=0.001; 0.057±0.960, P=0.003). Similarly, infants whose mother took drugs during pregnancy had lower score in persistent behaviors (-0.070±1.000) compared with infants whose mother did not(0.085±1.006, P=0.017). Compared with normal birth infants(0.043±0.981, P=0.007; 0.021±0.984, P=0.034), infants less

  19. An Investigation on Soil Chemical Composition and Shallow Groundwater Condition in a Saline Area in Nakhon Panom Province, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeboonruang, U.

    2010-12-01

    The Mekong River Basin region is a potential salt-accumulated neighborhood. Several subbasin areas have been reported to have the saline soil problem and these include Lower Songkram River, Nam Oon Brook, Nam Thew Brook, and Namkam Brook. The study area is located on the lower of the Namkam River Basin mainly in 3 districts of the Nakhon Panom Province and these districts are Amphoe That Panom, Amphoe Nakae, and Amphoe Renu Nakhon. Soil salinity is found risen sparsely in some villages of these three districts. Generally, shallow groundwater is known to facilitate the distribution of dissolved salts away from the salinity sources and to pick up the salts to the top soils. Thus, groundwater plays a major role in salinity distribution everywhere. The objective of this research is to investigate the soil chemical composition and shallow groundwater evolution in the study area. Soil samples are analyzed using X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRF). The depth to groundwater, groundwater pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical resistivity (EC), and salinity are the parameters and the measurement takes place from October 2007 to present. There are 19 sampling locations distributed in the study area. The depth of the observation wells varies from 4 m to 40 m. Groundwater table is found to be up to 7 m below the groundwater surface and the depth is increasing from December to April. Groundwater pH is constantly less than 7 and greater than 4. Groundwater pH varies significantly between 10 mg/l to 45,000 mg/l and EC also differs between 10 µS/cm to 90,000 µS/cm. Most of groundwater sampled in the study area is slight blackish with salinity measured below 1.00 ppt and these are Ban Don Dang, Ban Wang Yang, Ban Na Khu, Ban Piman Ta, Pan Sala, and Ban Lao Tung. On the other hand, Ban Bo Dong Sorn and Ban Pra Song Noi have very saline shallow groundwater with salinity greater 1ppt. The results from the XRF show that SiO2 and Al2O3 are the main composition and the soil is

  20. Study on the association of COX-2 genetic polymorphisms with risk of gastric cancer in high incidence Hexi area of Gansu province in China.

    PubMed

    Ke-Xiang, Zhu; Yu-Min, Li; Xun, Li; Wen-Ce, Zhou; Yong, Shan; Tao, Liu

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the possible association of polymorphisms, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) promoter region -899G>C, COX-2 codon 587G>A, with risk of gastric cancer in the high incidence Hexi area of Gansu province in China. Blood samples from 140 patients with gastric carcinoma and 125 normal persons were collected in Hexi area of Gansu province in China. Polymorphisms of COX-2 -899G>A and COX-2 587G>A were genotyped by PCR-TaqMan. For detection Helicobacter pylori infection, Warhin-Starry staining was used. Three kinds of polymorphisms of COX-2 -899G>C were GG, GC and CC. The frequencies in gastric cancer patients were 72.9, 21.4 and 5.7%, and the frequencies in controls were 84.0, 12.8 and 3.2%, respectively. COX-2 -899C carrier (GC + CC) increased risk of gastric carcinoma with an odds ratio 1.950 (95% CI: 1.067-3.586, P=0.029). The genotype of COX-2 587G>A polymorphism were GG, GA and AA. The frequencies in patients group were 86.4, 11.4 and 2.2%, and the frequencies in controls were 89.6, 9.6 and 0.8%, respectively. There was no significant difference between cases and controls in each genotype. Helicobacter pylori infection rate was 68.6% in patients group and 50.4% in healthy controls. Helicobacter pylori infection rate in gastric cancer patients was remarkably higher than that in normal people (OR: 2.147, 95% CI: 1.302-3.541, P=0.003). Stratification analysis was showed that COX-2 -899C carrier genotype with Helicobacter pylori infection was significantly higher in cases than that in healthy controls (OR: 4.000, 95% CI: 1.638-9.770). The polymorphism of COX-2 -899G>C could be a risk factor for gastric cancer in high incidence Hexi area of Gansu Province in China. COX-2 -899C carrier genotype and Helicobacter pylori positive infection may have a synergistic effect on gastric cancer in high incidence Hexi area of Gansu Province in China. However, the polymorphisms of COX-2 587G>A is no association with gastric cancer in the high incidence Hexi area of Gansu Province

  1. Bimodal magmatism of the Tucumã area, Carajás province: U-Pb geochronology, classification and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Fernando Fernandes da; Oliveira, Davis Carvalho de; Antonio, Paul Y. J.; D'Agrella Filho, Manoel S.; Lamarão, Claudio Nery

    2016-12-01

    (mixing), while dacite dikes can be generated in the upper crust at a lower temperature, providing a less efficient mixing process (mingling). The affinities observed between the felsic to intermediate rocks of the Rio Maria and São Felix do Xingu areas and the bimodal magmatism of the Tucumã area reinforce the hypothesis that in the Paleoproterozoic the Carajás province was affected by processes involving thermal perturbations in the upper mantle, mafic underplating, and associated crustal extension or transtension. The 1.88 Ga fissure-controlled A-type magmatism of the Tucumã area was emplaced ∼1.0 to ∼0.65 Ga after stabilization of the Archean crust. Its origin is not related to subduction processes but to the disruption of the supercontinent at the end of the Paleoproterozoic.

  2. Assessment of Climate Driven Dynamics of Active Layer, Hydrological and Vegetation Status at the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Using Dynamic Global Vegetation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Extensive permafrost degradation starting from 1970s is observed at the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau , China. Degradation is attributed to an increase in mean annual ground temperature 0.1◦-0.5◦ C with mainly winter warming. The construction of Qinghai-Tibet Railway also influenced a state of permafrost in the area Permafrost degradation caused negative environmental consequences in the area. The areas covered by sand are expanding steadily making large concern of accelerating desertification. The general pathway of future joint dynamics of permafrost, vegetation and hydrological status at the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is still poorly understood and foreseeable. Hydrology in the area is determined by heat-moisture dynamics of active layer. This dynamics is highly non-linear and depends as on external climatic variables temperature and precipitation, so on soil and rock properties (amount of sand against aeolian deposits in the Plateau) as well as vegetation cover, which determine thaw and freeze processes in the active layer and evaporation and run-off. SEVER DGVM was modified to include heat-moisture dynamics of active layer in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. SEVER DGVM imitates processes in 10 plant functional types at coarse resolution of 0.5 degrees. This model imitates behavior of average individual of each plant type in each grid cell through simulation years. Each of those grid cells processed independently. First, this model starts from "bare soil", placing a bit of each plant type and giving them some time to grow and achieve equilibrium. Then, including active layer thickness and soil moisture dynamics into this layer, it allows assessment of potential environmental dynamics in this area. Simulations demonstrate further degradation of pastureland and accelerating desertification processes in this vitally important water feed area for many Asian rivers. Negative environmental problems related to operation of Qinghai-Tibet are also assessed.

  3. Mental health in a conflict area: Migration, economic stress and religiosity in the three southernmost provinces of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ford, Kathleen; Jampaklay, Aree; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat

    2017-03-01

    Three southern provinces of Thailand, Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat, have been involved in a long period of unrest due to differences between the population in the provinces and the Thai government with regard to language, culture and governance. The objectives of this article are to examine the effects of everyday stressors due to the conflict, including economic stress and migration, as well as the effect of religiosity on the reporting of psychiatric symptoms among adults in the three provinces. Data were drawn from a survey conducted in 2014. The survey included a probability sample of 2,053 Muslim adults aged 18-59 years.Mental health was assessed using World Health Organization's (WHO) Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) of 20 questions. Multilevel models were estimated to examine the influence of economic stress due to the conflict, as well as community and individual aspects of migration and religion on mental health. The data showed that migration from the household and the community and the economic effects of the unrest were associated with reporting of more psychiatric symptoms among adults in the southern provinces. Religion was related to reporting of fewer psychiatric symptoms at the individual and the community levels. The study documented increased reporting of psychiatric symptoms among persons reporting perceived household economic stress due to the conflict and the migration of family members.

  4. [Construction of urban green space ecosystem by using corridor network: a case study in west urban area of Dongying City, Shandong Province].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; Chen, Hui; Huang, Zhiji; Cai, Mantang; Kang, Junshui

    2006-09-01

    This paper discussed the ecological significance of urban green corridors network in urban green space ecosystem, analyzed the present status of green space ecosystem in the west urban area of Dongying in Shangdong Province, and figured out the ways of constructing urban green corridors network in this area to strengthen the linkage between its fragmented greenbelts, and between these greenbelts and rural natural environment. Through the construction of this network, the greenbelt area in the west urban area of Dongying would increase 1400 hm2, greenbelt area per capita would increase to 66 m2, and urban and rural greenbelts would be integrated into a whole system to serve the whole city, giving a powerful support to enhance the life quality of local people and the stability of urban ecosystem.

  5. Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, in a kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) from a commercial game farm in the Malelane area of the Mpumalanga Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bengis, R G; Keet, D F; Michel, A L; Kriek, N P

    2001-09-01

    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, was diagnosed for the first time, in a kudu cow from a commercial game ranch in the Malelane area of the Mpumalanga Province close to the Kruger National Park. This diagnosis has important implications for the eradication of the disease in commercial and communal livestock in the area. Kudus are considered to be a potential maintenance host and, because of discharging fistulae in the parotid area where the lymph nodes are commonly infected, they have the potential of disseminating bacteria over wide areas. Cognisance should be taken of the presence of tuberculosis in a species other than domesticated cattle in this area and its implications for the control of tuberculosis in cattle.

  6. Gold placer and Quaternary stratigraphy of the Jabal Mokhyat area, southern Najd Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, D.L.; Puffett, W.P.; Campbell, W.L.; Al-Koulak, Z. H.

    1981-01-01

    An ancient gold placer at Jabal Mokhyat (lat 20?12.2'N., long 43?28'E.), about 90 km east of Qalat Bishah in the southern Najd Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, was studied in 1973. Seven hundred and twenty-eight samples in 25 measured sections were collected along trenches and pits 2.5 m in depth and 2,600 m in total length. Alluvium was thicker than the excavation depth along about 50 percent of the trench length. The average gold content was 4.4 mg per m3, and the highest grade trench contained 40 mg gold per m 3. Because fine particulate gold is rare in the alluvium, a few large particles, 1 to 5 mm in diameter, greatly affected the sampling results. The ancient placer diggings are in small headwater wadis distributed over a 30-km 2 area, and the total dug area is about 1.2 km2. The placer produced an estimated 50 kg of gold and was worked about 2,600 + 250 years ago. The potential for a present-day placer operation is small. The gold is sparsely distributed in locally derived, flood-deposited, immature gravels throughout a stratigraphic section that consists of 1) calichified, saprolitic bedrock of Precambrian age; 2) basal, intensely calichified, saprolitic gravel (0-3 m thick) of Pleistocene age; 3) disconformable, slightly consolidated gravel and sand (0-1 m thick) of late Pleistocene age containing sparse, disseminated caliche; 4) firm loessic silt (0-1 m thick) of early Holocene age; and 5) loose sand and gravel (0.3-1 m thick) of late Holocene age. The loessic silt accumulated during the Holocene pluvial. The top of the loessic silt unit is dated at about 6,000 years B.P. by using charcoal from hearths of ancient man. Following the Holocene pluvial, the climate became arid, and extreme desiccation resulted in abundant eolian sand that progressively diluted the late Holocene gravels. The remnants of the pre-Holocene stratigraphy suggest similar climatic cycles during the Pleistocene. Abundant, sparsely mineralized, gold-bearing quartz veins (0-1 m wide

  7. [Bacterial diversity in Lianyungang marine sediment and Qinghai Lake sediment].

    PubMed

    Hou, Mei-Feng; He, Shi-Long; Li, Dong; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yun

    2011-09-01

    The 16S rRNA clone libraries of two different saline environments the Lianyungang marine sediment and the Qinghai Lake sediment were constructed. The Shannon diversity index, Chao and ACE richness index and Simpson dominance index of the bacterial communities in the two samples was compared, and the analysis for the bacterial community structures of this two samples was conducted. The results showed that the Shannon diversity index of Lianyungang marine sediment achieved 3.53, and that of Qinghai Lake sediment achieved 3.05, it was concluded that the bacterial communities in the two samples were diverse. The main bacterial communities in Lianyungang marine sediment included Proteobacteria (49.2%) and Bacteroidetes (29.2%), and Bacteroidetes (60.0%) and Firmicutes (26.0%) were the main bacterial communities in Qinghai Lake sediment. Some halotolerant and halophilic bacteria were found, which were important for industrial production and high saline wastewater treatment.

  8. The research of remote sensing in karst collapse remote sense based on airborne LiDAR system: taking Meitanba mining area in Hunan Province as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Zhihong; Wang, Hao; Wu, Fang; Guo, Zhaocheng

    2014-11-01

    Taking Meitanba mining area in Hunan Province as an example, by using the achieved high accuracy and high resolution point-cloud data and digital image data by airborne LiDAR system, this research built the 3D landform of the vegetation-covered areas, got the features of micro landform in the areas, and offered quantity factors for research of geo phenomenon which related to regional landforms and geoscience process. Based on the high accuracy data from airborne LiDAR system and combined with the basic data of geology,the forming mechanism of the karst collapse of Meitanba mining area in Hunan Province and the relationship of surface collapse and mining activities are analyzed. The research mentioned that the reason of the karst collapse in Meitanba mining area is with the basic conditions of forming karst landform and plus the increasing water flow and exchange rate of the underground water, and then the water level decrease, finally different degrees of the regional karst collapse have happened.

  9. Wind erosion simulation along with the Qinghai-Tibet Railway and its response to the climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Y.; Gao, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Wind erosion is one of the major processes of desertification. It has been widely analyzed using field observation, wind tunnel experiments and wind erosion models at arid and semi-arid agricultural areas in North China. It was seldom studies in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) yet because of the cold environment and fewer human activities over there. However, the desertification has been reported intensified and expanded in recent decades over central and eastern QTP [Dong et al., 2009]. Land surface models are useful tool in land processes simulation, and underwent several generations with various progresses in geophysical and geochemical processes. For instance, the new generation community Noah land surface model with multi-parameterization options (Noah-MP) has been worldwide implied and performs well in simulating the land surface conditions in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. However, none of the land surface models involves the wind erosion process. In this study, a wind erosion model -- Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) is coupled with the Noah-MP. According to Li et al. (2015), the majority land cover type over the QTP is grassland, meadow and bare land. Thus the concerning of crop and cultivated lands are not included in the coupling. The coupled model is called Noah-MPES in which Noah-MP serves as the basic system providing the climate and land surface variables for wind erosion calculation. The coupled Noah-MPES was implemented and tested at five stations near the Qinghai-Tibet Railway: BJ, Anduo, D66, from GAME-Tibet, Tanggula and Xidatan, where Noah-MP simulation shows well performance in soil temperature and soil water content at upper soil levels. The wind erosion will be validated by comparing to the results from 137Cs tracer method [Yan et al., 2001]. Wind erosion along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway will be simulated and investigated then. Reference: Dong, Z., G. Hu, C. Yan, W. Wang, and J. Lu (2009), Aeolian desertification and its causes in the Zoige

  10. The assessment on impact of essential drugs policy on primary health care system in rural areas of Shandong Province policy and regulation division of the Health Department of Shandong Province.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuge; Shu, Defeng; Xia, Mei; Gao, Dehai; Lu, Dan; Huang, Ning; Tian, Xiaoqing; An, Limei; Li, Shixue; Li, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    At present, China has achieved an initial establishment and gradual implementation of a framework for national essential drugs policy. With the further implementation of the national essential drugs policy, it is not clear how the policy works, whether it achieves the original intention of essential drugs policy, and what impact essential drugs policy exerts on the primary health care system. In view of it, we conducted a field research on sample areas of Shandong Province to understand the conditions of the implementation of the essential drugs policy in Shandong Province. From three perspectives of medical institutions, patients and medical staff, this thesis analyzes the impact of essential drugs policy on village-level and township-level health service system, summarizes the effectiveness of implementing essential drugs policy, discovers the problems of various aspects and conducts an in-depth analysis of the causes, and puts forward feasible suggestions to provide reference for improving the essential drugs policy. The assessment results show that the implementation of essential drugs policy in Shandong Province has played a positive role in promoting the sound development of the primary health care system, changed the situation of covering hospital expenses with medicine revenue in the past, contributed to the return of medical institutions to public welfare, and reduced the patient's economic burden of disease. But there emerge many problems as follows: impact on the doctor's diagnosis and treatment due to incompleteness of drug types, and distribution not in place, patient loss and operational difficulty of village clinic. Thus, this thesis makes recommendations of drugs catalog formulation, drug procurement, sales and use, and meanwhile points out that the supporting financial compensation policy and performance appraisal policy and other measures in place are a prerequisite for a positive role of essential drugs policy.

  11. Characteristics of influenza H13N8 subtype virus firstly isolated from Qinghai Lake Region, China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jie; Bo, Hong; Zhang, Ye; Dong, Libo; Zou, Shumei; Huang, Weijuan; Liu, Jia; Wang, Dayan; Shu, Yuelong

    2017-09-18

    Since the highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza caused thousands of deaths of wild bird in this area in 2005, Qinghai Lake in China has become a hot spot for study of the influence of avian influenza to migratory wild birds. However, the ecology and evolution of low pathogenic avian influenza virus in this region are limited. This project-based avian influenza surveillance in Qinghai lake region was initiated in year 2012. Samples of wild bird feces and lake surface water were collected in Qinghai Lake in year 2012.Virus isolation was conducted on embryonated chicken eggs. The influenza A virus was determined by rRT-PCR. Virus sequences were acquired by deep sequencing. The phylogenetic correlation and molecular characteristics of the viruses were analyzed. The virus growth and infection features, receptor binding preference were studied, and pathogenicity in vitro as well as. Two H13N8 subtype influenza viruses were isolated. The viruses are phylogenetically belong to Eurasian lineage. Most of the genes are associated with gull origin influenza virus except PB1 gene, which is most probably derived from Anseriformes virus. The evidence of interspecies reassortment was presented. The two viruses have limited growth capacity on MDCK and A549 cells while grow well in embryonated eggs. The dual receptor binding features of the two viruses was shown up. The low pathogenic features were determined by trypsin dependence plaque formation assay. The two H13N8 subtype influenza viruses are highly associated with gull origin. The interspecies reassortment of H13 subtype virus among Anseriforme sand Charadriiformes wild birds emphasizes the importance of strengthening avian influenza surveillance in this region. This study is helpful to understand the ecology, evolution and transmission pattern of H13 subtype influenza virus globally.

  12. Complex principal component analysis of mass balance changes on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Jingang; Shi, Hongling; Wang, Yong; Yao, Yixin

    2017-06-01

    Climatic time series for Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau locations are rare. Although glacier shrinkage is well described, the relationship between mass balance and climatic variation is less clear. We studied the effect of climate changes on mass balance by analyzing the complex principal components of mass changes during 2003-2015 using Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite data. Mass change in the eastern Himalayas, Karakoram, Pamirs, and northwestern India was most sensitive to variation in the first principal component, which explained 54 % of the change. Correlation analysis showed that the first principal component is related to the Indian monsoon and the correlation coefficient is 0.83. Mass change on the eastern Qinghai plateau, eastern Himalayas-Qiangtang Plateau-Pamirs area and northwestern India was most sensitive to variation of the second major factor, which explained 16 % of the variation. The second major component is associated with El Niño; the correlation coefficient was 0.30 and this exceeded the 95 % confidence interval of 0.17. Mass change on the western and northwestern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was most sensitive to the variation of its third major component, responsible for 6 % of mass balance change. The third component may be associated with climate change from the westerlies and La Niña. The third component and El Niño have similar signals of 6.5 year periods and opposite phases. We conclude that El Niño now has the second largest effect on mass balance change of this region, which differs from the traditional view that the westerlies are the second largest factor.

  13. Stable isotopes reveal sources of precipitation in the Qinghai Lake Basin of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Cui, Bu-Li; Li, Xiao-Yan

    2015-09-15

    The use of isotopic tracers is an effective approach for characterizing the moisture sources of precipitation in cold and arid regions, especially in the Tibetan Plateau (TP), an area of sparse human habitation with few weather and hydrological stations. This study investigated stable isotope characteristics of precipitation in the Qinghai Lake Basin, analyzed moisture sources using data sets from NCEP-NCAR, and calculated vapor contributions from lake evaporation to the precipitation in the basin using a two-component mixing model. Results showed that the Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL) was defined as δ(2)H=7.86 δ(18)O+15.01, with a slope of less than 8, indicating that some non-equilibrium evaporation processes occurred when the drops fell below the cloud base. Temperature effects controlled δ(18)O and δ(2)H in precipitation in the basin, with high values in summer season and low values in winter season. Moisture in the basin was derived predominantly from the Southeast Asian Monsoon (SEAM) from June to August and the Westerly Circulation (WC) from September through May. Meanwhile, the transition in atmospheric circulation took place in June and September. The SEAM strengthened gradually, while the WC weakened gradually in June, and inversely in September. However, the Southwest Asian Monsoon (SWAM) did not reach the Qinghai Lake Basin due to the barrier posed by Tanggula Mountain. High d-excess (>10 ‰) and significant altitude and lake effects of δ(18)O in precipitation suggested that the vapor evaporated from Qinghai Lake, strongly influenced annual precipitation, and affected the regional water cycle in the basin distinctly. The monthly contribution of lake evaporation to basin precipitation ranged from 3.03% to 37.93%, with an annual contribution of 23.42% or 90.54 mm, the majority of which occurred in the summer season. The findings demonstrate that the contribution of evaporation from lakes to atmospheric vapor is fundamental to water cycling on the

  14. Isolation and Classification of Fungal Whitefly Entomopathogens from Soils of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor in China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tingyan; Zhang, Bowen; Jiang, Yanfang; Hu, Qiongbo

    2016-01-01

    Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor of China with distinct geographic and climatic conditions are remote and less disturbed by humans, in which are likely to find some new strains of fungal entomopathogens against B-biotype whiteflies that is a very important invading pest worldwide. In this research, nineteen strains among six species of entomogenous fungi were isolated from the soil samples collected from 32 locations in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor. From the data of isolation rates, it was indicated that the good biodiversity of entomogenous fungi was found in the soil covered good vegetations. On the contrary, no strains were isolated from the desert areas. In addition, the dominant species, Isaria fumosorosea and Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are different from the strains of other places based on ITS genetic homology analysis. It was verified that the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau area was less disturbed by human, and the fungi in this place exchanged less compared with other regional species. All of these strains showed the pathogenicity against the B-biotype whitefly with the mortality of more than 30%. However, a few strains of Paecilomyces lilacinus, Lecanicillium psalliotae, Aspergillus ustus, I. fumosorosea and M. anisopliae var. anisopliae had better virulence with LC50s of 0.36-26.44×106 spores/mL on post-treatment day 6-7. Especially, the L. psalliotae strain LpTS01 was the greatest virulence with LC50 of 0.36×106spores/mL and LT50 of 4.23d. Our research thus presents some new insights to discover new entomopathogenic fungal strains used for B-biotype whitefly biocontrol.

  15. Isolation and Classification of Fungal Whitefly Entomopathogens from Soils of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor in China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanfang; Hu, Qiongbo

    2016-01-01

    Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor of China with distinct geographic and climatic conditions are remote and less disturbed by humans, in which are likely to find some new strains of fungal entomopathogens against B-biotype whiteflies that is a very important invading pest worldwide. In this research, nineteen strains among six species of entomogenous fungi were isolated from the soil samples collected from 32 locations in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor. From the data of isolation rates, it was indicated that the good biodiversity of entomogenous fungi was found in the soil covered good vegetations. On the contrary, no strains were isolated from the desert areas. In addition, the dominant species, Isaria fumosorosea and Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are different from the strains of other places based on ITS genetic homology analysis. It was verified that the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau area was less disturbed by human, and the fungi in this place exchanged less compared with other regional species. All of these strains showed the pathogenicity against the B-biotype whitefly with the mortality of more than 30%. However, a few strains of Paecilomyces lilacinus, Lecanicillium psalliotae, Aspergillus ustus, I. fumosorosea and M. anisopliae var. anisopliae had better virulence with LC50s of 0.36–26.44×106 spores/mL on post-treatment day 6–7. Especially, the L. psalliotae strain LpTS01 was the greatest virulence with LC50 of 0.36×106spores/mL and LT50 of 4.23d. Our research thus presents some new insights to discover new entomopathogenic fungal strains used for B-biotype whitefly biocontrol. PMID:27228109

  16. Application of the ORCHIDEE global vegetation model to evaluate biomass and soil carbon stocks of Qinghai-Tibetan grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Kun; Ciais, Philippe; Piao, Shilong; Wu, Xiaopu; Tang, Yanhong; Vuichard, Nicolas; Liang, Shuang; Fang, Jingyun

    2010-03-01

    The cold grasslands of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau form a globally significant biome, which represents 6% of the world's grasslands and 44% of China's grasslands. Yet little is known about carbon cycling in this biome. In this study, we calibrated and applied a process-based ecosystem model called Organizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems (ORCHIDEE) to estimate the C fluxes and stocks of these grasslands. First, the parameterizations of ORCHIDEE were improved and calibrated against multiple time-scale and spatial-scale observations of (1) eddy-covariance fluxes of CO2 above one alpine meadow site; (2) soil temperature collocated with 30 meteorological stations; (3) satellite leaf area index (LAI) data collocated with the meteorological stations; and (4) soil organic carbon (SOC) density profiles from China's Second National Soil Survey. The extensive SOC survey data were used to extrapolate local fluxes to the entire grassland biome. After calibration, we show that ORCHIDEE can successfully capture the seasonal variation of net ecosystem exchange (NEE), as well as the LAI and SOC spatial distribution. We applied the calibrated model to estimate 0.3 Pg C yr-1 (1 Pg = 1015 g) of total annual net primary productivity (NPP), 0.4 Pg C of vegetation total biomass (aboveground and belowground), and 12 Pg C of SOC stocks for Qinghai-Tibetan grasslands covering an area of 1.4 × 106 km2. The mean annual NPP, vegetation biomass, and soil carbon stocks decrease from the southeast to the northwest, along with precipitation gradients. Our results also suggest that in response to an increase of temperature by 2°C, approximately 10% of current SOC stocks in Qinghai-Tibetan grasslands could be lost, even though NPP increases by about 9%. This result implies that Qinghai-Tibetan grasslands may be a vulnerable component of the terrestrial carbon cycle to future climate warming.

  17. The distribution of green algal micro-propagules and macroalgae at the early stage of green tide in the coastal area of South Jiangsu Province in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiangqing; Wang, Zongling; Fan, Shiliang; Zhang, Xuelei; Li, Ruixiang; Li, Yan

    2017-02-01

    An integrated investigation was carried out during late April to late May of 2014 in the coastal area of South Jiangsu Province to understand the early development of green tide in the Yellow Sea and discover the temporal and spatial distribution of green algal micro-propagules and macroalgae at the early stage of green tide. The results showed that green algal micro-propagules distributed in all stations from late April to late May, and micro-propagules of high density (> 300 ind. L-1) concentrated in the adjacent Porphyra aquaculture area. Floating macroalgae were initially observed in the northern survey areas, and increased gradually. The dominant species was U. prolifera in the floating macroalgae, ranging between 90% and 100%. The seawater surface temperature and salinity in the above mentioned time period were suitable for the growth of macroalgae. This work can help government to strengthen management to reduce the blooms of macroalgae in the coastal area of South Jiangsu Province and also facilitate the decision-making for managers at the early stage of green tide.

  18. [Spatiotemporal variation patterns of potential evapotranspiration in five provinces of Northwest China in 1960-2011].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xian-Feng; Pan, Yao-Zhong; Zhang, Jin-Shui; Lin, Zhi-Hui

    2013-09-01

    By using Penman-Monteith model and Hurst index model, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal variation patterns of potential evapotranspiration (ET0) in the five provinces of Northwest China in 1960-2011. In the meantime, the dominant factors driving the variations of the ET0 were quantitatively analyzed by using sensitivity analysis method. In 1960-2011, the ET0 in the five provinces presented an overall decreasing trend, with a drop rate of -0.72 mm x a(-1), but the ET0 increased gradually after 1993. An obvious spatial difference was shown in the annual average ET0. The average ET0 in the five provinces was 1158 mm (675-2282 mm), wit the maximum (2282 mm) in Qijiaojing of Xinjiang and the low values (>800 mm) in Qinba Mountains in south Shaanxi. Except in spring, the ET0 in other seasons showed a decreasing trend. In the analysis of future trend, the ET0 in most areas (81.4%) of Northwest China would present a trend from decrease to increase. Therefore, under the background of global warming, the warm and wet degree in Northwest China would be somewhat weakened, but the ET0 in the middle part of Xinjiang would be decreased continuously. Wind speed was the main factor affecting the ET0 in Northwest China at both annual and monthly scales, but the affecting extent of wind speed differed with seasons and areas. The spatial extent affected by the wind speed in winter expanded across the entire five provinces of Northwest China, while the spatial extent affected by the wind speed in summer included the entire Xinjiang and the northwest of Gansu and Qinghai.

  19. Bird migration and risk for H5N1 transmission into Qinghai Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Peng; Hou, Yuansheng; Xing, Zhi; He, Yubang; Li, Tianxian; Guo, Shan; Luo, Ze; Yan, Baoping; Yin, Zuohua; Lei, Fumin

    2011-05-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus still cause devastating effects to humans, agricultural poultry flocks, and wild birds. Wild birds are also detected to carry H5N1 over long distances and are able to introduce it into new areas during migration. In this article, our objective is to provide lists of bird species potentially involved in the introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in Qinghai Lake, which is an important breeding and stopover site for aquatic birds along the Central Asian Flyway. Bird species were classified according to the following behavioral and ecological factors: migratory status, abundance, degree of mixing species and gregariousness, and the prevalence rate of H5N1 virus. Most of the high-risk species were from the family Anatidae, order Anseriformes (9/14 in spring, 11/15 in fall). We also estimated the relative risk of bird species involved by using a semi-quantitative method; species from family Anatidae accounted for over 39% and over 91% of the total risk at spring and fall migration periods, respectively. Results also show the relative risk for each bird aggregating site in helping to identify high-risk areas. This work may also be instructive and meaningful to the avian influenza surveillance in the breeding, stopover, and wintering sites besides Qinghai Lake along the Central Asian Flyway.

  20. Prevalence of Eimeria infection in yaks on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hui; Li, Chunhua; Zhao, Qiping; Li, Jing; Han, Hongyu; Jiang, Lianlian; Zhu, Shunhai; Li, Ting; Kong, Chunlin; Huang, Bing; Cai, Jinzhong

    2012-10-01

    Few data are available on the prevalence of Eimeria spp. in yaks. An observational study was conducted to determine the prevalence of coccidial infection in yaks on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China. A total of 324 fecal samples from 4 counties was examined, and oocysts were identified to the species level on the basis of morphological features. Eimeria oocysts were found in 113 (34.9%) samples. The species detected and their prevalence values included the following: Eimeria zuernii (54.9%), E. pellita (35.4%), E. canadensis (33.6%), E. bovis (23.0%), E. cylindrica (16.8%), E. subspherica (16.8%), E. ellipsoidalis (14.1%), E. brasiliensis (13.3%), E. wyomingensis (8.0%), E. alabamensis (7.1%), E. illinoisensis (5.3%), E. auburnensis (4.4%), E. bombayansis (3.5%), and E. bukidnonensis (2.7%). Mixed infections of 2 to 7 species were found in 66.4% of the animals. There was an age-related difference in the prevalence of infection. The highest prevalence (53.3%) was observed in calves, an intermediate prevalence in yearlings (36.1%), and the lowest was in adults (15.6%). The number of oocysts per g of feces was significantly higher in calves than in adults. More Eimeria species were indentified in calves. Eimeria zuernii was the most prevalent species in calves and adults, whereas in yearling yaks E. pellita was most common. The majority of calves and yearlings showed mixed infection, but adults tended to be infected with 1 species. The prevalence and intensity of Eimeria species were found to show statistically significant differences among different regions in Qinghai Province.

  1. Survey of Archaeal Diversity in Sediments of Qinghai Lake, China and Implications for Paleoclimate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Q.; Jiang, H.; Ji, S.; Dong, H.; Zhang, C.

    2006-12-01

    Lake ecosystem. Shen, J., Liu, X.Q., Wang, S.M., and Matsumoto, R. (2005) Palaeoclimatic changes in the Qinghai Lake area during the last 18,000 years, Quaternary International, 136, 131-140.

  2. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of lava flows around Linga, Chhindwara area in the Eastern Deccan Volcanic Province (EDVP), India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Sohini; Ray, Jyotisankar; Koeberl, Christian; Saha, Abhishek; Thöni, Martin; Balaram, V.

    2014-09-01

    Based on systematic three-tier arrangement of vesicles, entablature and columnar joints, three distinct quartz normative tholeiitic lava flows (I, II and III) were recognized in the area around Linga, in the Eastern Deccan Volcanic Province (EDVP). Each of the flows exhibits intraflow chemical variations marked by high Mg#-low Ti, and low Mg#-high Ti contents. The MgO (4.27-7.74 wt.%), Mg# (23.45-41.89) and Zr (161.5-246.3 ppm) of Linga flows suggest an evolved chemistry marked by fractional crystallization and crustal contamination processes. Positive Rb and Th anomalies, negative Nb anomalies, relative enrichment of LILE-LREE with respect to Nb, Nb/Th:3.71-6.77 indicate crustal contamination of magma by continental materials through magma-crust interaction during melt migration and contributions from sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). Negative K, Sr and Ti anomalies corroborate an intracontinental, rift-controlled tectonic setting for the genesis and evolution of Linga basalts. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns reflect low HREE abundances and prominent LREE/HREE, MREE/HREE fractionation thereby pointing towards partial melting of garnet peridotite mantle source. Nb, Zr, Y variations suggest 10-15% partial melting of mantle source for the derivation of parent tholeiitic melt that suffered crystal fractionation of phenocrystal phases and subsequent liquid immiscibility. Critical evaluation of Srinitial and Ndinitial (65 Ma) isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Srinitial between 0.705656 and 0.706980 and 143Nd/144Ndinitial between 0.512523 and 0.512598) suggests that these basalts were derived from an enriched mantle (∼EM I-EM II) source. The εSr (21.84-41.27) and εNd (-0.28 to 1.10) isotopic signatures defined by higher εSr and lower εNd fingerprint a plume-related source. Positive and negative values of εNd indicate an isotopically heterogeneous mantle source marked by mixing of depleted (DM) and enriched mantle (EM I-EM II) components at the source

  3. Alteration mineral mapping and metallogenic prediction using CASI/SASI airborne hyperspectral data in Mingshujing area of Gansu Province, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yu; Zhao, Yingjun; Qin, Kai; Tian, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is a frontier of remote sensing. Due to its advantage of integrated image with spectrum, it can realize objects identification, superior to objects classification of multispectral remote sensing. Taken the Mingshujing area in Gansu Province of China as an example, this study extracted the alteration minerals and thus to do metallogenic prediction using CASI/SASI airborne hyperspectral data. The Mingshujing area, located in Liuyuan region of Gansu Province, is dominated by middle Variscan granites and Indosinian granites, with well developed EW- and NE-trending faults. In July 2012, our project team obtained the CASI/SASI hyperspectral data of Liuyuan region by aerial flight. The CASI hyperspectral data have 32 bands and the SASI hyperspectral data have 88 bands, with spectral resolution of 15nm for both. The hyperspectral raw data were first preprocessed, including radiometric correction and geometric correction. We then conducted atmospheric correction using empirical line method based on synchronously measured ground spectra to obtain hyperspectral reflectance data. Spectral dimension of hyperspectral data was reduced by the minimum noise fraction transformation method, and then purity pixels were selected. After these steps, image endmember spectra were obtained. We used the endmember spectrum election method based on expert knowledge to analyze the image endmember spectra. Then, the mixture tuned matched filter (MTMF) mapping method was used to extract mineral information, including limonite, Al-rich sericite, Al-poor sericite and chlorite. Finally, the distribution of minerals in the Mingshujing area was mapped. According to the distribution of limonite and Al-rich sericite mapped by CASI/SASI hyperspectral data, we delineated five gold prospecting areas, and further conducted field verification in these areas. It is shown that there are significant gold mineralized anomalies in surface in the Baixianishan and Xitan prospecting

  4. Integrated assessment on the vulnerability of animal husbandry to snow disasters under climate change in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yanqiang; Wang, Shijin; Fang, Yiping; Nawaz, Zain

    2017-10-01

    Animal husbandry is a dominant and traditional source of livelihood and income in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is the third largest snow covered area in China and is one of the main snow disaster regions in the world. It is thus imperative to urgently address the issue of vulnerability of the animal husbandry sector to snow disasters for disaster mitigation and adaptation under growing risk of these disasters as a result of future climate change. However, there is very few literature reported on the vulnerability of animal husbandry in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. This assessment aims at identifying vulnerability of animal husbandry at spatial scale and to identify the reasons for vulnerability for adaptive planning and disaster mitigation. First, historical snow disaster characteristics have been analyzed and used for the spatial weight for vulnerability assessment. Second, indicator-based vulnerability assessment model and indicator system have been established. We combined risk of snow hazard, sensitivity of livestock to disaster, physical exposure to disaster, and community capacity to adapt to snow disaster in an integrated vulnerability index. Lastly, vulnerability of animal husbandry to snow disaster on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau has been evaluated. Results indicate that high vulnerabilities are mainly concentrated in the eastern and central plateau and that vulnerability decreases gradually from the east to the west. Due to global warming, the vulnerability trend has eased to some extent during the last few decades. High livestock density exposure to blizzard-prone regions and shortages of livestock barn and forage are the main reasons of high vulnerability. The conclusion emphasizes the important role of the local government and community to help local pastoralists for reducing vulnerability to snow disaster and frozen hazard. The approaches presented in this paper can be used for snow disaster mitigation, resilience

  5. [Spatial distribution characteristics of the biomass and carbon storage of Qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia) forests in Qilian Mountains].

    PubMed

    Peng, Shou-zhang; Zhao, Chuan-yan; Zheng, Xiang-lin; Xu, Zhong-lin; He, Lei

    2011-07-01

    This paper estimated the biomass and carbon storage and their spatial distributions of Qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia) forests in Qilian Mountains, based on the field investigation, forest map, and meteorological data, and with the help of GIS technology. In 2008, the biomass of the forests was averagely 209.24 t x hm(-2), with a total biomass of 3.4 x 10(7) t. Due to the difference of water and thermal condition, there existed great differences in the biomass of Qinghai spruce within the Mountains. The biomass increased by 3.12 t x hm(-2) with increasing 1 degrees longitude and decreased by 3.8 t x hm(-2) with increasing 1 degrees latitude, and decreased by 0.05 t x hm(-2) with the elevation increasing 100 m. The carbon density of the forests ranged from 70.4 to 131.1 t x hm(-2), averagely 109.8 t x hm(-2), and the average carbon density was 83.8 t x hm(-2) for the young forest, 109.6 t x hm(-2) for the middle age forest, 122 t x hm(-2) for the near-mature forest, 124.2 t x hm(-2) for the mature forest, and 117.1 t x hm(-2) for the over-mature forest. The total carbon storage of Qinghai spruce forests in the study area was 1.8 x 10(7) t.

  6. What controls the partitioning between baseflow and mountain block recharge in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yingying; Zheng, Chunmiao; Andrews, Charles; Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Aijing; Liu, Jie

    2017-08-01

    Mountainous areas are referred to as "water towers" since they are the source of water for many low-lying communities. The hydrologic budgets of these areas, which are particularly susceptible to climate change, are typically poorly constrained. To address this, we analyzed the partitioning between baseflow and mountain block recharge (MBR) using a regional groundwater model of the northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau run with multiple scenarios. We found that 19% of precipitation is recharged, approximately 35% of which becomes MBR, while 65% discharges as baseflow. This partitioning is relatively independent of the recharge rate but is sensitive to exponential depth decrease of hydraulic conductivity (K). The MBR is more sensitive to this exponential decrease in K than baseflow. The proportion of MBR varies from twice to half of baseflow as the decay exponent increases by more than fivefold. Thus, the depth dependence of K is critical for quantifying hydrologic partitioning in these sensitive areas.

  7. Niche conservatism in Gynandropaa frogs on the southeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Hu, Junhua; Broennimann, Olivier; Guisan, Antoine; Wang, Bin; Huang, Yan; Jiang, Jianping

    2016-09-07

    The role of ecological niche in lineage diversification has been the subject of long-standing interest of ecologists and evolutionary biologists. Gynandropaa frogs diversified into three independent clades endemic to the southeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Here, we address the question whether these clades kept the same niche after separation, and what it tells us about possible diversification processes. We applied predictions in geographical (G)-space and tests of niche conservatism in environmental (E)-space. Niche models in G-space indicate separate regions with high suitability for the different clades, with some potential areas of sympatry. While the pair of central and eastern clades displayed the largest niche overlap for most variables, and strict niche equivalency was rejected for all clade-pairs, we found no strong evidence for niche divergence, but rather the signature of niche conservatism compared to null models in E-space. These results suggest a common ancestral ecological niche, and as such give good support to divergence through allopatric speciation, but alternative explanations are also possible. Our findings illustrate how testing for niche conservatism in lineage diversification can provide insights into underlying speciation processes, and how this information may guide further research and conservation practices, as illustrated here for amphibians on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  8. Niche conservatism in Gynandropaa frogs on the southeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Junhua; Broennimann, Olivier; Guisan, Antoine; Wang, Bin; Huang, Yan; Jiang, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The role of ecological niche in lineage diversification has been the subject of long-standing interest of ecologists and evolutionary biologists. Gynandropaa frogs diversified into three independent clades endemic to the southeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Here, we address the question whether these clades kept the same niche after separation, and what it tells us about possible diversification processes. We applied predictions in geographical (G)-space and tests of niche conservatism in environmental (E)-space. Niche models in G-space indicate separate regions with high suitability for the different clades, with some potential areas of sympatry. While the pair of central and eastern clades displayed the largest niche overlap for most variables, and strict niche equivalency was rejected for all clade-pairs, we found no strong evidence for niche divergence, but rather the signature of niche conservatism compared to null models in E-space. These results suggest a common ancestral ecological niche, and as such give good support to divergence through allopatric speciation, but alternative explanations are also possible. Our findings illustrate how testing for niche conservatism in lineage diversification can provide insights into underlying speciation processes, and how this information may guide further research and conservation practices, as illustrated here for amphibians on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. PMID:27601098

  9. Association of smoking, alcohol drinking and dietary factors with esophageal cancer in high- and low-risk areas of Jiangsu Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ming; Zhao, Jin-Kou; Hu, Xiao-Shu; Wang, Pei-Hua; Qin, Yu; Lu, Yin-Chang; Yang, Jie; Liu, Ai-Min; Wu, De-Lin; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Frans, Kok J; Veer, Pieter van’t

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the main environmental and lifestyle factors that account for the regional differences in esophageal cancer (EC) risk in low- and high-risk areas of Jiangsu Province, China. METHODS: Since 2003, a population-based case-control study has been conducted simultaneously in low-risk (Ganyu County) and high-risk (Dafeng County) areas of Jiangsu Province, China. Using identical protocols and pre-tested standardized questionnaire, following written informed consent, eligible subjects were inquired about their detail information on potential determinants of EC, including demographic information, socio-economic status, living conditions, disease history, family cancer history, smoking, alcohol drinking, dietary habits, frequency, amount of food intake, etc. Conditional logistic regression with maximum likelihood estimation was used to obtain Odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (95% CI), after adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: In the preliminary analysis of the ongoing study, we recruited 291 pairs of cases and controls in Dafeng and 240 pairs of cases and controls in Ganyu, respectively. In both low-risk and high-risk areas, EC was inversely associated with socio-economic status, such as level of education, past economic status and body mass index. However, this disease was more frequent among those who had a family history of cancer or encountered misfortune in the past 10 years. EC was also more frequent among smokers, alcohol drinkers and fast eaters. Furthermore, there was a geographic variation of the associations between smoking, alcohol drinking and EC risk despite the similar prevalence of these risk factors in both low-risk and high-risk areas. The dose-response relationship of smoking and smoking related variables, such as age of the first smoking, duration and amount were apparent only in high-risk areas. On the contrary, a dose-response relationship on the effect of alcohol drinking on EC was observed only in low-risk areas

  10. Distribution, source identification and health risk assessment of soil heavy metals in urban areas of Isfahan province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegari Mehr, Meisam; Keshavarzi, Behnam; Moore, Farid; Sharifi, Reza; Lahijanzadeh, Ahmadreza; Kermani, Maryam

    2017-08-01

    The present study examines some heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) contents in urban soils of 23 cities in Isfahan province, central Iran. For this purpose, 83 topsoil samples were collected and analyzed by ICP-MS. Results showed that the concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn are higher than background values, while Co, Cr and Ni concentrations are close to the background. Compared with heavy metal concentrations in selected cities around the world, As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations in urban soils of Isfahan are relatively enriched. Moreover, natural background concentrations of Co, Cr and Ni in Isfahan province soil are high and the apparent enrichment relative to other major cities of the world is due to this high background contents. Calculated contamination factor (CF) confirmed that As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn are extremely enriched in the urban soils. Furthermore, pollution load index (PLI) and Geoaccumulation index (Igeo) highlighted that highly contaminated cities are mostly affected by pollution from traffic, industries and Shahkuh Pb-Zn mine. Based on hazard quotients (HQ), hazard index (HI) and cancer risk (CR) calculated in this study, human health risk (particularly for Pb and Cd) have reached alarming scales. Results from principle component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) introduces three sources for soils heavy metals including mine and industries (mainly for Pb, Zn, Cd and As); urban activities (particularly for Cu, Pb and Zn); and geogenic source (Ni, Co and Cr).

  11. Spatiotemporal dynamics of grassland aboveground biomass on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau based on validated MODIS NDVI.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiliang; Cheng, Fangyan; Dong, Shikui; Zhao, Haidi; Hou, Xiaoyun; Wu, Xue

    2017-06-23

    Spatiotemporal dynamics of aboveground biomass (AGB) is a fundamental problem for grassland environmental management on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data can feasibly be used to estimate AGB at large scales, and their precise validation is necessary to utilize them effectively. In our study, the clip-harvest method was used at 64 plots in QTP grasslands to obtain actual AGB values, and a handheld hyperspectral spectrometer was used to calculate field-measured NDVI to validate MODIS NDVI. Based on the models between NDVI and AGB, AGB dynamics trends during 2000-2012 were analyzed. The results showed that the AGB in QTP grasslands increased during the study period, with 70% of the grasslands undergoing increases mainly in the Qinghai Province. Also, the meadow showed a larger increasing trend than steppe. Future AGB dynamic trends were also investigated using a combined analysis of the slope values and the Hurst exponent. The results showed high sustainability of AGB dynamics trends after the study period. Predictions indicate 60% of the steppe and meadow grasslands would continue to increase in AGB, while 25% of the grasslands would remain in degradation, with most of them distributing in Tibet.

  12. Mosquito distribution and Japanese encephalitis virus infection in the immigration bird (Asian open-billed stork) nested area in Pathum Thani province, central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tiawsirisup, Sonthaya; Nuchprayoon, Surang

    2010-03-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus infection is a mosquito-borne emerging or re-emerging infectious disease in several countries. The ecology of this virus in nature includes amplifying avian or mammal hosts and mosquito vectors. Infected immigration birds from epidemic areas may play important roles in the outbreak of the disease. The prevalence is high during the raining season in Thailand and human cases have been reported from several provinces including Bangkok suburbs. This study was conducted to investigate the mosquito distribution and Japanese encephalitis virus infection in the immigration bird (Asian open-billed stork) nested area, Pathum Thani province, central Thailand. Mosquitoes were collected by using CO(2)-baited Centers for disease control and prevention (CDC) light traps, and dry ice was used as a source of CO(2) to attract mosquitoes from March 2008 to January 2009. Eight traps were operated from 4 p.m. until 7 a.m. on each study day. There were seven genera collected: Aedes, Anopheles, Armigeres, Coquillettidia, Culex, Mansonia, and Uranotaenia. Culex tritaeniorhynchus was the most collected species in each month, except November, in which Culex gelidus was the most collected species. Sixty pools of C. gelidus and of C. tritaeniorhynchus, each of which had 50 mosquitoes, were tested for Japanese encephalitis virus infection by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions; however, none of them was infected with the virus.

  13. Chinese Herbal Therapy and Western Drug Use, Belief and Adherence for Hypertension Management in the Rural Areas of Heilongjiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan; Hao, Yanhua; Sun, Hong; Gao, Lijun; Wu, Qunhong; Quan, Hude

    2015-01-01

    Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) including Chinese herbal therapy has been widely practiced in China. However, little is known about Chinese herbal therapy use for hypertension management, which is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions in China. Thus we described Chinese herbal therapy and western drug users, beliefs, hypertension knowledge, and Chinese herbal and western drug adherence and determinants of Chinese herbal therapy use among patients with hypertension in rural areas of Heilongjiang Province, China. Methodology and Principal Findings This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive respondents aged 30 years or older in rural areas of Heilongjiang Province, China. Of 665 respondents, 39.7% were male, 27.4% were aged 65 years or older. At the survey, 14.0% reported using Chinese herbal therapy and 71.3% reported using western drug for hypertension management. A majority of patients had low level of treatment adherence (80.6% for the Chinese herbal therapy users and 81.2% for the western drug users). When respondents felt that their blood pressure was under control, 72.0% of the Chinese herbal therapy users and 69.2% of the western drug users sometimes stopped taking their medicine. Hypertensive patients with high education level or better quality of life are more likely use Chinese herbal therapy. Conclusions and Significance Majority of patients diagnosed with hypertension use western drugs to control blood pressure. Chinese herbal therapy use was associated with education level and quality of life. PMID:25923438

  14. Enumeration of Somatic and F-RNA Phages as an Indicator of Fecal Contamination in Potable Water from Rural Areas of the North West Province.

    PubMed

    Nkwe, Keitumetse Idah; Ateba, Collins Njie; Sithebe, Nomathamsanqa Patricia; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius Carlos

    2015-07-01

    Bacteriophages are regarded as enteric viral indicators in faecally contaminated water systems and may indicate the presence of human viral pollution. They are relatively resistant to inactivation by natural and treatment processes. In this study, the presence of somatic coliphages and F-RNA coliphages was investigated in potable water from rural areas in the North West province. Water samples were aseptically collected from boreholes and tap water from some rural communities in the North West Province. Physical parameters of the water, such as the temperature, pH and turbidity, were measured before sample collection. Double-agar layer assay was performed using ISO, (1995, 2000) standard methods. Bottled water was used as a negative control and the strains фX174 and MS2 as positive controls. Of the 16 water samples collected, 15 were positive for somatic bacteriophages while F-RNA coliphages were detected in only two samples. Amongst the positive samples 189 and three plaque forming units were obtained for both somatic and F-RNA coliphages, respectively. No coliphage was detected in water from Masamane tap 1. The rest of the samples obtained from various rural areas were positive and did not comply with national and international standards for potable water. This was a cause for concern and should be further investigated.

  15. Analysis of Soluble Proteins in Natural Cordyceps sinensis from Different Producing Areas by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis and Two-dimensional Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Hong; Zuo, Hua-Li; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Feng-Qin; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Qian, Zheng-Ming; Li, Wen-Jia; Xia, Zhi-Ning; Yang, Feng-Qing

    2017-01-01

    As one of the bioactive components in Cordyceps sinensis (CS), proteins were rarely used as index components to study the correlation between the protein components and producing areas of natural CS. Protein components of 26 natural CS samples produced in Qinghai, Tibet, and Sichuan provinces were analyzed and compared to investigate the relationship among 26 different producing areas. Proteins from 26 different producing areas were extracted by Tris-HCl buffer with Triton X-100, and separated using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). The SDS-PAGE results indicated that the number of protein bands and optical density curves of proteins in 26 CS samples was a bit different. However, the 2-DE results showed that the numbers and abundance of protein spots in protein profiles of 26 samples were obviously different and showed certain association with producing areas. Based on the expression values of matched protein spots, 26 batches of CS samples can be divided into two main categories (Tibet and Qinghai) by hierarchical cluster analysis. The number of protein bands and optical density curves of proteins in 26 Cordyceps sinensis samples were a bit different on the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein profilesNumbers and abundance of protein spots in protein profiles of 26 samples were obvious different on two-dimensional electrophoresis mapsTwenty-six different producing areas of natural Cordyceps sinensis samples were divided into two main categories (Tibet and Qinghai) by Hierarchical cluster analysis based on the values of matched protein spots. Abbreviations Used: SDS-PAGE: Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, 2-DE: Two-dimensional electrophoresis, Cordyceps sinensis: CS, TCMs: Traditional Chinese medicines.

  16. Analysis of Soluble Proteins in Natural Cordyceps sinensis from Different Producing Areas by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis and Two-dimensional Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-Hong; Zuo, Hua-Li; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Feng-Qin; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Qian, Zheng-Ming; Li, Wen-Jia; Xia, Zhi-Ning; Yang, Feng-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Background: As one of the bioactive components in Cordyceps sinensis (CS), proteins were rarely used as index components to study the correlation between the protein components and producing areas of natural CS. Objective: Protein components of 26 natural CS samples produced in Qinghai, Tibet, and Sichuan provinces were analyzed and compared to investigate the relationship among 26 different producing areas. Materials and Methods: Proteins from 26 different producing areas were extracted by Tris-HCl buffer with Triton X-100, and separated using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Results: The SDS-PAGE results indicated that the number of protein bands and optical density curves of proteins in 26 CS samples was a bit different. However, the 2-DE results showed that the numbers and abundance of protein spots in protein profiles of 26 samples were obviously different and showed certain association with producing areas. Conclusions: Based on the expression values of matched protein spots, 26 batches of CS samples can be divided into two main categories (Tibet and Qinghai) by hierarchical cluster analysis. SUMMARY The number of protein bands and optical density curves of proteins in 26 Cordyceps sinensis samples were a bit different on the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein profilesNumbers and abundance of protein spots in protein profiles of 26 samples were obvious different on two-dimensional electrophoresis mapsTwenty-six different producing areas of natural Cordyceps sinensis samples were divided into two main categories (Tibet and Qinghai) by Hierarchical cluster analysis based on the values of matched protein spots. Abbreviations Used: SDS-PAGE: Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, 2-DE: Two-dimensional electrophoresis, Cordyceps sinensis: CS, TCMs: Traditional Chinese medicines PMID:28250651

  17. Analysis of the phenomenon of attempted suicides in 1978-2010 in Poland, with particular emphasis on rural areas of Lublin Province.

    PubMed

    Makara-Studzińska, Marta; Sygit, Katarzyna; Sygit, Marian; Goździewska, Małgorzata; Zubilewicz, Jadwiga; Kryś-Noszczyk, Karolina

    2012-01-01

    The increasing quality of life of modern man should go hand-in-hand with reducing the scale of the problem of attempted suicides. During the last 55 years, the World Health Organization has recorded an increase in the number of suicides by about 60% in the developed and developing countries. In Poland, the highest rate of suicides have been committed by males, and the circumstances depended on gender, age and socio-economic factors. The aim of the presented study is to present the scale of the problem and present results of the analysis of the phenomenon of attempted suicides in 1978-2010, with particular emphasis on a Polish agricultural region - the Lublin Province in eastern Poland. 167,557 attempted suicides were analyzed across the country, included suicide attempts that resulted in death. Brief description of the state of knowledge and summary: Between 1978-2010 in Poland, the number of attempted suicides was higher in urban than in rural areas, especially among men aged between 31-50 years, while the tendency to commit suicide increased in rural areas in comparison to urban areas. Women usually represented a quarter of the people who attempted or committed suicide, with the majority cases reported in 2002. Most attempted suicides were carried out in the cities, but since 1990, the number of attempted suicides in the country is growing by an average of 8 per annum. In the Lublin Province, far more people are attempting to commit suicide in the rural areas. Despite the trend of increasing numbers of attempted suicides (about 4.36 suicides per year), the number of fatal suicides is decreasing, and the number of suicides committed by teenagers under 14 years of age is decreasing more dynamically.

  18. [Retrospective investigation on changes of endemic situation before and after reaching criteria of schistosomiasis transmission controlled or interrupted in hilly endemic areas of Jiangxi Province].

    PubMed

    Lin, Dan-dan; Lv, Shang-biao; Gu, Xiao-nan; Ying, Hu; Zeng, Jian-fang; Zu, Zao-fen; Chen, Hong-gen

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the changing rules of schistosomiasis endemic situation before and after reaching the criteria of schistosomiasis transmission controlled or interrupted in hilly endemic areas of Jiangxi Province, so as to provide the evidence for reformulating the criteria of schistosomiasis control and eradication in the future. In the hilly areas of schistosomiasis endemic in Jiangxi Province, 2 counties where the transmission has been interrupted and 1 county where the transmission has been controlled were selected and investigated with the retrospective research method. The endemic detailed data were collected and recorded 10 years before reaching the criteria of transmission interrupted/controlled, and several years after reaching the criteria (ending in 2008), and then a database was established. The changing rules of endemic situation before and after reaching the criteria of transmission interrupted/controlled were analyzed and compared. After reaching the criteria of transmission controlled, in the 3 counties, Guangfen, Shangrao and Dean, the declined rates of areas with Oncomelania hupensis snails were 96.79%, 98.99%, and 99.77% respectively. The snail density maintained a lower level, and 95% of infected persons and cattle were cured. The average time from transmission controlled to the transmission interrupted was 17 years in Guangfen County and 26 years in Dean County. However, in Shangrao County, the snail situation rebounded due to the snail re-found and spread although the schistosomiasis morbidity of population/animals maintained stably. After reaching the criteria of transmission interrupted/controlled, the remained snails were easy to re-find and spread under some certain condition, which is one of main obstacles for reaching the criteria of transmission interrupted. In an isolated snail unit, if the snail area and snail density are controlled in a very low level, it is still difficult to transmit and spread schistosomiasis even if there exist

  19. Freshwater mollusks at designated areas in eleven provinces of Thailand according to the water resource development projects.

    PubMed

    Sri-aroon, Pusadee; Butraporn, Piyarat; Limsoomboon, Jareemate; Kaewpoolsri, Manus; Chusongsang, Yupa; Charoenjai, Prasasana; Chusongsang, Phiraphol; Numnuan, Suthep; Kiatsiri, Songtham

    2007-03-01

    The study was conducted at 75 collecting loci in 15 districts of 11 provinces in Thailand during 1999-2004. A total of 12,079 live mollusks were collected, 11,874 were snails and 205 were clams. The snails were comprised of 39 species and classified into 9 families: Ampullariidae, Bithyniidae, Buccinidae, Potamiopsidae, Stenothyridae, Thiaridae, Viviparidae, Planorbidae and Lymnaeidae. The clams were comprised of 14 species classified into 2 families: Amblemidae and Corbiculidae. Fifteen species were medically important snails: Pomacea canaliculata, Pila ampullacea, P. pesmei, P. polita, Bithynia (Digoniostoma) funiculata, B. (D.) siamensis goniomphalos, B. (D.) s. siamensis, Filopaludina (Siamopaludina) martensi martensi, F. (Filopaludina) sumatrensis polygramma, Melanoides tuberculata, Tarebia granifera, Helicorbis umbilicalis, Gyraulus convexiusculus, Indoplanorbis exustus and Radix rubiginosa. Of these 3 snail species harbored trematode cercariae. I. exustus harbored Echinostoma malayanum, Xiphidio and Schistosoma spindale, and R. rubiginosa and B. (D.) siamensis goniomphalos harbored Xiphidio and intestinal flukes, respectively.

  20. Molecular detection and isolation of pathogenic Leptospira from asymptomatic humans, domestic animals and water sources in Nan province, a rural area of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kurilung, Alongkorn; Chanchaithong, Pattrarat; Lugsomya, Kittitat; Niyomtham, Waree; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Prapasarakul, Nuvee

    2017-03-29

    Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease that is often associated with animal carriers and contamination of the environment via infected urine. This study aimed to assess pathogenic leptospiral carriage in Nan province, a rural area of Thailand where leptospirosis is endemic. Samples from 20 villages were obtained during the period 2013 to 2016, comprising urine samples collected from asymptomatic people (n=37) and domestic animals (n=342), and environmental water samples (n=14). Leptospira were cultured in Ellinghauson McCullough Johnson and Harris (EMJH) media. An rrs nested PCR identified 9.92% (95% confidence interval (CI) 6.96-12.88) of the urine and water samples as being positive for Leptospira spp., and phylogenetic analysis was conducted on the 443bp amplicons. Leptospira weilii, which has not previously been identified in Thailand, was recovered from 13 cattle, 9 pigs, 2 dogs, 2 water samples and 1 goat. L. interrogans was found in 4 dogs, 3 pigs, 3 cattle, 1 human and 1 water sample. Four leptospiral strains were isolated and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis was performed on these. Three novel sequence types were identified, including two singletons of L. interrogans in ST26 and ST33, and one of L. weilii in ST94, with this having a close relationship to previous isolates from cases of human leptospirosis in Laos and China. Our results revealed that pathogenic Leptospira occur commonly in asymptomatic domestic animals, humans and environmental water samples in Nan Province, and emphasize the high potential for zoonotic transmission in the province.

  1. Evaluation of oral cavity condition with regard to decay in 18-year old from urban and rural areas in Podkarpackie Province, Poland.

    PubMed

    Mielnik-Błaszczak, Maria; Rudnicka-Siwek, Katarzyna; Warsz, Magdalena; Struska, Anna; Krajewska-Kurzępa, Agnieszka; Pels, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    The studies have indicated the necessity to intensify dental health care in certain Polish provinces. The purpose of study was to evaluate dental condition and establish dental health needs in the population of 18-year old youth from urban and rural region in Podkarpackie Province, Poland. Mean DMFT index (D-decayed, M-missing and F-filled teeth) was calculated as a key measure of dental decay and dental health needs identified. The results found the highest percentage of teeth affected by active decay (D) in the second molars, both upper and lower (>20%), the highest F score in the first and second maxillary and mandibular molars (>50% and >40% respectively), and the highest M score was observed in the first upper and lower molars. Mean DMFT score was 7.13. Higher scores were observed among the urban teenagers (DMFT=7.72 and D=2.86) compared to the teenagers from rural areas (DMFT=6.42 and D=1.37). The analysis of DMFT index with regard to gender found almost the same DMFT in males and females (males 7.15, females 7.12), and D, M and F scores differed slightly. No dental health needs were found in 36.67% examined, however 63.33% teenagers needed dental treatment. Professional prophylactic activities should be intensified in the group of children and teenagers living in Podkarpackie Province. A scheme of refunded fissure sealing of teeth should cover second molars as well. Professional dental health care should be extended in the group of teenagers attending vocational schools.

  2. Climate change and its impacts on vegetation distribution and net primary productivity of the alpine ecosystem in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qingzhu; Guo, Yaqi; Xu, Hongmei; Ganjurjav, Hasbagen; Li, Yue; Wan, Yunfan; Qin, Xiaobo; Ma, Xin; Liu, Shuo

    2016-06-01

    Changes in climate have caused impacts on ecosystems on all continents scale, and climate change is also projected to be a stressor on most ecosystems even at the rate of low- to medium-range warming scenarios. Alpine ecosystem in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is vulnerable to climate change. To quantify the climate change impacts on alpine ecosystems, we simulated the vegetation distribution and net primary production in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau for three future periods (2020s, 2050s and 2080s) using climate projection for RCPs (Representative Concentration Pathways) RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. The modified Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJ model) was parameter and test to make it applicable to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Climate projections that were applied to LPJ model in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau showed trends toward warmer and wetter conditions. Results based on climate projections indicated changes from 1.3°C to 4.2°C in annual temperature and changes from 2% to 5% in annual precipitation. The main impacts on vegetation distribution was increase in the area of forests and shrubs, decrease in alpine meadows which mainly replaced by shrubs which dominated the eastern plateau, and expanding in alpine steppes to the northwest dominated the western and northern plateau. The NPP was projected to increase by 79% and 134% under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. The projected NPP generally increased about 200gC·m(-2)·yr(-1) in most parts of the plateau with a gradual increase from the eastern to the western region of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau at the end of this century. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Spatial-temporal characteristics of lake level change in Tibet and Qinghai from two decades of altimeter observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Y. S.; Hwang, C.; Huang, C. Y.; Kao, R.; Han, J.

    2015-12-01

    Lake levels in the Tibet and Qinghai Plateaus provide valuable records for climate change studies. Most lakes here are hard to access, having only few lake level gauges that give in situ measurements of changes in lake level and area. Remote sensing sensors, such as satellite imagery and satellite altimetry, are able to measure lake level variations with a dense spatial coverage and with a high temporal resolution. In this study, we use the TOPEX/Poseidon series of satellite altimeters (TP, Jason-1 and -2, 1992-2014) to observe lake level variations at 23 lakes along their repeat ground tracks every 10 days. We also use the Envisat altimeter (2002-2008) to observe lake levels in three lakes of Qinghai at an interval of 35 days. We use subwaveform retracking to improve the ranging precisions of satellite altimeters. We employ an optimal processing technique to obtain quality measurements, including outlier detection, space-time reduction of measurements to a common reference point, and optimal filtering. Jason-1 fails to deliver height measurements over most of the lakes. The waveforms are classified to ensure observations with a sufficiently good quality. Over 1992-2014, the lake levels of most lakes in eastern Tibet rose, while the lake levels in western Tibet dropped. In Qinghai, the lake levels dropped before 2005 and then rose afterwards, suggesting a sharp climate change in 2005, or that the measure to protect the Qinghai ecosystem (e.g., reducing livestocks) started to take effect in 2005. In general, the overall pattern of lake change in Tibet and Qinghai is related to the variation of the Indian monsoons and locations of lakes. Most lake levels show clear annual and inter-annual oscillations. In some lakes, the amplitudes of annual variation in the TP era (1992-2002) were large and then turned smaller in the Jason-2 era (2008-2014). In some lakes, the annual amplitudes were reversed between the TP and Jason-2 eras. Also, some lakes show phase shifts in the

  4. Intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary captures of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the leishmaniasis endemic area of Chapare province, tropic of Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Ballart, C; Vidal, G; Picado, A; Cortez, M R; Torrico, F; Torrico, M C; Godoy, R E; Lozano, D; Gállego, M

    2016-02-01

    In South America, cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most frequent clinical form of leishmaniasis. Bolivia is one of the countries with higher incidence, with 33 cases per 100,000 individuals, and the disease is endemic in 70% of the territory. In the last decade, the number of cases has increased, the age range has expanded, affecting children under 5 years old, and a similar frequency between men and women is found. An entomological study with CDC light traps was conducted in three localities (Chipiriri, Santa Elena and Pedro Domingo Murillo) of the municipality of Villa Tunari, one of the main towns in the Chapare province (Department of Cochabamba, Bolivia). A total of 16 specimens belonging to 6 species of the genus Lutzomyia were captured: Lu. aragaoi, Lu. andersoni, Lu. antunesi, Lu. shawi, Lu. yuilli yuilli and Lu. auraensis. Our results showed the presence of two incriminated vectors of leishmaniasis in an urbanized area and in the intradomicile. More entomological studies are required in the Chapare province to confirm the role of vector sand flies, the intradomiciliary transmission of the disease and the presence of autochthonous cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Study on the relationship between frequencies of prenatal care and neonatal low birth weight in women of childbearing age from rural areas of Shaanxi province].

    PubMed

    Li, J M; Liu, D M; Zhang, X F; Qu, P F; Yan, H

    2017-04-10

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between frequencies of prenatal care and neonatal low birth weight (LBW) among women of childbearing age from the rural areas of Shaanxi province. Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted among the childbearing-aged women from the rural areas. Samples were selected through multi stage stratified random sampling method. The childbearing aged women were in pregnancy or having had definite outcomes of pregnancy. Measurement of data was described by median±standard deviation, and chi square test was used to compare the rates. Neonatal low birth weight and frequencies of prenatal care were dependent variables and independent variables grouped into the generalized Poisson regression model. Confounding factors were under control. Results: The overall incidence rate of LBW was 3.75% among 18 911 rural women of childbearing age during 2010-2013. Frequencies on pregnancy care were up to 15 times (0.70%), with a minimum of 0 (0.70%), an average of 5.65±2.74 times (including ≥10 times accounted for 12.37%; ≥7 times accounted for 28.52%; ≥5 times accounted for 62.80% and <4 times accounted for 21.49%). After controlling confounding factors, results from the generalized Poisson regression analysis revealed that the difference was statistically significant when compared to the reference group. The incidence of neonatal LBW in the <4 group was 1.61 times of the one in the >7 group (OR=1.61, 95%CI:1.31-2.00) while in the <4 group it was 1.23 times of the 4-7 group (OR=1.23, 95% CI:1.04-1.45). Conclusion: In the rural areas of Shaanxi province, the incidence of neonatal LBW was gradually reduced through the increasing number of frequencies on prenatal care, among women of childbearing age.

  6. Heavy Metals in Soil and Crops of an Intensively Farmed Area: A Case Study in Yucheng City, Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Lin; Wang, Wuyi; Li, Yonghua; Yang, Linsheng

    2010-01-01

    Yucheng City is located in northwestern Shandong Province, China, and is situated on the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, the largest alluvial plain in China. In this study, 86 surface soil samples were collected in Yucheng City and analyzed for cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil organic matter (SOM), pH, available phosphorus (avail. P), phosphorus (P), aluminum (Al), and iron (Fe). These soils were also analyzed for ‘total’ chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb), together with 92 wheat samples and 37 corn samples. There was no obvious heavy metal contamination in the soil and irrigation water. But the long-term accumulation of heavy metals in soil has lead to an increase of Ni, As, Hg and Pb concentrations in some of wheat and corn samples and Cd in wheat samples. Because of the numerous sources of soil heavy metals and the lower level of heavy metal in irrigation water, there is no significant relation between soil heavy metal concentrations and irrigation water concentrations. Cr, Ni were mainly from the indigenous clay minerals according to multivariate analysis. Little contribution to soil heavy metal contents from agricultural fertilizer use was found and the local anomalies of As, Cd, Hg, Pb in wheat and corn grain are attributed to the interactive effects of irrigation and fertilizer used. Aerial Hg, however may also be the source of Hg for soil, wheat and corn. PMID:20616981

  7. Quantitative analysis and monitoring of soil erosion based on RS and GIS technology: case study of Makeng area in Fujian Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Tingting; Wang, Ningtao; Li, Chang; Yang, Xiuli; Canute, Hyandye

    2008-10-01

    Mining environmental problems becoming increasingly serious is a key factor that prevents sustainable development of mining industry. Destruction of surface vegetation that cause soil erosion and ecological environment deterioration are some of the main problems of geological environment in mines. This paper takes Fujian Province Makeng area as an example, using RS technique to extract the vegetation cover and land use/cover change, and GIS technique to extract elevation and soil information. This research adopted an integrated application of RS and GIS spatial analysis functions which can quickly, accurately and economically be used to make the range and the quantitative analysis of monitoring and evaluation soil erosion in 1998 and 2004. The research outcome is a basis for the renovating mining environment and protecting eco-geological environment.

  8. Geographical altitude, size, mass and body surface area in children (1-4 years) in the Province of Jujuy (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Román, Estela María; Bejarano, Ignacio Felipe; Alfaro, Emma Laura; Abdo, Guadalupe; Dipierri, José Edgardo

    2015-01-01

    Highland child populations show low growth rates. To evaluate the variation of size, mass and body surface area of Jujenean infants (1-4 years) as a function of geographic altitude. Nutritional status of 8059 healthy infants was determined based on weight and height data; body mass index, ponderal index, body surface area, body surface area/mass and ectomorphy were calculated. Variables were standardized with a provincial mean and WHO references. Data were grouped by age, sex and geographic altitude: Highlands (≥2500 masl) and Lowlands (<2500 masl). Chi-square, correlation and t-tests were applied. Highlands infants had higher prevalence of stunting, reduced height, weight, body surface area and ectomorphy; also higher body mass index, ponderal index and body surface area/mass. The population average z-score for height, weight and body surface area was positive in Lowlands and negative in Highlands. The opposite happened with body mass index, ponderal index and body surface area/mass. In Highlands and Lowlands the average z-score reference was negative for weight and height and positive for body mass index. Correlations between indices were high and significant, higher in Highlands. Jujenean children differ in size, mass and body surface area based on the geographical altitude and adverse nutritional and socioeconomic factors.

  9. From Schistosomiasis Vector Habitats Identification to Human Transmission Risk Mapping, in the Poyang Lake Area (Jiangxi Province, PR China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marie, T.; Huber, C.; Yesou, H.

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis (Bilharzias) is the most frequent disease after malaria in the world. This disease hit 200 million people, and threats 600 million people. In China, Schistosomiasis japonicum, a serious communicable parasitic disease, is endemic along the Yangtze River basin, including monsoon lakes. Risky transmission areas are conditioned by the S. japonicum vector’s presence and human activities and presence. On Poyang Lake, marshlands are the principal area of its development. The aim of this work is to answer : Where are areas suitable for vector’s disease development ? Where and what are the human activities the most exposed to disease transmission ? Where are urban areas with the higher level of disease transmission risk ? How data crossing can be useful for identification of areas with the higher transmission risk level ?

  10. Living poultry markets in rural area: Human infection with H7N9 virus re-emerges in Zhejiang Province, China, in winter 2014.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Wang, Henghui; Lou, Xiuyu; Mao, Haiyan; Yan, Yong; Chen, Enfu; Wang, Xinying; Li, Zhen; Gao, Jian; Fu, Xiaofei; Chen, Zhongwen; Feng, Youjun; Chen, Zhiping; Zhang, Yanjun

    2015-09-01

    Avian influenza A H7N9 virus, previously undetected in humans, has caused infections in many areas in China since February 2013. Here we report the re-emergence of a case of H7N9 in rural Jiaxing city, Zhejiang Province, in the winter of 2014. To understand (1) the clinical syndrome, epidemiological and virological characteristics of this case; (2) the importance of controlling live poultry markets (LPMs) in rural areas. There is one patient and 16 contacts, including 4 family members living in the same household, and 12 medical personnel. Pharyngeal swabs and serum samples were collected from the patient and her contacts. Environment samples were also obtained from the local LPMs. We conducted detailed clinical and epidemiological investigations and laboratory work, including viral RNA extraction, RT-PCR detection and sequencing. Characteristic and phylogenetic analyses were performed using the obtained sequences. H7N9s were detected in environmental samples collected in LPMs in Jiaxing, Zhejiang. Unknown mutations were discovered in amino acids in the sample from the patient. The strain from the patient was in a clade different from isolates obtained in 2013 in phylogenetic trees of HA, NA and PB2. A severe case of H7N9 was identified in early winter, 2014. Epidemiological and clinical tests were consistent with patterns reported previously, while laboratory findings showed the virus to be different. Live poultry markets in rural Zhejiang Province are in need of closer supervision and enhanced management. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Impacts of Tropical Cyclones and Accompanying Precipitation on Infectious Diarrhea in Cyclone Landing Areas of Zhejiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zhengyi; Xun, Huanmiao; Zhou, Maigeng; Jiang, Baofa; Wang, Songwang; Guo, Qing; Wang, Wei; Kang, Ruihua; Wang, Xin; Marley, Gifty; Ma, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background: Zhejiang Province, located in southeastern China, is frequently hit by tropical cyclones. This study quantified the associations between infectious diarrhea and the seven tropical cyclones that landed in Zhejiang from 2005–2011 to assess the impacts of the accompanying precipitation on the studied diseases. Method: A unidirectional case-crossover study design was used to evaluate the impacts of tropical storms and typhoons on infectious diarrhea. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to eliminate multicollinearity. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: For all typhoons studied, the greatest impacts on bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea were identified on lag 6 days (OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.81–2.93) and lag 5 days (OR = 3.56, 95% CI: 2.98–4.25), respectively. For all tropical storms, impacts on these diseases were highest on lag 2 days (OR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.41–4.33) and lag 6 days (OR = 2.46, 95% CI: 1.69–3.56), respectively. The tropical cyclone precipitation was a risk factor for both bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea when daily precipitation reached 25 mm and 50 mm with the largest OR = 3.25 (95% CI: 1.45–7.27) and OR = 3.05 (95% CI: 2.20–4.23), respectively. Conclusions: Both typhoons and tropical storms could contribute to an increase in risk of bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea in Zhejiang. Tropical cyclone precipitation may also be a risk factor for these diseases when it reaches or is above 25 mm and 50 mm, respectively. Public health preventive and intervention measures should consider the adverse health impacts from tropical cyclones. PMID:25622139

  12. Impacts of tropical cyclones and accompanying precipitation on infectious diarrhea in cyclone landing areas of Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhengyi; Xun, Huanmiao; Zhou, Maigeng; Jiang, Baofa; Wang, Songwang; Guo, Qing; Wang, Wei; Kang, Ruihua; Wang, Xin; Marley, Gifty; Ma, Wei

    2015-01-22

    Zhejiang Province, located in southeastern China, is frequently hit by tropical cyclones. This study quantified the associations between infectious diarrhea and the seven tropical cyclones that landed in Zhejiang from 2005-2011 to assess the impacts of the accompanying precipitation on the studied diseases. A unidirectional case-crossover study design was used to evaluate the impacts of tropical storms and typhoons on infectious diarrhea. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to eliminate multicollinearity. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs). For all typhoons studied, the greatest impacts on bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea were identified on lag 6 days (OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.81-2.93) and lag 5 days (OR = 3.56, 95% CI: 2.98-4.25), respectively. For all tropical storms, impacts on these diseases were highest on lag 2 days (OR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.41-4.33) and lag 6 days (OR = 2.46, 95% CI: 1.69-3.56), respectively. The tropical cyclone precipitation was a risk factor for both bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea when daily precipitation reached 25 mm and 50 mm with the largest OR = 3.25 (95% CI: 1.45-7.27) and OR = 3.05 (95% CI: 2.20-4.23), respectively. Both typhoons and tropical storms could contribute to an increase in risk of bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea in Zhejiang. Tropical cyclone precipitation may also be a risk factor for these diseases when it reaches or is above 25 mm and 50 mm, respectively. Public health preventive and intervention measures should consider the adverse health impacts from tropical cyclones.

  13. Lake Qinghai Drilling Project: Evolution History of Lake Qinghai and East Asian Monsoon Changes since the Late Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Z.; Colman, S.

    2007-12-01

    As a closed continental lake on the north-east margin of the Tibetan Plateau, Lake Qinghai is sensitive to climate variations as well as the environmental effects of Plateau growth/uplift. Supported by Chinese funding agencies and ICDP, onshore and offshore lake cores were drilled in 2005. We compare our preliminary chronostratigraphic, sedimentologic, and geochemical results with climatic records from the Loess Plateau, South China Sea, Arctic and global oceans, and we discuss the evolution of Lake Qinghai at different time scales since the late Miocene. Lake Qinghai is shown to have intimate linkages with the warm/moist East Asian summer monsoon, the cold/dry East Asian winter monsoon, and the growth/uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. Magnetostratigraphic studies of the onshore drill cores indicate that thick greenish clays were deposited during Late Miocene, suggesting the initial formation of the Qinghai Lake basin. Consistent with proxies from the Loess Plateau and the South China Sea, they imply summer-monsoon strengthening and inland intrusion. These changes may be related to a growth event of the Tibetan Plateau at 10-8 Ma, which led to the uplift of Qinghai Nanshan, formation of faulted lake basins, and enhanced summer monsoon circulation. From 6 to 4.6Ma eolian red clays in the core indicate lake basin dessication, as Loess Plateau dust flux increased with the strengthening of the winter monsoon and coincident with intense Arctic ice rafting at 6-5 Ma. From 4.6 to 3.5 Ma thick greenish clays were deposited as modern Lake Qinghai formed. Significantly increased fluxes of TOC, C/N and total sediment might be related to uplift of Qinghai Nanshan and basin subsidence at that time, and they are coeval with the increasing strength of East Asian monsoon during early Pliocene. At 3.5-2.6 Ma, continued strengthening of the East Asian summer monsoon, inland aridification, and increases in global ice volume suggest another growth event of the Tibetan Plateau. Shallow

  14. Aquifer Distribution Based on 1D Resistivity Method at Jatinangor Educational Area, Sumedang Regency, West Java Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzona Pangaribuan, Andreas; Mohammad, Febriwan; Fadly, Muhammad; Zaenuddin Muttaqin, Deden

    2017-04-01

    Continuous development in the area of Jatinangor campus is becoming one of the problems threatening the groundwater supply. To support the availability of groundwater in the area of Jatinangor campus, a geophysical investigation with the geo-electric method is conducted to determine the condition of the subsurface based on the value of resistivity of rock. Based on Bandung’s regional geological map of Silitonga in 2003, rocks in the Jatinangor area consist of volcanic rock breccia, tuffs, and lapilli that makes it possible to contain the groundwater. 32 stations of 1-Dimensional (DC sounding) geo-electric measurement using Schlumberger configuration are performed in Jatinangor area. We integrated the results of measurement with geological and hydrogeological observation information with the aim of producing images of subsurface rocks and distribution models. Based on the model, the type of aquifer contained in the study area as well as its potential reserve can be determined. This research aims to know the potential groundwater zone region to support the availability of groundwater for Jatinangor education region. Furthermore, the results are expected to provide insights in implementing conservation strategies for Jatinangor educational area, Sumedang Regency.

  15. [On National Demonstration Areas: a cluster analysis].

    PubMed

    Mao, F; Jiang, Y Y; Dong, W L; Ji, N; Dong, J Q

    2017-04-10

    Objective: To understand the 'backward' provinces and the relatively poor work among the construction of National Demonstration Area, so as to promote communication and future visions among different regions. Methods: Methods on Cluster analysis were used to compare the development of National Demonstration Area in different provinces, including the coverage of National Demonstration Area and the scores of non-communicable disease (NCDs) prevention and control work based on a standardized indicating system. Results: According to the results from the construction of National Demonstration Area, all the 29 provinces and the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps (except Tibet and Qinghai) were classified into 6 categories: Shanghai; Beijing, Zhejiang, Chongqing; Tianjin, Shandong, Guangdong and Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps; Hebei, Fujian, Hubei, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Xinjiang, Hunan and Guangxi; Shanxi, Jilin, Henan, Hainan,Sichuan, Anhui and Jiangxi; Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Ningxia, Guizhou, Yunnan, Gansu and Heilongjiang. Based on the scores gathered from this study, 24 items that representing the achievements from the NCDs prevention and control endeavor were classified into 4 categories: Manpower, special day on NCD, information materials development, policy/strategy support, financial support, mass media, enabled environment, community fitness campaign, health promotion for children and teenage, institutional structure and patient self-management; healthy diet, risk factors on NCDs surveillance, tobacco control and community diagnosis; intervention of high-risk groups, identification of high-risk groups, reporting system on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, popularization of basic public health service, workplace intervention programs, construction of demonstration units and mortality surveillance; oral hygiene and tumor registration. Contents including oral hygiene, tumor registration, intervention on high-risk groups, identification of

  16. [The pathogenic ecology research on plague in Qinghai plateau].

    PubMed

    Dai, Rui-xia; Wei, Bai-qing; Li, Cun-xiang; Xiong, Hao-ming; Yang, Xiao-yan; Fan, Wei; Qi, Mei-ying; Jin, Juan; Wei, Rong-jie; Feng, Jian-ping; Jin, Xing; Wang, Zu-yun

    2013-12-01

    To study the pathogenic ecology characteristics of plague in Qinghai plateau. Applied molecular biology techniques, conventional technologies and geographic information system (GIS) to study phenotypic traits, plasmid spectrum, genotype, infected host and media spectrum etc.of 952 Yersinia pestis strains in Qinghai plateau plague foci, which were separated from different host and media in different regions during 1954 to 2012. The ecotypes of these strains were Qingzang plateau (91.49%, 871/952),Qilian mountain (6.41%, 61/952) and Microtus fuscus (1.26%, 12/952).83.6% (796/952) of these strains contained all the 4 virulence factors (Fr1, Pesticin1,Virulence antigen, and Pigmentation), 93.26% (367/392) were velogenic strains confirmed by virulence test.725 Yersinia pestis strains were separated from Qinghai plateau plague foci carried 9 kinds of plasmid, among which 713 strains from Marmot himalayan plague foci carried 9 kinds of plasmid, the Mr were 6×10(6), 7×10(6), 23×10(6), 27×10(6), 30×10(6), 45×10(6), 52×10(6), 65×10(6) and 92×10(6) respectively. 12 Yersinia pestis strains were separated from Microtus fuscus plague foci carried only 3 kinds of plasmid, the Mr were 6×10(6), 45×10(6), 65×10(6). Meanwhile, the strains carrying large plasmid (52×10(6), 65×10(6) and 92×10(6)) were only distributed in particular geographical location, which had the category property. The research also confirmed that 841 Yersinia pestis strains from two kinds of plague foci in Qinghai plateau had 11 genomovars. The strains of Marmot himalayan plague foci were given priority to genomovar 5 and 8, amounted to 611 strains, genomovar 8 accounted for 56.00% (471/841), genomovar 5 accounted for 23.07% (194/841). Besides, 3 new genomovars, including new 1(62 strains), new 2(52 strains), new 3(48 strains) were newly founded, and 12 strains of Microtus fuscus plague foci were genomovar 14. The main host and media of Qinghai plateau plague foci directly affected the spatial

  17. Tectonic evolution of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Guitang; Wang, Liquan; Li, Rongshe; Yuan, Sihua; Ji, Wenhua; Yin, Fuguang; Zhang, Wanping; Wang, Baodi

    2012-07-01

    The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, composed of several continental slivers within the eastern Tethyan domain, is one of the pivotal sites to examine to better understand the theory of plate tectonics and the orogenic evolution on Earth. This plateau is generally inferred to be a collage of several continental blocks that rifted from Gondwanaland and subsequently accreted to the Asian continent. However, recent recognition of over twenty ophiolite mélange zones and their associated island arcs indicates that the traditional model of tectonic evolution requires revision. Based on 177 recently finished 1:250,000 scale geological maps and related studies, we summarize the main tectonic context of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and propose a new integrated model to account for the new findings. The complex orogen of the immense Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, consisting of multiple island arc-basin systems that developed at different stages while surrounded by the North China, Yangtze, Tarim, and Indian plates, is emphasized. The entire orogen, surrounded by suture zones that mark the locations of oceanic closure, is investigated by examining (I) the first-order tectonic units and ophiolitic mélanges (including arc-arc/continent collision zones) and (II) their internally enclosed blocks as the second-order tectonic units. Therefore, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is divided into three major orogenic systems, namely, from northeast to southwest, the Early Paleozoic Qinling-Qilianshan-Kunlunshan (Qin-Qi-Kun), the Late Paleozoic-Triassic Qiangtang-Sanjiang, and the Late Paleozoic to Cenozoic Gangdese-Himalaya orogenic systems, which are separated by the Kangxiwa-Muzitagh-Maqin-Mianxian and the Bangong-Shuanghu-Changning-Menglian sutures, respectively. We propose that the formation and evolution of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to have been intrinsically related to those of the eastern Tethys, recorded by the Longmu Co-Shuanghu ophiolite mélange zone, the Southern Qiangtang Paleozoic accretionary arc

  18. [Comparison of the estrogenic activity of organic compounds in source water and finished water from the Yangtze River and Taihu Lake in certain areas of Jiangsu Province].

    PubMed

    Jin, Tao; Lü, Xue-Min; Zeng, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Bing-Bing; Ma, Kun-Peng; Jiang, Pu; Tang, Fei

    2013-04-01

    A total of 43 source water and finished water samples were collected from the Yangtze River and Taihu Lake in WX and SZ areas of Jiangsu Province from October 2010 to March 2012. The XAD-2 resin was applied to absorb the organic compounds in each water sample respectively. After the procedure of elution, concentration and drying, nonvolatile organic compounds (NVOCs) were obtained. The recombinant yeast estrogen screen test was then applied to evaluate the estrogenic activities of NVOCs in each water sample. The results showed that all of the source water collected from the Yangtze River and Taihu Lake possessed estrogenic activities. The EEQ values of source water from Taihu Lake were 0.04-2.07 ng x L(-1), and the volume of EC(25-E2) were 9.06-31.62 mL; the EEQ values of source water from Yangtze River were 0.69-1.15 ng x L(-1), and the volume of EC(25-E2) were 9.06-31.62 mL. The samples from Taihu Lake in SZ area had higher estrogenic activities than the samples collected from WX area. No estrogenic activity was detected in 58.3% of the finished water samples after the treatment in water plants. The water plants which collected source water from the Yangtze River and from Taihu Lake reduced the estrogenic activities by 80.3% -100% and 55.5% -100%, respectively.

  19. Hantaan Virus Surveillance Targeting Small Mammals at Nightmare Range, a High Elevation Military Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Terry A.; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Won-Keun; Nunn, Peter V.; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rodent-borne disease surveillance was conducted at Nightmare Range (NM-R), near the demilitarized zone in northeast Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, to identify hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) risks for a mountainous high-elevation (500 m) military training site. Monthly surveys were conducted from January 2008-December 2009. A total of 1,720 small mammals were captured belonging to the Orders Rodentia [Families, Sciuridae (1 species) and Muridae (7 species)] and Soricomorpha [Family, Soricidae (1species)]. Apodemus agrarius, the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus (HTNV), accounted for 89.9% (1,546) of all small mammals captured, followed by Myodes regulus (4.0%), Crocidura lasiura (3.9%), Micromys minutus (1.4%), Mus musculus (0.3%), Microtus fortis (0.2%), Apodemus peninsulae (0.2%), Tamias sibiricus (0.1%), and Rattus norvegicus (<0.1%). Three species were antibody-positive (Ab+) for hantaviruses: A. agrarius (8.2%), M. minutus (4.2%), and C. lasiura (1.5%). HTNV specific RNA was detected in 93/127 Ab+ A. agrarius, while Imjin virus specific RNA was detected in 1/1 Ab+ C. lasiura. Overall, hantavirus Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with weight (age) and were significantly higher among males (10.9%) than females (5.1%) (P<0.0001). High A. agrarius gravid rates during the fall (August-September) were associated with peak numbers of HFRS cases in Korea that followed high gravid rates. From 79 RT-PCR positive A. agrarius, 12 HTNV RNA samples were sequenced and compared phylogenetically based on a 320 nt sequence from the GC glycoprotein-encoding M segment. These results demonstrate that the HTNV isolates from NM-R are distinctly separated from HTNV isolated from the People’s Republic of China. These studies provide for improved disease risk assessments that identify military activities, rodent HTNV rates, and other factors associated with the transmission of hantaviruses during field training exercises. PMID:25874643

  20. Geology and geochemistry of newly discovered Tertiary carbonatite occurrences near Villa Ahumada area, Basin and Range province, Chihuahua, northern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandigam, Ravi Chenchu

    This study targets some newly discovered carbonatite occurrences located in the eastern Mexican Basin and Range province, a few kilometers to the east of Villa Ahumada, Chihuahua. The region containing these occurrences experienced compression related to subduction of the Farallon plate until about 32 Ma that was followed by Basin and Range extension. Geological mapping (1:5,000 scale), petrography, study of drill hole cuttings and satellite images, and major and trace element chemical analyses were utilized to understand the intrusive style of the carbonatites, their mineralogy and petrogenesis. The carbonatites, named Yuca, Mariana and El Indio, collectively intrude limestones, granitic intrusives and subduction-related tuffs and lavas mainly as a stock, breccias and dikes. The Yuca carbonatite was emplaced as a 900-m diameter stock, 500 x 350 m breccia body, numerous dikes and networks of fracture fillings. Crosscutting field relationships at Yuca suggest at least two stages of carbonatite emplacement. At Mariana, carbonatite was emplaced as a 750 x 350 m breccia. Four out of nine reverse circulation drill holes penetrated and bottomed in the breccia at an average depth of about 300 m At El Indio, carbonatite was emplaced as a 20 m diameter breccia pipe and a 1m thick sill. Major minerals present are calcite, Fe-rich calcite and hematite. Sporadic presence of fluorite is common. At Mariana, two generations of grossular-rich garnets associated with limestones and granite porphyry respectively are recognized. It is inferred that garnets in granite porphyry represent metasomatic alteration due to the emplacement of carbonatite breccia. Parental magmas of Yuca carbonatites have undergone differentiation under low fO2 conditions during which they were progressively enriched in iron. The carbonatite compositional types recognized based on major element data, in the sequence of least to most highly differentiated, are (1) magnesio-, (2) calcio- and (3

  1. Hantaan virus surveillance targeting small mammals at nightmare range, a high elevation military training area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Won-Keun; Nunn, Peter V; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rodent-borne disease surveillance was conducted at Nightmare Range (NM-R), near the demilitarized zone in northeast Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, to identify hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) risks for a mountainous high-elevation (500 m) military training site. Monthly surveys were conducted from January 2008-December 2009. A total of 1,720 small mammals were captured belonging to the Orders Rodentia [Families, Sciuridae (1 species) and Muridae (7 species)] and Soricomorpha [Family, Soricidae (1species)]. Apodemus agrarius, the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus (HTNV), accounted for 89.9% (1,546) of all small mammals captured, followed by Myodes regulus (4.0%), Crocidura lasiura (3.9%), Micromys minutus (1.4%), Mus musculus (0.3%), Microtus fortis (0.2%), Apodemus peninsulae (0.2%), Tamias sibiricus (0.1%), and Rattus norvegicus (<0.1%). Three species were antibody-positive (Ab+) for hantaviruses: A. agrarius (8.2%), M. minutus (4.2%), and C. lasiura (1.5%). HTNV specific RNA was detected in 93/127 Ab+ A. agrarius, while Imjin virus specific RNA was detected in 1/1 Ab+ C. lasiura. Overall, hantavirus Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with weight (age) and were significantly higher among males (10.9%) than females (5.1%) (P<0.0001). High A. agrarius gravid rates during the fall (August-September) were associated with peak numbers of HFRS cases in Korea that followed high gravid rates. From 79 RT-PCR positive A. agrarius, 12 HTNV RNA samples were sequenced and compared phylogenetically based on a 320 nt sequence from the GC glycoprotein-encoding M segment. These results demonstrate that the HTNV isolates from NM-R are distinctly separated from HTNV isolated from the People's Republic of China. These studies provide for improved disease risk assessments that identify military activities, rodent HTNV rates, and other factors associated with the transmission of hantaviruses during field training exercises.

  2. Magmatic conduit melt-fluid metallogenic system- A new Genetic Model for Xishimen Iron Deposit, Wuan area, Hebei province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SU, S.; Hou, J.; Luo, Z.; Cui, Y.; Yang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Xishimen Iron deposit is located in Wuan city, Hebei province, China. it is a typical skarn deposit, but some geological characteristics in the deposit cannot been explained by skarn model. We will try to reveal the genetic mechanism of the iron deposit¢s in this paper. Orebodys mainly occur along the boundary of diorite and metalimestone in the Xishimen iron deposit. Some orebodys intruded into diorites or limestones. There are vesicles in some massive ores. Magnetite from the lower part of orebody occur between diopside and tremolite as an intersititial minerals. Magnetites from upper part of the orebody are eqilibrium with calcite, apatite, Talc, pyrite and chalcopyrite. Magnetites coexisting with dioposide, tremolite and phlogopite have more than 15000 ppm TiO2, and riched in SiO2. However, magnetites coexisting with calcite, talc and sulfides have 200 ppm- 400 ppm TiO2, and poored in SiO2. Magnetites coexisting with talc have highest Al2O3, MgO, and MnO. Magnetites coexisting with calcite and sulfide have lowest Al2O3, MnO and MgO. Trace element analysis results of magnetite show that magnetite coexisting with dioposide, tremolite and phlogopite are riched in Ti and Ta, and depleted Nb and Y. Magnetite coexisting with calcite, talc and sulfide are usually have poor positive or no anomaly of Ti and Ta, and have poor positive anomaly of Nb, Hf, and Y. The analysis results of Fe isotope for ores and rocks in Xishimen iron deposit show that there is a negative correlation relationship between altitude and the value of Fe isotope. The heavy Fe isotopes of ores are richer in the lower part than in the upper part. The origin processes of Xishimen iron deposit are: (1) mafic-intermediate magma riched in iron reacted with limestone, and make the "iron magma" formation; (2) Fluids are added into the metallogenic system continuously, and "iron magma" was getting less density; (3) "iron magma" bearing fluids uplifting along magma conduit because of fluid superpressure

  3. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau endemic Nannoglottis (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Quan; Gao, Tian-Gang; Chen, Zhi-Duan; Lu, An-Ming

    2002-06-01

    All taxa endemic to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are hypothesized to have originated in situ or from immediately adjacent areas because of the relatively recent formation of the plateau since the Pliocene, followed by the large-scaled biota extinction and recession caused by the Quaternary ice sheet. However, identification of specific progenitors remains difficult for some endemics, especially some endemic genera. Nannoglottis, with about eight species endemic to this region, is one such genus. Past taxonomic treatments have suggested its relationships with four different tribes of Asteraceae. We intend to identify the closest relatives of Nannoglottis by evaluating the level of monophyly, tribal delimitation, and systematic position of the genus by using molecular data from ndhF gene, trnL-F, and ITS region sequences. We find that all sampled species of Nannoglottis are a well-defined monophyly. This supports all recent taxonomic treatments of Nannoglottis, in which all sampled species were placed in one broadly re-circumscribed genus. Nannoglottis is most closely related to the Astereae, but stands as an isolated genus as the first diverging lineage of the tribe, without close relatives. A tentative relationship was suggested for Nannoglottis and the next lineage of the tribe was based on the ITS topology, the "basal group," which consists of seven genera from the Southern Hemisphere. Such a relationship is supported by some commonly shared plesiomorphic morphological characters. Despite the very early divergence of Nannoglottis in the Astereae, the tribe must be regarded to have its origin in Southern Hemisphere rather than in Asia, because based on all morphological, molecular, biogeographical, and fossil data, the Asteraceae and its major lineages (tribes) are supposed to have originated in the former area. Long-distance dispersal using Southeast Asia as a steppingstone from Southern Hemisphere to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the most likely explanation for this

  4. Integration and analysis of airborne geophysical data of the Darrehzar area, Kerman Province, Iran, using principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjbar, H.; Hassanzadeh, H.; Torabi, M.; Ilaghi, O.

    2001-08-01

    This paper describes a methodology for the integrated interpretation of airborne magnetic and airborne γ-ray spectrometer data. The Darrehzar porphyry copper deposit is situated in the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic assemblage of Central Iran. Phyllic and propylitic alterations are pervasive in the area but potassic and argillic alterations are not readily recognized on the surface. The spatial distributions of geophysical data resemble the lithological and alteration patterns in the area. The Darrehzar porphyry copper deposit is considered as a control site for determination of the degrees that the geophysical data is correlated with the mineralization zone. Airborne magnetic/radiometric, and geochemical/alteration data sets have been integrated and analyzed using principal component analysis. This technique is found to be useful for the delineation of hydrothermally altered areas and data compression.

  5. Morphostructural characterization of the Charco basin and its surrounding areas in the Chihuahua segment of north Mexican Basin and Range Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troiani, Francesco; Menichetti, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The Chihuahua Basin and Range (CBR) is the eastern branch of the northern Mexican Basin and Range Province that, from a morphostructural point of view, presently is one amongst the lesser-known zones of the southern portion of the North America Basin and Range Province. The study area covers an approximately 800 km2-wide portion of the CBR and encompasses the fault-bounded Charco basin and its surrounding areas. The bedrock of the area pertains to the large siliceous-igneous province of the Sierra Madre Occidental and consists of volcanoclastic rocks including Oligocene dacite, rhyolite, rhyolitic tuffs, and polimitic conglomerates. The region is characterized by a series of NW-SE oriented valleys delimited by tilted monoclinal blocks bounded by high angle, SW-dipping, normal faults. Abrupt changes in elevation, alternating between narrow faulted mountain chains and flat arid valleys or basins are the main morphological elements of the area. The valleys correspond to structural grabens filled with Plio-Pleistocene continental sediments. These grabens are about 10 km wide, while the extensional fault system extend over a distance of more than 15 km. The mountain ranges are in most cases continuous over distances that range from 10 to 70 km including different branches of the extensional and transfer faults. The morphogenesis is mainly erosive in character: erosional landforms (such as rocky scarps, ridges, strath-terraces, erosional pediment, reverse slopes, landslide scar zones, litho-structural flat surfaces) dominate the landscape. In contrast, Quaternary depositional landforms are mainly concentrated within the flat valleys or basins. The Quaternary deposits consist of wide alluvial fans extending to the foot of the main ridges, fluvial and debris-slope deposits. The morphostructural characterization of the area integrated different methodologies, including: i) geomorphological and structural field analyses; ii) remote sensing and geo-morphometric investigations

  6. [Analysis on the neglected conditions and influence factors of middle school students aged 12 to 17 years old in rural areas of Shaanxi Province and Chongqing City].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yin; Zhong, Zhaohui; Pan, Jianping; Li, Qunying; Zhong, Yun; Sun, Haoling

    2015-09-01

    10 learn about the neglected conditions and intuence factors of middle school students aged 12 to 17 years old in rural areas of Shaanxi Province and Chongqing City. The scale and evaluation method formulated in "The Normal Value of Evaluation on the Neglect of Middle School Students from 12 to 17 Years Old in Rural China" was adopted. 2257 respondents among which there were 1157 male students and 1,100 female students in the rural areas of Shaanxi Province and Chongqing City were selected according to the principle of multi-stage stratified cluster sampling. The severe degree of neglect was reflected through the indicator of neglect degree. The method of binary Logistic regression analysis was adopted to analyze the influence factors of neglect. Results The total neglect degree of respondents was (51. 80 ± 9. 06). The neglect degree of middle school students in the rural areas of Chongqing was (53. 21 ± 9. 03). The neglect degree of middle school students in the rural areas of Shaanxi was 50. 50 8. 90. The statistical significance was found in the difference between the two groups (U =6. 17, P <0. 01). The neglect degree of male students was (51. 93 ± 8. 67) while the neglect degree of female students was (51. 66 ± 9. 46). The statistical significance was not found in the difference between the two groups of total neglect degree of different sexes (U = 0. 60, P > 0. 05). The statistical significance was noticed in the differences of neglect degrees of middle school students in different grades at all levels (P <0. 05). The neglect degrees of junior three and senior three students were relatively high. Their total neglect degrees were (53. 54 ± 9. 70) and (53. 36 ± 8. 69) respectively. Except social neglect and safety neglect, there was statistical significance in the differences of neglect degrees of students with different family backgrounds at all levels (P <0. 01). The neglect degree of middle school students in a remarried family was the highest. The

  7. Miocene leaves of Elaeagnus (Elaeagnaceae) from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, its modern center of diversity and endemism.

    PubMed

    Su, Tao; Wilf, Peter; Xu, He; Zhou, Zhe-Kun

    2014-08-01

    • The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is a major center of plant diversity and endemism, but little is known about how this developed due to the region's very scarce paleobotanical record. The silverberry genus Elaeagnus (Elaeagnaceae) reaches its greatest diversity (54 species) and endemism (36 species) in this area. Fossil Elaeagnaceae could provide significant evidence for the phylogeny and biogeography of the family and contribute primary data regarding the evolution of the unique Qinghai-Tibet Plateau flora in its dramatic setting of tectonic and climatic change.• We describe four fossil leaves with diagnostic features of Elaeagnus from the late Miocene of eastern Tibet, modern altitude of 3910 m a.s.l.. We also review prior fossil records of Elaeagnaceae.• The well-preserved, densely packed, stellate scales on fossil leaf surfaces are diagnostic of Elaeagnaceae. We assign these fossil leaves to Elaeagnus tibetensis T. Su et Z.K. Zhou sp. nov., comprising the first confirmed fossil Elaeagnus leaves worldwide.• Elaeagnus was present in eastern Tibet by the late Miocene. Together with previous fossil records, the new species supports a Holarctic history of the family. The diversification of Elaeagnus in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and adjacent areas might have been driven by continuous uplift at least since the late Miocene, causing formation of complex topography and climate with high rainfall seasonality. The characteristic scales on leaf surfaces are likely to be an important functional adaptation to seasonal droughts during early spring. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  8. Genetic Diversity and Distribution Patterns of Host Insects of Caterpillar Fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Qing-Mei; Chen, Ling-Ling; Wang, Xi; Li, Shan; Yang, Xiao-Ling; Zhu, Yun-Guo; Wang, Mu; Cheng, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis is one of the most valuable medicinal fungi in the world, and it requires host insects in family Hepialidae (Lepidoptera) to complete its life cycle. However, the genetic diversity and phylogeographic structures of the host insects remain to be explored. We analyzed the genetic diversity and temporal and spatial distribution patterns of genetic variation of the host insects throughout the O. sinensis distribution. Abundant haplotype and nucleotide diversity mainly existed in the areas of Nyingchi, ShangriLa, and around the edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, where are considered as the diversity center or micro-refuges of the host insects of O. sinensis. However, there was little genetic variation among host insects from 72.1% of all populations, indicating that the host species composition might be relatively simple in large-scale O. sinensis populations. All host insects are monophyletic except for those from four O. sinensis populations around Qinghai Lake. Significant phylogeographic structure (NST>GST, P<0.05) was revealed for the monophyletic host insects, and the three major phylogenetic groups corresponded with specific geographical areas. The divergence of most host insects was estimated to have occurred at ca. 3.7 Ma, shortly before the rapid uplift of the QTP. The geographical distribution and star-like network of the haplotypes implied that most host insects were derived from the relicts of a once-widespread host that subsequently became fragmented. Neutrality tests, mismatch distribution analysis, and expansion time estimation confirmed that most host insects presented recent demographic expansions that began ca. 0.118 Ma in the late Pleistocene. Therefore, the genetic diversity and distribution of the present-day insects should be attributed to effects of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau uplift and glacial advance/retreat cycles during the Quaternary ice age. These results provide valuable information to guide

  9. Genetic diversity and distribution patterns of host insects of Caterpillar Fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    PubMed

    Quan, Qing-Mei; Chen, Ling-Ling; Wang, Xi; Li, Shan; Yang, Xiao-Ling; Zhu, Yun-Guo; Wang, Mu; Cheng, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis is one of the most valuable medicinal fungi in the world, and it requires host insects in family Hepialidae (Lepidoptera) to complete its life cycle. However, the genetic diversity and phylogeographic structures of the host insects remain to be explored. We analyzed the genetic diversity and temporal and spatial distribution patterns of genetic variation of the host insects throughout the O. sinensis distribution. Abundant haplotype and nucleotide diversity mainly existed in the areas of Nyingchi, ShangriLa, and around the edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, where are considered as the diversity center or micro-refuges of the host insects of O. sinensis. However, there was little genetic variation among host insects from 72.1% of all populations, indicating that the host species composition might be relatively simple in large-scale O. sinensis populations. All host insects are monophyletic except for those from four O. sinensis populations around Qinghai Lake. Significant phylogeographic structure (NST>GST, P<0.05) was revealed for the monophyletic host insects, and the three major phylogenetic groups corresponded with specific geographical areas. The divergence of most host insects was estimated to have occurred at ca. 3.7 Ma, shortly before the rapid uplift of the QTP. The geographical distribution and star-like network of the haplotypes implied that most host insects were derived from the relicts of a once-widespread host that subsequently became fragmented. Neutrality tests, mismatch distribution analysis, and expansion time estimation confirmed that most host insects presented recent demographic expansions that began ca. 0.118 Ma in the late Pleistocene. Therefore, the genetic diversity and distribution of the present-day insects should be attributed to effects of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau uplift and glacial advance/retreat cycles during the Quaternary ice age. These results provide valuable information to guide

  10. Realist evaluation of the antiretroviral treatment adherence club programme in selected primary healthcare facilities in the metropolitan area of Western Cape Province, South Africa: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Mukumbang, Ferdinand C; Van Belle, Sara; Marchal, Bruno; Van Wyk, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Suboptimal retention in care and poor treatment adherence are key challenges to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. Community-based approaches to HIV service delivery are recommended to improve patient retention in care and ART adherence. The implementation of the adherence clubs in the Western Cape province of South Africa was with variable success in terms of implementation and outcomes. The need for operational guidelines for its implementation has been identified. Therefore, understanding the contexts and mechanisms for successful implementation of the adherence clubs is crucial to inform the roll-out to the rest of South Africa. The protocol outlines an evaluation of adherence club intervention in selected primary healthcare facilities in the metropolitan area of the Western Cape Province, using the realist approach. Methods and analysis In the first phase, an exploratory study design will be used. Document review and key informant interviews will be used to elicit the programme theory. In phase two, a multiple case study design will be used to describe the adherence clubs in five contrastive sites. Semistructured interviews will be conducted with purposively selected programme implementers and members of the clubs to assess the context and mechanisms of the adherence clubs. For the programme's primary outcomes, a longitudinal retrospective cohort analysis will be conducted using routine patient data. Data analysis will involve classifying emerging themes using the context-mechanism-outcome (CMO) configuration, and refining the primary CMO configurations to conjectured CMO configurations. Finally, we will compare the conjectured CMO configurations from the cases with the initial programme theory. The final CMOs obtained will be translated into middle range theories. Ethics and dissemination The study will be conducted according to the principles of the declaration of Helsinki (1964). Ethics clearance was obtained from the

  11. Volcanism Assocciated Bentonite Formation (KURŞUNLU Area) in the Southern Margin of Galatean Volcanic Province , NW of Central Anatolia Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sözeri, Koray; Karakas, Zehra; Varol, Baki

    2010-05-01

    The studied area is located in the southern margin of Galatean Volcanic Province which was developed on the Upper Cretaceous accretionary complex and bounded on the north by an intercontinental shear zone - North Anatolian Fault Zone. The volcanic province shows post-collisional tectonic setting from a previously subduction-modified mantle sources , in which main volcanic activity took place through the Miocene period ( between 25-10 Ma) and the latest cycle was completed between 11-8.5 Ma represented by local alkali basaltic flows resting. on the older volcanic units that directly related rift volcanism induced by regional extensional tectonic. The volcanics assocciated with bentonite beds (Kurşunlu -Çankırı) dated as late Miocene, consist of basaltic and andesitic lavas and their pyroclastic rocks such as agglomera , volcanic breccia and tuffs which are capped by volcanic sandstones with conglomeratic interlayers. Bentonites make the outcrops in the shape of lens and heads exposed in the Kurşunlu and Şabanozu volcanics. XRD analyses have revealed that smectite is dominant clay mineral of the bentonite beds in the volcanic realms. The smectite generally is rich in Na. So it has been determined as Na-Ca smectite responding to end member. SEM study indicates that smectite was originated from alteration of feldspars, supported by revers relationship between feldspars and smectites which are gradually increased with the loose of feldispars. On the other hand some smectites were precipitated as void- or fracture fills. All findings suggest that smectites studied were formed very closed the volcanic rocks, in which feldspar alterations or dissolution under humid conditions of shallow lake or local swamps created the suitable conditions leading to formation of the bentonite beds.

  12. [Landscape pattern changes at village scale using high resolution satellite images: A case study in low-slope hilly area of Dali City, Northwestern Yunnan Province].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming-yue; Peng, Jian; Liu, Yan-xu; Zhang, Tian

    2015-12-01

    Human activity is the main driving force of the change of land cover and landscape patterns. However, there are few studies focusing on the mechanism of human-induced change of land cover and landscape patterns at village scale. In this study, taking low-slope hilly area of Dali City, Northwestern Yunnan Province as a case study area, high resolution satellite images were introduced to find out the rules of land cover and landscape pattern changes, i.e. GeoEye-1 of 2009 and World- View-3 of 2014. The object-oriented and human-computer-interaction approaches were applied to interpret the images using ArcGIS 10.2 and ENVI 5.2. The results showed that, the main land cover types in the study area were forest land, paddy field and dry land in 2009, with forest, bulldozed unbuilt ground and paddy field in 2014, accounting for 82.8% and 70.9% of the total area, respectively. The land cover transition showed that, during 2009-2014, the main land cover change flows were from forest land, paddy field and dry land, to bulldozed unbuilt ground and construction land. Furthermore, the area of bulldozed but unbuilt land had increased to be 531.57 hm² in 2014, which mainly came from forest land (42.8%), dry land (21.7%), and paddy field (14.2%). Landscape pattern change was characterized as the increase of patch quantity and density, the decrease of mean patch size, the complication of patch shape, the fragmentation of landscape patches, and the diversification of landscape patterns.

  13. The Scientific and Technological area of the Programs of Curricular Diversification. Critical analysis of the available materials and a case study in Segovia province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal Insua, Maria Pilar

    This thesis is focused on the Scientific area of the Programs of Curricular Diversification, one of the Government actions for the attention to diversity in compulsory Secondary Education, established in the General Education Law (LOGSE: Ley de Ordenacion General del Sistema Educativo) of 1990. It has been carried out in Spain. In the thesis two different lines of work can be distinguished: (A) The analysis of material elaborated specifically for the mentioned area. We intent to know what materials have been elaborated and to analyze them; to this purpose we study the material spread in Congresses or Conferences, and also the articles published in magazines or specifically designed to be used in the Scientific area of the Programs of Curricular Diversification until year 2003. The analysis is made after classifying the material according to the format in which it appears (books, CDs, "Didactic Units"). (B) Two case studies, of evaluative character, carried out in two Secondary Schools in the province of Segovia (Spain), one of them in the city and another one in a rural population. The case studies are centered in the Scientific Area of the Programs of Curricular Diversification that last for two years. In the first of these Centers eight students took part in the Program; in the second, a total of seven. Throughout the investigation we observed that students who took part in the Programs obtained good academic results. Programs are proved to be effective in generating processes of academic success in pupils who were previously in situation of school failure and at risk of social exclusion. The success of these programs is fundamentally due to the following reasons: the low number of students involved, the fact that they are focused on basic knowledge, the reduced number of subjects studied. Besides, to offer the students the chance of a closer relationship with a few teachers increases their motivation and involvement in the programs. Key words: Attention to

  14. The Environmental Pollution Perception of Residents in Coal Mining Areas: A Case Study in the Hancheng Mine Area, Shaanxi Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xingmin; He, Fei

    2012-10-01

    The environmental behavior of the residents depends on their perception of environmental pollution. Hence, it is important for scientific and policy experts to research on the impact of the environmental pollution perception of local residents. Owing to the richness of natural resources, Hancheng coal mine areas are abound in heavy industries, and environmental pollution is serious and typical in this area, thus, the residents are anxious about their health. Using questionnaires, this paper surveys the perception of residents living in the coal mine area. The influential factors of environmental perception were analyzed by the Rank Sum Test. The results were: (1) the majority of the residents in the coal mine area are not satisfied with their living environment. The perception order of pollution severity is: air pollution > noise pollution > sanitation > water pollution. The residents think that pollution is mainly caused by coal processing. Hence, coal mining is not the main reason of the pollution in the coal mine area. (2) Age and length of residence have significant positive effects on perceptions of air, water, and noise pollutions; whereas education has a significant negative effect on perceptions of water and noise pollutions, as well as sanitation. This phenomenon can be explained by the various cultural groups having varied perceptions on the environmental pollution. In addition, proximity to mine has significant negative effect on perceptions of water and noise pollution. In conclusion, the paper discusses the effects of demographical and social factors on the perception of environmental pollution and gives suggestions on the planning and management of the environment.

  15. The environmental pollution perception of residents in coal mining areas: a case study in the Hancheng mine area, Shaanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xingmin; He, Fei

    2012-10-01

    The environmental behavior of the residents depends on their perception of environmental pollution. Hence, it is important for scientific and policy experts to research on the impact of the environmental pollution perception of local residents. Owing to the richness of natural resources, Hancheng coal mine areas are abound in heavy industries, and environmental pollution is serious and typical in this area, thus, the residents are anxious about their health. Using questionnaires, this paper surveys the perception of residents living in the coal mine area. The influential factors of environmental perception were analyzed by the Rank Sum Test. The results were: (1) the majority of the residents in the coal mine area are not satisfied with their living environment. The perception order of pollution severity is: air pollution > noise pollution > sanitation > water pollution. The residents think that pollution is mainly caused by coal processing. Hence, coal mining is not the main reason of the pollution in the coal mine area. (2) Age and length of residence have significant positive effects on perceptions of air, water, and noise pollutions; whereas education has a significant negative effect on perceptions of water and noise pollutions, as well as sanitation. This phenomenon can be explained by the various cultural groups having varied perceptions on the environmental pollution. In addition, proximity to mine has significant negative effect on perceptions of water and noise pollution. In conclusion, the paper discusses the effects of demographical and social factors on the perception of environmental pollution and gives suggestions on the planning and management of the environment.

  16. Primary case of human pneumonic plague occurring in a Himalayan marmot natural focus area Gansu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Ge, Pengfei; Xi, Jinxiao; Ding, Jun; Jin, Fachang; Zhang, Hong; Guo, Limin; Zhang, Jie; Li, Junlin; Gan, Zhiqiang; Wu, Bin; Liang, Junrong; Wang, Xin; Wang, Xinhua

    2015-04-01

    A case of primary pneumonic plague (PPP) caused by Yersinia pestis is reported. This case occurred in the largest plague area in China. The patient died after contact with a dog that had captured an infected marmot. Three of 151 contacts were shown to be positive for antibody against F1 antigen by indirect hemagglutination assay, but none had clinical symptoms. There was no secondary case.

  17. Prevalence of Hypertension and Associated Risk Factors among Rural Bapedi Women in Sekhukhune Area, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Koma, Mabaile Pauline; Lebelo, Sogolo Lucky

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated the prevalence of hypertension and identified risk factors in the Bapedi women of Sekhukhune area. Fifty (50) women diagnosed with hypertension and receiving treatment from local clinics were recruited. Questionnaires and focus group discussions were used. Most participants were at the average age of 50.50 ± 7.93 years and weight of 81.17 ± 9.96 kg. Blood pressure measurements recorded were systolic blood pressure (SBP) 163 ± 22.41 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 91 ± 5.41 mmHg. An insignificant number of participants had smoking or drinking habits (0% and 2%, respectively). The largest group of women (46%) had primary level of education, 14% completed junior secondary education, 6% completed matric, and 2% had basic education. All women consumed cereal; a large number of women (50%) consumed oils and fats; 44% flesh meats; 30% fruits and vegetables; 26% tubers and roots; 22% organ meats; 10% fish, 10% eggs, and 8% milk. Results showed a high prevalence of hypertension in the Bapedi women in the Sekhukhune area. Changes in diet and lifestyle could significantly improve the health of most women in the area.

  18. [Annual Reports for the Academic Year 1980-81 from 49 States, the District of Columbia and 3 Canadian Provinces Focusing on Problems, Issues, Achievements and Other Areas of Interest to the Postsecondary Education Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berve, Nancy M., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Annual reports are presented for the academic year 1980-1981 from 49 states (except Maine), the District of Columbia, and three Canadian provinces focusing on problems, issues, achievements, and other areas of interest to the postsecondary education community. Specific topics include the following: long-range plans for higher education,…

  19. Techno-Economic and dynamic analysis of low velocity wind turbines for rural electrification in agricultural area of Ratchaburi Province, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipirodjanapong, Sumate; Namboonruang, Weerapol

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the analysis of potential wind speed of electrical power generating using for agriculture in Ratchaburi province, Thailand. The total area is 1,900 square kilometers. First of all, the agriculture electrical load (AEL) data was investigated from all farming districts in Ratchaburi. Subsequently, the load data was analyzed and classified by the load power and energy consumption at individual district. The wind turbine generator (WTG) at capacity rate of 200w, 500w, 1,000w, and 2,000w were adopted to implement for the AEL in each area at wind speed range of 3 to 6 m/s. This paper shows the approach based on the wind speed at individual district to determine the capacity of WTG using the capacitor factor (CF) and the cost of energy (COE) in baht per unit under different WTG value rates. Ten locations for wind station installations are practical investigated. Results show that for instance, the Damnoen Sa-duak (DN-04) one of WTG candidate site is identically significant for economic investment of installing rated WTG. The results of COE are important to determine whether a wind site is good or not.

  20. Adverse Associations of both Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Organophosphorous Pesticides with Infant Neurodevelopment in an Agricultural Area of Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Wu, Chunhua; Chang, Xiuli; Qi, Xiaojuan; Zheng, Minglan; Zhou, Zhijun

    2016-10-01

    Prenatal exposure to organophosphorous (OP) pesticides has been found to be associated with adverse effects on child neurodevelopment, but evidence on potential effects induced by both prenatal and postnatal OP exposure in infants is limited. Our aim was to investigate the associations of both prenatal and postnatal OP exposure with birth outcomes and infant neurodevelopment. Exposure to OP in 310 mother-infant pairs was assessed by measuring dimethylphosphate (DM), diethylphosphate (DE), and total dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites in urines from pregnant women and their children at 2 years of age. The Gesell Developmental Schedules was administered to examine neurodevelopment of 2-year-old children. Based on the Gesell Developmental Schedules, the proportions of children with developmental delays were < 6%. Adverse associations between head circumference at birth and prenatal OP exposure were demonstrated. Both prenatal and postnatal OP exposure was significantly associated with increased risk of being developmentally delayed. Specifically, odds ratio (OR) value for prenatal DEs was 9.75 (95% CI: 1.28, 73.98, p = 0.028) in the adaptive area, whereas in the social area, OR values for postnatal DEs and DAPs were 9.56 (95% CI: 1.59, 57.57, p = 0.014) and 12.00 (95% CI: 1.23, 117.37, p = 0.033), respectively. Adverse associations were observed only in boys, not in girls. Both prenatal and postnatal OP exposure may adversely affect the neurodevelopment of infants living in the agricultural area. The present study adds to the accumulating evidence on associations of prenatal and postnatal OP exposure with infant neurodevelopment. Liu P, Wu C, Chang X, Qi X, Zheng M, Zhou Z. 2016. Adverse associations of both prenatal and postnatal exposure to organophosphorous pesticides with infant neurodevelopment in an agricultural area of Jiangsu Province, China. Environ Health Perspect 124:1637-1643; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP196.

  1. Adverse Associations of both Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Organophosphorous Pesticides with Infant Neurodevelopment in an Agricultural Area of Jiangsu Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping; Wu, Chunhua; Chang, Xiuli; Qi, Xiaojuan; Zheng, Minglan; Zhou, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to organophosphorous (OP) pesticides has been found to be associated with adverse effects on child neurodevelopment, but evidence on potential effects induced by both prenatal and postnatal OP exposure in infants is limited. Objectives: Our aim was to investigate the associations of both prenatal and postnatal OP exposure with birth outcomes and infant neurodevelopment. Methods: Exposure to OP in 310 mother–infant pairs was assessed by measuring dimethylphosphate (DM), diethylphosphate (DE), and total dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites in urines from pregnant women and their children at 2 years of age. The Gesell Developmental Schedules was administered to examine neurodevelopment of 2-year-old children. Results: Based on the Gesell Developmental Schedules, the proportions of children with developmental delays were < 6%. Adverse associations between head circumference at birth and prenatal OP exposure were demonstrated. Both prenatal and postnatal OP exposure was significantly associated with increased risk of being developmentally delayed. Specifically, odds ratio (OR) value for prenatal DEs was 9.75 (95% CI: 1.28, 73.98, p = 0.028) in the adaptive area, whereas in the social area, OR values for postnatal DEs and DAPs were 9.56 (95% CI: 1.59, 57.57, p = 0.014) and 12.00 (95% CI: 1.23, 117.37, p = 0.033), respectively. Adverse associations were observed only in boys, not in girls. Conclusions: Both prenatal and postnatal OP exposure may adversely affect the neurodevelopment of infants living in the agricultural area. The present study adds to the accumulating evidence on associations of prenatal and postnatal OP exposure with infant neurodevelopment. Citation: Liu P, Wu C, Chang X, Qi X, Zheng M, Zhou Z. 2016. Adverse associations of both prenatal and postnatal exposure to organophosphorous pesticides with infant neurodevelopment in an agricultural area of Jiangsu Province, China. Environ Health Perspect 124:1637–1643; http

  2. Hydro-meteorological processes on the Qinghai - Tibet Plateau observed from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menenti, Massimo; Colin, Jerome; Jia, Li; D'Urso, Guido; Foken, Thomas; Immerzeel, Walter; Jha, Ramakar; Liu, Qinhuo; Liu, Changming; Ma, Yaoming; Sobrino, Jose Antonio; Yan, Guangjian; Pelgrum, Henk; Porcu, Federico; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jiemin; Shen, Xueshun; Su, Zhongbo; Ueno, Kenichi

    2014-05-01

    The Qinghai - Tibet Plateau is characterized by a significant intra-annual variability and spatial heterogeneity of surface conditions. Snow and vegetation cover, albedo, surface temperature and wetness change very significantly during the year and from place to place. The influence of temporal changes on convective events and the onset of the monsoon has been documented by ground based measurements of land - atmosphere exchanges of heat and water. The state of the land surface over the entire Plateau can be determined by space observation of surface albedo, temperature, snow and vegetation cover and soil moisture. Fully integrated use of satellite and ground observations is necessary to support water resources management in SE Asia and to clarify the roles of the interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau in the Asian monsoon system. New or significantly improved algorithms have been developed and evaluated against ground measurements. Variables retrieved include land surface properties, rain rate, aerosol optical depth, water vapour, snow cover and water equivalent, soil moisture and lake level. The three years time series of gap-free daily and hourly evaporation derived from geostationary data collected by the FY-2D satellite was a major achievement. The hydrologic modeling system has been implemented and applied to the Qinghai Tibet Plateau and the headwaters of the major rivers in South and East Asia. Case studies on response of atmospheric circulation and specifically of convective activity to land surface conditions have been completed and the controlling land surface conditions and processes have been documented. Two new drought indicators have been developed: Normalized Temperature Anomaly Index (NTAI) and Normalized Vegetation Anomaly Index (NVAI). Case study in China and India showed that these indicators capture effectively drought severity and evolution. A new method has been developed for monitoring and early

  3. Assessment of Useful Plants in the Catchment Area of the Proposed Ntabelanga Dam in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background The developmental projects, particularly construction of dams, result in permanent changes of terrestrial ecosystems through inundation. Objective The present study was undertaken aiming at documenting useful plant species in Ntabelanga dam catchment area that will be impacted by the construction of the proposed dam. Methods A total of 55 randomly selected quadrats were used to assess plant species diversity and composition. Participatory rural appraisal (PRA) methods were used to identify useful plant species growing in the catchment area through interviews with 108 randomly selected participants. Results A total of 197 plant species were recorded with 95 species (48.2%) utilized for various purposes. Use categories included ethnoveterinary and herbal medicines (46 species), food plants (37 species), construction timber and thatching (14 species), firewood (five species), browse, live fence, and ornamental (four species each), and brooms and crafts (two species). Conclusion This study showed that plant species play an important role in the daily life and culture of local people. The construction of Ntabelanga dam is, therefore, associated with several positive and negative impacts on plant resources which are not fully integrated into current decision-making, largely because of lack of multistakeholder dialogue on the socioeconomic issues of such an important project. PMID:28828397

  4. PM10 concentrations in relationship with other atmospheric pollutants in an urban-industrial area (Province of Trieste, NE-Italy).

    PubMed

    Plossi, Paolo; Busetto, Paola; Barbieri, Pierluigi; Adami, Gianpiero; Reisenhofer, Edoardo

    2003-04-01

    Air quality in Province of Trieste was studied in terms of PM10 trends. Observed correlations between PM10 and atmospheric pollutants produced by combustion are in evidence. Nitrogen oxides and PM10 are critical parameters for air quality in Province of Trieste. Wind speed has a diluting action higher than rain for all pollutants.

  5. Eco-Environmental Assessment and Analysis of Tonglvshan Mining Area in Daye City, Hubei Province Based on Spatiotemporal Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. M.; He, G. J.; Wang, M. M.; Zhang, Z. M.; Jiao, W. L.; Peng, Y.; Wang, G. Z.; Liu, H. C.; Long, T. F.

    2015-07-01

    Mine exploitation has a significant impact on the ecological environment status of the surroundings. To analyze the impact of Tonglvshan Mining area to its surroundings, this paper adopted the spatiotemporal methodology based on the extracted Eco-environmental Quality Index (EQI) to analysis the extent and degree of the effect. The spatiotemporal methodologies are based on two scales: buffers and administrative units. EQI includes Biological Abundance Index (BAI), Vegetation Index (VI), Water Network Density Index (WNDI), and Land Degradation Index (LDI). The weight of each Index was determined by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and scores of the experts. The calculating of EQI was referenced to the standard "Technical criterion for Eco-environment Status Evaluation" HJ/T192-2006 and the "Standards for Classification and Gradation of Soil Erosion" SL 190-96. Considering ecological and environmental characteristics relevant to China, this method has been widely used to study the environment status of specific regions in China. The assessment based on buffers adopted the radius of 300m, 500m, 700m, 1000m, 1500m, 2000m, 2500m, 3000m, 3500m, and 4000m as the buffers in 3 typical miners respectively. The calculated result indicates that, the REI is increasing with the radius and the increasing rate becoming smaller until REI is stable. Which means the effect of miner is getting weaker with the distance to the miner is increasing and the effect is diminished when the distance is far enough. The analysis of the 3 typical miner shows that the extent and degree of the effect of miner relates not only with the area of the miner, but also with type of mineral resource, the status of mining and the ecological restoration. The assessment was also carried out by calculating the EQI in 14 administrative units in Daye city in 2000, 2005, and 2010. The study shows that the EQI is decreasing in 14 units from 2000 to 2010. The spatiotemporal analysis of the type and area of land

  6. [Population-based study of human papillomavirus infection in high-risk area for cervical cancer in Shanxi Province, China].

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan-hong; Chen, Feng; Huang, Man-ni; Liu, Bin; Wang, Xi-xia; Zhao, Fang-hui; Li, Shu-min; Li, Nan; Wu, Ling-ying; Rong, Shou-de; Zhang, Wen-hua; Ren, Sheng-da; Huang, Rui-de; Qiao, You-lin

    2003-08-01

    To investigate the prevalence of oncogenic type of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and identify the high risk population for conducting immuno/chemoprevention of cervical cancer. All married women aged 30 to 50 with no history of hysterectomy, pelvic radiation and non-pregnant from certain villages of Xiangyuan and Yangcheng County were invited. This study was conducted through two phases. In phase one, subjects sampled the vaginal secretions using the collectors after signing the informed consent. And physicians sampled exfoliated cells from cervix in the phase two. All the specimens were tested with the Hybrid Capture 2 test. The data was managed and analyzed by VFP and SPSS software. There were 9,683 women participated in this study. Local women welcomed this study and population compliance rate was 75.4%. In tested population, we found 2,666 subjects of HPV DNA positive and HPV prevalence was 27.5%. The rates of different age group were 24.5% (30-34 yrs), 27.4% (35-39 yrs), 28.2% (40-44 yrs), 27.4% (45-50 yrs) respectively and had no significant differences (P = 0.604). The rates were slightly increased with the higher education level and had no differences (P = 0.106). The rate in mountain areas was higher than that in half-mountain areas (P = 0.001). The prevalence of HPV infection is indeed high in this region. Local women and health professionals welcome the activities of cervical cancer screening and prevention. It is an emergent task to improve their sanitary condition and prevent them from cervical cancer in these women. A women health cohort is established successfully among high HPV exposed women in rural China. The extensive biologic specimen repository has been successfully established to simultaneously study the etiology, early detection, and immuno/chemoprevention of cervical cancer.

  7. Dental fluorosis and dental caries in permanent teeth: rural schoolchildren in high-fluoride areas in the Shaanxi province, China.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Jian-Ping; Yang, Zhuang-Qun; Wang, Zhi-Lun; Astrøm, Anne Nordrehaug; Bårdsen, Asgeir; Bjorvatn, Kjell

    2005-10-01

    To study the dental fluorosis and caries in the permanent teeth of 12 to 13-year-old children in fluorosis-endemic areas; to assess the relationship between fluorosis and the fluoride content of the drinking water and the relationship between caries and the fluoride content of the water; finally, to analyze the effect of fluoride intake and water stored in clay pots on dental fluorosis. 477 children were divided into 5 groups (A to E) according to the fluoride concentration of the waters, i.e. by 0.4, 1.0, 1.8, 3.5, and 5.6 mg F/l, respectively. Dental fluorosis was assessed by TF score and caries by the DMF-T index. A questionnaire was used to obtain information about water storage and other information relevant to children's fluoride intake. A positive relationship was found between the mean TF scores and the water fluoride concentration. In groups B and D, the TF score was higher in 13-year-olds than in 12-year-olds. Caries prevalence and mean DMF-T ranged from 2.6% and 0.03 (group E) to 22.1% and 0.38 (group A). Storage of water in clay pots seemed to increase the severity of fluorosis slightly, and to decrease the caries prevalence. Defluoridation of drinking water, or--alternatively--the provision of low-fluoride water sources, should be given high priority in the examined Shaanxi rural areas. Fluoride concentration of drinking water should be maximum 0.6 mg/l. Storage of water in the local clay pots may increase the severity of dental fluorosis.

  8. Human-induced hydrological changes and sinkholes in the gypsum karst of Lesina Marina area (Foggia Province, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidelibus, M. D.; Gutierrez, F.; Spilotro, G.

    2009-04-01

    points distributed over a large area around the canal and the results of numerical simulations, the main hydrological changes include: (1) Incorporation of new boundary conditions. The groundwater flow, previously controlled by the oscillating sea level and by the lagoon level, has been altered introducing a line of minimum potential along the canal. The water level in the canal oscillates according to the variations in the levels of the sea and the lagoon. (2) The gypsum bedrock that behaves as an anisotropic aquifer, is drained by a channel in which the flow, essentially controlled by the tidal regime, discharges two times a day towards the sea and towards the lagoon. (3) The canal that works as a drainage trench, has caused the lowering of the water table. The local distortion of the piezometric surface has modified the flow direction and increased the gradient and flow rate. At the flanks of the canal, the groundwater that used to flow towards the sea, now has been captured by the excavation and circulates towards the canal. The sense of this flow is influenced by the piezometric changes caused by the tidal variations. (4) As a consequence of the lowering of the water table (of the order of a few decimetres) near the banks of the canal, slow subhorizontal phreatic flows have been replaced by more rapid downward vadose flows. These hydrological changes have induced the reactivation-acceleration of internal erosion and collapse processes leading to the generation of a large number of sinkholes in the vicinity of the canal. The lowering in the water table involves an increase in the effective weight of the sediments previously situated in the saturated zone due to the loss of buoyancy. Additionally, downward vadose flows and more rapid water circulation in the saturated zone towards the canal favour the flushing out of the sediments filling voids and the downward migration of cover material towards the underlying paleokarst. Most likely the continuous oscillations of

  9. An association between organophosphate pesticides exposure and Parkinsonism amongst people in an agricultural area in Ubon Ratchathani Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Norkaew, Saowanee; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Wilaiwan, Wachiraporn; Siriwong, Wattasit; Pérez, Héctor Maldonado; Robson, Mark G

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a ubiquitous disease. However, PDs prevalence in the population of agricultural communities lacks understanding and there has been no epidemiological study on the association between pesticides exposure factors and risk for PD. To investigate the potential association between organophosphate pesticides exposure and Parkinsonism by using a screening questionnaire in agricultural areas. Ninety elderly people living in agricultural areas participated in a cross-sectional study conducted at Tambon Hua-Rua Health Promoting Hospital in April 2014. Screening questionnaires for Parkinson's disease, Test-mate ChE (Model 400) for blood cholinesterase (ChE) levels of both blood enzymes erythrocyte cholinesterase (AChE), and plasma cholinesterase (PChE) were used as measurement tools. Descriptive statistics for frequencies and percentage distributions were used primarily to summarize and describe the data. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated. The age range of the participants was 50 to 59 years old, with an average age of 53.9±2.87 years. The majority of the participants were female (62.2%), 82.2% of respondents were farmers. Most of participants (76.7%) reported that they applied insecticides in their farms. Ninety persons participated and completed the 11-item questionnaire. Of these, 17 (18.9%) felt that they lost balance when turning or that they needed to take a few steps to turn right around and 16.7% of participants indicated that they felt the need to move slowly or stiffly. The study found the prevalence of abnormal AChE levels was 28.9% (95%CI=19.81-39.40) and 17.8% of PChE levels (95%CI=10.52-27.26). To predict Parkinsonism, AChE, and PChE level, with a cutoff score of 5 or higher there had to be a sensitivity of 0.31, specificity of 1.00, positive predictive value (PPV) of 1.00 and negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.78 for AChE. While PChE, the score value of 5 or more had a sensitivity of

  10. Metamorphic evolution of the Río de la Plata Craton in the Cinco Cerros area, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massonne, Hans-Joachim; Dristas, Jorge A.; Martínez, Juan Cruz

    2012-10-01

    A metapelite and an interlayered granite were studied from the Cinco Cerros area ca. 65 km WNW of the city of Mar del Plata. Garnet in these samples is slightly zoned with core and rim compositions of pyr17(gro + andr)6spes1.5alm75.5 and pyr13.5(gro + andr)5.5spes2alm80, respectively, in the metapelite. Corresponding compositions in the granite are pyr15(gro + andr)3.5spes3.5alm78 and pyr11(gro + andr)3.5spes4.5alm81. We used the PERPLE_X computer software package to calculate P-T pseudosections. From the pseudosection of the metapelite P-T conditions of 6.7 kbar and 670 °C were derived for an early metamorphic stage. Subsequently, a pressure release occurred at decreasing temperatures. The final metamorphic P-T conditions recorded by the studied rock are 4.5 kbar and 600 °C compatible with the absence of cordierite, staurolite, and an Al2SiO5-phase. Garnet in the granitoid crystallized between 715 and 690 °C at a pressure around 7.7 kbar. U-Th-Pb age dating with the electron microprobe was performed. 16 analyses of monazite in the metapelite formed three clusters resulting in ages of I: 2073 ± 11.4 (1σ) Ma, II: 1913 ± 11.0 (1σ) Ma, and III: 1805 ± 20.8 (1σ) Ma. Thus, the Paleoproterozoic metamorphic event can be related to the Trans-Amazonian cycle and was followed by slow cooling. As our study area is close to the margin of the Río de la Plata Craton, where abundant magmatic arc-derived plutonic rocks are outcropping, we interpret the derived P-T data as follows: A heating event (not recorded by the studied rocks) resulted from magmas that intruded during the Trans-Amazonian cycle. This event was followed by slow exhumation, probably caused by erosion, accompanied by thermal relaxation.

  11. [Dynamics of forest community structure and complexity in the process of secondary succession in bedrock area of west Shanxi Province].

    PubMed

    Dong, Lin-Shui; Zhang, Xu-Dong; Zhou, Jin-Xing; Song, Ai-Yun

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, four plots representing the typical secondary succession stages of forest community were selected at the shady slope of bedrock area in Zhongyang County of West Shanxi, aimed to study the variation patterns of the structure and complexity of forest community in the process of secondary succession. The results showed that in the succession process of the community, there was an evident regularity in the variation of height and diameter class structure. The proportion of high and big individuals in the community increased gradually, while that of low and small ones increased first but decreased then. From the viewpoint of height class structure, the compositional complexity of tree species H (X), structural complexity of tree species H (Y/X), and complexity of whole community H (X,Y) all increased first, but decreased then with the succession. At the early, middle and arbor stages of succession, the H(X) value was 2.96, 3.85 and 3.75, while H (Y/X) value was 1.27, 1.66 and 1.37, respectively.

  12. Mercury methylation in rice paddies and its possible controlling factors in the Hg mining area, Guizhou province, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Qiu, Guangle; Anderson, Christopher W N; Meng, Bo; Wang, Dingyong; Shang, Lihai; Yan, Haiyu; Feng, Xinbin

    2016-08-01

    Understanding mercury (Hg) methylation/demethylation processes and the factors controlling methylmercury (MeHg) production within the rice paddy ecosystem of Hg mining areas is critical to assess the risk of MeHg contamination in rice grain. Two typical Hg-contaminated mining sites, a current-day artisanal site (Gouxi) and an abandoned site (Wukeng), were chosen in this study. We qualified the in situ specific methylation/demethylation rate constants in rice paddy soil during a complete rice-growing season. Our results demonstrate that MeHg levels in rice paddy soil were a function of both methylation and demethylation processes and the net methylation potential in the rice paddy soil reflected the measured MeHg production at any time point. Sulfate stimulating the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria was a potentially important metabolic pathway for Hg methylation in rice paddies. We suggest that bioavailable Hg derived from new atmospheric deposition appears to be the primary factor regulating net MeHg production in rice paddies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Variation of soil organic carbon under different vegetation types in Karst Mountain areas of Guizhou Province, southwest China].

    PubMed

    Liao, Hong-kai; Long, Jian

    2011-09-01

    This paper studied the variation characteristics of soil organic carbon (SOC) and different particle sizes soil particulate organic carbon (POC) in normal soil and in micro-habitats under different vegetation types in typical Karst mountain areas of southwest Guizhou. Under different vegetation types, the SOC content in normal soil and in micro-habitats was all in the order of bare land < grass < shrub < forest, with the variation range being 7.18-43.42 g x kg(-1) in normal soil and being 6.62-46.47 g x kg(-1) and 9.01-52.07 g x kg(-1) in earth surface and stone pit, respectively. The POC/MOC (mineral-associated organic carbon) ratio under different vegetation types was in the order of bare land < grass < forest < shrub. Under the same vegetation types, the POC/MOC in stone pit was the highest, as compared to that in normal soil and in earth surface. In the process of bare land-grass-shrub-forest, the contents of different particle sizes soil POC increased, while the SOC mainly existed in the forms of sand- and silt organic carbon, indicating that in Karst region, soil carbon sequestration and SOC stability were weak, soil was easily subjected to outside interference and led to organic carbon running off, and thus, soil quality had the risk of decline or degradation.

  14. Fecal and Molecular Survey of Neospora caninum in Farm and Household Dogs in Mashhad Area, Khorasan Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Neospora caninum is an important cause of abortion in dairy cattle worldwide. Dog is the definitive host for N. caninum and can infect dairy cattle. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of Neospora oocysts in feces of dogs from dairy farms. A total of 174 fecal samples was collected from 89 farm dogs and 85 household dogs during 2006 and 2008. Fecal samples of dogs were microscopically examined for detecting Hammondia Neospora-like oocysts (HNLO) by Mini Parasep®SF fecal parasite concentrator. HNLO were microscopically detected in 4 fecal samples (2.2%). The fecal samples with HNLO were examined by N. caninum-specific PCR. Two of the samples were positive for N. caninum. The 2 positive fecal samples were selected for inoculation to calves. Two inoculated calves were seronegative by ELISA for 4 months post-infection. This is the first report of finding N. caninum DNA in feces of farm dogs in Mashhad area, Iran. PMID:19967094

  15. Perceptions and risky behaviors associated with Leptospirosis in an endemic area in a village of Ubon Ratchathani Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wongbutdee, Jaruwan; Saengnill, Wacharapong; Jittimanee, Jutharat; Daendee, Suwaporn

    2016-03-01

    Leptospirosis, a disease caused by Leptospira species, a spirochaete bacterium that can develop in an appropriate environment and/or grow in human and/or animal hosts, is a serious problem for the Ministry of Public Health, Thailand. To investigate people's perceptions and behavioral risks regarding leptospirosis infection. The cross-sectional descriptive study collected data in May, 2013. Data on individuals' perceptions and risky behaviors concerning leptospirosis were collected from 104 completed questionnaires. Regarding perceptions of leptospirosis, we found them to be at a high level (97.1%) and risky behaviors regarding leptospirosis were reported at a moderate level (74.0%). The study found no correlation between perceptions and risky behaviors regarding leptospirosis (r 0.186, p-value 0.059). This study suggest that people in these areas have good knowledge about leptospirosis. However, some people have risky behavior associated with leptospirosis. Thus, a behavioral change campaign should be promoted to encourage people awareness of the dangers of such behavior.

  16. Ecological surveillance of small mammals at Dagmar North Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung Chul; Klein, Terry A; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sung Sil; Baek, Luck Ju; Chong, Sung Tae; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John S; Turell, Michael J; Song, Jin-Won

    2011-06-01

    A seasonal rodent-borne disease surveillance program was established at Dagmar North Training Area located near the demilitarized zone, Republic of Korea, from 2001 through 2005. Selected habitats surveyed included earthen banks separating rice paddies, fighting positions along a 5 m rock-faced earthen berm, and extensive tall grasses with various degrees of herbaceous and scrub vegetation associated with dirt roads, rice paddies, ditches, ponds, or the Imjin River. Of the nine species of small mammals captured, the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius), the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus, was the most frequently collected, representing 92.5% of the 1,848 small mammals captured. Males were captured similarly to females during the spring and summer seasons but were captured less frequently during the fall and winter seasons. Gravid rates were highest in the fall (25.5-57.3%) with the lowest rates during the summer (0.0-2.2%). Capture rates were the lowest along earthen banks separating rice paddies (5.5%) and highest in unmanaged tall grasses and crawling vegetation (15.3-43.5%). An increased knowledge of ecological factors that impact the abundance and distribution of small mammals and the associated ectoparasites and pathogens they harbor is critical for developing accurate disease risk assessments and mitigation strategies for preventing vector- and rodent-borne diseases among soldiers training in field environments. © 2011 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  17. [Epidemiology of imported malaria and entomological study of breeding sites of potential risk areas in the province of Khemisset (Morocco)].

    PubMed

    Larhbali, Y; Belghyti, D; El Guamri, Y; Lahlou, O; El Kharrim, K; Kirami, A; Khamri, Z

    2014-01-01

    No case of autochthonous malaria has been detected in Morocco since 2004. This achievement is due to a national strategy to combat the disease by appropriate and well-organized disease detection and treatment, as well as control of the mosquito vector of the disease, the female Anopheles mosquito. Nonetheless, imported malaria cases have been increasing (75 in 2007), due to the rise in international travel and migration from countries where the disease is endemic. This work is divided into two parts: the first part is a retrospective study of the cases of imported malaria identified by optical microscopy in the Laboratory of Medical Entomology of the Khemisset Provincial Delegation of Health from 2000 to 2010. The second part is an entomological study conducted in 2010 of the Culicidae insect family, especially the Anopheles genus. The results show that of 176,457 requests for parasite testing, 14 were positive. All positive samples came from men older than 23 years. The cases identified are imported from two African countries: the Democratic Republic of Congo (86%) and Ivory Coast (14%). The years of high incidence were 2003 with four cases and 2000, 2004 and 2006 with two cases. The species found are Plasmodium falciparum in 13 cases (93%) and Plasmodium ovale in one case (7%). The vector of autochthonous malaria, which was eliminated in 2004, is Anopheles (Anopheles) labranchiae Fallerouni 1926, and it was the dominant species found in our entomological study (424 larvae). The other species were found in breeding sites in potential at-risk locations in the study area.

  18. Intrinsic versus extrinsic controls on the development of calcite dendrite bushes, Shuzhishi Spring, Rehai geothermal area, Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brian; Peng, Xiaotong

    2012-04-01

    In the Rehai geothermal area, located near Tengchong, there is an old succession of crystalline calcite that formed from a spring that is no longer active. The thin-bedded succession, exposed on the south bank of Zaotang River, is formed of three-dimensional dendrite bushes that are up to 6 cm high and 3 cm in diameter with multiple levels of branching. Bedding is defined by color, which ranges from white to gray to almost black and locally accentuated by differential weathering that highlights the branching motif of the dendrites. The succession developed through repeated tripartite growth cycles that involved: Phase I that was characterized by rapid vertical growth of the dendrite bushes with ever-increasing branching; Phase II that developed once growth of the dendrites had almost or totally ceased, and involved an initial phase of etching that was followed by the precipitation of various secondary minerals (sheet calcite, trigonal calcite crystals, hexagonal calcite crystals, hexagonal plates formed of Ca and P, Mn precipitates, Si-Mg reticulate coatings, opal-CT lepispheres) on the branches of the calcite dendrites, and Phase III that involved deposition of detrital quartz, feldspar, clay, and calcite on top of the dendrite bushes. The tripartite growth cycle is attributed primarily to aperiodic cycles in the CO2 content of the spring water that was controlled by subsurface igneous activity rather than climatic controls. High CO2 coupled with rapid CO2 degassing triggered growth of the dendrite bushes. As CO2 levels waned, saturation levels in the spring water decreased and calcite dendrite growth ceased and precipitation of the secondary minerals took place, possibly in the microcosms of microbial mats. Deposition of the detrital sediment was probably related to surface runoff that was triggered by periods of high rainfall. Critically, this study shows that intrinsic factors rather than extrinsic factors (e.g., climate) were the prime control on the

  19. Evaluation of water quality in surface water and shallow groundwater: a case study of a rare earth mining area in southern Jiangxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiuzhen; Wang, Dengjun; Wang, Peiran; Wang, Yuxia; Zhou, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of surface water and shallow groundwater near a rare earth mining area in southern Jiangxi Province, China. Water samples from paddy fields, ponds, streams, wells, and springs were collected and analyzed. The results showed that water bodies were characterized by low pH and high concentrations of total nitrogen (total N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N), manganese (Mn), and rare earth elements (REEs), which was likely due to residual chemicals in the soil after mining activity. A comparison with the surface water standard (State Environmental Protection Administration & General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of China GB3838, 2002) and drinking water sanitary standard (Ministry of Health & National Standardization Management Committee of China GB5749, 2006) of China revealed that 88 % of pond and stream water samples investigated were unsuitable for agricultural use and aquaculture water supply, and 50 % of well and spring water samples were unsuitable for drinking water. Moreover, significant cerium (Ce) negative and heavy REEs enrichment was observed after the data were normalized to the Post-Archean Australian Shales (PAAS). Principal component analysis indicated that the mining activity had a more significant impact on local water quality than terrace field farming and poultry breeding activities. Moreover, greater risk of water pollution and adverse effects on local residents' health was observed with closer proximity to mining sites. Overall, these findings indicate that effective measures to prevent contamination of surrounding water bodies from the effects of mining activity are needed.

  20. Bamboo Classification Using WorldView-2 Imagery of Giant Panda Habitat in a Large Shaded Area in Wolong, Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yunwei; Jing, Linhai; Li, Hui; Liu, Qingjie; Yan, Qi; Li, Xiuxia

    2016-11-22

    This study explores the ability of WorldView-2 (WV-2) imagery for bamboo mapping in a mountainous region in Sichuan Province, China. A large area of this place is covered by shadows in the image, and only a few sampled points derived were useful. In order to identify bamboos based on sparse training data, the sample size was expanded according to the reflectance of multispectral bands selected using the principal component analysis (PCA). Then, class separability based on the training data was calculated using a feature space optimization method to select the features for classification. Four regular object-based classification methods were applied based on both sets of training data. The results show that the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) method produced the greatest accuracy. A geostatistically-weighted k-NN classifier, accounting for the spatial correlation between classes, was then applied to further increase the accuracy. It achieved 82.65% and 93.10% of the producer's and user's accuracies respectively for the bamboo class. The canopy densities were estimated to explain the result. This study demonstrates that the WV-2 image can be used to identify small patches of understory bamboos given limited known samples, and the resulting bamboo distribution facilitates the assessments of the habitats of giant pandas.

  1. Primary survey of avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus infection in wild birds in some areas of Heilongjiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hua, Yu-Ping; Chai, Hong-Liang; Yang, Si-Yuan; Zeng, Xiang-Wei; Sun, Ying

    2005-12-01

    Two hundred thirty specimens of wild birds were collected from some areas in Heilongjiang Province during the period of 2003-2004, including two batches of specimens collected randomly from a same flock of mallards in Zhalong Natural Reserve in August and December, 2004, respectively. Primary virus isolation and identification for avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were performed. The results showed that only two specimens of young mallards collected from Zhalong Natural Reserve in August, 2004 were positive to AIV (isolation rate 0.9%), and one strain (D57) of these two virus isolates was identified to be H9 subtype by hemagglutination inhibition test. Meanwhile, the two batches of blood serum samples of mallards from Zhalong were also examined for antibodies against AIV and NDV. Among 38 blood serum samples collected in August, antibodies against the hemagglutinin of H1, H3, H5, H6 and H9 subtypes of AIV were found in 1, 0, 2, 0 and 8 samples, respectively; and 11 samples were found with antibody against NDV. Whereas the NDV isolation in both two batches of specimens of mallard was negative, all of the 32 blood serum samples collected in December were negative for antibodies against AIV and NDV.

  2. Mutant allele frequencies among domestic cats in some eastern areas of Canada: regional homogeneity of factors in Canadian Atlantic Provinces and the French colony of Saint Pierre.

    PubMed

    Todd, N B; Todd, L M

    1976-01-01

    Surveys to determine mutant allele frequencies in domestic cats of the Canadian Atlantic Provinces (Halifax, Nova Scotia; Fredericton, New Brunswick; Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island; St. John's Newfoundland) and the French colony of Saint Pierre, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, reveal a general regional homogeneity for most factors. Despite diverse historical patterns of settlement, a strong common component of origin is indicated. This is tentatively identified as late 18th and early 19th century British. One mutant, polydactyly, which is of New England origin appears to have been distributed largely by loyalist refugees from New England at the time of the American Rebellion. No elements of a specific Acadian (French) character have yet been identified. Siamese cats have been "introduced" to the region in recent years and are now so abundant that they will undoubtedly cause a significant change in some mutant allele frequencies over the next few decades. Interregional exchanges of cats no doubt are contributing to homogenizing the populations of the area, but the practice of sterilization of pets offsets this to some degree.

  3. Tick control methods used by resource-limited farmers and the effect of ticks on cattle in rural areas of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Moyo, B; Masika, P J

    2009-04-01

    A survey to document tick control methods used by resource-limited farmers in the control of cattle ticks in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa was conducted by interviewing 59 cattle farmers using structured questionnaires and general conversation. Information collected was on external parasites of cattle, their effects and their control methods. Ticks were reported to be a major problem causing diseases like anaplasmosis (89.8%), babesiosis (55.9%) and ehrlichiosis (16.9%), as well as wounds that predispose to screwworm infestation, tick worry and teat damage to cows troubling farmers in their farming enterprises. The main tick control methods were; acaricides provided by government, however 94.9% of the farmers interviewed were of the opinion that the dip wash is not effective in killing the ticks. As a result, farmers complement the government dipping service with their own initiatives like spraying with conventional acaricides (22%), household disinfectants such as Jeyes fluid (18.6%), used engine oil (10.2%), chickens (5.1%), manual removal (5.1%), and pouricides (1.7%). In addition, some farmers also use plants (6.8%), mainly the leaf of Aloe ferox and the bark of Ptaeroxylon obliquum. The study revealed ticks to be a major problem in the study area.

  4. [Variation of nutrient concentrations at the inshore coastal area of northern Jiangsu province and the occurrence of green tide caused by Enteromorpha prolifera].

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; Shi, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Ting

    2012-07-01

    Based on the investigation of the inshore coastal area of northern Jiangsu province with occurrence of green tide caused by Enteromorpha prolifera, which was performed in five voyages during March to June 2010, the variation of nutrient concentrations and its distribution characteristics were studied in this paper. The results showed that the concentrations of nutrients were relatively high in this region due to the terrestrial runoff and northern Jiangsu coastal current, which contributed to the outbreak of green tide. The highest concentrations of dissolved inorganic N (DIN), PO4(3-)-P and SiO3(2-)-Si were 23.04, 0. 55 and 15.85 micromol x L(-1), respectively. In spring, due to the strong life activities of plankton and the intake of nutrients by green tide, the concentrations of NO(3-)-N, PO4(3-)-P, SiO3(2-)-Si and DIN all showed a tendency of decreasing from the first to the fifth voyage. Besides, the closer the N/P ratios in water and in the body of plankton, the faster the plankton grows. The N/P ratios measured in the fourth and fifth voyages were relatively favorable for the growth of Enteromorpha prolifera. The distribution characteristics of nutrients had a tendency of decreasing from inshore to offshore in all voyages.

  5. Bamboo Classification Using WorldView-2 Imagery of Giant Panda Habitat in a Large Shaded Area in Wolong, Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yunwei; Jing, Linhai; Li, Hui; Liu, Qingjie; Yan, Qi; Li, Xiuxia

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the ability of WorldView-2 (WV-2) imagery for bamboo mapping in a mountainous region in Sichuan Province, China. A large area of this place is covered by shadows in the image, and only a few sampled points derived were useful. In order to identify bamboos based on sparse training data, the sample size was expanded according to the reflectance of multispectral bands selected using the principal component analysis (PCA). Then, class separability based on the training data was calculated using a feature space optimization method to select the features for classification. Four regular object-based classification methods were applied based on both sets of training data. The results show that the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) method produced the greatest accuracy. A geostatistically-weighted k-NN classifier, accounting for the spatial correlation between classes, was then applied to further increase the accuracy. It achieved 82.65% and 93.10% of the producer’s and user’s accuracies respectively for the bamboo class. The canopy densities were estimated to explain the result. This study demonstrates that the WV-2 image can be used to identify small patches of understory bamboos given limited known samples, and the resulting bamboo distribution facilitates the assessments of the habitats of giant pandas. PMID:27879661

  6. [Carbon emissions and low-carbon regulation countermeasures of land use change in the city and town concentrated area of central Liaoning Province, China].

    PubMed

    Xi, Feng-ming; Liang, Wen-juan; Niu, Ming-fen; Wang, Jiao-yue

    2016-02-01

    Carbon emissions due to land use change have an important impact on global climate change. Adjustment of regional land use patterns has a great scientific significance to adaptation to a changing climate. Based on carbon emission/absorption parameters suitable for Liaoning Province, this paper estimated the carbon emission of land use change in the city and town concentrated area of central Liaoning Province. The results showed that the carbon emission and absorption were separately 308.51 Tg C and 11.64 Tg C from 1997 to 2010. It meant 3.8% of carbon emission. was offset by carbon absorption. Among the 296.87 Tg C net carbon emission of land use change, carbon emission of remaining land use type was 182.24 Tg C, accounting for 61.4% of the net carbon emission, while the carbon emission of land use transformation was 114.63 Tg C, occupying the rest 38.6% of net carbon emission. Through quantifying the mapping relationship between land use change and carbon emission, it was shown that during 1997-2004 the contributions of remaining construction land (40.9%) and cropland transform ation to construction land (40.6%) to carbon emission were larger, but the greater contributions to carbon absorption came from cropland transformation to forest land (38.6%) and remaining forest land (37.5%). During 2004-2010, the land use types for carbon emission and absorption were the same to the period of 1997-2004, but the contribution of remaining construction land to carbon emission increased to 80.6%, and the contribution of remaining forest land to carbon absorption increased to 71.7%. Based on the carbon emission intensity in different land use types, we put forward the low-carbon regulation countermeasures of land use in two aspects. In carbon emission reduction, we should strict control land transformation to construction land, increase the energy efficiency of construction land, and avoid excessive development of forest land and water. In carbon sink increase, we should

  7. Influence of the Qinghai-Tibetan railway on the habitat selection of wild animals, using satellite data and satellite-based ARGOS system data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhe, Aosier

    The Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR) was in trial operation since 1 July 2006, is the world's highest-elevation railway and the longest highland railway, extending over 1956 km from Xining (Qinghai's capital in northwestern China) to Lhasa, the capital city of the Tibet Autonomous Region. This QTR railway was crosses five nature reserves along the route Hoh Xil (COCOX- ILI), Qinghai Sanjiangyuan, Chang Tang, Lin-chou Pengbo, and La-lu, and Hoh xil nature reserve is the important breeding sites of Tibetan Antelope (Pantholops hodgsoni). In order to clearly the habitat use and habitat selection of the Tibetan Antelope was divided in the north and south by the QTR railway, we planned the capture of ten Tibetan Antelopes and attach a satellite-based ARGOS system platform transmitter terminal (PTT) to the Tibetan Antelopes. And we succeeded in the capture of two Tibetan Antelopes for the first time in the world in 2007a summer and attached an ARGOS PTT. In this study, we estimate RASTER model of habitat change, using satellite-based ARGOS PTT tracking analyst data and satellite (Terra/MODIS, Terra/ASTER, ALOS and SPOT/vegetation instrument data) land cover change data, order to clearly the spatial and temporal characteristics of wide area habitat selection of Tibetan Antelope.

  8. How to improve early case detection in low endemic areas with pockets of leprosy: a study of newly detected leprosy patients in Guizhou Province, People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinlan; Yang, Lili; Wang, Ying; Liu, Hang; Liu, Jie; Cross, Hugh

    2016-03-01

    Although leprosy in China is controlled at a low endemic level, the number of new cases in Guizhou province has shown no significant decrease over the past 20 years. Guizhou remains the province with the second highest prevalence in China. The authors conducted a study in which the characteristics of newly detected leprosy cases, found between 2008 and 2012 in Guizhou, were analysed. These cases represented people from pocket areas of leprosy in a generally low endemic environment. The purpose of the study was to understand characters of newly detected cases, strong points and weakness of routine detection approaches for improving the effectiveness of early case detection in the future. The analysis considered data that was collected from a 'Leprosy Management Information' report system and also from annual statistical reports of leprosy that reflect the situation throughout the province. 1274 new patients were detected in Guizhou from 2008 to 2012. That number included 58 (4.6%) children (0-14 years old). The average age of patients at diagnosis was 42.6 ± 16.5 years. The proportion of people with WHO Grade 2 disability (WHO DG2) among new patients was 35.7% and the proportion of people with Grade 1 disability (DG1) constituted 10.1%. The average delay before diagnosis after the onset of symptoms of leprosy was 41.7 ± 49.8 months. Suspect survey was a major method by which most cases were detected. Trough this method 790 (62.0%) new patients were detected. It was also in this group that the highest proportion of people with WHO DG2 359 of 790 (45.4%) was reported. Self- reporting, diagnosis at a general skin clinic, household contact examination, and spot surveys accounted for 13.0%, 11.8%, 11.5% and 1.7% of other cases detected respectively. It was generally found that cases detected through household contact examinations were earlier cases (delay to diagnosis < 24 months = 70.7%). It was also recorded that fewer of these had WHO DG2 (12.9%). The proportion of

  9. Optimal concentration of local well brine groundwater irrigation for Bamboo willow introduced to the arid areas in northern Xinjiang province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei; Cao, Ling; Zhang, Ya; Cui, Kaiqiang; Wu, Shengli

    2015-04-01

    The adaptation and survive of introduced plants to local well brine groundwater irrigation is an important issue, while people introduce some plants to improve the local environment in the construction of urban greening oases in arid areas, north China. We measured some of the photosynthetic characteristics of introduced Bamboo willow irrigated by different local well brine groundwater in the wild controlled experiments, in May 2014 in Kelamayi city in north China, which to seek the most appropriate irrigation concentration of underground saline water, and to clarify the physiological ecological adaptation to the local habitat. The parameters, measured by Li-6400XT, a portable photosynthesis system, include the following ones, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), the internal CO2 concentration (Ci) and efficiency of water application (WUE) of one-year old introduced Bamboo willow irrigated by set salinity groundwater gradient, as 0 g/L, 5 g/L and 10 g/L. the results showed that (1) In each salt water concentration, the diurnal variation curve of net photosynthetic rate showed as "bimodal curve" style, and obvious "midday depression". (2) The parameter Pn of Bamboo willow irrigated by salt water of 5g/L was highest compared with the other two, and the value Pn irrigated by salt water concentration of 10g/L down. The net photosynthetic rate would increase in the salt concentration of 10g/L. In conclusion, the salt groundwater concentration of 10g/L was the optimal concentration of local well brine groundwater irrigation for Bamboo willow introduced to the arid areas in northern Xinjiang province, China.

  10. Contaminant characteristics and environmental risk assessment of heavy metals in the paddy soils from lead (Pb)-zinc (Zn) mining areas in Guangdong Province, South China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Da-Mao; Yan, Bo; Chen, Tao; Lei, Chang; Lin, Han-Zhi; Xiao, Xian-Ming

    2017-09-10

    In November 2016, the total metal concentrations in nine representative locations in lead (Pb)-zinc (Zn) mining areas, located in Guangdong Province, South China, were determined experimentally by flame atomic absorption spectrometer. The results indicated that the paddy soils were heavily contaminated with Cd (20.25 mg kg(-1)), Pb (1093.03 mg kg(-1)), and Zn (867.0 mg kg(-1)), exceeding their corresponding soil quality standard values and background values. According to the results, the mean enrichment factor levels of the studied metals decreased in the following order: Cd > Zn > Pb > Cu > Ni > Mn > Cr. Among these metals, Cd, Pb, and Zn were predominantly influenced by widespread anthropogenic activities. The highest concentrations of the studied metal pollutants were distributed in the areas surrounding the mining activity district. Multivariate statistical analysis indicated that the major contributing sources of the studied metals were metal ore mining, smelting, and processing activities. However, the composition of soil background was another potential source. Moreover, the assessment results of environment risks showed that the potential ecological risks, in decreasing order, were Cd > Pb > Zn > Cu > Ni > Cr > Mn. Additionally, the non-carcinogenic risk represented the trend of HI Pb > HI Mn > HI Zn > HI Cu , and the carcinogenic risk ranked as CR Cr > CR Cd > CR Ni . Among the environmental risk substances, Cd and Pb were the main contributors that pose ecological harm and health hazards through their serious pollution. Consequently, greater attention should be paid to this situation.

  11. The associations of heavy metals with crystalline iron oxides in the polluted soils around the mining areas in Guangdong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hui; Tan, Nianhao; Liu, Chuanping; Wang, Juju; Liang, Xiaoliang; Qu, Mingkai; Feng, Xionghan; Qiu, Guohong; Tan, Wenfeng; Liu, Fan

    2016-10-01

    In current selective sequential extraction (SSE) methods, heavy metals associated well-crystallized iron oxyhydroxides are not well defined and considered, and usually fall into residual forms, which actually make their mobility and environmental risk underestimated. This study compared various fractions of heavy metals in samples of mining tailings and nearby soils under different land uses in Guangdong Province of China. Iron oxides in these soils were mainly Al-substituted goethites and/or hematites. Independent of the land uses, the percentages of various Cd fractions in the soils decrease in the order of well-crystallized iron oxyhydroxides-associated (27.2-91.2%) > residual (2.1-37.0%) > reducible FeMn oxides (3.2-45.7%) > exchangeable (1.0-28.2%) > organic-associated form (0-5.1%). Pb mainly existes in the residual fraction (25.9-74.5%), followed by crystalline iron oxyhydroxides-associated (0.4-69.0%) and reducible fractions (2.4-40.4%). Zn mainly exists in the residual fraction (25.4-85.9%), followed by the well-crystallized iron oxyhydroxides-associated fraction (6.4-55.0%). However, Cu mainly existes in the residual form and the fractionation of Cu varies obviously between samples. The association of these metals with crystalline iron oxyhydroxides in the soils decreases in the sequence of Cd > Pb > Zn > Cu. These results suggest that in heavy-metal-polluted weathered soils in tropical and subtropical areas enriched with iron oxides, it is essential to assess potential bioavailability and toxicity of heavy metals bound to well-crystallized iron oxyhydroxides with appropriate procedures in the fractionation measurement. The modified Tessier method present here can be used to quantify the fractions of heavy metals in such areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Health Access Livelihood Framework Reveals Potential Barriers in the Control of Schistosomiasis in the Dongting Lake Area of Hunan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Donald P.; Raso, Giovanna; Utzinger, Jürg; Xiao, Shui-Yuan; Yu, Dong-Bao; Zhao, Zheng-Yuan; Li, Yue-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Background Access to health care is a major requirement in improving health and fostering socioeconomic development. In the People's Republic of China (P.R. China), considerable changes have occurred in the social, economic, and health systems with a shift from a centrally planned to a socialist market economy. This brought about great benefits and new challenges, particularly for vertical disease control programs, including schistosomiasis. We explored systemic barriers in access to equitable and effective control of schistosomiasis. Methodology Between August 2002 and February 2003, 66 interviews with staff from anti-schistosomiasis control stations and six focus group discussions with health personnel were conducted in the Dongting Lake area, Hunan Province. Additionally, 79 patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica were interviewed. The health access livelihood framework was utilized to examine availability, accessibility, affordability, adequacy, and acceptability of schistosomiasis-related health care. Principal Findings We found sufficient availability of infrastructure and human resources at most control stations. Many patients with advanced schistosomiasis resided in non-endemic or moderately endemic areas, however, with poor accessibility to disease-specific knowledge and specialized health services. Moreover, none of the patients interviewed had any form of health insurance, resulting in high out-of-pocket expenditure or unaffordable care. Reports on the adequacy and acceptability of care were mixed. Conclusions/Significance There is a need to strengthen health awareness and schistosomiasis surveillance in post-transmission control settings, as well as to reduce diagnostic and treatment costs. Further studies are needed to gain a multi-layered, in-depth understanding of remaining barriers, so that the ultimate goal of schistosomiasis elimination in P.R. China can be reached. PMID:23936580

  13. Numerical study on the origins and the forcing mechanism of the phosphate in upwelling areas off the coast of Zhejiang province, China in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dezhou; Yin, Baoshu; Sun, Junchuan; Zhang, Yong

    2013-08-01

    Off the coast of Zhejiang province, China, algal blooms are frequently observed where the phosphate seems to be an essential ingredient to dominate the growth of the phytoplankton in summer. Therefore, the observed high phosphate distributions off the coast of Zhejiang are closely examined to find out the dominant phosphate origin as well as the underlying forcing mechanism in summer. The observed phosphate distribution has been faithfully reproduced by our numerical model based on the Regional Ocean model System (ROMS). Then, on the basis of the numerical experiments as well as the observations, we propose that the phosphate off the coast of Zhejiang mainly originates from the deep sea water in a special area (122.1°E-z122.5°E, 130 m-300 m deep) along 24.9°N northeast of Taiwan. Also, the forcing mechanism is clearly illustrated. In the bottom water of southern East China Sea, huge phosphate is continuously transported to the area off the coast of Zhejiang by a nearshore Kuroshio branch current which links the phosphate-rich deep sea water to the bottom water off the coast of Zhejiang. Then, off the coast of Zhejiang the transported phosphate-rich water is further upwelled to the surface water due to an upwelling just off the coast of Zhejiang. Then, the upwelled phosphate-rich water is transported offshore in the surface water by the northeastward flowing Taiwan Warm Current, forming a high phosphate tongue which can be easily utilized by the phytoplankton and then immediately explains the observed high chlorophyll tongue off the coast of Zhejiang.

  14. Numerical study on the origins and the forcing mechanism of the phosphate in upwelling areas off the coast of Zhejiang province, China in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dezhou; Yin, Baoshu; Sun, Junchuan; Zhang, Yong

    2013-04-01

    Off the coast of Zhejiang province, China, algal blooms are frequently observed where the phosphate seems to be an essential ingredient to dominate the growth of the phytoplankton in summer. Therefore, the observed high phosphate distributions off the coast of Zhejiang are closely examined to find out the dominant phosphate origin as well as the underlying forcing mechanism in summer. The observed phosphate distribution has been faithfully reproduced by our numerical model based on the Regional Ocean model System (ROMS). Then, on the basis of the numerical experiments as well as the observations, we propose that the phosphate off the coast of Zhejiang mainly originates from deep sea water in a special area (122.1oE-122.5oE, 130 m-300 m deep) along 24.9oN northeast of Taiwan. Also, the forcing mechanism is clearly illustrated. In the bottom water of southern East China Sea, huge phosphate is continuously transported to the area off the coast of Zhejiang by a nearshore Kuroshio branch current (NKBC) which links the high phosphate deep sea water to the bottom water off the coast of Zhejiang. Then, off the coast of Zhejiang the transported phosphate-rich water is further upwelled to the surface water due to an upwelling just off the coast of Zhejiang. Then, the upwelled phosphate-rich water is transported offshore in the surface water by northeastward flowing Taiwan Warm Current, forming a high phosphate tongue which can be easily utilized by the phytoplankton and then immediately explains the observed high chlorophyll tongue off the coast of Zhejiang.

  15. Field evaluation of an area repellent system (Thermacell) against Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) and Ochlerotatus caspius (Diptera: Culicidae) in Sanliurfa Province, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Alten, Bulent; Caglar, Selim S; Simsek, Fatih M; Kaynas, Sinan; Perich, Michael J

    2003-11-01

    A field evaluation of a new area repellent system, Thermacell Mosquito Repellent (TMR, cis-trans allethrin), was conducted against phlebotomine sand flies and mosquitoes in Cunpolat village, Sanliurfa Province, in southeastern Anatolia, Turkey, an area historically endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis and high sand fly populations. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy, duration of protection, and spatial characteristics of protection (downwind distance from point of release), of the TMR. Twelve adult volunteers (nine in the treatment and three controls) made collections from ankle to knee for 25 min every hour from 2100 to 0300 on six consecutive nights in August 2002. Treatment consisted of placing a TMR unit at the middle of the village and then placing human bait collectors at 2.3, 4.6, and 7.6 m away from the repellent unit. Results from the field tests showed highly significant protection provided by the TMR from attack by Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) (P < 0.001) and Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas) (P < 0.001) for up to 4 h postapplication. In the six nights that tests were done, a total of 949 sand flies and 1095 mosquitoes were collected from the untreated control sites. Only 86 sand flies and 83 mosquitoes were collected at all distances from the places treated with TMR. These results indicated that reduction in sand fly and mosquito biting rates in treated groups ranged from 87.5 to 97.7% (mean protection 92%) and 90.2-97.4% (mean protection 93%), respectively. The percentage reduction values were maintained above 90.0% for 6 h of the assessment period. Overall, the number of bites by the cutaneous leishmaniasis vector Ph. papatasi and also Oc. caspius was reduced > 11-fold and 13-fold, respectively, by the TMR.

  16. No pre-eruptive uplift in the Emeishan large igneous province: New evidences from its 'inner zone', Dali area, Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Bei; Guo, Zhaojie; Liu, Runchao; Liu, Dongdong; Du, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The Permian Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP) in Southwest China has been considered a typical example of crustal domal uplift caused by mantle plume upwelling prior to the onset of volcanism. However, this model has been questioned by the discovery of hydromagmatic volcaniclastic deposits formed in a marine environment, located near the central ELIP area (the 'inner zone') which is inferred to be the zone of maximum uplift. The volcanology of the inner zone has thus far been poorly documented, fueling the debate about whether or not pre-eruptive uplift occurred prior to plume upwelling. Understanding the volcanology of this inner zone is therefore critical in constraining the eruption environment of the central ELIP. Our work has revealed new volcanological observations in the inner zone (Dali area), which can systematically constrain volcanism and paleoenvironment. The Basal Succession of the sequence is a thick pillow lavas pile with hyaloclastites, implying an initial deeper submarine stage of eruptions. Limestones and submarine fallout tuffs are interbedded with these pillow lavas. Above that, abundant mafic volcaniclastic products developed, which contain palagonite-rimmed lapilli-tuffs, base surge deposits and peperites, suggesting hydroclastic volcanism in a shallower submarine environment. The Upper Succession of the sequence preserves columnar-jointed lava flows and subaerial fallout tuffs, reflecting subaerial volcanism after the volcanic center emerged above the sea level. These abundant and systematic natures of this evidence suggest that the initial volcanism of the central ELIP occurred in a deep submarine environment. The submarine-to-subaerial transition is caused by progressive emplacement of voluminous magmatic products infilling the inner zone during the continuous emplacement of ELIP, rather than by crustal doming prior to the onset of volcanisms.

  17. Source identification of eight heavy metals in grassland soils by multivariate analysis from the Baicheng-Songyuan area, Jilin Province, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Chai, Yuan; Guo, Jia; Chai, Sheli; Cai, Jing; Xue, Linfu; Zhang, Qingwei

    2015-09-01

    The characterization of the concentration, chemical speciation and source of heavy metals in soils is an imperative for pollution monitoring and the potential risk assessment of the metals to animal and human health. A total of 154 surface horizons and 53 underlying horizons of grassland soil were collected from the Baicheng-Songyuan area in Jilin Province, Northeast China, in which the concentrations and chemical fractionations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn were investigated. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in grassland topsoil were 7.2, 0.072, 35, 16.7, 0.014, 15.2, 18.3 and 35 mg kg(-)(1) for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn, respectively, and those averaged contents were lower than their China Environmental Quality Standard values for the Soils, implying that heavy metal concentrations in the studied soils were of the safety levels. The mobility sequence of the heavy metals based on the sum of the soluble, exchangeable, carbonate-bound and humic acid-bound fractions among the seven fractions decreased in the order of Cd 50.4%)>Hg (39.8%)>Cu (26.5%)>As (19.9%)>Zn (19.1%)>Ni (15.9%)>Pb (14.1%)>Cr (4.3%), suggesting Cd and Hg may pose more potential risk of soil contamination than other metals. Multivariate statistical analysis suggested that As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd and Hg had the similar lithogenic sources, however, Cd and Hg were more relevant to organic matter than other heavy metals, which was confirmed by the chemical speciation analysis of the metals. The study provides a base for local authority in the studied area to monitor the long term accession of heavy metals into grassland soil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Holocene moisture and East Asian summer monsoon evolution in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau recorded by Lake Qinghai and its environs: A review of conflicting proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fahu; Wu, Duo; Chen, Jianhui; Zhou, Aifeng; Yu, Junqing; Shen, Ji; Wang, Sumin; Huang, Xiaozhong

    2016-12-01

    Climatic and environmental changes in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau are controlled by the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) and the westerlies, two key circulation components of the global climate system which directly affect a large human population and associated ecosystems in eastern Asia. During the past few decades, a series of Holocene palaeoclimatic records have been obtained from sediment cores from Lake Qinghai and from various other geological archives in the surrounding area of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. However, because of uncertainties regarding the sediment chronologies and the climatic significance of the proxies used, the nature of Holocene climatic changes in the region remains unclear and even controversial. Here we review all major classes of the published data from drilled cores from Lake Qinghai, as well as other evidence from lakes and aeolian deposits from surrounding areas, in order to reconstruct changes in moisture patterns and possible summer monsoon evolution in the area during the Holocene. Combining the results of moisture and precipitation proxies such as vegetation history, pollen-based precipitation reconstruction, aeolian activity, lake water depth/lake level changes, salinity and sediment redness, we conclude that moisture and precipitation began to increase in the early Holocene, reached their maximum during the middle Holocene, and decreased during the late Holocene - similar to the pattern of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) in northern China. It is clear that the region experienced a relatively dry climate and weak EASM during the early Holocene, as indicated by relatively low tree pollen percentages and fluctuating pollen concentrations; generally low lake levels of Lake Qinghai and the adjacent Lake Hurleg and Lake Toson in the Qaidam Basin; and widely distributed aeolian sand deposition in the Lake Qinghai Basin and the nearby Gonghe Basin to the south, and in the eastern Qaidam Basin to the west. We argue that the

  19. Landslide susceptibility modeling in a landslide prone area in Mazandarn Province, north of Iran: a comparison between GLM, GAM, MARS, and M-AHP methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Rossi, Mauro

    2016-08-01

    Landslides are identified as one of the most important natural hazards in many areas throughout the world. The essential purpose of this study is to compare general linear model (GLM), general additive model (GAM), multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS), and modified analytical hierarchy process (M-AHP) models and assessment of their performances for landslide susceptibility modeling in the west of Mazandaran Province, Iran. First, landslides were identified by interpreting aerial photographs, and extensive field works. In total, 153 landslides were identified in the study area. Among these, 105 landslides were randomly selected as training data (i.e. used in the models training) and the remaining 48 (30 %) cases were used for the validation (i.e. used in the models validation). Afterward, based on a deep literature review on 220 scientific papers (period between 2005 and 2012), eleven conditioning factors including lithology, land use, distance from rivers, distance from roads, distance from faults, slope angle, slope aspect, altitude, topographic wetness index (TWI), plan curvature, and profile curvature were selected. The Certainty Factor (CF) model was used for managing uncertainty in rule-based systems and evaluation of the correlation between the dependent (landslides) and independent variables. Finally, the landslide susceptibility zonation was produced using GLM, GAM, MARS, and M-AHP models. For evaluation of the models, the area under the curve (AUC) method was used and both success and prediction rate curves were calculated. The evaluation of models for GLM, GAM, and MARS showed 90.50, 88.90, and 82.10 % for training data and 77.52, 70.49, and 78.17 % for validation data, respectively. Furthermore, The AUC value of the produced landslide susceptibility map using M-AHP showed a training value of 77.82 % and validation value of 82.77 % accuracy. Based on the overall assessments, the proposed approaches showed reasonable results for landslide

  20. Assessing environmental soil quality in rural areas : A base line study in the province of Zeeland, the Netherlands and reflections on soil monitoring network designs.

    PubMed

    van Gaans, P F; Vriend, S P; Bleyerveld, S; Schrage, G; Vos, A

    1995-01-01

    A base line study into the environmental quality of soils in the rural areas of the province of Zeeland, the Netherlands, was performed. The polder-landscape in this area was developed in a complex history of floodings and land-reclamation. Samples from 67 sites, at a density of roughly one per 25 km(2), were analyzed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn in addition to a physicochemical characterization by pH(KCl), dry solids, organic matter, and clay content. At about 2/3 of the sites samples were taken at more than one depth. Fluoride and pesticides were determined in partly overlapping selections of 30 samples. Four land use classes were distinguished (arable land, grass land, orchards, uncultivated), and samples were labelled by region within the province. Data evaluation was aided by a recursive statistical approach, whereby statistical tests confirm and strengthen geochemical reasoning. Single- and multivariate statistics were used both as exploratory tools and as a measure of significance and relevance of conditions and processes. In general the environmental quality of the soils is satisfactory. Exceedence of the legal standards for natural background values at more than one site occurs for Cd, Cu, Hg and the pesticides DDT/DDE, dieldrin and HCH, at most by a factor of three. High levels of Hg appear related to arable land use; enhanced levels of Cu are found in orchards. High Cd levels primarily seem to follow a regional or geological pattern; yet, a relation with arable land use and clayey soils cannot be excluded. Pesticides are not detected in grass land, incidence is highest in orchards as well as in uncultivated areas. DDT levels appear to be generally inherited from the past. Variation in soil type as described by the macro physico-chemical characteristics is essential in explaining the variation in concentration level of the potential contaminants. Variations with depth also appear largely related to concurrent variation in soil properties. For As

  1. Key sources and seasonal dynamics of greenhouse gas fluxes from yak grazing systems on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Yan, Caiyu; Matthew, Cory; Wood, Brennon; Hou, Fujiang

    2017-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock grazing systems are contributing to global warming. To examine the influence of yak grazing systems on GHG fluxes and relationships between GHG fluxes and environmental factors, we measured carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes over three key seasons in 2012 and 2013 from a range of potential sources, including: alpine meadows, dung patches, manure heaps and yak night pens, on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. We also estimated the total annual global warming potential (GWP, CO2-equivalents) from family farm grazing yaks using our measured results and other published data. In this study, GHG fluxes per unit area from night pens and composting manure heaps were higher than from dung patches and alpine meadows. Increased moisture content and surface temperature of soil and manure were major factors increasing CO2 and CH4 fluxes. High contributions of CH4 and N2O (21.1% and 44.8%, respectively) to the annual total GWP budget (334.2 tonnes) strongly suggest these GHG other than CO2 should not be ignored when estimating GWP from the family farm grazing yaks on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau for the purposes of determining national and regional land use policies or compiling global GHG inventories. PMID:28106070

  2. Key sources and seasonal dynamics of greenhouse gas fluxes from yak grazing systems on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Yan, Caiyu; Matthew, Cory; Wood, Brennon; Hou, Fujiang

    2017-01-20

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock grazing systems are contributing to global warming. To examine the influence of yak grazing systems on GHG fluxes and relationships between GHG fluxes and environmental factors, we measured carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes over three key seasons in 2012 and 2013 from a range of potential sources, including: alpine meadows, dung patches, manure heaps and yak night pens, on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. We also estimated the total annual global warming potential (GWP, CO2-equivalents) from family farm grazing yaks using our measured results and other published data. In this study, GHG fluxes per unit area from night pens and composting manure heaps were higher than from dung patches and alpine meadows. Increased moisture content and surface temperature of soil and manure were major factors increasing CO2 and CH4 fluxes. High contributions of CH4 and N2O (21.1% and 44.8%, respectively) to the annual total GWP budget (334.2 tonnes) strongly suggest these GHG other than CO2 should not be ignored when estimating GWP from the family farm grazing yaks on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau for the purposes of determining national and regional land use policies or compiling global GHG inventories.

  3. An overview on the organic pollution around the Qinghai-Tibet plateau: The thought-provoking situation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Lu, Jian; Luo, Yongming; Duan, Dongping; Zhang, Zhenhua; Wen, Xiaohu; Min, Xiuyun; Guo, Xiaoying; Boman, Brian J

    2016-12-01

    The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau plays an important role in the ecological safety and human health of the surroundings due to its unique geographical position and function. Therefore, it is necessary to study the pollution status and potential risk in this area. This study summarizes the distribution of different organic pollutants in biota and environmental media of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Moreover, it also pays attention to the potential health risks of these organic pollutants. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were the most frequently detected in different matrices. In general, the carcinogenic risks of organic pollutants were ranked in the very-low to moderate range for both children and adults. The carcinogenic risks of organic pollutants in fish, food, and water for children were 1-2 times higher than those for adults, while risks of organic pollutants in soil/sediment and in air for children were generally 10.6-16.5 and 2.6-2.8 times higher than those for adults, respectively. The maximal hazard quotient for non-carcinogenic risk was 0.95 (potential risk for children posed by organic pollutants in yak milk of Ruoergai), almost reaching an unacceptable level. Therefore, the potential health risks could not be neglected, especially for children who were more likely to be affected by the pollutants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A 2,326-year tree-ring record of climate variability on the northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi-Bin; Cheng, Guodong; Yao, Tandong; Kang, Xingcheng; Huang, Jianguo

    2003-07-01

    High-resolution climate proxy records covering the last two millennia on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau are scarce yet essential to evaluation of the patterns, synchroneity and spatial extent of past climatic changes including those in the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and the Little Ice Age (LIA). Here we present a 2326-year tree-ring chronology of Sabina przewalskii Kom. for Dulan area of northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. We find that the annual growth rings mainly reflect variations in regional spring precipitation. The greatest change in spring precipitation during the last two millennia seems to occur in the second half of the 4th century. The North Atlantic MWP was accompanied by notable wet springs in the study region during A.D. 929-1031 with the peak occurring around A.D. 974. Three intervals of dry springs occurred in the period of LIA. Our tree-ring data will facilitate intercontinental comparisons of large-scale synoptic climate variability for the last two millennia.

  5. Key sources and seasonal dynamics of greenhouse gas fluxes from yak grazing systems on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Yan, Caiyu; Matthew, Cory; Wood, Brennon; Hou, Fujiang

    2017-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock grazing systems are contributing to global warming. To examine the influence of yak grazing systems on GHG fluxes and relationships between GHG fluxes and environmental factors, we measured carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes over three key seasons in 2012 and 2013 from a range of potential sources, including: alpine meadows, dung patches, manure heaps and yak night pens, on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. We also estimated the total annual global warming potential (GWP, CO2-equivalents) from family farm grazing yaks using our measured results and other published data. In this study, GHG fluxes per unit area from night pens and composting manure heaps were higher than from dung patches and alpine meadows. Increased moisture content and surface temperature of soil and manure were major factors increasing CO2 and CH4 fluxes. High contributions of CH4 and N2O (21.1% and 44.8%, respectively) to the annual total GWP budget (334.2 tonnes) strongly suggest these GHG other than CO2 should not be ignored when estimating GWP from the family farm grazing yaks on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau for the purposes of determining national and regional land use policies or compiling global GHG inventories.

  6. The effects of fencing on carbon stocks in the degraded alpine grasslands of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Dong, Shikui; Wen, Lu; Wang, Xuexia; Wu, Yu

    2013-10-15

    Quantifying the carbon storage of grasslands under different management strategies can help us understand how this ecosystem responds to different land management practices. To assess the C cycle and the importance of soil microbial biomass carbon, we measured the levels of soil organic carbon, biomass carbon (above- and underground) and soil microbial biomass carbon in areas with different grazing intensities and different management strategy (fenced and unfenced) in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. We also calculated the ratio of soil microbial biomass carbon to soil organic carbon as an indicator of the soil organic matter availability and quality. Results showed that degradation had significant effects on the soil organic carbon, biomass carbon and microbial biomass carbon (P < 0.05). However, fencing only had a significant effect on the non-degraded and moderately degraded grasslands (P < 0.05). We also found that the level of soil microbial biomass carbon was positively correlated with the biomass carbon and soil organic carbon. From our research, we concluded that the level of soil microbial biomass carbon was crucial to the C cycle in the alpine grasslands and that fencing may be an important management strategy for restoring lightly or moderately degraded grassland in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  7. The activities of low level preesure system over the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau and its links with evolution of plateau monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Z.; Xun, X.; Bai, B.

    2015-12-01

    The activities of low pressure system (LPS) close to land-surface of Qinghai-Xizang Plateau and its links with plateau monsoon index (PMI) and intensity departure of surface heating (B-H) were analyzed based on monthly ECMWF reanalysis data and monthly B-H data. The result shows that the LPS was formed in the southwest of Qinghai Province in April. It moved southwest to Xizang Autonomous Region in May and then shifted to westward. After reached to most west point, the LPS turned back with attenuation and dissipated in October. The intensity of LPS was stronger in high PMI year than that in weak PMI year. The track of LPS located farther north and present less zonal fluctuation in high PMI year. The B-H was well correlated with PMI especially in dry seasons. And there is a time lag of 2 to 3 months. It means that the Plateau summer monsoon onset early and with high intensity at the beginning of the onset period when the thermal effects were strong in February.

  8. [Analysis of pathogen spectrum of Encephalitis/Meningitis in northwestern area of China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-shu; Wang, Xu-xia; Yu, De-shan; Jiang, Jian-xiang; Zhang, Guang-ye; Wang, Fang; Li, Hui

    2013-10-01

    To learn the characteristics of pathogen spectrum of Encephalitis /Meningitis in northwestern area of China. Between January 1st 2009 and March 31st 2011, a total of 569 patients with clinical symptoms of Encephalitis/Meningitis were selected from the hospitals in Gansu, Qinghai,Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang province. 1514 samples of specimen were collected from the 515 patients, to detect the IgM of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), enterovirus (EV, including Coxsackie virus, ECHO virus and enterovirus 71), Mumps virus, Herpes simplex virus (HSV) in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Meanwhile, Neisseria meningitis (Nm), Haemophilus influenzae Type B (Hib), Staphylococcus, Streptococcus pneumonia, Streptococcus Suis, E. Coli and Cryptococci were also identified. The detection results were analyzed by different region, time and age range. Pathogenic bacteria were identified in the specimen from 16 patients, with the rate at 3.65%, of which the dominant ones were Streptococcus pneumonia (7 patients, 43.75%). Virus were identified in the specimen from 132 patients, with the rate at 27.05%, of which the dominant types were EV and HSV, accounting for 33.33% (44 cases) and 31.82% (42 cases) respectively. The detection rate of virus showed a significant seasonal trend, with the peak appearing between June and November each year. The peak of EV detection was between July and September, with 24 cases detected out; the peak of HSV was between June and August (11 cases detected out); mumps virus was mainly found between July and December (25 cases). There was no significant time-distribution found in the detection of bacteria. The EV and HSV were mainly distributed in Gansu and Qinghai province (70 cases) ;most of mumps virus were found in Gansu province (24 cases);and JEV were only found in Gansu province (20 cases). The viral pathogen spectrum was identified in all ages, and the EV and mumps virus were mainly found in children aged 0-14 years old (42 and 17 cases respectively

  9. [Species Determination and Spectral Characteristics of Swelling Clay Minerals in the Pliocene Sandstones in Xinghai, Qinghai].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao-wen; Chen, Jiang-jun; Fang, Qian; Yin, Ke; Hong, Han-lie

    2015-10-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) were conducted to deepen our research on specific species and spectral characteristics of swelling clay minerals in the Pliocene sandstones in Xinghai, Qinghai province. XRD results show that swelling clay minerals are dominant clay minerals in the sandstones, which can be up to 97% in percentage. XRD patterns show 060 reflections of the samples occur both remarkably at 1.534 Å and 1.498 Å, indicating the samples contain physical mixtures of trioctahedral and dioctahedral swelling clay minerals, respectively. Further treatment of Li-300 degrees C heat and glycerol saturation shows the swelling clay minerals collapse to 9.3-9.9 Å with a partial expansion to -18 Å. This indicates the swelling clay minerals dominate montmorillonite and contain minor saponite. The montmorillonite shows no swelling after Li-300 degrees C heat and glycerol saturation because of Li+ inserting into the octahedral layers, which balances the layer charge caused by the substitution of Mg to Al. FTIR results show the samples are composed of a kind of phyllosilicate with absorbed and structural water, which is in agreement with the results of XRD. Absorbed peaks at 913, 842, 880 cm(-1), corresponding to OH associated with Al-Al, Al-Mg, and Al-Fe pairs, further indicates the minerals are dominant dioctahedron in structure. Meanwhile, absorbed peaks at 625 and 519 cm(-1), corresponding to coupled Si-O and Al-O-Si deformation, indicates parts of Si is replaced by Al in tetrahedron. The spectral characteristics of the samples are against the presence of beidellite and nontronite based on the results of XRD and FTIR, while demonstrating an,existence of montmorillonite. This study, to distinguish the specific species of swelling clay species in clay minerals, would be of great importance when using clay mineralogy to interpret provenance and climatic information.

  10. Trends in precipitation recycling over the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau in last decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yipeng; Wang, Chenghai

    2014-09-01

    This study calculated the annual and inter-annual variations in the precipitation recycling ratio (PRR) on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau (QXP); and by using water mass balance equation; we evaluated the estimated evaporation in the area. The results indicate that the estimated evaporation relate strongly to surface air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed. As temperatures on the QXP increase, the changes of PRR vary by regions within the plateau. Between 1979 and 2008, the PRR decreased in the western QXP, which is an arid area, but it increased in the other areas. The strongest increasing PRR trend is 3.1%/10 a in the northeastern QXP, but a decreasing trend, ranging downward to -2.5%/10 a, was observed in the western QXP. There is a significant seasonal change in precipitation recycling (PR) over QXP. The PR peak values occurred in July in all regions, and PR was very low (approaching 0.0) in winter half-year period. The monthly maximum PRR reached 0.62, which occurred in July over the southeastern QXP, where is a rich center of precipitation. These results imply that there is remarkable change of moisture resource of precipitation in last decades. On the QXP, large-scale moisture advances decrease with increased temperature, and the local moisture cycle is reinforced in wet regions.

  11. Bioaccessibility and health risk assessment of arsenic in soil and indoor dust in rural and urban areas of Hubei province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanzhong; Ma, Junwei; Yan, Hongxia; Ren, Yuqing; Wang, Beibei; Lin, Chunye; Liu, Xitao

    2016-04-01

    Incidental oral ingestion is the main exposure pathway by which human intake contaminants in both soil and indoor dust, and this is especially true for children as they frequently exhibit hand-to-mouth behaviour. Research on comprehensive health risk caused by incidental ingestion of both soil and indoor dust is limited. The aims of this study were to investigate the arsenic concentration and to characterize the health risks due to arsenic (As) exposure via soil and indoor dust in rural and urban areas of Hubei province within central China. Soil and indoor dust samples were collected from schools and residential locations and bioaccessibility of arsenic in these samples was determined by a simplified bioaccessibility extraction test (SBET). The total arsenic content in indoor dust samples was 1.78-2.60 times that measured in soil samples. The mean As bioaccessibility ranged from 75.4% to 83.2% in indoor dust samples and from 13.8% to 20.2% in soil samples. A Pearson's analysis showed that As bioaccessibility was significantly correlated with Fe and Al in soil and indoor dust, respectively, and activity patterns of children were utilised in the assessment of health risk via incidental ingestion of soil and indoor dust. The results suggest no non-carcinogenic health risks (HQ<1) or acceptable carcinogenic health risks (1×10(-6)areas were 1.59-1.95 times those for children in rural areas. The HQ and CR values for children three to five years of age were 1.40-1.47 times those for children six to nine years of age. The health risk accounting for bioaccessibility was only 50.8-59.8% of that obtained without consideration of bioaccessibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mathematical model to select the optimal alternative for an integral plan to fight against desertification and erosion in the Chaco area in Salta Province of Argentine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, J. M.; Grau, J. B.; Colombo, F.; de Los Rios, L.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2009-04-01

    That area in the Province of Salta at North West of Argentina has a size not smaller than Belgium and low growing population, and is a specific example of combined natural, ecologic, agricultural and human evolution, where a main restriction is the necessity to avoid desertification, that is the soil quality loss studied now in several forums, the U.N.O. having said "Desertification has a very high incidence in the environmental and food security, socioeconomic stability and world sustained development". It is one of FAO's most important preoccupations as hunger in the world is increasing. Multiple factors are involved on it. Ones are in relation with natural phenomena like water and wind erosion. Others with human activities linked to soil use and water management, and finally with inappropriate activities. The parallel 24° S is central and sun is intense, annual rain is between 1000mm to 600mm being lower at East, and climate is agreable for humans specially at dry season from May to November. The soils came mostly as large deposits from rivers, from Andes Mountains, the large study area is rather flat with low mountains at SW, otherwise altitude is from 500m at NW to 200 at SE. The Bermejo is the greater river and at cross from NW to SE and has elevated land and consequently has migrated 50-100 km to NE letting a smaller channel in previous course. The city of Salta is out at West, organized since about 1588, and a main road runs N-S at the higher West of the area communicating it with Salta and towards distant Rio de la Plata for commerce, and with Bolivia at Nord. The use of land changes from West, which is now intensely cultivated and uses somewhere water from rivers, to East were the Wichi Indians live primitively and freely in a very large natural area using goats and "chanchos" (pigs) of European origin that grow in big numbers undomesticated, having somehow degraded original natural vegetation that contains now specific shrubs and small trees in areas

  13. Evaluation of surface water and groundwater contamination in a MSW landfill area using hydrochemical analysis and electrical resistivity tomography: a case study in Sichuan province, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Ling, Chengpeng; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-04-01

    As a primary disposal mean of municipal solid waste in China, the landfill has been recognized as one of the major threats to the surrounding surface water and groundwater environment due to the emission of leachate. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of leachate on the surface water and groundwater environment of the region of the Chang'an landfill, which is located in Sichuan province, China. The surface water and groundwater were sampled for hydrochemical analysis. Three electrical resistivity tomography profiles were conducted to evaluate the impact of leachate on the groundwater environment, and several laboratory tests were carried out to build the relationship between the soil bulk resistivity and the void fluid resistivity. The results showed that a seasonal creek named Longfeng creek, which crosses the landfill site, was contaminated by the leachate. The concentrations of COD, BOD5, and chlorides (Cl) of surface water samples increased by 12.3-105.7 times. The groundwater quality in the surface loose sediments along the valley deteriorated obviously from the landfill to 500 m downstream area. The laboratory tests of soil samples indicated that the resistivity value of 13 Ωm is a critical value whether the groundwater in the loose sediments is polluted. The groundwater at the site adjacent to the spillway in the landfill was partially contaminated by the emission of leachate. The groundwater contamination zones at 580 m downstream of the landfill were recognized at the shallow zones from 60 m left bank to 30 m right bank of Longfeng creek. The improved understanding of groundwater contamination around the landfill is beneficial for the landfill operation and groundwater environment remediation.

  14. Heavy metal contamination and human health risk assessment in drinking water from shallow groundwater wells in an agricultural area in Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wongsasuluk, Pokkate; Chotpantarat, Srilert; Siriwong, Wattasit; Robson, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Most local people in the agricultural areas of Hua-ruea sub-district, Ubon Ratchathani province (Thailand), generally consume shallow groundwater from farm wells. This study aimed to assess the health risk related to heavy metal contamination in that groundwater. Samples were randomly collected from 12 wells twice in each of the rainy and the dry seasons and were analyzed by inductive coupled plasma spectrometry-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The concentration of detected metals in each well and the overall mean were below the acceptable groundwater standard limits for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni and Zn, but Pb levels were higher in four wells with an overall average Pb concentration of 16.66 ± 18.52 μg/l. Exposure questionnaires, completed by face-to-face interviews with 100 local people who drink groundwater from farm wells, were used to evaluate the hazard quotients (HQs) and hazard indices (HIs). The HQs for non-carcinogenic risk for As, Cu, Zn and Pb, with a range of 0.004-2.901, 0.053-54.818, 0.003-6.399 and 0.007-26.80, respectively, and the HI values (range from 0.10 to 88.21) exceeded acceptable limits in 58 % of the wells. The HI results were higher than one for groundwater wells located in intensively cultivated chili fields. The highest cancer risk found was 2.6 × 10(-6) for As in well no. 11. This study suggested that people living in warmer climates are more susceptible to and at greater risk of groundwater contamination because of their increased daily drinking water intake. This may lead to an increased number of cases of non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health defects among local people exposed to heavy metals by drinking the groundwater.

  15. Assessing the Effect of an Integrated Control Strategy for Schistosomiasis Japonica Emphasizing Bovines in a Marshland Area of Hubei Province, China: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue-Sheng; Yu, Chuan-Hua; Yuan, Yi; Chen, Yan-Yan; Li, Ren-Dong; Qiu, Juan; Liu, Zong-Chuan; Yi, Ping; Ren, Guang-Hui; He, Hong-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction More than 80% of schistosomiasis patients in China live in the lake and marshland regions. The purpose of our study is to assess the effect of a comprehensive strategy to control transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in marshland regions. Methodology/Principal Findings In a cluster randomized controlled trial, we implemented an integrated control strategy in twelve villages from 2009 through 2011 in Gong'an County, Hubei Province. The routine interventions included praziquantel chemotherapy and controlling snails, and were implemented in all villages. New interventions, mainly consisting of building fences to limit the grazing area for bovines, building safe pastures for grazing, improving the residents' health conditions and facilities, were only implemented in six intervention villages. Results showed that the rate of S. japonicum infection in humans, bovines, snails, cow dung and mice in the intervention group decreased from 3.41% in 2008 to 0.81% in 2011, 3.3% to none, 11 of 6,219 to none, 3.9% to none and 31.7% to 1.7%, respectively (P<0.001 for all comparisons). In contrast, there were no statistically significant reductions of S. japonicum infection in humans, bovines and snails from 2008 to 2011 in the control group (P>0.05 for all comparisons). Moreover, a generalized linear model showed that there was a higher infection risk in humans in the control group than in the intervention group (OR = 1.250, P = 0.001) and an overall significant downward trend in infection risk during the study period. Conclusions/Significance The integrated control strategy, designed to reduce the role of bovines and humans as sources of S. japonicum infection, was highly effective in controlling the transmission of S. japonicum in marshland regions in China. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-PRC-12002405. PMID:23516656

  16. Development of a Health Education Modification Program Regarding Liver Flukes and Cholangiocarcinoma in High Risk Areas of Nakhon Ratchasima Province Using Self-Efficacy and Motivation Theory.

    PubMed

    Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Rujirakul, Ratana; Wakkuwattapong, Parichart; Benjaoran, Fuangfa; Norkaew, Jun; Kujapun, Jirawoot; Ponphimai, Sukanya; Chavenkun, Wasugree; Kompor, Porntip; Padchasuwan, Natnapa; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    A quasi-experimental study was conducted to develop a health education modification program based on self-efficacy and motivation regarding liver flukes and cholangiocarcinoma development in Keang Sanam Nang district, Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand. A total of 36 individuals were invited to participate in the program and were screened for population at risk of liver fluke infection and cholangiocarcinoma using SUT-OV-001 and SUT-CCA-001. Development of health education modification program regarding liver fluke and cholangiocarcinoma prevention included 3 steps: (1) preparation, (2) health education program, and (3) follow-up and evaluation. The study was implemented for 10 weeks. Pre-and-post-test knowledge was measured with questionnaires, Kuder-Richardson-20: KR-20 = 0.718,and Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient = 0.724 and 0.716 for perception and outcome expectation questionnaires. Paired and independent t-tests were applied for data analysis. The majority of the participants were female (55.6%), aged between ≤50 and 60 years old (36.1%), married (86.1%), education level of primary school (63.9%), agricultural occupation (80.6%), and income <4,000 Baht (44.4%). The results revealed that after the health education program, the experimental group had a mean score of knowledge, perception, and outcome expectation regarding liver fluke and cholangiocarcinoma prevention significantly higher than before participation and in the control group. In conclusion, this successful health education modification program for liver fluke and cholangiocarcinoma, therefore may useful for further work behavior modification in other epidemic areas.

  17. Utilising an LC-MS/MS-based multi-biomarker approach to assess mycotoxin exposure in the Bangkok metropolitan area and surrounding provinces.

    PubMed

    Warth, Benedikt; Petchkongkaew, Awanwee; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Human exposures to mycotoxins through dietary intake are a major health hazard and may result in various pathophysiological effects. Although Thailand is a country at increased risk due to its climatic conditions, no comprehensive dataset is available to perform proper exposure assessment of its population with regard to mycotoxins. Therefore, this pilot study was conducted to investigate and evaluate the exposure levels of major mycotoxins (aflatoxin B₁, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, zearalenone and trichothecenes). Sixty first-morning urine samples were collected from healthy volunteers who live in the Bangkok metropolitan area and surrounding provinces (Pathumthani, Nonthaburi, Samutprakarn and Samutsakorn). Urine samples were analysed by a LC-MS/MS-based multi-biomarker method following a so-called 'dilute and shoot' approach. Results generally indicated low mycotoxin exposures in most individuals through the determination of the four biomarkers that were detected in urine samples, i.e. aflatoxin M₁, ochratoxin A (OTA), as well as the deoxynivalenol (DON) metabolites DON-3-glucuronide and DON-15-glucuronide in 10 of 60 individuals. The maximum concentrations were used to estimate the daily intake confirming that none of the individuals exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of DON (maximum 26% of TDI) or OTA (maximum 22% of TDI). However, the maximum exposure of aflatoxin B₁, estimated to be 0.91 µg (kg bw)⁻¹ day⁻¹, should raise some concerns and suggests further studies utilising a more sensitive method. Low exposure to Fusarium toxins was also confirmed by the absence of zearalenone, α-zearalanol, β-zearalanol and zearalenone-14-glucuronide as well as T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, nivalenol and free DON. This is the first multi-mycotoxin biomarker study performed in Southeast Asia.

  18. [Characteristics of the patients with heart disease in a health area of A Coruña province. Barbanza 2000 study].

    PubMed

    2003-12-01

    The results of the Barbanza study are presented, a cross-sectional study carried out in an area of primary care level of the southwest of A Coruña province and relative to the situation of the cardiovascular diseases. Demographic, clinical, blood pressure and therapeutic data corresponding to the patients cared during a period of 2 months by 21 primary care physicians were registered prospectively in an uniformized questionnaire. 31% of the total sample of 6,325 patients suffered hypertension and 13.4% showed past history of heart disease. Hypertension was observed in 71% of the patients with heart failure, in 69% of the patients who showed ischemic cardiopathy (angina and myocardial infarction) and in 67% of the patients with atrial fibrillation. More than 50% of the hypertensive patients with heart disease (heart failure, ischemic heart disease and atrial fibrillation) showed values of systolic blood pressure which are equal or greater than 140 mmHg. 90% of the patients with ischemic cardiopathy showed values of LDL cholesterol higher than 100 mg/dl and 65% higher than 130 mg/dl. 54.8% of the patients with heart failure was receiving treatment with an inhibitor of the angiotensin converting enzyme; 27.2% of the patients with ischemic cardiopathy received treatment with a beta-blocker, and 32% of the patients with atrial fibrillation received anticoagulants. The heart failure, the ischemic cardiopathy, and the atrial fibrillation are associated with great frequency to hypertension. Control of the blood pressure in the hypertensive patients with heart disease is very limited. The utilization of drugs of obligatory use in hypertensives with heart disease is limited. It is necessary to promote strategies of information and coordination between the primary and specialized care to improve the care of the patients with cardiovascular disease.

  19. Seroprevalence of Brucella infection in yaks (Bos grunniens) on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Xulong, Lang; Hailong, Qu; Zhaoyang, Bu; Yanling, Yang; Chunhui, Sun; Xiaoyan, Li; Jinglong, Wang; Jinshan, Cai; Ruilin, Ma; Yijuan, Fu; Xinglong, Wang

    2011-02-01

    The seroprevalence of Brucella infection in yaks was surveyed on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau of China in 2010. A total of 621 serum samples was collected from six counties and were tested by serum agglutination test. The results showed that 56 (9%) of the samples were positive for Brucella. The results of the present investigation indicate that brucellosis is common in yaks on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau of China.

  20. The Liaonan metamorphic core complex, Southeastern Liaoning Province, North China: A likely contributor to Cretaceous rotation of Eastern Liaoning, Korea and contiguous areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junlai; Davis, Gregory A.; Lin, Zhiyong; Wu, Fuyuan

    2005-09-01

    The Mesozoic Liaonan metamorphic core complex (mcc) of the southeastern Liaoning province, North China, is an asymmetric Cordilleran-style complex with a west-rooting master detachment fault, the Jinzhou fault. A thick sequence of lower plate, fault-related mylonitic and gneissic rocks derived from Archean and Early Cretaceous crystalline protoliths has been transported ESE-ward from mid-crustal depths. U-Pb ages of lower plate syntectonic plutons (ca. 130-120 Ma), 40Ar- 39Ar cooling ages in the mylonitic and gneissic sequence (ca. 120-110 Ma), and a Cretaceous supradetachment basin attest to the Early Cretaceous age of this extensional complex. The recent discovery of the coeval and similarly west-rooting Waziyu mcc in western Liaoning [Darby, B.J., Davis, G.A., Zhang, X., Wu, F., Wilde, S., Yang, J., 2004. The newly discovered Waziyu metamorphic core complex, Yiwulushan, western Liaoning Province, North China. Earth Science Frontiers 11, 145-155] indicates that the Gulf of Liaoning, which lies between the two complexes, was the center of a region of major crustal extension. Clockwise crustal rotation of a large region including eastern Liaoning province and the Korean Peninsula with respect to a non-rotated North China block has been conclusively documented by paleomagnetic studies over the past decade. The timing of this rotation and the reasons for it are controversial. Lin et al. [Lin, W., Chen, Y., Faure, M., Wang, Q., 2003. Tectonic implication of new Late Cretaceous paleomagnetic constraints from Eastern Liaoning Peninsula, NE China. Journal of Geophysical Research 108 (B-6) (EPM 5-1 to 5-17)] proposed that a clockwise rotation of 22.5° ± 10.2° was largely post-Early Cretaceous in age, and was the consequence of extension within a crustal domain that tapers southwards towards the Bohai Sea (of which the Gulf of Liaoning is the northernmost part). Paleomagnetic studies of Early Cretaceous strata (ca 134-120 Ma) in the Yixian-Fuxin supradetachment basin of

  1. Crustal thickening in Gansu-Qinghai, lithospheric mantle subduction, and oblique, strike-slip controlled growth of the Tibet plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, B.; Tapponnier, P.; Bourjot, L.; Métivier, F.; Gaudemer, Y.; Peltzer, G.; Shunmin, Guo; Zhitai, Chen

    1998-10-01

    Fieldwork complemented by SPOT image analysis throws light on current crustal shortening processes in the ranges of northeastern Tibet (Gansu and Qinghai provinces, China). The ongoing deformation of Late-Pleistocene bajada aprons in the forelands of the ranges involves folding, at various scales, and chiefly north-vergent, seismogenic thrusts. The most active thrusts usually break the ground many kilometres north of the range-fronts, along the northeast limbs of growing, asymmetric ramp-anticlines. Normal faulting at the apex of other growing anticlines, between the range fronts and the thrust breaks, implies slip on blind ramps connecting distinct active décollement levels that deepen southwards. The various patterns of uplift of the bajada surfaces can be used to constrain plausible links between contemporary thrusts downsection. Typically, the foreland thrusts and décollements appear to splay from master thrusts that plunge at least 15-20 km down beneath the high ranges. Plio-Quaternary anticlinal ridges rising to more than 3000 m a.s.l. expose Palaeozoic metamorphic basement in their core. In general, the geology and topography of the ranges and forelands imply that structural reliefs of the order of 5-10 km have accrued at rates of 1-2 mm yr-1 in approximately the last 5 Ma. From hill to range size, the elongated reliefs that result from such Late-Cenozoic, NE-SW shortening appear to follow a simple scaling law, with roughly constant length/width ratio, suggesting that they have grown self-similarly. The greatest mountain ranges, which are over 5.5 km high, tens of kilometres wide and hundreds of kilometres long may thus be interpreted to have formed as NW-trending ramp anticlines, at the scale of the middle-upper crust. The fairly regular, large-scale arrangement of those ranges, with parallel crests separated by piggy-back basins, the coevality of many parallel, south-dipping thrusts, and a change in the scaling ratio (from ~5 to 8) for range widths

  2. Assessment of the detectability of geo-hazards using Google Earth applied to the Three Parallel Rivers Area, Yunnan province of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voermans, Michiel; Mao, Zhun; Baartman, Jantiene EM; Stokes, Alexia

    2017-04-01

    Anthropogenic activities such as hydropower, mining and road construction in mountainous areas can induce and intensify mass wasting geo-hazards (e.g. landslides, gullies, rockslides). This represses local safety and socio-economic development, and endangers biodiversity at larger scale. Until today, data and knowledge to construct geo-hazard databases for further assessments are lacking. This applies in particular to countries with a recently emerged rapid economic growth, where there are no previous hazard documentations and where means to gain data from e.g. intensive fieldwork or VHR satellite imagery and DEM processing are lacking. Google Earth (GE, https://www.google.com/earth/) is a freely available and relatively simple virtual globe, map and geographical information program, which is potentially useful in detecting geo-hazards. This research aimed at (i) testing the capability of Google Earth to detect locations of geo-hazards and (ii) identifying factors affecting the diagnosing quality of the detection, including effects of geo-hazard dimensions, environs setting and professional background and effort of GE users. This was tested on nine geo-hazard sites following road segments in the Three Parallel Rivers Area in the Yunnan province of China, where geo-hazards are frequently occurring. Along each road site, the position and size of each geo-hazard was measured in situ. Next, independent diagnosers with varying professional experience (students, researchers, engineers etc.) were invited to detect geo-hazard occurrence along each of the eight sites via GE. Finally, the inventory and diagnostic data were compared to validate the objectives. Rates of detected geo-hazards from 30 diagnosers ranged from 10% to 48%. No strong correlations were found between the type and size of the geo-hazards and their detection rates. Also the years of expertise of the diagnosers proved not to make a difference, opposite to what may be expected. Meanwhile the amount of time

  3. A human health risk assessment of rare earth elements in soil and vegetables from a mining area in Fujian Province, Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofei; Chen, Zhibiao; Chen, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yonghe

    2013-10-01

    Contaminated food through dietary intake has become the main potential risk impacts on human health. This study investigated concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) in soil, vegetables, human hair and blood, and assessed human health risk through vegetables consumption in the vicinity of a large-scale mining area located in Hetian Town of Changting County, Fujian Province, Southeast China. The results of the study included the following mean concentrations for total and bio-available REEs of 242.92 ± 68.98 (135.85-327.56)μg g(-1) and 118.59 ± 38.49 (57.89-158.96)μg g(-1) dry weight (dw) in agricultural soil, respectively, and total REEs of 3.58 ± 5.28 (0.07-64.42)μg g(-1) dw in vegetable samples. Concentrations of total REEs in blood and hair collected from the local residents ranged from 424.76 to 1274.80 μg L(-1) with an average of 689.74 ± 254.25 μg L(-1) and from 0.06 to 1.59 μg g(-1) with an average of 0.48 ± 0.59 μg g(-1) of the study, respectively. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between REEs in blood and corresponding soil samples (R(2)=0.6556, p<0.05), however there was no correlation between REEs in hair and corresponding soils (p>0.05). Mean concentrations of REEs of 2.85 (0.59-10.24)μg L(-1) in well water from the local households was 53-fold than that in the drinking water of Fuzhou city (0.054 μg L(-1)). The health risk assessment indicated that vegetable consumption would not result in exceeding the safe values of estimate daily intake (EDI) REEs (100-110 μg kg(-1)d(-1)) for adults and children, but attention should be paid to monitoring human beings health in such rare earth mining areas due to long-term exposure to high dose REEs from food consumptions. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of the 2004 mass drug administration for the control of lymphatic filariasis, in urban and rural areas of the Western province of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Gunawardena, G S A; Ismail, M M; Bradley, M H; Karunaweera, N D

    2007-06-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is targeted to be eliminated globally, at least as a public-health problem, by 2020. The comprehensive strategy for achieving this goal includes the interruption of the transmission of the causative parasites, by drastically reducing the prevalences of microfilaraemia in at-risk communities. In a descriptive, comparative, cross-sectional and community-based study, the impact of the 2004 mass drug administration (MDA) on filarial infection, in selected areas of the Western province of Sri Lanka, has now been assessed 1-2 and 11 months after the administration of the diethylcarbamazine-albendazole combination employed. Using the cluster-sampling method, urban study populations were selected in the Colombo districts and rural ones were selected in the Gampaha district. After obtaining informed written consent, 2 ml venous blood were collected, between 20.00 and 24.00 hours, from each subject. Personal details and drug compliance in the 2004 MDA were recorded. The samples of 'night' blood were checked for microfilariae, using membrane filtration, and for filarial antigenaemia, using commercial (NOW) immunochromatographic test kits. Eighty-four (4.10%) of the 2034 subjects examined 1-2 months after the 2004 MDA but only four (0.20%) of the 1974 subjects checked 11 months after the MDA were found antigenaemic and/or microfilaraemic (P<0.001). Between the two follow-ups, the overall prevalences of both antigenaemia (4.03% v. 0.15%; P<0.001) and microfilaraemia (0.20% v. 0.05%; P=0.38) fell, although only the reduction in antigenaemia was statistically significant. The prevalence of infection (as indicated by antigenaemia and/or microfilaraemia) fell significantly within each of the two study districts (P<0.001). Although, when the prevalence of infection was high, drug compliance appeared to be an important determinant of the reduction of antigenaemia (P=0.04), the 20% difference in compliance between urban and rural areas had no apparent effect on

  5. [Characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus runoff losses from croplands with different planting patterns in a riverine plain area of Zhejiang Province, East China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Kui; Wang, Yang; Huang, Chao

    2011-12-01

    By the method of site-specific observation, and selecting 27 field plots with 7 planting patterns in Shaoxing county of Zhejiang Province as test objects, this paper studied the characteristics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) runoff losses, loads, and their affecting factors in the croplands with different planting patterns in riverine plain area of the Province under natural rainfall. The mean annual runoff loads of total P, dissolved P, and particulate P from the field plots were 4.75, 0.74 and 4.01 kg x hm(-2), respectively, and the load of particulate P was much higher than that of dissolved P. The mean annual runoff loads of total N, dissolved total N, dissolved organic N, NH4(+)-N, and NO3(-)-N were 21.87, 17.19, 0.61, 3.63 and 12.95 kg x hm(-2), respectively, and the load of different fractions of dissolved total N was in the sequence of NO3(-)-N > NH4(+)-N > dissolved organic N. As for the field plots with different planting patterns, the runoff loads of total N, dissolved total N, dissolved organic N, and NO3(-)-N were in the sequence of fallow land < nursery land < single late rice field < double rice field < rape (or wheat)-single late rice field < wheat-early rice-late rice field < vegetable field, while those of total P and particulate P were in the sequence of fallow land < nursery land < single late rice field and double rice field < wheat-early rice-late rice field < rape (wheat)-single late rice field < vegetable field. No significant difference was observed in the load of water-dissolved P among the test plots with different planting patterns. The runoff losses of N and P mainly occurred in crop growth period, and the proportions of N and P losses in the growth period increased with increasing multiple crop index. The runoff losses of total N, dissolved N, and NO3(-)-N were mainly related to the application rate of N fertilizer, and soil NO3(-)-N content also had obvious effects on the runoff losses of total N and dissolved N. The runoff loss

  6. The effects of the Qinghai-Tibet railway on heavy metals enrichment in soils.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Wang, Zhaofeng; Zhang, Yili; Hu, Zhongjun

    2012-11-15

    The impact of land transportation on local soil environments is an important topic in environmental and ecological sciences. The rapid development of transportation infrastructure lends increasing importance to studies that identify and evaluate related heavy metal pollution. This paper discusses the effects of railways on soil heavy metal enrichments in the Tibetan plateau. At a representative area along the Haergai-Delingha railway, lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, chromium, nickel, cobalt, and vanadium were measured in 127 topsoil samples (0-10 cm depth). The results indicate that railway transport has a significant effect on the concentration of Zn, Cd and Pb in the soil, with levels of enrichment ranging from no pollution to significant pollution. The affected area was within 20 m of the railway. The soil at Delingha was the most contaminated soil with heavy metals, and the enrichment level of Cd in the soil was the highest along the Qinghai-Tibet railway. The horizontal distributions of the three heavy metals present different characteristics at different sampling sites, which may be due to discrepancies in terrain and vegetation types. Alkaline soils and guardrails along the railway might reduce the effect of soil pollution on local people and animals.

  7. Aeolian environments and sand damage along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kecun; Qu, Jiaunjun; Han, Qingjie; An, Zhishan

    2016-04-01

    The Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR), with a total length of 1956 km, is the word's longest high-altitude railway. Located in the Tibet Plateau, the QTR is frequently damaged by windblown sand because of strong winds and abundant sand. Based on the detailed wind data, in situ observation of wind blown sand and field wind tunnel simulations along the QTR, the aeolian sand environment, involving sand-laden wind, drift potential, sand transport and their spatial variation were investigated. Sand-laden wind presents unidirectional characteristics along the QTR and its prevailing direction is westerly. The annual drift potential along the QTR reaches 970.54 Vector Units (VU), which belongs to a high-energy wind environment. In cold-high environments, sand transport rate increases with increasing wind velocity, but decreases exponentially with increasing height in the wind stream. As the altitude increases, the threshold velocity for sand movement linearly increases with altitude, and the sand transport per unit width decreases gradually. The results can be used to guide the design of sand-control structures both in the study area and in other areas that experience threats from windblown sand.

  8. Vegetation greenness trend (2000 to 2009) and the climate controls in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Li; Guo, Huadong; Ji, Lei; Lei, Liping; Wang, Cuizhen; Yan, Dongmei; Li, Bin; Li, Jing

    2013-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau has been experiencing a distinct warming trend, and climate warming has a direct and quick impact on the alpine grassland ecosystem. We detected the greenness trend of the grasslands in the plateau using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data from 2000 to 2009. Weather station data were used to explore the climatic drivers for vegetation greenness variations. The results demonstrated that the region-wide averaged normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) increased at a rate of 0.036  yr−1. Approximately 20% of the vegetation areas, which were primarily located in the northeastern plateau, exhibited significant NDVI increase trend (p-value <0.05). Only 4% of the vegetated area showed significant decrease trends, which were mostly in the central and southwestern plateau. A strong positive relationship between NDVI and precipitation, especially in the northeastern plateau, suggested that precipitation was a favorable factor for the grassland NDVI. Negative correlations between NDVI and temperature, especially in the southern plateau, indicated that higher temperature adversely affected the grassland growth. Although a warming climate was expected to be beneficial to the vegetation growth in cold regions, the grasslands in the central and southwestern plateau showed a decrease in trends influenced by increased temperature coupled with decreased precipitation.

  9. Ecosystem Carbon Storage in Alpine Grassland on the Qinghai Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuli; Zhang, Fawei; Du, Yangong; Guo, Xiaowei; Lin, Li; Li, Yikang; Li, Qian; Cao, Guangmin

    2016-01-01

    The alpine grassland ecosystem can sequester a large quantity of carbon, yet its significance remains controversial owing to large uncertainties in the relative contributions of climate factors and grazing intensity. In this study we surveyed 115 sites to measure ecosystem carbon storage (both biomass and soil) in alpine grassland over the Qinghai Plateau during the peak growing season in 2011 and 2012. Our results revealed three key findings. (1) Total biomass carbon density ranged from 0.04 for alpine steppe to 2.80 kg C m-2 for alpine meadow. Median soil organic carbon (SOC) density was estimated to be 16.43 kg C m-2 in alpine grassland. Total ecosystem carbon density varied across sites and grassland types, from 1.95 to 28.56 kg C m-2. (2) Based on the median estimate, the total carbon storage of alpine grassland on the Qinghai Plateau was 5.14 Pg, of which 94% (4.85 Pg) was soil organic carbon. (3) Overall, we found that ecosystem carbon density was affected by both climate and grazing, but to different extents. Temperature and precipitation interaction significantly affected AGB carbon density in winter pasture, BGB carbon density in alpine meadow, and SOC density in alpine steppe. On the other hand, grazing intensity affected AGB carbon density in summer pasture, SOC density in alpine meadow and ecosystem carbon density in alpine grassland. Our results indicate that grazing intensity was the primary contributing factor controlling carbon storage at the sites tested and should be the primary consideration when accurately estimating the carbon storage in alpine grassland. PMID:27494253

  10. Ecosystem Carbon Storage in Alpine Grassland on the Qinghai Plateau.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuli; Zhang, Fawei; Du, Yangong; Guo, Xiaowei; Lin, Li; Li, Yikang; Li, Qian; Cao, Guangmin

    2016-01-01

    The alpine grassland ecosystem can sequester a large quantity of carbon, yet its significance remains controversial owing to large uncertainties in the relative contributions of climate factors and grazing intensity. In this study we surveyed 115 sites to measure ecosystem carbon storage (both biomass and soil) in alpine grassland over the Qinghai Plateau during the peak growing season in 2011 and 2012. Our results revealed three key findings. (1) Total biomass carbon density ranged from 0.04 for alpine steppe to 2.80 kg C m-2 for alpine meadow. Median soil organic carbon (SOC) density was estimated to be 16.43 kg C m-2 in alpine grassland. Total ecosystem carbon density varied across sites and grassland types, from 1.95 to 28.56 kg C m-2. (2) Based on the median estimate, the total carbon storage of alpine grassland on the Qinghai Plateau was 5.14 Pg, of which 94% (4.85 Pg) was soil organic carbon. (3) Overall, we found that ecosystem carbon density was affected by both climate and grazing, but to different extents. Temperature and precipitation interaction significantly affected AGB carbon density in winter pasture, BGB carbon density in alpine meadow, and SOC density in alpine steppe. On the other hand, grazing intensity affected AGB carbon density in summer pasture, SOC density in alpine meadow and ecosystem carbon density in alpine grassland. Our results indicate that grazing intensity was the primary contributing factor controlling carbon storage at the sites tested and should be the primary consideration when accurately estimating the carbon storage in alpine grassland.

  11. Tectonics and metallogenic provinces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guild, P.W.

    1983-01-01

    Various theories have been advanced to explain the well-known uneven distribution of metals and ore-deposit types in space and time. Primordial differences in the mantle, preferential concentration of elements in the crust, the prevalence of ore-forming processes at certain times and (or) places, and combinations of one or several of these factors have all been called upon to account for the "metallogenic provinces," which can be defined loosely as regions containing similar deposits of one or a group of metals or minerals. Because many, perhaps most, provinces have complex, multistage origins, the relative importance of inheritance vs. process is still controversial. In recent years the geographic relationship of many geologically young provinces to present-day plate-tectonic positions (accreting or consuming margins, intraplate structures, etc.) has been widely recognized, and the presumption is strong that older provinces had similar relationships to former plates. As most ore deposits resulted from a favorable conjunction of geological processes that are no longer operative, elucidation of their genesis requires reconstruction of the geologic history of the province, with particular emphasis on events coeval with mineralization. Tectonic analysis is an important aspect of this reconstruction; data from orbiting satellites have contributed greatly to this analysis, as the voluminous literature of the past decade testifies. Both the synoptic view of large areas and the ability to emphasize faint contrasts have revealed linear, curvilinear, and circular features not previously recognized from field studies. Some of these undoubtedly reflect basement structures that have contributed to the development, or limit the extent, of metallogenic provinces. Their recognition and delineation will be increasingly valuable to the assessment of resources available and as guides to exploration for the ores needed by future generations. ?? 1983.

  12. Inventory of the carabid beetle fauna of the Gaoligong Mountains, western Yunnan Province, China: species of the tribe Zabrini (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kavanaugh, David H.; Hieke, Fritz; Liang, Hongbin; Dong, Dazhi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A ten-year multidisciplinary, multi-national and multi-institutional biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region of western Yunnan Province, China generated more than 35,000 specimens of the beetle (Coleoptera) family Carabidae. In this report, first of a planned series, we focus on diversity in tribe Zabrini. Our study of just over 1300 specimens of zabrine carabids from the project, all in genus Amara Bonelli, found a total of 13 species, all previously described, to occur in the study area, with none of them strictly endemic. We present a key for identification of adults of these species, as well as nomenclatural data, diagnoses, illustrations of dorsal habitus and male genitalia, and information about geographical, altitudinal and habitat distributions within the study area and overall geographical distribution for each species. Distributions of the species within the study area are compared, and broader geographical range patterns are characterized. We also discuss a possible role of the Gaoligong Shan region as one source area for the present-day fauna of the Himalaya and southern edge of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau. PMID:24899831

  13. Inventory of the carabid beetle fauna of the Gaoligong Mountains, western Yunnan Province, China: species of the tribe Zabrini (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Kavanaugh, David H; Hieke, Fritz; Liang, Hongbin; Dong, Dazhi

    2014-01-01

    A ten-year multidisciplinary, multi-national and multi-institutional biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region of western Yunnan Province, China generated more than 35,000 specimens of the beetle (Coleoptera) family Carabidae. In this report, first of a planned series, we focus on diversity in tribe Zabrini. Our study of just over 1300 specimens of zabrine carabids from the project, all in genus Amara Bonelli, found a total of 13 species, all previously described, to occur in the study area, with none of them strictly endemic. We present a key for identification of adults of these species, as well as nomenclatural data, diagnoses, illustrations of dorsal habitus and male genitalia, and information about geographical, altitudinal and habitat distributions within the study area and overall geographical distribution for each species. Distributions of the species within the study area are compared, and broader geographical range patterns are characterized. We also discuss a possible role of the Gaoligong Shan region as one source area for the present-day fauna of the Himalaya and southern edge of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau.

  14. The emergence and maintenance of vector-borne diseases in the khyber pakhtunkhwa province, and the federally administered tribal areas of pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Nathan C; Khan, Khalid; Uhllah, Ghufran; Teglas, Mike B

    2012-01-01

    Human populations throughout much of the world are experiencing unprecedented changes in their relationship to the environment and their interactions with the animals with which so many humans are intimately dependent upon. These changes result not only from human induced changes in the climate, but also from population demographic changes due to wars, social unrest, behavioral changes resulting from cultural mixing, and large changes in land-use practices. Each of these social shifts can affect the maintenance and emergence of arthropod vectors disease or the pathogenic organisms themselves. A good example is the country of Pakistan, with a large rural population and developing urban economy, it also maintains a wide diversity of entomological disease vectors, including biting flies, mosquitoes, and ticks. Pathogens endemic to the region include the agents of piroplasmosis, rickettsiosis, spirochetosis, and viral hemorrhagic fevers and encephalitis. The northwestern region of the country, including the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK), formerly the North-West Frontier Provence (NWFP), and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) are mountainous regions with a high degree of habitat diversity that has recently undergone a massive increase in human population density due to an immigrating refugee population from neighboring war-torn Afghanistan. Vector-borne diseases in people and livestock are common in KPK and FATA regions due to the limited use of vector control measures and access to livestock vaccines. The vast majority of people in this region live in abject poverty with >70% of the population living directly from production gained in animal husbandry. In many instances whole families live directly alongside their animal counterparts. In addition, there is little to no awareness of the threat posed by ticks and transmission of either zoonotic or veterinary pathogens. Recent emergence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in rural populations

  15. The feasibility of population migration from arid mountainous areas of Central Gansu to the oasis west of the Yellow River in the province.

    PubMed

    Chen, B; Zhang, Z; Yuan, H

    1991-01-01

    This article on population migration from Central Gansu, China, which is made up of 18 impoverished counties in Dingxi Region, to Hexi in the Yellow River Valley focuses on the basic mechanisms and characteristics of population migration, the effects of migration on adaptability, the return rate, and the socioeconomic and ecological benefits of migration. Analysis is based on logical deduction and empirical evidence. The reasons for migration are poverty and unchecked population growth. Population in Central Gansu doubled (110.1%) between 1952-83, while the population in the province increased 86.67% and in the country 83.52%. Per capita grain allocations in Dingxi and the marginal utility of agricultural production declined. Population pressure led to short supplies of food and fuel and excessive land reclamation, which produced soil erosion, and a downward spiral. Migrants were attracted to Hexi because of favorable farming conditions and a developed economy. Subsidies were used to encourage people to migrate voluntarily. 31,485 people migrated to the Hexi Corridor in 1988. 4450 came from Huining County and 3743 from Dingxi. Most went to Jiuquan (17,490 people), and 7,357 migrated to Zhongye, both areas with good irrigation facilities. 78.33% of the migrants were individually placed and 21.67% were placed as groups in "hanging" villages of 320/village. The inter-regional migration rate was 85.27% between 1983-86 in Jiuquan region, or 14,000 people. Migrants found their living conditions to be greatly improved. Per capita income increased 12.8 times from 497.5 yuan in 1983, while the income of nonmigrants underwent only a 4.45-fold increase. There were also differences in grain allocation. Jiuquan had a low return migration rate of 14.73% between 1983-86. Variations occur from region to region due to excessive economic disparity, incomplete basic facilities, and forced group migration. The annual yield of investment in migration was 19.87%, which makes the

  16. [Effects of whole field-surface plastic mulching and planting in furrow on soil temperature, soil moisture, and corn yield in arid area of Gansu Province, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-li; Zhang, Xu-cheng; Song, Shang-you; Ma, Yi-Fan; Yu, Xian-feng; Liu, Yan-lan

    2011-10-01

    Taking spring corn (Zea mays) cultivar Shendan 16 as test material, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of the treatments whole-field surface plastic mulching and planting in furrow (PMF), whole-field surface sand mulching and flat planting (SM), and uncovered and flat planting (CK) on the soil temperature, soil moisture, and corn yield on the dry land of arid area (annual average precipitation 415 mm) in middle Gansu Province. Comparing with CK, treatments PMF and SM increased the average temperature in 0-25 cm soil layer before tasselling stage, with the highest increment in treatment PMF. As for the soil water consumption, its depth in the three treatments increased with increasing years of planting. In the first year of planting, the soil water consumption was the most in 20-120 cm soil layer; whereas in the second year, the consumption was the most in 120-200 cm soil layer, with the soil water loss being the highest in treatment PMF. Treatment PMF had the highest grain number, grain weight per spike, and 100-grain weight, followed by treatment SM, and CK. In 2009 and 2010, the average grain number, average grain weight per spike, and average 100-grain weight in treatment PMF were increased by 13.5% and 114.2%, 29.8% and 321.1%, and 14.4% and 95.4% respectively, as compared to treatments SM and CK, and the grain yield and water use efficiency in treatments PMF and SM were increased by 333.1% and 240.2%, and 290.6% and 227.6%, respectively, as compared to CK. After two years continuous cropping of corn, the soil water loss in 120-200 cm soil layer in treatment PMF was up to 72 mm, being significantly higher than that in treatments SM (45 mm) and CK (40 mm). It was suggested that PMF could increase the soil temperature at seedling-tasselling stage, promote the corn growth in its early growth period, improve the soil water use by corn, and consequently, increase the grain number per spike and 100-grain weight, manifesting a good effect in

  17. [Identification and conservation assessment of suitable habitats for Tibetan antelope in the alpine desert, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau].

    PubMed

    Zhuge, Hai-jin; Li, Xiao-wen; Zhang, Xiang; Gao, Feng; Xu, Dong-hua

    2014-12-01

    As a flagship and one of most endangered ungulates in the alpine desert of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the habitat conservation of Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii) is vital to sustain its long-term population existence. In consideration of key habitat factors of the Tibetan antelope (i.e., food, topography and water source) as well as human interference factors like roads and settlements, the habitat suitability was modeled, and potential and valid suitable habitats were identified for Tibetan antelope in the alpine desert, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Furthermore, the conservation proportion index and conservation efficacy index were developed to facilitate the conservation assessment of three national reserves (i.e., Altun Mountain, Kekexili and Qiangtang) and their associated functional zones in the study area. The results showed that potential and valid area of suitable habitat across overall study area were 2.84 x 10(5) and 2.08 x 10(5) km2 respectively, with 16.1% of suitable habitat loss by human disturbance. At reserve level, the potential suitable habitats of Altun Mountain, Kekexili and Qiangtang were 2.01 x 10(4), 3.13 x 104 and 1.26 x 10(5) km2, which however decreased by 12.9%, 10.2% and 21.1% human disturbance respectively, indicating a prominent habitat fragmentation especially in Qiangtang National Nature Reserve (NNR). Although three NNRs had captured nearly 2/3 of the potential/valid suitable habitats with favorable conservation efficacy, there were still obvious conservation gaps outside the existing reserve network. At the functional zone level, buffer and experimental zones also showed significant conservation proportion and efficacy besides the core zone. Our research highlighted the necessity to optimize the existing re serve system by filling the conservation gaps, restructuring the functional zones and safeguarding the potential refuge habitats for those endangered ungulates in face of climate change.

  18. Assessment of chlorpyrifos exposure and absorbed daily doses among infants living in an agricultural area of the Province of Jiangsu, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Wu, Chun-hua; Chang, Xiu-li; Qi, Xiao-juan; Zheng, Ming-lan; Zhou, Zhi-jun

    2014-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is one of the most widely used organophosphorous pesticides in China. However, few reports on CPF pesticide exposure and body burden of infants at 2 years of age in China are available. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure level and the absorbed daily dose (ADD) of CPF among infants from an agricultural area of Jiangsu, China, and determine whether the infants' estimated dose exceeds the recommended reference dose (RfD) and the population adjusted dose (PAD) set by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In our study, 364 infants at 2 years of age who lived in the agricultural area of Jiangsu Province (China) were enrolled into the biomonitoring study from June 2011 to January 2012. CPF exposure was estimated based on both questionnaire survey and measured results of urinary metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) of CPF by high-performance liquid chromatography. Furthermore, the ADD of CPF among infants was also evaluated and compared with the RfD and the PAD values issued by EPA. Urinary TCPy was detected in more than 70 % of the urine samples among 364 infants. The unadjusted and creatinine-adjusted geometric means in these subjects for TCPy were 1.33 μg/L and 6.73 μg/g Cre., respectively. Infants lived nearby (100 m distance) plantations or green parks present significantly higher levels of urinary TCPy than those lived far away (p = 0.045). Urinary TCPy levels were also significantly higher in infants who had frequent hand-to-mouth activities than those with less frequency (p = 0.037). Urinary TCPy concentrations in the infants at 2 years of age in Jiangsu were lower than those in the children at 2-6 years of age in the USA. The median estimated ADD of CPF in this study (0.07 μg/kg/day) was much lower than the acute and chronic RfDs (5 and 0.3 μg/kg/day, respectively) announced by EPA, but higher than the chronic PAD (cPAD) (0.03 μg/kg/day) for children. Additionally, the 75th percentile of the

  19. The "Large" in Large Igneous Provinces: Using Digital Geological Maps to Determine the Area, Magma Flux, and Potential Environmental Impact of the Wrangellia Flood Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scoates, J. S.; Greene, A. R.; Weis, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    Large igneous provinces (LIPs), such as continental flood basalts and oceanic plateaus, are formed by relatively short duration, massive outpourings of basalt in intraplate settings. Their emplacement has been associated with global climatic and biotic change (e.g., end-Permian Siberian LIP). The magmatic products of a LIP typically cover an area >1 Mkm2, however erosion and exhumation may substantially reduce the original area and volume of a LIP, especially oceanic plateaus that have been tectonically dispersed during accretion (e.g., Caribbean, Wrangellia). The availability of digital geologic maps from government geologic surveys now allows for measuring the precise areal distribution of remnant LIP-products, which is essential information for estimating total volumes and ultimately potential environmental effects. The Wrangellia flood basalts represent one of the best-exposed accreted oceanic plateaus on Earth. This Triassic LIP is exposed in numerous fault-bound blocks in a belt extending discontinuously for 2300 km in the Pacific Northwest of North America. It contains exposures of submarine and subaerial volcanic rocks representing composite stratigraphic thicknesses of 3.5-6 km. From recently compiled digital geologic maps (British Columbia, Yukon, Alaska), the mapped exposures of the Wrangellia flood basalts are relatively small (25,256 km2 with 75% from Vancouver Island), which leads to minimum calculated erupted volumes of up to 1.4 x 105 km3 and an estimated magma flux of 0.03 km3/yr. The original areal distribution was substantially greater, perhaps by an order of magnitude or more, as the outcrop extent does not include regions covered by younger strata and surficial deposits nor does it account for the volcanic component of the terrane that may have been subducted. However, even this minimum volumetric output rate is comparable to recent estimates of long-term volumetric eruption rates for ocean islands such as Iceland (0.02-0.04 km3/yr) and Hawaii

  20. [Status of, and factors associated with, complementary feeding among infants and young children aged 6- 23 months in poor rural areas of Hunan Province, China].

    PubMed

    Zhou, X; Fang, J Q; Luo, J Y; Wang, H; Du, Q Y; Huang, G W; Feng, B B

    2017-01-06

    Objective: To describe the status of, and to identify the factors associated with, complementary feeding among infants and young children aged 6- 23 months in poor rural areas of Hunan Province, China. Methods: A total of 8 735 infants and young children aged 6- 23 months from 30 poor rural counties in the Wuling and Luoxiao Mountains in Hunan Province were selected by township-level probability-proportional-to-size sampling in August 2015. Questionnaires were used to collect information o