Science.gov

Sample records for area treated effluent

  1. Statistical Evaluation of Effluent Monitoring Data for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Charissa J.; Johnson, Vernon G.

    2000-03-08

    This report updates the original effluent variability study for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) and provides supporting justification for modifying the effluent monitoring portion of the discharge permit. Four years of monitoring data were evaluated and used to statistically justify changes in permit effluent monitoring conditions. As a result, the TEDF effluent composition and variability of the effluent waste stream are now well defined.

  2. 200 Area treated effluent disposal facility operational test report

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, A.F.

    1995-03-01

    This document reports the results of the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (200 Area TEDF) operational testing activities. These completed operational testing activities demonstrated the functional, operational and design requirements of the 200 Area TEDF have been met.

  3. 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Hazards Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL, L.R.

    1999-01-15

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of emergency planning activities for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The technical basis for project-specific Emergency Action Levels and Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  4. Subproject L-045H 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The study focuses on the project schedule for Project L-045H, 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility is a Department of Energy subproject of the Hanford Environmental Compliance Project. The study scope is limited to validation of the project schedule only. The primary purpose of the study is to find ways and means to accelerate the completion of the project, thereby hastening environmental compliance of the 300 Area of the Hanford site. The 300 Area'' has been utilized extensively as a laboratory area, with a diverse array of laboratory facilities installed and operational. The 300 Area Process Sewer, located in the 300 Area on the Hanford Site, collects waste water from approximately 62 sources. This waste water is discharged into two 1500 feet long percolation trenches. Current environmental statutes and policies dictate that this practice be discontinued at the earliest possible date in favor of treatment and disposal practices that satisfy applicable regulations.

  5. 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Effluent Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN, M.J.

    2000-05-18

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been developed to comply with effluent monitoring requirements at the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF), as stated in Washington State Waste Discharge Permit No. ST 4502 (Ecology 2000). This permit, issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) under the authority of Chapter 90.48 Revised Code of Washington (RCW) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 173-216, is an April 2000 renewal of the original permit issued on April 1995.

  6. Statistical evaluation of effluent monitoring data for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    CJ Chou; VG Johnson

    2000-04-04

    The 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) consists of a pair of infiltration basins that receive wastewater originating from the 200 West and 200 East Areas of the Hanford Site. TEDF has been in operation since 1995 and is regulated by State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4502 (Ecology 1995) under the authority of Chapter 90.48 Revised Code of Washington (RCW) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 173-216. The permit stipulates monitoring requirements for effluent (or end-of-pipe) discharges and groundwater monitoring for TEDF. Groundwater monitoring began in 1992 prior to TEDF construction. Routine effluent monitoring in accordance with the permit requirements began in late April 1995 when the facility began operations. The State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4502 included a special permit condition (S.6). This condition specified a statistical study of the variability of permitted constituents in the effluent from TEDF during its first year of operation. The study was designed to (1) demonstrate compliance with the waste discharge permit; (2) determine the variability of all constituents in the effluent that have enforcement limits, early warning values, and monitoring requirements (WHC 1995); and (3) determine if concentrations of permitted constituents vary with season. Additional and more frequent sampling was conducted for the effluent variability study. Statistical evaluation results were provided in Chou and Johnson (1996). Parts of the original first year sampling and analysis plan (WHC 1995) were continued with routine monitoring required up to the present time.

  7. Readiness Assessment Plan, Hanford 200 areas treated effluent disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmer, F.J.

    1995-02-06

    This Readiness Assessment Plan documents Liquid Effluent Facilities review process used to establish the scope of review, documentation requirements, performance assessment, and plant readiness to begin operation of the Treated Effluent Disposal system in accordance with DOE-RLID-5480.31, Startup and Restart of Facilities Operational Readiness Review and Readiness Assessments.

  8. Effluent variability study for the 200 area treated effluent disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, C.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-12

    The variability of permitted constituents in grab samples and 24-hr composites of liquid effluent discharged to the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site was evaluated for the period July 1995 through April 1996. The variability study was required as a condition of the wastewater discharge permit issued by the State of Washington Department of Ecology. Results of the statistical evaluation indicated that (1) except for iron, and possibly chloride, there is a very low probability of exceeding existing permit limits, (2) seasonal effects related to intake water quality account for the variability in several chemical constituents and (3) sample type (grab vs 24-hr composite) have little if any effect on monthly mean constituent concentrations.

  9. 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility operating specifications document

    SciTech Connect

    Olander, A.R.

    1994-10-01

    These specifications deal with the release of treated water into the Columbia River via the TEDF submerged outfall. Specific limits are set for contaminants to be discharged in NPDES permit WA-002591-7. This section contains the operating ranges that will be used to best meet the permit limits.

  10. 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility computer software release cover sheet and revision record

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, R.J.

    1994-11-28

    This supporting document contains the computer software release cover sheet and revision records for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). The previous revision was controlled by CH2M Hill which developed the software. A 7-page listing of the contents of directory C:{backslash}TEDF is contained in this report.

  11. Verification of best available technology for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (310 Facility)

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, R.N.

    1994-09-26

    This compilation of Project L-045H reference materials documents that the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF, also designated the 310 Facility) was designed, built, and will be operated in accordance with the best available technology (BAT) identified in the Engineering Summary Report. The facility is intended for treatment of 300 Area process sewer wastewater. The following unit operations for 300 Area process sewer water treatment are specified as: influent receipt; iron co-precipitation and sludge handling for removal of heavy metals and initial suspended solids; ion exchanged for removal of mercury and other heavy metals; ultraviolet (UV)/peroxide treatment for destruction of organic compounds, cyanide, coliforms, sulfide, and nitrite; and effluent discharge to the Columbia River with pH monitoring/control capability.

  12. Evaluation of groundwater monitoring results at the Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D.B.

    1998-09-01

    The Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) has operated since June 1995. Groundwater monitoring has been conducted quarterly in the three wells surrounding the facility since 1992, with contributing data from nearby B Pond System wells. Cumulative hydrologic and geochemical information from the TEDF well network and other surrounding wells indicate no discernable effects of TEDF operations on the uppermost aquifer in the vicinity of the TEDF. The lateral consistency and impermeable nature of the Ringold Formation lower mud unit, and the contrasts in hydraulic conductivity between this unit and the vadose zone sediments of the Hanford formation suggest that TEDF effluent is spreading laterally with negligible mounding or downward movement into the uppermost aquifer. Hydrographs of TEDF wells show that TEDF operations have had no detectable effects on hydraulic heads in the uppermost aquifer, but show a continuing decay of the hydraulic mound generated by past operations at the B Pond System. Comparison of groundwater geochemistry from TEDF wells and other, nearby RCRA wells suggests that groundwater beneath TEDF is unique; different from both effluent entering TEDF and groundwater in the B Pond area. Tritium concentrations, major ionic proportions, and lower-than-background concentrations of other species suggest that groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the TEDF bears characteristics of water in the upper basalt confined aquifer system. This report recommends retaining the current groundwater well network at the TEDF, but with a reduction of sampling/analysis frequency and some modifications to the list of constituents sought.

  13. Groundwater monitoring plan for the Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    DB Barnett

    2000-05-17

    Seven years of groundwater monitoring at the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) have shown that the uppermost aquifer beneath the facility is unaffected by TEDF effluent. Effluent discharges have been well below permitted and expected volumes. Groundwater mounding from TEDF operations predicted by various models has not been observed, and waterlevels in TEDF wells have continued declining with the dissipation of the nearby B Pond System groundwater mound. Analytical results for constituents with enforcement limits indicate that concentrations of all these are below Practical Quantitation Limits, and some have produced no detections. Likewise, other constituents on the permit-required list have produced results that are mostly below sitewide background. Comprehensive geochemical analyses of groundwater from TEDF wells has shown that most constituents are below background levels as calculated by two Hanford Site-wide studies. Additionally, major ion proportions and anomalously low tritium activities suggest that groundwater in the aquifer beneath the TEDF has been sequestered from influences of adjoining portions of the aquifer and any discharge activities. This inference is supported by recent hydrogeologic investigations which indicate an extremely slow rate of groundwater movement beneath the TEDF. Detailed evaluation of TEDF-area hydrogeology and groundwater geochemistry indicate that additional points of compliance for groundwater monitoring would be ineffective for this facility, and would produce ambiguous results. Therefore, the current groundwater monitoring well network is retained for continued monitoring. A quarterly frequency of sampling and analysis is continued for all three TEDF wells. The constituents list is refined to include only those parameters key to discerning subtle changes in groundwater chemistry, those useful in detecting general groundwater quality changes from upgradient sources, or those retained for comparison with end

  14. State waste discharge permit application: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    As part of the original Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Concent Order negotiations, US DOE, US EPA and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground to the Hanford Site are subject to permitting in the State Waste Discharge Permit Program (SWDP). This document constitutes the SWDP Application for the 200 Area TEDF stream which includes the following streams discharged into the area: Plutonium Finishing Plant waste water; 222-S laboratory Complex waste water; T Plant waste water; 284-W Power Plant waste water; PUREX chemical Sewer; B Plant chemical sewer, process condensate, steam condensate; 242-A-81 Water Services waste water.

  15. 300 Area process sewer piping upgrade and 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility discharge to the City of Richland Sewage System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by constructing and operating a new process sewer collection system that would discharge to the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The DOE is also considering the construction of a tie-line from the TEDF to the 300 Area Sanitary Sewer for discharging the process wastewater to the City of Richland Sewage System. The proposed action is needed because the integrity of the old piping in the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System is questionable and effluents might be entering the soil column from leaking pipes. In addition, the DOE has identified a need to reduce anticipated operating costs at the new TEDF. The 300 Area Process Sewer Piping Upgrade (Project L-070) is estimated to cost approximately $9.9 million. The proposed work would involve the construction and operation of a new process sewer collection system. The new system would discharge the effluents to a collection sump and lift station for the TEDF. The TEDF is designed to treat and discharge the process effluent to the Columbia River. The process waste liquid effluent is currently well below the DOE requirements for radiological secondary containment and is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste or a State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act dangerous waste. A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination, System (NPDES) permit has been obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to the Columbia River. The proposed action would upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by the construction and operation of a new combined gravity, vacuum, and pressurized process sewer collection system consisting of vacuum collection sumps, pressure pump stations, and buried polyvinyl chloride or similar pipe. Two buildings would also be built to house a main collection station and a satellite collection station.

  16. 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities -- Quality assurance program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, L.

    1995-03-13

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) describes the quality assurance and management controls used by the 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities (LEF) to perform its activities in accordance with DOE Order 5700.6C. The 200 Area LEF consists of the following facilities: Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF); Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF); Liquid Effluent Retention facility (LERF); and Truck Loading Facility -- (Project W291). The intent is to ensure that all activities such as collection of effluents, treatment, concentration of secondary wastes, verification, sampling and disposal of treated effluents and solids related with the LEF operations, conform to established requirements.

  17. Process for treating effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, C.M.; Shapiro, C.

    1997-11-25

    A method for treating a gaseous effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor containing entrained solids is provided comprising the steps of expanding the gas/solids effluent from a first to a second lower pressure at a temperature at which no liquid condenses; separating the solids from the gas effluent; neutralizing the effluent to remove any acid gases; condensing the effluent; and retaining the purified effluent to the supercritical water oxidation reactor. 6 figs.

  18. Process for treating effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, Charles M.; Shapiro, Carolyn

    1997-01-01

    A method for treating a gaseous effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor containing entrained solids is provided comprising the steps of expanding the gas/solids effluent from a first to a second lower pressure at a temperature at which no liquid condenses; separating the solids from the gas effluent; neutralizing the effluent to remove any acid gases; condensing the effluent; and retaining the purified effluent to the supercritical water oxidation reactor.

  19. Groundwater screening evaluation/monitoring plan: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H). Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D.B.; Davis, J.D.; Collard, L.B.; Freeman, P.B.; Chou, C.J.

    1995-05-01

    This report consists of the groundwater screening evaluation required by Section S.8 of the State Waste Discharge Permit for the 200 Area TEDF. Chapter 1.0 describes the purpose of the groundwater monitoring plan. The information in Chapter 2.0 establishes a water quality baseline for the facility and is the groundwater screening evaluation. The following information is included in Chapter 2.0: Facility description;Well locations, construction, and development data; Geologic and hydrologic description of the site and affected area; Ambient groundwater quality and current use; Water balance information; Hydrologic parameters; Potentiometric map, hydraulic gradients, and flow velocities; Results of infiltration and hydraulic tests; Groundwater and soils chemistry sampling and analysis data; Statistical evaluation of groundwater background data; and Projected effects of facility operation on groundwater flow and water quality. Chapter 3.0 defines, based on the information in Chapter 2.0, how effects of the TEDF on the environment will be evaluated and how compliance with groundwater quality standards will be documented in accordance with the terms and conditions of the permit. Chapter 3.0 contains the following information: Media to be monitored; Wells proposed as the point of compliance in the uppermost aquifer; Basis for monitoring well network and evidence of monitoring adequacy; Contingency planning approach for vadose zone monitoring wells; Which field parameters will be measured and how measurements will be made; Specification of constituents to be sampled and analyzed; and Specification of the sampling and analysis procedures that will be used. Chapter 4.0 provides information on how the monitoring results will be reported and the proposed frequency of monitoring and reporting. Chapter 5.0 lists all the references cited in this monitoring plan. These references should be consulted for additional or more detailed information.

  20. Waste analysis plan for the 200 area effluent treatment facility and liquid effluent retention facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ballantyne, N.A.

    1995-10-02

    This waste analysis plan (WAP) has been prepared for startup of the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) and operation of the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF), which are located on the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to obtain and analyze representative samples of dangerous waste managed in these units, and of the nondangerous treated effluent that is discharged to the State-Approved Land Disposal System (SALDS). Groundwater Monitoring at the SALDS will be addressed in a separate plan

  1. Aquatic Plant/microbial Filters for Treating Septic Tank Effluent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1988-01-01

    The use of natural biological processes for treating many types of wastewater have been developed by NASA at the John C. Stennis Space Center, NSTL, Mississippi, during the past 15 years. The simplest form of this technology involves the use of aquatic plant/marsh filters for treatment of septic tank effluent. Septic tank effluent from single home units can be treated to advanced secondary levels and beyond by using a 37.2 sq m (400 sq ft) surface area washed gravel filter. This filter is generally 0.3 m (1 ft) deep with a surface cover of approximately 0.15 m (6 in.) of gravel. The plants in this filter are usually aesthetic or ornamental such as calla lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica), canna lily (Canna flaccida), elephant ear (Colocasia esculenta), and water iris (Iris pseudacorus).

  2. Chemical oxidation of biologically treated phenolic effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Kamenev, S.; Kallas, J.; Munter, R.; Trapido, M.

    1995-12-01

    Experimental research into the oxidative purification of biologically treated phenolic effluents of the Estonian oil shale chemical industry was undertaken. The main phenolic compounds identified in this wastewater were phenol, cresols, resorcinol and 5-methylresorcinols. For chemical oxidation of phenols different advanced oxidation methods (O{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, UV, O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, O{sub 3}/UV, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV, O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) were tested. For tracking of the changes in the concentration of different phenols during the treatment process, HPLC and colorimetry were applied. It was shown that, in principle, phenols can be reduced almost by any oxidation method studied. Oxidation with molecular ozone has the most potential for practical application. Methods not including ozone (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, UV, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) had, in general, lower efficiency for total phenols reduction than the methods combining ozone.

  3. Ammonium removal from anaerobically treated effluent by Chlamydomonas acidophila.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Ania; Blanco, Fernando; Lacalle, Arrate; Pinto, Miriam

    2014-02-01

    Several batch culture studies were carried out to evaluate an anaerobically treated effluent as a low-cost growth medium for the microalga Chlamydomonas acidophila and to study the effectiveness of the microalga in removing NH4-N from the effluent. An initial decrease in the effluent pH to 3 was required for adequate growth of C. acidophila and removal of NH4-N. Growth of the microalgae was inhibited at high light intensity (224μmolphotonsm(-2)s(-1) at the surface of the vessels). However, the growth was not greatly affected by the high solid content and turbidity of the effluent. The microalga was able to grow in media containing NH4-N at concentrations of up to 1000mgL(-1) (50% of effluent) and to remove 88mg of NH4-NL(-1) in 10days. C. acidophila therefore appears a promising agent for the removal of NH4-N from anaerobically treated effluents.

  4. Process for treating effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, C.M.; Shapiro, C.

    1995-12-31

    The present invention relates generally to a method for treating and recycling the effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor and more specifically to a method for treating and recycling the effluent by expanding the effluent without extensive cooling. Supercritical water oxidation is the oxidation of fuel, generally waste material, in a body of water under conditions above the thermodynamic critical point of water. The current state of the art in supercritical water oxidation plant effluent treatment is to cool the reactor effluent through heat exchangers or direct quench, separate the cooled liquid into a gas/vapor stream and a liquid/solid stream, expand the separated effluent, and perform additional purification on gaseous, liquid, brine and solid effluent. If acid gases are present, corrosion is likely to occur in the coolers. During expansion, part of the condensed water will revaporize. Vaporization can damage the valves due to cavitation and erosion. The present invention expands the effluent stream without condensing the stream. Radionuclides and suspended solids are more efficiently separated in the vapor phase. By preventing condensation, the acids are kept in the much less corrosive gaseous phase thereby limiting the damage to treatment equipment. The present invention also reduces the external energy consumption, by utilizing the expansion step to also cool the effluent.

  5. Removal of heavy metals from tannery effluents of Ambur industrial area, Tamilnadu by Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis.

    PubMed

    Balaji, S; Kalaivani, T; Rajasekaran, C; Shalini, M; Vinodhini, S; Priyadharshini, S Sunitha; Vidya, A G

    2015-06-01

    The present study was carried out with the tannery effluent contaminated with heavy metals collected from Ambur industrial area to determine the phycoremediation potential of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. Two different concentrations (50 and 100 %) of heavy metals containing tannery effluent treated with A. platensis were analysed for growth, absorption spectra, biochemical properties and antioxidant enzyme activity levels. The effluent treatments revealed dose-dependent decrease in the levels of A. platensis growth (65.37 % for 50 % effluent and 49.32 % for 100 % effluent), chlorophyll content (97.43 % for 50 % effluent and 71.05 % for 100 % effluent) and total protein content (82.63 % for 50 % effluent and 62.10 % for 100 % effluent) that leads to the reduction of total solids, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. A. platensis with lower effluent concentration was effective than at higher concentration. Treatment with the effluent also resulted in increased activity levels of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (14.58 units/g fresh weight for 50 % and 24.57 units/g fresh weight for 100 %) and catalase (0.963 units/g fresh weight for 50 % and 1.263 units/g fresh weight for 100 %). Furthermore, heavy metal content was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. These results indicated that A. platensis has the ability to combat heavy metal stress by the induction of antioxidant enzymes demonstrating its potential usefulness in phycoremediation of tannery effluent.

  6. Facility effluent monitoring plan determinations for the 400 Area facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Nickels, J.M.

    1991-09-01

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determination resulted from an evaluation conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company 400 Area facilities on the Hanford Site. The Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations have been prepared in accordance with A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. Two major Westinghouse Hanford Company facilities in the 400 Area were evaluated: the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Fuels Manufacturing and examination Facility. The determinations were prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Of these two facilities, only the Fast Flux Test Facility will require a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. 7 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Biodegradability and toxicity assessment of bleach plant effluents treated anaerobically.

    PubMed

    Chaparro, T R; Botta, C M; Pires, E C

    2010-01-01

    As part of an experimental project on the treatment of bleach plant effluents the results of biodegradability and toxicity assessment of effluents from a bench-scale horizontal anaerobic immobilized bioreactor (HAIB) are discussed in this paper. The biodegradability of the bleach plant effluents from a Kraft pulp mill treated in the HAIB was evaluated using the modified Zahn-Wellens test. The inoculum came from a pulp mill wastewater treatment plant and the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was used as the indicator of organic matter removal. The acute and chronic toxicity removal during the anaerobic treatment was estimated using Daphnia similis and Ceriodaphnia silvestrii respectively. Moreover, the evaluation of chromosome aberrations (CA), micronucleus frequencies (MN) and mitotic index (IM) in Allium cepa cells were used as genotoxicity indicators. The results indicate that the effluents from the anaerobic reactor are amenable to aerobic polishing. Acute and chronic toxicity were reduced by 90 and 81%, respectively. The largest CA and MN incidence in the meristematic cells of A. cepa were observed after exposure to the raw bleach plant effluent. The HAIB was able to reduce the acute and chronic toxicity as well as chromosome aberrations and the occurrence of micronucleus.

  8. 200 area effluent treatment facility opertaional test report

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, A.F.

    1995-10-26

    This document reports the results of the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (200 Area ETF) operational testing activities. These Operational testing activities demonstrated that the functional, operational and design requirements of the 200 Area ETF have been met and identified open items which require retesting.

  9. PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION TESTING FOR THE 200 AREA EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    HALGREN DL

    2010-03-12

    The hydrogen peroxide decomposer columns at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) have been taken out of service due to ongoing problems with particulate fines and poor destruction performance from the granular activated carbon (GAC) used in the columns. An alternative search was initiated and led to bench scale testing and then pilot scale testing. Based on the bench scale testing three manganese dioxide based catalysts were evaluated in the peroxide destruction pilot column installed at the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The ten inch diameter, nine foot tall, clear polyvinyl chloride (PVC) column allowed for the same six foot catalyst bed depth as is in the existing ETF system. The flow rate to the column was controlled to evaluate the performance at the same superficial velocity (gpm/ft{sup 2}) as the full scale design flow and normal process flow. Each catalyst was evaluated on peroxide destruction performance and particulate fines capacity and carryover. Peroxide destruction was measured by hydrogen peroxide concentration analysis of samples taken before and after the column. The presence of fines in the column headspace and the discharge from carryover was generally assessed by visual observation. All three catalysts met the peroxide destruction criteria by achieving hydrogen peroxide discharge concentrations of less than 0.5 mg/L at the design flow with inlet peroxide concentrations greater than 100 mg/L. The Sud-Chemie T-2525 catalyst was markedly better in the minimization of fines and particle carryover. It is anticipated the T-2525 can be installed as a direct replacement for the GAC in the peroxide decomposer columns. Based on the results of the peroxide method development work the recommendation is to purchase the T-2525 catalyst and initially load one of the ETF decomposer columns for full scale testing.

  10. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Coenenberg, J.G.

    1997-08-15

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating

  11. Activated carbon testing for the 200 area effluent treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, R.N.

    1997-01-17

    This report documents pilot and laboratory scale testing of activated carbon for use in the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility peroxide decomposer columns. Recommendations are made concerning column operating conditions and hardware design, the optimum type of carbon for use in the plant, and possible further studies.

  12. Request for modification of 200 Area effluent treatment facility final delisting

    SciTech Connect

    BOWMAN, R.C.

    1998-11-19

    A Delisting Petition submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in August 1993 addressed effluent to be generated at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility from treating Hanford Facility waste streams. This Delisting Petition requested that 71.9 million liters per year of treated effluent, bearing the designation 'F001' through 'F005', and/or 'F039' that is derived from 'F001' through 'F005' waste, be delisted. On June 13, 1995, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency published the final rule (Final Delisting), which formally excluded 71.9 million liters per year of 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility effluent from ''being listed as hazardous wastes'' (60 FR 31115 now promulgated in 40 CFR 261). Given the limited scope, it is necessary to request a modification of the Final Delisting to address the management of a more diverse multi-source leachate (F039) at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility. From past operations and current cleanup activities on the Hanford Facility, a considerable amount of both liquid and solid Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 regulated mixed waste has been and continues to be generated. Ultimately this waste will be treated as necessary to meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Land Disposal Restrictions. The disposal of this waste will be in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act--compliant permitted lined trenches equipped with leachate collection systems. These operations will result in the generation of what is referred to as multi-source leachate. This newly generated waste will receive the listed waste designation of F039. This waste also must be managed in compliance with the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  13. Microplastics in a freshwater environment receiving treated wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Lasee, Steven; Mauricio, Jessica; Thompson, William A; Karnjanapiboonwong, Adcharee; Kasumba, John; Subbiah, Seenivasan; Morse, Audra N; Anderson, Todd A

    2017-05-01

    Small plastic fragments (microplastics or solid particles <5 mm in size or "microbeads" used in personal care products and cosmetics) may ultimately find their way into aquatic environments. We studied the presence of microplastics (particle sizes 53-105 μm and 106-179 μm) spatially and temporally in 3 connected urban lakes being fed by treated wastewater effluent in Lubbock, Texas. These lakes also serve as drainage during storm events. Water samples from drainage playa wetlands within the city were also collected. Our interest was in determining the presence or absence of microplastics in a freshwater environment as well as the source apportionment between personal care products (via wastewater) and discarded plastics (via runoff). Results showed that average concentrations of microplastics in samples collected from lakes ranged from 0.79 ± 0.88 mg/L to 1.56 ± 1.64 mg/L for the 53-105 μm size fraction and from 0.31 ± 0.72 mg/L to 1.25 ± 1.98 mg/L for the 106-179 μm size fraction. For samples collected from playa wetlands, average microplastic concentrations ranged from 0.64 ± 0.92 mg/L to 5.51 ± 9.09 mg/L for the 53-105 μm size fraction and from nondetectable (ND) to 1.79 ± 3.04 mg/L for the 106-179 μm size fraction. Our results (based on comparison of microplastic masses) suggest that urban runoff also contributes microplastics to surface water in addition to the treated wastewater effluent (in this particular case). The present findings may assist in adopting additional monitoring efforts and provide information on the potential contribution of secondary microplastic input into aquatic environments. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:528-532. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  14. Macroalgae culture to treat anaerobic digestion piggery effluent (ADPE).

    PubMed

    Nwoba, Emeka Godfrey; Moheimani, Navid Reza; Ubi, Benjamin Ewa; Ogbonna, James Chukwuma; Vadiveloo, Ashiwin; Pluske, John R; Huisman, John Marinus

    2017-03-01

    Environmental consequences of high productivity piggeries are significant and can result in negative environmental impacts, hence bioremediation techniques (in particular using macroalgae) are therefore of great interest. Here, the growth potential of several freshwater macroalgae in anaerobic digestion piggery effluent (ADPE), their nutrient removal rates and biochemical composition of the biomass were investigated under outdoor climatic conditions. A consortium of two macroalgae, Rhizoclonium sp. and Ulothrix sp. was isolated and could efficiently grow in the ADPE. Maximum ammonium removal rate (30.6±6.50mg NH4(+)-NL(-1)d(-1)) was achieved at ADPE concentration equivalent to 248mgNH4(+)-NL(-1). Mean biomass productivity of 31.1±1.14g ash-free dry weight (AFDW) m(-2)d(-1) was achieved. Total carbohydrate and protein contents ranged between 42.8-54.8 and 43.4-45.0% AFDW, respectively, while total lipid content was very low. The study indicates the potential use of this macroalgal consortium for treating ADPE as well as source of animal feed production.

  15. Treated mine drainage effluent benefits Maryland and West Virginia fisherman

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    In January of 1994, the Maryland Department of Natural Resources-Freshwater Fisheries Division and Mettiki Coal Corporation of Oakland, Maryland entered into a cooperative agreement to construct a trout rearing facility within Mettiki`s 10 million gallons per day acid mine drainage treatment system to supplement the DNR stockings in the newly revitalized North Branch of the Potomac River. Due to pyrite oxidation and a lack of alkaline buffering capacity in the Freeport coal strata, seven thousand gallons per minute of acidic water containing oxidized sulfide minerals must be pumped through Mettiki`s AMD treatment systems and elevated to Federal standards prior to discharge into the Upper North Branch of the Potomac River. Utilizing hydrated lime, aeration, flocculation, sedimentation, and sludge recirculation, Mettiki`s treatment imparts superior trout propagation qualities to the discharge (pH of 8.1, dissolved oxygen of 8.0 ppm, temperature ranges of from 52 to 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and has allowed for weight gain throughout the typically dormant winter months. Presently, 30,000 brown, rainbow, and cutthroat trout are suspended in floating net pens within the systems` discharge collection pond where pH, flow, temperature, feed assimilation, and growth rates were compared with typical stream diversion hatcheries. Growth rates, lack of significant disease, and quality parameters coupled with ideal temperatures suggests treated acidic mine effluent can offer successful fish propagation opportunities.

  16. Characteristics of treated effluents and their potential applications for producing concrete.

    PubMed

    Noruzman, Ainul Haezah; Muhammad, Bala; Ismail, Mohammad; Abdul-Majid, Zaiton

    2012-11-15

    Conservation and preservation of freshwater is increasingly becoming important as the global population grows. Presently, enormous volumes of freshwater are used to mix concrete. This paper reports experimental findings regarding the feasibility of using treated effluents as alternatives to freshwater in mixing concrete. Samples were obtained from three effluent sources: heavy industry, a palm-oil mill and domestic sewage. The effluents were discharge into public drain without danger to human health and natural environment. Chemical compositions and physical properties of the treated effluents were investigated. Fifteen compositional properties of each effluent were correlated with the requirements set out by the relevant standards. Concrete mixes were prepared using the effluents and freshwater to establish a base for control performance. The concrete samples were evaluated with regard to setting time, workability, compressive strength and permeability. The results show that except for some slight excesses in total solids and pH, the properties of the effluents satisfy the recommended disposal requirements. Two concrete samples performed well for all of the properties investigated. In fact, one sample was comparatively better in compressive strength than the normal concrete; a 9.4% increase was observed at the end of the curing period. Indeed, in addition to environmental conservation, the use of treated effluents as alternatives to freshwater for mixing concrete could save a large amount of freshwater, especially in arid zones.

  17. An evaluation of the application of treated sewage effluents in Las Tablas de Daimiel National Park, Central Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Vicente; García, Beatriz; Sánchez, David; Asensio, Laura

    2011-04-01

    SummaryAt the present time there is not enough information available to develop a quantitative model on how inundation takes place in the 1490 ha area of Tablas de Daimiel National Park (Central Spain) located upstream of Morenillo Dam. Given that it is the most important area in the Park from an ecological standpoint, this is a major concern, as it has not been possible to assess the potential effectiveness of the interventions geared towards improving its current state. As a result, it is not feasible to simulate the hydrologic response to the application of treated sewage effluents, an initiative recently implemented by the Public Administration responsible for water management in the Guadiana River Basin, where the Park is located. To help solve this problem, a simplified model of the hydrologic behaviour of the system has been developed focusing on the characterisation of the main trends of the inundation process. Field data from 12 drying processes were used to identify the model parameters. Later, the evolution of the system was examined after the application of treated sewage effluents, assuming the hypothesis of a dry climate. The results show that the 10 Mm 3 of available effluents is sufficient to improve from 2 ha to 60 ha the inundation condition of the areas considered to be high-priority. This therefore demonstrates that, from a hydrologic point of view, it is highly advisable to use treated sewage effluents.

  18. Irrigation of eucalyptus plantation using treated bleached kraft pulp mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Rezende, A A P; de Matos, A T; Silva, C M; Neves, J C L

    2010-01-01

    The use of treated pulp mill effluent on eucalyptus plantation appears to be an attractive option for plant nutrition and water supply. It also constitutes a supplementary treatment process and a final disposal option for the mill effluent. This study aimed at the investigation and evaluation of the effects of bleached kraft pulp mill treated effluent on three typical Brazilian soils used for eucalyptus plantation. The effluent was characterized and five different application rates, defined according to the load of sodium, were tested in controlled environment experiments (greenhouse). After effluent application over a six month period an increase in the salinity of the studied soils was observed, although no soil dispersion was detected. The low content of some nutrients in the treated effluent indicated the need for fertilizer complementation. In general, the best biomass productivity and plant growth results were obtained in fine textured soil at a loading rate of 6.49 t Na ha(-1). The good response of the soil-plant system under different effluent application rates showed the feasibility for the eucalyptus irrigation if adequate management practices and monitoring are carried out.

  19. Toxicity of the effluent from an anaerobic bioreactor treating cereal residues on Lactuca sativa.

    PubMed

    Young, Brian Jonathan; Riera, Nicolás Iván; Beily, María Eugenia; Bres, Patricia Alina; Crespo, Diana Cristina; Ronco, Alicia Estela

    2012-02-01

    Effluents generated during the process of anaerobic digestion should be treated before their disposal into the environment. The aim of this study was evaluating the effectiveness of the effluent treatment system from an anaerobic bioreactor, assessing the toxicity reduction with the Lactuca sativa seed germination and root elongation inhibition test. Three sampling points were selected along the effluent treatment system: inflow into the first treatment pond, outflow from the third pond and recirculated flow to the bioreactor. Effluent dilutions tested for each sampling point were 25% and 50% (v/v), undiluted sample and controls. The pH, conductivity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, BOD₅ and COD were measured. The decrease in the organic and inorganic loads was correlated with a reduction in the phytotoxicity. The use of the seed toxicity test allows evaluating the quality and effectiveness of the studied effluent treatment system.

  20. A mesocosm approach for detecting stream invertebrate community responses to treated wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Grantham, Theodore E; Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel; Perrée, Isabelle; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcís

    2012-01-01

    The discharge of wastewater from sewage treatment plants is one of the most common forms of pollution to river ecosystems, yet the effects on aquatic invertebrate assemblages have not been investigated in a controlled experimental setting. Here, we use a mesocosm approach to evaluate community responses to exposure to different concentrations of treated wastewater effluents over a two week period. Multivariate analysis using Principal Response Curves indicated a clear, dose-effect response to the treatments, with significant changes in macroinvertebrate assemblages after one week when exposed to 30% effluent, and after two weeks in the 15% and 30% effluent treatments. Treatments were associated with an increase in nutrient concentrations (ammonium, sulfate, and phosphate) and reduction of dissolved oxygen. These findings indicate that exposure to wastewater effluent cause significant changes in abundance and composition of macroinvertebrate taxa and that effluent concentration as low as 5% can have detectable ecological effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biochemical responses and metals levels in Ruditapes decussatus after exposure to treated municipal effluents.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Naouel; Jebali, Jamel; Banni, Mohamed; Ben Khedher, Sana; Chouba, Lassaad; Boussetta, Hamadi

    2012-08-01

    This study assessed the responses of biochemical biomarkers and metals levels in Ruditapes decussatus exposed to the increasing concentrations of treated municipal effluents (TME) discharged into the Tunisian coastal area. Clams were exposed to 0%, 1%, 3% and 10% for 7 and 14 day and the following biochemical responses were measured: (1) catalase activity and lipid peroxidation levels (TBARS) as oxidative stress biomarkers, (2) gluthathione S-transferase (GST) activity as a phase II conjugation enzyme; (3) cholinesterase activity (ChE) as biomarker of neurotoxicity, and (4) metallothioneins as a proteins highly induced by heavy metals. A significant uptake of Cu, Cd and Zn in digestive gland and serious biochemical alterations were observed. Thus, exposure of clams to croissant concentration of TME have the potential to increase the oxidative stress biomarkers (TBARS, CAT activity) and MT levels; and decrease ChE activity in both gills and digestive gland. Current experimental results suggest that CAT, GST, ChE activities and MT and TBARs levels in gills and digestive gland of clam R. decussatus are sensitive and suitable responses for assessing the effects of anthropogenic contaminants on the aquatic ecosystems, particularly effluent complex mixtures.

  2. Comparative study on the treatment of raw and biologically treated textile effluents through submerged nanofiltration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing; Yang, Ying; Zhou, Mengsi; Liu, Meihong; Yu, Sanchuan; Gao, Congjie

    2015-03-02

    Raw and biologically treated textile effluents were submerged filtrated using lab-fabricated hollow fiber nanofiltration membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of about 650 g/mol. Permeate flux, chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction, color removal, membrane fouling, and cleaning were investigated and compared by varying the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) and volume concentrating factor (VCF). It was found that both raw and biologically treated textile effluents could be efficiently treated through submerged nanofiltration. The increase of TMP resulted in a decline in water permeability, COD reduction, color removal, and flux recovery ratio, while the increase of VCF resulted in both increased COD reduction and color removal. Under the TMP of 0.4 bar and VCF of 5.0, fluxes of 1.96 and 2.59 l/m(2)h, COD reductions of 95.7 and 94.2%, color removals of 99.0, and 97.3% and flux recovery ratios of 91.1 and 92.9% could be obtained in filtration of raw and biologically treated effluents, respectively. After filtration, the COD and color contents of the raw effluent declined sharply from 1780 to 325 mg/l and 1.200 to 0.060 Abs/cm, respectively, while for the biologically treated effluent, they decreased from 780 to 180 mg/l and 0.370 to 0.045 Abs/cm, respectively.

  3. Biochemical responses in the gills of Meretrix meretrix after exposure to treated municipal effluent.

    PubMed

    Wan, Ru; Meng, Fanping; Fu, Wenchao; Wang, Qun; Su, Enping

    2015-01-01

    The biochemical effects in marine bivalves exposed to increasing concentrations of treated municipal effluent (TME), as discharged into receiving marine waters, are investigated. The effluent was collected from a municipal sewage treatment plant (STP) in Qingdao (China). Meretrix meretrix were exposed to effluent volume ratio (EVR, ratio of effluent volume accounted for tailwater seawater mixture) 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20% (v/v) TME for 15 days and the following biochemical responses in gills were measured: (1) the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione (GSH) content, and lipid peroxidation levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), as oxidative stress biomarkers; (2) the activity of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and gluthathione S-transferase (GST), as phase I and phase II conjugation enzymes, respectively; (3) acetylcholinesterase (AChE), as a biomarker of neurotoxicity, and (4) metallothioneins (MTs), as proteins strongly induced by heavy metals. Most of the biochemical indices present high and significant variation frequency (above 50%). There is enhancement in the antioxidant enzymes, EROD, GST, AChE, and MTs, as well as consumption of GSH. The current experimental results suggest that effluent with concentrations less than 20% (v/v) do not cause lipid peroxidation damage. This implies that the activated defense is sufficient to protect the bivalves' gill tissues from cytotoxicity produced by the effluent. Furthermore, GSH, GPx, MTs, and GR are suitable, and sufficiently sensitive, biomarkers to indicate the pollution levels in marine environments receiving such effluent.

  4. Effect of treated tannery effluent with domestic wastewater and amendments on growth and yield of cotton.

    PubMed

    Jagathjothi, N; Amanullah, M Mohamed; Muthukrishnan, P

    2013-11-15

    Pot culture and field experiments were carried out at the Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP), Dindigul during kharif 2011-12 to investigate the influence of irrigation of treated tannery effluent along with domestic wastewater on growth, yield attributes and yield of cotton. The pot culture was in a factorial completely randomized design and field experiment laid out in factorial randomized block design with four replications. The results revealed that the mixing proportion of 25% Treated Tannery Effluent (TTE)+75% domestic wastewater (DWW) application recorded taller plants, higher dry matter production, number of sympodial branches plant(-1), number of fruiting points plant(-1), number of bolls plant(-1) and seed cotton yield with yield reduction of 15.28 and 16.11% compared to normal water irrigation under pot culture and field experiment, respectively. Regarding amendments, gypsum application registered higher seed cotton yield followed by VAM.

  5. Irrigational impact of untreated and treated brewery-distillery effluent on seed germination of marigold (Tagetes erecta L.).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anuradha; Malaviya, Piyush

    2016-01-01

    Current study presents the effect of irrigation with different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100%) of untreated and treated brewery-distillery effluent on germination behaviour of marigold (Tagetes erecta L. var. Pusa Basanti). The 100% untreated effluent showed acidic pH (4.80) and higher values of BOD (1500.00 mg l(-1)), COD (4000.00 mg l(-1)), chloride (1742.20 mg l(-1)), TSS (900.00 mg l(-1)) as compared to that of treated effluent. Tagetes seeds were exposed to different concentrations of effluent and the results revealed maximum values of germination parameters viz., percent germination, peak value, germination value, germination index, speed of germination and vigour index at 20% untreated and 60% treated effluent concentrations, whereas the values for negative germination parameters viz., delay index, germination period and percent inhibition were minimum at 20% untreated and 60% treated effluent concentrations.

  6. Chromium accumulation in submerged aquatic plants treated with tannery effluent at Kanpur, India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Kiran; Gaumat, Sumati; Mishra, Kumkum

    2011-09-01

    Aquatic macrophytes have been widely studied because of their capability of absorbing contaminants from water and their subsequent use in biomonitoring. This study presents a comparison of Cr accumulating potential of submerged aquatic plants viz Vallisneria spiralis and Hydrilla verticillata. These plants were treated with various concentrations of treated tannery effluent collected from UASB, Jajmau, Kanpur under repeated exposure in controlled laboratory conditions in order to assess their maximum bioaccumulation potential. The maximum accumulation of 385.6 and 201.6 microg g(-1) dry weight was found in roots of V. spiralis and the whole plants of H. verticillata, respectively at 100% concentration after 9th day of effluent exposure. The chlorophyll and protein content of both species decreased with increase in effluent concentration and duration. At highest concentration and duration a maximum reduction of 67.4 and 62.66% in total chlorophyll content, 9.97 and 4.66% in carotenoid content and 62.66 and 59.36% in protein content was found in V. spiralis and H. verticillata respectively. Anatomical studies in both V. spiralis and H. verticillata was carried out to assess the effects of metal accumulation within the plants. Changes in the anatomical structures of both plants exhibits the capacity of these species to act as indicator of effluent toxicity. The high accumulation potential of Cr by both plants revealed their capability to remove pollutants from effluent.

  7. The phytoremediation ability of a polyculture constructed wetland to treat boron from mine effluent.

    PubMed

    Türker, Onur Can; Böcük, Harun; Yakar, Anıl

    2013-05-15

    This study focuses on describing the ability of a small-scale, subsurface-flow-polyculture-constructed wetland (PCW) to treat boron (B) mine effluent from the world's largest borax mine (Kırka, Turkey) under field conditions. This application is among the first effluent treatment methods of this type in both Turkey and the world. This study represents an important resource on how subsurface-flow-constructed wetlands could be used to treat B mine effluents in the field conditions. To this end, an experimental wetland was vegetated with common reed (Phragmites australis) and cattails (Typha latifolia), and mine effluent was moved through the wetland. The results of the present study show that B concentrations of the mine effluent decreased from 187 to 123 mg l(-1) (32% removal rate) on average. The T. latifolia individuals absorbed a total of 250 mg kg(-1) whereas P. australis in the PCW absorbed a total of 38 mg kg(-1) B during the research period.

  8. Degradation of 3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzoic acid in biological treated effluent by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Libing; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-02-01

    Gamma irradiation-induced degradation of a chlorinated aromatic compound, 3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (CHBA) in biological treated effluent was studied and the results were compared with those obtained in deionized water. Gamma irradiation led to a complete decomposition of CHBA and a partial mineralization in the treated effluent. The removal of CHBA followed the pseudo first-order reaction kinetic model and the rate constant in the treated effluent was 1.7-3.5 times lower than that in deionized water. The CHBA degradation rate was higher at acidic condition than at neutral and alkaline conditions. The radiolytic yield, G-value for CHBA degradation was lower in the treated effluent, which decreased with increase in absorbed doses and increased with increase in initial concentrations of CHBA. The degradation mechanism of CHBA using gamma irradiation was proposed through the oxidation by -OH and reduction by eaq- and H- radicals. As exposed to gamma irradiation, dechlorination takes place rapidly and combines with the oxidation and cleavage of the aromatic ring, producing chloride ions, small carboxylic acids, acetaldehyde and other intermediates into the solution.

  9. Management of treated pulp and paper mill effluent to achieve zero discharge.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Muhammad Nadeem; Khan, Shahbaz; Mushtaq, Shahbaz

    2008-09-01

    Pulp and paper mills are one of the major effluent generating industries in the world. In most cases, mill effluent (treated or raw) is discharged back into a river, creek, stream or other water body; resulting in negative environmental impacts, as well as social concerns, among the downstream users. Pulp and paper mill effluent management, which could result in zero discharge into downstream water bodies, would present the best management option to address socio-environmental concerns. This paper presents such an effort aimed at closing the water cycle by using treated effluent from the mill to irrigate forage and fodder crops for producing animals feed. The treated effluent is delivered from the mill through gravity into a winter storage dam of 490 ML capacity. For irrigation applications on 110 ha of farmland, which is 42% of the total farmland, the water is pumped from the winter storage dam to five individual paddocks with Centre Pivot (CP) irrigators and one rectangular paddock with a Soft Hose Travelling (SHT) irrigator. From October 2001 to June 2006, a total of 2,651 mm of wastewater was applied at the farm. The impact assessment results, obtained from field monitoring, investigations and analysis, indicated that the closed water cycle effluent management strategy described had resulted in a lessening of the impact on water resources usually associated with paper mills. However, social attitudes to the use of crops that have been irrigated with recycled waters and the resulting impact on market value of the produce may still be a major consideration.

  10. Diagnosis of dissolved organic matter removal by GAC treatment in biologically treated papermill effluents using advanced organic characterisation techniques.

    PubMed

    Antony, Alice; Bassendeh, Mojgan; Richardson, Desmond; Aquilina, Simon; Hodgkinson, Andrew; Law, Ian; Leslie, Greg

    2012-02-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) exhaustion rates on pulp and paper effluent from South East Australia were found to be a factor of three higher (3.62cf. 1.47kgm(-3)) on Kraft mills compared to mills using Thermomechanical pulping supplemented by Recycled Fibre (TMP/RCF). Biological waste treatment at both mills resulted in a final effluent COD of 240mgL(-1). The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was only 1.2 times higher in the Kraft effluent (70 vs. 58mgL(-1)), however, GAC treatment of Kraft and TMP/RCF effluent was largely different on the DOC persisted after biological treatment. The molecular mass (636 vs. 534gmol(-1)) and aromaticity (5.35 vs. 4.67Lmg(-1)m(-1)) of humic substances (HS) were slightly higher in the Kraft effluent. The HS aromaticity was decreased by a factor of 1.0Lmg(-1)m(-1) in both Kraft and TMP/RCF effluent. The molecular mass of the Kraft effluent increased by 50gmol(-1) while the molecular mass of the TMP/RCF effluent was essentially unchanged after GAC treatment; the DOC removal efficiency of the GAC on Kraft effluent was biased towards the low molecular weight humic compounds. The rapid adsorption of this fraction, coupled with the slightly higher aromaticity of the humic components resulted in early breakthrough on the Kraft effluent. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix analysis of the each GAC treated effluent indicated that the refractory components were higher molecular weight humics on the Kraft effluent and protein-like compounds on the TMP/RCF effluent. Although the GAC exhaustion rates are too high for an effective DOC removal option for biologically treated pulp and paper mill effluents, the study indicates that advanced organic characterisation techniques can be used to diagnose GAC performance on complex effluents with comparable bulk DOC and COD loads.

  11. Implications of persistent exposure to treated wastewater effluent for breeding in wild roach (Rutilus rutilus) populations.

    PubMed

    Lange, Anke; Paull, Gregory C; Hamilton, Patrick B; Iguchi, Taisen; Tyler, Charles R

    2011-02-15

    Feminized responses are widespread in wild populations of roach, Rutilus rutilus, living in UK rivers, and some of these responses have been shown to arise as a consequence of exposure to wastewater treatment works (WwTW) effluent discharges and the endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) they contain. The causation of the ovotestis condition in wild roach, however, has yet to be established. Furthermore, the impact of long-term exposure to WwTW effluents on the reproductive fitness of wild fish populations is not known, and this information is crucial for population level effect assessments. We undertook a chronic exposure of roach to a treated estrogenic wastewater effluent for up to 3.5 years to assess principally for effects on subsequent reproductive fitness, as determined through parentage analysis on offspring from a competitive breeding study. In generating the fish for the breeding study we found that exposure to full strength WwTW effluent until sexual maturity resulted in sex reversal in almost all males in the population; 98% of the exposed fish were phenotypic females, containing ovaries. Furthermore, fish exposed to a 50% dilution of WwTW effluent contained ovotestis (21% of the male roach) that was absent from the control population. In competitive breeding studies, and applying DNA microsatellites to assess parentage, we show that presumptive females exposed to sexual maturity to WwTW effluent bred normally, albeit in the absence of nonexposed females, but putative sex-reversed males breeding as females contributed poorly, if at all, in a breeding population, depending on the competition. These novel findings on sex reversal add a new dimension for impact assessments of exposure to WwTW effluents on fish populations.

  12. 200 area liquid effluent facility quality assurance program plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, N.J.

    1995-10-10

    Direct revision of Supporting Document WHC-SD-LEF-QAPP-001, Rev. 0. 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities Quality Assurance Program Plan. Incorporates changes to references in tables. Revises test to incorporate WHC-SD-LEF-CSCM-001, Computer Software Configuration Management Plan for 200 East/West Liquid Effluent Facilities

  13. Dynamics of size-fractionated bacterial communities during the coastal dispersal of treated municipal effluents.

    PubMed

    Liu, SiGuang; Luo, YuanRong; Huang, LingFeng

    2016-07-01

    Everyday huge amount of treated municipal wastewater is discharged into the coastal seawater. However, microbial biomarkers for the municipal effluent instead of the fecal species from raw sewage have not been proposed. Meanwhile, bacterial taxa for degrading large amounts of input organics have not been fully understood. In this study, raw effluent and serial water samples were collected from the coastal dispersal of two sewage treatment plants in Xiamen, China. Free-living (FL) and particle-associated (PA) bacterial communities were analyzed via high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and quantitative PCR to measure bacterial abundance. The PA bacterial communities in our samples exhibited higher cell abundance, alpha diversity, and population dynamics than the FL bacterial communities, which supports greater environmental significance of the PA bacterial communities. Two non-fecal but typical genera in activated sludge, Zoogloea and Dechloromonas, exhibited decreased but readily detectable abundance along the effluent dispersal distance. Furthermore, the dominating microbial species near the outfalls were related to well-known marine indigenous taxa, such as SAR11 clade, OM60 clade, low-GC Actinobacteria, and unclassified Flavobacteriales, as well as the less understood taxa like Pseudohongiella and Microbacteriaceae. It is interesting that these taxa exhibited two types of correlation patterns with COD concentration. Our study suggested Zoogloea as a potential indicator of municipal effluents and also proposed potential utilizers of residual effluent COD in marine environments.

  14. Performance of anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactors using effluents of microbial fuel cells treating domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Yeol; Yang, Wulin; Ye, Yaoli; LaBarge, Nicole; Logan, Bruce E

    2016-05-01

    Anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactors (AFMBRs) have been mainly developed as a post-treatment process to produce high quality effluent with very low energy consumption. The performance of an AFMBR was examined using the effluent from a microbial fuel cell (MFC) treating domestic wastewater, as a function of AFMBR hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and organic matter loading rates. The MFC-AFMBR achieved 89 ± 3% removal of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), with an effluent of 36 ± 6 mg-COD/L over 112 days operation. The AFMBR had very stable operation, with no significant changes in COD removal efficiencies, for HRTs ranging from 1.2 to 3.8h, although the effluent COD concentration increased with organic loading. Transmembrane pressure (TMP) was low, and could be maintained below 0.12 bar through solids removal. This study proved that the AFMBR could be operated with a short HRT but a low COD loading rate was required to achieve low effluent COD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reduction of pollutants in pulp paper mill effluent treated by PCP-degrading bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Ram; Raj, Abhay; Yadav, Sangeeta; Patel, Devendra Kumar

    2009-08-01

    Two PCP-degrading bacterial strains, Bacillus cereus (ITRC-S6) and Serratia marcescens (ITRC-S7) were used for the treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent at conditions; 1.0% glucose and 0.5% peptone at 30 +/- 1 degrees C at 120 rpm for 168 h of incubation. These two bacterial strains effectively reduced colour (45-52%), lignin (30-42%), BOD (40-70%), COD (50-60%), total phenol (32-40%) and PCP (85-90%) within 168 h of incubation. However, the highest reduction in colour (62%), lignin (54%), BOD (70%), COD (90%), total phenol (90%) and PCP (100%) was recorded by mixed culture treatment. The bacterial mechanism for the degradation of pulp and paper mill effluent may be explained by an increase in the cells biomass using added co-substrates resulting liberation of significant amount of chloride due to bacterial dechlorination of chlorolignins and chlorophenols this showed reduction in colour, lignin and toxicity in the effluent. Further, GC-MS analysis of ethyl acetate-extractable compounds from treated pulp paper mill effluent reinforces the bacterium capability for the degradation of lignin and pentachlorophenol, as many aromatic compounds such as 2-chlorophenol, 2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol and tetrachlorohydroquinone, 6-chlorohydroxyquinol and tetrachlorohydroquinone detected which were not present in the untreated effluent.

  16. Submerged aerated bio-filter (SAB)--a post treatment option for UASB effluent treating sewage.

    PubMed

    Sudhir, Padigala; Gaur, Rubia Zahid; Khan, Abid Ali; Kazmi, A A; Mehrotra, Indu

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents exploratory results of the performance of submerged aerated bio-filter (SAB-1.5 L) for the post treatment of UASB effluent treating sewage in order to bring the effluent quality in compliance with discharge standards. The study was carried out in three stages with varied dissolved oxygen (DO) levels of 0 to 2.0, 2.0 to 4.0, 4.0 to 6.0 and > 6.0 mg/L. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) and hydraulic loading rate (HLR) were maintained 0.67 h & 0.1 m3/ m2 x h respectively in all stage of study. The performance in terms of BOD removal efficiency was increased with increase in DO levels. Results revealed that the average BOD and SS removal efficiencies in phases 3 and 4 were 51.3 and 59.5% and 58.8 and 67.5% respectively. Significant ammonical nitrogen (NH4-N) removal of 60% was observed in phase 4. The BOD and SS in phases 3 and 4 were reduced to well below the effluent disposal standards. The SAB at DO ≥ 4 mg/L can be considered a viable alternative for the post treatment of effluent from UASB treating domestic wastewater.

  17. Reproductive responses of male fathead minnows exposed to wastewater treatment plant effluent, effluent treated with XAD8 resin, and an environmentally relevant mixture of alkylphenol compounds.

    PubMed

    Barber, Larry B; Lee, Kathy E; Swackhamer, Deborah L; Schoenfuss, Heiko L

    2007-04-20

    On-site, continuous-flow experiments were conducted during August and October 2002 at a major metropolitan wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to determine if effluent exposure induced endocrine disruption as manifested in the reproductive competence of sexually mature male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). The fathead minnows were exposed in parallel experiments to WWTP effluent and WWTP effluent treated with XAD8 macroreticular resin to remove the hydrophobic-neutral fraction which contained steroidal hormones, alkylphenolethoxylates (APEs), and other potential endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). The effluent composition varied on a temporal scale and the continuous-flow experiments captured the range of chemical variability that occurred during normal WWTP operations. Exposure to WWTP effluent resulted in vitellogenin induction in male fathead minnows, with greater response in October than in August. Concentrations of ammonia, APEs, 17beta-estradiol, and other EDCs also were greater in October than in August, reflecting a change in effluent composition. In the October experiment, XAD8 treatment significantly reduced vitellogenin induction in the male fathead minnows relative to the untreated effluent, whereas in August, XAD8 treatment had little effect. During both experiments, XAD8 treatment removed greater than 90% of the APEs. Exposure of fish to a mixture of APEs similar in composition and concentration to the WWTP effluent, but prepared in groundwater and conducted at a separate facility, elicited vitellogenin induction during both experiments. There was a positive relation between vitellogenin induction and hepatosomatic index (HSI), but not gonadosomatic index (GSI), secondary sexual characteristics index (SSCI), or reproductive competency. In contrast to expectations, the GSI and SSCI increased in males exposed to WWTP effluent compared to groundwater controls. The GSI, SSCI, and reproductive competency were positively affected by XAD8 treatment of

  18. Reproductive responses of male fathead minnows exposed to wastewater treatment plant effluent, effluent treated with XAD8 resin, and an environmentally relevant mixture of alkylphenol compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber, L.B.; Lee, K.E.; Swackhamer, D.L.; Schoenfuss, H.L.

    2007-01-01

    On-site, continuous-flow experiments were conducted during August and October 2002 at a major metropolitan wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to determine if effluent exposure induced endocrine disruption as manifested in the reproductive competence of sexually mature male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). The fathead minnows were exposed in parallel experiments to WWTP effluent and WWTP effluent treated with XAD8 macroreticular resin to remove the hydrophobic-neutral fraction which contained steroidal hormones, alkylphenolethoxylates (APEs), and other potential endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). The effluent composition varied on a temporal scale and the continuous-flow experiments captured the range of chemical variability that occurred during normal WWTP operations. Exposure to WWTP effluent resulted in vitellogenin induction in male fathead minnows, with greater response in October than in August. Concentrations of ammonia, APEs, 17??-estradiol, and other EDCs also were greater in October than in August, reflecting a change in effluent composition. In the October experiment, XAD8 treatment significantly reduced vitellogenin induction in the male fathead minnows relative to the untreated effluent, whereas in August, XAD8 treatment had little effect. During both experiments, XAD8 treatment removed greater than 90% of the APEs. Exposure of fish to a mixture of APEs similar in composition and concentration to the WWTP effluent, but prepared in groundwater and conducted at a separate facility, elicited vitellogenin induction during both experiments. There was a positive relation between vitellogenin induction and hepatosomatic index (HSI), but not gonadosomatic index (GSI), secondary sexual characteristics index (SSCI), or reproductive competency. In contrast to expectations, the GSI and SSCI increased in males exposed to WWTP effluent compared to groundwater controls. The GSI, SSCI, and reproductive competency were positively affected by XAD8 treatment of

  19. Technical potential of microalgal bacterial floc raceway ponds treating food-industry effluents while producing microalgal bacterial biomass: An outdoor pilot-scale study.

    PubMed

    Van Den Hende, Sofie; Beelen, Veerle; Julien, Lucie; Lefoulon, Alexandra; Vanhoucke, Thomas; Coolsaet, Carlos; Sonnenholzner, Stanislaus; Vervaeren, Han; Rousseau, Diederik P L

    2016-10-01

    To replace costly mechanical aeration by photosynthetical aeration, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluent of food-industry was treated in an outdoor MaB-floc raceway pond. Photosynthetic aeration was sufficient for nitrification, but the raceway effluent quality was below current discharge limits, despite the high hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 35days. Hereafter, conventional activated sludge (CAS) effluent of food-industry was treated in this pond to recover phosphorus. The two-day HRT results in a more realistic pond area, but the phosphorus removal efficiency was low (20%). High biomass productivities were obtained, i.e. 31.3 and 24.9ton total suspended solids hapond(-1)year(-1) for UASB and CAS effluent, respectively. Bioflocculation enabled successful harvesting of CAS effluent-fed MaB-flocs by settling and filtering at 150-250μm to 22.7% total solids. To conclude, MaB-floc raceway ponds cannot be recommended as the sole treatment for these food-industry effluents, but huge potential lies in added-value biomass production.

  20. Incubation experiments to determine the response of a natural plankton community to treated sewage effluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seubert, Erica L.; Gellene, Alyssa G.; Campbell, Victoria; Smith, Jayme; Robertson, George; Caron, David A.

    2017-02-01

    The Orange County Sanitation District diverted flow of secondarily-treated effluent from a discharge pipe located 8.0 km offshore at 60 m depth to an outfall located 1.6 km offshore at 16 m depth for three weeks in September of 2012. Two incubation experiments were performed to examine the potential for this effluent to stimulate the growth and impact the structure of natural, coastal plankton communities. The first experiment was initiated a week prior to the diversion of effluent to the nearshore site ('Pre-Diversion'), and the second began a week after the start of the diversion ('Mid-Diversion'). The overall phytoplankton response observed in both experiments following effluent addition was an increase in the abundances of diatoms and photosynthetic picoeukaryotes, and a decrease in picocyanobacteria. A dramatic net increase in heterotrophic bacterial abundances also occurred in both experiments. Additions of a 1:10 dilution of effluent yielded significant increases in chlorophyll a concentrations, although this treatment in the Pre-Diversion experiment exhibited a 3 day lag in response to effluent addition, perhaps indicating that the Pre-Diversion community was inhibited by the enhanced chlorination process that was enacted during the diversion. Domoic acid producing diatoms in the genus Pseudo-nitzschia were present in the plankton throughout the experiments, but domoic acid production was only detected during the Mid-Diversion experiment. The highest concentration of domoic acid measured, 0.42 ± 0.057 μg/L, coincided with phosphate and silicate concentrations below the detection limit of the method, suggesting limitation by these macronutrients.

  1. Closure report for CAU 93: Area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds, Nevada Test Site. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEP) waste unit is located in Area 6 at the Nevada Test Site. The SCEPs are evaporation basins formerly used for the disposal of untreated liquid effluent discharged from steam cleaning activities associated with Buildings 6-623 and 6-800. This report contains Appendix B which provides all of the laboratory summary data sheets for the Area 6 SCEPs closure activities.

  2. Zinc and copper uptake by silver beet grown in secondary treated effluent.

    PubMed

    Nair, Jaya; Levitan, Jason; Oyama, Noraisha

    2008-05-01

    The study was conducted in a hydroponics set-up to determine the suitability of zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) contaminated wastewater as a growth medium for edible crops; to identify accumulation of Zn and Cu in different parts of the plants and to understand their effects on plant growth. Silver beet was found to produce adequate yields in the Zn (1.7 mg/L and 2.0mg/L) and Cu (0.35 mg/L and 1.1mg/L) spiked medium but not in the secondary treated domestic effluent. The plants grown in secondary treated effluent showed stunted growth and accumulated Zn and Cu to a high level in their shoots. In all other mediums Zn and Cu accumulated more in the roots. The stunted growth of silver beet in secondary treated wastewater and uptake of Zn in particular was considered to be due to the deficiency of nitrogen and other plant nutrients rather than the effect of heavy metals. The study also revealed that if there was adequate amount of macronutrients available for growth, silver beet could be grown in domestic effluent without the risk of Zn or Cu contamination to the undesired level through hydroponics.

  3. Characterization of persistent colors and decolorization of effluent from biologically treated cellulosic ethanol production wastewater.

    PubMed

    Shan, Lili; Liu, Junfeng; Yu, Yanling; Ambuchi, John J; Feng, Yujie

    2016-05-01

    The high chroma of cellulosic ethanol production wastewater poses a serious environmental concern; however, color-causing compounds are still not fully clear. The characteristics of the color compounds and decolorization of biologically treated effluent by electro-catalytic oxidation were investigated in this study. Excitation-emission matrix (EEM), fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), UV-Vis spectra, and ultrafiltration (UF) fractionation were used to analyze color compounds. High chroma of wastewater largely comes from humic materials, which exhibited great fluorescence proportion (67.1 %) in the biologically treated effluent. Additionally, the color compounds were mainly distributed in the molecular weight fractions with 3-10 and 10-30 kDa, which contributed 53.5 and 34.6 % of the wastewater color, respectively. Further decolorization of biologically treated effluent by electro-catalytic oxidation was investigated, and 98.3 % of color removal accompanied with 97.3 % reduction of humic acid-like matter was achieved after 180 min. The results presented herein will facilitate the development of a well decolorization for cellulosic ethanol production wastewater and better understanding of the biological fermentation.

  4. Characterization of organic membrane foulants in a forward osmosis membrane bioreactor treating anaerobic membrane bioreactor effluent.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; Tian, Yu; Li, Zhipeng; Liu, Feng; You, Hong

    2014-09-01

    In this study, two aerobic forward osmosis (FO) membrane bioreactors (MBR) were utilized to treat the effluent of mesophilic (35°C) and atmospheric (25°C) anaerobic MBRs, respectively. The results showed that the FO membrane process could significantly improve the removal efficiencies of N and P. Meanwhile, the flux decline of the FOMBR treating effluent of mesophilic AnMBR (M-FOMBR) was higher than that treating effluent of atmospheric AnMBR (P-FOMBR). The organic membrane foulants in the two FOMBRs were analyzed to understand the membrane fouling behavior in FO processes. It was found that the slightly increased accumulation of protein-like substances into external foulants did not cause faster flux decline in P-FOMBR than that in M-FOMBR. However, the quantity of organic matter tended to deposit or adsorb into FO membrane pores in P-FOMBR was less than that in M-FOMBR, which was accordance with the tendency of membrane fouling indicated by flux decline.

  5. Effect of dissolved organic matter from treated effluents on sorption of atrazine and prometryn by soils

    SciTech Connect

    Seol, Y.; Lee, L.S.

    2000-01-02

    The apparent enhanced transport of soil-applied atrazine following irrigation of treated effluents has been hypothesized to be from complexation of atrazine with effluent-borne dissolved organic matter (DOM). Under long-term effluent irrigation, even small DOM-induced decreases in pesticide sorption can result in significant enhanced pesticide movement due to cumulative effects. The effect of atrazine and prometryn association with DOM extracted from municipal wastewater (MW), swine-derived lagoon wastewater (SW), and dissolved Aldrich humic acid (HA) on sorption by two soils was measured in batch equilibration studies. Individual association of pesticides to DOM, sorption of DOM to soil, and pesticide sorption by soil were also quantified. Pesticide association to DOM normalized to organic carbon (OC) ranged from 30 to 1000 L/kg OC. DOM sorption by soil ranged from 1.5 to 10 L/kg with a silt loam having a higher affinity for the DOM than the sandy loam. DOM up to 150 mg OC/L did not significantly suppress sorption by soils of either atrazine or prometryne in agreement with predictions using the independently measured binary distribution coefficients in a model that assumed linear equilibrium behavior among pesticide, soil, and DOM. A sensitivity analysis was performed using the same model to identify what combination of soil, pesticide, and DOC variables may suppress sorption, resulting in facilitated transport. Results from the sensitivity analysis are presented and the potential for effluent properties other than DOM to facilitate pesticide transport is discussed.

  6. Treated sewage effluent (water) potential to be used for horticultural production in Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emongor, V. E.; Ramolemana, G. M.

    Botswana being semi-arid and arid country, the provision of drinking water and water for agricultural production is becoming increasingly scarce and expensive. Measures that can augment the available sources of water or measures that can reduce the demand on potable water should be given serious consideration. Horticulturists have incorporated new technology into many of their production programs, which has enabled them to grow more horticultural crops with less water; however, more effort is needed. Techniques such as drip irrigation, sensors, growing plants with low water requirements, timing and scheduling of irrigation to the growth needs of the plant, mulching, and establishing a minimum water quality standard for horticultural crops must be used to stretch agricultural water supplies. Recycling agricultural water and using treated municipal sewage effluent is a viable option for increasing horticultures’ future water supply in Botswana. Agriculture wastewater and sewage effluents often contain significant quantities of heavy metals and other substances that may be toxic to people but beneficial to horticultural crops. However, before sewage effluent can be used for commercial production of vegetables and fruits, research must be undertaken to determine whether there is accumulation of heavy metals and faecal coliforms in the edible portion of the horticultural produce which may be detrimental to human health 15-20 years later. Research must be undertaken to assess the impact of sewage effluent on soil physical, chemical properties and environment after continued use.

  7. 300 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities (LEF) Authorization Envelope

    SciTech Connect

    WRIGHT, E.J.; STORDEUR, R.T.

    2000-04-07

    The purpose of this document is to establish the facility Authorization Envelope (AE) for the 300 Liquid Effluent Facilities (LEP )Project and identify the requirements related to the maintenance of the AE as Specified in HNF-PRO-2701, Authorization Envelope and Authorization Agreement. The 300 LEF Project consists of two separate facilities operating under one management organization. They are the 310 Facility and the 340 Facility. The AE documents the limits of operations for all 300 LEF Project activities.

  8. Prevalence of enteropathogenic bacteria in treated effluents and receiving water bodies and their potential health risks.

    PubMed

    Teklehaimanot, Giorgis Z; Genthe, B; Kamika, I; Momba, M N B

    2015-06-15

    The failure of wastewater treatment plants to produce effluents of a high microbiological quality is a matter of great concern in terms of water resource pollution. A more serious concern is that this water source is used by communities in developing countries for multiple purposes, which include drinking, recreation and agriculture. The current study investigated the prevalence and potential health risks of enteropathogenic bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella dysenteriae and Vibrio cholerae) in the treated effluents of three selected South African Wastewater Treatment Works as well as their receiving water bodies. Culture-based and polymerase chain reaction techniques were used to detect and identify the pathogenic bacteria. The conventional methods revealed that of the 272 water samples collected, 236 samples (86.8%) tested presumptively positive for Salmonella spp., 220 samples (80.9%) for Shigella spp. and 253 samples (93.0%) for V. cholerae. Molecular test results indicated that out of the randomly selected presumptive positive samples (145), zero to 60% of samples were positive for S. typhimurium and S. dysenteriae and 20% to 60% for V. cholerae. For the health risk assessment, the daily combined risk of S. typhimurium, S. dysenteriae and V. cholerae infection was above the lowest acceptable risk limit of 10(-4) as estimated by the World Health Organization for drinking water. This study showed that the target treated wastewater effluents and their receiving water bodies could pose a potential health risk to the surrounding communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Treated wastewater effluent as a source of microbial pollution of surface water resources.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Shalinee; Olaniran, Ademola O

    2013-12-23

    Since 1990, more than 1.8 billion people have gained access to potable water and improved sanitation worldwide. Whilst this represents a vital step towards improving global health and well-being, accelerated population growth coupled with rapid urbanization has further strained existing water supplies. Whilst South Africa aims at spending 0.5% of its GDP on improving sanitation, additional factors such as hydrological variability and growing agricultural needs have further increased dependence on this finite resource. Increasing pressure on existing wastewater treatment plants has led to the discharge of inadequately treated effluent, reinforcing the need to improve and adopt more stringent methods for monitoring discharged effluent and surrounding water sources. This review provides an overview of the relative efficiencies of the different steps involved in wastewater treatment as well as the commonly detected microbial indicators with their associated health implications. In addition, it highlights the need to enforce more stringent measures to ensure compliance of treated effluent quality to the existing guidelines.

  10. Treated Wastewater Effluent as a Source of Microbial Pollution of Surface Water Resources

    PubMed Central

    Naidoo, Shalinee; Olaniran, Ademola O.

    2013-01-01

    Since 1990, more than 1.8 billion people have gained access to potable water and improved sanitation worldwide. Whilst this represents a vital step towards improving global health and well-being, accelerated population growth coupled with rapid urbanization has further strained existing water supplies. Whilst South Africa aims at spending 0.5% of its GDP on improving sanitation, additional factors such as hydrological variability and growing agricultural needs have further increased dependence on this finite resource. Increasing pressure on existing wastewater treatment plants has led to the discharge of inadequately treated effluent, reinforcing the need to improve and adopt more stringent methods for monitoring discharged effluent and surrounding water sources. This review provides an overview of the relative efficiencies of the different steps involved in wastewater treatment as well as the commonly detected microbial indicators with their associated health implications. In addition, it highlights the need to enforce more stringent measures to ensure compliance of treated effluent quality to the existing guidelines. PMID:24366046

  11. Computer software design description for the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF), Project L-045H, Operator Training Station (OTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.L. Jr.

    1994-11-07

    The Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Operator Training Station (OTS) is a computer-based training tool designed to aid plant operations and engineering staff in familiarizing themselves with the TEDF Central Control System (CCS).

  12. Impact of a secondary treated bleached Kraft pulp mill effluent in both sexes of goldfish (Carassius auratus L.).

    PubMed

    Diniz, M S; Peres, I; Castro, L; Freitas, A C; Rocha-Santos, T A P; Pereira, R; Duarte, A C

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the toxic effects of a secondary treated effluent from a modern pulp mill processing Eucalyptus globulus on both sexes of goldfish. The effects in the exposed fish were investigated by measuring biomarkers which have been used to assess the effects of BKME on aquatic biota, with particular emphasis in fish. However, few studies have been focused on effluents from pulp mill plants processing eucalyptus. The relative proportion of cytochrome P450 (CYP1A) and vitellogenin (VTG) induction were analyzed in the livers of males and females goldfish, exposed to different concentrations of a bleached Kraft pulp mill (BKPM) effluent. Somatic indices such as HSI (hepatosomatic index) and GSI (gonadosomatic index) were calculated and a significant reduction was found in males GSI. A significant increase of HSI was recorded for both sexes exposed to 50% BKPM effluent. Exposure to BKPM effluent induced CYP1A synthesis in both sexes and decreased VTG synthesis in females according to the different effluent concentrations suggesting that the secondary treated effluent contained compounds that affect fish negatively. The results suggest that BKPM effluent can cause sex-related biochemical changes in xenobiotic metabolism.

  13. Impact of anaerobically treated and untreated (raw) distillery effluent irrigation on soil microflora, growth, total chlorophyll and protein contents of Phaseolus aureus L.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Ram; Kumar, Kishan; Singh, Jaswant

    2004-10-01

    Impact of distillery effluent (untreated and treated) irrigation on soil microflora of the pots used for growing Phaseolus aureus L. was investigated. The growth of the P. aureus plants as affected by distillery effluent irrigation was also evaluated. The irrigation of the pots by 1-10% distillery effluent (anaerobically treated) stimulated the growth of the soil microflora (increased number of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes) and P. aureus plants (increased shoot and root lengths, biomass, chlorophyll and protein contents). Further, 15-20% distillery effluent (anaerobically treated) had toxic effect on soil micro flora as indicated by reduced number of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes. Reduction in shoot, root, lengths, biomass, chlorophyll, protein contents of P. aureus was also observed when irrigated by 15-20% treated distillery effluent. All the concentrations of raw distillery effluent reduced the bacterial population. However, the treated distillery effluent concentrations <10% had stimulatory effect on fungal and actinomycetes population. However, raw effluent concentrations >5% reduced the same. Raw distillery effluent was more toxic to P. aureus than treated distillery effluent as concentrations >5%, had reduced the growth (shoot, root length and biomass) of the test plant. Raw distillery effluent had adverse effect to total chlorophyll contents and all the test concentrations reduced the total chlorophyll level. However, untreated (raw) distillery effluent stimulated the protein content initially. It has been concluded from-present study that lower concentrations of the raw distillery effluent (1-5%) and treated distillery effluent (1-10%) had stimulated the growth of P. aureus and soil microflora except soil bacteria (inhibited by all the concentration of the raw effluent). However, higher concentrations (raw effluent: 10-20%; treated effluent 15-20%) had toxicity to test parameters.

  14. Ground water contamination in the area adjoining zinc smelter effluent stream.

    PubMed

    Garg, V K; Totawat, K L

    2004-01-01

    A preliminary survey of the area adjoining to zinc smelter effluent stream was undertaken to assess ground water contamination. Twenty-five ground water samples from the wells located in the study area were collected and grouped into nine groups based on their lateral and longitudinal position from the stream carrying the effluent discharged from zinc smelter, Debari- Udaipur. The study indicate that waters of wells situated in the vicinity of effluent stream (255m radius) were of medium salinity having higher levels of Ca and Mg and lower values of pH as compared to the waters of the reference wells situated far away from the effluent stream. The Fe, Zn, Cd, Cl, F and SO4 contents ofthe water from the wells located within 80m vicinity of the effluent stream were above the permissible limits for drinking purposes. Furthermore the Zn, Cl and SO4 levels in these waters were so high that they were even not suitable for irrigation, indicating a gradual encroachment of effluent into the native ground water.

  15. Absorption of carbon dioxide by raw and treated dye-bath effluents.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, D; Petrolekas, P D; Hatzixanthis, S; Aivasidis, A

    2007-06-01

    A bench-scale experimental apparatus, consisting of a glass column randomly packed with cylindrical glass rings, was utilized for the removal of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) by chemical absorption. Various liquid solvents were used, in a batch mode, circulating between the column and a reservoir vessel, and contacting the gas in counter current flow. The absorptive capacity of the liquid solvents and the absorption kinetics were studied by obtaining the respective 'breakthrough curves'. Aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were initially utilized in order to demonstrate the experimental apparatus function. Dye-bath effluent proved highly effective due to its high alkalinity and the capacity of the hydrolyzed "azo-reactive" dyes to react with CO(2). Decolorized dye-bath effluent (treated with FeSO(4)) can also be used as a chemical solvent for the absorption of CO(2); however, its absorptive capacity is much lower compared to the raw wastewater. The above technique is also a very effective method to neutralize industrial effluents.

  16. Effects of treated municipal effluent irrigation on ground water beneath sprayfields, Tallahassee, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pruitt, J.B.; Elder, J.F.; Johnson, I.K.

    1988-01-01

    Groundwater quality data collection began in November 1979 at a spray-irrigation site near Tallahassee, Florida, before the initial application of secondary-treated municipal wastewater in November 1980. Effects of effluent irrigation on groundwater quality were evident about 1 year after spraying began and have continued to increase during the study period of 1983-85. Chloride and nitrate concentrations in groundwater have continued to increase since about 1 year after spraying began. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations have increased from 0.03 mg/L to as much as 11 mg/L in water from one well in the surficial aquifer and from 0.07 to 15 mg/L in one well in the Floridan aquifer system. The greatest increases in concentrations have occurred in water from wells that top the surficial and Floridan aquifers. Increase in concentration occurred in water from some wells in the Floridan outside and downgradient of pivots, indicating lateral movement within the Floridan. The increase in sodium concentrations has been similar to the in chloride concentrations. Increases increases in the concentrations of other inorganic constituents have been minor compared to increases in chloride, sodium and nitrate concentrations. Nine volatile organic halocarbon compounds were detected in 18 effluent samples. Low concentrations of two of these halocarbons--chloroform and trichloroethene (TCE)--were detected intermittently in water sampled from six wells. None of the organic compounds detected in effluent or groundwater exceeded Florida drinking water standards. (USGS)

  17. Influence of hydraulic retention time in a two-phase upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating textile dyeing effluent using sago effluent as the co-substrate.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, M; Gnanapragasam, G; Arutchelvan, V; Nagarajan, S

    2011-05-01

    Textile dyeing and sago industries are the most polluting industries in South India, especially in industrial cities like Salem, Tamil Nadu, where textile dyeing and sago industries are clumped together geographically. Conventional physicochemical treatment followed by biological processes for the effluent generated from these industries are ineffective, costlier and produce huge quantities of hazardous sludge and harmful by-products which requires further treatment and safe disposal. Hence, the development of an alternative treatment method will become important. The main objective of this investigation is to establish a sustainable biotreatment technology for the treatment of textile dyeing effluent using sago effluent as co-substrate in a two-phase upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. In this study, influence of hydraulic retention time (HRT) in a two-phase UASB reactor treating textile dyeing effluent using sago effluent as co-substrate was investigated with different HRTs (36, 30, 24 and 18 h) with an optimum mixing ratio of 70:30 (sago to textile dye wastewaters). The results revealed that the HRT had a high influence on the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour removal. The maximum COD removal efficiency of 39.4% and 88.5% and colour removal efficiency of 43.7% and 84.4% in the acidogenic and methanogenic reactors, respectively was achieved at 24 h of HRT. The biogas production was 312 L/day. The biphasic UASB reactor could be a very feasible alternative, cost-effective, eco-friendly and sustainable treatment system for textile dyeing effluent with sago effluent as a co-substrate.

  18. Reuse of Textile Dyeing Effluents Treated with Coupled Nanofiltration and Electrochemical Processes

    PubMed Central

    Buscio, Valentina; García-Jiménez, María; Vilaseca, Mercè; López-Grimau, Victor; Crespi, Martí; Gutiérrez-Bouzán, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The reactive dye Cibacron Yellow S-3R was selected to evaluate the feasibility of combining nanofiltration membranes with electrochemical processes to treat textile wastewater. Synthetic dyeing effluents were treated by means of two nanofiltration membranes, Hydracore10 and Hydracore50. Up to 98% of dye removal was achieved. The influence of salt concentration and pH on membrane treatment was studied. The best dye removal yield was achieved at pH 3 in the presence of 60 g/L of NaCl. After the membrane filtration, the concentrate containing high dye concentration was treated by means of an electrochemical process at three different current densities: 33, 83, and 166 mA/cm2. Results showed a lineal relationship between treatment time and applied current density. Both permeates and electrochemically-decoloured effluents were reused in new dyeing processes (100% of permeate and 70% of decoloured concentrates). Dyed fabrics were evaluated with respect to original dyeing. Colour differences were found to be into the acceptance range. PMID:28773614

  19. Reuse of Textile Dyeing Effluents Treated with Coupled Nanofiltration and Electrochemical Processes.

    PubMed

    Buscio, Valentina; García-Jiménez, María; Vilaseca, Mercè; López-Grimau, Victor; Crespi, Martí; Gutiérrez-Bouzán, Carmen

    2016-06-20

    The reactive dye Cibacron Yellow S-3R was selected to evaluate the feasibility of combining nanofiltration membranes with electrochemical processes to treat textile wastewater. Synthetic dyeing effluents were treated by means of two nanofiltration membranes, Hydracore10 and Hydracore50. Up to 98% of dye removal was achieved. The influence of salt concentration and pH on membrane treatment was studied. The best dye removal yield was achieved at pH 3 in the presence of 60 g/L of NaCl. After the membrane filtration, the concentrate containing high dye concentration was treated by means of an electrochemical process at three different current densities: 33, 83, and 166 mA/cm². Results showed a lineal relationship between treatment time and applied current density. Both permeates and electrochemically-decoloured effluents were reused in new dyeing processes (100% of permeate and 70% of decoloured concentrates). Dyed fabrics were evaluated with respect to original dyeing. Colour differences were found to be into the acceptance range.

  20. F/H Area ETF effluent (H-016 outfall) ceriodaphnia survival/reproduction test, test date: September 21, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-08-01

    This toxicity test was conducted to determine if the effluent from the F/H area of Savannah River Plant causes death (acute toxicity) or reduction in the reproduction of the test organisms (chronic toxicity) during a seven day period. A series of dilutions of the effluent are set to determine how much the effluent must be diluted before toxic effects are no longer noted. Acute toxicity is checked by statistically analyzing whether significantly more organisms die in the effluent dilutions than in the control treatment, and, if significantly more die, how much the effluent must be diluted so as to kill only 50% of the test organisms (the LC50). Chronic toxicity is checked by statistically analyzing whether significantly fewer young are produced by test organisms exposed to the effluent dilutions. Results indicate the lowest effluent concentration which shows a toxic effect (the LOEC) and the highest effluent concentration which does not demonstrate an effect (NOEC). Results are discussed.

  1. [AF + BAF for treating effluent in the sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park].

    PubMed

    Tu, Yong; Liu, Wei-Jing; Zhang, Yao-Hui; Xu, Jun; Tang, Min; Chen, Yong; Bai, Yong-Gang

    2014-06-01

    The anaerobic filter (AF) and biological aerated filter (BAF) were employed to treat the effluent in a sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park. The ceramsite was used in BAF. In this study, the influent COD was 200-300 mg x L(-1) and the pilot model scale was 2-4 L x d(-1). According to the results, the AF-BAF treatment had a good effect on organic wastewater. When the AF HRT was 24 h and BAF was 12 h, the removal of COD reached 73.4%, and that of NH4(+)-N reached 93.8%. From gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and three-dimensional fluorescence analysis, it was found that small organic molecules and microbial metabolites could be removed effectively. However, there was no obviously effect on the removal of saturated alkane and nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds. From the denature gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) spectra analysis, it was shown that there were more kinds of microorganism in the sludge of the AF than in the up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB), which indicates that the AF-BAF system is more effective on treating effluent in a sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park.

  2. Storage of treated sewage effluent and stormwater in a saline aquifer, Pinellas Peninsula, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenshein, J.S.; Hickey, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    The Pinellas Peninsula, an area of 750 square kilometres (290 square miles) in coastal west-central Florida, is a small hydrogeologic replica of Florida. Most of the Peninsula's water supply is imported from well fields as much as 65 kilometres (40 miles) inland. Stresses on the hydrologic environment of the Peninsula and on adjacent water bodies, resulting from intensive water-resources development and waste discharge, have resulted in marked interest in subsurface storage of waste water (treated effluent and untreated storm water) and in future retrieval of the stored water for nonpotable use. If subsurface storage is approved by regulatory agencies, as much as 265 megalitres per day (70 million gallons a day) of waste water could be stored underground within a few years, and more than 565 megalitres per day (150 million gallons a day) could be stored in about 25 years. This storage would constitute a large resource of nearly fresh water in the saline aquifers underlying about 520 square kilometres (200 square miles) of the Peninsula.The upper 1,060 metres (3,480 feet) of the rock column underlying four test sites on the Pinellas Peninsula have been explored. The rocks consist chiefly of limestone and dolomite. Three moderately to highly transmissive zones, separated by leaky confining beds, (low permeability limestone) from about 225 to 380 metres (740 to 1,250 feet) below mean sea level, have been identified in the lower part of the Floridan aquifer in the Avon Park Limestone. Results of withdrawal and injection tests in Pinellas County indicate that the middle transmissive zone has the highest estimated transmissivity-about 10 times other reported values. The chloride concentration of water in this zone, as well as in the two other transmissive zones in the Avon Park Limestone in Pinellas Peninsula, is about 19,000 milligrams per litre. If subsurface storage is approved and implemented, this middle zone probably would be used for storage of the waste water and

  3. Closure report for CAU 93: Area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds, Nevada Test Site. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEP) waste unit is located in Area 6 at the Nevada Test Site. The SCEPs are evaporation basins formerly used for the disposal of untreated liquid effluent discharged from steam cleaning activities associated with Buildings 6-623 and 6-800. This closure report documents the strategy and analytical results that support the clean closure or closure in place of each of the components within CAU 93. In addition, the report documents all deviations from the approved closure plan and provides rationale for all deviations.

  4. Zero discharge performance of an industrial pilot-scale plant treating palm oil mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated "zero discharge" pilot-scale industrial plant comprising "pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation" was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer.

  5. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

  6. Naphthalenes associated with treated wastewater effluents in an urban national wildlife refuge

    SciTech Connect

    Tanacredi, J.T. )

    1990-02-01

    This project demonstrates the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon character of Jamaica Bay sediments and the wastewater effluents entering the Bay from four major water pollution control facilities. Jamaica Bay, is a part of the Hudson-Raritan estuarine ecosystem and is incorporated into the Gateway National Recreation Area. Jamaica Bay, because of its hydrological characteristics, affords a long residence time for introduced pollutants. This study was conducted to further characterize the PAH character of the wastewater effluents. These fused ring structures are of interest in that they represent the carcinogenic, mutagenic, and toxic components of petroleum compounds to marine organisms. Because of their high molecular weight, the solubility of PAH in water, is of a very low order. Consequently, in estuarine environments, PAH compounds will be found associated with suspended solids and sediments. Although PAH degrading microorganisms are known to occur in estuarine environments, the degradation rates of these compounds are very slow. Coupled with the low degradation rates and known carcinogenicity of many of these compounds, investigations have shown that fish and other organisms taken from areas with a history of oil contamination have been found to exhibit elevated levels of compounds which bioactivate complex PAH compounds into mutagens.

  7. Method and apparatus for treating gaseous effluents from waste treatment systems

    DOEpatents

    Flannery, Philip A.; Kujawa, Stephan T.

    2000-01-01

    Effluents from a waste treatment operation are incinerated and oxidized by passing the gases through an inductively coupled plasmas arc torch. The effluents are transformed into plasma within the torch. At extremely high plasma temperatures, the effluents quickly oxidize. The process results in high temperature oxidation of the gases without addition of any mass flow for introduction of energy.

  8. Influence of operating conditions on ceramic ultrafiltration membrane performance when treating textile effluents.

    PubMed

    Barredo-Damas, S; Alcaina-Miranda, M I; Gemma, M; Iborra-Clar, M I; Mendoza-Roca, J A

    2011-01-01

    This work studies the performance of three commercial ceramic ultrafiltration membranes (ZrO(2)-TiO(2)) treating raw effluent from a textile industry. The effect of crossflow velocity at 3, 4 and 5 m s(-1) as well as membrane characteristics, such as molecular weight cut-off (30, 50 and 150 kDa), on process performance were studied. Experiments were carried out in concentration mode in order to observe the effect of volume reduction factor simultaneously. Results showed a combined influence of both crossflow velocity and molecular weight cut-off on flux performance. TOC and COD removals up to 70% and 84% respectively were reached. On the other hand, almost complete color (>97%) and turbidity (>99%) removals were achieved for all the membranes and operating conditions.

  9. Treatment and decolorization of biologically treated Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) using banana peel as novel biosorbent.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Rafie Rushdy; Chong, Mei Fong

    2014-01-01

    Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) treatment has always been a topic of research in Malaysia. This effluent that is extremely rich in organic content needs to be properly treated to minimize environmental hazards before it is released into watercourses. The main aim of this work is to evaluate the potential of applying natural, chemically and thermally modified banana peel as sorbent for the treatment of biologically treated POME. Characteristics of these sorbents were analyzed with BET surface area and SEM. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to remove color, total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), tannin and lignin, and biological oxygen demand (BOD) onto natural banana peel (NBP), methylated banana peel (MBP), and banana peel activated carbon (BPAC) respectively. The variables of pH, adsorbent dosage, and contact time were investigated in this study. Maximum percentage removal of color, TSS, COD, BOD, and tannin and lignin (95.96%, 100%, 100%, 97.41%, and 76.74% respectively) on BPAC were obtained at optimized pH of 2, contact time of 30 h and adsorbent dosage of 30 g/100 ml. The isotherm data were well described by the Redlich-Peterson isotherm model with correlation coefficient of more than 0.99. Kinetic of adsorption was examined by Langergren pseudo first order, pseudo second order, and second order. The pseudo second order was identified to be the governing mechanism with high correlation coefficient of more than 0.99. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of sorption sites and differential stress response of microalgae isolates against tannery effluents from ranipet industrial area-An application towards phycoremediation.

    PubMed

    Balaji, S; Kalaivani, T; Sushma, B; Pillai, C Varneetha; Shalini, M; Rajasekaran, C

    2016-08-02

    Phycoremediation ability of microalgae namely Oscillatoria acuminate and Phormidium irrigum were validated against the heavy metals from tannery effluent of Ranipet industrial area. The microalgae species were cultured in media containing tannery effluent in two different volumes and the parameters like specific growth rate, protein content and antioxidant enzyme activities were estimated. FTIR spectroscopy was carried out to know the sorption sites interaction. The antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) contents were increased in microalgae species indicating the free radical scavenging mechanism under heavy metal stress. SOD activity was 0.502 and 0.378 units/gram fresh weight, CAT activity was 1.36 and 0.256 units/gram fresh weight, GSH activity was 1.286 and 1.232 units/gram fresh weight respectively in the effluent treated microalgae species. Bio sorption efficiency for Oscillatoria acuminate and Phormidium irrigum was 90% and 80% respectively. FTIR analysis revealed the interaction of microalgae species with chemical groups present in the tannery effluent. From the results, the microalgae Oscillatoria acuminate possess high antioxidant activity and bio sorption efficiency when compared to Phormidium irrigum and hence considered useful in treating heavy metals contaminated effluents.

  11. State waste discharge permit application for the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Application is being made for a permit pursuant to Chapter 173--216 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), to discharge treated waste water and cooling tower blowdown from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) to land at the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). The ETF is located in the 200 East Area and the SALDS is located north of the 200 West Area. The ETF is an industrial waste water treatment plant that will initially receive waste water from the following two sources, both located in the 200 Area on the Hanford Site: (1) the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and (2) the 242-A Evaporator. The waste water discharged from these two facilities is process condensate (PC), a by-product of the concentration of waste from DSTs that is performed in the 242-A Evaporator. Because the ETF is designed as a flexible treatment system, other aqueous waste streams generated at the Hanford Site may be considered for treatment at the ETF. The origin of the waste currently contained in the DSTs is explained in Section 2.0. An overview of the concentration of these waste in the 242-A Evaporator is provided in Section 3.0. Section 4.0 describes the LERF, a storage facility for process condensate. Attachment A responds to Section B of the permit application and provides an overview of the processes that generated the wastes, storage of the wastes in double-shell tanks (DST), preliminary treatment in the 242-A Evaporator, and storage at the LERF. Attachment B addresses waste water treatment at the ETF (under construction) and the addition of cooling tower blowdown to the treated waste water prior to disposal at SALDS. Attachment C describes treated waste water disposal at the proposed SALDS.

  12. UV disinfection of RBC-treated light greywater effluent: kinetics, survival and regrowth of selected microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Gilboa, Yael; Friedler, Eran

    2008-02-01

    The microbial quality of raw greywater was found to be much better than that of municipal wastewater, with 1.6 x 10(7)cfu ml(-1) heterotrophic plate count (HPC), and 3.8 x 10(4), 9.9 x 10(3), 3.3 x 10(3) and 4.6 x 10(0)cfu 100 ml(-1) faecal coliforms (FC), Staphylococcus aureus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa sp. and Clostridium perfringes sp., respectively. Further, three viral indicators monitored (somatic phage, host: Escherichia coli CN(13) and F-RNA phages, hosts: E. coli F+(amp), E. coli K12) were not present in raw greywater. The greywater was treated by an RBC followed by sedimentation. The treatment removed two orders of magnitude of all bacteria. UV disinfection kinetics, survival and regrowth of HPC, FC, P. aeruginosa sp. and S. aureus sp. were examined. At doses up to 69 mW s cm(-2) FC were found to be the most resistant bacteria, followed by HPC, P. aeruginosa sp. and S. aureus sp. (inactivation rate coefficients: 0.0687, 0.113, 0.129 and 0.201 cm2 mW(-1)s(-1), respectively). At higher doses (69-439 mW s cm(-2)) all but HPC (which exhibited a tailing curve) were completely eliminated. Microscopic examination showed that FC self-aggregate in the greywater effluent. This provides FC an advantage at low doses, since the concentration of suspended matter (that can provide shelter from UV radiation) in the effluent was very low. FC, P. aeruginosa sp. and S. aureus sp. did not exhibit regrowth up to 6h after exposure to increasing UV doses (19-439 mW s cm(-2)). HPC regrowth was proven to be statistically significant in un-disinfected effluent and after irradiation with high UV doses (147 and 439 mW s cm(-2)). At these doses regrowth resulted from growth of UV-resistant bacteria due to decreased competition with other bacteria eliminated by the irradiation.

  13. Cause and effect relationship between foam formation and treated wastewater effluents in a transboundary river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzicka, Katerina; Gabriel, Oliver; Bletterie, Ulrike; Winkler, Stefan; Zessner, Matthias

    The occurrence of foam at weirs in a lowland river in Austria and shortly after the Austrian border with Hungary, as well as, the associated protests from Hungarian locals led to investigations concerning the reasons for foam formation. Three aspects were the main subject of investigation, namely, (i) to assess the dimension of the appearing foam, (ii) to evaluate the reasons for the formation of foam, and (iii) to set abatement-measures. A 1 year monitoring programme included a close network of surface water sampling sites, as well as, the sampling of thirteen municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants along the river stretch. In addition to classical parameters (physical and chemical) the surface tension and tensides were analysed. Constant observation of foam formation in Hungary was achieved by the installation of an online webcam with combined data recording, which resulted in the development of a seven-stage foam index (0-6) for semi quantitative assessment of foam formation on the river. Also, the effluents of the wastewater treatment plants that were considered were the subject of standardised foaming tests. The basis of the tests was to detect, (i) foam on the sample and, (ii) the dilution of a sample at which no more foam could be observed. The dilution factor was used to calculate the foam potential of an effluent, which is an size for the potential volume of river water that may be foamed by waste water treatment plants’ effluents. The spatial distribution of foam along the river stretch, as well as, the results of the foam tests allowed the identification of three tanneries as the main contributors to foam, although wastewater from these tanneries is treated at wastewater treatment plants by the best available technology (biological treatment with nitrification and denitrification, sludge retention time >20 days, temperature in the activated sludge tank >20 °C). The implementation of an accepted degree of foam formation was desirable to

  14. Soil water repellency induced by long-term irrigation with treated sewage effluent.

    PubMed

    Wallach, R; Ben-Arie, O; Graber, E R

    2005-01-01

    This study describes soil water repellency developed under prolonged irrigation with treated sewage effluent in a semiarid environment. Soil surface layer (0-5 cm) and soil profile (0-50 cm) transects were sampled at a high resolution at the close of the irrigation season and rainy winter season. Samples from 0- to 5-cm transects were subdivided into 1-cm slices to obtain fine scale resolution of repellency and organic matter distribution. Extreme to severe soil water repellency in the 0- to 5-cm soil surface layer persisted throughout the 2-yr study period in the effluent-irrigated Shamouti orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Shamouti] orchard plot. Nearby Shamouti orange plots irrigated with tap water were either nonrepellent or only somewhat repellent. Repellency was very variable spatially and with depth, appearing in vertically oriented "repellency tongues." Temporal and spatial variability in repellency in the uppermost 5-cm soil surface layer was not related to seasonality, soil moisture content, or soil organic matter content. Nonuniform distribution of soil moisture and fingered flow were observed in the soil profile after both seasons, demonstrating that the repellent layer had a persistent effect on water flow in the soil profile. A lack of correlation between bulk density and volumetric water content in the soil profile demonstrates that the observed nonuniform spatial distribution of moisture results from preferential flow and not heterogeneity in soil properties. Soil water repellency can adversely affect agricultural production, cause contamination of underlying ground water resources, and result in excessive runoff and soil erosion.

  15. Advanced oxidation treatment of physico-chemically pre-treated olive mill industry effluent.

    PubMed

    Gomec, Cigdem Y; Erdim, Esra; Turan, Ilknur; Aydin, Ali F; Ozturk, Izzet

    2007-08-01

    In this study, the applicability of physico-chemical methods was investigated for the pre-treatment of the olive mill effluents prior to the discharge into the common sewerage ending with a municipal wastewater treatment plant. The samples were taken from an olive oil industry operated as three-phase process located in Turkey. Various pre-treatment methods including acid craking, polyelectrolyte and lime additions were applied. Advanced oxidation study using Fenton's process was also investigated following pre-treatment by acid cracking and cationic polyelectrolyte. Acid cracking alone gave satisfactory treatment efficiencies and polyelectrolite additions to the acid-cracked samples enhanced treatment efficiency. Since a complete treatment plant is available at the end of the sewer system, results indicated that the effluents of the investigated industry could be discharged into the municipal sewerage in the case of total chemical oxygen demand (COD(tot)), suspended solid (SS) and volatile suspended solid (VSS) concentrations according to the Turkish Water Pollution Control Regulation after pre-treatment with 5 ppm anionic polyelectrolyte following acid cracking. The minimum COD(tot), SS and VSS removals were observed when raw wastewater was pre-treated with lime and the discharge standards to the municipal sewer system could not be met. Advanced oxidation with Fenton's process was applied after acid cracking and cationic polyelectrolyte treatment in order to investigate further reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration for minimizing the influence of this industrial discharge on the existing municipal wastewater treatment plant. Results indicated that COD(tot) removal increased up to 89% from 74% after Fenton's oxidation for the acid cracked samples in which cationic polyelectrolite (10 ppm) was added.

  16. Quarterly sampling of the wetlands along the old F-Area effluent ditch: March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, K.L.; Cummins, C.L.; Rogers, V.A.

    1994-05-01

    In March 1994, well point water and near surface water (bucket) samples were collected to further characterize tritium and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the wetlands along the old F-Area effluent ditch south of 643-E (old burial ground). Groundwater flow paths suggest that compounds detected in water table wells around 643-E would migrate towards the old F-Area effluent ditch and Fourmile Branch. Recent analytical results from near surface water sampling in the wetlands that comprise the old F-Area effluent ditch have shown that tritium and small quantities of VOCs are outcropping in the area. Results of the March 1994 sampling event further support findings that tritium and volatile organic compounds originating from 643-E are outcropping in the wetlands near the old F-Area effluent ditch. Six different analytes were detected in the well points at least once at concentrations greater than the method detection limit: d 1,2-dichloroethylene, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and tritium. 1,2-dichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and tritium were detected at levels above Primary Drinking Water Standards or Maximum Contaminant Levels list. Four analytes, 1,2-dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene, tritium, and vinyl chloride, were detected at least once at concentrations greater than the method detection limit and least once at concentrations above the PDWS or the MCL. Based on differences in tritium concentrations at each location, it was determined that the sampling devices intercepted different groundwater flow paths. This negated direct comparison of analytical results between devices. However, when VOC concentrations measured at each well point and bucket location were normalized, resulting well point and bucket VOC concentrations were comparable in most cases. These results suggest that volatilization losses of VOCs from the buckets were negligible.

  17. Quarterly sampling of the wetlands along the old F Area effluent ditch: August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Cummins, C.L.; Dixon, K.L.

    1994-08-01

    In August 1994, well point water and near-surface water samples were collected to characterize tritium and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the wetlands along the old F-Area effluent ditch south of 643-E (old burial ground). The August sampling event was the third in a series of eight events. Groundwater flow paths suggest that compounds detected in water table wells around 643-E migrate towards the old F-Area effluent ditch and Fourmile Branch. Recent analytical results from well point and near-surface water sampling in the wetlands that comprise the old F-Area effluent ditch have shown that tritium and small quantities of VOCs are outcropping in the area. For this study, seven locations along the old F-Area effluent ditch were selected to be sampled. Well point samples were collected from all seven locations and near-surface water samples were collected at four locations. A secondary objective of this project was to compare VOC concentrations between the well points installed to depths of 6 to 8 ft and the near-surface water sampling buckets installed to depths of 1 to 2 ft. Based on differences in tritium concentrations at each location, it was determined that the sampling devices intercepted different groundwater flow paths. This negated direct comparison of analytical results between devices. However, when VOC concentrations measured at each well point and bucket location were normalized, based on the percent differences observed in tritium concentrations at that location, the resulting well point and bucket VOC concentrations were comparable in most cases. These results are consistent with the results from the three previous sampling events, and suggest that volatilization losses of VOCs from the buckets may be negligible. Since the results from the two sampling methodologies are not directly comparable, further sampling of the buckets is not planned.

  18. Influence of surface properties of RO membrane on membrane fouling for treating textile secondary effluent.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhonglong; Yang, Cheng; Long, Chao; Li, Aimin

    2017-07-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) is a promising technology for treating and reusing textile secondary effluent (SE). To better understand the effect of membrane surface properties on membrane fouling, the performances of three commercial polyamide thin-film composite RO membranes (BW30-4040, CPA2-4040, and RE-4040-FEN) with different roughness and hydrophilicity were investigated for treating textile SE. The RO membranes were characterized by ATR-FTIR, SEM, AFM, and contact angle, respectively. The results showed that the flux increased with an increase in the surface hydrophilicity of membrane. CPA2-4040 had the highest hydrophilic surface and thus the largest initial flux. There was a strong correlation between the membrane fouling and the surface roughness; the fouling increased with an increase in the surface roughness. The roughest surface of CPA2-4040 led to the most significantly flux decline. However, the fouling reversibility was not related directly to surface roughness. BW30-4040 with the secondary roughness and the most hydrophobic surface had the highest fouling reversibility. This was mainly due to the primary hydrophilicity of textile SE in nature. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) showed that hydrophilic neutral protein-like matters and soluble microbial products (SMP) were the main foulants, thus stronger affinity with hydrophilic surface of membrane. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  19. Effects of spray-irrigated treated effluent on water quantity and quality, and the fate and transport of nitrogen in a small watershed, New Garden Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreffler, Curtis L.; Galeone, Daniel G.; Veneziale, John M.; Olson, Leif E.; O'Brien, David L.

    2005-01-01

    An increasing number of communities in Pennsylvania are implementing land-treatment systems to dispose of treated sewage effluent. Disposal of treated effluent by spraying onto the land surface, instead of discharging to streams, may recharge the ground-water system and reduce degradation of stream-water quality. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP) and the Chester County Water Resources Authority (CCWRA) and with assistance from the New Garden Township Sewer Authority, conducted a study from October 1997 through December 2001 to assess the effects of spray irrigation of secondary treated sewage effluent on the water quantity and quality and the fate and transport of nitrogen in a 38-acre watershed in New Garden Township, Chester County, Pa. On an annual basis, the spray irrigation increased the recharge to the watershed. Compared to the annual recharge determined for the Red Clay Creek watershed above the USGS streamflow-gaging station (01479820) near Kennett Square, Pa., the spray irrigation increased annual recharge in the study watershed by approximately 8.8 in. (inches) in 2000 and 4.3 in. in 2001. For 2000 and 2001, the spray irrigation increased recharge 65-70 percent more than the recharge estimates determined for the Red Clay Creek watershed. The increased recharge was equal to 30-39 percent of the applied effluent. The spray-irrigated effluent increased base flow in the watershed. The magnitude of the increase appeared to be related to the time of year when the application rates increased. During the late fall through winter and into the early spring period, when application rates were low, base flow increased by approximately 50 percent over the period prior to effluent application. During the early spring through summer to the late fall period, when application rates were high, base flow increased by approximately 200 percent over the period prior to effluent application

  20. Enterocytozoon bieneusi detected by molecular methods in raw sewage and treated effluent from a combined system in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Yamashiro, Sandra; Fiuza, Vagner Ricardo da Silva; Teixeira, Ângela Therezinha Lauand Sampaio; Branco, Nilson; Levy, Carlos Emílio; de Castro, Isabel Cristina Vidal Siqueira; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Enterocytozoon bieneusi are the most common microsporidia associated with different clinical manifestations such as diarrhoea, respiratory tract inflammation and acalculous cholecystitis, especially in immunocompromised patients. Infection usually occurs by ingestion of food and water contaminated with spores, but can also result from direct contact with spores through broken skin, eye lesions, and sexual transmission, depending on the microsporidian species. Although there are reports of E. bieneusi found in humans and animals in Brazil, there are no published studies of environmental samples examined by molecular methods. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to verify the presence of E. bieneusi in raw sewage and treated effluent from a combined system by molecular methods. METHODS Raw sewage and treated effluent samples collected from a combined system were analysed for the presence of E. bieneusi using the internal transcriber spacer (ITS) region of E. bieneusi by nested polymerase chain reaction. FINDINGS The analysis revealed E. bieneusi presence and a novel genotype (EbRB) in one raw sewage sample and one treated effluent. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The presence of E. bieneusi in final effluent indicates that the combined system may not remove microsporidian spores. This study is the first report of E. bieneusi in environmental samples in Brazil. PMID:28591400

  1. Enterocytozoon bieneusi detected by molecular methods in raw sewage and treated effluent from a combined system in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Sandra; Fiuza, Vagner Ricardo da Silva; Teixeira, Ângela Therezinha Lauand Sampaio; Branco, Nilson; Levy, Carlos Emílio; Castro, Isabel Cristina Vidal Siqueira de; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2017-06-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi are the most common microsporidia associated with different clinical manifestations such as diarrhoea, respiratory tract inflammation and acalculous cholecystitis, especially in immunocompromised patients. Infection usually occurs by ingestion of food and water contaminated with spores, but can also result from direct contact with spores through broken skin, eye lesions, and sexual transmission, depending on the microsporidian species. Although there are reports of E. bieneusi found in humans and animals in Brazil, there are no published studies of environmental samples examined by molecular methods. The purpose of this study was to verify the presence of E. bieneusi in raw sewage and treated effluent from a combined system by molecular methods. Raw sewage and treated effluent samples collected from a combined system were analysed for the presence of E. bieneusi using the internal transcriber spacer (ITS) region of E. bieneusi by nested polymerase chain reaction. The analysis revealed E. bieneusi presence and a novel genotype (EbRB) in one raw sewage sample and one treated effluent. The presence of E. bieneusi in final effluent indicates that the combined system may not remove microsporidian spores. This study is the first report of E. bieneusi in environmental samples in Brazil.

  2. Whole acute toxicity removal from industrial and domestic effluents treated by electron beam radiation: emphasis on anionic surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, M. C. F.; Romanelli, M. F.; Sena, H. C.; Pasqualini da Silva, G.; Sampa, M. H. O.; Borrely, S. I.

    2004-09-01

    Electron beam radiation has been applied to improve real industrial and domestic effluents received by Suzano wastewater treatment plant. Radiation efficacy has been evaluated as toxicity reduction, using two biological assays. Three sites were sampled and submitted for toxicity assays, anionic surfactant determination and electron beam irradiation. This paper shows the reduction of acute toxicity for both test-organisms, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia similis. The raw toxic effluents exibitted from 0.6 ppm up to 11.67 ppm for anionic surfactant before being treated by the electron beam. Radiation processing resulted in reduction of the acute toxicity as well as surfactant removal. The final biological effluent was in general less toxic than other sites but the presence of anionic surfactants was evidenced.

  3. A case study on algal response to raw and treated effluents from an aluminum plating plant and a pharmaceutical plant.

    PubMed

    Türker Saçan, Melek; Akmehmet Balcioğlu, Işil

    2006-06-01

    The algal growth responses to the effluents of an aluminum plating plant and to the wastewater from an analgesic/antiinflammatory-drug-producing pharmaceutical plant were investigated. Growth response of the marine alga Dunaliella tertiolecta was monitored by measuring the two response parameters optical density (OD(640)) and in vitro chlorophyll fluorescence for a period of 14 days. Generally, the two response measurements gave similar results for all effluents but the raw effluents of the aluminum plating plant due to the composition of the wastewater. All wastes affected algal growth either by inhibition only or by stimulation at low concentrations and inhibition at high concentrations. Since pollutant tolerance of algae biased toxicity test results, acclimation of algae to the raw effluent of the aluminum plating plant was examined. Although the water quality parameters of treated effluent of both plants were in the permitted range reported by the Turkish Water Pollution Control Act, they inhibited growth at higher concentrations, implying that the two treatment plants were inefficient. Therefore, the importance of toxicity tests in wastewater discharge regulations was emphasized.

  4. Field-based approach for assessing the impact of treated pulp and paper mill effluent on endogenous metabolites of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Davis, J M; Collette, T W; Villeneuve, D L; Cavallin, J E; Teng, Q; Jensen, K M; Kahl, M D; Mayasich, J M; Ankley, G T; Ekman, D R

    2013-09-17

    A field-based metabolomic study was conducted during a shutdown of a pulp and paper mill (PPM) to assess the impacts of treated PPM effluent on endogenous polar metabolites in fathead minnow (FHM; Pimephales promelas) livers. Caged male and female FHMs were deployed at a Great Lakes area of concern during multiple periods (pre-, during, and post-shutdown) near the outflow for a wastewater treatment plant. Influent to this plant is typically 40% PPM effluent by volume. Additional FHMs were exposed to reference lake water under laboratory conditions. A bioassay using T47D-KBluc cells showed that estrogenic activity of receiving water near the outflow declined by 46% during the shutdown. We then used (1)H NMR spectroscopy and principal component analysis to profile abundances of hepatic endogenous metabolites for FHMs. Profiles for males deployed pre-shutdown in receiving water were significantly different from those for laboratory-control males. Profiles were not significantly different for males deployed during the shutdown, but they were significant again for those deployed post-shutdown. Impacts of treated effluent from this PPM were sex-specific, as differences among profiles of females were largely nonsignificant. Thus, we demonstrate the potential utility of field-based metabolomics for performing biologically based exposure monitoring and evaluating remediation efforts occurring throughout the Great Lakes and other ecosystems.

  5. Analysis of bacteria, parasites, and heavy metals in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and rocket salad (Eruca sativa L.) irrigated with treated effluent from a biological wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Nikaido, Meire; Tonani, Karina A A; Julião, Fabiana C; Trevilato, Tânia M B; Takayanagui, Angela M M; Sanches, Sérgio M; Domingo, José L; Segura-Muñoz, Susana I

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the viability of using treated residuary water from the Biological Wastewater Treatment Plant of Ribeirão Preto to grow vegetables, through the characterization and quantification of parasites, coliforms, and heavy metals. Three equal cultivation areas were prepared. The first was irrigated with treated/chlorinated (0.2 mg L(-1)) wastewater, the second one with treated wastewater without chlorination, and the third site with potable water, which was the control group. The presence of Hymenolepis nana, Enterobius vermicularis, nematode larvae, and Entamoeba coli was verified in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) samples. Although nematode larvae were observed in rocket salad (Eruca sativa L.), no significant differences were found between the number of parasites and type of irrigation water used. No significant differences were found between the number of fecal coliforms in vegetables and the different types of irrigation. However, the vegetables irrigated with treated effluent without chlorination showed higher levels of fecal coliforms. The risk of pathogens is reduced with bleach addition to the treated effluent at 0.2 mg/L. Concentration of heavy metals in vegetables does not mean significant risks to human health, according with the parameters recommended by the World Health Organization.

  6. Viability of multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria in distribution lines of treated sewage effluent used for irrigation.

    PubMed

    Al-Bahry, S N; Mahmoud, I Y; Al-Khaifi, A; Elshafie, A E; Al-Harthy, A

    2009-01-01

    Viability of multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria (MARB) in tertiary treated sewage effluent (TTSE) used for irrigation, was investigated at the Sultan Qaboos University sewage treatment plant (STP). This water recycle system is used here as a model for the systems commonly used throughout Oman and the Gulf region. Samples of TTSE were collected weekly from four sites, 1.5 km from each other. Chlorine levels declined gradually at the three sites with increasing distance from the STP. Viable bacteria, coliforms and nitrate concentrations increased significantly while biological oxygen demand (BOD) declined after STP chlorination. Mean values of turbidity changed slightly. Trace elements values were insignificant. A total of 336 bacteria from 8 genera revealed that the dominant isolates were Enterobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Aeromonas spp. Among the isolates 59.8% were multiply resistant to several antibiotics. Resistance was higher to ampicillin followed by sulphamethoxazole, carbenicillin, streptomycine and minocycline. Frequency of resistance to the 14 antibiotics varied among the isolates. The present system related to the viability of MARB in TTSE used for irrigation may have serious implications for public health and wildlife. Results of this investigation will be of value in modifying current STPs systems and thus avoiding serious health issues.

  7. Performance of plastic- and sponge-based trickling filters treating effluents from an UASB reactor.

    PubMed

    Almeida, P G S; Marcus, A K; Rittmann, B E; Chernicharo, C A L

    2013-01-01

    The paper compares the performance of two trickling filters (TFs) filled with plastic- or sponge-based packing media treating the effluent from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The UASB reactor was operated with an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.2 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1), and the OLR applied to the TFs was 0.30-0.65 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1) (COD: chemical oxygen demand). The sponge-based packing medium (Rotosponge) gave substantially better performance for ammonia, total-N, and organic matter removal. The superior TF-Rotosponge performance for NH(4)(+)-N removal (80-95%) can be attributed to its longer biomass and hydraulic retention times (SRT and HRT), as well as enhancements in oxygen mass transfer by dispersion and advection inside the sponges. Nitrogen removals were significant (15 mgN L(-1)) in TF-Rotosponge when the OLRs were close to 0.75 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1), due to denitrification that was related to solids hydrolysis in the sponge interstices. For biochemical oxygen demand removal, higher HRT and SRT were especially important because the UASB removed most of the readily biodegradable organic matter. The new configuration of the sponge-based packing medium called Rotosponge can enhance the feasibility of scaling-up the UASB/TF treatment, including when retrofitting is necessary.

  8. Purification ability and carbon dioxide flux from surface flow constructed wetlands treating sewage treatment plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haiming; Lin, Li; Zhang, Jian; Guo, Wenshan; Liang, Shuang; Liu, Hai

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a two-year experiment was carried out to investigate variation of carbon dioxide (CO2) flux from free water surface constructed wetlands (FWS CW) systems treating sewage treatment plant effluent, and treatment performance was also evaluated. The better 74.6-76.6% COD, 92.7-94.4% NH4(+)-N, 60.1-84.7% TN and 49.3-70.7% TP removal efficiencies were achieved in planted CW systems compared with unplanted systems. The planted CW was a net CO2 sink, while the unplanted CW was a net CO2 source in the entire study period. An obvious annual and seasonal variability of CO2 fluxes from different wetland systems was also presented with the average CO2 flux ranging from -592.83mgm(-2)h(-1) to 553.91mgm(-2)h(-1) during 2012-2013. In addition, the net exchange of CO2 between CW systems and the atmosphere was significantly affected by air temperature, and the presence of plants also had the significant effect on total CO2 emissions.

  9. Research of combined adsorption-coagulation process in treating petroleum refinery effluent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Shui, Yiyu; Ren, Hongyang; He, Min

    2017-02-01

    The petroleum refinery industry generates a significant amount of wastewater that contains a high level of organic matter, which calls for effective and costly treatments. In this research, the effectiveness of the petroleum refinery effluent (PRE) treatment with physicochemical process of combined adsorption and coagulation was evaluated. The effects of initial pH, hydraulic condition , and combined sequence of treatment process, different treating reagent types and dosages on the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were investigated. Additionally, the elimination efficiency of pollutant wastewater was monitored by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometer was adopted to describe the structure of the wastewater. Wooden activated carbon was chosen as adsorbent at the dosage of 10 g/L as a primary treatment, and 1500 mg/L polymeric magnesium ferric sulfate was used in coagulation. Results showed that adsorption and subsequent coagulation displayed the best performance when initial pH was 9 at shear rates (G) of G1 = 65 s(-1) and G2 = 20 s(-1), which reached maximal removal rate of COD and total organic carbon GC-MS testing result revealed that adsorption was effective in phenols and iso-alkanes removal, whereas coagulation was good at removing esters and n-alkanes.

  10. Identification of key water quality characteristics affecting the filterability of biologically treated effluent in low-pressure membrane filtration.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T; Fan, L; Roddick, F A; Harris, J L

    2010-01-01

    There are many water quality characteristics which could influence the filterability of biologically treated effluent from Melbourne's Western Treatment Plant (WTP). Statistical correlation was used to identify the key water characteristics affecting the microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) filterability in terms of permeate volume of the treated effluent. The models developed showed that turbidity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total suspended solids (TSS) were the key factors which influenced the MF and UF filterability. Turbidity was the dominant factor affecting the accuracy of the model for MF filterability while DOC was the major factor affecting the accuracy of the model for UF filterability. A prediction accuracy of 85% was obtained for MF and 86% for UF filterability of the WTP effluent. The characteristics of the organic components of the wastewater were demonstrated by EEM spectra to have seasonal variation which would have reduced the prediction accuracy. As turbidity, DOC and TSS can be determined on-line, the models would be useful for rapid prediction of the filterability of WTP effluent and this may assist the control of low-pressure membrane filtration processes.

  11. Silage effluent management: a review.

    PubMed

    Gebrehanna, M M; Gordon, R J; Madani, A; VanderZaag, A C; Wood, J D

    2014-10-01

    Silage effluent is a potent wastewater that can be produced when ensiling crops that have a high moisture content (MC). Silage effluent can cause fish-kills and eutrophication due to its high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and nutrient content, respectively. It has a high acidity (pH ≈ 3.5-5) making it corrosive to steel and damaging to concrete, which makes handling, storage and disposal a challenge. Although being recognized as a concentrated wastewater, most research has focused on preventing its production. Despite noted imprecision in effluent production models-and therefore limited ability to predict when effluent will flow-there has been little research aimed at identifying effective reactive management options, such as containment and natural treatment systems. Increasing climate variability and intensifying livestock agriculture are issues that will place a greater importance on developing comprehensive, multi-layered management strategies that include both preventative and reactive measures. This paper reviews important factors governing the production of effluent, approaches to minimize effluent flows as well as treatment and disposal options. The challenges of managing silage effluent are reviewed in the context of its chemical constituents. A multi-faceted approach should be utilized to minimize environmental risks associated with silage effluent. This includes: (i) managing crop moisture content prior to ensiling to reduce effluent production, (ii) ensuring the integrity of silos and effluent storages, and (iii) establishing infrastructure for effluent treatment and disposal. A more thorough investigation of constructed wetlands and vegetated infiltration areas for treating dilute silage effluent is needed. In particular, there should be efforts to improve natural treatment system design criteria by identifying pre-treatment processes and appropriate effluent loading rates. There is also a need for research aimed at understanding the effects of

  12. Genotoxicity evaluation of tannery effluent treated with newly isolated hexavalent chromium reducing Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Vineeta; Yadav, Ashutosh; Haq, Izharul; Kumar, Sharad; Bharagava, Ram Naresh; Singh, Sudheer Kumar; Raj, Abhay

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the efficiency of free and immobilized cells of newly isolated hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] reducing Bacillus cereus strain Cr1 (accession no. KJ162160) was studied in the treatment of tannery effluent. The analysis of effluents revealed high chemical oxygen demand (COD-1260 mg/L), biological oxygen demand (BOD5-660 mg/L), total dissolved solids (TDS-14000 mg/L), electrical conductivity (EC-21.5 mS/cm) and total chromium (TC-2.4 mg/L). The effluents also showed genotoxic effects to Allium cepa. Treatment of tannery effluent with isolated B. cereus strain led to considerable reduction of pollutant load. The pollutant load reduction was studied with both immobilized and free cells and immobilized cells were more effective in reducing COD (65%), BOD (80%), TDS (67%), EC (65%) and TC (92%) after 48 h. GC-MS analysis of pre and post-treatment tannery effluent samples revealed reduction of organic load after treatment with free and immobilized cells. An improvement in mitotic index and reduction in chromosomal aberrations was also observed in A. cepa grown with post-treatement effluent samples compared to untreated sample. Results demonstrate that both methods of bacterial treatment (free and immobilized) were efficient in reducing the pollutant load of tannery effluent as well as in reducing genotoxic effects, however, treatment with immobilized cells was more effective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Parasitic and bacterial contamination in collards using effluent from treated domestic wastewater in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Keawvichit, R; Wongworapat, K; Putsyainant, P; Silprasert, A; Karnchanawong, S

    2001-01-01

    Thailand often has inadequate water supply for agriculture during the dry season. The reuse of treated wastewater treatment plants could solve this problem. Treatment of domestic wastewater of Chiang Mai municipality by the aerated lagoon system (AL) releases more than 25,000 m3 of treated water everyday. The reuse of wastewater in agriculture is an efficient use of water, especially in tropical countries or in drought zones. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the possibility of using treated wastewater in growing edible vegetables, ie collards (kale), without pathogenic parasite and bacterial contamination. Collards (Brassica oleracea var acephala) were grown using either the treated wastewater from the aerated lagoon system (AL) or ground water (GW). Three cropping times were scheduled in February, May and July, 2000. Samples of water from AL system and GW were taken two times per month (the consecutive weeks) from February to July and examined for bacteria and parasites. Irrigation water (IW) that was normally used in agriculture was also collected, at the same time of the AL and GW collection, for bacteria and parasite investigation. A soil sample was taken before and after each crop for parasite examination. Collards were also collected at the end of the crop for parasite investigation. The results showed that GW seems to be a clean water since no pathogenic bacteria were found although small amount of Escherichia coli was noted in May. For AL and IW, similar number and types of bacteria were found. They were Aeromonas sobria, A. hydrophila, E. coli, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, non-pathogenic type of Vibrio cholerae. The small number of Salmonella enteritidis gr E was found in AL in April. After investigating 12 samples in 6 months of each kind of water, ie GW, Al, and IW, no parasite was found. Only unidentified free living nematodes were found in IW but those parasites are non pathogenic. A small number of unidentified free

  14. Geohydrologic evaluation for the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility State-Approved Land Disposal Site: Addendum to WAC 173-240 Engineering Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ballantyne, N.A.

    1993-08-01

    This document provides a geohydrologic evaluation for the disposal of liquid effluent from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) at the Hanford Site. This work forms an addendum to the engineering report that supports the completion of the ETF.

  15. Therapeutic levels of levonorgestrel detected in blood plasma of fish: results from screening rainbow trout exposed to treated sewage effluents.

    PubMed

    Fick, Jerker; Lindberg, Richard H; Parkkonen, Jari; Arvidsson, Björn; Tysklind, Mats; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2010-04-01

    Pharmaceuticals are found in surface waters worldwide, raising concerns about effects on aquatic organisms. Analyses of pharmaceuticals in blood plasma of fish could provide means to assess risk for pharmacological effects, as these concentrations could be compared with available human therapeutic plasma levels. In this study we investigated if fish exposed to sewage effluents have plasma concentrations of pharmaceuticals that are approaching human therapeutic levels. We also evaluated how well the bioconcentration of pharmaceuticals into fish blood plasma can be predicted based on lipophilicity. Rainbow trout were exposed to undiluted, treated sewage effluents at three sites in Sweden for 14 days. Levels of 25 pharmaceuticals in blood plasma and effluents were analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. The progestin pharmaceutical levonorgestrel was detected in fish blood plasma at concentrations (8.5-12 ng mL(-1)), exceeding the human therapeutic plasma level. In total 16 pharmaceuticals were detected in fish plasma at concentrations higher than 1/1000 of the human therapeutic plasma concentration. Twenty-one pharmaceuticals were detected in either plasma or effluent, and 14 were detected in both compartments, allowing plasma bioconcentration factors to be determined. For 11 of these, theoretically calculated and experimentally measured values were in reasonably good agreement. However a few drugs, including levonorgestrel, did not bioconcentrate according to the screening model used. This study shows that rainbow trout exposed to sewage effluents have blood plasma levels of pharmaceuticals similar to human therapeutic concentrations, suggesting a risk for pharmacological effects in the fish. There is a particular concern about effects of progestin pharmaceuticals. For levonorgestrel, the measured effluent level (1 ng/L) was higher than water levels shown to reduce the

  16. Suitability of macrophytes for nutrient removal from surface flow constructed wetlands receiving secondary treated sewage effluent in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Greenway, M

    2003-01-01

    From a botanical perspective the major difference between waste stabilisation ponds and wetlands is the dominance of algae or floating plants in the former and emergent plants in the latter. Algae, floating and submerged plants remove nutrients directly from the water column whereas emergent species remove nutrients from the sediment. Water depth is a crucial factor in determining which plant types will become established. Surface flow constructed wetlands offer the greatest potential to grow a wide variety of different types of macrophytes. In assessing the suitability of plant species for nutrient removal, consideration must be given not only to nutrient uptake for growth but also storage of nutrients as plant biomass. A survey of macrophytes in 15 surface flow constructed wetlands treating secondary effluent was conducted in Queensland; 63 native species and 14 introduced species were found. Emergent species have been able to tolerate deeper water than in their natural environment and permanent waterlogging. All species grew well in the higher nutrient enriched wastewater. Submerged, floating leaved-attached and free floating species had the highest tissue nutrient content, followed by aquatic creepers. All these species remove nutrients from the water column. Emergent species had lower nutrient content but a greater biomass and were therefore able to store more nutrients per unit area of wetland. In order to maximise the efficiency of constructed wetlands for nutrient removal, a range of species should be used. Native species should be selected in preference to introduced/exotic species.

  17. ADVANCED TOOLS FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS AND SOURCE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this poster is to present the application and assessment of advanced technologies in a real-world environment - wastewater effluent and source waters - for detecting six drugs (azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, and methylenedioxy...

  18. ADVANCED TOOLS FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS AND SOURCE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this poster is to present the application and assessment of advanced technologies in a real-world environment - wastewater effluent and source waters - for detecting six drugs (azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, and methylenedioxy...

  19. Toxicity to Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri of Kraft bleach plant effluents treated by catalytic wet-air oxidation.

    PubMed

    Pintar, Albin; Besson, Michèle; Gallezot, Pierre; Gibert, Janine; Martin, Dominique

    2004-01-01

    Two Kraft-pulp bleaching effluents from a sequence of treatments which include chlorine dioxide and caustic soda were treated by catalytic wet-air oxidation (CWAO) at T=463 K in trickle-bed and batch-recycle reactors packed with either TiO2 extrudates or Ru(3 wt%)/TiO2 catalyst. Chemical analyses (TOC removal, color, HPLC) and bioassays (48-h and 30-min acute toxicity tests using Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri, respectively) were used to get information about the toxicity impact of the starting effluents and of the treated solutions. Under the operating conditions, complex organic compounds are mostly oxidized into carbon dioxide and water, along with short-chain carboxylic acids. Bioassays were found as a complement to chemical analyses for ensuring the toxicological impact on the ecosystem. In spite of a large decrease of TOC, the solutions of end products were all more toxic to Daphnia magna than the starting effluents by factors ranging from 2 to 33. This observation is attributed to the synergistic effects of acetic acid and salts present in the solutions. On the other hand, toxicity reduction with respect to Vibrio fischeri was achieved: detoxification factors greater than unity were measured for end-product solutions treated in the presence of the Ru(3 wt%)/TiO2 catalyst, suggesting the absence of cumulative effect for this bacteria, or a lower sensitivity to the organic acids and salts. Bleach plant effluents treated by the CWAO process over the Ru/TiO2 catalyst were completely biodegradable.

  20. Cultural control of larval mosquito production in a fallow citrus grove used for disposal of secondary-treated sewage effluent.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D S; Richmond, C D; Hunt, J B

    1999-03-01

    Larval mosquito production was monitored for 16 months in the furrows of a 13.4-ha citrus grove in east-central Florida used for disposal of secondary-treated sewage effluent. Twenty-one species of mosquito were collected, and the 2 most abundant species were Culex nigripalpus and Aedes vexans. An unplanned removal of all brush and trees from the site during the study resulted in an overall decline in larval production, but species diversity remained the same.

  1. Eoetvoesia caeni gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from an activated sludge system treating coke plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Felföldi, Tamás; Vengring, Anita; Kéki, Zsuzsa; Márialigeti, Károly; Schumann, Peter; Tóth, Erika M

    2014-06-01

    A novel bacterium, PB3-7B(T), was isolated on phenol-supplemented inorganic growth medium from a laboratory-scale wastewater purification system that treated coke plant effluent. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain PB3-7B(T) belonged to the family Alcaligenaceae and showed the highest pairwise sequence similarity to Parapusillimonas granuli Ch07(T) (97.5%), Candidimonas bauzanensis BZ59(T) (97.3%) and Pusillimonas noertemannii BN9(T) (97.2%). Strain PB3-7B(T) was rod-shaped, motile and oxidase- and catalase-positive. The predominant fatty acids were C(16 : 0), C(17 : 0) cyclo, C(19 : 0) cyclo ω8c and C(14 : 0) 3-OH, and the major respiratory quinone was Q-8. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain PB3-7B(T) was 59.7 mol%. The novel bacterium can be distinguished from closely related type strains based on its urease activity and the capacity for assimilation of glycerol and amygdalin. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular data, strain PB3-7B(T) is considered to represent a new genus and species, for which the name Eoetvoesia caeni gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Eoetvoesia caeni is PB3-7B(T) ( = DSM 25520(T) = NCAIM B 02512(T)).

  2. Accumulation of metals and histopathology in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to treated NNPC Kaduna (Nigeria) petroleum refinery effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Onwumere, B.G.; Oladimeji, A.A. )

    1990-04-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals and histopathology were observed in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to treated petroleum refinery effluent from the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, Kaduna. Analysis of fish metal burden showed that the fish concentrated trace metals a thousand times above the levels existing in the exposure medium. Some metals were preferentially accumulated more than others and the accumulation was, in decreasing order, Pb, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Ni, and Cd. Whole fish metal burden was lower in fish from which the gill, liver, and kidney had been removed, suggesting that these organs accumulated the metals more than other tissues. Hemorrhaging of fins was observed in all treatment concentrations except that of the control, and fish exposed to 40 and 50% effluent were most affected. Erosion of the caudal fin was also observed in fish exposed to 40 and 50% effluent. Examination of the organs for histopathology revealed damages to the gills. Gills with edematous fused lamellae congested with blood were observed. No histopathological damage was observed in the liver and kidney. The extent of metal accumulation and histopathological damage were directly related to the effluent concentrations.

  3. Quarterly sampling of the wetlands along the old F-Area effluent ditch, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, K.L.; cummins, C.L.

    1994-05-01

    In May 1994, well point water and bucket samples were collected for tritium and volatile organic compounds in the wetlands along the old F-Area effluent ditch south of 643-E (old burial ground). The well point samples were collected from seven locations and the bucket samples from four locations. Results support that T and VOCs originating from 643-E are outcropping in the wetlands near this ditch. Based on differences in tritium contents at each location, it was determined that the sampling devices intercepted different groundwater flow paths; however, when VOCs were normalized, based on differences in T, resulting well point and bucket VOCs were comparable in most cases.

  4. Ameliorating Effects of Iron and Zinc on Vigna mungo L. Treated with Tannery Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Shefali; Mishra, Kumkum; Tandon, Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Different dilutions, that is, 25, 50, 75, and 100%, of tannery effluent (TE) were chosen for the present study to assess the phytotoxic effects on Vigna mungo L. For amelioration purposes, different levels and combinations of iron and zinc were supplied to the plants along with 50% TE that is chosen on the basis of prior test under Petri dish culture. Cytotoxic and biochemical analysis and plant tolerance index (PTI) of plant were observed. Mitotic index deceased with increase in effluent concentration whereas abnormality % was increased. The pigments (chlorophyll a, total, and carotenoids) were decreased with increasing treatment levels of TE at both growth stages. However, carotenoid content increased significantly at all dilution levels of TE after first growth stage. Chlorophyll b was increased significantly after 35 days of growth but decreased after 70 days. The protein contents were also significantly decreased with increase in all TE treatments and increased significantly in zinc recovery treatments. Activities of catalase and peroxidase enzymes were significantly affected and increased significantly with effluent treatments. PTI showed an enhanced tolerance capacity of plant with treatment of iron and zinc. A negative correlation was found (r = −0.97) between plant height and different dilutions of effluent whereas it was positively correlated (r = 0.95) with iron and zinc treatments. The study represents the ameliorative effect of iron and zinc for phytotoxic damage in V. mungo caused by tannery effluent. PMID:25505908

  5. Forming microbial anodes with acetate addition decreases their capability to treat raw paper mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Ketep, Stéphanie F; Bergel, Alain; Bertrand, Marie; Barakat, Mohamed; Achouak, Wafa; Fourest, Eric

    2014-07-01

    Microbial anodes were formed under polarization at -0.3 V/SCE on graphite plates in effluents from a pulp and paper mill. The bioanodes formed with the addition of acetate led to the highest current densities (up to 6A/m(2)) but were then unable to oxidize the raw effluent efficiently (0.5A/m(2)). In contrast, the bioanodes formed without acetate addition were fully able to oxidize the organic matter contained in the effluent, giving up to 4.5A/m(2) in continuous mode. Bacterial communities showed less bacterial diversity for the acetate-fed bioanodes compared to those formed in raw effluents. Deltaproteobacteria were the most abundant taxonomic group, with a high diversity for bioanodes formed without acetate addition but with almost 100% Desulfuromonas for the acetate-fed bioanodes. The addition of acetate to form the microbial anodes induced microbial selection, which was detrimental to the treatment of the raw effluent.

  6. Ameliorating Effects of Iron and Zinc on Vigna mungo L. Treated with Tannery Effluent.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shefali; Mishra, Kumkum; Tandon, Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Different dilutions, that is, 25, 50, 75, and 100%, of tannery effluent (TE) were chosen for the present study to assess the phytotoxic effects on Vigna mungo L. For amelioration purposes, different levels and combinations of iron and zinc were supplied to the plants along with 50% TE that is chosen on the basis of prior test under Petri dish culture. Cytotoxic and biochemical analysis and plant tolerance index (PTI) of plant were observed. Mitotic index deceased with increase in effluent concentration whereas abnormality % was increased. The pigments (chlorophyll a, total, and carotenoids) were decreased with increasing treatment levels of TE at both growth stages. However, carotenoid content increased significantly at all dilution levels of TE after first growth stage. Chlorophyll b was increased significantly after 35 days of growth but decreased after 70 days. The protein contents were also significantly decreased with increase in all TE treatments and increased significantly in zinc recovery treatments. Activities of catalase and peroxidase enzymes were significantly affected and increased significantly with effluent treatments. PTI showed an enhanced tolerance capacity of plant with treatment of iron and zinc. A negative correlation was found (r = -0.97) between plant height and different dilutions of effluent whereas it was positively correlated (r = 0.95) with iron and zinc treatments. The study represents the ameliorative effect of iron and zinc for phytotoxic damage in V. mungo caused by tannery effluent.

  7. Application of isolated bacterial consortium in UMBR for detoxification of textile effluent: comparative analysis of resultant oxidative stress and genotoxicity in catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) exposed to raw and treated effluents.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Priya; Sarkar, Sandeep; Dey, Tanmoy Kumar; Bakshi, Madhurima; Swarnakar, Snehasikta; Mukhopadhayay, Aniruddha; Ghosh, Sourja

    2014-08-01

    A bacterial consortium isolated from activated sludge was identified to be Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Shigella sp. and E. coli. and was found capable of 98.62 % decolourization of highly toxic textile effluent, when applied in an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane bioreactor (UMBR). Ceramic capillary UF membranes prepared over low cost support proved to be highly efficient in adverse experimental conditions. The UMBR permeate and untreated textile effluent (40 % (v/v)) was then used to treat Heteropneustes fossilis for a comparative assessment of their toxicity. Micronucleus count in peripheral blood erythrocytes and comet assay carried out in liver and gill cells showed significantly lower nuclear and tissue specific DNA damage respectively in organisms exposed to membrane permeate and was further supported by considerably lower oxidative stress response enzyme activities in comparison to raw effluent treated individuals. The results indicate efficient detoxification of textile effluent by the UMBR treatment using the isolated bacterial consortium.

  8. Treated wastewater effluent as a source of pyrethroids and fipronil at Todos Santos Bay, Mexico: Its impact on sediments and organisms.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Guzmán, Félix Augusto; Macías-Zamora, José Vinicio; Ramírez-Álvarez, Nancy; Alvarez-Aguilar, Arturo; Quezada-Hernández, Cristina; Fonseca, Ana Paula

    2017-06-03

    Pyrethroids are insecticides widely used to control pests and disease vectors in residential areas and agricultural lands. Pyrethroids are emerging pollutants, and their use is a growing concern because of their toxicity potential to aquatic organisms. Todos Santos Bay and the Punta Banda estuary, 2 coastal bodies located to the south of the Southern California Bight, were studied to establish a baseline of the current conditions of pollution by pyrethroids and fipronil. Eight pyrethroids, along with fipronil and its 2 metabolites, were determined in effluents from wastewater-treatment plants (n = 3), surface sediments (n = 32), and 3 locations with mussels (Mytilus californianus, n = 9). Bifenthrin, permethrin, and cypermethrin were the most common pyrethroids found in the study areas and were widespread in sediments, mussels, and wastewater-treated effluents. Fipronil and its metabolites were detected in mussels and wastewater-treated effluents only. Total pyrethroid concentrations in sediments ranged from 0.04 to 1.95 ng/g dry weight in the Punta Banda estuary (n = 13) and from 0.07 to 6.62 ng/g dry weight in Todos Santos Bay (n = 19). Moreover, total pyrethroids in mussels ranged from 1.19 to 6.15 ng/g wet weight. Based on the toxic unit data calculated for pyrethroids and fipronil for Eohaustorius estuarius and Hyalella azteca, little to no impact is expected to the benthic population structure. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;9999:1-8. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  9. Microalgae as bioabsorbents for treating mixture of electroplating and sewage effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, S.S.; Chow, H.; Wong, M.H. )

    1991-09-01

    The effectiveness of copper and nickel uptake by microalgae grown in the mixture of electroplating effluent and sewage was studied. The results showed that a high percentage of copper removal (68.1%-88.2%) was achieved by Chlorella pyrenoidosa (strain No. 26) reared in the mixture of 90% electroplating effluent and 10% raw sewage during the first 3 days despite the fact that cell growth was inhibited. Similar results were also obtained by using Chlorella HKBC-C3, another species collected from one of the heavy metal polluted sites in Hong Kong, isolated and cultured in the Biology Department. There was no significant difference (P greater than 0.05) in the removal of copper and nickel from the effluent between these 2 algal species. However, it was noted that removal of nickel from the mixture by the two species were comparatively lower (less than 20%) than the removal of copper (greater than 68%).

  10. Removal of fluorescent dissolved organic matter in biologically treated textile effluents by NDMP anion exchange process: efficiency and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Tao; Xu, Zi-Xiao; Shuang, Chen-Dong; Zhou, Qing; Li, Hai-Bo; Li, Ai-Min

    2016-03-01

    The efficiency and mechanism of anion exchange resin Nanda Magnetic Polymer (NDMP) for removal of fluorescent dissolved organic matter in biologically treated textile effluents were studied. The bench-scale experiments showed that as well as activated carbon, anion exchange resin could efficiently remove both aniline-like and humic-like fluorescent components, which can be up to 40 % of dissolved organic matter. The humic-like fluorescent component HS-Em460-Ex3 was more hydrophilic than HS-Em430-Ex2 and contained fewer alkyl chains but more acid groups. As a result, HS-Em460-Ex3 was eliminated more preferentially by NDMP anion exchange. However, compared with adsorption resins, the polarity of fluorescent components had a relatively small effect on the performance of anion exchange resin. The long-term pilot-scale experiments showed that the NDMP anion exchange process could remove approximately 30 % of the chemical oxygen demand and about 90 % of color from the biologically treated textile effluents. Once the issue of waste brine from resin desorption is solved, the NDMP anion exchange process could be a promising alternative for the advanced treatment of textile effluents.

  11. Evaluation of a hybrid anaerobic biofilm reactor treating winery effluents and using grape stalks as biofilm carrier.

    PubMed

    Wahab, Mohamed Ali; Habouzit, Frédéric; Bernet, Nicolas; Jedidi, Naceur; Escudié, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    Wine production processes generate large amount of both winery wastewater and solid wastes. Furthermore, working periods, volumes and pollution loads greatly vary over the year. Therefore, it is recommended to develop a low-cost treatment technology for the treatment of winery effluents taking into account the variation of the organic loading rate (OLR). Accordingly, we have investigated the sequential operation of an anaerobic biofilm reactor treating winery effluents and using grape stalks (GSs) as biofilm carrier with an OLR ranging from 0.65 to 27 gCOD/L/d. The result showed that, during the start-up with wastewater influent, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate ranged from 83% to 93% and was about 91% at the end of the start-up period that lasted for 40 days. After 3 months of inactivity period of the reactor (no influent feeding), we have succeeded in restarting-up the reactor in only 15 days with a COD removal of 82% and a low concentration of volatile fatty acids (1 g/L), which confirms the robustness of the reactor. As a consequence, GSs can be used as an efficient carrier support, allowing a fast reactor start-up, while the biofilm conserves its activity during a non-feeding period. The proposed hybrid reactor thus permits to treat both winery effluents and GSs.

  12. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application documentation consists of both Part A and a Part B permit application documentation. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this treatment and storage unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. Once the initial Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit is issued, the following process will be used. As final, certified treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit-specific documents are developed, and completeness notifications are made by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology, additional unit-specific permit conditions will be incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit through the permit modification process. All treatment, storage, and/or disposal units that are included in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application will operate under interim status until final status conditions for these units are incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility contains information current as of May 1, 1993.

  13. Microflora evaluation of two agro-industrial effluents treated by the JACTO jet-loop type reactor system.

    PubMed

    Eusébio, A; Mateus, M; Baeta-Hall, L; Almeida-Vara, E; Duarte, J C

    2005-01-01

    Jet-loop type reactors developed in our group have been successfully used for biological treatment of winery and olive oil wastewaters. The objective of the present work was to study the influence of the reactor hydrodynamics, causing high shear stress applied on the nozzle and its influence on the composition of the microbial population. Winery and olive oil industry effluents were treated and analysed. Microbial consortia were enriched and selected under different bio-treatment conditions of the effluents. In the case of the winery wastewaters, the isolates identified belong to the genera of Pseudomonas and Bacillus. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was also present in the consortia but no filamentous fungi were detected. In the case of the olive oil wastewaters, Bacillus megaterium 2 was the predominant microorganism. It was not detected any type of fungi.

  14. Evaluation of ion exchange resins for the removal of dissolved organic matter from biologically treated paper mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Bassandeh, Mojgan; Antony, Alice; Le-Clech, Pierre; Richardson, Desmond; Leslie, Greg

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the efficiency of six ion exchange resins to reduce the dissolved organic matter (DOM) from a biologically treated newsprint mill effluent was evaluated and the dominant removal mechanism of residual organics was established using advanced organic characterisations techniques. Among the resins screened, TAN1 possessed favourable Freundlich parameters, high resin capacity and solute affinity, closely followed by Marathon MSA and Marathon WBA. The removal efficiency of colour and lignin residuals was generally good for the anion exchange resins, greater than 50% and 75% respectively. In terms of the DOM fractions removal measured through liquid chromatography-organic carbon and nitrogen detector (LC-OCND), the resins mainly targeted the removal of humic and fulvic acids of molecular weight ranging between 500 and 1000 g mol(-1), the portion expected to contribute the most to the aromaticity of the effluent. For the anion exchange resins, physical adsorption operated along with ion exchange mechanism assisting to remove neutral and transphilic acid fractions of DOM. The column studies confirmed TAN1 being the best of those screened, exhibited the longest mass transfer zone and maximum treatable volume of effluent. The treatable effluent volume with 50% reduction in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was 4.8 L for TAN1 followed by Marathon MSA - 3.6L, Marathon 11 - 2.0 L, 21K-XLT - 1.5 L and Marathon WBA - 1.2 L. The cation exchange resin G26 was not effective in DOM removal as the maximum DOC removal obtained was only 27%. The resin capacity could not be completely restored for any of the resins; however, a maximum restoration up to 74% and 93% was achieved for TAN1 and Marathon WBA resins. While this feasibility study indicates the potential option of using ion exchange resins for the reclamation of paper mill effluent, the need for improving the regeneration protocols to restore the resin efficiency is also identified. Similarly, care should be taken

  15. Environmental Assessment for Improvements to Irrigation System and Land Application of Treated Wastewater Effluent at Existing Golf Course, Mountain Home AFB, Idaho

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    Final Environmental Assessment for Improvements to Irrigation System and Land Application of Treated Wastewater Effluent at...Land Application of Treated Wastewater Effluent at Existing Golf Course, Mountain Home AFB, Idaho 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM... SBR Sequencing Batch Reactor FONSI Finding of No Significant Impact SDR Scheduled Dimension Ratio Ft/Sec Feet Per Second SIP State Implementation

  16. F/H Area ETF effluent (H-016 outfall) Ceriodaphnia survival/reproduction test, test date: December 12, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.; Stephens, J.

    1991-08-01

    This toxicity test was conducted to determine if the effluent from the F/H area of Savannah River Plant, affects the survival or reproduction of the test organisms during a seven day period. The test involved exposing the text organisms ceriodaphnia, to a series of dilutions of the effluent. At each dilution the survival and reproduction of ten test organisms was recorded. Each effluent dilution was compared to a control set of test organisms. Survival data were analyzed by Fisher's Exact Test and the Trimmed Spearman-Karber method to determine the effluent concentration necessary to cause statistically significant (p=0.05) mortality. Reproduction data was analyzed for normality, homogeneity of variance and equality of replicates among dilutions to determine appropriate statistical test for analysis of statistical differences in reproduction among dilutions. Results are summarized.

  17. F/H Area ETF effluent (H-016 outfall), ceriodaphnia survival/reproduction test, test date: March 21, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-08-01

    This toxicity test was conducted to determine if the effluent from the F/H area at Savannah River Plant affects the survival or reproduction of the test organisms during a seven day period. The test involved exposing the test organisms to a series of dilutions of the effluent. At each dilution the survival and reproduction of ten test organisms was recorded. Each effluent dilution was compared to a control set of test organisms. Survival data were analyzed by Fisher`s Exact Test and the Trimmed Spearman-Karber test to determine the effluent concentration necessary to cause statistically significant (p = 0.05) mortality. Reproduction data was analyzed for normality, homogeneity of variance and equality of replicates among dilutions to determine the appropriate statistical test for analysis of statistical differences in reproduction among dilutions. Results are summarized.

  18. F/H Area ETF effluent (H-016 Outfall) ceriodaphnia survival/reproduction test, Test date: September 18, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-08-01

    This toxicity test was conducted to determine if the effluent from the F/H area at Savannah River Plant affects the survival or reproduction of the test organisms during a seven day period. The test involved exposing the test organisms (Ceriodaphnia) to a series of dilutions of the effluent. At each dilution the survival and reproduction of ten test organisms was recorded. Each effluent dilution was compared to a control set of test organisms. Survival data were analyzed by Fisher`s Exact Test and Trimmed Spearman Karber Analysis to determine the effluent concentration necessary to cause statistically significant (p=0.5) mortality. Reproduction data was analyzed for normality, homogeneity of variance and equality of replicates among distribution to determine the appropriate statistical test for analysis of statistical differences in reproduction among dilutions.

  19. F/H Area for ETF effluent (H-016 outfall), ceriodaphnia survival/reproduction test, test date: June 27, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-12-31

    This toxicity test was conducted to determine if the effluent from the F/H area at Savannah River Plant affects the survival or reproduction of the test organisms during a seven day period. The test involved exposing the test organisms to a series of dilutions of the effluent. At each dilution the survival and reproduction of ten tests organisms was recorded. Each effluent dilution was compared to a control set of test organisms. Survival data were analyzed by Fisher`s Exact Test and Probit Analysis (or Trimmed Spearman Karber if Probit can not be used) to determine the effluent concentration necessary to cause statistically significant (p = 0.05) mortality. Reproduction data was analyzed for normality, homogeneity of variance and equality of replicates among dilutions to determine the appropriate statistical test for analysis of statistical differences among dilutions. Results are summarized.

  20. F/H Area ETF effluent (H-016 Outfall) ceriodaphnia survival/reproduction test, Test date: September 18, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-08-01

    This toxicity test was conducted to determine if the effluent from the F/H area at Savannah River Plant affects the survival or reproduction of the test organisms during a seven day period. The test involved exposing the test organisms (Ceriodaphnia) to a series of dilutions of the effluent. At each dilution the survival and reproduction of ten test organisms was recorded. Each effluent dilution was compared to a control set of test organisms. Survival data were analyzed by Fisher's Exact Test and Trimmed Spearman Karber Analysis to determine the effluent concentration necessary to cause statistically significant (p=0.5) mortality. Reproduction data was analyzed for normality, homogeneity of variance and equality of replicates among distribution to determine the appropriate statistical test for analysis of statistical differences in reproduction among dilutions.

  1. F/H Area for ETF effluent (H-016 outfall), ceriodaphnia survival/reproduction test, test date: June 27, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    This toxicity test was conducted to determine if the effluent from the F/H area at Savannah River Plant affects the survival or reproduction of the test organisms during a seven day period. The test involved exposing the test organisms to a series of dilutions of the effluent. At each dilution the survival and reproduction of ten tests organisms was recorded. Each effluent dilution was compared to a control set of test organisms. Survival data were analyzed by Fisher's Exact Test and Probit Analysis (or Trimmed Spearman Karber if Probit can not be used) to determine the effluent concentration necessary to cause statistically significant (p = 0.05) mortality. Reproduction data was analyzed for normality, homogeneity of variance and equality of replicates among dilutions to determine the appropriate statistical test for analysis of statistical differences among dilutions. Results are summarized.

  2. F/H Area ETF effluent (H-016 outfall) Ceriodaphnia survival/reproduction test, test date: December 12, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.; Stephens, J.

    1991-08-01

    This toxicity test was conducted to determine if the effluent from the F/H area of Savannah River Plant, affects the survival or reproduction of the test organisms during a seven day period. The test involved exposing the text organisms ceriodaphnia, to a series of dilutions of the effluent. At each dilution the survival and reproduction of ten test organisms was recorded. Each effluent dilution was compared to a control set of test organisms. Survival data were analyzed by Fisher`s Exact Test and the Trimmed Spearman-Karber method to determine the effluent concentration necessary to cause statistically significant (p=0.05) mortality. Reproduction data was analyzed for normality, homogeneity of variance and equality of replicates among dilutions to determine appropriate statistical test for analysis of statistical differences in reproduction among dilutions. Results are summarized.

  3. F/H Area ETF effluent (H-016 outfall), ceriodaphnia survival/reproduction test, test date: March 21, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-08-01

    This toxicity test was conducted to determine if the effluent from the F/H area at Savannah River Plant affects the survival or reproduction of the test organisms during a seven day period. The test involved exposing the test organisms to a series of dilutions of the effluent. At each dilution the survival and reproduction of ten test organisms was recorded. Each effluent dilution was compared to a control set of test organisms. Survival data were analyzed by Fisher's Exact Test and the Trimmed Spearman-Karber test to determine the effluent concentration necessary to cause statistically significant (p = 0.05) mortality. Reproduction data was analyzed for normality, homogeneity of variance and equality of replicates among dilutions to determine the appropriate statistical test for analysis of statistical differences in reproduction among dilutions. Results are summarized.

  4. F/H Area ETF effluent (H-016 outfall) ceriodaphnia survival/reproduction test, test date: December 28, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-08-01

    This toxicity test was conducted to determine if the effluent from the H/F area of Savannah River Plant affect the survival or reproduction of the test organisms during a seven day period. The test involved exposing the test organisms to a series of dilutions of the effluent. At each dilution the survival and reproduction of ten test organisms was recorded. Each effluent dilution was compared to a control set of test organisms. Survival data were analyzed by Fisher's Exact Test and Probit Analysis to determine the effluent concentration necessary to cause statistically significant (p=0.05) mortality. Reproduction data was analyzed for normality, homogeneity of variance and equality of replicates among dilutions to determine the appropriate statistical test for analysis of statistical differences in reproduction among dilutions. Results are summarized.

  5. F/H Area ETF effluent (H-016 outfall) ceriodaphnia survival/reproduction test, test date: December 28, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-08-01

    This toxicity test was conducted to determine if the effluent from the H/F area of Savannah River Plant affect the survival or reproduction of the test organisms during a seven day period. The test involved exposing the test organisms to a series of dilutions of the effluent. At each dilution the survival and reproduction of ten test organisms was recorded. Each effluent dilution was compared to a control set of test organisms. Survival data were analyzed by Fisher`s Exact Test and Probit Analysis to determine the effluent concentration necessary to cause statistically significant (p=0.05) mortality. Reproduction data was analyzed for normality, homogeneity of variance and equality of replicates among dilutions to determine the appropriate statistical test for analysis of statistical differences in reproduction among dilutions. Results are summarized.

  6. Application of electron beam irradiation combined to conventional treatment to treat industrial effluents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, C. L.; Sampa, M. H. O.; Rela, P. R.; Oikawa, H.; Cherbakian, E. H.; Sena, H. C.; Abe, H.; Sciani, V.

    2000-03-01

    A preliminary study to combine electron beam irradiation process with biological treatment was carried out. Experiments were conducted using samples from a governmental wastewater treatment plant (WTP) that receives about 20% of industrial wastewater, with the objective of destroying the refractory organic pollutants and to obtain a better performance of this plant. Samples from five different steps of WTP were collected and irradiated in the electron beam accelerator in a batch system with 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy doses. The main results showed a removal of 99% of all organic compound analysed in the industrial receiver unit (IRU) effluent and in the coarse bar screen (CBS) effluent with a 20 kGy dose, and for the medium bar screen (MBS) and primary sedimentation (PS) effluent a 10 kGy dose was sufficient. In the case of final effluent (FE), a dose of 5 kGy removed the remaining organic compounds and dyes present after biological treatment.

  7. ADVANCED TOOLS FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS AND SOURCE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this poster is to present the application and assessment of advanced state-of-the-art technologies in a real-world environment - wastewater effluent and source waters - for detecting six drugs [azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, m...

  8. ADVANCED TOOLS FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS AND SOURCE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this poster is to present the application and assessment of advanced state-of-the-art technologies in a real-world environment - wastewater effluent and source waters - for detecting six drugs [azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, m...

  9. Coagulant recovery from water treatment plant sludge and reuse in post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Nair, Abhilash T; Ahammed, M Mansoor

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, feasibility of recovering the coagulant from water treatment plant sludge with sulphuric acid and reusing it in post-treatment of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater were studied. The optimum conditions for coagulant recovery from water treatment plant sludge were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Sludge obtained from plants that use polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and alum coagulant was utilised for the study. Effect of three variables, pH, solid content and mixing time was studied using a Box-Behnken statistical experimental design. RSM model was developed based on the experimental aluminium recovery, and the response plots were developed. Results of the study showed significant effects of all the three variables and their interactions in the recovery process. The optimum aluminium recovery of 73.26 and 62.73 % from PACl sludge and alum sludge, respectively, was obtained at pH of 2.0, solid content of 0.5 % and mixing time of 30 min. The recovered coagulant solution had elevated concentrations of certain metals and chemical oxygen demand (COD) which raised concern about its reuse potential in water treatment. Hence, the coagulant recovered from PACl sludge was reused as coagulant for post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater. The recovered coagulant gave 71 % COD, 80 % turbidity, 89 % phosphate, 77 % suspended solids and 99.5 % total coliform removal at 25 mg Al/L. Fresh PACl also gave similar performance but at higher dose of 40 mg Al/L. The results suggest that coagulant can be recovered from water treatment plant sludge and can be used to treat UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater which can reduce the consumption of fresh coagulant in wastewater treatment.

  10. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 300 area facility liquid effluent monitoring: 1994 and 1995 field tests

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, R.G.; Thompson, C.J.; Damberg, E.G.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1997-07-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Effluent Management Services manages liquid waste streams from some of the 300 Area buildings on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, to ensure liquid discharges to the Columbia River are in compliance with permit requirements. The buildings are owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. In fiscal year (FY) 1994 and FY 1995, three field tests were conducted to gather information that could be used to (1) increase the understanding of 300 Area building liquid waste streams based on the characterization and monitoring data collected during calendar year (CY) 1994 and CY 1995 and (2) establish improved methods for evaluating facility releases. The three field tests were (1) an evaluation of a continuous monitoring/event-triggered sampling system, (2) a volatile organic compound hold-time study, and (3) an investigation of the dilution and retention properties of the 300 Area process sewer. The results from the first field test showed that future characterization and monitoring of 300 Area facility liquid waste streams could benefit significantly from augmenting continuous monitoring with event-triggered sampling. Current continuous-monitoring practices (i.e., monitoring of pH, conductivity, and flow) cannot detect discharges of organic pollutants. Effluent control effectiveness would be enhanced by incorporating a continuous total organic carbon analyzer in the system to detect events involving releases of organic compounds. In the second field test, sample hold times were shown to have a significant effect on volatile organic compound data. Samples analyzed in the field within 1 hour of collection generally had 1.5 to 3 times higher volatile organic compound concentrations than those analyzed 1.5 to 4 weeks later at on-site and off-site laboratories, respectively. The number of volatile organic compounds detected also decreased with increasing hold times.

  11. Closure plan for CAU No. 93: Area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The steam cleaning effluent ponds (SCEP) waste unit is located in Area 6 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Nevada Operations Office operates the NTS and has entered into a trilateral agreement with the State of Nevada and the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA). The trilateral agreement provides a framework for identifying, characterizing, remediating, and closing environmental sites on the NTS and associated bombing ranges. The SCEP waste unit consists of: two steam cleaning effluent ponds; layout pad and associated grease trap; Building 6-623 steam cleaning pad; test pad; Building 6-623 grease trap; Building 6-800 steam cleaning pad; Building 6-800 separator; Building 6-621 sump; and the concrete asbestos piping connecting these components to both SCEPs. Clean closure is the recommended closure strategy for the majority of the components within this CAU. Four components of the unit (Building 6-621 Sump, Test Pad Grease Trap, Building 6-623 Steam Cleaning Pad, and North SCEP pipeline) are recommended to be closed in place. This closure plan provides the strategy and backup information necessary to support the clean closure of each of the individual components within CAU 93. Analytical data generated during the characterization field work and earlier sampling events indicates the majority of CAU 93 soil and infrastructure is non-hazardous (i.e., impacted primarily with petroleum hydrocarbons).

  12. Simulation of subsurface storage and recovery of treated effluent injected in a saline aquifer, St. Petersburg, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yobbi, D.K.

    1996-01-01

    The potential for subsurface storage and recovery of treated effluent into the uppermost producing zone (zone A) of the Upper Floridan aquifer in St. Petersburg, Florida, is being studied by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of St. Petersburg and the Southwest Florida Water Management District. A measure of the success of this practice is the recovery efficiency, or the quantity of water relative to the quantity injected, that can be recovered before the water that is withdrawn fails to meet water-quality standards. The feasibility of this practice will depend upon the ability of the injected zone to receive, store, and discharge the injected fluid. A cylindrical model of ground-water flow and solute transport, incorporating available data on aquifer properties and water quality, was developed to determine the relation of recovery efficiency to various aquifer and fluid properties that could prevail in the study area. The reference case for testing was a base model considered representative of the saline aquifer underlying St. Petersburg. Parameter variations in the tests represent possible variations in aquifer conditions in the area. The model also was used to study the effect of various cyclic injection and withdrawal schemes on the recovery efficiency of the well and aquifer system. A base simulation assuming 15 days of injection of effluent at a rate of 1.0 million gallons per day and 15 days of withdrawal at a rate of 1.0 million gallons per day was used as reference to compare changes in various hydraulic and chemical parameters on recovery efficiency. A recovery efficiency of 20 percent was estimated for the base simulation. For practical ranges of hydraulic and fluid properties that could prevail in the study area, the model analysis indicates that (1) the greater the density contrast between injected and resident formation water, the lower the recovery efficiency, (2) recovery efficiency decreases significantly as dispersion

  13. Denitrification in a South Louisiana wetland forest receiving treated sewage effluent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boustany, R.G.; Crozier, C.R.; Rybczyk, J.M.; Twilley, R.R.

    1996-01-01

    Although denitrification has the potential to reduce nitrate (NO3a??) pollution of surface waters, the quantification of denitrification rates is complex because it requires differentiation from other mechanisms and is highly variable in both space and time. This study first measured potential denitrification rates at a wetland forest site in south Louisiana before receipt of secondary wastewater effluent, and then, following 30 months of effluent application, landscape gradients of dissolved nitrate (NO3a??) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were measured. A computer model was developed to quantify N transformations. Floodwater NO3a?? and N2O concentrations were higher in the forest receiving effluent than in the adjacent control forest. Denitrification rates of NO3a?? -amended soil cores ranged from 0.03a??0.45 g N ma??2 da??1 with an overall mean of 0.10 g N ma??2 da??1. Effluent N is being applied at a rate of approximately 0.034 g N ma??2 da??1, with approximately 95% disappearing along a 1 km transect. In the treatment forest, floodwater NO3a?? concentrations decreased from 1000 M at the inflow point to 50 M along the 1 km transect. Nitrous oxide concentrations increased from 0.25 M to 1.2 M within the first 100 m, but decreased to 0.1 M over the next 900 m. The initial increase in N2O was presumably a result ofin situ denitrification. Model analyses indicated that denitrification was directly associated with nitrification and was limited by the availability of NO3a?? produced by nitrification. Due to different redox potential optima, coupling of nitrification and denitrification was a function of a balance of environmental conditions that was moderately favorable to both processes. N removal efficiency was largely dependent on the proportion of effluent NH4+ to NO3a?? . When NH4+ /NO3a?? was 1, average N removal efficiency ranged from 95a??100%, but ratios that were >1 reduced average efficiencies to as low as 57%. Actual effluent NH4+ /NO3a?? loading ratios at this

  14. Effect of surfactant-coated iron oxide nanoparticles on the effluent water quality from a simulated sequencing batch reactor treating domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sangchul; Martinez, Diana; Perez, Priscilla; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of commercially available engineered iron oxide nanoparticles coated with a surfactant (ENP(Fe-surf)) on effluent water quality from a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor as a model secondary biological wastewater treatment. Results showed that ~8.7% of ENP(Fe-surf) applied were present in the effluent stream. The stable presence of ENP(Fe-surf) was confirmed by analyzing the mean particle diameter and iron concentration in the effluent. Consequently, aqueous ENP(Fe-surf) deteriorated the effluent water quality at a statistically significant level (p < 0.05) with respect to soluble chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, and apparent color. This implied that ENP(Fe-surf) would be introduced into environmental receptors through the treated effluent and could potentially impact them.

  15. Dual purpose system that treats anaerobic effluents from pig waste and produce Neochloris oleoabundans as lipid rich biomass.

    PubMed

    Olguín, Eugenia J; Castillo, Omar S; Mendoza, Anilú; Tapia, Karla; González-Portela, Ricardo E; Hernández-Landa, Víctor J

    2015-05-25

    Dual purpose systems that treat wastewater and produce lipid rich microalgae biomass have been indicated as an option with great potential for production of biodiesel at a competitive cost. The aim of the present work was to develop a dual purpose system for the treatment of the anaerobic effluents from pig waste utilizing Neochloris oleoabundans and to evaluate its growth, lipid content and lipid profile of the harvested biomass and the removal of nutrients from the media. Cultures of N. oleoabundans were established in 4 L flat plate photobioreactors using diluted effluents from two different types of anaerobic filters, one packed with ceramic material (D1) and another one packed with volcanic gravel (D2). Maximum biomass concentration in D1 was 0.63 g L(-1) which was significantly higher than the one found in D2 (0.55 g L(-1)). Cultures were very efficient at nutrient removal: 98% for NNH4(+) and 98% for PO4(3-). Regarding total lipid content, diluted eflluents from D2 promoted a biomass containing 27.4% (dry weight) and D1 a biomass containing 22.4% (dry weight). Maximum lipid productivity was also higher in D2 compared to D1 (6.27±0.62 mg L(-1) d(-1) vs. 5.12±0.12 mg L(-1) d(-1)). Concerning the FAMEs profile in diluted effluents, the most abundant one was C18:1, followed by C18:2 and C16:0. The profile in D2 contained less C18:3 (linolenic acid) than the one in D1 (4.37% vs. 5.55%). In conclusion, this is the first report demonstrating that cultures of N. oleoabundans treating anaerobic effluents from pig waste are very efficient at nutrient removal and a biomass rich in lipids can be recovered. The maximum total lipid content and the most convenient FAMEs profile were obtained using effluents from a digester packed with volcanic gravel.

  16. Aerobic residential onsite sewage systems: an evaluation of treated-effluent quality.

    PubMed

    Maxfield, Meliss; Daniell, William E; Treser, Charles D; VanDerslice, Jim

    2003-10-01

    This retrospective cohort study used existing data to evaluate the quality of effluent from three of the most common types of onsite residential aerobic treatment sewage systems (Multi-Flo, Norweco, and Whitewater) installed in Kitsap County, Washington. Five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total suspended solids (TSS), and fecal-coliform-bacteria parameters were used to determine performance. Although most (77 percent) of the systems were less than one year old at the time of sampling, over a third failed to meet NSF certification standards for BOD5 and TSS in effluent (< 30 milligrams per liter [mg/L]). Over two-thirds of systems failed to meet Washington State Board of Health Treatment Standard 2 criteria for BOD5 and TSS (< 10 mg/L). Furthermore, an average of 59 percent of the systems failed to meet state standards for fecal coliform (< 800 fecal coliform bacteria per 100 milliliters).

  17. Westinghouse Hanford Company effluent discharges and solid waste management report for calendar year 1989: 200/600 Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.J.; P'Pool, R.K.; Thomas, S.P.

    1990-05-01

    This report presents calendar year 1989 radiological and nonradiological effluent discharge data from facilities in the 200 Areas and the 600 Area of the Hanford Site. Both summary and detailed effluent data are presented. In addition, radioactive and nonradioactive solid waste storage and disposal data for calendar year 1989 are furnished. Where appropriate, comparisons to previous years are made. The intent of the report is to demonstrate compliance of Westinghouse Hanford Company-operated facilities with administrative control values for radioactive constituents and applicable guidelines and standards (including Federal permit limits) for nonradioactive constituents. 11 refs., 20 tabs.

  18. Use of recycling through medium size granular filters to treat small food processing industry effluents.

    PubMed

    Ménoret, C; Boutin, C; Liénard, A; Brissaud, F

    2002-01-01

    Currently there are no suitable wastewater treatment systems for effluents from small food processing industries (dairy, cheese, wine production). Such raw sewages are characterized by high organic matter concentrations (about 10 g COD L-1) and relatively low daily volumes (about 2 m3). An adaptation of attached-growth cultures on fine media processes, known to be easy and inexpensive to use, could fit both the technical and economical context of those industries. Coarser filter particle size distributions than those normally used allow a better aeration and reduce clogging risk. The transit time of the effluent through the porous filter materials is shortened and requires recycling to increase the contact time between the biomass and the substrate. A pilot plant was built to compare the efficiency of two kinds of filter materials, gravel (2-5 mm) and pozzolana (3-7 mm). Two measurement campaigns were undertaken on a full-scale unit dealing with cheese dairy effluents. Both pilot-scale and full-scale plants show high COD removal rates (> 95%). Pilot-scale experiments show that accumulation of organic matter leads to the clogging of the recycling filter. To prevent early clogging, a better definition of feeding cycles is needed.

  19. Treatment of cosmetic effluent in different configurations of ceramic UF membrane based bioreactor: Toxicity evaluation of the untreated and treated wastewater using catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis).

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Priya; Dey, Tanmoy Kumar; Sarkar, Sandeep; Swarnakar, Snehasikta; Mukhopadhyay, Aniruddha; Ghosh, Sourja

    2016-03-01

    Extensive usage of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and their discharge through domestic sewage have been recently recognized as a new generation environmental concern which deserves more scientific attention over the classical environmental pollutants. The major issues of this type of effluent addressed in this study were its colour, triclosan and anionic surfactant (SDS) content. Samples of cosmetic effluent were collected from different beauty treatment salons and spas in and around Kolkata, India and treated in bioreactors containing a bacterial consortium isolated from activated sludge samples collected from a common effluent treatment plant. Members of the consortium were isolated and identified as Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Salmonella sp. and Comamonas sp. The biotreated effluent was subjected to ultrafiltration (UF) involving indigenously prepared ceramic membranes in both side-stream and submerged mode. Analysis of the MBR treated effluent revealed 99.22%, 98.56% and 99.74% removal of colour, triclosan and surfactant respectively. Investigation of probable acute and chronic cyto-genotoxic potential of the untreated and treated effluents along with their possible participation in triggering oxidative stress was carried out with Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch). Comet formation recorded in both liver and gill cells and micronucleus count in peripheral erythrocytes of individuals exposed to untreated effluent increased with duration of exposure and was significantly higher than those treated with UF permeates which in turn neared control levels. Results of this study revealed successful application of the isolated bacterial consortium in MBR process for efficient detoxification of cosmetic effluent thereby conferring the same suitable for discharge and/or reuse.

  20. Characterization of domestic wastewater treatment in Oman from three different regions and current implications of treated effluents.

    PubMed

    Baawain, Mahad S; Al-Omairi, Abdulrahim; Choudri, B S

    2014-05-01

    Treated effluents become one of the most significant sources for irrigation and other activities in arid and semi arid countries such as Oman. This study focuses on characterizing the quality of domestic wastewater in chosen three regions: Muscat, Sohar, and Salalah. The knowledge on treatment processes, quality, and proper management of domestic wastewater reuse for various purposes is essential. Wastewater samples were collected from six different sewage treatment plants (STPs) over a period of 1 year in 2009 on a monthly basis. The raw sewage (RS) and treated effluent (TEs) samples were collected from different sampling points in each STP. Both types of samples were analyzed for physicochemical and microbiological assessment. All tests were conducted according to the standard method for the examination of water and wastewater. The results revealed that the TEs electrical conductivity, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, heavy metals, sodium, potassium, and total dissolved solids values were found within Omani Standards (OS). The RS in all STPs was categorized as high strength concentration and samples exceeded the acceptable range for ammonia in most of the selected plants except Sohar and Salalah. Nitrate values in RS were also observed in higher concentrations. In general, the produced TEs have met most of regulatory limits stated by OS except for nitrate, Escherichia coli and total suspended solids (TSS). Furthermore, it should be noted that the performance of Salalah and Darsayt STPs can be classified as the best compared to the other four STPs studied in Oman.

  1. Seasonal variation of nutrient loads in treated wastewater effluents and receiving water bodies in Sedibeng and Soshanguve, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Teklehaimanot, G Z; Kamika, I; Coetzee, M A A; Momba, M N B

    2015-09-01

    The discharge of inadequately treated wastewater effluent presents a major threat to the aquatic environment and public health worldwide. As a water-scarce country, South Africa is facing an alarming situation since most of its wastewater discharges are not meeting the permissible limit. The aim of this study was to assess the physicochemical quality of treated wastewater effluents and their impact on receiving water bodies. During the study period, pH, temperature, free chlorine residue (Cl(-)), dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate (NO3 (-1)), orthophosphate (PO4 (-3)) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were measured in order to ascertain whether the selected wastewater systems in Sedibeng and Soshanguve complied with the South African and World Health Organization standards during wet and dry seasons. These parameters were analysed for samples collected from raw wastewater influent, treated wastewater effluent and receiving water bodies. The study was carried out between August 2011 and May 2012, and samples were collected on a weekly basis during both seasons. The physicochemical quality of effluents did not comply with the regulatory limits set by South Africa in terms of pH in Meyerton, Rietgat and Sandspruit (pH 7.6 to 8.1); free chlorine in Sandspruit (0.27 ± 0.05 mg/L); nitrate in Leeuwkuil and Rietgat (2.1 and 3.8 mg/L, respectively) during the wet season; orthophosphate in Meyerton during the wet season and in Sandspruit during the dry season (1.3 mg PO4 (-3) as P/L and 1.1 mg PO4 (-3) as P/L, respectively); and chemical oxygen demand in Rietgat during the dry season and in Sandspruit during the wet season (75.5 and 35 mg/L, respectively). Furthermore, the quality of the receiving water bodies did not comply with the South African standards recommended for pH, chemical oxygen demand and orthophosphate and DO (5 mg/L) in Rietgat during the wet season. The geometric mean of the water quality index values ranged between 32.4 and 36.9 for the effluent samples

  2. Effect of effluent-treated water on mosquito development in simulated ponds at the Prado Wetlands of southern California.

    PubMed

    Mian, Lal S; Lovett, Joseph; Dhillon, Major S

    2009-09-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effect of water quality on mosquito development at the Prado Wetlands in southern California during 2003-04. In field experimental ponds, mosquito abundance was significantly higher in the sewage effluent-treated water than in untreated control. As compared to untreated control, treated water had higher dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen, phosphorus, and turbidity, and it showed lower electrical conductivity, sulfate, carbonates, and bicarbonates. Diverse vegetation and invertebrate fauna as influenced by water quality may have contributed to higher mosquito breeding in the treated ponds. In laboratory studies, the treated water did not significantly affect the developmental rate, adult emergence, sex ratio, and overall mortality of Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tarsalis, known vectors of encephalitides in southern California. However, the ovipositional response, especially of the former species, was numerically higher to the treated than to untreated control water. Besides smaller body size of 3rd/4th instars of both species, 4th-stage larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus reared in the treated pond water weighed lighter than the control larvae.

  3. Scenario analysis for reduction of effluent load from an agricultural area by recycling the run-off water.

    PubMed

    Shiratani, E; Yoshinaga, I; Feng, Y; Hasebe, H

    2004-01-01

    We reviewed rates of nitrogen (N) removal in paddy fields and wetlands. Then we developed a numerical model to simulate N flow in an agricultural paddy field area and analyzed scenarios for recycling the agricultural run-off, including field drainage, from an agricultural area with an irrigation/drainage system. In it, we considered N removal in paddy fields, a regulating reservoir, and canals. The review showed that the rate constant for N removal in paddy fields and wetlands was 0.025 m/d under natural conditions and 0.01 m/d under dark conditions. The scenario analysis of recycling paddy field run-off within the model area indicated that a large amount of the effluent load occurred during the transplanting period and that recycling could reduce the effluent N load. The effluent N load would be equal to the inflowing N load at a 48% recycling rate. In this scenario, paddy fields accounted for most of the reduction in the effluent N load, and the mean removal rates per unit area of paddy field and regulating reservoir were 53.6 g ha(-1)d(-1) and 222.6 g ha(-1)d(-1) , respectively.

  4. Isolation of enterovirus and reovirus from sewage and treated effluents in selected Puerto Rican communities.

    PubMed Central

    Dahling, D R; Safferman, R S; Wright, B A

    1989-01-01

    Sewage treatment plant effluents were surveyed for viral contributions to gastroenteritis outbreaks in Puerto Rico. Of the 15 sewage treatment plants studied, all discharged their effluents upstream from water treatment plant intakes. No base-line data on the degree of viral challenge to these sewage treatment plants or the subsequent reduction of viruses before discharge existed. Enterovirus counts were generally much higher than those found in the continental United States. At four plants, viruses in the incoming sewage exceeded 100,000 PFU/liter, and one of these, a trickling filter plant, was discharging 24,000 PFU/liter to receiving waters. Virus identification showed that more than 80% of the enterovirus isolates were coxsackievirus B5. These overwhelming viral numbers pointed to defects in the sewage treatment processes. Without reasonable barriers to protect receiving waters, several of the downstream communities were using raw waters that posed extraordinary demands on the ability of their water treatment plants to supply virologically safe drinking water. PMID:2541664

  5. Effective removal of effluent organic matter (EfOM) from bio-treated coking wastewater by a recyclable aminated hyper-cross-linked polymer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenlan; Li, Xuchun; Pan, Bingcai; Lv, Lu; Zhang, Weiming

    2013-09-01

    Effluent organic matter (EfOM) is a complex matrix of organic substance mainly from bio-treated sewage effluent and is considered as the main constraint to further advanced treatment. Here a recyclable aminated hyper-cross-linked polymeric adsorbent (NDA-802) featured with aminated functional groups, large specific surface area, and sufficient micropore region was synthesized for effective removal of EfOM from the bio-treated coking wastewater (BTCW), and its removal characteristics was investigated. It was found that hydrophobic fraction was the main constituent (64.8% of DOC) in EfOM of BTCW, and the hydrophobic-neutral fraction had the highest SUVA level (7.06 L mg(-1) m(-1)), which were significantly different from that in the domestic wastewater. Column adsorption experiments showed that NDA-802 exhibited much higher removal efficiency of EfOM than other polymeric adsorbents D-301, XAD-4, and XAD-7, and the efficiency could be readily sustained according to continuous 28-cycle batch adsorption-regeneration experiments. Moreover, dissolved organic matter (DOM) fractionation and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy study indicated that NDA-802 showed attractive adsorption preference as well as high removal efficiency of hydrophobic and aromatic compounds. Possibly ascribed to the presence of functional aminated groups, relatively large specific surface area and micropore region of the unique polymer, NDA-802 possesses high and sustained efficiency for the removal of EfOM, and provides a potential alternative for the advanced treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Performance enhancement with powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating distillery effluent.

    PubMed

    Satyawali, Yamini; Balakrishnan, Malini

    2009-10-15

    This work investigated the effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition on the operation of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating sugarcane molasses based distillery wastewater (spentwash). The 8L reactor was equipped with a submerged 30 microm nylon mesh filter with 0.05 m(2) filtration area. Detailed characterization of the commercial wood charcoal based PAC was performed before using it in the MBR. The MBR was operated over 200 days at organic loading rates (OLRs) varying from 4.2 to 6.9 kg m(-3)d(-1). PAC addition controlled the reactor foaming during start up and enhanced the critical flux by around 23%; it also prolonged the duration between filter cleaning. Operation at higher loading rates was possible and for a given OLR, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was higher with PAC addition. However, biodegradation in the reactor was limited and the high molecular weight compounds were not affected by PAC supplementation. The functional groups on PAC appear to interact with the polysaccharide portion of the sludge, which may reduce its propensity to interact with the nylon mesh.

  7. Part I. Identifying anthropogenic markers in surface waters influenced by treated effluents: a tool in potable water reuse.

    PubMed

    Sirivedhin, Tanita; Gray, Kimberly A

    2005-03-01

    In potable water reuse, treated wastewater becomes part of the drinking water supply. An important question associated with this practice is whether or not the organic quality of the treated wastewater is chemically different from that of non-human impacted water. This question was addressed in a case study of indirect potable water reuse where the organic matrix of the South Platte River was analyzed upstream and downstream of the discharge of treated wastewater effluent using conventional water quality parameters combined with pyrolysis-GC/MS. Effluent-derived organic material (EfOM) was found to be more aliphatic and had higher organic nitrogen and halogen content compared to organic material derived from "natural" (non-anthropogenic) sources (NOM). Seasonal changes that resulted from the change in the contributions of aquatic and terrestrial sources were not observed in EfOM; but they were strongly observed in NOM under the control of natural processes. Using principal component and factor analyses, the pyrolysis fragments of phenol, alkyl-phenols, and acetic acid were identified as the seasonal indicators for the NOM set of samples. In contrast, benzaldehyde, benzonitrile, chlorobutanoic acid, furancarboxaldehyde, and methylfurancarboxaldehyde were identified as the indicators for wastewater inputs for the EfOM set of samples. Overall, the results from conventional water quality parameters and pyrolysis-GC/MS revealed that: (1) EfOM bears a chemical signature distinct from NOM and (2) under the conditions of this study, EfOM discharged to the South Platte River persisted and controlled organic quality at downstream points.

  8. Effects of ozone, ultraviolet and peracetic acid disinfection of a primary-treated municipal effluent on the immune system of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Hébert, N; Gagné, F; Cejka, P; Bouchard, B; Hausler, R; Cyr, D G; Blaise, C; Fournier, M

    2008-08-01

    Municipal sewage effluents are complex mixtures that are known to compromise the health condition of aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impacts of various wastewater disinfection processes on the immune system of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The trout were exposed to a primary-treated effluent for 28 days before and after one of each of the following treatments: ultraviolet (UV) radiation, ozonation and peracetic acid. Immune function was characterized in leucocytes from the anterior head kidney by the following three parameters: phagocytosis activity, natural cytotoxic cells (NCC) function and lymphocyte (B and T) proliferation assays. The results show that the fish mass to length ratio was significantly decreased for the primary-treated and all three disinfection processes. Exposure to the primary-treated effluent led to a significant increase in macrophage-related phagocytosis; the addition of a disinfection step was effective in removing this effect. Both unstimulated and mitogen-stimulated T lymphocyte proliferation in fish decreased dramatically in fish exposed to the ozonated effluent compared to fish exposed to either the primary-treated effluent or to aquarium water. Stimulation of T lymphocytes proliferation was observed with the peracetic acid treatment group. In conclusion, the disinfection strategy used can modify the immune system in fish at the level of T lymphocyte proliferation but was effective to remove the effects on phagocytosis activity.

  9. Nitrogen polishing in a fully anoxic anammox MBBR treating mainstream nitritation-denitritation effluent.

    PubMed

    Regmi, Pusker; Holgate, Becky; Miller, Mark W; Park, Hongkeun; Chandran, Kartik; Wett, Bernhard; Murthy, Sudhir; Bott, Charles B

    2016-03-01

    As nitrogen discharge limits are becoming more stringent, short-cut nitrogen systems and tertiary nitrogen polishing steps are gaining popularity. For partial nitritation or nitritation-denitritation systems, anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) polishing may be feasible to remove residual ammonia and nitrite from the effluent. Nitrogen polishing of mainstream nitritation-denitritation system effluent via anammox was studied at 25°C in a fully anoxic moving bed bioreactor (MBBR) (V = 0.45 m(3) ) over 385 days. Unlike other anammox based processes, a very fast startup of anammox MBBR was demonstrated, despite nitrite limited feeding conditions (influent nitrite = 0.7 ± 0.59 mgN/L, ammonia = 6.13 ± 2.86 mgN/L, nitrate = 3.41 ± 1.92 mgN/L). The nitrogen removal performance was very stable within a wide range of nitrogen inputs. Anammox bacteria (AMX) activity up to 1 gN/m(2) /d was observed which is comparable to other biofilm-based systems. It is generally believed that nitrate production limits nitrogen removal through AMX metabolism. However, in this study, anammox MBBR demonstrated ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate removal at limited chemical oxygen demand (COD) availability. AMX and heterotrophs contributed to 0.68 ± 0.17 and 0.32 ± 0.17 of TIN removal, respectively. It was speculated that nitrogen removal might be aided by denitratation which could be due to heterotrophs or the recently discovered ability for AMX to use short-chain fatty acids to reduce nitrate to nitrite. This study demonstrates the feasibility of anammox nitrogen polishing in an MBBR is possible for nitritation-denitration systems.

  10. Risk-based site-specific water quality criteria for treated mine-tailings effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, L.G.; Fendick, E.; LaKind, J.; Stern, B.; Strand, J.A.; Tardiff, R.G.

    1995-12-31

    A mine development project proposes to discharge a combined effluent into marine waters in southeast Alaska. The discharge will consist of sewage, storm water, and tailings pond effluent. With the exception of arsenic, the discharge and its subsequent dispersion will comply with state and federal water quality criteria. The proposed discharge will comply with acute and chronic arsenic standards for the protection of marine life, but will not comply with the arsenic standard for the protection of human health via consumption of seafood. The arsenic standard for the protection of human health is based on a risk management objective that the likelihood of skin cancer be no more than 1 excess case per 100,000 people (10{sup {minus}5}) who ingest arsenic in seafood. Based on USEPA methodology for developing ambient water quality criteria, the seawater concentration that corresponds to this risk management objective is 1.4,{micro}g/L, which is less than the naturally-occurring arsenic concentration in seawater. Consequently, a site-specific risk-based evaluation was conducted to identify more realistic and achievable goals for arsenic in seawater that are consistent with the risk management objective of 10{sup {minus}5}. Parameters evaluated were discharge transport, chemical speciation and fate of arsenic, fish exposure, bioaccumulation and metabolism, patterns of fish catch and consumption, and toxic potency of arsenic. Results of the evaluation showed numerous, substantial differences between the assumptions inherent in the risk assessment model used by USEPA to estimate water quality criteria, and site-specific values that could be applied to the proposed discharge. Overall, the collective weight of evidence indicates that the concentration of arsenic in seawater that corresponds to the 10{sup {minus}5} risk management objective may be substantially (i.e., 10 to 1,000 times) higher than the 1.4 {micro}g/L criterion.

  11. Application of heterogeneous catalytic ozonation as a tertiary treatment of effluent of biologically treated tannery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guangdao; Pan, Feng; Fan, Guofeng; Liu, Guoguang

    2016-07-02

    The present study employed a Mn-Cu/Al2O3 heterogeneous catalytic ozonation process for tertiary treatment of actual tannery wastewater, focusing on its feasibility in that application. The primary factors affecting the removal efficiency of organic pollutants were investigated, including catalyst dosage, ozone dosage, and initial pH value. The experimental results showed that the addition of a Mn-Cu/Al2O3 catalyst improved the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) during ozonation, which initiated a 29.3% increase for COD removal, compared to ozonation alone after 60 min. The optimum pH, catalyst dosage, and ozone dosage were determined to be 7.0, 2.0 g/L, and 0.3 g/h, respectively. Under these conditions, following 60 min of reaction, the COD removal efficiency and the concentration in effluent were 88%, and 17 mg/L, respectively. In addition, the presence of tert-butanol (a well known hydroxyl radical scavenger) strongly inhibited COD removal via Mn-Cu/Al2O3 catalytic ozonation, indicating that the Mn-Cu/Al2O3 catalytic ozonation process follows a hydroxyl radical (OH·) reaction mechanism. The Mn-Cu/Al2O3 catalyst exhibited good stability and reusability. Finally, the kinetic analysis revealed that the apparent reaction rate constant of COD removal with the Mn-Cu/Al2O3 catalytic ozonation system (0.0328 min(-1)) was 2.3 times that of an ozonation system alone (0.0141 min(-1)). These results demonstrated that the catalytic ozonation using Mn-Cu/Al2O3 is an effective and promising process for tertiary treatment of tannery effluent in biological systems.

  12. Impact of Treated Sewage Effluent on the Microbiology of a Small Brook Using Flow Cytometry as a Diagnostic Tool.

    PubMed

    Harry, Ibiye S K; Ameh, Ekwu; Coulon, Frederic; Nocker, Andreas

    Flow cytometry was applied to assess the microbiological impact of treated sewage effluent discharge into a small brook carrying surface runoff water. Increases in dissolved organic carbon and soluble reactive phosphorous were accompanied by increases in counts of intact bacteria by up to eightfold. Effluent ingress furthermore resulted in a pronounced shift of bacterial clusters. Whereas brook water upstream of the discharge point was characterised by a bacterial cluster with low nucleic acid (LNA) content, downstream water showed a shift to bacteria with high nucleic acid (HNA) content. Changes in the LNA/HNA ratio were largely maintained along the course of the brook. Results suggest that the LNA/HNA ratio can under certain conditions serve as an indicator of anthropogenic nutrient impact. Measuring impact on this low trophic level might be more sensitive and straightforward than measuring macroindicators. More evidence will however be required to assess the usefulness of LNA/HNA measurements to assess the ecological nutrient status of natural waters and the impact of nutrient pollution.

  13. Composition of activated sludge settling and planktonic bacterial communities treating industrial effluent and their correlation to settling problems.

    PubMed

    Nadarajah, Nalina; Allen, D Grant; Fulthorpe, Roberta R

    2010-11-01

    Problems with deflocculation and solids separation in biological wastewater treatment systems are linked to fluctuations in physicochemical conditions. This study examined the composition of activated sludge bacterial communities in lab-scale sequencing batch reactors treating bleached kraft mill effluent, under transient temperature conditions (30 to 45 °C) and their correlation to sludge settleability problems. The bacterial community composition of settled and planktonic biomass samples in the reactors was monitored via denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragments. Our analysis showed that settled biomass has a different community composition from the planktonic biomass (49 ± 7% difference based on Jaccard similarity coefficients; p < 0.01). During times of poor sludge compression, the settled and planktonic biomass became more similar. This observation supports the hypothesis that settling problems observed were due to deflocculation of normally settling flocs rather than the outgrowth of non-settling bacterial species.

  14. The impact of anode acclimation strategy on microbial electrolysis cell treating hydrogen fermentation effluent.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohu; Zhang, Ruizhe; Qian, Yawei; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng

    2017-07-01

    The impact of different anode acclimation methods for enhancing hydrogen production in microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) was investigated in this study. The anodes were first acclimated in microbial fuel cells using acetate, butyrate and corn stalk fermentation effluent (CSFE) as substrate before moving into MECs, respectively. Subsequently, CSFE was used as feedstock in all the three MECs. The maximum hydrogen yield with the anode pre-acclimated with butyrate (5.21±0.24L H2/L CSFE) was higher than that pre-acclimated with acetate (4.22±0.19L H2/L CSFE) and CSFE (4.55±0.14L H2/L CSFE). The current density (480±11A/m(3)) and hydrogen production rate (4.52±0.13m(3)/m(3)/d) with the anode pre-acclimated with butyrate were also higher that another two reactors. These results demonstrated that the anode biofilm pre-acclimated with butyrate has significant advantages in CSFE treatment and could improve the performance of hydrogen production in MEC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Estrogen removal from treated municipal effluent in small-scale constructed wetland with different depth.

    PubMed

    Song, Hai-Liang; Nakano, Kazunori; Taniguchi, Takashi; Nomura, Munehiro; Nishimura, Osamu

    2009-06-01

    The presence of estrone (E1), 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2) in sewage treatment work (STW) effluent pose a potential risk to aquatic ecosystem. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of vertical-flow wetland as polishing step of conventional wastewater treatment in the removal of estrogens and to examine the effect of sand depth. The highest removal efficiency of 67.8+/-28.0%, 84.0+/-15.4% and 75.3+/-17.6% for E1, E2 and EE2, respectively, was achieved by the shallowest wetland among three constructed wetlands with different filter layer depth (i.e. 7.5, 30 and 60 cm). Together with the result that the performance of wetlands when operating in unsaturated condition was superior to that when operating in water-saturated condition, it is suggested that maintaining sufficient aerobic circumstance in constructed wetlands was important for estrogens removal. Core sampling indicated that the highest efficiency achieved in extremely shallow wetland might be due partly to the highest root density, besides the superior condition for penetration of oxygen. The adsorbed estrogens in sand accounted for less than 12% of the removed estrogens irrespective of the depth, indicating biotic processes play a major role in the estrogens removal.

  16. Performance of a pilot-scale nitrifying trickling filter treating municipal aerated lagoon effluent.

    PubMed

    Coats, Erik R; Watson, Ben; Lee, Kiersten; Hammer, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Colfax, WA, operates an aerated lagoon to achieve compliance with its National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit, which currently requires biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS) removal. However, ammonia removal may soon be required, and Colfax is considering a nitrifying trickling filter (NTF) that would allow them to also maintain the lagoons. To obtain data from which to ultimately design a full-scale system, a four-year NTF pilot study was performed. Results demonstrated that an NTF would be an effective, reliable NH3 removal method and could produce effluent NH3 concentrations < 1.0 mg/L. NTF performance was characterized by zero- and first-order kinetics; zero-order rates correlated with influent NH3 concentrations and mass load. Utilizing data from these investigations it was determined that the pilot NTF could be reduced by 19%, which demonstrates the value of pilot testing. Finally, pilot data was evaluated to provide a data set that will be useful to engineers designing full-scale NTFs.

  17. Removal processes of disinfection byproducts in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands treating secondary effluent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Wen, Yue; Tang, Zhiru; Li, Ling; Cai, Yanlong; Zhou, Qi

    2014-03-15

    The removal efficiencies and the kinetics of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) were studied in six greenhouse laboratory-scale SSF CWs. Cattail (Typha latifolia) and its litter (collected from the aboveground samples of cattail in autumn) were used as a potential phytoremediation technology and as a primary substrate, respectively, for DBP removal. Results showed that most of the 11 DBPs (except chloroform and 1, 1-dichloropropanone) were efficiently removed (>90%) in six SSF CWs with hydraulic retention time of 5 d and there were no significant differences among the systems. Under the batch mode, the removal of DBPs in SSF CWs followed first-order kinetics with half-lives of 1.0-770.2 h. As a primary DBP in wastewater effluent, removal efficiencies for chloroform were higher in planted systems than in unplanted ones and plant uptake accounted for more than 23.8% of the removal. Plant litter greatly enhanced the removal of trihalomethanes (THMs) by supplying primary substrates and reducing conditions, and the formation of dichloromethane supported the anaerobic biodegradation of THMs via reductive dechlorination in SSF CWs. Trichloroacetonitrile was completely removed within 10 h in each system and hydrolysis was considered to be the dominant process as there was a rapid formation of the hydrolysis byproduct, trichloroacetamide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistant and Virulent Salmonella spp. in Treated Effluent and Receiving Aquatic Milieu of Wastewater Treatment Plants in Durban, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Odjadjare, Ejovwokoghene C.; Olaniran, Ademola O.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the impact of treated wastewater effluent from two wastewater treatment plants on the physicochemical parameters and Salmonella spp. load of receiving rivers. Presumptive Salmonella spp. were obtained at all sampled points including the discharge points, with counts ranging from 0 to 4.14 log cfu/mL at both plants. Turbidity, chemical and biological oxygen demand were found to be high and mostly above the required limit for treated wastewater discharge. However, recorded nitrate and phosphate values were very low. Of the 200 confirmed Salmonella spp. isolates recovered from the treated effluent and receiving surface waters, 93% harbored the spiC gene, 84% harbored the misL gene, and 87.5% harbored the orfL gene while 87% harbored the pipD gene. The antibiotic resistance profile revealed that the isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid and streptomycin, but susceptible to quinolones and third generation β-lactams. These results indicate that in South Africa treated effluents are still a major source of contamination of rivers with pathogens such as Salmonella. Appropriate steps by the regulatory authorities and workers at the treatment plants are needed to enforce stipulated guidelines in order to prevent pollution of surface water resources due to the discharge of poorly treated effluents. PMID:26295245

  19. Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistant and Virulent Salmonella spp. in Treated Effluent and Receiving Aquatic Milieu of Wastewater Treatment Plants in Durban, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Odjadjare, Ejovwokoghene C; Olaniran, Ademola O

    2015-08-18

    In this study, we evaluated the impact of treated wastewater effluent from two wastewater treatment plants on the physicochemical parameters and Salmonella spp. load of receiving rivers. Presumptive Salmonella spp. were obtained at all sampled points including the discharge points, with counts ranging from 0 to 4.14 log cfu/mL at both plants. Turbidity, chemical and biological oxygen demand were found to be high and mostly above the required limit for treated wastewater discharge. However, recorded nitrate and phosphate values were very low. Of the 200 confirmed Salmonella spp. isolates recovered from the treated effluent and receiving surface waters, 93% harbored the spiC gene, 84% harbored the misL gene, and 87.5% harbored the orfL gene while 87% harbored the pipD gene. The antibiotic resistance profile revealed that the isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid and streptomycin, but susceptible to quinolones and third generation β-lactams. These results indicate that in South Africa treated effluents are still a major source of contamination of rivers with pathogens such as Salmonella. Appropriate steps by the regulatory authorities and workers at the treatment plants are needed to enforce stipulated guidelines in order to prevent pollution of surface water resources due to the discharge of poorly treated effluents.

  20. Recommendations for treated-area choice assays with termites (Isoptera)

    Treesearch

    Chris J. Peterson; Patrick D. Gerard; Janice Ems-Wilson

    2005-01-01

    The repellency of catnip (Nepeta cataria) essential oil was evaluated in a treated-area choice assay with subterranean termites (Reticulitermes spp.). It appeared that fewer R. virginicus were found on the treated portion of a petri dish within a period of about 7d; R. flavipes was not...

  1. Quarterly sampling of the wetlands along the old F-Area effluent ditch: August 1994. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cummins, C.L.; Dixon, K.L.

    1994-08-01

    In August 1994, well point water and near-surface water samples were collected to further characterize tritium and volatile organic compounds in the Wetlands along the old F-Area effluent ditch south of 643-E at the Savannah River Plant. Well point samples were collected from seven locations and near-surface water samples were collected at four locations. Results of the August 1994 sampling event further support findings that tritium and volatile organic compounds are outcropping in the Wetlands near the old F-area effluent ditch. Four analytes (1,2-dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene, tritium, and vinyl chloride) were detected at least once at concentrations above the primary Drinking Water Standards or the Maximum Contaminant Levels. Five analytes (the above chemicals plus tetrachloroethylene) were detected at least once in the near-surface water samples at concentrations greater than the method detection limit.

  2. Hydrologic data from an area southwest of Tallahassee, Florida, where municipal wastewater effluent is applied by spray irrigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yurewicz, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of spray irrigation using municipal wastewater effluent on a ground-water system (in particular, on the water of the Floridan aquifer) were investigated. The area irrigated was 4 miles southwest of Tallahassee, Florida, on an area covered in part by pine forest and in part by selected grasses and forage crops. Hydrologic and geologic data were collected from 1972 to 1981. Hydrologic data include ground-water levels, water quality, and spray-irrigation rates. Ground-water level measurements were made at 60 wells. Water-quality samples were collected at 1 municipal wastewater effluent site, 3 springs, 17 soil sites, and 64 wells. Water-quality data were obtained from physical, chemical, and bacteriological analyses. Geologic data include geophysical logs and lithologic descriptions of 34 wells. (USGS)

  3. Hyporheic Zone Management: Nitrate Removal from Treated Wastewater Effluent using an Engineered Hyporheic Zone as a Bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban, M.; Herzog, S.; Jones, Z.; Sharp, J.

    2014-12-01

    The hyporheic zone (HZ) is a natural bioreactor within streambed sediments. The dynamic interface of streamwater and groundwater creates a diverse microbial community that has potential to provide substantial contaminant removal. However, insufficient water exchange between the stream and the HZ is often a limiting factor for improved streamwater quality. Modular subsurface hydraulic conductivity (K) modifications with the addition of organic carbon substrates have been proposed as a means to increase hyporheic exchange and enhance natural water treatment via denitrification. Subsurface K modification flow paths are well understood from previous computer modeling and tracer testing studies, but treatment capabilities have yet to be tested in physical systems. This research applied chemical and molecular biological techniques to investigate nitrate removal and microbial community structure in a bench-scale stream simulation with subsurface K and carbon modifications. The system received treated wastewater effluent containing soluble nitrogen primarily in the form of nitrate at concentrations fluctuating from 4-7mg/L. To gain insight into denitrification potential and relative microbial activity along hyporheic flow paths, profiles of nitrate fate, total bacterial presence and the density of the denitrification genes (nirS and nirK) were quantified spatially. Nitrate tests showed a decrease from ~7mg/L in the influent to less than 1mg/L along hyporheic flowpaths. This was accompanied by an increase in 16S rRNA copies (representative of total bacterial biomass) from approximately 200000 gene copies in the influent zone to 630000 gene copies in the effluent zone. Also, the bacterial communities had a greater presence in the upper 6cm of the sediment layer with nirS amplifying 4-5 cycles earlier than nirK in the PCR analysis. The nirS gene concentration was nearly an order of magnitude greater in the effluent zone than the carbon modified zone, suggesting that leached

  4. The Impact of Different Proportions of a Treated Effluent on the Biotransformation of Selected Micro-Contaminants in River Water Microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Nödler, Karsten; Tsakiri, Maria; Licha, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Attenuation of micro-contaminants is a very complex field in environmental science and evidence suggests that biodegradation rates of micro-contaminants in the aqueous environment depend on the water matrix. The focus of the study presented here is the systematic comparison of biotransformation rates of caffeine, carbamazepine, metoprolol, paracetamol and valsartan in river water microcosms spiked with different proportions of treated effluent (0%, 0.1%, 1%, and 10%). Biotransformation was identified as the dominating attenuation process by the evolution of biotransformation products such as atenolol acid and valsartan acid. Significantly decreasing biotransformation rates of metoprolol were observed at treated effluent proportions ≥0.1% whereas significantly increasing biotransformation rates of caffeine and valsartan were observed in the presence of 10% treated effluent. Potential reasons for the observations are discussed and the addition of adapted microorganisms via the treated effluent was suggested as the most probable reason. The impact of additional phosphorus on the biodegradation rates was tested and the experiments revealed that phosphorus-limitation was not responsible. PMID:25310538

  5. The impact of different proportions of a treated effluent on the biotransformation of selected micro-contaminants in river water microcosms.

    PubMed

    Nödler, Karsten; Tsakiri, Maria; Licha, Tobias

    2014-10-10

    Attenuation of micro-contaminants is a very complex field in environmental science and evidence suggests that biodegradation rates of micro-contaminants in the aqueous environment depend on the water matrix. The focus of the study presented here is the systematic comparison of biotransformation rates of caffeine, carbamazepine, metoprolol, paracetamol and valsartan in river water microcosms spiked with different proportions of treated effluent (0%, 0.1%, 1%, and 10%). Biotransformation was identified as the dominating attenuation process by the evolution of biotransformation products such as atenolol acid and valsartan acid. Significantly decreasing biotransformation rates of metoprolol were observed at treated effluent proportions ≥ 0.1% whereas significantly increasing biotransformation rates of caffeine and valsartan were observed in the presence of 10% treated effluent. Potential reasons for the observations are discussed and the addition of adapted microorganisms via the treated effluent was suggested as the most probable reason. The impact of additional phosphorus on the biodegradation rates was tested and the experiments revealed that phosphorus-limitation was not responsible.

  6. Field-Based Approach for Assessing the Impact of Treated Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent on Endogenous Metabolites of Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field-based metabolomic study was conducted during a shutdown of a pulp and paper mill (PPM) to assess the impacts of treated PPM effluent on endogenous polar metabolites in fathead minnow (FHM; Pimephales promelas) livers. Caged male and female FHMs were deployed at a Great La...

  7. Field-Based Approach for Assessing the Impact of Treated Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent on Endogenous Metabolites of Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field-based metabolomic study was conducted during a shutdown of a pulp and paper mill (PPM) to assess the impacts of treated PPM effluent on endogenous polar metabolites in fathead minnow (FHM; Pimephales promelas) livers. Caged male and female FHMs were deployed at a Great La...

  8. A sensitive ferricyanide-mediated biochemical oxygen demand assay for analysis of wastewater treatment plant influents and treated effluents.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Mark A; Welsh, David T; John, Richard; Catterall, Kylie; Teasdale, Peter R

    2013-02-01

    Representative and fast monitoring of wastewater influent and effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is an elusive goal for the wastewater industry and regulatory bodies alike. The present study describes a suitable assay, which incorporates activated sludge as the biocatalyst and ferricyanide as the terminal electron acceptor for respiration. A number of different sludges and sludge treatments were investigated, primarily to improve the sensitivity of the assay. A limit of detection (LOD) (2.1 mg BOD₅ L⁻¹) very similar to that of the standard 5-day BOD₅ method was achieved in 4 h using raw influent sludge that had been cultured overnight as the biocatalyst. Reducing the microbial concentration was the most effective means to improve sensitivity and reduce the contribution of the sludge's endogenous respiration to total ferricyanide-mediated (FM) respiration. A strong and highly significant relationship was found (n = 33; R = 0.96; p < 0.001; slope = 0.94) between BOD₅ and FM-BOD equivalent values for a diverse range of samples including wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent and treated effluent, as well as several grey water samples. The activated sludge FM-BOD assay presented here is an exceptional surrogate method to the standard BOD₅ assay, providing representative, same-day BOD analysis of WWTP samples with a comparable detection limit, a 4-fold greater analytical range and much faster analysis time. The industry appeal of such an assay is tremendous given that ~90% of all BOD₅ analysis is dedicated to measurement of WWTP samples, for which this assay is specifically designed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Wood-Waste Cover Prevents Sulphide Oxidation and Treats Acid Effluents at the East-Sullivan Mine Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germain, D.; Tassé, N.; Cyr, J.

    2004-05-01

    At the East Sullivan site, wood wastes covering the abandoned mine tailings impoundment prevent sulphide oxidation by creating an anoxic environment. The addition of coarse ligneous wastes favours infiltration, resulting in a water table rise. This maintains most tailings saturated and thus provides an additional protection against sulphide oxidation. Moreover, high infiltration allows a more rapid flushing of acid prone groundwater generated prior to the cover placement. Finally, the pore-waters under the cover are characterized by a strong reducing potential and high alkalinity. These conditions favour sulphate reduction and base metal precipitation as sulphides and carbonates. The restoration strategy capitalized on the alkaline and reductive properties of the waters underlying the wood-waste cover. An original treatment of acid effluents, based on the recirculation of water discharging around the impoundment through the organic cover, was implemented in 1998. In 2003, the total volume of water treated was 725 000 m3. Data gathered near the dispersal zone show that despite dispersing acid water, the groundwater pH decreases by only one unit from 7 to 6, during the recirculation period: May to October. However, alkalinity decreases from 800 to 100 mg/L-CaCO3. But it is back up to 800 mg/L the following spring, thanks to sulphate reduction. Fe2+ concentrations near the dispersal zone are maintained below 2 mg/L. Evolution of the iron mass in the surface waters suggests that the contaminated groundwater flush is completed in the north and west sectors of the impoundment; the east and south ones are expected to be recovered within 3 to 4 years. A wood-waste cover, besides limiting sulphide oxidation, can fill the role of alkaline reducing barrier for the treatment of these acidogenic waters, until a balance between acidity and alkalinity in the effluent is reached.

  10. Coupled effects of treated effluent irrigation and wetting-drying cycles on transport of triazines through unsaturated soil columns.

    PubMed

    Seol, Y; Lee, L S

    2001-01-01

    The physical and chemical parameters controlling the movement of atrazine (6-chloro-N2-ethyl-N4-isopropyl-l,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine; 98.8%) and prometryn [N,N'-bis(1-methylethyl)-6-(methylthio)-l,3,5triazine-2,4-diamine; 99.5%] were investigated in columns infiltrated with treated effluent under unsaturated transient conditions and subjected to drying events at 22 or 60 degrees C followed by rewetting. Three soils varying in soil pH and texture and three solutions were used. The infiltrating solutions consisted of either a CaCl2 matrix (CC), a swine waste-derived lagoon effluent (SW), or a simulated buffer solution (SB) representative of the element composition and pH of the SW but with no dissolved organic matter. Several parameters were monitored including leachate triazine concentrations, pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), inorganic carbon, and flow rates. Compared with CC, application of SW and SB increased column leachate pH, enhanced dissolution of organic carbon and particle dispersion, and decreased average flow rates, which allowed for increased desorption time. The coupled effect of these processes enhanced movement of triazines in some cases, with SW generally having the greatest effect. The individual effect of increased pH was more pronounced for prometryn (pKa=4.05) versus atrazine (pKa=1.66), and most dramatic for the soil with the lowest initial pH. High-temperature drying, which simulated intensive evaporation, further enhanced the dissolution of soil organic matter and the reduction in leachate flow rates with SW and SB applications; however, the net effect under the experimental conditions employed varied with soil type. Relative to low-temperature drying, high-temperature drying in the silty clay loam-packed columns reduced pesticide migration.

  11. Recycling of treated domestic effluent from an on-site wastewater treatment system for hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Oyama, N; Nair, J; Ho, G E

    2005-01-01

    An alternative method to conserve water and produce crops in arid regions is through hydroponics. Application of treated wastewater for hydroponics will help in stripping off nutrients from wastewater, maximising reuse through reduced evaporation losses, increasing control on quality of water and reducing risk of pathogen contamination. This study focuses on the efficiency of treated wastewater from an on-site aerobic wastewater treatment unit. The experiment aimed to investigate 1) nutrient reduction 2) microbial reduction and 3) growth rate of plants fed on wastewater compared to a commercial hydroponics medium. The study revealed that the chemical and microbial quality of wastewater after hydroponics was safe and satisfactory for irrigation and plant growth rate in wastewater hydroponics was similar to those grown in a commercial medium.

  12. Processing of particulate organic carbon associated with secondary-treated pulp and paper mill effluent in intertidal sediments: a 13C pulse-chase experiment.

    PubMed

    Oakes, Joanne M; Ross, Donald J; Eyre, Bradley D

    2013-01-01

    To determine the benthic transformation pathways and fate of carbon associated with secondary-treated pulp and paper mill (PPM) effluent, (13)C-labeled activated sludge biomass (ASB) and phytoplankton (PHY) were added, separately, to estuarine intertidal sediments. Over 28 days, (13)C was traced into sediment organic carbon, fauna, seagrass, bacteria, and microphytobenthos and into fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) from inundated sediments, and carbon dioxide (CO2(g)) from exposed sediments. There was greater removal of PHY carbon from sediments (~85% over 28 days) compared to ASB (~75%). Although there was similar (13)C loss from PHY and ASB plots via DIC (58% and 56%, respectively) and CO2(g) fluxes (<1%), DOC fluxes were more important for PHY (41%) than ASB (12%). Faster downward transport and loss suggest that fauna prefer PHY, due to its lability and/or toxins associated with ASB; this may account for different carbon pathways. Secondary-treated PPM effluent has lower oxygen demand than primary-treated effluent, but ASB accumulation may contribute to sediment anoxia, and respiration of ASB and PHY-derived DOC may make the water column more heterotrophic. This highlights the need to optimize secondary-treatment processes to control the quality and quantity of organic carbon associated with PPM effluent.

  13. Electrocoagulation of blue reactive, red disperse and mixed dyes, and application in treating textile effluent.

    PubMed

    Phalakornkule, Chantaraporn; Polgumhang, Suprangpak; Tongdaung, Warangkana; Karakat, Benjawan; Nuyut, Thanawin

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the efficiency of electrocoagulation in removing color from synthetic and real textile wastewater. Two representative dye molecules were selected for the synthetic dye wastewater: a blue reactive dye (Reactive Blue 140) and a disperse dye (Disperse Red 1). The electrochemical technique showed satisfactory color removal efficiency and reliable performance in treating both individual and mixed dye types. The removal efficiency and energy consumption data showed that, for a given current density, iron was superior to aluminum in treating both the reactive dye and the disperse dye. With an initial dye concentration of 100 mg L(-1), the energy cost in achieving >95% color removal was on the order of 1 kWh m(-3) for both dyes. The effect of changing the initial pH of the samples on the removal efficiency and energy consumption was also studied. It was found that the design parameters used for the synthetic wastewater were less effective for treatment of real textile wastewater, with 1 in 5 tests on real wastewater failing. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Raw and biologically treated paper mill wastewater effluents and the recipient surface waters: Cytotoxic and genotoxic activity and the presence of endocrine disrupting compounds.

    PubMed

    Balabanič, Damjan; Filipič, Metka; Krivograd Klemenčič, Aleksandra; Žegura, Bojana

    2017-01-01

    Paper mill effluents are complex mixtures containing different toxic compounds including endocrine-disrupting (EDCs) and genotoxic compounds. In the present study non-concentrated raw and biologically treated wastewaters from two paper mill plants with different paper production technologies i) Paper mill A uses virgin fibres, and ii) Paper mill B uses recycled fibres for paper production and the corresponding receiving surface waters, were assessed for their cytotoxic/genotoxic activity with SOS/umuC, Ames MPF 98/100 Aqua, and comet assay with human hepatoma HepG2 cells. In addition the levels of seven selected EDCs were quantified in wastewater samples and receiving surface waters. All investigated EDCs were confirmed in raw and biologically treated effluents from both paper mills with concentrations being markedly higher in Paper mill B effluents. In the receiving surface waters three of the studied EDCs were determined downstream of both paper mills effluent discharge. The wastewater samples and the recipient surface water samples from Paper mill A were not mutagenic for bacteria and did not induce DNA damage in HepG2 cells. On the contrary, half of the raw wastewater samples from Paper mill B were mutagenic whereas biologically treated wastewater and the recipient surface water samples were negative. In HepG2 cells most of the raw and biologically treated wastewater samples from Paper mill B as well as surface water samples collected downstream of Paper mill B effluent discharge induced DNA damage. The results confirmed that genotoxic contaminants were present only in wastewaters from Paper mill B that uses recycled fibres for paper production, and that the combined aerobic and anaerobic wastewater treatment procedure efficiently reduced contaminants that are bacterial mutagens, but not those that induce DNA damage in HepG2 cells. This study highlights that in addition to chemical analyses bioassays are needed for a comprehensive toxicological evaluation of

  15. Mutagenicity and toxicity of treated aqueous effluents from coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, J. I.; Klein, J. A.; Parkhurst, B. R.; Rao, T. K.

    1980-01-01

    Coal gasification and hydrocarbonization wastewaters were treated in a series of bench-scale unit operations representative of a conceptual treatment process. Ammonia stripping, biological oxidation, ozonation and carbon adsorption were performed with sampling before and after each major unit operation. In addition to monitoring more traditional parameters of treatment effectiveness, such as total carbon and phenol removal, acute toxicity and mutagenicity studies were done on these samples, both before and after fractionation. The major mutagenic activity of these wastes was in the basic and neutral fractions. Toxicity of untreated wastes was primarily due to organics, but toxicity after removal of the organics was also significant. Significant reduction in mutagenicity during primary processing steps was accompanied by high concentrations of known mutagens in the sludges produced during these steps, thus indicating that future research focusing on these sludges is desirable.

  16. Detection of enteric viruses in sewage sludge and treated wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Schlindwein, A D; Rigotto, C; Simões, C M O; Barardi, C R M

    2010-01-01

    Sewage sludge and treated wastewater when contaminated with enteric virus and discharged into the environment, could pose a human health risk. The aim of study was to verify the presence and viability of enteric viruses in sewage sludge and treated wastewater at a local sewage plant in Florianopolis city, Brazil. Sewage sludge was concentrated by organic flocculation and polyethylene glycol precipitation and wastewater by electronegative membrane filtration and ultrafiltration by Centriprep Concentrator. Adenovirus (AdV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), and Rotavirus (RV) were examined for all samples for 12 months and Poliovirus (PV) was also tested for in sewage sludge samples. AdV was the most prevalent in both kind of samples, followed by RV, PV (in sludge) and HAV. Viral viability by cell culture (ICC-PCR) was: AdV: 100%, HAV: 16.7%, PV: 91.7%, RV: 25% in sludge and AdV: 66.6%, HAV: 66.6% and RV: 0% in wastewater. IFA for AdV in sludge ranged from 70 to 300 FFU/ml. QPCR for AdV ranged from 4.6 x 10(4) to 1.2 x 10(6) and from 50 to 1.3 x 10(4) gc/ml in sludge and wastewater, respectively. HAV quantification in sludge ranged from 3.1 x 10(2) to 5.4 x 10(2) gc/ml. In conclusion, it was possible to correlate presence and viability of enteric viruses in the environmental samples analyzed.

  17. Bacterial community involved in the nitrogen cycle in a down-flow sponge-based trickling filter treating UASB effluent.

    PubMed

    Mac Conell, E F A; Almeida, P G S; Martins, K E L; Araújo, J C; Chernicharo, C A L

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial community composition of a down-flow sponge-based trickling filter treating upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluent was investigated by pyrosequencing. Bacterial community composition considerably changed along the reactor and over the operational period. The dominant phyla detected were Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Planctomycetes. The abundance of denitrifiers decreased from the top to the bottom and it was consistent with the organic matter concentration gradients. At lower loadings (organic and nitrogen loading rates), the abundance of anammox bacteria was higher than that of the ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the upper portion of the reactor, suggesting that aerobic and anaerobic ammonium oxidation occurred. Nitrification occurred in all the compartments, while anammox bacteria prominently appeared even in the presence of high organic carbon to ammonia ratios (around 1.0-2.0 gCOD gN(-1)). The results suggest that denitrifiers, nitrifiers, and anammox bacteria coexisted in the reactor; thus, different metabolic pathways were involved in ammonium removal in the post-UASB reactor sponge-based.

  18. Comparison of nutrient cycling in a surface-flow constructed wetland and in a facultative pond treating secondary effluent.

    PubMed

    Sajn Slak, A; Bulc, T G; Vrhovsek, D

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the possibilities offered by combinations of waste stabilisation ponds (WSP) and constructed wetlands (CW). The purpose of our study was to compare treatment performances and nutrient cycling in a surface-flow wetland (SFW) and in a WSP treating secondary effluent. In the period between 2000 and 2003, a pilot SFW and a pilot WSP were constructed at the outlet of the wastewater treatment plant and their performance monitored while both were active under the same conditions. The SFW was planted with Phragmites australis and Eichhornia crassipes, while in the WSP development of algae was spontaneous. Performance efficiency was monitored by means of evaluation of physical and chemical parameters in water, by measurement of plant productivity and by analysis of N and P contents in biomass. The SFW with macrophytes proved more efficient in decreasing the suspended solids (64.6%), settleable solids (91.8%), organic N (59.3%), total N (38%), COD (67.2%) and BOD5 (72.1%) than the WSP. The WSP with algae was more efficient in treatment of ammonia nitrogen (48.9%) and ortho-phosphate (43.9%). The results of this study provide data that are of help in optimising combinations of SFW and WSP.

  19. Biodegradability and toxicity assessment of a real textile wastewater effluent treated by an optimized electrocoagulation process.

    PubMed

    Manenti, Diego R; Módenes, Aparecido N; Soares, Petrick A; Boaventura, Rui A R; Palácio, Soraya M; Borba, Fernando H; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Bergamasco, Rosângela; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the application of an iron electrode-based electrocoagulation (EC) process on the treatment of a real textile wastewater (RTW) was investigated. In order to perform an efficient integration of the EC process with a biological oxidation one, an enhancement in the biodegradability and low toxicity of final compounds was sought. Optimal values of EC reactor operation parameters (pH, current density and electrolysis time) were achieved by applying a full factorial 3(3) experimental design. Biodegradability and toxicity assays were performed on treated RTW samples obtained at the optimal values of: pH of the solution (7.0), current density (142.9 A m(-2)) and different electrolysis times. As response variables for the biodegradability and toxicity assessment, the Zahn-Wellens test (Dt), the ratio values of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) relative to low-molecular-weight carboxylates anions (LMCA) and lethal concentration 50 (LC50) were used. According to the Dt, the DOC/LMCA ratio and LC50, an electrolysis time of 15 min along with the optimal values of pH and current density were suggested as suitable for a next stage of treatment based on a biological oxidation process.

  20. RO filtration of biologically treated textile and dyeing effluents using ozonation as a pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, H Y; Guan, Y T; Mizuno, T; Tsuno, H

    2010-01-01

    Bench-scale experiments were conducted to investigate the application of ozonation pre-treatment for biologically treated textile and dyeing wastewater to improve performance of the RO process. Based on ozonation experiments, four specific ozone consumptions (SOC), 0, 0.3, 0.6, 4.0 mg O₃/mg DOC₀ were chosen for study of the effects of ozonation on the reverse osmosis (RO) process. Membrane flux was recorded. Also, the permeate water quality parameters such as TOC, conductivity were analyzed. In addition, fouled membrane cleaning was studied. The study further examined the nature and mechanisms of membrane fouling using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). The effect of ozonation on RO filtration was found to depend on SOC. The study revealed that significant improvement can be achieved in the efficiency of RO filtration by employing ozonation with 0.6 mg O₃/mg DOC₀ SOC. Although the product water purity slightly decreased, the ozonation pre-treatment showed advantages at 0.6 mg O₃/mg DOC₀ SOC for the following: (i) mitigation of flux decline due to membrane fouling; (ii) improvement in foulants cleanability. In addition, hypotheses were put forward to explain the reasons from the aspect of organic matter characteristics changed by ozonation, such as changing on functional groups and molecular weight of organic matter.

  1. Mercury in ground water, septage, leach-field effluent, and soils in residential areas, New Jersey coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barringer, J.L.; Szabo, Z.; Schneider, D.; Atkinson, W.D.; Gallagher, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Water samples were collected from domestic wells at an unsewered residential area in Gloucester County, New Jersey where mercury (Hg) concentrations in well water were known to exceed the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 2000 ng/L. This residential area (the CSL site) is representative of more than 70 such areas in southern New Jersey where about 600 domestic wells, sampled previously by State and county agencies, yielded water containing Hg at concentrations that exceed the MCL. Recent studies indicate that background concentrations of Hg in water from this unconfined sand and gravel aquifer system are < 10 ng/L. Additional sampling was conducted at the CSL site in order to better understand sources of Hg and potential Hg transport mechanisms in the areas with Hg-contaminated ground water. At the CSL site, concentrations of Hg were substantially lower (although still exceeding the MCL in some cases) in filtered water samples than in the unfiltered water samples collected previously from the same wells. Surfactants and elevated concentrations of sodium, chloride, nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate in water from domestic and observation wells indicated septic-system effects on water quality; detections of sulfide indicated localized reducing conditions. Hg concentrations in septage and leach-field effluent sampled at several other households in the region were low relative to the contaminant-level Hg concentrations in water from domestic wells. Relations of Hg concentrations in leach-field effluent to iron concentrations indicate that reductive dissolution of iron hydroxides in soils may release Hg to the percolating effluent. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mercury in ground water, septage, leach-field effluent, and soils in residential areas, New Jersey coastal plain.

    PubMed

    Barringer, Julia L; Szabo, Zoltan; Schneider, Donald; Atkinson, William D; Gallagher, Robert A

    2006-05-15

    Water samples were collected from domestic wells at an unsewered residential area in Gloucester County, New Jersey where mercury (Hg) concentrations in well water were known to exceed the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 2,000 ng/L. This residential area (the CSL site) is representative of more than 70 such areas in southern New Jersey where about 600 domestic wells, sampled previously by State and county agencies, yielded water containing Hg at concentrations that exceed the MCL. Recent studies indicate that background concentrations of Hg in water from this unconfined sand and gravel aquifer system are <10 ng/L. Additional sampling was conducted at the CSL site in order to better understand sources of Hg and potential Hg transport mechanisms in the areas with Hg-contaminated ground water. At the CSL site, concentrations of Hg were substantially lower (although still exceeding the MCL in some cases) in filtered water samples than in the unfiltered water samples collected previously from the same wells. Surfactants and elevated concentrations of sodium, chloride, nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate in water from domestic and observation wells indicated septic-system effects on water quality; detections of sulfide indicated localized reducing conditions. Hg concentrations in septage and leach-field effluent sampled at several other households in the region were low relative to the contaminant-level Hg concentrations in water from domestic wells. Relations of Hg concentrations in leach-field effluent to iron concentrations indicate that reductive dissolution of iron hydroxides in soils may release Hg to the percolating effluent.

  3. Ecotoxicity evaluation of a WWTP effluent treated by solar photo-Fenton at neutral pH in a raceway pond reactor.

    PubMed

    Freitas, A M; Rivas, G; Campos-Mañas, M C; Casas López, J L; Agüera, A; Sánchez Pérez, J A

    2017-01-01

    Some pollutants can be resistant to wastewater treatment, hence becoming a risk to aquatic and terrestrial biota even at the very low concentrations (ng L(-1)-μg L(-1)) they are commonly found at. Tertiary treatments are used for micropollutant removal but little is known about the ecotoxicity of the treated effluent. In this study, a municipal secondary effluent was treated by a solar photo-Fenton reactor at initial neutral pH in a raceway pond reactor, and ecotoxicity was evaluated before and after micropollutant removal. Thirty-nine micropollutants were identified in the secondary effluent, mainly pharmaceuticals, with a total concentration of ≈80 μg L(-1). After treatment, 99 % microcontaminant degradation was reached. As for ecotoxicity reduction, the assayed organisms showed the following sensitivity levels: Tetrahymena thermophila > Daphnia magna > Lactuca sativa > Spirodela polyrhiza ≈ Vibrio fischeri. The initial effluent showed an inhibitory effect of 40 % for T. thermophila and 20 % for D. magna. After 20 min of photo-Fenton treatment, no toxic effect was observed for T. thermophila and toxicity dropped to 5 % for D. magna. Graphical abstract Ecotoxicity removal by solar photo-Fenton at neutral pH. ᅟ.

  4. Superiority of solar Fenton oxidation over TiO2 photocatalysis for the degradation of trimethoprim in secondary treated effluents.

    PubMed

    Michael, I; Hapeshi, E; Michael, C; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this work was to examine the degradation of trimethoprim (TMP), which is an antibacterial agent, during the application of two advanced oxidation process (AOP) systems in secondary treated domestic effluents. The homogeneous solar Fenton process (hv/Fe(2+)/H2O2) and heterogeneous photocatalysis with titanium dioxide (TiO2) suspensions were tested. It was found that the degradation of TMP depends on several parameters such as the amount of iron salt and H2O2, concentration of TiO2, pH of solution, solar irradiation, temperature and initial substrate concentration. The optimum dosages of Fe(2+) and H2O2 for homogeneous ([Fe(2+)] = 5 mg L(-1), [H2O2] = 3.062 mmol L(-1)) and TiO2 ([TiO2] = 3 g L(-1)) for heterogeneous photocatalysis were established. The study indicated that the degradation of TMP during the solar Fenton process is described by a pseudo-first-order reaction and the substrate degradation during the heterogeneous photocatalysis by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics. The toxicity of the treated samples was evaluated using a Daphnia magna bioassay and was finally decreased by both processes. The results indicated that solar Fenton is more effective than the solar TiO2 process, yielding complete degradation of the examined substrate within 30 min of illumination and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) reduction of about 44% whereas the respective values for the TiO2 process were ∼70% degradation of TMP within 120 min of treatment and 13% DOC removal.

  5. Control of biological growth in recirculating cooling systems using treated secondary effluent as makeup water with monochloramine.

    PubMed

    Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Chowdhury, Indranil; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Li, Heng; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2012-12-01

    was used as compared to in-situ-formed monochloramine. Adjustment of biocide dose to maintain monochloramine residual above 3mg/L is needed to achieve successful biological growth control in recirculating cooling systems using secondary-treated municipal effluent as the only source of makeup water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Combination of physico-chemical analysis, Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay/nuclear abnormalities tests for cyto-genotoxicity assessments of treated effluents discharged from textile industries.

    PubMed

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2016-09-01

    Bioassays for cyto-genotoxicity assessments are generally not required in current textile industry effluent discharge management regulations. The present study applied in vivo plant and fish based toxicity tests viz. Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay and nuclear abnormalities tests in combination with physico-chemical analysis for assessing potential cytotoxic/genotoxic impacts of treated textile industry effluents reaching a major river (Kelani River) in Sri Lanka. Of the treated effluents tested from two textile industries, color in the Textile industry 1 effluents occasionally and color, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand in the Textile industry 2 effluents frequently exceeded the specified Sri Lankan tolerance limits for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. Exposure of A. cepa bulbs to 100% and 12.5% treated effluents from both industries resulted in statistically significant root growth retardation, mito-depression, and induction of chromosomal abnormalities in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water in all cases demonstrating cyto-genotoxicity associated with the treated effluents. Exposure of O. niloticus to the 100% and 12.5% effluents, resulted in erythrocytic genetic damage as shown by elevated total comet scores and induction of nuclear abnormalities confirming the genotoxicity of the treated effluents even with 1:8 dilution. The results provide strong scientific evidence for the crucial necessity of incorporating cyto-genotoxicity impact assessment tools in textile industry effluent management regulations considering human health and ecological health of the receiving water course under chronic exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization report - area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The Area 6 North and South Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEPs) are historic disposal units located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. The NTS is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) which has been required by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) to characterize the site under the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit for the NTS and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 265.

  8. Performance of a sulfide-oxidizing, sulfur-producing membrane biofilm reactor treating sulfide-containing bioreactor effluent.

    PubMed

    Sahinkaya, Erkan; Hasar, Halil; Kaksonen, Anna H; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2011-05-01

    Sulfide-containing waste streams are generated in mining, petrochemical plants, tanneries, viscose rayon manufacture, and the gasification of coal. Colorless sulfur bacteria can oxidize sulfide to elemental sulfur (S°), which can be recovered, when oxygen is their electron acceptor. This study evaluated sulfide oxidation and S° recovery in an oxygen-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) treating the effluent from a sulfidogenic anaerobic baffled reactor. Sulfide oxidation efficiency (37-99%) and S° recovery (64-89% of oxidized sulfide) could be controlled by manipulating the sulfide loading, oxygen pressure to the fibers, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). For example, too-low oxygen pressure decreased S° recovery due to decreased sulfide oxidation, but too-high oxygen pressure lowered S° recovery due to its oxidation to sulfate. Most importantly, high sulfide oxidation (>98%) and conversion to S° (>75%) could be achieved together when the sulfide loading was less than 1.7 mol/m²·d and the O₂ pressure was sufficient to give an O₂ flux of at least 1.5 mol/m²·d. However, higher sulfide loading could be compensated by a higher O₂ pressure, and the best performance occurred when the sulfide loading was high (2 molS/m²·d), the O₂ pressure was high (∼1 atm), and the HRT was short (1.9 h). Membrane fouling caused a low O₂ flux, which led to low sulfide-oxidation efficiency, but fouling could be reversed by mild acid washing.

  9. Performance and microbial community analysis in a modified anaerobic inclining-baffled reactor treating recycled paper mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Zwain, Haider M; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Ng, Wun Jern; Dahlan, Irvan

    2017-04-05

    Recycled paper mill effluent (RPME) contains high levels of organic and solid compounds, causing operational problems for anaerobic biological treatment. In this study, a unique modified anaerobic inclining-baffled reactor (MAI-BR) has been developed to treat RPME at various initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations (1000-4000 mg/L) and hydraulic retention times (HRTs) (3 and 1 day). The COD removal efficiency was decreased from 96 to 83% when the organic loading rate (OLR) was increased from 0.33 to 4 g/L day. Throughout the study, a maximum methane yield of 0.25 L CH4/g COD was obtained, while the pH fluctuated in the range of 5.8 to 7.8. The reactor performance was influenced by the development and distribution of the microbial communities. Based on the next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis, the microbial community represented a variety of bacterial phyla with significant homology to Euryarchaeota (43.06%), Planctomycetes (24.68%), Proteobacteria (21.58%), Acidobacteria (4.12%), Chloroflexi (3.14%), Firmicutes (1.12%), Bacteroidetes (1.02%), and others (1.28%). The NGS analysis showed that the microbial community was dominated by Methanosaeta concilii and Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis. This can be supported by the presence of filamentous and spherical microbes of different sizes. Additionally, methanogenic and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) microorganisms coexisted in all compartments, and these contributed to the overall degradation of substances in the RPME. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  10. Significance of dissolved methane in effluents of anaerobically treated low strength wastewater and potential for recovery as an energy product: A review.

    PubMed

    Crone, Brian C; Garland, Jay L; Sorial, George A; Vane, Leland M

    2016-11-01

    The need for energy efficient Domestic Wastewater (DWW) treatment is increasing annually with population growth and expanding global energy demand. Anaerobic treatment of low strength DWW produces methane which can be used to as an energy product. Temperature sensitivity, low removal efficiencies (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Suspended Solids (SS), and Nutrients), alkalinity demand, and potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have limited its application to warmer climates. Although well designed anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors (AnMBRs) are able to effectively treat DWW at psychrophilic temperatures (10-30 °C), lower temperatures increase methane solubility leading to increased energy losses in the form of dissolved methane in the effluent. Estimates of dissolved methane losses are typically based on concentrations calculated using Henry's Law but advection limitations can lead to supersaturation of methane between 1.34 and 6.9 times equilibrium concentrations and 11-100% of generated methane being lost in the effluent. In well mixed systems such as AnMBRs which use biogas sparging to control membrane fouling, actual concentrations approach equilibrium values. Non-porous membranes have been used to recover up to 92.6% of dissolved methane and well suited for degassing effluents of Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors which have considerable solids and organic contents and can cause pore wetting and clogging in microporous membrane modules. Microporous membranes can recover up to 98.9% of dissolved methane in AnMBR effluents which have low COD and SS concentrations. Sequential Down-flow Hanging Sponge (DHS) reactors have been used to recover between 57 and 88% of dissolved methane from Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor effluent at concentrations of greater than 30% and oxidize the rest for a 99% removal of total dissolved methane. They can also remove 90% of suspended solids and COD in UASB effluents and produce a high quality effluent. In

  11. Recalcitrant organic compounds (chemical oxygen demand sources) in biologically treated pulp and paper mill effluents: Their fate and environmental impact in receiving waters

    SciTech Connect

    Archibald, F.; Roy-Arcand, L.; Methot, M.; Valeanu, L.

    1998-11-01

    Most North American pulp and paper mills now biologically treat (biotreat) their liquid effluent. However, treated water still contains effluent-derived recalcitrant organic material (EROM), measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD), for which emission limits exist in Europe and are being considered in the US. Production of microbially resistant, dissolved natural organic material (NOM) typically found in Canadian stream and lake waters occurs slowly under gentle conditions, while mill EROM is generated from lignocellulosics by faster and harsher processes. Similarity of the environmental effects of NOM and pulp and paper mill EROM are examined. Changes occurring over 4 months in biologically treated effluent from two modern Canadian mills and lake NOM when sealed in gas- and light-permeable bags and placed in a pristine Quebec lake are reported. Addition of microbial co-metabolites significantly improved the dark mineralization of organochlorines surviving mill biological treatment. Mill EROM was light sensitive, nonacutely toxic in the Microtox assay, and similar to NOM in the surrounding lake in most bulk properties. There was no evidence to suggest that placing specific limits on mill EROM (COD) emissions would be environmentally beneficial.

  12. Evaluation of a upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor with partial recirculation of effluent used to treat wastewaters from pulp and paper plants.

    PubMed

    Buzzini, A P; Pires, E C

    2007-07-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a UASB reactor treating diluted black liquor from a Kraft pulp mill, which simulates an unbleached Kraft plant wastewater, under different operational conditions, including partial recycling of the effluent. The reactor's performance was evaluated from the standpoint of COD, pH, volatile acid concentration, alkalinity, concentration of methane in the biogas, and microbiological examinations of the sludge. Without recirculation the reduction of the HRT from 36 to 30h did not significantly affect the average COD removal efficiency. The parameter displaying the greatest variation was the average concentration of effluent volatile acids, which increased by 16%. With recirculation the reduction of the HRT from 30 to 24h increased the average COD removal efficiency from 75% to 78%. In this case, the average effluent alkalinity also showed an increase. The use of partial recirculation of the effluent did not improve significantly the COD removal under the operational conditions tested in this work, but it was possible to operate the reactor with lower hydraulic retention time without disintegration of the granules.

  13. F/H Area ETF effluent (H-016 outfall) ceriodaphnia survival/reproduction test, test date: June 17, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine if Savannah River Plant effluents cause death (acute toxicity) or reduction in the reproduction of the test organisms (chronic toxicity) during a seven day exposure period. A series of dilutions of the effluent were used to determine how much the effluent must be diluted before toxic effects are no longer noted.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence signatures of Listeria and Aeromonas species recovered from treated wastewater effluent and receiving surface water in Durban, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Olaniran, Ademola O; Nzimande, Sphephile B T; Mkize, Ndumiso G

    2015-10-24

    Treated wastewater effluent has been found to contain high levels of contaminants, including disease-causing bacteria such as Listeria and Aeromonas species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance and virulence signatures of Listeria and Aeromonas spp. recovered from treated effluents of two wastewater treatment plants and receiving rivers in Durban, South Africa. A total of 100 Aeromonas spp. and 78 Listeria spp. were positively identified based on biochemical tests and PCR detection of DNA region conserved in these genera. The antimicrobial resistance profiles of the isolates were determined using Kirby Bauer disc diffusion assay. The presence of important virulence genes were detected via PCR, while other virulence determinants; protease, gelatinase and haemolysin were detected using standard assays. Highest resistance was observed against penicillin, erythromycin and nalidixic acid, with all 78 (100%) tested Listeria spp displaying resistance, followed by ampicillin (83.33%), trimethoprim (67.95%), nitrofurantoin (64.10%) and cephalosporin (60.26%). Among Aeromonas spp., the highest resistance (100%) was observed against ampicillin, penicillin, vancomycin, clindamycin and fusidic acid, followed by cephalosporin (82%), and erythromycin (58%), with 56% of the isolates found to be resistant to naladixic acid and trimethoprim. Among Listeria spp., 26.92% were found to contain virulence genes, with 14.10, 5.12 and 21% harbouring the actA, plcA and iap genes, respectively. Of the 100 tested Aeromonas spp., 52% harboured the aerolysin (aer) virulence associated gene, while lipase (lip) virulence associated gene was also detected in 68% of the tested Aeromonas spp. The presence of these organisms in effluents samples following conventional wastewater treatment is worrisome as this could lead to major environmental and human health problems. This emphasizes the need for constant evaluation of the wastewater treatment effluents to ensure

  15. Use of diatom assemblages as biomonitor of the impact of treated uranium mining effluent discharge on a stream: case study of the Ritord watershed (Center-West France).

    PubMed

    Herlory, Olivier; Bonzom, Jean-Marc; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Frelon, Sandrine; Fayolle, Stéphanie; Delmas, François; Coste, Michel

    2013-10-01

    The rehabilitation of French former uranium mining sites has not prevented the contamination of the surrounding aquatic ecosystems with metal elements. This study assesses the impact of the discharge of treated uranium mining effluents on periphytic diatom communities to evaluate their potential of bioindication. A 7-month survey was conducted on the Ritord watercourse to measure the environmental conditions of microalgae, the non-taxonomic attributes of periphyton (photosynthesis and biomass) and to determine the specific composition of diatom assemblages grown on artificial substrates. The environmental conditions were altered by the mine waters, that contaminate the watercourse with uranium and with chemicals used in the pit-water treatment plants (BaCl2 and Al2(SO4)3). The biomass and photosynthetic activity of periphyton seemed not to respond to the stress induced by the treated mining effluents whereas the altered environmental conditions clearly impacted the composition of diatom communities. Downstream the discharges, the communities tended to be characterized by indicator species belonging to the genera Fragilaria, Eunotia and Brachysira and were highly similar to assemblages at acid mine drainage sites. The species Eunotia pectinalis var. undulata, Psammothidium rechtensis, Gomphonema lagenula and Pinnularia major were found to be sensitive to uranium effluents whereas Neidium alpinum and several species of Gomphonema tolerated this contamination. The relevance of diatoms as ecological indicator was illustrated through the changes in structure of communities induced by the discharge of uranium mining effluents and creates prospects for development of a bioindicator tool for this kind of impairment of water quality.

  16. Treatment of colored effluent of the textile industry in Bangladesh using zinc chloride treated indigenous activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Karim, Mohammad Mainul; Das, Ajoy Kumar; Lee, Sang Hak

    2006-08-18

    The adsorption of colored compounds from the textile dyeing effluents of Bangladesh on granulated activated carbons produced from indigenous vegetable sources by chemical activation with zinc chloride was studied. The most important parameters in chemical activation were found be the chemical ratio of ZnCl2 to feed (3:1), carbonization temperature (450-465 degrees C) and activation time (80 min). The adsorbances at 511 nm (red effluent) and 615 nm (blue effluent) were used for color estimation. It is established that at optimum temperature (50 degrees C), time of contact (30-40 min) and adsorbent loading (2 g l(-1)), activated carbons developed from Segun saw-dust and water hyacinth showed substantial capability to remove coloring materials from the effluents. It is observed that adsorption of reactive dyes by all sorts of activated carbons is higher than disperse dyes. It is explained that activated carbon, because of its acidic nature, can better adsorb reactive dye particles containing large number of nitrogen sites and -SO3Na group in their structure. The use of carbons would be economical, as saw-dust and water hyacinth are waste products and abundant in Bangladesh.

  17. Microalgal bacterial flocs treating paper mill effluent: A sunlight-based approach for removing carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and calcium.

    PubMed

    Van Den Hende, Sofie; Rodrigues, André; Hamaekers, Helen; Sonnenholzner, Stanislaus; Vervaeren, Han; Boon, Nico

    2017-04-03

    Treatment of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluent from a paper mill in aerated activated sludge reactors involves high aeration costs. Moreover, this calcium-rich effluent leads to problematic scale formation. Therefore, a novel strategy for the aerobic treatment of paper mill UASB effluent in microalgal bacterial floc sequencing batch reactors (MaB-floc SBRs) is proposed, in which oxygen is provided via photosynthesis, and calcium is removed via bio-mineralization. Based on the results of batch experiments in the course of this study, a MaB-floc SBR was operated at an initial neutral pH. This SBR removed 58±21% organic carbon, 27±8% inorganic carbon, 77±5% nitrogen, 73±2% phosphorus, and 27±11% calcium. MaB-flocs contained 10±3% calcium, including biologically-influenced calcite crystals. The removal of calcium and inorganic carbon by MaB-flocs significantly decreased when inhibiting extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA), an enzyme that catalyses the hydration and dehydration of CO2. This study demonstrates the potential of MaB-floc SBRs for the alternative treatment of calcium-rich paper mill effluent, and highlights the importance of extracellular CA in this treatment process.

  18. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization plan. Area 6 Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 South and North Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEPs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to be conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration Division (ERD). The purposes of the planned activities are to: obtain sufficient, sample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies may be developed for the site; obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste (IDW). The scope of the characterization may include excavation, drilling, and sampling of soil in and around both ponds; sampling of the excavated material; in situ sampling of the soil at the bottom and on the sides of the excavations as well as within subsurface borings; and conducting sample analysis for both characterization and waste management purposes. Contaminants of concern include RCRA-regulated VOCs and metals.

  19. Assessment of a microalgae pond for post-treatment of the effluent from an anaerobic fixed bed reactor treating distillery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Travieso, L; Benítez, F; Sánchez, E; Borja, R; León, M; Raposo, F; Rincón, B

    2008-09-01

    An evaluation of the performance of a laboratory-scale microalgae pond treating effluent from an anaerobic fixed bed reactor digesting distillery wastewater was carried out. The microalgae pond operated with an effluent recycling (R) of 10:1 with respect to the influent and at surface organic loading rates of 418 kg COD ha(-1) day(-1) and 92 kg BOD5 ha(-1) day(-1). During the experiment total chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total solids (TS), total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), total nitrogen, ammonia, total phosphorus, orthophosphate, total chlorophyll (CT) and chlorophyll a (Ca) concentrations were monitored. Overall COD and BOD5 removal efficiencies of 98.2% and 98.8% were obtained. The global solids removal efficiencies were of 93.2%, 92.6% and 97.6% for TS, TSS and VSS, respectively. The removal efficiencies obtained for organic nitrogen and ammonia were 90.2% and 84.1%, respectively. Finally, the removals for total phosphorus and orthophosphate were 85.5% and 87.3%, respectively. It was demonstrated that microalgae grew in this waste by determination of the total chlorophyll and chlorophyll a in the effluent.

  20. NATIONAL WWTP EFFLUENT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reports of potential wildlife risk from exposure to environmental estrogens emphasize the need to better understand both estrogenic presence and persistence in treated wastewater effluents. In addition to wildlife exposure, human exposure should also be examined, especially in si...

  1. NATIONAL WWTP EFFLUENT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reports of potential wildlife risk from exposure to environmental estrogens emphasize the need to better understand both estrogenic presence and persistence in treated wastewater effluents. In addition to wildlife exposure, human exposure should also be examined, especially in si...

  2. A river-scale Lagrangian experiment examining controls on phytoplankton dynamics in the presence and absence of treated wastewater effluent high in ammonium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraus, Tamara; Carpenter, Kurt; Bergamaschi, Brian; Parker, Alexander; Stumpner, Elizabeth; Downing, Bryan D.; Travis, Nicole; Wilkerson, Frances; Kendall, Carol; Mussen, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Phytoplankton are critical component of the food web in most large rivers and estuaries, and thus identifying dominant controls on phytoplankton abundance and species composition is important to scientists, managers, and policymakers. Recent studies from a variety of systems indicate that ammonium ( NH+4) in treated wastewater effluent decreases primary production and alters phytoplankton species composition. However, these findings are based mainly on laboratory and enclosure studies, which may not adequately represent natural systems. To test effects of effluent high in ammonium on phytoplankton at the ecosystem scale, we conducted whole-river–scale experiments by halting discharges to the Sacramento River from the regional wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), and used a Lagrangian approach to compare changes in phytoplankton abundance and species composition in the presence (+EFF) and absence (−EFF) of effluent. Over 5 d of downstream travel from 20 km above to 50 km below the WWTP, chlorophyll concentrations declined from 15–25 to ∼2.5 μg L−1, irrespective of effluent addition. Benthic diatoms were dominant in most samples. We found no significant difference in phytoplankton abundance or species composition between +EFF and −EFF conditions. Moreover, greatest declines in chlorophyll occurred upstream of the WWTP where NH+4 concentrations were low. Grazing by clams and zooplankton could not account for observed losses, suggesting other factors such as hydrodynamics and light limitation were responsible for phytoplankton declines. These results highlight the advantages of conducting ecosystem-scale, Lagrangian-based experiments to understand the dynamic and complex interplay between physical, chemical, and biological factors that control phytoplankton populations.

  3. The presence of the top prescribed pharmaceuticals in treated sewage effluents and receiving waters in Southwest Nova Scotia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ghoshdastidar, Avik J; Fox, Shannon; Tong, Anthony Z

    2015-01-01

    From a list of the top prescribed drugs in Canada, 11 pharmaceuticals and two metabolites were selected for study in municipal sewage treatment plant effluents and receiving waters. Wastewater samples were collected from 16 wastewater treatment plants across Southwest Nova Scotia including the Annapolis Valley, South Shore, and Metropolitan Halifax. Samples were also collected between 100 and 200 m downstream of effluent outflows. Seven pharmaceuticals were found above μg/L levels with their highest concentrations as follows: metformin (10.6 μg/L), acetaminophen (28.9 μg/L), paraxanthine (18.2 μg/L), cotinine (3.10 μg/L), caffeine (115 μg/L), naproxen (29.1 μg/L), and venlafaxine (2.65 μg/L). Metformin, paraxanthine, caffeine, naproxen, ramipril, and venlafaxine were detected in every wastewater effluent sample. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in pharmaceutical occurrence by treatment methods, weak dependence of pharmaceutical concentrations on populations, and the co-occurrence of some pharmaceuticals. Experimental results might indicate the limitation of primary only treatment methods in breaking down pharmaceuticals.

  4. Polar organic chemical integrative sampling and liquid chromatography- electrospray/ion-trap mass spectrometry for assessing selected prescription and illicit drugs in treated sewage effluents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones-Lepp, T. L.; Alvarez, D.A.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the research presented in this paper was twofold: (1) to demonstrate the coupling of two state-of-the-art techniques: a time-weighted polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) and microliquid chromatography-electrospray/ion-trap mass spectrometry and (2) to assess the ability of these methodologies to detect six drugs (azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) in a real-world environment, e.g., waste water effluent. In the effluent from three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), azithromycin was detected at concentrations ranging from 15 to 66 ng/L, which is equivalent to a total annual release of 1 to 4 kg into receiving waters. Detected and confirmed in the effluent from two WWTPs were two illicit drugs, methamphetamine and MDMA, at 2 and 0.5 ng/L, respectively. Although the ecotoxicologic significance of drugs in environmental matrices, particularly water, has not been closely examined, it can only be surmised that these substances have the potential to adversely affect biota that are continuously exposed to them even at very low levels. The potential for chronic effects on human health is also unknown but of increasing concern because of the multi-use character of water, particularly in densely populated, arid areas.

  5. Coupling in vitro and in vivo neurochemical-based assessments of wastewater effluents from the Maumee River Area of Concern (AOC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Here we utilize in vivo and in vitro approaches to study whether real world effluents released in the Maumee River (Toledo, OH) Area of Concern (AOC) contain neuroactive substances that may impair fish reproduction and behavior. Our approaches help extend the concept of endocrine...

  6. Coupling in vitro and in vivo neurochemical-based assessments of wastewater effluents from the Maumee River Area of Concern (AOC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Here we utilize in vivo and in vitro approaches to study whether real world effluents released in the Maumee River (Toledo, OH) Area of Concern (AOC) contain neuroactive substances that may impair fish reproduction and behavior. Our approaches help extend the concept of endocrine...

  7. Effect of bacteria treated and untreated post-methanated distillery effluent (PMDE) on seed germination, seedling growth and amylase activity in Phaseolus mungo L.

    PubMed

    Bharagava, Ram Naresh; Chandra, Ram

    2010-08-15

    Present study deals the effect of bacteria treated and untreated post-methanated distillery effluent (PMDE) on germination, seedling growth and amylase activity in Phaseolus mungo L. seeds. Results revealed that untreated PMDE was highly toxic in nature carrying high BOD, COD values along with high metals content. But, after bacterial treatment, these values were reduced by 64.58 and 74.20%, respectively. It was observed that 40% untreated PMDE has no inhibitory effect on seed germination but 60, 80 and 100% PMDE has inhibited 20, 40 and 60% germination, respectively while 100% germination was recorded up to 60% treated PMDE. Moreover, 40 and 60% PMDE has shown deleterious effects on seedling growth parameter and seeds treated with 80 and 100% PMDE showed no root development. However, 20% bacteria treated PMDE was found most suitable for plant growth possibly due to presence of optimum level of nutrients. Further, Phaseolus seeds treated with 60 and 80% untreated PMDE showed reduced amylase activity and no amylase activity was observed in seeds treated with 100% untreated PMDE. But, seeds treated with bacterial degraded PMDE showed amylase activity and molecular weight of alpha-amylase enzyme determined by SDS-PAGE was approximately 47.5, 46 and 44.5 kDa, respectively. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of treated sewage reuse potential and membrane-based water reuse technology for the Bangkok Metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Chiemchaisri, Chart; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Prasertkulsak, Sirilak; Hamjinda, Nutta Sangnarin; Kootatep, Thammarat; Itonaga, Takanori; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Only 3.4% of total water use in the Bangkok Metropolitan area is reused treated sewage. This study anticipates that further treated-sewage reuse in industrial sectors, commercial buildings and public parks, in addition to present in-plant and street cleaning purposes, would increase total water reuse to about 10%. New water reuse technologies using membrane bioreactor (MBR) and microfiltration (MF) as tertiary treatment were implemented to assess their potential for their application in the Bangkok Metropolitan area. The MBR was applied to the treatment of raw sewage in a central treatment plant of the Bangkok Metropolitan area. The MF membrane was used for polishing the effluent of the treatment plant. The results show the quality of treated water from MBR and tertiary MF treatment could meet stringent water reuse quality standard in terms of biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids and biological parameters. Constant permeate flux of the membrane was achieved over long-term operation, during which inorganic fouling was observed. This is due to the fact that incoming sewage contains a considerable amount of inorganic constituents contributed from storm water and street inlet in the combined sewerage systems. The total cost of the MBR for sewage treatment and production of reuse water is estimated to be about USD1.10/m3.

  9. Phragmites sp. physiological changes in a constructed wetland treating an effluent contaminated with a diazo dye (DR81).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Renata Alexandra; Duarte, Joana Gouveia; Vergine, Pompilio; Antunes, Carlos D; Freire, Filipe; Martins-Dias, Susete

    2014-01-01

    The role of Phragmites sp. in phytoremediation of wastewaters containing azo dyes is still, in many ways, at its initial stage of investigation. This plant response to the long-term exposure to a highly conjugated di-azo dye (Direct Red 81, DR81) was assessed using a vertical flow constructed wetland, at pilot scale. A reed bed fed with water was used as control. Changes in photosynthetic pigment content in response to the plant contact with synthetic DR81 effluent highlight Phragmites plasticity. Phragmites leaf enzymatic system responded rapidly to the stress imposed; in general, within 1 day, the up-regulation of foliar reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzymes (especially superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and peroxidase) was noticed as plants entered in contact with synthetic DR81 effluent. This prompt activation decreased the endogenous levels of H₂O₂ and the malonyldialdehyde content beyond reference values. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity intensification was not enough to cope with stress imposed by DR81. GPX activity was pivotal for the detoxification pathways after a 24-h exposure. Carotenoid pool was depleted during this shock. After the imposed DR81 stress, plants were harvested. In the next vegetative cycle, Phragmites had already recovered from the chemical stress. Principal component analysis (PCA) highlights the role of GPX, GST, APX, and carotenoids along catalase (CAT) in the detoxification process.

  10. Three stage cultivation process of facultative strain of Chlorella sorokiniana for treating dairy farm effluent and lipid enhancement.

    PubMed

    Hena, S; Fatihah, N; Tabassum, S; Ismail, N

    2015-09-01

    Reserve lipids of microalgae are promising for biodiesel production. However, economically feasible and sustainable energy production from microalgae requires optimization of cultivation conditions for both biomass yield and lipid production of microalgae. Biomass yield and lipid production in microalgae are a contradictory problem because required conditions for both targets are different. Simultaneously, the mass cultivation of microalgae for biofuel production also depends extremely on the performance of the microalgae strains used. In this study a green unicellular microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana (DS6) isolated from the holding tanks of farm wastewater treatment plant using multi-step screening and acclimation procedures was found high-lipid producing facultative heterotrophic microalgae strain capable of growing on dairy farm effluent (DFE) for biodiesel feedstock and wastewater treatment. Morphological features and the phylogenetic analysis for the 18S rRNA identified the isolated strains. A novel three stage cultivation process of facultative strain of C. sorokiniana was examined for lipid production.

  11. Water resource recovery by means of microalgae cultivation in outdoor photobioreactors using the effluent from an anaerobic membrane bioreactor fed with pre-treated sewage.

    PubMed

    Viruela, Alexandre; Murgui, Mónica; Gómez-Gil, Tao; Durán, Freddy; Robles, Ángel; Ruano, María Victoria; Ferrer, José; Seco, Aurora

    2016-10-01

    With the aim of assessing the potential of microalgae cultivation for water resource recovery (WRR), the performance of three 0.55m(3) flat-plate photobioreactors (PBRs) was evaluated in terms of nutrient removal rate (NRR) and biomass production. The PBRs were operated outdoor (at ambient temperature and light intensity) using as growth media the nutrient-rich effluent from an AnMBR fed with pre-treated sewage. Solar irradiance was the most determining factor affecting NRR. Biomass productivity was significantly affected by temperatures below 20°C. The maximum biomass productivity (52.3mgVSS·L(-1)·d(-1)) and NRR (5.84mgNH4-N·L(-1)·d(-1) and 0.85mgPO4-P·L(-1)·d(-1)) were achieved at solar irradiance of 395μE·m(-2)·s(-1), temperature of 25.5°C, and HRT of 8days. Under these conditions, it was possible to comply with effluent nutrient standards (European Directive 91/271/CEE) when the nutrient content in the influent was in the range of 40-50mgN·L(-1) and 6-7mg P·L(-1).

  12. Characteristics of C-, N-DBPs formation from nitrogen-enriched dissolved organic matter in raw water and treated wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Chang, Huihsien; Chen, Chiayang; Wang, Genshuh

    2013-05-15

    The objective of this study is to clarify the relationships between the characteristics of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation. Treated wastewater effluents from the Neihu wastewater treatment plant in Taipei City (TN) and source waters from the Tai Lake water treatment plant in Kinmen (KT) were evaluated. These water samples were fractionated to obtain 7 DON isolates with different characteristics. The DON isolates were freeze-dried and re-dissolved to different DON fraction solutions containing 10 mg-C/L of non-purgeable dissolved organic carbon (NPDOC). The DBPs formation potentials (DBPFPs) (trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), and nitrosamines) of different DON fraction solutions were then assessed with chlorine and monochloramine treatments. After fractionation schemes, mass concentrations of dried DON-enriched isolates ranged from 0.2 to 46.4 mg/L. Both TN effluents and KT raw waters had similar compositions of DON fractions except for the amounts of amphiphilic bases/neutrals (AMPB/N) isolates: hydrophobic acids (HPOA) > hydrophilic acids/neutrals (HPIA/N) > AMPB/N of KT raw waters > hydrophilic bases (HPIB) > amphiphilic acids (AMPA) > hydrophobic bases/neutrals (HPOB/N) > AMPB/N of TN effluents > amino acids (AA). For carbonated DBPs (C-DBPs), AA fraction treated with NaOCl formed the greatest amounts of C-DBPs (up to 1258.2 μg/L of THMs and 1140.6 μg/L of HAAs). For nitrogenated DBPs (N-DBPs), the AMPB/N fraction (DON = 1.4 mg-N/L) treated with NH2Cl was the most important precursor to form N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and generated up to 9238.0 ng/L of NDMA from KT raw water. Taking both DBP formation and organic composition into account, the HPOA (31.9%-38.4%)/HPIA/N (17.6%-35.7%) fractions and AMPB/N fraction (38.4%-93.9%) were the most important contributors to the overall C-DBPFPs and N-DBPFPs, respectively.

  13. IN VITRO IDENTIFICATION OF ANDROGENIC AND ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY FROM CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDLOT OPERATIONS (CAFO) AND TERTIARY-TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENT SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish living in ecosystems contaminated with human or domestic animal effluents have been shown to display reproductive alterations. Recent research with effluent from cattle feeding operations in the US, for example, have associated morphological alterations in fish collected fr...

  14. IN VITRO SCREENING OF ENVIRONMENT SAMPLES FOR ESTROGENIC AND ANDROGENIC ACTIVITY: CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDLOT OPERATION, PULP MILL AND TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS, GLOBAL WATER RESEARCH COALITION, AND COMBUSTION BYPRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish living in ecosystems contaminated with human or domestic animal effluents have been shown to display reproductive alterations. Recent research with effluent from cattle feeding operations in the US, for example, have associated morphological alterations in fish collected fro...

  15. IN VITRO SCREENING OF ENVIRONMENT SAMPLES FOR ESTROGENIC AND ANDROGENIC ACTIVITY: CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDLOT OPERATION, PULP MILL AND TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS, GLOBAL WATER RESEARCH COALITION, AND COMBUSTION BYPRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish living in ecosystems contaminated with human or domestic animal effluents have been shown to display reproductive alterations. Recent research with effluent from cattle feeding operations in the US, for example, have associated morphological alterations in fish collected fro...

  16. IN VITRO IDENTIFICATION OF ANDROGENIC AND ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY FROM CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDLOT OPERATIONS (CAFO) AND TERTIARY-TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENT SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish living in ecosystems contaminated with human or domestic animal effluents have been shown to display reproductive alterations. Recent research with effluent from cattle feeding operations in the US, for example, have associated morphological alterations in fish collected fr...

  17. Long-term evaluation of different strategies of cationic polyelectrolyte dosage to control fouling in a membrane bioreactor treating refinery effluent.

    PubMed

    Alkmim, Aline R; da Costa, Paula R; Moser, Priscila B; França Neta, Luzia S; Santiago, Vânia M J; Cerqueira, Ana C; Amaral, Míriam C S

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the long-term use of cationic polyelectrolyte to improve the sludge filterability and to control membrane fouling in bioreactor membrane while treating refinery effluents have been evaluated in pilot scale. Corrective and preventive cationic polyelectrolyte dosages have been added to the membrane bioreactor (MBR) to evaluate the membrane fouling mitigation in both strategies. The results have confirmed that the use of the Membrane performance enhancer (MPE) increased the sludge filterability and reduced the membrane fouling. During the monitoring period, stress events occurred due to the increase in oil and grease and phenol concentrations in the MBR feeds. The preventive use of cationic polyelectrolyte allowed for a more effective and stable sludge filterability, with lower cationic polyelectrolyte consumption and without decreasing MBR's overall pollutant removal performance.

  18. Assessment of electrochemical and chemical coagulation as post-treatment for the effluents of a UASB reactor treating cellulose pulp mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Buzzini, A P; Motheo, A J; Pires, E C

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents results from exploratory experiments to test the technical feasibility of electrolytic treatment and coagulation followed by flocculation and sedimentation as post-treatment for the effluent of an UASB reactor treating simulated wastewater from an unbleached Kraft pulp mill. The electrolytic treatment provided up to 67% removal of the remaining COD and 98% of color removal. To achieve these efficiencies the energy consumption ranged from 14 Wh x l(-1) to 20 Wh x l(-1). The coagulation-flocculation treatment followed by settling required 350-400 mg x l(-1) of aluminium sulfate. The addition of a high molecular weight cationic polymer enhanced both COD and color removal. Both post-treatment processes are technically feasible.

  19. Identification and antimicrobial resistance prevalence of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains from treated wastewater effluents in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Adefisoye, Martins A; Okoh, Anthony I

    2016-02-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global problem impeding the effective prevention/treatment of an ever-growing array of infections caused by pathogens; a huge challenge threatening the achievements of modern medicine. In this paper, we report the occurrence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in Escherichia coli strains isolated from discharged final effluents of two wastewater treatment facilities in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Standard disk diffusion method was employed to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profile of 223 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed E. coli isolates against 17 common antibiotics in human therapy and veterinary medicine. Seven virulence associated and fourteen antibiotic resistance genes were also evaluated by molecular methods. Molecular characterization revealed five pathotypes of E. coli in the following proportions: enterotoxigenic ETEC (1.4%), enteropathogenic EPEC (7.6%), enteroaggregative EAEC (7.6%), neonatal meningitis (NMEC) (14.8%), uropathogenic (41.7%), and others (26.9%). Isolates showed varying (1.7-70.6%) degrees of resistance to 15 of the test antibiotics. Multidrug resistance was exhibited by 32.7% of the isolates, with the commonest multiple antibiotic-resistant phenotype (MARP) being AP-T-CFX (12 isolates), while multiple antibiotic-resistant indices (MARI) estimated are 0.23 (Site 1) and 0.24 (Site 2). Associated antibiotic resistance genes detected in the isolates include: strA (88.2%), aadA (52.9%), cat I (15%), cmlA1 (4.6%), blaTEM (56.4%), tetA (30.4%), tetB (28.4%), tetC (42.2%), tetD (50%), tetK (11.8%), and tetM (68.6%). We conclude that municipal wastewater effluents are important reservoirs for the dissemination of potentially pathogenic E. coli (and possibly other pathogens) and antibiotic resistance genes in the aquatic milieu of the Eastern Cape and a risk to public health. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Solar Fenton and solar TiO2 catalytic treatment of ofloxacin in secondary treated effluents: evaluation of operational and kinetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Michael, I; Hapeshi, E; Michael, C; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2010-10-01

    Two different technical approaches based on advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), solar Fenton homogeneous photocatalysis (hv/Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2)) and heterogeneous photocatalysis with titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) suspensions were studied for the chemical degradation of the fluoroquinolone ofloxacin in secondary treated effluents. A bench-scale solar simulator in combination with an appropriate photochemical batch reactor was used to evaluate and select the optimal oxidation conditions of ofloxacin spiked in secondary treated domestic effluents. The concentration profile of the examined substrate during degradation was determined by UV/Vis spectrophotometry. Mineralization was monitored by measuring the dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The concentrations of Fe(2+) and H(2)O(2) were the key factors for the solar Fenton process, while the most important parameter of the heterogeneous photocatalysis was proved to be the catalyst loading. Kinetic analyses indicated that the photodegradation of ofloxacin can be described by a pseudo-first-order reaction. The rate constant (k) for the solar Fenton process was determined at different Fe(2+) and H(2)O(2) concentrations whereas the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) kinetic expression was used to assess the kinetics of the heterogeneous photocatalytic process. The conversion of ofloxacin depends on several parameters based on the various experimental conditions, which were investigated. A Daphnia magna bioassay was used to evaluate the potential toxicity of the parent compound and its photo-oxidation by-products in different stages of oxidation. In the present study solar Fenton has been demonstrated to be more effective than the solar TiO(2) process, yielding complete degradation of the examined substrate and DOC reduction of about 50% in 30 min of the photocatalytic treatment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The attenuation of microorganisms in on-site wastewater effluent discharged into highly permeable subsoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Luanaigh, N. D.; Gill, L. W.; Misstear, B. D. R.; Johnston, P. M.

    2012-11-01

    An extensive field study on percolation areas receiving both septic tank and secondary treated on-site effluents from single houses in Ireland was carried out to investigate the attenuation capacity of highly permeable subsoils with respect to E. coli bacteria and spiked bacteriophages (MS2, ΦX174 and PR772). The development of biomats across the percolation areas receiving the secondary effluent was restricted compared to the percolation area receiving septic tank effluent, promoting a much higher areal hydraulic loading which created significant differences in the potential microbiological loading to groundwater. Greatest E. coli removal in the subsoil occurred within the first 0.35 m of unsaturated subsoil for all effluent types. Analysis showed, however, that more evidence of faecal contamination occurred at depth in the subsoils receiving secondary treated effluents than that receiving septic tank effluent, despite the lower bacterial influent load. All three bacteriophages were reduced to their minimum detection limit (< 10 PFU/mL) at a depth of 0.95 m below the percolation trenches receiving septic tank effluent, although isolated incidences of ΦX174 and PR772 were measured below one trench. However again, slightly higher breakthroughs of MS2 and PR772 contamination were detected at the same depth under the trenches receiving secondary treated effluent.

  2. Biological monitoring of Upper Three Runs Creek, Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina. Final report on macroinvertebrate stream assessments for F/H area ETF effluent discharge, July 1987--February 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-10-01

    In anticipation of the fall 1988 start up of effluent discharges into Upper Three Creek by the F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility of the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC, a two and one half year biological study was initiated in June 1987. Upper Three Runs Creek is an intensively studied fourth order stream known for its high species richness. Designed to assess the potential impact of F?H area effluent on the creek, the study includes qualitative and quantitative macroinvertebrate stream surveys at five sites, chronic toxicity testing of the effluent, water chemistry and bioaccumulation analysis. This final report presents the results of both pre-operational and post-operational qualitative and quantitative (artificial substrate) macroinvertebrate studies. Six quantitative and three qualitative studies were conducted prior to the initial release of the F/H ETF effluent and five quantitative and two qualitative studies were conducted post-operationally.

  3. Hydrogeology and Migration of Septic-Tank Effluent in the Surficial Aquifer System in the Northern Midlands Area, Palm Beach County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Wesley L.

    1992-01-01

    The northern Midlands area in Palm Beach County is an area of expected residential growth, but its flat topography, poor drainage, and near-surface marl layers retard rainfall infiltration and cause frequent flooding. Public water supplies and sewer services are not planned for the area, thus, residents must rely on domestic wells and septic tanks. The water table in the northern Midlands area is seldom more than 5 feet below land surface, and regional ground-water flows are east, southwest, and south from the north-central part of the area where ground-water levels are highest. Ground-water quality in the western part of the area and in the Loxahatchee Slough is greatly influenced by residual seawater emplaced during the Pleistocene Epoch. Chloride and dissolved-solids concentrations of ground water in the surficial aquifer system in these areas often exceed secondary drinking-water standards. Residual seawater has been more effectively flushed from the more permeable sediments elsewhere in the eastern and southwestern parts of the study area. Test at three septic-tank sites showed traces of effluent in ground water (38-92 feet from the septic tank outlets) and that near-surface marl layers greatly impede the downward migration of the effluent in the surficial aquifer system throughout the northern midlands.

  4. Role of vegetation (Typha latifolia) on nutrient removal in a horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland treating UASB reactor-trickling filter effluent.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Jocilene Ferreira; Martins, Weber Luiz Pinto; Seidl, Martin; von Sperling, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the work is to characterize the role of plants in a constructed wetland in the removal of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). The experiments were carried out in a full-scale system in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, with two parallel horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland units (one planted with Typha latifolia and one unplanted) treating the effluent from a system composed of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor and a trickling filter (TF). Each wetland unit received a mean flow of approximately 8.5 m³ d⁻¹ (population equivalent around 60 inhabitants each), with a surface hydraulic loading rate 0.12 m³m⁻²d⁻¹. The experiments were conducted from September 2011 to July 2013. Mean effluent concentrations from the wetlands were: (a) planted unit total nitrogen (TN) 22 mg L⁻¹, ammonia-N 19 mg L⁻¹, nitrite-N 0.10 mg L⁻¹, nitrate-N 0.25 mg L⁻¹, P-total 1.31 mg L⁻¹; and (b) unplanted unit TN 24 mg L⁻¹, ammonia-N 20 mg L⁻¹, nitrite-N 0.54 mg mL⁻¹, nitrate-N 0.15 mg L⁻¹, P-total 1.31 mg L⁻¹. The aerial part of the plant contained mean values of 24.1 gN (kg dry matter)⁻¹ and 4.4 gP (kg dry matter)⁻¹, and the plant root zone was composed of 16.5 gN (kg dry matter)⁻¹ and 4.1 gP (kg dry matter)⁻¹. The mean extraction of N by the plant biomass was 726 kgN ha⁻¹y⁻¹, corresponding to 17% of the N load removed. For P, the extraction by the plant biomass was 105 kgP ha⁻¹y⁻¹, corresponding to 9% of the P load removed. These results reinforce the reports that N and P removal due to plant uptake is a minor mechanism in horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands operating under similar loading rates, typical for polishing of sanitary effluent.

  5. Advanced H2O2 oxidation for diethyl phthalate degradation in treated effluents: effect of nitrate on oxidation and a pilot-scale AOP operation.

    PubMed

    Ko, K B; Park, C G; Moon, T H; Ahn, Y H; Lee, J K; Ahn, K H; Park, J H; Yeom, I T

    2008-01-01

    One of the objectives of this study was to delineate the effect of nitrate on diethyl phthalate (DEP) oxidation by conducting a bench-scale ultraviolet (UV)/H2O2 and O3/H2O2 operations as suggested in a previous study. We also aim to investigate DEP oxidation at various UV doses and H2O2 concentrations by performing a pilot-scale advanced oxidation processes (AOP) system, into which a portion of the effluent from a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) plant was pumped. In the bench-scale AOP operation, the O3 oxidation alone as well as the UV irradiation without H2O2 addition could be among the desirable alternatives for the efficient removal of DEP dissolved in aqueous solutions at a low DEP concentration range of 85+/-15 microg/L. The adverse effect in the UV/H2O2 process was significantly greater than that in the UV oxidation alone, and its oxidation was almost halved by the nitrate. However, the nitrate clearly enhanced the DEP oxidation in the O3 oxidation and O3/H2O2 process. Especially, the addition of nitrate almost doubled the DEP oxidation efficiency in the O3/H2O2 process. The series of pilot-scale AOP operations confirmed that about 30-50% of DEP dissolved in the treated MBR effluent streams was, at least, oxidized by the O3 oxidation alone as well as the UV irradiation without H2O2 addition. The UV photolysis of H2O2 was most effective for DEP degradation with an H2O2 concentration of 40 mg/L at a UV dose of 500 mJ/cm2.

  6. Exposure of fish to biologically treated bleached-kraft effluent. ; 2: Induction of hepatic cytochrome P4501A in mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) and other species

    SciTech Connect

    Kloepper-Sams, P.J.; Benton, E. . Environmental Science Dept.)

    1994-09-01

    Induction of the hepatic detoxification enzyme cytochrome P4501A has been observed in fish exposed to bleached-kraft mill effluents (BKME). P4501A content was examined in 3 species of fish exposed to BKME in a western Canadian river as part of an program that included chemical monitoring, fish population studies, and other fish biochemical and physiological measurements. The Rocky Mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni exhibited marked induction of P4501A compared to reference whitefish (rw), as measured by both catalytic activity and immunoreactive protein content. Similar P4501A induction was observed 4 d after rw were treated with 20 mg/kg [beta]-naphthoflavone. Whitefish P4501A levels have declined from a peak in spring 1991, following mill process modifications and concurrent with reductions in body burdens of hydrophobic compounds. Whitefish collected near the mill, moved upstream of effluent discharges, and held for 8 d showed no significant loss of hepatic P4501A-related (ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, EROD) enzyme activity or P4501A protein levels. For spring 1991, correlations were found between EROD activity and measures of chronic exposure to BKME, but not between EROD and measures of acute exposure. These and other lines of evidence indicate that the P4501A-inducing agent(s) at this site may be neither waterborne nor rapidly eliminated. A second species, longnose sucker, collected near the mill exhibited modest P4501A induction. For both species, no significant correlations between P4501A induction and trends in other biological responses were found. Burbot (Lota lota) had hepatic EROD activities generally in the range of reference values, despite substantial exposure to mill-related compounds. In contrast to studies at historically degraded pulpmill sites, P4501A induction is the only major biological response observed to date at this site. As P4501A induction is not related to adverse effects, it is classified as an indicator of exposure to BKME.

  7. Reuse of municipal effluent with drip irrigation and evaluation the effect on soil properties in a semi-arid area.

    PubMed

    Hassanli, Ali M; Javan, Mahmood; Saadat, Yusof

    2008-09-01

    Irrigation with municipal effluent was evaluated during 25 months in Southern Iran from 2003 to 2005 in which 14 tree species were irrigated with effluent and borehole water at an annual supply rate of 3,940 and 5,395 m(3) ha(-1), respectively. To mitigate the environmental effects, a drip irrigation system was designed and the amount of applied water based on pan evaporation was measured by flow meters and soil properties were monitored. The statistical results showed that the applied effluent had no adverse effect on soil properties. The soil salinity was reduced from 8.2, 6.8 and 7.0 dSm(-1) to 1.07, 1.12 and 3.5 dSm(-1 )in the soil layers 0-30, 30-60 and 60-90 cm, respectively. The SAR decreased significantly, while soil pH increased by 0.8 and 0.6 units in the layers 0-30 and 30-60 cm. A total application of 9,335 m(3)ha(-1 )of effluent with a nitrogen and phosphorus concentration of 7.9 and 10.3 mg l(-1), added 73 and 101 kg ha(-1) of nitrogen and phosphorus to the soil. Organic carbon also increased significantly. Twenty-five months irrigation with effluent caused a slight increase in soil bulk density and a slight decrease in mean permeability. Because of an efficient filtration and high discharge rate of bubblers (drippers), no considerable sign of clogging was observed.

  8. Seasonal and diurnal variations of temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen in advanced integrated wastewater pond system treating tannery effluent.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, I; Green, F B; Puhakka, J A

    2004-02-01

    Seasonal and diurnal fluctuations of pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) and temperature were investigated in a pilot-scale advanced integrated wastewater pond system (AIWPS) treating tannery effluent. The AIWPS was comprised of advanced facultative pond (AFP), secondary facultative pond (SFP) and maturation pond (MP) all arranged in series. The variations of pH, DO and temperature in the SFP and MP followed the diurnal cycle of sunlight intensity. Algal photosynthesis being dependent on sunlight radiation, its activity reached climax at early afternoons with DO saturation in the SFP and MP in excess of over 300% and pH in the range of 8.6-9.4. The SFP and MP were thermally stratified with gradients of 3-5 degrees C/m, especially, during the time of peak photosynthesis. The thermal gradient in the AFP was moderated by convective internal currents set in motion as a result of water temperature differences between the influent wastewater and contents of the reactor. In conclusion, the AFP possessed remarkable ability to attenuate process variability with better removal efficiencies than SFP and MP. Hence its use as a lead treatment unit, in a train of ponds treating tannery wastewaters, should always be considered.

  9. Effect of advanced oxidation processes on the micropollutants and the effluent organic matter contained in municipal wastewater previously treated by three different secondary methods.

    PubMed

    Giannakis, Stefanos; Gamarra Vives, Franco Alejandro; Grandjean, Dominique; Magnet, Anoys; De Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Pulgarin, César

    2015-11-01

    In this study, wastewater from the output of three different secondary treatment facilities (Activated Sludge, Moving Bed Bioreactor and Coagulation-Flocculation) present in the municipal wastewater treatment plant of Vidy, Lausanne (Switzerland), was further treated with various oxidation processes (UV, UV/H2O2, solar irradiation, Fenton, solar photo-Fenton), at laboratory scale. For this assessment, 6 organic micropollutants in agreement with the new environmental legislation requirements in Switzerland were selected (Carbamazepine, Clarithromycin, Diclofenac, Metoprolol, Benzotriazole, Mecoprop) and monitored throughout the treatment. Also, the overall removal of the organic load was assessed. After each secondary treatment, the efficiency of the AOPs increased in the following order: Coagulation-Flocculation < Activated Sludge < Moving Bed Bioreactor, in almost all cases. From the different combinations tested, municipal wastewater subjected to biological treatment followed by UV/H2O2 resulted in the highest elimination levels. Wastewater previously treated by physicochemical treatment demonstrated considerably inhibited micropollutant degradation rates. The degradation kinetics were determined, yielding: k (UV) < k (UV/H2O2) and k (Fenton) < k (solar irradiation) < k (photo-Fenton). Finally, the evolution of global pollution parameters (COD & TOC elimination) was followed and the degradation pathways for the effluent organic matter are discussed.

  10. Seasonal distribution of physico- chemical parameters in effluent discharge area of Uppanar estuary, Cuddalore, south-east coast of India.

    PubMed

    Rajaram, R; Srinivasan, M; Rajasegar, M

    2005-04-01

    Seasonal distribution of physico-chemical characteristics such as rainfall, pH, salinity, temperature, light extinction coefficient, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand and nutrients like total phosphorus, inorganic phosphate, nitrite, nitrate and reactive silicate has been studied at two stations of Uppanar estuary in relation to effluent discharges from SIPCOT industries. There are 44 industries discharges their effluents into Uppanar estuary, which may influence the biota. Nutrient concentrations were higher during monsoon season and low during summer season. The mean concentrations of nutrients were high at station 1 than station 2 due to discharges from industries, coconut husk retting grounds near the station 1. In the present study, the physico-chemical characteristic of Uppanar estuary carried out and variations are discussed.

  11. Effect of non-feeding period length on the intermittent operation of UASB reactors treating dairy effluents.

    PubMed

    Coelho, N M; Rodrigues, A A; Arroja, L M; Capela, I F

    2007-02-01

    Recent environmental concerns have prompted a re-evaluation of conventional management strategies and refueled the search of innovative waste management practices. In this sense, the anaerobic digestion of both fat and the remaining complex organic matter present in dairy wastewaters is attractive, although the continuous operation of high rate anaerobic processes treating this type of wastewaters causes the failure of the process. This work accesses the influence of non-feeding period length on the intermittent operation of mesophilic UASB reactors treating dairy wastewater, in order to allow the biological degradation to catch up with adsorption phenomenon. During the experiments, two UASB reactors were subject to three organic loading rates, ranging from 6 to 12 g(COD) x L(-1) x d(-1), with the same daily load applied to both reactors, each one with a different non-feeding period. Both reactors showed good COD removal efficiencies (87-92%). A material balance for COD in the reactors during the feeding and non-feeding periods showed the importance of the feedless period, which allowed the biomass to degrade substrate that was accumulated during the feeding period. The reactor with the longest non-feeding period had a better performance, which resulted in a higher methane production and adsorption capacity for the same organic load applied with a consequent less accumulation of substrate into the biomass. In addition, both reactors had a stable operation for the organic load of 12 g(COD) x L(-1) x d(-1), which is higher than the maximum applicable load reported in literature for continuous systems (3-6 g(COD) x L(-1) x d(-1)).

  12. 454-Pyrosequencing analysis of highly adapted azo dye-degrading microbial communities in a two-stage anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor treating textile effluent.

    PubMed

    Köchling, Thorsten; Ferraz, Antônio Djalma Nunes; Florencio, Lourdinha; Kato, Mario Takayuki; Gavazza, Sávia

    2017-03-01

    Azo dyes, which are widely used in the textile industry, exhibit significant toxic characteristics for the environment and the human population. Sequential anaerobic-aerobic reactor systems are efficient for the degradation of dyes and the mineralization of intermediate compounds; however, little is known about the composition of the microbial communities responsible for dye degradation in these systems. 454-Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was employed to assess the bacterial biodiversity and composition of a two-stage (anaerobic-aerobic) pilot-scale reactor that treats effluent from a denim factory. The anaerobic reactor was inoculated with anaerobic sludge from a domestic sewage treatment plant. Due to the selective composition of the textile wastewater, after 210 days of operation, the anaerobic reactor was dominated by the single genus Clostridium, affiliated with the Firmicutes phylum. The aerobic biofilter harbored a diverse bacterial community. The most abundant phylum in the aerobic biofilter was Proteobacteria, which was primarily represented by the Gamma, Delta and Epsilon classes followed by Firmicutes and other phyla. Several bacterial genera were identified that most likely played an essential role in azo dye degradation in the investigated system.

  13. Effect of solids retention time on membrane fouling intensity in two-stage submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors treating palm oil mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Annop, S; Sridang, P; Puetpaiboon, U; Grasmick, A

    2014-01-01

    Submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAnMBRs) treating palm oil mill effluent were analysed in terms of membrane fouling dynamics when working at three different sludge retention times (SRTs of 15, 30 and 60 d). The average permeate flux was fixed at 2.4 L x m(-2) x h(-1). During operation, the membrane was regenerated by using two steps: membrane wiping during each experiment as soon as trans-membrane pressure reached 125-130 mbars, and complete membrane cleaning including backwash and chemical cleaning at the end of each experiment when analysing the membrane surface and foulant material. Whatever the SRT, the cake formation was the dominant effect on membrane fouling dynamics. The concentration of suspended solids in the SAnMBRs, depending on the SRT, was then a determining criterion. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that fouled membrane surfaces were covered with a cake layer containing organic and inorganic elements whose concentrations were higher when working at a higher SRT; the higher concentrations of such elements gave to the cake layer a denser and more compact structure. In these experiments, the soluble fractions played a secondary role because of the dominant effect of cake layer structuring.

  14. Advanced treatment of residual nitrogen from biologically treated coke effluent by a microalga-mediated process using volatile fatty acids (VFAs) under stepwise mixotrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Byung-Gon; Kim, Woong; Heo, Sung-Woon; Kim, Donghyun; Choi, Gang-Guk; Yang, Ji-Won

    2015-09-01

    This work describes the development of a microalga-mediated process for simultaneous removal of residual ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) and production of lipids from biologically treated coke effluent. Four species of green algae were tested using a sequential mixotrophic process. In the first phase-CO2-supplied mixotrophic condition-all microalgae assimilated NH4(+)-N with no evident inhibition. In second phase-volatile fatty acids (VFAs)-supplied mixotrophic condition-removal rates of NH4(+)-N and biomass significantly increased. Among the microalgae used, Arctic Chlorella sp. ArM0029B had the highest rate of NH4(+)-N removal (0.97 mg/L/h) and fatty acid production (24.9 mg/L/d) which were 3.6- and 2.1-fold higher than those observed under the CO2-supplied mixotrophic condition. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that acetate and butyrate were decisive factors for increasing NH4(+)-N removal and fatty acid production. These results demonstrate that microalgae can be used in a sequential process for treatment of residual nitrogen after initial treatment of activated sludge.

  15. Associations between macrofauna and sediment hydrocarbons from treated ballast water effluent at a marine oil terminal in Port Valdez, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Arny L; Feder, Howard M; Shaw, David G

    2011-07-01

    Sediment-dwelling macrofauna, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and abiotic parameters were monitored annually in benthic marine sediments from 1989-2007 in Port Valdez, a period of declining routine discharge of treated marine ballast water containing residual PAH from a major crude oil loading facility. The resulting dataset was used to evaluate associations between macrofauna and environmental characteristics including PAH concentrations. The influences of natural abiotic gradients on macrofauna were stronger than associations between macrofauna and sediment PAH. Though overall associations of PAH with macrofaunal community structure were weak, effects were greater for the tube-dwelling polychaete worms Galathowenia oculata and Melinna cristata which responded negatively to low PAH values near sediment quality criteria (threshold effects concentration: TEC and field-based sediment quality criterion: fb-SQG: ∼300 ng g( -1)). Effects of PAH on benthic fauna may be strongest through poor survival of juveniles and failed recruitment over multiple years. Comparison of measured PAH concentrations to the TEC and field-based fb-SQG suggest that the observed levels of change in Port Valdez are minor and the criteria are ecologically appropriate for environmental monitoring. By demonstrating positive responses of sensitive fauna to reduction of PAH concentration, this study contributes to understanding the temporal change, ecological importance, and size of effects expected on benthic fauna in the presence of continuous exposure to low levels of hydrocarbons.

  16. Delisting petition for 300-M saltstone (treated F006 sludge) from the 300-M liquid effluent treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-04

    This petition seeks exclusion for stabilized and solidified sludge material generated by treatment of wastewater from the 300-M aluminum forming and metal finishing processes. The waste contains both hazardous and radioactive components and is classified as a mixed waste. The objective of this petition is to demonstrate that the stabilized sludge material (saltstone), when properly disposed, will not exceed the health-based standards for the hazardous constituents. This petition contains sampling and analytical data which justify the request for exclusion. The results show that when the data are applied to the EPA Vertical and Horizontal Spread (VHS) Model, health-based standards for all hazardous waste constituents will not be exceeded during worst case operating and environmental conditions. Disposal of the stabilized sludge material in concrete vaults will meet the requirements pertaining to Waste Management Activities for Groundwater Protection at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, S.C. Documents set forth performance objectives and disposal options for low-level radioactive waste disposal. Concrete vaults specified for disposal of 300-M saltstone (treated F006 sludge) assure that these performance objectives will be met.

  17. Effluent Guidelines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Effluent guidelines are national standards for wastewater discharges to surface waters and municipal sewage treatment plants. We issue the regulations for industrial categories based on the performance of treatment and control technologies.

  18. Biological responses of the american oyster 'Crassostrea virginica' (gmelin) to thermal effluent in the Chesapeake-Delaware Bay area. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tinsman, J.C.; Maurer, D.; Pennachi, K.A.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the results of a 1979 study of various aspects of the life history of the oyster, Crassostrea virginica, and the effects of temperature-salinity interactions in the mid-Atlantic region. The study was intended to provide input to power plant siting decisions in the Chesapeake Bay area. Eighteen collections of planted oysters were made from effluent and control stations of two power plant sites in the mid-Atlantic region. Oyster mortalities were related to physical extremes at both sites, but were higher at PEPCO. Shell growth was evident at DPL, but not at PEPCO.

  19. Seasonal abundance and distribution of Vibrio species in the treated effluent of wastewater treatment facilities in suburban and urban communities of Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Igbinosa, Etinosa O; Obi, Chikwelu L; Okoh, Anthony I

    2011-04-01

    We assessed the seasonal abundance and distribution of Vibrio species as well as some selected environmental parameters in the treated effluents of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), one each located in a suburban and urban community of Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Vibrio population density ranged from 2.1 × 10(5) to 4.36 × 10(4) CFU/ml in the suburban community and from 2.80 × 10(5) to 1.80 × 10(5) CFU/ml in the urban community. Vibrio species associated with 180 μ, 60 μ, and 20 μ plankton sizes were observed at densities of 0-136 × 10(3) CFU/ml, 0-8.40 × 10(2) CFU/ml, and 0-6.80 × 10(2) CFU/ml, respectively at the suburban community's WWTP. In the urban community, observed densities of culturable Vibrio were 0-2.80 × 10(2) CFU/ml (180 μ), 0-6.60 × 10(2) CFU/ml (60 μm), and 0-1.80 × 10(3) CFU/ml (20 μm). The abundance of free-living Vibrio species ranged from 0 to 1.0 × 10(2) and 1.0 × 10(3) CFU/ml in the suburban and urban communities' WWTPs, respectively. Molecular confirmation of the presumptive Vibrio isolates revealed the presence of V. fluvialis (41.38%), V. vulnificus (34.48%), and V. parahaemolyticus (24.14%) in the suburban community effluents. In the urban community molecular confirmation revealed that the same species were present at slightly different percentages, V. fluvialis (40%), V. vulnificus (36%), and V. parahaemolyticus (24%). There was no significant correlation between Vibrio abundance and season, either as free-living or plankton-associated entities, but Vibrio species abundance was positively correlated with temperature (r=0.565; p<0.01), salinity, and dissolved oxygen (p<0.05). Turbidity and pH showed significant seasonal variation (p<0.05) across the seasons in both locations. This study underscores the potential of WWTPs to be sources of Vibrio pathogens in the watershed of suburban and urban communities in South Africa.

  20. Correlation between DNAPL distribution area and dissolved concentration in surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation effluent: a two-dimensional flow cell study

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Bin; Li, Huiying; Du, Xiaoming; Zhong, Lirong; Yang, Bin; Du, Ping; Gu, Qingbao; Li, Fasheng

    2016-02-01

    During the process of surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR), free phase dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) may be mobilized and spread. The understanding of the impact of DNAPL spreading on the SEAR remediation is not sufficient with its positive effect infrequently mentioned. To evaluate the correlation between DNAPL spreading and remediation efficiency, a two-dimensional sandbox apparatus was used to simulate the migration and dissolution process of 1,2-DCA (1,2-dichloroethane) DNAPL in SEAR. Distribution area of DNAPL in the sandbox was determined by digital image analysis and correlated with effluent DNAPL concentration. The results showed that the effluent DNAPL concentration has significant positive linear correlation with the DNAPL distribution area, indicating the mobilization of DNAPL could improve remediation efficiency by enlarging total NAPL-water interfacial area for mass transfer. Meanwhile, the vertical migration of 1,2-DCA was limited within the boundary of aquifer in all experiments, implying that by manipulating injection parameters in SEAR, optimal remediation efficiency can be reached while the risk of DNAPL vertical migration is minimized. This study provides a convenient visible and quantitative method for the optimization of parameters for SEAR project, and an approach of rapid predicting the extent of DNAPL contaminant distribution based on the dissolved DNAPL concentration in the extraction well.

  1. 300 area TEDF permit compliance monitoring plan

    SciTech Connect

    BERNESKI, L.D.

    1998-11-20

    This document presents the permit compliance monitoring plan for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). It addresses the compliance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit and Department of Natural Resources Aquatic Lands Sewer Outfall Lease.

  2. Enhancing the Decolorizing and Degradation Ability of Bacterial Consortium Isolated from Textile Effluent Affected Area and Its Application on Seed Germination

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Rashid; Ali, Sikander; Hayyat, Muhammad Umar

    2015-01-01

    A bacterial consortium BMP1/SDSC/01 consisting of six isolates was isolated from textile effected soil, sludge, and textile effluent from Hudiara drain near Nishat Mills Limited, Ferozepur Road, Lahore, Pakistan. It was selected because of being capable of degrading and detoxifying red, green, black, and yellow textile dyes. The pH and supplements were optimized to enhance the decolorization ability of the selected consortium. The results indicated that decolorizing ability of consortium for the red, green, black, and yellow dyes was higher as compared to individual strains. The consortium was able to decolorize 84%, 84%, 85%, 85%, and 82% of 200 ppm of red, green, black, yellow, and mixed dyes within 24 h while individual strain required 72 h. On supplementing urea, the consortium decolorized 87, 86, 89, 86, and 83%, respectively, while on supplementing sodium chloride the consortium decolorized 93, 94, 93, 94, and 89% of red, green, black, yellow, and mixed dyes, respectively, which was maximum while in the presence of ascorbic acid and ammonium chloride it showed intermediate results. The effect of untreated and treated dyes was investigated on Zea mays L. (maize) and Sorghum vulgare Pers. (sorghum). This study will help to promote an efficient biotreatment of textile effluents. PMID:25654132

  3. Enhancing the decolorizing and degradation ability of bacterial consortium isolated from textile effluent affected area and its application on seed germination.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Rashid; Sharif, Faiza; Ali, Sikander; Hayyat, Muhammad Umar

    2015-01-01

    A bacterial consortium BMP1/SDSC/01 consisting of six isolates was isolated from textile effected soil, sludge, and textile effluent from Hudiara drain near Nishat Mills Limited, Ferozepur Road, Lahore, Pakistan. It was selected because of being capable of degrading and detoxifying red, green, black, and yellow textile dyes. The pH and supplements were optimized to enhance the decolorization ability of the selected consortium. The results indicated that decolorizing ability of consortium for the red, green, black, and yellow dyes was higher as compared to individual strains. The consortium was able to decolorize 84%, 84%, 85%, 85%, and 82% of 200 ppm of red, green, black, yellow, and mixed dyes within 24 h while individual strain required 72 h. On supplementing urea, the consortium decolorized 87, 86, 89, 86, and 83%, respectively, while on supplementing sodium chloride the consortium decolorized 93, 94, 93, 94, and 89% of red, green, black, yellow, and mixed dyes, respectively, which was maximum while in the presence of ascorbic acid and ammonium chloride it showed intermediate results. The effect of untreated and treated dyes was investigated on Zea mays L. (maize) and Sorghum vulgare Pers. (sorghum). This study will help to promote an efficient biotreatment of textile effluents.

  4. Involvement and interaction of microbial communities in the transformation and stabilization of chromium during the composting of tannery effluent treated biomass of Vallisneria spiralis L.

    PubMed

    Shukla, O P; Rai, U N; Dubey, Smita

    2009-04-01

    Tannery effluent treated with aquatic macrophyte Vallisneria spiralis L. for 14 d showed significant improvement in physico-chemical properties and reduction in Cr concentration. Accumulation of Cr was found maximum in roots (358 microg g(-1)dw) as compared to shoot (62 microg g(-1)dw) of the plant. A laboratory scale composter was designed with the objectives to investigate the physico-chemical changes and role of microbes in stabilization and transformation of Cr in the composting material. Results revealed that the composting process was quick within 7-21 d as indicated by peak time for various physico-chemical parameters and drop in C/N ratio up to acceptable limit. The profile of microbial communities indicated that population of anaerobic, aerobic and nitrifying bacteria increased quickly at the initial phase, and reached a peak level of 4.2 x 10(6), 9.78 x 10(8) and 9.32 x 10(9) CFU g(-1), respectively at 21 d; while population of actinomycetes and fungi was found maximum i.e. 3.29 x 10(7) and 9.7 x 10(6) CFU g(-1), respectively, after 35 d of composting. Overall bacterial population dominated over the actinomycetes and fungi during the composting process. Cr((VI)) was transformed to Cr((III)) due to the microbial activity during the process. Sequential extraction of Cr fractionation showed its stabilization via changing into organic matter-bound and residual fractions during the composting.

  5. Geochemical and hydrologic characterization of the effluent draining from U12e, U12n, and U12t tunnels, area 12, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.E.; Gillespie, L.; Gillespie, D.

    1993-05-01

    The objective of the Tunnel Effluent Characterization Project at the Nevada Test Site was to characterize the tunnel effluents in terms of rate of discharge, pH, temperature, specific conductivity, turbidity, and aqueous chemistry. The parameters were monitored for one year to identify hazardous constituents within the effluent and to characterize temporal variations.

  6. Protections for Workers Who Must Enter Pesticide-Treated Areas Early

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Worker Protection Standard allows entry into a pesticide-treated area that remains under a restricted-entry interval only in a few narrow work situations. Learn about special protections that must be provided for workers in these situations.

  7. In vivo and In vitro neurochemical-based assessments of wastewater effluents from the Maumee River area of concern.

    PubMed

    Arini, Adeline; Cavallin, Jenna E; Berninger, Jason P; Marfil-Vega, Ruth; Mills, Marc; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Basu, Niladri

    2016-04-01

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents contain potentially neuroactive chemicals though few methods are available to screen for the presence of such agents. Here, two parallel approaches (in vivo and in vitro) were used to assess WWTP exposure-related changes to neurochemistry. First, fathead minnows (FHM, Pimephales promelas) were caged for four days along a WWTP discharge zone into the Maumee River (Ohio, USA). Grab water samples were collected and extracts obtained for the detection of alkylphenols, bisphenol A (BPA) and steroid hormones. Second, the extracts were then used as a source of in vitro exposure to brain tissues from FHM and four additional species relevant to the Great Lakes ecosystem (rainbow trout (RT), river otter (RO), bald eagle (BE) and human (HU)). The ability of the wastewater (in vivo) or extracts (in vitro) to interact with enzymes (monoamine oxidase (MAO) and glutamine synthetase (GS)) and receptors (dopamine (D2) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA)) involved in dopamine and glutamate-dependent neurotransmission were examined on brain homogenates. In vivo exposure of FHM led to significant decreases of NMDA receptor binding in females (24-42%), and increases of MAO activity in males (2.8- to 3.2-fold). In vitro, alkylphenol-targeted extracts significantly inhibited D2 (66% in FHM) and NMDA (24-54% in HU and RT) receptor binding, and induced MAO activity in RT, RO, and BE brains. Steroid hormone-targeted extracts inhibited GS activity in all species except FHM. BPA-targeted extracts caused a MAO inhibition in FHM, RT and BE brains. Using both in vivo and in vitro approaches, this study shows that WWTP effluents contain agents that can interact with neurochemicals important in reproduction and other neurological functions. Additional work is needed to better resolve in vitro to in vivo extrapolations (IVIVE) as well as cross-species differences.

  8. Post-Closure Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Effluent Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-09-01

    The Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Effluent site is located in the southeastern portion of the Area 12 Camp at the Nevada Test Site. This site is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996) as Corrective Action Site (CAS) 12-19-01 and is the only CAS assigned to Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 339. Post-closure sampling and inspection of the site were completed on March 27, 2002. Post-closure monitoring activities were scheduled biennially (every two years) in the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the Closure Report for CAU 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Effluent, Nevada Test Site (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOEN], 1997). A baseline for the site was established by sampling in 1997. Based on the recommendations from the 1999 post-closure monitoring report (DOE/NV, 1999), samples were collected in 2000, earlier than originally proposed, because the 1999 sample results did not provide the expected decrease in total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations at the site. Sampling results from 2000 (DOE/NV, 2000) and 2001 (DOE/NV, 2001) revealed favorable conditions for natural degradation at the CAU 339 site, but because of differing sample methods and heterogeneity of the soil, data results from 2000 and later were not directly correlated with previous results. Post-closure monitoring activities for 2002 consisted of the following: (1) Soil sample collection from three undisturbed plots (Plots A, B, and C, Figure 2). (2) Sample analysis for TPH as oil and bio-characterization parameters (Comparative Enumeration Assay [CEA] and Standard Nutrient Panel [SNP]). (3) Site inspection to evaluate the condition of the fencing and signs. (4) Preparation and submittal of the Post-Closure Monitoring Report.

  9. Impact of design and operation variables on the performance of vertical-flow constructed wetlands and intermittent sand filters treating pond effluent.

    PubMed

    Torrens, Antonina; Molle, Pascal; Boutin, Catherine; Salgot, Miquel

    2009-04-01

    With the aim of improving the quality of the effluent from a waste stabilization pond (WSP) different types of vertical-flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) and intermittent sand filters (ISFs) were tested at a pilot plant in Aurignac (France). The effectiveness of each design at upgrading the pond effluent was studied over a period of 2 years. Physicochemical parameters were monitored by taking composite samples over 24h and grab samples every week. The hydraulic behaviour of the filters was studied using (NaCl) tracer tests and monitoring the infiltration rate. This paper describes the influence on the performance of the beds of: (a) the characteristics of the medium (type of sand, depth, and presence of Phragmites); (b) feed modes; and (c) the presence of an algae clogging layer. The study demonstrates the viability of VFCWs and ISFs as means of upgrading effluent from WSPs. For hydraulic loads (HL) of up to 80cm/day, both technologies effectively retain algae, complete organic matter degradation, and nitrify the pond effluent. The presence of plants did not significantly affect the performance of the filters although it was important in terms of maintenance. The deeper filters presented better removals for all the parameter tested, due to higher hydraulic detention times (HDTs). The dosing regime and resting period duration all affected the hydraulic performance and purification efficiency of the filters.

  10. Involvement of ligninolytic enzymes of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in treating the textile effluent containing Astrazon Red FBL in a packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sedighi, M; Karimi, A; Vahabzadeh, F

    2009-09-30

    The effect of Tween80, Mn(II) and veratryl alcohol (VA) on the production of ligninolytic enzymes of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a packed-bed bioreactor using small pieces of Kissiris as carrier, was investigated. The results of the enzyme activities were noticeable in terms of decolorization and COD removal of the textile effluent containing an azo dye (Astrazon Red FBL). No dilution was made on the tested textile effluent and it was not sterilized, also. Maximum decolorization of the dye (87%) and COD removal (42%), both occurred when only Tween80 (0.05%, w/v) was added to the effluent. The maximum activities of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) were (U/l): 17 and 52, respectively. The role of MnP was pronounced in the dye decolorization process, while the influence of LiP was noticeable on COD removal. The reusability of the original biomass was examined by replacing undiluted textile effluent (i.e., five times). The cellular performance of the original biomass in repeated-batch operations was promising.

  11. The presence of acidic and neutral drugs in treated sewage effluents and receiving waters in the Cornwallis and Annapolis River watersheds and the Mill CoveSewage Treatment Plant in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Crouse, Brian A; Ghoshdastidar, Avik J; Tong, Anthony Z

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are designed to have physiological effects on target organisms. Their presence and effect in aquatic ecosystems in the Annapolis Valley in Nova Scotia is relatively unknown. Over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription drugs are continually introduced to aquatic ecosystems through treated sewage effluent outflows into rivers and other bodies of water. Fouracidic and two neutral pharmaceuticals were monitored in the effluents from nine sewage treatment plants in the Annapolis Valley and Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM) in Nova Scotia. Naproxen and ibuprofen, two highly used OTC drugs, were the most prominent and were detected at high ng/L to low μg/L levels. Caffeine, salicylic acid (a metabolite of acetylsalicylic acid) and cotinine were detected in the ng/L range. Warfarin was not detected above the detection limits. The urban sewage treatment plant in Mill Cove, HRM showed much higher concentrations of pharmaceuticals than rural facilities in the Annapolis Valley, despite the fact that more advanced facilities are used at the urban plant. Receiving waters both downstream and upstream from STP effluent outfalls were also studied, and trace levels of caffeine at several sites indicate some degree of pollution propagation into surrounding aquatic ecosystems.

  12. Micropollutants produced by disinfection of wastewater effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley, R.L.; Cumming, R.B.; Lee, N.E.; Thompson, J.E.; Lewis, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    Recent research conducted with the objective of determining some of the chemical mutagenic characteristics of nonvolatile micropollutants in treated wastewater effluents is summarized. The effluents from nine wastewater plants were examined relative to the chemical effects of the disinfectants chlorine, ozone, and uv light on nonvolatile organic constituents and the formation of mutagenic constituents during disinfection. Results indicate that disinfection by chlorine or ozone can lead to an increase in the number of mutagenic materials in the effluents. (JGB)

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Textile Azo Dye-Decolorizing and -Degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain PFK10, Isolated from the Common Effluent Treatment Plant of the Ankleshwar Industrial Area of Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Faldu, P R; Kothari, V V; Kothari, C R; Rawal, C M; Domadia, K K; Patel, P A; Bhimani, H D; Raval, V H; Parmar, N R; Nathani, N M; Koringa, P G; Joshi, C G; Kothari, R K

    2014-02-06

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PFK10, isolated from the common effluent treatment plant (CETP) of the Ankleshwar industrial area of Gujarat, India. The 6.04-Mb draft genome sequence of strain PFK10 provides information about the genes encoding enzymes that enable the strain to decolorize and degrade textile azo dye.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Textile Azo Dye-Decolorizing and -Degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain PFK10, Isolated from the Common Effluent Treatment Plant of the Ankleshwar Industrial Area of Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Faldu, P. R.; Kothari, V. V.; Kothari, C. R.; Rawal, C. M.; Domadia, K. K.; Patel, P. A.; Bhimani, H. D.; Raval, V. H.; Parmar, N. R.; Nathani, N. M.; Koringa, P. G.; Joshi, C. G.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PFK10, isolated from the common effluent treatment plant (CETP) of the Ankleshwar industrial area of Gujarat, India. The 6.04-Mb draft genome sequence of strain PFK10 provides information about the genes encoding enzymes that enable the strain to decolorize and degrade textile azo dye. PMID:24503984

  15. A social choice-based methodology for treated wastewater reuse in urban and suburban areas.

    PubMed

    Mahjouri, Najmeh; Pourmand, Ehsan

    2017-07-01

    Reusing treated wastewater for supplying water demands such as landscape and agricultural irrigation in urban and suburban areas has become a major water supply approach especially in regions struggling with water shortage. Due to limited available treated wastewater to satisfy all water demands, conflicts may arise in allocating treated wastewater to water users. Since there is usually more than one decision maker and more than one criterion to measure the impact of each water allocation scenario, effective tools are needed to combine individual preferences to reach a collective decision. In this paper, a new social choice (SC) method, which can consider some indifference thresholds for decision makers, is proposed for evaluating and ranking treated wastewater and urban runoff allocation scenarios to water users in urban and suburban areas. Some SC methods, namely plurality voting, Borda count, pairwise comparisons, Hare system, dictatorship, and approval voting, are applied for comparing and evaluating the results. Different scenarios are proposed for allocating treated wastewater and urban runoff to landscape irrigation, agricultural lands as well as artificial recharge of aquifer in the Tehran metropolitan Area, Iran. The main stakeholders rank the proposed scenarios based on their utilities using two different approaches. The proposed method suggests ranking of the scenarios based on the stakeholders' utilities and considering the scores they assigned to each scenario. Comparing the results of the proposed method with those of six different SC methods shows that the obtained ranks are mostly in compliance with the social welfare.

  16. Impact of pharmaceutical industry treated effluents on the water quality of river Uppanar, South east coast of India: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damodhar, Usha; Vikram Reddy, M.

    2013-06-01

    The water quality of a river that received pharmaceutical industrial effluents is evaluated through the analysis of two indices to describe the level of pollution of the river, in this paper. The indices have been computed from December 2009 to June 2011 at four sampling stations—outlet, outfall, upstream, and downstream in the Uppanar River located at Cuddalore (South east coast of India). The results were compared with the guidelines of Bureau of Indian standards for drinking water specifications (BIS 10500).The study also identifies the pollutants of pharmaceutical industrial effluents before and after treatment that affects the river water quality. Data on spatial and temporal changes in dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, pH, temperature, color, electrical conductance, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, calcium, magnesium, hardness, sodium, and chloride were collected. The water quality indices used, Bascarón (1979) adapted Water Quality Index (WQIBA) and the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment-Water Quality Index 1.0 (CCME WQI), which is a well-accepted and universally applicable computer model for evaluating the water quality index. Both the indices presented similar trends, and were considered adequate for evaluating the impacts of industrial effluent on the river water bodies.

  17. Antibiotic-resistant genes and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the effluent of urban residential areas, hospitals, and a municipal wastewater treatment plant system.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianan; Cheng, Weixiao; Xu, Like; Strong, P J; Chen, Hong

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we determined the abundance of 8 antibiotics (3 tetracyclines, 4 sulfonamides, and 1 trimethoprim), 12 antibiotic-resistant genes (10 tet, 2 sul), 4 antibiotic-resistant bacteria (tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, and combined resistance), and class 1 integron integrase gene (intI1) in the effluent of residential areas, hospitals, and municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) systems. The concentrations of total/individual targets (antibiotics, genes, and bacteria) varied remarkably among different samples, but the hospital samples generally had a lower abundance than the residential area samples. The WWTP demonstrated removal efficiencies of 50.8% tetracyclines, 66.8% sulfonamides, 0.5 logs to 2.5 logs tet genes, and less than 1 log of sul and intI1 genes, as well as 0.5 log to 1 log removal for target bacteria. Except for the total tetracycline concentration and the proportion of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (R (2) = 0.330, P < 0.05), there was no significant correlation between antibiotics and the corresponding resistant bacteria (P > 0.05). In contrast, various relationships were identified between antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (P < 0.05). Tet (A) and tet (B) displayed noticeable relationships with both tetracycline and combined antibiotic-resistant bacteria (P < 0.01).

  18. Enhancement of total nitrogen removal through effluent recirculation and fate of PPCPs in a hybrid constructed wetland system treating urban wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ávila, Cristina; Pelissari, Catiane; Sezerino, Pablo H; Sgroi, Massimiliano; Roccaro, Paolo; García, Joan

    2017-04-15

    The effect of effluent recirculation on the removal of total nitrogen (TN) and eight pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) was evaluated during 9months in an experimental hybrid constructed wetland (CW) system applied in the treatment of urban wastewater. An Imhoff tank was followed by three stages of CWs (two 1.5-m(2) vertical subsurface flow (VF) beds alternating feed-rest cycles, a 2-m(2) horizontal (HF) and a 2-m(2) free water surface (FWS) wetland in series). A fraction of the final effluent was recycled back to the Imhoff tank with a recirculation rate of 50% (hydraulic loading rate=0.37md(-1)). The system's performance varied throughout the study. In Period I (summer) consistently high load removal efficiencies of TN (89±5%) and a removal rate of 6.6±1.4gTNm(-2)d(-1) were exhibited. In Period II (fall), the poor performance of the FWS during the senescence of macrophytes caused a large increase in organic matter, solids and nutrient concentrations, drastically deteriorating water quality. The determination of PPCPs was conducted during this period. Recalcitrant compounds, namely sulfamethoxazole, carbamazapine, TCEP and sucralose were negligibly removed in all CWs. However, noteworthy was the ≈30% removal of sucralose in the VF wetland. Caffeine (80%) and fluoxetine (27%) showed similar elimination rates in both VF and HF units, whereas trimethoprim and DEET were significantly better removed in the VF than in the HF. The concentration of the four latter compounds showed a severe increase in the FWS, indicating possible desorption from the sediment/biomass during adverse conditions. Harvesting of the aboveground biomass in this unit returned the system's performance back to normality (Period III), achieving 77±7% TN removal despite the winter season, proving effluent recirculation as an effective strategy for TN removal in hybrid CW systems when stringent restrictions are in place.

  19. Performances and microbial features of an aerobic packed-bed biofilm reactor developed to post-treat an olive mill effluent from an anaerobic GAC reactor

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Lorenzo; Colao, Maria Chiara; Ruzzi, Maurizio; Marchetti, Leonardo; Fava, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    Background Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is the aqueous effluent of olive oil producing processes. Given its high COD and content of phenols, it has to be decontaminated before being discharged. Anaerobic digestion is one of the most promising treatment process for such an effluent, as it combines high decontamination efficiency with methane production. The large scale anaerobic digestion of OMWs is normally conducted in dispersed-growth reactors, where however are generally achieved unsatisfactory COD removal and methane production yields. The possibility of intensifying the performance of the process using a packed bed biofilm reactor, as anaerobic treatment alternative, was demonstrated. Even in this case, however, a post-treatment step is required to further reduce the COD. In this work, a biological post-treatment, consisting of an aerobic biological "Manville" silica bead-packed bed aerobic reactor, was developed, tested for its ability to complete COD removal from the anaerobic digestion effluents, and characterized biologically through molecular tools. Results The aerobic post-treatment was assessed through a 2 month-continuous feeding with the digested effluent at 50.42 and 2.04 gl-1day-1 of COD and phenol loading rates, respectively. It was found to be a stable process, able to remove 24 and 39% of such organic loads, respectively, and to account for 1/4 of the overall decontamination efficiency displayed by the anaerobic-aerobic integrated system when fed with an amended OMW at 31.74 and 1.70 gl-1day-1 of COD and phenol loading rates, respectively. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences of biomass samples from the aerobic reactor biofilm revealed that it was colonized by Rhodobacterales, Bacteroidales, Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Rhodocyclales and genera incertae sedis TM7. Some taxons occurring in the influent were not detected in the biofilm, whereas others, such as Paracoccus, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Enterobacter, enriched significantly in

  20. Electrocoagulation for the treatment of textile industry effluent--a review.

    PubMed

    Khandegar, V; Saroha, Anil K

    2013-10-15

    Various techniques such as physical, chemical, biological, advanced oxidation and electrochemical are used for the treatment of industrial effluent. The commonly used conventional biological treatment processes are time consuming, need large operational area and are not effective for effluent containing toxic elements. Advanced oxidation techniques result in high treatment cost and are generally used to obtain high purity grade water. The chemical coagulation technique is slow and generates large amount of sludge. Electrocoagulation has recently attracted attention as a potential technique for treating industrial effluent due to its versatility and environmental compatibility. This technique uses direct current source between metal electrodes immersed in the effluent, which causes the dissolution of electrode plates into the effluent. The metal ions, at an appropriate pH, can form wide range of coagulated species and metal hydroxides that destabilize and aggregate particles or precipitate and adsorb the dissolved contaminants. Therefore, the objective of the present manuscript is to review the potential of electrocoagulation for the treatment of industrial effluents, mainly removal of dyes from textile effluent. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultratrace Determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) by Microsample Injection System Flame Atomic Spectroscopy in Drinking Water and Treated and Untreated Industrial Effluents

    PubMed Central

    Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Elci, Latif; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Naseer, Hafiz Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Simple and robust analytical procedures were developed for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and lead (Pb(II)) by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) using microsample injection system coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (MIS-FAAS). For the current study, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol were used as chelating agent, extraction solvent, and disperser solvent, respectively. The effective variables of developed method have been optimized and studied in detail. The limit of detection of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) were 0.037 and 0.054 µg/L, respectively. The enrichment factors in both cases were 400 with 40 mL of initial volumes. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) were <4%. The applicability and the accuracy of DLLME were estimated by the analysis of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) in industrial effluent wastewater by standard addition method (recoveries >96%). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) at ultratrace levels in natural drinking water and industrial effluents wastewater of Denizli. Moreover, the proposed method was compared with the literature reported method. PMID:24163779

  2. Simultaneous nutrient removal, optimised CO2 mitigation and biofuel feedstock production by Chlorogonium sp. grown in secondary treated non-sterile saline sewage effluent.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwan Yin; Ng, Tsz Wai; Li, Guiying; An, Taicheng; Kwan, Ka Ki; Chan, King Ming; Huang, Guocheng; Yip, Ho Yin; Wong, Po Keung

    2015-10-30

    The phycoremediation process has great potential for effectively addressing environmental pollution. To explore the capabilities of simultaneous algal nutrient removal, CO2 mitigation and biofuel feedstock production from spent water resources, a Chlorogonium sp. isolated from a tilapia pond in Hong Kong was grown in non-sterile saline sewage effluent for a bioremediation study. With high removal efficiencies of NH3-N (88.35±14.39%), NO3(-)-N (85.39±14.96%), TN (93.34±6.47%) and PO4(3-)-P (91.80±17.44%), Chlorogonium sp. achieved a CO2 consumption rate of 58.96 mg L(-1) d(-1), which was optimised by the response surface methodology. Under optimised conditions, the lipid content of the algal biomass reached 24.26±2.67%. Overall, the isolated Chlorogonium sp. showed promising potential in the simultaneous purification of saline sewage effluent in terms of tertiary treatment and CO2 sequestration while delivering feedstock for potential biofuel production in a waste-recycling manner.

  3. Ultratrace Determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) by Microsample Injection System Flame Atomic Spectroscopy in Drinking Water and Treated and Untreated Industrial Effluents.

    PubMed

    Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Elci, Latif; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Naseer, Hafiz Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Simple and robust analytical procedures were developed for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and lead (Pb(II)) by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) using microsample injection system coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (MIS-FAAS). For the current study, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol were used as chelating agent, extraction solvent, and disperser solvent, respectively. The effective variables of developed method have been optimized and studied in detail. The limit of detection of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) were 0.037 and 0.054 µg/L, respectively. The enrichment factors in both cases were 400 with 40 mL of initial volumes. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) were <4%. The applicability and the accuracy of DLLME were estimated by the analysis of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) in industrial effluent wastewater by standard addition method (recoveries >96%). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) at ultratrace levels in natural drinking water and industrial effluents wastewater of Denizli. Moreover, the proposed method was compared with the literature reported method.

  4. Comprehensive evaluation of three sets of advanced wastewater treatment trains for treating secondary effluent: Organic micro-pollutants and bio-toxicity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Li, Mo; Wen, Qinxue

    2017-09-20

    The environmental presence of organic micro-pollutants (OMPs) has posed increasing risks on aquatic organism and human health. The performance of three commonly used advanced wastewater treatment trains, coagulation-sand filter, coagulation-biological aerated filter (BAF) and ozonation-biological activated carbon (BAC), in removing fifteen residual contaminants and bio-toxicity of the effluent from a local municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were investigated. Relatively high level of OMPs (0.69-14.71 μg/L), genotoxicity (22.64 μg 4-NQO/L) and estrogenic activity (1.4 μg E2/L) were observed from the secondary effluent (SE). Limited OMPs and bio-toxicity reduction was achieved during coagulation with 20 mg/L of polymeric aluminium and sand filter. Ozonation exhibited high advantage in OMPs, genotoxicity and estrogenic activity reduction. More than 80% of removal was achieved for most OMPs after ozonation with normalized dose of 1.25 mg O3/mg DOC, and the removal of OMPs was consistent well with the second reaction kinetics constants of OMPs with ozone. Based on Pearson correlation analysis, spectroscopy indicators such as UV254 and total fluorescence (TF) exhibited a high positive correlation with genotoxicity reduction, while estrogenic activity was related well with OMPs variation. To sum up, spectroscopic indicators showed a high potential to indicate the OMPs and bio-toxicity of SE. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Bioaugmentation with the resin acid-degrading bacterium Zoogloea resiniphila DhA-35 to counteract pH stress in an aerated lagoon treating pulp and paper mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhongtang; Mohn, William W

    2002-06-01

    Efficient and reliable removal of resin acids such as dehydroabietic acid (DhA), which are the major toxicants in pulp and paper mill effluents and form pitch interfering with papermaking, is critically important to prevent toxicity discharge and failure of paper machines. Low- and high-pH stresses sometimes occur in effluent treatment systems due to the use of large amounts of acids and alkalines in the pulping processes. We found that both low- and high-pH stresses (pH 3 and 10, respectively) decreased the removal of total organic carbon and completely inhibited the removal of DhA by the biomass of an aerated lagoon treating pulp mill effluent. The pH stresses caused changes in the bacterial community structure as assessed by ribosomal intergenic spacer length polymorphism. The pH stresses greatly reduced the indigenous DhA-degrading populations in the lagoon community. Bioaugmentation with Zoogloea resiniphila DhA-35, a DhA-degrading bacterium originally isolated from a pulp mill treatment system, restored the DhA removal by both the low- and high-pH-stressed lagoon biomass. This bacterium was persistent after introduction into the lagoon microbial community, and its cellular rRNA:rDNA ratio increased during the period of DhA removal. The introduction of strain DhA-35 changed the microbial community structure, but did not adversely affect the TOC removal by the community. This study suggests that it is feasible and potentially useful to use bioaugmentation with resin-acid-degrading bacteria such as DhA-35 to restore and enhance resin acid removal by aerated lagoon microbial communities.

  6. Disinfection of wastewater by hydrogen peroxide or peracetic acid: development of procedures for measurement of residual disinfectant and application to a physicochemically treated municipal effluent.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Monika; Brumelis, Daina; Gehr, Ronald

    2002-01-01

    The Montreal Urban Community Wastewater Treatment Plant (MUCWTP) located in Montreal. Quebec, Canada, uses physicochemical treatment processes prior to discharging wastewater into the St. Lawrence River via an outfall tunnel of 2 hours retention time. Although chlorination facilities exist, they are not being used, and the MUCWTP is seeking alternative methods for disinfection to achieve a 2- to 3-log fecal coliform reduction. Liquid chemical disinfectants were attractive options because of their low capital costs. This led to an investigation of the feasibility of using hydrogen peroxide or peracetic acid. A method for measuring peroxycompounds (hydrogen peroxide or peracetic acid plus hydrogen peroxide) was developed using the peroxidase-based oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfuric acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) with hydrogen peroxide. The validity of the method was confirmed using effluent from the MUCWTP. Recovery was higher than 90% for peracetic acid levels as low as 1.0 mg/L. Quenching of hydrogen peroxide was achieved with 50-mg/L catalase; quenching of peracetic acid was achieved with 100 mg/L of sodium thiosulfate, followed by 50 mg/L of catalase. Batch disinfection tests were conducted on MUCWTP effluent. Hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid in wastewater over time could be modeled as a second-order decay, with the decay "constant" being a function of the initial concentration of peroxycompounds. This function was the same for both hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid, possibly indicating similar decomposition pathways in wastewater matrices. Disinfection was modeled using a modified Hom equation. Required doses of hydrogen peroxide to reach the target fecal coliform levels ranged from 106 to 285 mg/L, with the higher doses occurring when ferric chloride instead of alum was used as the coagulant. Hence, hydrogen peroxide was infeasible as a disinfectant for this application. On the other hand, the peracetic acid dose needed to

  7. Occurrence of synthetic musk fragrances in effluent and non-effluent impacted environments.

    PubMed

    Chase, Darcy A; Karnjanapiboonwong, Adcharee; Fang, Yu; Cobb, George P; Morse, Audra N; Anderson, Todd A

    2012-02-01

    Synthetic musk fragrances (SMFs) are considered micropollutants and can be found in various environmental matrices near wastewater discharge areas. These emerging contaminants are often detected in wastewater at low concentrations; they are continuously present and constitute a constant exposure source. Objectives of this study were to investigate the environmental fate, transport, and transformation of SMFs. Occurrence of six polycyclic musk compounds (galaxolide, tonalide, celestolide, phantolide, traseolide, cashmeran) and two nitro musk compounds (musk xylene and musk ketone) was monitored in wastewater, various surface waters and their sediments, as well as groundwater, soil cores, and plants from a treated wastewater land application site. Specifically, samples were collected quarterly from (1) a wastewater treatment plant to determine initial concentrations in wastewater effluent, (2) a storage reservoir at a land application site to determine possible photolysis before land application, (3) soil cores to determine the amount of sorption after land application and groundwater recharge to assess lack thereof, (4) a lake system and its sediment to assess degradation, and (5) non-effluent impacted local playa lakes and sediments to assess potential sources of these compounds. All samples were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Data indicated that occurrence of SMFs in effluent-impacted environments was detectable at ng/L and ng/g concentrations, which decreased during transport throughout wastewater treatment and land application. However, unexpected concentrations, ng/L and ng/g, were also detected in playa lakes not receiving treated effluent. Additionally, soil cores from land application sites had ng/g concentrations, and SMFs were detected in plant samples at trace levels. Galaxolide and tonalide were consistently found in all environments. Information on occurrence is critical to assessing exposure to these potential

  8. Degradation of diethyl phthalate in treated effluents from an MBR via advanced oxidation processes: effects of nitrate on oxidation and a pilot-scale AOP operation.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Park, C G; Lee, J W; Ko, K B

    2010-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to delineate the oxidation of diethyl phthalate (DEP) in water, using bench-scale UV/H2O2 and O3/H2O2 processes, and to determine the effects of nitrate (NO(3-)-N, 5 mg L(-1)) on this oxidation. The oxidation of DEP was also investigated through a pilot-scale advanced oxidation process (AOP), into which a portion of the effluent from a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) plant was pumped. The bench-scale operation showed that DEP could be oxidized via solely UV oxidation or O3 oxidation. The adverse effect of nitrate on the DEP oxidation was remarkable in the UV/H2O2 process, and the nitrate clearly reduced its oxidation. The adverse effect of nitrate on O3 oxidation was also observed. It was noted, however, that the nitrate clearly enhanced the DEP oxidation in the O3/H2O2 process. A series of pilot-scale AOP operations indicated that the addition of H2O2 enhanced DEP oxidation in both the UV/H2O2 and O3/H2O2 processes. No noticeable adverse effect of nitrate was observed in the NO(3-)-N concentration of about 6.0 mg L(-1), which was naturally contained in the treatment stream. About 52% and 61% of the DEP were oxidized by each of these two oxidation processes in this pilot-scale operation. Both the UV/H2O2 and O3/H2O2 processes appeared to be desirable alternatives for DEP oxidation in treatment effluent streams.

  9. Identification of nitrous oxide emissions from green areas of Chihuahua City irrigated with treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Gómez, Carmen Julia; Herrera-Peraza, Eduardo F; Alcocer-Yamanaka, Victor Hugo; Collins-Martínez, Virginia H; Quiñones-Montenegro, Luisa Y; Trujillo-Navarrete, Balter; Espino-Valdes, Maria Socorro

    2013-03-01

    Since 2000, the city of Chihuahua had a distribution system of treated wastewater for irrigation of green areas and has replaced this water for processes that do not require the consumption of drinking water. This replacement was necessary in order to meet the growing demand for potable water which has exceeded the current supply of 700 L (184,88 gallons) per second. Nowadays it is necessary to identify and assess the risks to public health and the environment due to the substitution of drinking water by treated wastewater in the last 10yr. Treated wastewater contains compounds whose effects have not been evaluated when used for irrigation in public green areas. Therefore, it is not known whether there is a danger to the health of park visitors due to exposure and/or inhalation of the emitted gases, accidental ingestion of water, or impact to the environment. The purpose of the research, using an experimental prototype, is to identify the changes from nitrogen present in the treated wastewater to nitrous oxide. The research objective is the generation of data to simulate a regional scale at this stage, which will be analyzed and statistically validated using Minitab and Origin software. The experiment was performed using three different samples to compare water quality: drinking water treated wastewater, and water with nitrogen-based fertilizer (urea). Prototypes were filled with two types of soil: sand and clay Each type of water was sprinkled on the prototype, grass was planted in it, and the prototype was equipped with samplers to capture the gas in the root zone. The authors found high emissions of nitrous oxide in the clay-filled lysimeters, and climate and growing conditions of vegetation were the most important factors for producing nitrous oxide. Major problems in the ecosystem arise from solutions that are not based on environmental public policy research or experimentation. For example, before application a specific policy or regulation, research should

  10. Nitrate-nitrogen reduction by established tree and pasture buffer strips associated with a cattle feedlot effluent disposal area near Armidale, NSW Australia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liangmin; Duggin, John A; Nie, Daoping

    2012-05-30

    Vegetated buffer strips have been recognized as an important element in overall agro-ecosystem management to reduce the delivery of non-point source pollutants from agricultural land to inland water systems. A buffer strip experiment consisting of two tree species (Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Casuarina cunninghamiana) with two planting densities and a pasture treatment was conducted to determine the effectiveness of NO(3)-N removal from a cattle feedlot effluent disposal area at Tullimba near Armidale, NSW Australia. Different management methods were applied for the buffers where grass and weeds were mowed 2-3 times during the second and third years and were not managed during the rest experimental years for the tree buffer, while grass was harvested 1-3 times per year for the pasture buffer. The differences between tree species and planting density significantly affected tree growth, but the growth difference did not significantly affect their capacities to reduce NO(3)-N in soil surface runoff and groundwater. On average for all the tree and pasture treatments, the buffer strips reduced NO(3)-N concentration by 8.5%, 14.7% and 14.4% for the surface runoff, shallow and deep groundwater respectively. The tree and pasture buffer strips were not significantly different in NO(3)-N reduction for both shallow and deep groundwater while the pasture buffer strips reduced significantly more NO(3)-N concentration in surface runoff than the tree buffer strips. Both buffer strips reduced more than 50% of surface runoff volume indicating that both the tree and pasture buffer strips were efficient at removing water and nutrients, mostly through a significant reduction in soil surface runoff volume. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of mercury and arsenic from industrial effluents on the drinking water and comparison of the water quality of polluted and non-polluted areas: a case study of Peshawar and Lower Dir.

    PubMed

    Ishaq, M; Jan, F Akbar; Khan, Murad Ali; Ihsanullah, I; Ahmad, I; Shakirullah, M; Roohullah

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to find out the sources of mercury and arsenic pollution of water in the industrial area of Peshawar, the capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Samples of effluents, mud, and water were collected from the target area (industrial area of Peshawar), the area of water supply source, and from the less polluted area, the Lower Dir district, as the control. Hg was determined by the cold vapor generation technique, while arsenic was determined using the electrothermal atomic absorption technique. Data of the water from the industrial area were compared with that of the source area, control area, as well as with the WHO and some international drinking water quality standards. The results show that some parameters, i.e., TDS, DO, pH, and hardness, were more than the permissible limits. Textile and glass industries were found to be the major sources of Hg and As pollution. Downstream dilution of these contaminants was also observed.

  12. Reuse of a dyehouse effluent after being treated with the combined catalytic wet peroxide oxidation process and the aerated constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Lee, D K; Kim, S C; Yoon, J H

    2007-01-01

    A catalytic wet peroxide oxidation process was combined with the aerated constructed wetland in order to treat the raw dyehouse wastewater to in acceptable level for reuse as washing process water. More than 90% of BOD and CODs could be removed with the wet peroxide oxidation reactor and the remaining pollutants in the treated water were transformed into biodegradable ones which could have been successfully treated at the following aerated constructed wetland. The highest values of BOD5, CODMn, CODCr, SS and T-N in the treated water were 1.6, 1.8, 2.1, 0.5 and 12.8 mg/L, respectively. These values were low enough for the treated water to be reused at the washing process.

  13. Assessment of physicochemical parameters and prevalence of virulent and multiple-antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in treated effluent of two wastewater treatment plants and receiving aquatic milieu in Durban, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Leanne; Olaniran, Ademola O

    2016-05-01

    The poor operational status of some wastewater treatment plants often result in the discharge of inadequately treated effluent into receiving surface waters. This is of significant public health concern as there are many informal settlement dwellers (ISDs) that rely on these surface waters for their domestic use. This study investigated the treatment efficiency of two independent wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Durban, South Africa and determined the impact of treated effluent discharge on the physicochemical and microbial quality of the receiving water bodies over a 6-month period. Presumptive Escherichia coli isolates were identified using biochemical tests and detection of the mdh gene via PCR. Six major virulence genes namely eae, hly, fliC, stx1, stx2, and rfbE were also detected via PCR while antibiotic resistance profiles of the isolates were determined using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay. The physicochemical parameters of the wastewater samples ranged variously between 9 and 313.33 mg/L, 1.52 and 76.43 NTUs, and 6.30 and 7.87 for COD, turbidity, and pH respectively, while the E. coli counts ranged between 0 and 31.2 × 10(3) CFU/ml. Of the 200 selected E. coli isolates, the hly gene was found in 28 %, fliC in 20 %, stx2 in 17 %, eae in 14 %, with stx1 and rfbE in only 4 % of the isolates. Notable resistance was observed toward trimethoprim (97 %), tetracycline (56 %), and ampicillin (52.5 %). These results further highlight the poor operational status of these WWTPs and outline the need for improved water quality monitoring and enforcement of stringent guidelines.

  14. Treating separated liquid dairy manure derived from mesophilic anaerobic digester effluent to reduce indicator pathogens and Salmonella concentrations for use as organic fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Collins, Elizabeth W; Ogejo, Jactone A; Krometis, Leigh Anne H

    2015-01-01

    Dairy manure has much potential for use as an organic fertilizer in the United States. However, the levels of indicator organisms and pathogens in dairy manure can be ten times higher than stipulated use guidelines by the National Organic Standards Board (NOSB) even after undergoing anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperatures. The objective of this study was to identify pasteurization temperatures and treatment durations to reduce fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Salmonella concentrations in separated liquid dairy manure (SLDM) of a mesophilic anaerobic digester effluent to levels sufficient for use as an organic fertilizer. Samples of SLDM were pasteurized at 70, 75, and 80°C for durations of 0 to 120 min. Fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Salmonella concentrations were assessed via culture-based techniques. All of the tested pasteurization temperatures and duration combinations reduced microbial concentrations to levels below the NOSB guidelines. The fecal coliforms and E. coli reductions ranged 2from 0.76 to 1.34 logs, while Salmonella concentrations were reduced by more than 99% at all the pasteurization temperatures and active treatment durations.

  15. Development of slow sponge sand filter (SpSF) as a post-treatment of UASB-DHS reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Maharjan, N; Kuroda, K; Dehama, K; Hatamoto, M; Yamaguchi, T

    2016-01-01

    In this study, conventional slow sand filter (SSF) and modified slow sponge sand filter (SpSF) were investigated for the post-treatment of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor effluent. The seasonal variation did not show significant differences in removal efficiencies of both filters. However in summer, both filters were able to achieve high total suspended solids and total biochemical oxygen demand removal averaging 97% and 99%, respectively. Contrary to organic removal, total nitrogen removal efficiency was satisfactory, showing increased removal efficiencies averaging 58% and 62% for SSF and SpSF in summer. On the other hand, average total coliform removal of SSF and SpSF was 4.2 logs and 4.4 logs and corresponding Escherichia coli removal was 4.0 logs and 4.1 logs, respectively. From our observation, it could be concluded that the relative performance of SpSF for nutrients and coliforms was better than SSF due to the effectiveness of sponge media over fine sands. Moreover, microbial community analysis revealed that the members of phylum Proteobacteria were predominant in the biofilms of both filters, which could have contributed to pollutant removal. Therefore, SpSF could be concluded to be a suitable post-treatment of UASB-DHS system in warmer conditions.

  16. High abundance and role of antifungal bacteria in compost-treated soils in a wildfire area.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hak; Kim, In Sung; Moon, Eun Young; Park, Jeong Soo; Kim, Sang-Jong; Lim, Joo-Hoon; Park, Byung Tae; Lee, Eun Ju

    2011-10-01

    Compost has been widely used in order to promote vegetation growth in post-harvested and burned soils. The effects on soil microorganisms were scarcely known, so we performed the microbial analyses in a wildfire area of the Taebaek Mountains, Korea, during field surveys from May to September 2007. Using culture-dependent and -independent methods, we found that compost used in burned soils influenced a greater impact on soil fungi than bacteria. Compost-treated soils contained higher levels of antifungal strains in the genera Bacillus and Burkholderia than non-treated soils. When the antifungal activity of Burkholderia sp. strain O1a_RA002, which had been isolated from a compost-treated soil, was tested for the growth inhibition of bacteria and fungi isolated from burned soils, the membrane-filtered culture supernatant inhibited 19/37 fungal strains including soil fungi, Eupenicillium spp. and Devriesia americana; plant pathogens, Polyschema larviformis and Massaria platani; an animal pathogen, Mortierella verticillata; and an unidentified Ascomycota. However, this organism only inhibited 11/151 bacterial strains tested. These patterns were compatible with the culture-independent DGGE results, suggesting that the compost used in burned soils had a greater impact on soil fungi than bacteria through the promotion of the growth of antifungal bacteria. Our findings indicate that compost used in burned soils is effective in restoring soil conditions to a state closer to those of nearby unburned forest soils at the early stage of secondary succession.

  17. Assessing the concentration of phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA) and the genotoxic potential of treated wastewater (final effluent) in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Elkhatib, Rola; Al-Rajoudi, Tahreer; Al-Qudaihi, Ghofran

    2017-02-01

    Plasticizers such as phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA) are highly persistent organic pollutants that tend to bio-accumulate in humans through the soil-plant-animal food chain. Some studies have reported the potential carcinogenic and teratogenic effects in addition to their estrogenic activities. Water resources are scarce in Saudi Arabia, and several wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) have been constructed for agricultural and industrial use. This study was designed to: (1) measure the concentrations of BPA and six PAEs, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP), in secondary- and tertiary-treated wastewater collected from five WTPs in three Saudi cities for four to five weeks and (2) test their potential genotoxicity. Three genotoxicological parameters were used: % tail DNA (%T), tail moment (TM) and percentage micronuclei (%MN). Both DBP and DEHP were detected in all treated wastewater samples. DMP, DEP, BBP, DOP, and BPA were found in 83.3, 84.2, 79, 73.7 and 97.4% of the samples, respectively. The levels of DMP (p<0.001), DOP (p<0.001) and BPA (p=0.001) were higher in tertiary- treated wastewater than secondary-treated wastewater, perhaps due to the influence of the molecular weight and polarity of the chemicals. Both weekly sampling frequency and WTP locations significantly affected the variability in our data. Treated wastewater from Wadi Al-Araj was able to induce DNA damage (%T and TM) in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells that was statistically higher than wastewater from all other WTPs and in untreated TK6 cells (negative control). %MN in samples from both Wadi Al-Araj and Manfouah did not differ statistically but was significantly higher than in the untreated TK6 cells. This study also showed that the samples of tertiary-treated wastewater had a higher genotoxicological potential to induce DNA damage than the samples of

  18. Degradation of 32 emergent contaminants by UV and neutral photo-fenton in domestic wastewater effluent previously treated by activated sludge.

    PubMed

    De la Cruz, N; Giménez, J; Esplugas, S; Grandjean, D; de Alencastro, L F; Pulgarín, C

    2012-04-15

    This study focuses on the removal of 32 selected micropollutants (pharmaceuticals, corrosion inhibitors and biocides/pesticides) found in an effluent coming from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) based on activated sludge. Dissolved organic matter was present, with an initial total organic carbon of 15.9 mg L(-1), and a real global quantity of micropollutants of 29.5 μg L(-1). The treatments tested on the micropollutants removal were: UV-light emitting at 254 nm (UV(254)) alone, dark Fenton (Fe(2+,3+)/H(2)O(2)) and photo-Fenton (Fe(2+,3+)/H(2)O(2)/light). Different irradiation sources were used for the photo-Fenton experiences: UV(254) and simulated sunlight. Iron and H(2)O(2) concentrations were also changed in photo-Fenton experiences in order to evaluate its influence on the degradation. All the experiments were developed at natural pH, near neutral. Photo-Fenton treatments employing UV(254), 50 mg L(-1) of H(2)O(2), with and without adding iron (5 mg L(-1) of Fe(2+) added or 1.48 mg L(-1) of total iron already present) gave the best results. Global percentages of micropollutants removal achieved were 98 and a 97% respectively, after 30 min of treatments. As the H(2)O(2) concentration increased (10, 25 and 50 mg L(-1)), best degradations were observed. UV(254), Fenton, and photo-Fenton under simulated sunlight gave less promising results with lower percentages of removal. The highlight of this paper is to point out the possibility of the micropollutants degradation in spite the presence of DOM in much higher concentrations.

  19. Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) describes the aggregate toxic effect of an aqueous sample (e.g., whole effluent wastewater discharge) as measured by an organism's response upon exposure to the sample (e.g., lethality, impaired growth, or reproduction).

  20. Toxicity studies on effluents from conventional and carbon-enhanced treatment of refinery wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Borey, R.B.; Parcell, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    In a study conducted for API by Texaco Inc. at the company's Port Arthur, Tex., Class E refinery, short-term (96 h) and long-term (30 day) continuous-flow bioassays on sheepshead killifish were performed to test half-strength and full-strength effluents obtained by each of four different activated sludge unit (ASU) treatments: a conventionally operated ASU plus final filteration; a conventionally operated ASU plus filtration plus granular activated carbon contactors; an ASU to which a blend of commercially available activated carbons was added plus final filtration; and an ASU to which an experimental, noncommercial, high-surface-area, powdered activated carbon was added plus filtration. During normal operation, the fish mortality was too low to indicate significant differences among treatments. During a plant upset, fish mortality was sometimes higher in carbon-treated effluents than in conventionally treated wastewaters. Although not accumulating in the exposed fish, polynuclear aromatics were higher in carbon-treated effluents than in the pretreated refinery wastewater or conventionally treated wastewater. For unknown reasons, cadmium and zinc accumulated in fish exposed to some types of carbon-treated effluents.

  1. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage effluent, continental and coastal waters from the Northwestern Mediterrean Sea: Comparison between two contrasted catchment areas (Marseilles Bay and Vermeille coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guigue, Catherine; Ferretto, Nicolas; Méjanelle, Laurence; Tedetti, Marc; Ghiglione, Jean-François; Goutx, Madeleine

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed from sewage treatment plant waters and surface waters collected in continental (rivers), harbour and off-shore marine sites from Marseilles Bay and Vermeille coastal areas between 2009 and 2013 (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, France). After collection, water samples were first filtered on glass fiber filters, then PAHs from the dissolved phase were extracted using liquid-liquid or solid phase extraction (SPE) methods, while those from particles were treated according to Bligh and Dyer method. After a possible purification step, extracts were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Regardless of the study area, dissolved and particulate PAH (18 parents + alkylated homologues) concentration averages were 150.2 ± 140.5 ng l-1and 39.4 ± 71.2 ng l-1, respectively. Interestingly, the concentration in dissolved PAHs was on average 3.8 higher than the concentration in particulate PAHs. In addition, a gradient of PAH concentrations was observed from coastal waters with the highest values in harbours and outlet sewage effluents and the lowest values in off-shore marine waters. Intermediate concentrations were recorded in continental waters. In the Marseilles Bay, dissolved PAH concentrations were significantly higher and associated to increased signatures of unburned and combusted fossil fuels, mainly from heating, during the cold period (November-April). In contrast, unburned petroleum signature dominated in the warm period (May-October), emphasizing the intense shipping traffic and urban/industrial activities occurring in one of the largest Mediterranean harbour and city. Conversely, in the Vermeille coastal waters, dissolved PAH concentrations were higher during the warm period when particulate PAHs displayed the lowest concentrations, suggesting a seasonal related partition between dissolved and particulate PAHs. In addition, in the Vermeille coastal waters, PAHs were dominated by

  2. Effects of a surfacing effluent plume on a coastal phytoplankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reifel, Kristen M.; Corcoran, Alina A.; Cash, Curtis; Shipe, Rebecca; Jones, Burton H.

    2013-06-01

    Urban runoff and effluent discharge from heavily populated coastal areas can negatively impact water quality, beneficial uses, and coastal ecosystems. The planned release of treated wastewater (i.e. effluent) from the City of Los Angeles Hyperion Wastewater Treatment Plant, located in Playa del Rey, California, provided an opportunity to study the effects of an effluent discharge plume from its initial release until it could no longer be detected in the coastal ocean. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling analysis of phytoplankton community structure revealed distinct community groups based on salinity, temperature, and CDOM concentration. Three dinoflagellates (Lingulodinium polyedrum, Cochlodinium sp., Akashiwo sanguinea) were dominant (together >50% abundance) prior to the diversion. Cochlodinium sp. became dominant (65-90% abundance) within newly surfaced wastewater, and A. sanguinea became dominant or co-dominant as the effluent plume aged and mixed with ambient coastal water. Localized blooms of Cochlodinium sp. and A. sanguinea (chlorophyll a up to 100 mg m-3 and densities between 100 and 2000 cells mL-1) occurred 4-7 days after the diversion within the effluent plume. Although both Cochlodinium sp. and A. sanguinea have been occasionally reported from California waters, blooms of these species have only recently been observed along the California coast. Our work supports the hypothesis that effluent and urban runoff discharge can stimulate certain dinoflagellate blooms. All three dinoflagellates have similar ecophysiological characteristics; however, small differences in morphology, nutrient preferences, and environmental requirements may explain the shift in dinoflagellate composition.

  3. Assessment of the impact of textile effluents on microbial diversity in Tirupur district, Tamil Nadu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabha, Shashi; Gogoi, Anindita; Mazumder, Payal; Ramanathan, AL.; Kumar, Manish

    2016-03-01

    The expedited advent of urbanization and industrialization for economic growth has adversely affected the biological diversity, which is one of the major concerns of the developing countries. Microbes play a crucial role in decontaminating polluted sites and degrades pollution load of textile effluent. The present study was based on identification of microbial diversity along the Noyaal river of Tirupur area. River water samples from industrial and non-industrial sites and effluent samples of before and after treatment were tested and it was found that microbial diversity was higher in the river water at the industrial site (Kasipalayam) as compared to the non-industrial site (Perur). Similarly, the microbial populations were found to be high in the untreated effluent as compared to the treated one by conventional treatment systems. Similar trends were observed for MBR treatment systems as well. Pseudomonas sp., Achromobacter sp. (bacterial species) and Aspergillus fumigates (fungal species), found exclusively at the industrial site have been reported to possess decolorization potential of dye effluent, thus can be used for treatment of dye effluent. The comparison of different microbial communities from different dye wastewater sources and textile effluents was done, which showed that the microbes degrade dyestuffs, reduce toxicity of wastewaters, etc. From the study, it can be concluded that the microbial community helps to check on the pollutants and minimize their affect. Therefore, there is a need to understand the systematic variation in microbial diversity with the accumulation of pollution load through monitoring.

  4. Assessment of the impact of textile effluents on microbial diversity in Tirupur district, Tamil Nadu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabha, Shashi; Gogoi, Anindita; Mazumder, Payal; Ramanathan, AL.; Kumar, Manish

    2017-09-01

    The expedited advent of urbanization and industrialization for economic growth has adversely affected the biological diversity, which is one of the major concerns of the developing countries. Microbes play a crucial role in decontaminating polluted sites and degrades pollution load of textile effluent. The present study was based on identification of microbial diversity along the Noyaal river of Tirupur area. River water samples from industrial and non-industrial sites and effluent samples of before and after treatment were tested and it was found that microbial diversity was higher in the river water at the industrial site (Kasipalayam) as compared to the non-industrial site (Perur). Similarly, the microbial populations were found to be high in the untreated effluent as compared to the treated one by conventional treatment systems. Similar trends were observed for MBR treatment systems as well. Pseudomonas sp ., Achromobacter sp. (bacterial species) and Aspergillus fumigates (fungal species), found exclusively at the industrial site have been reported to possess decolorization potential of dye effluent, thus can be used for treatment of dye effluent. The comparison of different microbial communities from different dye wastewater sources and textile effluents was done, which showed that the microbes degrade dyestuffs, reduce toxicity of wastewaters, etc. From the study, it can be concluded that the microbial community helps to check on the pollutants and minimize their affect. Therefore, there is a need to understand the systematic variation in microbial diversity with the accumulation of pollution load through monitoring.

  5. Facility effluent monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the facility effluent monitoring programs and provides an evaluation of effluent monitoring data. These evaluations are useful in assessing the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control systems, as well as management practices.

  6. Treated incidence and baseline characteristics of substance induced psychosis in a Norwegian catchment area

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Substance misuse is a well-recognized co-morbidity to psychosis and has been linked to poor prognostic outcomes in patients. Researchers have yet to investigate the difference in rates and characteristics between first-episode Substance Induced Psychosis (SIP) and primary psychosis. We aimed at comparing patients with SIP to primary psychosis patients with or without substance misuse at baseline. Methods Thirty SIP patients, 45 primary psychosis patients with substance misuse (PS) and 66 primary psychosis patients without substance misuse (PNS) in a well-defined Norwegian catchment area were included from 2007–2011. Assessments included symptom levels (PANSS), diagnostic interviews (SCID), premorbid function scale (PAS) and global functioning (GAF f/s). Results Treated incidence for SIP was found to be 6.5/100 000 persons per year, 9.7/100 000 persons per year for PS and 24.1/100 000 persons per year for PNS (15-65 yrs). Patients who had substance misuse (PS and SIP) were more likely to be male. Duration of Untreated Psychosis (DUP) was significantly shorter in the SIP group (5.0 wks., p = 0.003) and these had more positive symptoms on the PANSS (p = 0.049). SIP patients also did poorer on early youth academic levels on the PAS. Conclusions Yearly treated incidence of SIP is 6.5/100 000 persons per year in a Norwegian catchment area. SIP patients have short DUPs, are more likely to be male, have more positive symptoms at baseline and poorer premorbid academic scores in early adolescence. Follow-up will evaluate stability of diagnosis and characteristics. PMID:24279887

  7. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Treatment efficiency of effluent prawn culture by wetland with floating aquatic macrophytes arranged in series.

    PubMed

    Henares, M N P; Camargo, A F M

    2014-11-01

    The efficiency of a series of wetland colonized with Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia molesta to treat the effluent of a giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) broodstock pond was evaluated in this study. The experimental design was completely randomized and was performed in 9 rectangular tanks (1.6 m3) with three treatments (constructed wetlands) and three replicates. The treatment types included: a wetland colonized with E. crassipes and S. molesta (EcSm) arranged sequentially, a wetland with E. crassipes only (Ec) and a wetland with S. molesta only (Sm). The means of suspended particulate material (SPM), total inorganic nitrogen (TIN), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), P-orthophosphate (PO4-P) and total phosphorus (TP) of the treated effluents were compared using ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (P<0.05). The effluent treated in Ec and EcSm wetlands exhibited lower SPM concentrations. The Ec wetland reduced TIN, TKN, PO4-P and TP by 46.0, 43.7, 44.4 and 43.6%, respectively. In the EcSm wetland, the reduction of TIN (23.0%), TKN (33.7%) and PO4-P (26.7%) was similar to the Sm wetland (19.8% TIN, 30.9% TKN and 23.8% PO4-P). The Ec wetland was more efficient in treating pond effluent due likely to the higher root surface of E. crassipes, which forms an extensive area favorable to retention and adsorption of debris and absorption of nutrients.

  10. Sewage Effluent Infiltrates Frozen Forest Soil

    Treesearch

    Alfred Ray Harris

    1976-01-01

    Secondarily treated sewage effluent, applied at the rate of 1 and 2 inches per week, infiltrated a frozen Sparta sand soil forested with jack pine and scrub oak. Maximum frost depth in treated plots averaged 60 cm and in check plots averages 35 cm. Nitrogen was mobile with some accumulation. Phosphorus was absorbed.

  11. Inference of chemicals that cause biological effects in treated pulp and paper mill effluent using gene expression in caged fathead minnows

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analytical chemistry techniques can identify chemicals present in the waters of the Great Lakes areas of concern, however it remains a challenge to identify those chemicals or classes of chemicals that actually cause adverse effects. Use of caged fathead minnows (Pimephales prome...

  12. Inference of chemicals that cause biological effects in treated pulp and paper mill effluent using gene expression in caged fathead minnows

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analytical chemistry techniques can identify chemicals present in the waters of the Great Lakes areas of concern, however it remains a challenge to identify those chemicals or classes of chemicals that actually cause adverse effects. Use of caged fathead minnows (Pimephales prome...

  13. Tree production in desert regions using effluent and water harvesting

    Treesearch

    Martin M. Karpiscak; Gerald J. Gottfried

    2000-01-01

    Treated municipal effluent combined with water harvesting can be used for land restoration and enhancing the growth of important riparian tree species. Paired studies in Arizona are assessing the potential of growing trees using mixtures of effluent and potable water. Trees are grown in the field and in containers. Initial results from the field show high survival for...

  14. Millimeter wave sensor for monitoring effluents

    DOEpatents

    Gopalsami, Nachappa; Bakhtiari, Sasan; Raptis, Apostolos C.; Dieckman, Stephen L.

    1995-01-01

    A millimeter-wave sensor for detecting and measuring effluents from processing plants either remotely or on-site includes a high frequency signal source for transmitting frequency-modulated continuous waves in the millimeter or submillimeter range with a wide sweep capability and a computer-controlled detector for detecting a plurality of species of effluents on a real time basis. A high resolution spectrum of an effluent, or effluents, is generated by a deconvolution of the measured spectra resulting in a narrowing of the line widths by 2 or 3 orders of magnitude as compared with the pressure broadened spectra detected at atmospheric pressure for improved spectral specificity and measurement sensitivity. The sensor is particularly adapted for remote monitoring such as where access is limited or sensor cost restricts multiple sensors as well as for large area monitoring under nearly all weather conditions.

  15. 40 CFR 471.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Zirconium-Hafnium Forming Subcategory § 471.92 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent... Maximum for monthly average mg/off-kg (pounds per million off-pounds of zirconium-hafnium extruded... monthly average mg/off-kg (pounds per million off-pounds) of zirconium-hafnium heat treated Chromium...

  16. 40 CFR 419.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... organic carbon (TOC) based upon an analysis of any single grab or composite sample. (2) If contaminated... contaminated runoff which exceeds 15 mg/l oil and grease or 110 mg/l TOC is not commingled or treated with any... substitute TOC as a parameter in lieu of COD. A TOC effluent limitation shall be based on effluent data from...

  17. 40 CFR 434.22 - Effluent limitation guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... BPT, BAT, BCT LIMITATIONS AND NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Coal Preparation Plants and Coal Preparation Plant Associated Areas § 434.22 Effluent limitation guidelines representing the degree of effluent... discharged by any existing coal preparation plant and coal preparation plant associated areas subject to the...

  18. 40 CFR 434.22 - Effluent limitation guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... BPT, BAT, BCT LIMITATIONS AND NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Coal Preparation Plants and Coal Preparation Plant Associated Areas § 434.22 Effluent limitation guidelines representing the degree of effluent... discharged by any existing coal preparation plant and coal preparation plant associated areas subject to the...

  19. 40 CFR 434.22 - Effluent limitation guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., BCT LIMITATIONS AND NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Coal Preparation Plants and Coal Preparation Plant Associated Areas § 434.22 Effluent limitation guidelines representing the degree of effluent... discharged by any existing coal preparation plant and coal preparation plant associated areas subject to the...

  20. 40 CFR 434.22 - Effluent limitation guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... BPT, BAT, BCT LIMITATIONS AND NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Coal Preparation Plants and Coal Preparation Plant Associated Areas § 434.22 Effluent limitation guidelines representing the degree of effluent... discharged by any existing coal preparation plant and coal preparation plant associated areas subject to the...

  1. 40 CFR 434.22 - Effluent limitation guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., BCT LIMITATIONS AND NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Coal Preparation Plants and Coal Preparation Plant Associated Areas § 434.22 Effluent limitation guidelines representing the degree of effluent... discharged by any existing coal preparation plant and coal preparation plant associated areas subject to the...

  2. MFO activity in carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to treated pulp and paper mill effluent in Lake Coleman, Victoria, Australia, in relation to AOX, EOX, and muscle PCDD/PCDF

    SciTech Connect

    Ahokas, J.T.; Holdway, D.A.; Brennan, S.E. . Key Centre for Applied and Nutritional Toxicology); Goudey, R.W.; Bibrowska, H.B. . Marine Studies Group)

    1994-01-01

    European carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to highly treated pulp mill effluent in Lake Coleman, a shallow-water lake in southern Victoria, Australia, had significantly elevated hepatic microsomal EROD levels relative to reference fish from a nearby unexposed water body. Mean hepatic microsomal EROD activity appeared to be correlated with site adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) levels, with a simple linear regression yielding the equation Y = 0.059 X + 1.415 (r[sup 2] = 0.93, n = 5), where Y is mean EROD activity in nanomoles per minute per milligram and X is mean AOX concentration in micrograms per liter. Mean liver EROD activity was poorly related with fish muscle-tissue extractable organic halogen (EOX) and sediment EOX concentrations. Hepatic microsomal EROD activity also appeared to be correlated with the low levels of PCDD/PCDFs measured in carp muscle. Simple linear regression of mean EROD activity in carp liver with the mean fish muscle dioxin content yielded the equation Y = 6.514X + 5.754 (n = 4, r[sup 2] = 0.88), where Y is mean EROD activity in nanomoles per minute per milligram and X is mean dioxin concentration in ppt of TCDD TEs. Hepatic microsomal ECOD activity, however, was not significantly different at any exposure site from the reference sites. Overall, Lake Coleman contained between 4.5 and 9.3 times the water AOX levels, 0.8 and 13.7 times the sediment EOX levels, 1.5 and 2.2 times the carp muscle-fat EOX levels, 5.0 and 5.3 times the carp whole-muscle TCDD toxic equivalents, and 6.5 times the carp fat TCDD toxic equivalents, compared to reference samples. Within Lake Coleman, mean liver microsomal EROD activity levels were 2.3 to 6.3 times higher than the reference sites, respectively.

  3. Wood mouse and box turtle populations in an area treated annually with DDT for five years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1951-01-01

    A 117-acre area of dense woodland on the Patuxent Research Refuge received an aerial application of DDT in oil at the rate of 2 pounds per acre gnnually for five years. DDT reached ground level in a much smaller amount (thousandths to hundredths of a pound per acre). Treatment was made during the first week of June of each year from 1945 through 1949. Field studies of the wood mouse population in DDT and check areas showed no significant differences in the two areas before and after the 1949 DDT treatment. There was no significant difference between trapping samples taken in DDT and check areas in 1945 and those taken in 1949. Field studies of the box turtles in DDT and check areas in 1945 and 1949 showed no significant difference in population size. Growth of the four young turtles taken in the DDT area in both 1945 and 1949 appeared to be normal in comparison with growth of check area turtles.

  4. Woodchip bioreactors effectively treat aquaculture effluent

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nutrients, in particular nitrogen and phosphorus, can create eutrophication problems in any watershed. Preventing water quality impairment requires controlling nutrients from both point-source and non-point source discharges. Woodchip bioreactors are one relatively new approach that can be utilized ...

  5. Monitoring release of pharmaceutical compounds: occurrence and environmental risk assessment of two WWTP effluents and their receiving bodies in the Po Valley, Italy.

    PubMed

    Al Aukidy, M; Verlicchi, P; Jelic, A; Petrovic, M; Barcelò, D

    2012-11-01

    This study describes an investigation on the occurrence of 27 pharmaceutical compounds, belonging to different classes, in the effluent from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and their receiving water bodies in the sensitive area of the Po Valley (northern Italy). These canals were monitored upstream and downstream of the effluent discharge points in order to evaluate the effluent impact on the quality of surface waters, commonly used for irrigation. An environmental risk assessment was also conducted by calculating the risk quotient, i.e. the ratio between measured concentration and predicted no effect concentration. Collected data show that, although average values of the selected compounds were in general higher in the effluent than in the surface waters, some compounds not detected in the WWTP effluent were detected in the receiving water (upstream as well as downstream), indicating that sources other than treated effluents are present as contaminations during extraction and analysis have to be excluded. The most critical compounds for the environment were found to be the antibiotics sulfamethoxazole, clarithromycin and azithromycin. The study shows that the potential toxicological effects of persistent micropollutants can be mitigated to some extent by a high dilution capacity, i.e. a high average flow rate in the receiving water body with respect to the effluent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  7. Usage of sewage effluent in irrigation of some woody tree seedlings. Part 3: Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hayssam M; El-Mahrouk, El-Sayed M; Hassan, Fatma A; El-Tarawy, Mohamed A

    2011-04-01

    A pot experiment was investigated to study the effect of sewage irrigation treatments (primary and secondary effluents) compared with tap water on the growth and chemical constituents of mahogany seedlings (Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq.) as well as soil chemical properties. The experiment was conducted at a greenhouse in the nursery of Timber Trees Research Department of Sabahia, Horticultural Research Station in Alexandria, Egypt, from June 2003 to December 2004 for three irrigation periods (6, 12 and 18 months). The sewage effluent waters were taken from oxidation ponds located in New Borg EL-Arab city and used directly for irrigation. The primary effluent treatment was superior than other treatments in improving the growth parameters (plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, leaves number, fresh and dry weights of leaves, shoots and roots and shoot/root ratio) and showed the highest concentration and total uptake of N, P, K, Cd, Ni, Pb and Fe in plant parts, followed by secondary effluent then tap water. The data revealed that soil salinity in terms of electrical conductivity of saturated paste (EC), CaCO3%, organic matter% and soluble anions and cations were influenced significantly by primary or secondary effluent treatment. The data also showed that the use of sewage effluent for irrigation increased N, P, K and DTPA-extractable-heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Fe, Mn and Zn). The effects of sewage effluent on growth parameters and elements content in plant parts and treated soil were more pronounced as water treatments were used for long period. The results suggested that the use of sewage effluent in irrigating mahogany trees grown on calcareous sandy loam soil was an important agriculture practice for improving soil properties, increasing fuel and timber production, and is an economic and safe way to dispose wastewaters.

  8. Usage of sewage effluent in irrigation of some woody tree seedlings. Part 3: Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq.

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Hayssam M.; EL-Mahrouk, EL-Sayed M.; Hassan, Fatma A.; EL-Tarawy, Mohamed A.

    2010-01-01

    A pot experiment was investigated to study the effect of sewage irrigation treatments (primary and secondary effluents) compared with tap water on the growth and chemical constituents of mahogany seedlings (Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq.) as well as soil chemical properties. The experiment was conducted at a greenhouse in the nursery of Timber Trees Research Department of Sabahia, Horticultural Research Station in Alexandria, Egypt, from June 2003 to December 2004 for three irrigation periods (6, 12 and 18 months). The sewage effluent waters were taken from oxidation ponds located in New Borg EL-Arab city and used directly for irrigation. The primary effluent treatment was superior than other treatments in improving the growth parameters (plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, leaves number, fresh and dry weights of leaves, shoots and roots and shoot/root ratio) and showed the highest concentration and total uptake of N, P, K, Cd, Ni, Pb and Fe in plant parts, followed by secondary effluent then tap water. The data revealed that soil salinity in terms of electrical conductivity of saturated paste (EC), CaCO3%, organic matter% and soluble anions and cations were influenced significantly by primary or secondary effluent treatment. The data also showed that the use of sewage effluent for irrigation increased N, P, K and DTPA-extractable-heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Fe, Mn and Zn). The effects of sewage effluent on growth parameters and elements content in plant parts and treated soil were more pronounced as water treatments were used for long period. The results suggested that the use of sewage effluent in irrigating mahogany trees grown on calcareous sandy loam soil was an important agriculture practice for improving soil properties, increasing fuel and timber production, and is an economic and safe way to dispose wastewaters. PMID:23961125

  9. Treatment of textile industry effluents using orange waste: a proposal to reduce color and chemical oxygen demand.

    PubMed

    de Farias Silva, Carlos Eduardo; da Silva Gonçalves, Andreza Heloiza; de Souza Abud, Ana Karla

    Various agricultural residues have been tested as biosorbents due to their low cost, high surface area, and favorable surface chemistry. In this work, a sweet orange albedo was tested as a biosorbent for treatment of real textile effluents. The orange albedo powder was prepared by drying the residue at 50 °C and milling to 30 mesh, and then used for dye adsorption from a alkaline (pH = 10.71) effluent. The adsorption process was studied in batch experiments at 30 °C by measuring color removal and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The color removal was found not to be significantly altered when the effluent was used in its raw state, while COD increased probably due to albedo degradation. For the effluent diluted to 60% (Veffluent VH2O(-1)), color and COD removal percentages of approximately 89% were obtained. It was found that pH played a very significant role on the adsorption process, as the treated albedo displayed a relative pHPZC* of 4.61, and the highest dye removal efficiencies were reached at pH lower than 2. The COD was strongly influenced by the effluent dilution. The effectiveness in eliminating color and COD shows that orange albedo can be potentially used as a biosorbent to treat textile wastewater.

  10. Nuclear reactor effluent monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Minns, J.L.; Essig, T.H.

    1993-12-31

    Radiological environmental monitoring and effluent monitoring at nuclear power plants is important both for normal operations, as well as in the event of an accident. During normal operations, environmental monitoring verifies the effectiveness of in-plant measures for controlling the release of radioactive materials in the plant. Following an accident, it would be an additional mechanism for estimating doses to members of the general public. This paper identifies the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory basis for requiring radiological environmental and effluent monitoring, licensee conditions for effluent and environmental monitoring, NRC independent oversight activities, and NRC`s program results.

  11. Estimating effluent COD

    SciTech Connect

    Eckenfelder, W.W.; Landine, R.

    1995-06-01

    In many parts of the world, chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a primary effluent parameter. Unlike BOD, which considers only biodegradable organics, COD also includes non-degradable organics and non-degradable biological oxidation by-products, generally referred to as soluble microbial products (SMP). The SMP can vary from 2% to 10% of the influent degradable COD. If the technology is limited to biological treatment only, the degradable COD will be removed. Further reductions in COD will require physical chemical treatments such as activated carbon. Effluent COD values for several industrial wastewaters are presented. Effluent characteristics from the anaerobic treatment of industrial wastewaters are also discussed.

  12. Computer software configuration management plan for 200 East/West Liquid Effluent Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, F.A. Jr.

    1995-02-27

    This computer software management configuration plan covers the control of the software for the monitor and control system that operates the Effluent Treatment Facility and its associated truck load in station and some key aspects of the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility that stores condensate to be processed. Also controlled is the Treated Effluent Disposal System`s pumping stations and monitors waste generator flows in this system as well as the Phase Two Effluent Collection System.

  13. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    PubMed

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  14. Effluent Guidelines Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA publishes a biennial plan for the annual review & revision of promulgated effluent guidelines, identifying new categories and scheduling promulgation of new & revised regulations; under Clean Water Act sec. 304(m).

  15. Combined physical-chemical and biological treatment of poorly biodegradable industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    González, Patricia; Zaror, Claudio; Carrasco, Virginia; Mondaca, Maria Angelica; Mansilla, Hector

    2003-01-01

    Effluents from small and medium sized chemical plants may contain significant amounts of poorly biodegradable aromatic compounds, which could negatively affect water quality and public health. This is a key environmental issue, particularly in areas where effluents are discharged into drinking water sources. Unfortunately, conventional biological treatment may not be able to meet discharge standards, and combined systems should be implemented. In this context, this paper presents experimental results on the application of a combined sequential ozonation-activated carbon-biological system to treat effluents containing chlorinated aromatic contaminants from chlorine based pulp bleaching. The experimental system consisted of an ozone bubble column reactor (0.3 dm3), an activated carbon fixed bed reactor (0.2 dm3), and an aerobic bioreactor (20 dm3). Ozone was produced from pure O2 using a generator rated at 2 mmol O3 h(-1). The bleaching effluent was pretreated and fed into the aerated sequencing batch bioreactor containing preconditioned biological sludge (3-4 g VSS dm(-3)), and cultured for 24 h. Samples of raw and treated effluents were assayed for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), total phenols, and adsorbable organic halogens (AOX), using standard techniques. The presence of potential genotoxic activity in untreated and treated samples was assessed using the Ames tests. Results show that biological treatment of raw samples could not remove mutagenic activity on its own. On the other hand, ozonation followed by activated carbon treatment and biological treatment successfully removed genotoxicity in all cases. Reductions in BOD, COD, TOC, AOX, and phenols by biological treatment increased when samples were pretreated with ozone/activated carbon.

  16. An algorithm for treating flat areas and depressions in digital elevation models using linear interpolation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Digital elevation model (DEM) data are essential to hydrological applications and have been widely used to calculate a variety of useful topographic characteristics, e.g., slope, flow direction, flow accumulation area, stream channel network, topographic index, and others. Excep...

  17. Notice to Workers About Pesticide Applications and Pesticide-Treated Areas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about requirements for employers must notify workers about areas where pesticide applications are taking place or where restricted-entry intervals (REIs) are in effect. Notifications include oral and written information. Exceptions exist.

  18. An algorithm for treating flat areas and depressions in digital elevation models using linear interpolation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Digital elevation model (DEM) data are essential to hydrological applications and have been widely used to calculate a variety of useful topographic characteristics, e.g., slope, flow direction, flow accumulation area, stream channel network, topographic index, and others. Excep...

  19. Concentration of Reovirus and Adenovirus from Sewage and Effluents by Protamine Sulfate (Salmine) Treatment 1

    PubMed Central

    England, Beatrice

    1972-01-01

    Protamine sulfate was employed to recover reoviruses, adenoviruses, and certain enteroviruses from sewage and treated effluents; 50- to 400-fold concentration of viral content was achieved. PMID:4342842

  20. Appraisal of potential for injection-well recharge of the Hueco bolson with treated sewage effluent : preliminary study at the northeast El Paso area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garza, Sergio; Weeks, Edwin P.; White, Donald E.

    1980-01-01

    The proposed injection water will require strict water-quality controls, which may involve chlorination and the removal of suspended solids. Mixing of the proposed injection water with the native ground water probably will not clog the aquifer by mineral precipitation. The relatively large concentrations of sodium in the injection water may reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the clay layers in the aquifer, but the permeable sands should not be seriously affected. Plans for an artificial-recharge program need to include an experimental installation to evaluate the system under field conditions.

  1. Determination of buildup and dilution of wastewater effluent in shellfish growing waters through a modified application of super-position.

    PubMed

    Goblick, Gregory N; Ao, Yaping; Anbarchian, Julie M; Calci, Kevin R

    2017-02-15

    Since 1925, dilution analysis has been used to minimize pathogenic impacts to bivalve molluscan shellfish growing areas from treated wastewater effluent in the National Shellfish Sanitation Program (NSSP). For over twenty five years, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recommended a minimum of 1000:1 dilution of effluent within prohibited closure zones established around wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharges. During May 2010, using recent technologies, a hydrographic dye study was conducted in conjunction with a pathogen bioaccumulation study in shellfish adjacent to a WWTP discharge in Yarmouth, ME. For the first time an improved method of the super-position principle was used to determine the buildup of dye tagged sewage effluent and steady state dilution in tidal waters. Results of the improved method of dilution analysis illustrate an economical, reliable and more accurate and manageable approach for estimating the buildup and steady state pollutant conditions in coastal and estuarine waters. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. VOCs and PAHs emissions from creosote-treated wood in a field storage area.

    PubMed

    Gallego, E; Roca, F J; Perales, J F; Guardino, X; Berenguer, M J

    2008-08-25

    In this study, the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, in this case aromatic hydrocarbons containing one benzene ring and furans) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from wood recently treated with creosote are examined. The VOCs and PAHs were identified and quantified in the gas phase. Additionally, the PAHs were quantified in the particulate phase. Glass multi-sorbent tubes (Carbotrap, Carbopack X, Carboxen-569) were used to hold the VOCs. The analysis was performed using automatic thermal desorption (ATD) coupled with capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). PAHs vapours were collected on XAD-2 resin, and particulate matter was collected on glass fibre filters. The PAHs were analysed using GC/MS. The main components of the vapours released from the creosote-treated wood were naphthalene, toluene, m+p-xylene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, isopropylbenzene, benzene and 2-methylnaphthalene. VOCs emission concentrations ranged from 35 mg m(-3) of air on the day of treatment to 5 mg m(-3) eight days later. PAHs emission concentrations ranged from 28 microg m(-3) of air on the day of treatment to 4 microg m(-3) eight days later. The air concentrations of PAHs in particulate matter were composed predominantly of benzo[b+j]fluoranthene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, fluoranthene, benzo[e]pyrene and 1-methylnaphthalene. The emission concentrations of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons varied between 0.2 and 43.5 ng m(-3). Finally, the emission factors of VOCs and PAHs were determined.

  3. An algorithm for treating flat areas and depressions in digital elevation models using linear interpolation

    Treesearch

    F. Pan; M. Stieglitz; R.B. McKane

    2012-01-01

    Digital elevation model (DEM) data are essential to hydrological applications and have been widely used to calculate a variety of useful topographic characteristics, e.g., slope, flow direction, flow accumulation area, stream channel network, topographic index, and others. Except for slope, none of the other topographic characteristics can be calculated until the flow...

  4. TREATED WASTEWATER AS A SOURCE OF SEDIMENT CONTAMINATION IN GULF OF MEXICO NEAR-COASTAL AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this baseline survey was to provide some needed perspective on the magnitude of sediment contamination associated with wastewater outfalls discharged to Gulf of Mexico near-coastal areas. The chemical quality and toxicities of whole sediments and pore wa...

  5. TREATED WASTEWATER AS A SOURCE OF SEDIMENT CONTAMINATION IN GULF OF MEXICO NEAR-COASTAL AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this baseline survey was to provide some needed perspective on the magnitude of sediment contamination associated with wastewater outfalls discharged to Gulf of Mexico near-coastal areas. The chemical quality and toxicities of whole sediments and pore wa...

  6. Multi-Chambered Treatment Train (MCTT) For Treating Stormwater Runoff From Highly Polluted Source Areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    A full-scaled Multi-Chambered Treatment Train (MCTT) stormwater treatment system was tested in Taiwan during the spring and summer of 2007. The MCTT was installed in a parking lot in Ping-Lin, Northern Taiwan. The site is 85% impervious and has a drainage area to the MCTT unit of...

  7. Multi-Chambered Treatment Train (MCTT) For Treating Stormwater Runoff From Highly Polluted Source Areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    A full-scaled Multi-Chambered Treatment Train (MCTT) stormwater treatment system was tested in Taiwan during the spring and summer of 2007. The MCTT was installed in a parking lot in Ping-Lin, Northern Taiwan. The site is 85% impervious and has a drainage area to the MCTT unit of...

  8. High-yield pulping effluent treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Su, W.X.; Hsieh, J.S. . School of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this report is to examine the high-yield (mechanical) pulp processes with respect to environmental issues affected by the discharge of their waste streams. Various statistics are given that support the view that high-yield pulping processes will have major growth in the US regions where pulp mills are located, and sites for projects in the development phase are indicated. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies applicable to these processes are reviewed. The different types of mechanical pulping or high-yield processes are explained, and the chemical additives are discussed. The important relationship between pulp yield and measure of BOD in the effluent is graphically presented. Effluent contaminants are identified, along with other important characteristics of the streams. Current and proposed environmental limitations specifically related to mechanical pulp production are reviewed. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies are discussed, along with their principle applications, uses, advantages, and disadvantages. Sludge management and disposal techniques become an intimate part of the treatment of waste streams. The conclusion is made that conventional technologies can successfully treat effluent streams under current waste-water discharge limitations, but these systems may not be adequate when stricter standards are imposed. At present, the most important issue in the treatment of pulp-mill waste is the management and disposal of the resultant sludge.

  9. Urinary incontinence in women treated by ischemic compression over the bladder area: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Hains, Guy; Hains, François; Descarreaux, Martin; Bussières, André

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to determine if ischemic compression therapy over the bladder area results in clinically important changes among female patients with stress and mixed (stress and urge) incontinence. Methods One group of patients (n = 24) received ischemic compression therapy directed over the bladder area (experimental group). The control group (n = 9) received ischemic compression therapy directed toward structures of the hip joint. Changes in urinary incontinence symptoms were monitored using a 2-part questionnaire: the urogenital distress inventory and the incontinence impact questionnaire. Patients' perceived amelioration (improvement) was quantified using a scale divided from 0% to 100%. Results Mean scores for the first questionnaire (urogenital distress inventory + incontinence impact questionnaire, 19 questions) were 23.3 vs 25.3 at baseline and 10.2 vs 22.2 after 15 treatments for the experimental and control group, respectively. The experimental group scores were 6.9 at 30 days after the last treatment and 11.3 at the 6-month follow-up. The perceived percentages of amelioration after 15 treatments were 69% vs 32% for the experimental and control group, respectively. The experimental group scores were 73% at 30 days after the last treatment and 60% at the 6-month follow-up. Conclusions In this study, ischemic compression directed toward elicited trigger points over bladder area was found to be an effective treatment of patients presenting symptoms of urinary incontinence. Improvement in symptoms was still present in follow-up at 6 months. PMID:19674707

  10. Protection of livestock against bluetongue virus vector Culicoides imicola using insecticide-treated netting in open areas.

    PubMed

    Calvete, C; Estrada, R; Miranda, M A; Del Rio, R; Borrás, D; Beldron, F J; Martínez, A; Calvo, A J; Lucientes, J

    2010-06-01

    The protection of livestock against Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) using physical barriers or chemically treated barriers is difficult owing to the small size of these biting midges and animal welfare concerns associated with the reduction of air flow. Culicoides imicola Kieffer is the main bluetongue virus vector in the Mediterranean basin, including the southern Iberian peninsula, where livestock is mainly housed in open pens or sheds which offer no physical protection against C. imicola. In this study we assessed the efficacy of surrounding yearling ewe pens with a canvas barrier or a cypermethrin-treated canvas barrier in reducing the entry of Culicoides spp. and C. imicola. Analyses were based on comparisons of Culicoides catches in traps in pens with and without barriers, and in traps located outside pens. Although there was no clear reduction in the abundance of Culicoides other than C. imicola in pens with either barrier, the C. imicola presence was markedly reduced by the insecticide-treated barrier compared with the untreated barrier; the latter did not reduce the abundance of this species in pens. Estimates of the protection conferred against C. imicola by the treated barrier differed depending on whether catch comparisons were based on outside traps or on traps located inside no-barrier pens. The results suggest that the use of insecticide-treated barriers may reduce contact between livestock and C. imicola in open areas or sheds. More research is necessary to assess the degree of protection as a function of barrier height, C. imicola abundance, and the size of the area to be protected.

  11. New Technologies for Treating Severe Bleeding in Far-Forward Combat Areas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    Severe Bleeding in Far-Forward Combat Areas 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) US Army Institute of Surgical Research 3400 Rawley East Chambers...Avenue San Antonio, TX 78234-6315 USA 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR

  12. Electroconvulsive therapy for treating schizophrenia: a chart review of patients from two catchment areas.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Diana; Bauer, Jeanett; Hageman, Ida; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev

    2011-09-01

    To examine disease and treatment characteristics of patients with schizophrenia treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). We examined charts from 79 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (n = 55), persistent delusional disorders (n = 7), and schizoaffective disorders (n = 17) between 2003 and 2008. We recorded age, sex, indication for ECT, number of ECT sessions, ECT series, outcome, maintenance ECT, use of antipsychotics, duration of illness, and duration of the current exacerbation. All patients were taking antipsychotics at the time of enrolment in the study. Acute ECT included 2-26 sessions; maintenance ECT (M-ECT) was given to 18 patients for up to 12 years. Initial indications for ECT included psychosis (n = 28), pronounced affective symptoms (n = 28), delirious states (n = 20), and M-ECT (n = 3). Most patients experienced excellent/good outcomes (n = 66), but others experienced moderate (n = 8) or poor (n = 5) outcomes. No factors were identified that predicted treatment responses in individual patients. ECT proved to be effective in a population of patients that were severely ill with treatment-refractory schizophrenia. This does not imply that the patients were cured from schizophrenia. Rather, it reflects the degree of relief from psychosis and disruptive behaviour, as described in the patient charts. The treatment was often offered to patients after considerable disease durations.

  13. Phytotoxicity of effluents from swine slaughterhouses using lettuce and cucumber seeds as bioindicators.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Michel David; Lucia, Thomaz; Correa, Luciara; Neto, José Eduardo Pereira; Correa, Érico Kunde

    2017-08-15

    This study evaluated the phytotoxic effects of raw and treated effluents from a swine slaughterhouse on cucumber and lettuce seeds and determined correlations among physicochemical characteristics of such effluents and the germination of seeds used as bioindicators. Physicochemical parameters were characterized for both effluents and their phytotoxicity was determined through the germination index (GI), the root length (RL) and the number of germinated seeds (SG) for both plant species. The effluents treatment system was efficient to reduce the concentration of some physicochemical parameters to levels within those recommended by the Brazilian legislation, except for P, ammoniacal N and TKN concentration. Although phytotoxicity of the treated effluent was less in comparison to the raw effluent, the GI for cucumber and lettuce seeds submitted to each of the tested effluents was lower than 80%. Thus, both effluents were phytotoxic for the tested bioindicators (p<0.05). For lettuce seeds, the GI presented negative correlations (p<0.05) with the total Kjeldahl N (-0.93) and the surfactants concentration (-0.83) in the raw effluent. The Zn concentration in the treated effluent showed a negative correlation (p<0.05) with the GI of both lettuce (-0.63) and cucumber seeds (-0.64). Therefore, effluents from swine slaughterhouses may impair the germination of the evaluated plant species if used for agricultural purposes.

  14. Contribution of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents to Nutrient Dynamics in Aquatic Systems: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Richard O.; Migliaccio, Kati W.

    2009-08-01

    Excessive nutrient loading (considering nitrogen and phosphorus) is a major ongoing threat to water quality and here we review the impact of nutrient discharges from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to United States (U.S.) freshwater systems. While urban and agricultural land uses are significant nonpoint nutrient contributors, effluent from point sources such as WWTPs can overwhelm receiving waters, effectively dominating hydrological characteristics and regulating instream nutrient processes. Population growth, increased wastewater volumes, and sustainability of critical water resources have all been key factors influencing the extent of wastewater treatment. Reducing nutrient concentrations in wastewater is an important aspect of water quality management because excessive nutrient concentrations often prevent water bodies from meeting designated uses. WWTPs employ numerous physical, chemical, and biological methods to improve effluent water quality but nutrient removal requires advanced treatment and infrastructure that may be economically prohibitive. Therefore, effluent nutrient concentrations vary depending on the particular processes used to treat influent wastewater. Increasingly stringent regulations regarding nutrient concentrations in discharged effluent, along with greater freshwater demand in populous areas, have led to the development of extensive water recycling programs within many U.S. regions. Reuse programs provide an opportunity to reduce or eliminate direct nutrient discharges to receiving waters while allowing for the beneficial use of reclaimed water. However, nutrients in reclaimed water can still be a concern for reuse applications, such as agricultural and landscape irrigation.

  15. Role of cattle treated with deltamethrine in areas with a high population of Anopheles arabiensis in Moshi, Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mahande, Aneth M; Mosha, Franklin W; Mahande, Johnson M; Kweka, Eliningaya J

    2007-01-01

    Background Malaria control measures were initiated from in October 2005 to August 2006 in the Lower Moshi irrigation schemes, Tanzania. This manuscript reports on the entomological evaluation of the impact of pyrethroid-treated cattle in reducing the population of the Anopheles arabiensis for selected houses in the Lower Moshi irrigation scheme. Methods Cattle were sprayed with the pyrethroid (deltamethrin) acaricide. Grazing and non-grazing cattles were compared and assessed for difference in knockdown resistance (kdr) time using cone or contact bioassay and residual effect (mortality). In experimental huts, mortality was compared between the huts with treated and untreated cattle. Results Results from contact bioassays of cattle treated with deltamethrin showed a knockdown effect of 50% within 21 days for grazing cattle and 29 days for non-grazing cattle. Residual effect at 50% was achieved within 17 days for grazing cattle compared to 24 days for inshed cattle. In discussing the results, reference has been made to the exophilic and zoophilic tendencies of An. arabiensis, which are conducive for zooprophylaxis. Experimental studies in Verandah huts at Mabogini compared An. arabiensis and Culex spp collected from huts with different baits, i e. human, untreated cow and treated cow. Results indicate higher mortality rates in mosquitoes collected from the hut containing the treated cow (mean = 2) compared to huts with untreated cow (mean = 0.3) and human (mean = 0.8). A significantly higher number of Culex spp. was recorded in huts with treated cows compared to the rest. Conclusion This study has demonstrated the role of cattle treated with pyrethroid in the control of malaria and reduction of vector density. It showed that, in areas with a predominant An. arabiensis population, cattle should be placed close to dwelling houses in order to maximize the effects of zooprophylaxis. Protective effects of cattle can further be enhanced by regular treatment with

  16. Ion Exchange Conceptual Design for Treating Seven Technical Area Sumps with Elevated Levels of Copper and Zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.N.

    1999-02-17

    Recently a meeting was held to discuss technical support for developing a conceptual design and estimate for installing and operating an in-line ion exchange system to treat seven Technical Area Sumps with elevated levels (high ppb - low ppm) of copper and potentially zinc (copper level is above the outfall limits). These sump waters are currently routed to the A01 outfall, which is permitted by the State of South Carolina. a study of potential treatment options and followup laboratory work done in the summer of 1997 by Larry Oji and John Hage identified two commercially available ion exchange resins, Duolit GT-73 and Chelex 100, for treating waters at these metals concentrations.

  17. Septic tank effluent pump systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, H.L.; Bounds, T.R.

    1998-07-01

    Septic tank effluent pump (STEP) systems are beginning to be recognized as the preferred and most economical method of collecting and transporting partially-treated wastewater to a treatment facility. A conventional septic tank provides pretreatment, removing most settable and floatable solids from the wastewater. Specially designed pumps convey the septic tank effluent under pressure through a network of small diameter plastic piping to a treatment site. Shallow collection lines, following the contours of the terrain, eliminate the need for costly deep excavations. Changes in both vertical and horizontal alignments may be made in the field. The impetus for this rapidly developing technology has come mainly from the western US. Oregon's Department of Environmental Quality, for example, requires engineers to consider STEP systems whenever a new wastewater collection project is contemplated. The success of a STEP system depends primarily on the skill of the engineer in designing and managing the project. Guidelines for designers are discussed and brief descriptions of several successful STEP systems are included.

  18. Peripheral areas of nonperfusion in treated central retinal vein occlusion as imaged by wide-field fluorescein angiography.

    PubMed

    Spaide, Richard F

    2011-05-01

    To develop a method of imaging the retina using wide-field fluorescein angiography and use this method to investigate the areas of perfusion abnormalities in patients treated with ranibizumab for central retinal vein occlusion. Cross-sectional analysis of patients recruited to a prospective study. Patients in a prospective study of ranibizumab for central retinal vein occlusion were imaged with wide-field angiography. Fluorescein angiograms taken with the Optos P200 Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope were obtained of the posterior portion of the eye and of the periphery through ocular steering. Resultant images of the periphery were registered to the posterior image using thin-plate spline warping. A transformation was used to measure the retinal surface area. Perfusion characteristics were compared with injection frequencies and protocol refraction visual acuity measurements. Of 22 patients imaged, 7 would be classified as nonperfused by the Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Study (CVOS) angiographic criteria. However, all patients showed confluent areas of nonperfusion in the retinal periphery ranging in size from 16 disk areas to 242 disk areas. The areas of peripheral nonperfusion were not significantly different in the Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Study-perfused group versus nonperfused group. The area of peripheral nonperfusion was not correlated with the number of injections (r = -0.13, P = 0.58), but was inversely correlated with visual acuity (r = -0.52, P = 0.013). Blood vessels at the border of the peripheral nonperfusion did not show signs of neovascular growth or profuse leakage. Angiographic mapping of the retina is possible using image-processing techniques with wide-field images. Eyes with central retinal vein occlusion develop widespread peripheral vascular obliteration in regions that are difficult to image with conventional fundus cameras. These nonperfused areas may have important implications for visual function.

  19. A Comparison of Electromagnetic Induction Mapping to Measurements of Maximum Effluent Flow Depth for Assessing Flow Paths in Vegetative Treatment Areas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vegetative treatment systems (VTSs) are one type of control structure that has shown potential to control runoff from open feedlots. To achieve maximum performance, sheet-flow over the width of the vegetative treatment area (VTA) is required. Tools, such as maps of flow paths through the VTA, are ne...

  20. Toxic impact of effluents from petrochemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Nikunen, E.

    1985-02-01

    The toxicity of effluents from a petrochemical industry center in southern Finland was tested by conducting bioassays on organisms from three different trophic levels. In fish tests, rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were caged at the discharge site and simultaneously at a reference area. The only clear differences, among the measurements of 25 metabolic parameters, were observed in fish liver where activities of two detoxication enzymes were significantly increased in the exposed group. The water flea (Daphnia magna) was used both in acute (EC50) and long-term reproduction tests. No acute lethal toxicity was detected in any of the wastewater samples investigated. A combined effluent, however, caused a reduction in the reproduction rate with an EC50 of 3%. No mutagenic activity was observed with the Ames test (Salmonella typhimurium, strains TA 97, TA 98, and TA 100) in concentrated effluents, in sediment samples, or in liver samples from predator fish caught from the discharge site.

  1. Constructed wetlands design for enhanced phytoremediation of effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, A.J.; Sparks, B.J.; Carder, J.P.; Sumner, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) uses constructed wetlands to solve an environmental compliance problem. Effluents from a coal yard runoff treatment facility (CYRTF) and a sewage treatment plant are both intermittently toxic based on effluent testing conducted under ORNL`s wastewater discharge permit. The CYRTF uses conventional technology (lime neutralization, flocculation); its effluent is toxic due primarily to the presence of high concentrations of calcium. Effluent from the sewage treatment plant is occasionally toxic due to a semivolatile, low-molecular weight constituent, perhaps generated when the wastewater is chlorinated prior to discharge. The two effluent are blended (about 2:8, volume:volume) before being passed through a pair of constructed wetland (CW) cells, each 1.8 m wide and 20 m long, for final equilibration. The CW system treats about 1,800 gallons of blended effluent per day. The effluent blend`s toxicity, as determined by testing with Ceriodaphnia dubia, is reduced by passage through the CW system. This simple aqueous-phase phytoremediation system is environmentally benign and provides the necessary minimal level of treatment for both effluents at low cost. We provide {open_quotes}lessons learned{close_quotes} in building and operating the CW system, and summarize the results of the chemical and toxicological tests used to demonstrate this technology`s application.

  2. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  3. Effects of sewage sludges contaminated with chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons on sludge-treated areas (soils and sediments).

    PubMed

    Eljarrat, Ethel

    2002-06-22

    The fate of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in sewage sludges after different management techniques--such as agricultural application, land restoration, and marine disposal--was studied. Changes observed in the concentrations, in the ratio between PCDD and PCDF levels, and in the isomeric distribution suggest the influence of the sewage sludge on the sludge-treated areas (soils and sediments). Whereas land application techniques seem to produce no serious environmental consequences, marine disposal practices produce considerable increases in the levels of contamination in marine sediments.

  4. Functional design criteria for Project W-252, Phase II Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, C.E.

    1994-11-10

    This document provides the functional design criteria required for the Phase 2 Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal Project, Project W-252. Project W-252 shall provide new facilities and existing facility modifications required to implement Best Available Technology/All Known, Available, and Reasonable Methods of Prevention, Control, and Treatment (BAT/AKART) for the 200 East Phase II Liquid Effluent Streams. The project will also provide a 200 East Area Phase II Effluent Collection System (PTECS) for connection to a disposal system for relevant effluent streams to which BAT/AKART has been applied. Liquid wastestreams generated in the 200 East Area are currently discharged to the soil column. Included in these wastestreams are cooling water, steam condensate, raw water, and sanitary wastewaters. It is the policy of the DOE that the use of soil columns to treat and retain radionuclides and nonradioactive contaminants be discontinued at the earliest practical time in favor of wastewater treatment and waste minimization. In 1989, the DOE entered into an interagency agreement with Ecology and EPA. This agreement is referred to as the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). Project W-252 is one of the projects required to achieve the milestones set forth in the Tri-Party Agreement. One of the milestones requires BAT/AKART implementation for Phase II streams by October 1997. This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) document provides the technical baseline required to initiate Project W-252 to meet the Tri-Party Agreement milestone for the application of BAT/AKART to the Phase II effluents.

  5. Field Evaluations of the Quality of Effluent from Confined Dredged Material Disposal Areas. Long-Term Effects of Dredging Operations Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    acknowledged. This work was performed under the general supervison of Dr. Raymond L. Montgomery, Chief, EED, and Dr. John Harrison, Chief, EL. Managers of the...material discharge under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act. The Corps of Engineers has recently developed modified elutriate testing procedures for...ABSTRACT (Continued). showed that all five disposal areas were very efficient in retaining suspended solids. The relative retention of contaminants

  6. Transport of nitrogen in a treated-wastewater plume to coastal discharge areas, Ashumet Valley, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; Walter, Donald A.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

    2013-01-01

    Land disposal of treated wastewater from a treatment plant on the Massachusetts Military Reservation in operation from 1936 to 1995 has created a plume of contaminated groundwater that is migrating toward coastal discharge areas in the town of Falmouth, Massachusetts. To develop a better understanding of the potential impact of the treated-wastewater plume on coastal discharge areas, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment, evaluated the fate of nitrogen (N) in the plume. Groundwater samples from two large sampling events in 1994 and 2007 were used to map the size and location of the plume, calculate the masses of nitrate-N and ammonium-N, evaluate changes in mass since cessation of disposal in 1995, and create a gridded dataset suitable for use in nitrogen-transport simulations. In 2007, the treated-wastewater plume was about 1,200 meters (m) wide, 30 m thick, and 7,700 m long and contained approximately 87,000 kilograms (kg) nitrate-N and 31,600 kg total ammonium-N. An analysis of previous studies and data from 1994 and 2007 sampling events suggests that most of biologically reactive nitrogen in the plume in 2007 will be transported to coastal discharge areas as either nitrate or ammonium with relatively little transformation to an environmentally nonreactive end product such as nitrogen gas. Nitrogen-transport simulations were conducted with a previously calibrated regional three-dimensional MODFLOW groundwater flow model. Mass-loaded particle tracking was used to simulate the advective transport of nitrogen to discharge areas (or receptors) along the coast. In the simulations, nonreactive transport (no mass loss in the aquifer) was assumed, providing an upper-end estimate of nitrogen loads to receptors. Simulations indicate that approximately 95 percent of the nitrate-N and 99 percent of the ammonium-N in the wastewater plume will eventually discharge to the Coonamessett River, Backus River, Green

  7. Thief carbon catalyst for oxidation of mercury in effluent stream

    SciTech Connect

    Granite, Evan J; Pennline, Henry W

    2011-12-06

    A catalyst for the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg), in an effluent stream is presented. The catalyst facilitates removal of mercury through the oxidation of elemental Hg into mercury (II) moieties. The active component of the catalyst is partially combusted coal, or "Thief" carbon, which can be pre-treated with a halogen. An untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-promoting in the presence of an effluent gas streams entrained with a halogen.

  8. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. July 1983-September 1989 (Citations from World Textile Abstracts). Report for July 1983-September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents. Effluents that contain dyes are discussed in a separate bibliography. Recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents are discussed. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. (This updated bibliography contains 322 citations, 22 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  9. Effect of distillery effluents on some physiological aspects in maize.

    PubMed

    Ramana, S; Biswas, A K; Singh, A B

    2002-09-01

    A field experiment was conducted for two years to study the effect of application of different distillery effluents: raw spent wash (RSW), biomethanated spent wash (BSW), lagoon sludge (LS), recommended NPK + FYM (farm yard manure) and control (no fertilizer and effluent) on some physiological aspects in maize. The study revealed that the application of distillery effluents resulted in increased leaf area, chlorophyll content, nitrate reductase activity total dry weight and grain yield. Among the effluents, the highest grain yield (36.9 qha(-1)) was obtained in BSW followed by RSW (32.2 qha(-1)) and LS (28.3 qha(-1)). Overall, NPK + FYM treatment recorded the highest grain yield (51.8 qha(-1)). However, to achieve the full manurial potential of the effluents, some amount of fertilizer should be supplemented.

  10. Biotechnological Remediation of Shipboard Waste Effluents.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-03-26

    Biotechnological principles were applied to optimize organic matter reduction in bioreactors treating greywater effluents on Navy ships. Greywater ...is central to the success of this approach for biotechnological remediation. The approach was to use a simulated greywater to feed a laboratory-scale...results proved that the organic compounds present in greywater can be biodegraded by microbes very rapidly (HRT ɛ h). Surfactant biodegradation played a

  11. [Efficacies of treating large area third-degree burns by tangential excision and skin grafting for subcutaneous tissue wounds].

    PubMed

    Song, Guodong; Jia, Jun; Ma, Yindong; Shi, Wen; Wang, Fang; Li, Peilong; Gao, Cong; Zuo, Haibin; Fan, Chunjie; Yang, Tao; Wu, Qiuhe; Shao, Yang

    2014-12-02

    To explore the efficacies of treating patients with large area third-degree burns by tangential excision and skin grafting for subcutaneous tissue wounds. From January 2002 to December 2013, the medical records were retrospectively reviewed for 31 consecutive adult patients with a third-degree burn area exceeding 70% and undergoing tangential excision and skin grafting on subcutaneous tissue wound (TESGSTW) for the first time within 7 days postburn at Burn Center, Affiliated Jinan Central Hospital, Shandong University. For 31 patients, wounds with relative integrity eschar underwent TESGSTW by stages. Tourniquet was not used in some extremities. The relevant clinical data including patient condition on admission, causes of death, blood loss of tangential excision wound, surgical procedures and efficacies in cured group were analyzed. Average age, burn total area and third-degree burn area of 31 patients were (32.4 ± 12.8) years, (89.0 ± 6.2)% and (80.4 ± 7.6)% respectively. There were inhalation injury (n = 25, 80.6%) and early-stage shock before hospitalization (n = 22, 71.0%). Among 18 cured ones (58.1%), 2 patients had a third-degree burn area ≥ 90%. And 13 patients (41.9%) died and 10 of them died at 4 to 19 days postburn. Burn area was a risk factor of burn mortality. Sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) were major mortality causes. Four patients died from early-stage sepsis. Within 14 days postburn, average blood loss volume per 1% tangential excision area in non-tourniquet group was slightly higher than that in the tourniquet group, but the difference was insignificant. For 18 cured patients, TESGSTW were performed 41 times. For 14 patients (77.8%), TESGSTW was performed twice. The average time of the first tangential excision was (4.1 ± 0.6) days postburn, the time interval between the first two tangential excisions was (6.4 ± 2.0) days, the first tangential excision area (33.8 ± 7.6)% and accumulated tangential excision area (58

  12. A Conceptual Model For Effluent-Dependent Riverine Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, M. T.; Meyerhoff, R. D.; Osterkamp, W. R.; Smith, E. L.; Hawkins, R. H.

    2001-12-01

    The Arid West Water Quality Research Project (WQRP) is a multi-year, EPA-funded scientific endeavor directed by the Pima County, Wastewater Management Department in southern Arizona and focussed upon several interconnected ecological questions. These questions are crucial to water quality management in the arid and semi arid western US. A key component has been the ecological, hydrological and geomorphological investigation of habitat created by the discharge of treated effluent into ephemeral streams. Such environments are fundamentally different from the dry streams or rivers they displace; however, they are clearly not the perennial streams they superficially resemble. Under Arizona State regulations, such streams can bear the use designation of "Effluent Dependent Waters," or EDWs. Before this investigation, a hydrological/ecological conceptual model for these unique ecosystems had not been published. We have constructed one for general review that is designed to direct future work in the WQRP. The project investigated ten representative, yet contrasting EDW sites distributed throughout arid areas of the western US, to gather both historical and reconnaissance level field data, including in-stream and riparian, habitat and morphometric fluvial data. In most cases, the cross sectional area of the prior channel is oversized relative to the discharge of the introduced effluent. Where bed control is absent, the channels are incised downstream of the discharge point, further suggesting a disequilibrium between the channel and the regulated effluent flow. Several of the studied stream systems primarily convey storm water and are aggradational, exhibiting braided or anastomizing channels, high energy bedforms, and spatially dynamic interfluves. Active channels are formed in response to individual storm events and can be highly dynamic in both location and cross-sectional morphology. This poses a geomorphological challenge in the selection of a discharge point. We

  13. MOVING BEYOND PUMP AND TREAT TOWARD ENHANCED ATTENUATION AND COMBINED REMEDIES T-AREA, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B; Brian Riha, B; Warren Hyde, W; Jay Noonkester, J; Gerald Blount, G

    2008-04-03

    Groundwater beneath T-Area, a former laboratory and semiworks operation at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site, is contaminated by chlorinated solvents (cVOCs). Since the contamination was detected in the 1980s, the cVOCs at T-Area have been treated by a combination of soil vapor extraction and groundwater pump and treat. The site has received approval to discontinue the active treatments and implement a full scale test of enhanced attenuation--an engineering and regulatory strategy that has recently been developed by DOE and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council. Enhanced attenuation uses active engineering solutions to alter the target site in such a way that the contaminant plume will passively stabilize and shrink and to document that the action will be effective, timely, and sustainable. The paradigm recognizes that attenuation remedies are fundamentally based on a mass balance. Thus, long-term plume dynamics can be altered either by reducing the contaminant loading from the source or by increasing the rate of natural attenuation processes within all, or part of, the plume volume. The combination of technologies that emerged for T-Area included: (1) neat (pure) vegetable oil deployment in the deep vadose zone in the former source area, (2) emulsified vegetable oil deployment within the footprint of the groundwater plume, and (3) identification of attenuation mechanisms and rates for the distal portion of the plume. In the first part, neat oil spreads laterally forming a thin layer on the water table to intercept and reduce future cVOC loading (via partitioning) and reduce oxygen inputs (via biostimulation). In the second and third parts, emulsified oil forms active bioremediation reactor zones within the plume footprint to degrade existing groundwater contamination (via reductive dechlorination) and stimulates long-term attenuation capacity in the distal plume (via cometabolism). For T-Area, the enhanced attenuation development

  14. Microbial community structure of a freshwater system receiving wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Hladilek, Matthew D; Gaines, Karen F; Novak, James M; Collard, David A; Johnson, Daniel B; Canam, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Despite our dependency on treatment facilities to condition wastewater for eventual release to the environment, our knowledge regarding the effects of treated water on the local watershed is extremely limited. Responses of lotic systems to the treated wastewater effluent have been traditionally investigated by examining the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages and community structure; however, these studies do not address the microbial diversity of the water systems. In the present study, planktonic and benthic bacterial community structure were examined at 14 sites (from 60 m upstream to 12,100 m downstream) and at two time points along an aquatic system receiving treated effluent from the Charleston Wastewater Treatment Plant (Charleston, IL). Total bacterial DNA was isolated and 16S rRNA sequences were analyzed using a metagenomics platform. The community structure in planktonic bacterial communities was significantly correlated with dissolved oxygen concentration. Benthic bacterial communities were not correlated with water quality but did have a significant geographic structuring. A local restructuring effect was observed in both planktonic and benthic communities near the treated wastewater effluent, which was characterized by an increase in abundance of sphingobacteria. Sites further downstream from the wastewater facility appeared to be less influenced by the effluent. Overall, the present study demonstrated the utility of targeted high-throughput sequencing as a tool to assess the effects of treated wastewater effluent on a receiving water system, and highlighted the potential for this technology to be used for routine monitoring by wastewater facilities.

  15. Removal of human pathogenic viruses in a down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor treating municipal wastewater and health risks associated with utilization of the effluent for agricultural irrigation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Naohiro; Oshiki, Mamoru; Ito, Toshihiro; Segawa, Takahiro; Hatamoto, Masashi; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Kubota, Kengo; Takahashi, Masanobu; Iguchi, Akinori; Tagawa, Tadashi; Okubo, Tsutomu; Uemura, Shigeki; Harada, Hideki; Motoyama, Toshiki; Araki, Nobuo; Sano, Daisuke

    2017-03-01

    A down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor has been developed as a cost-effective wastewater treatment system that is adaptable to local conditions in low-income countries. A pilot-scale DHS reactor previously demonstrated stable reduction efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium nitrogen over a year at ambient temperature, but the pathogen reduction efficiency of the DHS reactor has yet to be investigated. In the present study, the reduction efficiency of a pilot-scale DHS reactor fed with municipal wastewater was investigated for 10 types of human pathogenic viruses (norovirus GI, GII and GIV, aichivirus, astrovirus, enterovirus, hepatitis A and E viruses, rotavirus, and sapovirus). DHS influent and effluent were collected weekly or biweekly for 337 days, and concentrations of viral genomes were determined by microfluidic quantitative PCR. Aichivirus, norovirus GI and GII, enterovirus, and sapovirus were frequently detected in DHS influent, and the log10 reduction (LR) of these viruses ranged from 1.5 to 3.7. The LR values for aichivirus and norovirus GII were also calculated using a Bayesian estimation model, and the average LR (±standard deviation) values for aichivirus and norovirus GII were estimated to be 1.4 (±1.5) and 1.8 (±2.5), respectively. Quantitative microbial risk assessment was conducted to calculate a threshold reduction level for norovirus GII that would be required for the use of DHS effluent for agricultural irrigation, and it was found that LRs of 2.6 and 3.7 for norovirus GII in the DHS effluent were required in order to not exceed the tolerable burden of disease at 10(-4) and 10(-6) disability-adjusted life years loss per person per year, respectively, for 95% of the exposed population during wastewater reuse for irrigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effluent characterization and different modes of reuse in agriculture-a model case study.

    PubMed

    Das, Madhumita; Kumar, Ashwani

    2009-06-01

    High-quality waters are steadily retreating worldwide. Discharge of industrial effluent in the environment again declines soil/water quality to a great extent. On the other hand, effluent reuse in agriculture could be a means to conserve natural resources by providing assured water supply for growing crops. But industrial effluents are highly variable in nature, containing a variety of substances, and all are not favorable for farming. Appraisal and developing modes of effluent reuse is therefore a prerequisite to enable its proper use in agriculture. Effluents of various industries were assessed and approaches for their use in farming were developed for a particular region in this study. As per availability of effluents, the same could be implemented in other water-scarce areas. Effluents of 20 different industrial units were characterized by 24 attributes. Comparing these with corresponding irrigation water quality standards, the probability of their reuse was interpreted in the first approach. On the basis of relevant properties of major soil types dominated in a particular region, the soil-based usability of effluent was worked out in the second approach. By emphasizing the limitation of groundwater development where it went beyond 50% exploitation level, the land form and major soil type were then identified by applying a soil-based effluent reuse approach; the area-specific suitability of its use was perceived in the third approach. On the basis of irrigation water quality standards, the irrigation potentials of paper mill, fermentation (breweries and distilleries), and sugar factory effluents were recognized. In a soil-based approach, the compatibility of effluent with soil type was marked with A (preferred) and B (moderately preferred) classes and, compiling their recurring presence, the unanimous preference for paper mill effluent followed by rubber goods manufacturing industries/marine shrimp processing units, fermentation, and sugar mills was noted

  17. Detection of tannery effluents induced DNA damage in mung bean by use of random amplified polymorphic DNA markers.

    PubMed

    Raj, Abhay; Kumar, Sharad; Haq, Izharul; Kumar, Mahadeo

    2014-01-01

    Common effluent treatment plant (CETP) is employed for treatment of tannery effluent. However, the performance of CETP for reducing the genotoxic substances from the raw effluent is not known. In this study, phytotoxic and genotoxic effects of tannery effluents were investigated in mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek). For this purpose, untreated and treated tannery effluents were collected from CETP Unnao (UP), India. Seeds of mung bean were grown in soil irrigated with various concentrations of tannery effluents (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) for 15 days. Inhibition of seed germination was 90% by 25% untreated effluent and 75% treated effluent, compared to the control. Plant growth was inhibited by 51% and 41% when irrigated with untreated and treated effluents at 25% concentration. RAPD technique was used to evaluate the genotoxic effect of tannery effluents (untreated and treated) irrigation on the mung bean. The RAPD profiles obtained showed that both untreated and treated were having genotoxic effects on mung bean plants. This was discernible with appearance/disappearance of bands in the treatments compared with control plants. A total of 87 RAPD bands were obtained using eight primers and 42 (48%) of these showed polymorphism. Irrigating plants with untreated effluent caused 12 new bands to appear and 18 to disappear. Treated effluent caused 8 new bands and the loss of 15 bands. The genetic distances shown on the dendrogram revealed that control plants and those irrigated with treated effluent were clustered in one group (joined at distance of 0.28), whereas those irrigated with untreated effluent were separated in another cluster at larger distance (joined at distance of 0.42). This indicates that treated effluent is less genotoxic than the untreated. Nei's genetic similarity indices calculated between the treatments and the control plants showed that the control and the plants irrigated with treated tannery effluent had a similarity index of 0.75, the control

  18. Detection of Tannery Effluents Induced DNA Damage in Mung Bean by Use of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers

    PubMed Central

    Haq, Izharul; Kumar, Mahadeo

    2014-01-01

    Common effluent treatment plant (CETP) is employed for treatment of tannery effluent. However, the performance of CETP for reducing the genotoxic substances from the raw effluent is not known. In this study, phytotoxic and genotoxic effects of tannery effluents were investigated in mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek). For this purpose, untreated and treated tannery effluents were collected from CETP Unnao (UP), India. Seeds of mung bean were grown in soil irrigated with various concentrations of tannery effluents (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) for 15 days. Inhibition of seed germination was 90% by 25% untreated effluent and 75% treated effluent, compared to the control. Plant growth was inhibited by 51% and 41% when irrigated with untreated and treated effluents at 25% concentration. RAPD technique was used to evaluate the genotoxic effect of tannery effluents (untreated and treated) irrigation on the mung bean. The RAPD profiles obtained showed that both untreated and treated were having genotoxic effects on mung bean plants. This was discernible with appearance/disappearance of bands in the treatments compared with control plants. A total of 87 RAPD bands were obtained using eight primers and 42 (48%) of these showed polymorphism. Irrigating plants with untreated effluent caused 12 new bands to appear and 18 to disappear. Treated effluent caused 8 new bands and the loss of 15 bands. The genetic distances shown on the dendrogram revealed that control plants and those irrigated with treated effluent were clustered in one group (joined at distance of 0.28), whereas those irrigated with untreated effluent were separated in another cluster at larger distance (joined at distance of 0.42). This indicates that treated effluent is less genotoxic than the untreated. Nei's genetic similarity indices calculated between the treatments and the control plants showed that the control and the plants irrigated with treated tannery effluent had a similarity index of 0.75, the control

  19. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition in cognition-relevant brain areas of mice treated with a nootropic Amazonian herbal (Marapuama).

    PubMed

    Figueiró, M; Ilha, J; Pochmann, D; Porciúncula, L O; Xavier, L L; Achaval, M; Nunes, D S; Elisabetsky, E

    2010-10-01

    The goal of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) used to treat Alzheimer's patients is an improvement in cholinergic transmission. While currently available AChEIs have limited success, a huge impediment to the development of newer ones is access to the relevant brain areas. Promnesic, anti-amnesic and AChEI properties were identified in a standardized ethanol extract from Ptychopetalum olacoides (POEE), a medicinal plant favored by the elderly in Amazon communities. The purpose of this study was to provide conclusive evidence that orally given POEE induces AChE inhibition in brain areas relevant to cognition. Histochemistry experiments confirmed that the anticholinesterase compound(s) present in POEE are orally bioavailable, inducing meaningful AChE inhibition in the hippocampus CA1 (∼33%) and CA3 (∼20%), and striatum (∼17%). Ellman's colorimetric analysis revealed that G1 and G4 AChE isoforms activities were markedly inhibited (66 and 72%, respectively) in hippocampus and frontal cortex (50 and 63%, respectively), while G4 appeared to be selectively inhibited (72%) in the striatum. Western blotting showed that POEE did not induce significant changes in the AChE immunocontent suggesting that its synthesis is not extensively modified. This study provides definitive proof of meaningful anticholinesterase activity compatible with the observed promnesic and anti-amnesic effects of POEE in mice, reaffirming the potential of this extract for treating neurodegenerative conditions where a hypofunctioning cholinergic neurotransmission is prominent. Adequate assessment of the safety and efficacy of this extract and/or its isolated active compound(s) are warranted.

  20. [Functional biostructure of colonic microbiota (central fermenting area, germinal stock area and separating mucus layer) in healthy subjects and patients with diarrhea treated with Saccharomyces boulardii].

    PubMed

    Swidsinski, A; Loening-Baucke, V; Kirsch, S; Doerffel, Y

    2010-09-01

    The colonic content can be compared to a spatially structured high output bioreactor composed of three functionally different regions: a separating mucus layer, a germinal stock area, and a central fermenting area. The stool mirrors this structure and can be used for diagnosis in health and disease. In a first part, we introduce a novel method based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of sections of punched-out stool cylinders, which allows quantitatively monitor microbiota in the mucus, the germinal stock and the central fermenting areas. in a second part, we demonstrate the practical implementation of this method, describing the biostructure of stool microbiota in healthy subjects and patients with chronic idiopathic diarrhea treated with Saccharomyces boulardii. Punched stool cylinders from 20 patients with chronic idiopathic diarrhea and 20 healthy controls were investigated using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Seventy-three bacterial groups were evaluated. Fluctuations in assembly of 11 constitutive bacterial groups were monitored weekly for 3 weeks prior to, 3 weeks during, and 3 weeks after oral Saccharomyces boulardii supplementation. Typical findings in healthy subjects were a 5-60 μm mucus separating layer; homogeneous distribution and fluorescence, high concentrations (>10 × 10(10) bacterial/mL) of the three habitual bacterial groups: Bacteroides, Roseburia and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii; and low concentrations of the occasional bacterial groups. The diarrhea could be described in terms of increased separating effort, purging, decontamination, bacterial substitution. Typical findings in diarrhea were: increased thickness of the protective mucus layer, its incorporation in the stool, absolute reduction in concentrations of the habitual bacterial groups, suppression of bacterial metabolism in the central fermenting area (hybridization silence), stratification of the stool structure by watery ingredients, and substitutive increase in the

  1. Disinfection of secondary effluents by infiltration percolation.

    PubMed

    Makni, H

    2001-01-01

    Among the most attractive applications of reclaimed wastewater are: irrigation of public parks, sports fields, golf courses and market gardening. These uses require advanced wastewater treatment including disinfection. According to WHO guidelines (1989) and current rules and regulations in Tunisia, faecal coliform levels have to be reduced to < 10(3) or 10(2) CFU/100 mL. In Tunisia, most wastewater plants are only secondary treatment and, in order to meet health related regulations, the effluents need to be disinfected. However, it is usual for secondary effluents to need filtration prior to disinfection. Effectiveness of conventional disinfection processes, such as chlorination and UV radiation, are dependent upon the oxidation level and the levels of suspended solids of the treated water. Ozonation is relatively expensive and energy consuming. The consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of conventional techniques, their reliability, investment needs and operational costs will lead to the use of less sophisticated alternative techniques for certain facilities. Among alternative techniques, soil aquifer treatment and infiltration percolation through sand beds have been studied in Arizona, Israel, France, Spain and Morocco. Infiltration percolation plants have been intermittently fed with secondary or high quality primary effluents which percolated through 1.5-2 m unsaturated coarse sand and were recovered by under-drains. In such infiltration percolation facilities, microorganisms were eliminated through numerous physical, physicochemical and biological inter-related processes (mechanical filtration, adsorption and microbial degradation respectively). Efficiency of faecal coliform removal was dependent upon the water detention times in the filtering medium and on the oxidation of the filtered water. Effluents of Sfax town aerated ponds were infiltrated through 1.5 m deep sand columns in order to determine the performance of infiltration percolation in the

  2. Chromium in tannery industry effluent and its effect on plant metabolism and growth.

    PubMed

    Nath, Kamlesh; Saini, Sonia; Sharma, Yogesh Kumar

    2005-04-01

    Different dilution levels of tannery treated effluent and their corresponding concentration of chromium (Cr6+) were studied in a petridish culture experiment on seed germination and seedling growth in radish (Raphanus sativus L). The different concentrations of Cr6+ (2, 5 and 10 ppm) and treated tannery effluent (10, 25 and 50%) showed reduction in seedling growth and related enzymatic activities with increase in concentration of Cr6+ in treatments and effluent both. The low concentration of chromium (2 ppm) and effluent dilution (10%) showed significant growth reduction separately. At this concentration of chromium and effluent dilution chlorophyll content, amylase, catalase and protein contents remained unchanged while with increase in Cr6+ concentration (>2ppm) and effluent dilution (> 10%) in treatments showed growth inhibitory effects.

  3. 40 CFR 434.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... economically achievable (BAT). 434.53 Section 434.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) COAL MINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY BPT, BAT, BCT... economically achievable (BAT). (a) Reclamation areas. The limitations of this subsection apply to...

  4. 40 CFR 434.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... economically achievable (BAT). 434.53 Section 434.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) COAL MINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY BPT, BAT, BCT... economically achievable (BAT). (a) Reclamation areas. The limitations of this subsection apply to...

  5. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 327 Facility

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    The 327 Facility [Post-Irradiation Testing Laboratory] provides office and laboratory space for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) scientific and engineering staff conducting multidisciplinary research in the areas of post-irradiated fuels and structural materials. The facility is designed to accommodate the use of radioactive and hazardous materials in the conduct of these activities. This report summarizes the airborne emissions and liquid effluents and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements.

  6. Coal fly ash as adsorptive material for treatment of a real textile effluent: operating parameters and treatment efficiency.

    PubMed

    Zaharia, Carmen; Suteu, Daniela

    2013-04-01

    The experimental results performed after the application of one single-stage treatment by sorption onto coal fly ash are evaluated in order to decolorize a real textile effluent of a private company specializing in manufacturing of cotton fabrics (i.e., sorption performance applied for a real textile effluent collected after the fabric dyeing, rinsing, and final finishing steps). The experiments are focused on studying the effect of initial textile effluent pH, adsorbent dose, temperature and adsorption time, considered as operating parameters of sorption process for high pollutant removals (e.g., organic pollutants as dyes, phenols, polymeric, and degradation compounds), and decoloration. The results indicate high values of decoloration degree (55.42-83.00%) and COD removal (44.44-61.11%) when it is worked at pH ≤2 with coal ash dose of 12-40 g/L, temperature higher than 20-25 °C, and continuous static operating regime (with an initial agitation step of 3-5 min). The treated textile effluent fulfills the quality demand, and is recyclable, inside reused or discharged after a stage of neutralization (standard pH of 6.5-8.5 for all textile effluent discharges). Also, the final effluent is able to follow the common path to the central biological treatment plant (i.e., a centralized treatment plant for all companies acting in the industrial site area with mechanical-biological steps for wastewater treatment) or may be directly discharged in the nearly watercourse.

  7. Decolorization and detoxification of two textile industry effluents by the laccase/1-hydroxybenzotriazole system.

    PubMed

    Benzina, Ouafa; Daâssi, Dalel; Zouari-Mechichi, Héla; Frikha, Fakher; Woodward, Steve; Belbahri, Lassaad; Rodriguez-Couto, Susana; Mechichi, Tahar

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the optimal conditions for the decolorization and the detoxification of two effluents from a textile industry-effluent A (the reactive dye bath Bezactive) and effluent B (the direct dye bath Tubantin)-using a laccase mediator system. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize textile effluents decolorization. A Box-Behnken design using RSM with the four variables pH, effluent concentration, 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT) concentration, and enzyme (laccase) concentration was used to determine correlations between the effects of these variables on the decolorization of the two effluents. The optimum conditions for pH and concentrations of HBT, effluent and laccase were 5, 1 mM, 50 % and 0.6 U/ml, respectively, for maximum decolorization of effluent A (68 %). For effluent B, optima were 4, 1 mM, 75 %, and 0.6 U/ml, respectively, for maximum decolorization of approximately 88 %. Both effluents were treated at 30 °C for 20 h. A quadratic model was obtained for each decolorization through this design. The experimental and predicted values were in good agreement and both models were highly significant. In addition, the toxicity of the two effluents was determined before and after laccase treatment using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bacillus cereus, and germination of tomato seeds.

  8. Feasibility of using geothermal effluents for waterfowl wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    1981-09-01

    This project was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using geothermal effluents for developing and maintaining waterfowl wetlands. Information in the document pertains to a seven State area the West where geothermal resources have development potential. Information is included on physiochemical characteristics of geothermal effluents; known effects of constituents in the water on a wetland ecosystem and water quality criteria for maintaining a viable wetland; potential of sites for wetland development and disposal of effluent water from geothermal facilities; methods of disposal of effluents, including advantages of each method and associated costs; legal and institutional constraints which could affect geothermal wetland development; potential problems associated with depletion of geothermal resources and subsidence of wetland areas; potential interference (adverse and beneficial) of wetlands with ground water; special considerations for wetlands requirements including size, flows, and potential water usage; and final conclusions and recommendations for suitable sites for developing demonstration wetlands.

  9. Wastewater effluent characteristics from Moroccan textile industry.

    PubMed

    Mountassir, Y; Benyaich, A; Rezrazi, M; Berçot, P; Gebrati, L

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to carry out a complete characterization of textile wastewater, resulting from a textile unit located in the Marrakesh region. A physico-chemical characterization has been performed, focused on organic and toxicological aspects. The cladoceran Daphnia magna was used as the sensor organism and lethal concentration as a criterion to measure the toxicity of textile wastewater. The physico-chemical and toxicological status of a local textile effluent showed considerable values limitation, when compared to the European Union standard limit and Moroccan guide level and other studies. In view of those characteristics, the wastewater effluent from the textile industry should be considered to be treated before discharge to the environment.

  10. Postoperative change of the psoas muscle area as a predictor of survival in surgically treated esophageal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seong Yong; Lee, Su Jin; Haam, Seokjin; Jung, Joonho

    2017-01-01

    Background Although a decrease in the psoas muscle area (PMA) has been reported as a risk factor for survival after esophagectomy in esophageal cancer, no previous studies have focused on the change in the PMA after surgery. We investigated the prognostic role of PMA changes in patients with surgically treated esophageal cancer. Methods Fifty-eight patients with esophageal cancer who underwent surgical resection and complete lymph node dissection were reviewed retrospectively. The PMA was measured at the level of the L3 vertebrae on preoperative and one-year postoperative follow-up computed tomography images. The percentage change of the PMA was calculated as follows: delta (%) = (postoperative PMA − preoperative PMA) / (preoperative PMA × 100). Results The study patients included 54 (93.1%) males and 4 females (mean age, 60.59±9.16 years), of whom 17 (29.3%) were pathological Stage I, 18 (31.0%) were Stage II, and 23 (39.7%) were Stage III. The mean change of the PMA was −10.17% and the postoperative PMA was decreased significantly compared with the preoperative PMA (P<0.001). The PMA was increased in 13 (22.4%) patients, whereas it was decreased in 45 (77.6%). Multivariate analysis revealed that the change of the PMA (hazard ratio, HR =0.688; P=0.001) and the pathologic stage (Stage III vs. Stage I, HR =3.388; P=0.016) were risk factors for overall survival (OS). The 3-year OS in patients with a PMA decrease of more than 10%, and those with a PMA decrease of less than 10% or an increase, were 18.9% and 59.5%, respectively (P=0.049). Conclusions The decrease in the PMA had a negative prognostic effect on OS in patients with surgically treated esophageal cancer. PMID:28275484

  11. The potential of a salt-tolerant plant (Distichlis spicata cv. NyPa Forage) to treat effluent from inland saline aquaculture and provide livestock feed on salt-affected farmland.

    PubMed

    Lymbery, Alan J; Kay, Gavin D; Doupé, Robert G; Partridge, Gavin J; Norman, Hayley C

    2013-02-15

    Dryland salinity is a major problem affecting food production from agricultural land in Australia and throughout the world. Although there is much interest in using saline groundwater to grow marine fish on salt-affected farmland, the disposal of nutrient enriched, saline aquaculture effluent is a major environmental problem. We investigated the potential of the salt-tolerant NyPa Forage plant (Distichlis spicata L. Greene var. yensen-4a) to trap nutrients from saline aquaculture effluent and subsequently to provide a fodder crop for livestock. Sub-surface flow wetlands containing NyPa Forage were constructed and their efficacy in removing total nitrogen, ammonia, nitrite/nitrate, total phosphorus and orthophosphate was monitored under different levels of nutrients and salinity. The wetlands removed 60-90% of total nitrogen loads and at least 85% of ammonia, nitrite/nitrate, total phosphorus and orthophosphate loads, with greater efficiency at high nutrient and low salinity levels. The above-ground yield, sodium, crude protein (CP) and in vitro dry matter digestibility (DMD) of NyPa Forage plants were measured after fertilisation with different nutrient levels and cropping at different frequencies. Yield of plants increased with increased nutrient, while nutritive value was greater when nutrients were applied but did not differ among nutrient levels. Yield was not affected by cropping frequency, but nutritive value was greatest when plants were cropped at intervals of 21 or 42 days. At optimum nutrient addition and cropping levels, the plants had a mean CP content of 16.7% and an in vitro DMD of 67.6%, equivalent to an energy value of 9.5 MJ kg(-1). Assuming an equivalent fibre content and voluntary food intake as grass hay, and no accumulation of other toxic minerals, these nutritive values would be sufficient for maintenance or moderate liveweight gains in dry adult sheep or cattle.

  12. Comparative toxicity of effluents processed by different treatments in V79 fibroblasts and the algae Selenastrum capricornutum.

    PubMed

    Melo, Patricia Silva; Fabrin-Neto, João Batista; de Moraes, Sandra Gomes; Assalin, Márcia Regina; Durán, Nelson; Haun, Marcela

    2006-03-01

    The efficacy of ozonation and of photocatalysis processing in the treatment of pulp mill ECF (elementary chlorine free) bleaching and textile effluents was evaluated by determining total organic carbon reduction (TOC) and the toxicity. The chronic toxicity of the effluents was evaluated by the ability to inhibit the growth of algae Selenastrum capricornutum. Cultured hamster V79 fibroblasts were used to assess the cytotoxicity of effluents submitted to different detoxification processes. Two endpoints were measured in V79 cells: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction and neutral red uptake (NRU). Both treatment processes were able to reduce the TOC, although ozonization was less effective for pulp mill ECF bleaching. The pulp mill ECF bleaching and textile effluents reduced the growth of S. capricornutum by 39% and 27%, respectively. However, at the highest concentration tested, the textile effluents treated by photochemical process for 60 min showed increased cytotoxicity in V79 cells compared to the untreated effluent when assessed by the NRU and MTT reduction assays (increases of 30% and 40%, respectively). Pulp mill ECF bleaching effluent treated by ozonization had a similar cytotoxicity to that of untreated effluent in the NRU assay. In contrast, the MTT reduction assay indicated that effluents treated with ozone were around 20% more cytotoxic than untreated effluents. These results show that cultured fibroblasts may be useful for studying cellular responses to pollutants and may be included in tests to monitor the efficiency of effluent detoxification processes.

  13. Effects of treated municipal wastewater on fluctuation trend of leaf area index and quality of maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Sayed Roholla; Galavi, Mohammad; Eskandari, Hamdollah

    2013-01-01

    The effect of primary-treated municipal wastewater (TMWW) on the leaf area index (LAI) and quality of maize (Zea mays) was studied in comparison to the clean irrigation water (control). The experiment was based on a randomized block design with four replicates, and it was conducted in a field experiment in Aligoudarz (Iran). Irrigation was applied with five different methods as treatments: T1: irrigation with clean water during whole growing period (control); T2: 75% clean water and 25% TMWW; T3: 50% clean water and 50% TMWW; T4: 25% clean water and 75% TMWW; T5: irrigation with TMWW during whole growing period. Results showed that irrigation with TMWW had a significant positive impact on all characters compared with the control. Maximum LAI was yielded on the 80th day after emergence in T4. Use of TMWW increased seed oil to 5.85%, which was 29.2% more than that in the control. Maximum values for percentage of protein, total dry matter and phosphorus concentration were obtained in T5. Maximum zinc concentration (15.93 mg kg(-1)) was obtained in T4; it was 8% more than the control. According to the results there was no significant difference in treatment T4 and T5.

  14. Use of insecticide-treated mosquito nets for children under five years in an urban area of Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okafor, I P; Odeyemi, K A

    2012-01-01

    Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) have proven to be one of the most effective means of reducing malaria morbidity and mortality in children and pregnant women. This study is carried out to determine the practice and determinants of ITN use for children under five years among care givers in an urban area of Lagos State. A community-based, cross sectional study was carried out in Lagos State in April 2007 among three hundred and forty (340) care givers primarily responsible for child care at home. They were selected by a multi-stage sampling method using a pre-tested, interviewer-administered, structured questionnaire. ITN use rate for under-fives was high (61.8%) and this was significantly determined by care giver's marital status (P < 0.001) and the number of children under five years in the household (P = 0.006). Educational level of care giver and occupation of head of the household were not significant determinants. There is need for health campaigns on ITNs targeted at unmarried care givers of young children. In addition, we also recommend social marketing of modern family planning methods to reduce family size, thereby increasing chances of ITN use among children less than five years to reduce malaria burden.

  15. Systematic study of the contamination of wastewater treatment plant effluents by organic priority compounds in Almeria province (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Barco-Bonilla, Nieves; Romero-González, Roberto; Plaza-Bolaños, Patricia; Martínez Vidal, José L; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2013-03-01

    The occurrence of priority organic pollutants in wastewater (WW) effluents was evaluated in a semi-arid area, characterized by a high agricultural and tourism activity, as Almeria province (Southeastern Spain). Twelve wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were sampled in three campaigns during 2011, obtaining a total of 33 WW samples, monitoring 226 compounds, including pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenolic compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Certain banned organochlorine pesticides such as aldrin, pentachlorobenzene, o,p'-DDD and endosulfan lactone were found, and the most frequently detected pesticides were herbicides (diuron, triazines). PAHs and VOCs were also detected, noting that some of these pollutants were ubiquitous. Regarding phenolic compounds, 4-tertoctylphenol was found in all the WW samples at high concentration levels (up to 89.7 μg/L). Furthermore, it was observed that WW effluent samples were less contaminated in the second and third sampling periods, which corresponded to dry season. This evaluation revealed that despite the WW was treated in the WWTP, organic contaminants are still being detected in WW effluents and therefore they are released into the environment. Finally the risk of environmental threat due to the presence of some compounds in WWTP effluents, especially concerning 4-tertoctylphenol must be indicated.

  16. Performance evaluation of biofil toilet waste digester technologies in Ghana: the efficacy of effluent treatment options.

    PubMed

    Amoah, Philip; Gbenatey Nartey, Eric; Schrecongost, Alyse

    2016-12-01

    The study was carried out to assess the efficacy of a standard Biofil toilet digester with regard to its effluent quality and to evaluate the performance of new effluent polishing options being developed by BiofilCom. Influent and effluent were collected from 18 standard Biofil digesters connected to full-flush toilets. Effluent from five pilot installations with improved effluent polishing options were also taken for analyses. Ten other Biofil installations were selected to assess the impact of digester effluent discharge on the surrounding soil. Pollutant concentrations in the Biofil effluent exceeded both Ghana EPA and WHO standards for discharge though pollutant removal efficiencies were high: 84% for biochemical oxygen demand, 86.1% for chemical oxygen demand and 82.4% for total suspended solids. Escherichia coli and total coliform levels were significantly reduced by 63% and 95.6%, respectively, and nutrients were the least removed from effluents. Generally, effluents from the majority of the pilot polishing options met most of the discharge standards. E. coli were present in the soil at all study sites, except one. Biofil digester effluent is discharged subsurface but comparing their effluent quality with standards for discharge into water courses is relevant especially in areas of frequent flooding and high water tables.

  17. Ownership and Use of Insecticide-Treated Nets among People Living in Malaria Endemic Areas of Eastern Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Aung, Tin; Wei, Chongyi; McFarland, Willi; Aung, Ye Kyaw; Khin, Hnin Su Su

    2016-01-01

    Background Myanmar has the highest burden of malaria in the Greater Mekong. However, there is limited information on ownership and use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in areas of Myanmar most severely affected by malaria. We describe ownership and use of ITNs among people in the malaria-endemic eastern parts of Myanmar and factors associated with ITN use. Methods A cross-sectional household survey using a multi-stage cluster design was conducted in malaria-endemic townships in eastern Myanmar during the high malaria season of August to September, 2014. An effective ITN was defined as 1) a long-lasting insecticide-treated net obtained within the past three years, or 2) any net treated with insecticide within the past year. Results In 4,679 households, the average number of ITNs per household was higher in rural compared to urban areas (0.6 vs. 0.4, p <0.001) as well as the proportion of households owning at least one ITN (27.3% vs. 15.5%, p<0.001). The proportion of households in which all members slept under an ITN was also higher in rural compared to urban areas (15.3% vs 6.9%, p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, rural households (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.78, 95% CI: 1.43–2.21, p<0.001), households in which respondents knew malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes (aOR 1.35, 95% CI: 1.10–1.65, p = 0.004), and in which respondents knew malaria can be prevented by ITN use (aOR 1.86, 95% CI: 1.28–2.70, p<0.001) were more likely to have all members sleep under an ITN. Compared to the lowest socio-economic quintile, households in the richest quintile were less likely to have all members sleep under an ITN (aOR 0.47; 95% CI: 0.33–0.66, p<0.001). Households in which the main income earner was a skilled worker or a businessman were less likely to have all members sleep under an ITN (aOR, 0.70, 95% CI: 0.52–0.96, p<0.025) compared to those headed by farmers or fishermen. Households in which all children slept under an ITN were more likely to be in rural areas

  18. Fast microbial reduction of ferrihydrite colloids from a soil effluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsche, Andreas; Bosch, Julian; Rennert, Thilo; Heister, Katja; Braunschweig, Juliane; Meckenstock, Rainer U.; Totsche, Kai U.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies on the microbial reduction of synthetic iron oxide colloids showed their superior electron accepting property in comparison to bulk iron oxides. However, natural colloidal iron oxides differ in composition from their synthetic counterparts. Besides a potential effect of colloid size, microbial iron reduction may be accelerated by electron-shuttling dissolved organic matter (DOM) as well as slowed down by inhibitors such as arsenic. We examined the microbial reduction of OM- and arsenic-containing ferrihydrite colloids. Four effluent fractions were collected from a soil column experiment run under water-saturated conditions. Ferrihydrite colloids precipitated from the soil effluent and exhibited stable hydrodynamic diameters ranging from 281 (±146) nm in the effluent fraction that was collected first and 100 (±43) nm in a subsequently obtained effluent fraction. Aliquots of these oxic effluent fractions were added to anoxic low salt medium containing diluted suspensions of Geobacter sulfurreducens. Independent of the initial colloid size, the soil effluent ferrihydrite colloids were quickly and completely reduced. The rates of Fe2+ formation ranged between 1.9 and 3.3 fmol h-1 cell-1, and are in the range of or slightly exceeding previously reported rates of synthetic ferrihydrite colloids (1.3 fmol h-1 cell-1), but greatly exceeding previously known rates of macroaggregate-ferrihydrite reduction (0.07 fmol h-1 cell-1). The inhibition of microbial Fe(III) reduction by arsenic is unlikely or overridden by the concurrent enhancement induced by soil effluent DOM. These organic species may have increased the already high intrinsic reducibility of colloidal ferrihydrite owing to quinone-mediated electron shuttling. Additionally, OM, which is structurally associated with the soil effluent ferrihydrite colloids, may also contribute to the higher reactivity due to increasing solubility and specific surface area of ferrihydrite. In conclusion, ferrihydrite

  19. Method for removing and decolorizing aqueous waste effluents containing dissolved or dispersed organic matter

    DOEpatents

    Case, F.N.; Ketchen, E.E.

    1975-10-14

    A method is provided for treating organic waste material dissolved or dispersed in an aqueous effluent, which comprises contacting the effluent with an inert particulate carbonaceous sorbent at an oxygen pressure up to 2000 psi, irradiating the resultant mixture with high energy radiation until a decolorized liquid is produced, and then separating the decolorized liquid.

  20. 40 CFR 420.07 - Effluent limitations guidelines and standards for pH.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... monitored at the point of discharge to the receiving water or at the point at which the wastewater leaves the wastewater treatment facility operated to treat effluent subject to that subpart. ... § 420.07 Effluent limitations guidelines and standards for pH. (a) The pH level in process...

  1. Assessment of industrial effluent and its impact on soil and plants.

    PubMed

    Barman, S C; Kisku, G C; Salve, P R; Misra, D; Sahu, R K; Ramteke, P W; Bhargava, S K

    2001-10-01

    The present study deals with the assessment of industrial water of an electronic component manufacturing unit with electroplating and its subsequent effects on soil and plants receiving the effluent. The physico-chemical parameters of the effluent samples showed higher value than that of ground water. The treated effluent was within the permissible limit. Microtox test was conducted and determined the degree of toxicity of untreated, treated effluents as well as the water sample collected at effluent discharge point of receiving river (confluence point). The physico- mechanical parameters of the soil samples were not changed due to irrigation of the treated effluent, but the concentration of metals were comparatively higher than the control soil. Higher accumulation of metals was found in the plant parts in naturally growing weeds and cultivated crop plant irrigated with treated effluent. Elevated accumulation of metals in Eichhornia crassipes and Marsilea sp. growing along the effluent channel has been identified as a potential source of biomonitoring of metals particularly for Cu and Ca and can be utilised for the removal of heavy metal from wastewater.

  2. Hydrologic and geochemical effects on oxygen uptake in bottom sediments of an effluent-dominated river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, P.B.; Tindall, J.A.; Collins, J.A.; Lull, K.J.; Nuttle, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    More than 95% of the water in the South Platte River downstream from the largest wastewater treatment plant serving the metropolitan Denver, Colorado, area consists of treated effluent during some periods of low flow. Fluctuations in effluent-discharge rates caused daily changes in river stage that promoted exchange of water between the river and bottom sediments. Groundwater discharge measurements indicated fluxes of water across the sediment-water interface as high as 18 m3 s−1 km−1. Laboratory experiments indicated that downward movement of surface water through bottom sediments at velocities comparable to those measured in the field (median rate ≈0.005 cm s−1) substantially increased dissolved oxygen uptake rates in bottom sediments (maximum rate 212 ± 10 μmol O2 L−1 h−1) compared with rates obtained when no vertical advective flux was generated (maximum rate 25 ± 8.8 μmol O2 L−1 h−1). Additions of dissolved ammonium to surface waters generally increased dissolved oxygen uptake rates relative to rates measured in experiments without ammonium. However, the magnitude of the advective flux through bottom sediments had a greater effect on dissolved oxygen uptake rates than did the availability of ammonium. Results from this study indicated that efforts to improve dissolved oxygen dynamics in effluent-dominated rivers might include stabilizing daily fluctuations in river stage.

  3. Effects of spray-irrigated wastewater effluent on temporary pond-breeding amphibians.

    PubMed

    Laposata, M M; Dunson, W A

    2000-06-01

    Comparison was made of abiotic conditions, amphibian reproductive outputs, and the survival of embryonic and larval amphibians in wastewater effluent-irrigated and natural temporary ponds in an area in Centre County, Pennsylvania that has been spray-irrigated with secondarily treated, chlorinated wastewater effluent from The Pennsylvania State University for approximately 14 years. Three species of temporary pond-breeding amphibians were studied: wood frogs (Rana sylvatica LeConte), Jefferson salamanders (Ambystoma jeffersonianum Green), and spotted salamanders (A. maculatum Gravenhorst). Comparisons of physico-chemical parameters in 10 wastewater-irrigated and 10 natural temporary ponds over 19 weeks in 1997 indicated that wastewater -irrigated ponds had significantly higher median conductance, pH, ¿Na, ¿K, ¿Ca, ¿Mg, and ¿N-NO(3) and lower ¿dissolved oxygen. Many of the wastewater-irrigated ponds supported large mats of duckweed (Lemna spp.) that completely blanketed the pond's surface by mid-May. There were significantly fewer egg masses of all three species in wastewater-irrigated ponds than in natural ponds in both 1997 and 1998. In situ egg hatching success and larval survival (over a 6-day period) of all species was lower in wastewater-irrigated ponds than in natural ponds. Cumulatively, these studies suggest that wastewater effluent irrigation may impact amphibian populations by reducing the survival of amphibian eggs and larvae. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  4. Effects of effluent spray irrigation on ground water at a test site near Tarpon Springs, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, D.P.

    1982-01-01

    Secondary-treated effluent was applied to a 7.2-acre test site near Tarpon Springs, Fla., for about 1 year at an average rate of 0.06 million gallons per day and 3 years at 0.11 million gallons per day. Chemical fertilizer was applied periodically to the test site and adjacent areas. Periodic mounding of the water table occurred due to effluent irrigation, inducing radial flow from the test site. Physical, geochemical, biochemical processes effectively reduced total nitrogen concentration 90% and total phosphorous concentration more than 95% in the ground water of the surficial aquifer about 300 feet downgradient from the test site from that of the applied effluent. Downgradient, total nitrogen averaged 2.4 milligrams per liter and total phosphorus averaged 0.17 milligrams per liter. Substantial increases in total phosphorus were observed when the pH of the ground water increased. Total coliform bacteria in the ground water of the surficial aquifer were generally less than 100 colonies per 100 milliliters. Fecal coliform bacteria were generally less than 25 colonies per 100 milliliters at the test site and were not detected downgradient or near the test site. Fecal streptococcal bacteria were generally less than 100 colonies per 100 milliliters at the test site, but were detected on three occasions near the test site. (USGS)

  5. Reverse osmosis separation of radiocontaminants from ammonium diuranate effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhakar, S.; Misra, B.M.; Roy, S.B.; Meghal, A.M.; Mukherjee, T.K. )

    1994-05-01

    A reverse osmosis process has been found to be effective for the separation of radiocontaminants from ammonium diuranate effluents in a uranium metal plant. Pilot-plant-scale experiments were conducted using cellulosic membranes in a plate module system and actual plant effluents containing more than about 40,000 ppm of ammonium and nitrate species and having radiocontaminants corresponding to specific activities of about 10[sup [minus]3] Ci/m[sup 3] beta/gamma emitters. The results indicated that more than 95% by volume of the treated effluents were within disposal limits, while the remaining contained the concentrate, which can be treated for possible containment. 6 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. In vitro androgenicity in pulp and paper mill effluents.

    PubMed

    Svenson, Anders; Allard, Ann-Sofie

    2004-10-01

    Pulp and paper mill effluents were examined for in vitro androgenicity using a recombinant yeast-based androgen receptor assay. Low levels of androgenic effects were detected in extracts of some effluents after activated sludge treatment. Yeast cell growth cell was inhibited in some samples, and this interfered with the androgenic response. Solid-phase fractionation revealed androgenicity after partial separation of components in the effluents. Comparison of levels in untreated effluent and in effluent treated in an aerated lagoon showed that this treatment had only a marginal effect on androgenicity. An assay of the fractions eluted with increasing concentrations of methanol showed that androgenic compounds were low to moderately lipophilic. In an attempt to identify these compounds, a number of wood-related compounds (guaiacol, vanillin, beta-sitosterol, betulin, pinosylvin-O-methyl ether, and a wood extract enriched in lignans) were examined but were found not to be androgenic. Raw process water was not androgenic, but water from a highly humified lake and process water from the production of pulp from partly decayed wood had low androgenicity. It therefore can be plausibly suggested that the androgens originated in decaying wood. An assay of androgenicity in the bile of juvenile rainbow trout exposed to effluents for 3 weeks showed increased dose-dependent levels of androgens after enzymatic hydrolysis of hormone conjugates. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Land application of pulp and paper mill effluents -- A literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Rezende, A.A.; Edwards, E.

    1999-07-01

    This paper reviews the literature on land application of pulp and paper mill effluents with emphasis on secondary treated effluents from kraft bleach pulp mills. It discusses the current status of effluent land application in the industry and the need for further studies. The literature review showed that considerable research had been undertaken, including full-scale land application of effluents from pulp and paper mills. These studies dealt almost exclusively with crop productivity aspects. Soil salinity and sodicity problems, as well as application rates were extensively studied. However, relatively little attention has been given to the behavior of toxic organic compounds from pulp mill effluents in the soil environment and the long-term environmental impact of the effluent disposal practices is not fully understood.

  8. Equity and coverage of insecticide-treated bed nets in an area of intense transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Jubilate; Mtove, George; Mandike, Renata; Mtei, Frank; Maxwell, Caroline; Reyburn, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    Background There is no clear consensus on the most sustainable and effective distribution strategy for insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs). Tanzania has been a leader in social marketing but it is still not clear if this can result in high and equitable levels of coverage. Methods A cluster-randomized survey of ITN and bed net ownership and use was conducted in a rural area exposed to intense Plasmodium falciparum transmission in NE Tanzania where ITN distribution had been subject to routine delivery of national strategies and episodic free distribution through local clinics. Data were collected on household assets to assess equity of ITN coverage and a rapid diagnostic test for malaria (RDT) was performed in all ages. Results Among 598 households in four villages the use of any or insecticidal bed nets in children less than five years of age was 71% and 54% respectively. However there was a 19.8% increase in the number of bed nets per person (p < 0.001) and a 13.4% increase in the number of insecticidal nets per person (p < 0.001) for each quintile increase in household asset score. The odds of being RDT-positive were reduced by more than half in the least poor compared to the poorest households (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.35–0.70). Poorer households had paid less for their nets and acquired them more recently, particularly from non-commercial sources, and bed nets in the least poor households were less likely to be insecticidal compared to nets in the poorest households (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.26–0.74). Conclusion Marked inequity persists with the poorest households still experiencing the highest risk of malaria and the lowest ITN coverage. Abolition of this inequity within the foreseeable future is likely to require mass or targeted free distribution, but risks damaging what is otherwise an effective commercial market. PMID:19371415

  9. Equity and coverage of insecticide-treated bed nets in an area of intense transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Jubilate; Mtove, George; Mandike, Renata; Mtei, Frank; Maxwell, Caroline; Reyburn, Hugh

    2009-04-16

    There is no clear consensus on the most sustainable and effective distribution strategy for insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs). Tanzania has been a leader in social marketing but it is still not clear if this can result in high and equitable levels of coverage. A cluster-randomized survey of ITN and bed net ownership and use was conducted in a rural area exposed to intense Plasmodium falciparum transmission in NE Tanzania where ITN distribution had been subject to routine delivery of national strategies and episodic free distribution through local clinics. Data were collected on household assets to assess equity of ITN coverage and a rapid diagnostic test for malaria (RDT) was performed in all ages. Among 598 households in four villages the use of any or insecticidal bed nets in children less than five years of age was 71% and 54% respectively. However there was a 19.8% increase in the number of bed nets per person (p < 0.001) and a 13.4% increase in the number of insecticidal nets per person (p < 0.001) for each quintile increase in household asset score. The odds of being RDT-positive were reduced by more than half in the least poor compared to the poorest households (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.35-0.70). Poorer households had paid less for their nets and acquired them more recently, particularly from non-commercial sources, and bed nets in the least poor households were less likely to be insecticidal compared to nets in the poorest households (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.26-0.74). Marked inequity persists with the poorest households still experiencing the highest risk of malaria and the lowest ITN coverage. Abolition of this inequity within the foreseeable future is likely to require mass or targeted free distribution, but risks damaging what is otherwise an effective commercial market.

  10. PFOS and PFOA in influents, effluents, and biosolids of Chinese wastewater treatment plants and effluent-receiving marine environments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Zhang, Can; Han, Jianbo; Yu, Yixuan; Zhang, Peng

    2012-11-01

    Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in influents, effluents and sludges were investigated by analyzing the samples from twelve wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in China. The highest concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in influents were found to occur in municipal and industrial WWTPs, respectively. Relative to PFOS and PFOA concentrations in influents, elevated concentrations were observed in effluents from WWTPs applying anaerobic-anoxic-oxic wastewater treatment process. Importantly, application of previously reported organic carbon normalized partition coefficients (K(OC)) derived from sediment-based sorption experiments appear to underestimate the PFOS and PFOA levels in biosolids quantified in the current study. PFOS and PFOA levels in effluents were found to be approximately 27 and 2 times higher than those detected in the effluent-receiving seawater, respectively. However, their levels in this area of seawater haven't exceeded the provisional short-term health advisories in drinking water issued by U.S. EPA yet.

  11. 77 FR 22061 - FTA Section 5307 Urbanized Area Formula Program: Allocation of Funding Caps for Treating Fuel and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... for Treating Fuel and Electric Utility Costs for Vehicle Propulsion as a Capital Maintenance Expense... treat fuel costs for vehicle operations, including utility costs for the propulsion of electrical... propulsion of electrical vehicles, as a capital maintenance item for grants made in FY 2012 under...

  12. Assessing Ecological Impacts of Shrimp and Sewage Effluent: Biological Indicators with Standard Water Quality Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. B.; O'Donohue, M. J.; Udy, J.; Dennison, W. C.

    2001-01-01

    Despite evidence linking shrimp farming to several cases of environmental degradation, there remains a lack of ecologically meaningful information about the impacts of effluent on receiving waters. The aim of this study was to determine the biological impact of shrimp farm effluent, and to compare and distinguish its impacts from treated sewage effluent. Analyses included standard water quality/sediment parameters, as well as biological indicators including tissue nitrogen (N) content, stable isotope ratio of nitrogen (δ 15N), and amino acid composition of inhabitant seagrasses, mangroves and macroalgae. The study area consisted of two tidal creeks, one receiving effluent from a sewage treatment plant and the other from an intensive shrimp farm. The creeks discharged into the western side of Moreton Bay, a sub-tropical coastal embayment on the east coast of Australia. Characterization of water quality revealed significant differences between the creeks, and with unimpacted eastern Moreton Bay. The sewage creek had higher concentrations of dissolved nutrients (predominantly NO-3/NO-2 and PO3-4, compared to NH+4 in the shrimp creek). In contrast, the shrimp creek was more turbid and had higher phytoplankton productivity. Beyond 750 m from the creek mouths, water quality parameters were indistinguishable from eastern Moreton Bay values. Biological indicators detected significant impacts up to 4 km beyond the creek mouths (reference site). Elevated plant δ 15N values ranged from 10·4-19·6‰ at the site of sewage discharge to 2·9-4·5‰ at the reference site. The free amino acid concentration and composition of seagrass and macroalgae was used to distinguish between the uptake of sewage and shrimp derived N. Proline (seagrass) and serine (macroalgae) were high in sewage impacted plants and glutamine (seagrass) and alanine (macroalgae) were high in plants impacted by shrimp effluent. The δ 15N isotopic signatures and free amino acid composition of inhabitant

  13. Influence of distillery effluent on germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata) seeds.

    PubMed

    Kannan, A; Upreti, Raj K

    2008-05-01

    Distillery effluent or spent wash discharged as waste water contains various toxic chemicals that can contaminate water and soil and may affect the common crops if used for agricultural irrigation. Toxic nature of distillery effluent is due to the presence of high amounts of organic and inorganic chemical loads and its high-acidic pH. Experimental effects of untreated (Raw) distillery effluent, discharged from a distillery unit (based on fermentation of alcohol from sugarcane molasses), and the post-treatment effluent from the outlet of conventional anaerobic treatment plant (Treated effluent) of the distillery unit were studied in mung bean (Vigna radiata, L.R. Wilczek). Mung bean is a commonly used legume crop in India and its neighboring countries. Mung bean seeds were presoaked for 6h and 30 h, respectively, in different concentrations (5-20%, v/v) of each effluent and germination, growth characters, and seedling membrane enzymes and constituents were investigated. Results revealed that the leaching of carbohydrates and proteins (solute efflux) were much higher in case of untreated effluent and were also dependent to the presoaking time. Other germination characters including percentage of germination, speed of germination index, vigor index and length of root and embryonic axis revealed significant concentration-dependent decline in untreated effluent. Evaluation of seedlings membrane transport enzymes and structural constituents (hexose, sialic acid and phospholipids) following 6 h presoaking of seeds revealed concentration-dependent decline, which were much less in treated effluent as compared to the untreated effluent. Treated effluent up to 10% (v/v) concentration reflected low-observed adverse effect levels.

  14. Pathogens Assessment in Reclaimed Effluent Used for Industrial Crops Irrigation

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sa’ed, R.

    2007-01-01

    Reuse of treated effluent is a highly valued water source in Palestine, however with limited success due to public health concerns. This paper assesses the potential pathogens in raw, treated and reclaimed wastewater at Albireh urban wastewater treatment facility, and provides scientific knowledge to update the Palestinian reuse guidelines. Laboratory analyses of collected samples over a period of 4 months have indicated that the raw wastewater from Albireh city contained high numbers of fecal coliforms and worm eggs while 31% of the samples were Salmonella positive. Treated effluent suitable for restricted irrigation demonstrated that the plant was efficient in removing indicator bacteria, where fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci removal averaged 99.64% and 93.44%, respectively. Although not disinfected, treated effluent was free of Salmonella and parasites, hence safe for restricted agricultural purposes. All samples of the reclaimed effluent and three samples of irrigated grass were devoid of microbial pathogens indicating a safe use in unrestricted agricultural utilization. Adequate operation of wastewater treatment facilities, scientific updating of reuse guidelines and launching public awareness campaigns are core factors for successful and sustainable large-scale wastewater reuse schemes in Palestine. PMID:17431318

  15. Response of phytoplankton and bacterial biomass during a wastewater effluent diversion into nearshore coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caron, David A.; Gellene, Alyssa G.; Smith, Jayme; Seubert, Erica L.; Campbell, Victoria; Sukhatme, Gaurav S.; Seegers, Bridget; Jones, Burton H.; Lie, Alle A. Y.; Terrado, Ramon; Howard, Meredith D. A.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Hayashi, Kendra; Ryan, John; Birch, James; Demir-Hilton, Elif; Yamahara, Kevan; Scholin, Chris; Mengel, Michael; Robertson, George

    2017-02-01

    A 3-week diversion of the Orange County Sanitation District effluent discharge into nearshore waters off Newport Beach, CA constituted a considerable injection of secondarily-treated effluent into the coastal ecosystem. The location ≈1.6 km from shore, shallow water depth (≈16 m), volume and nutrient content of the discharge (≈5.3 × 108 L day-1 of effluent with inorganic nitrogen concentration >2 mM) during the diversion raised concerns regarding the potential for stimulating phytoplankton blooms and, in particular, blooms of toxic species. Remarkably, phytoplankton standing stocks during the event and shortly thereafter did not reach values associated even with minor blooms historically observed in the region (generally <5 μg l-1), although shifts in community composition were observed. Diatom abundances increased early during the diversion, dinoflagellates, phototrophic picoplanktonic eukaryotes and other algae increased mid-diversion, and cyanobacteria (Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus) increased near the end of the diversion. Concentrations of domoic acid (a phycotoxin commonly present in the area) remained near or below detection throughout the diversion, and abundances of potentially-harmful algal species were unresponsive. Bacterial biomass increased during the diversion, and equaled or exceeded total phytoplankton biomass in most samples. Abundances of microbial grazers were also elevated during the diversion. We speculate that nutrient uptake by the bacterial biomass, acting in concert with or a response to a negative effect of disinfection byproducts associated with chlorination on phytoplankton physiology, played a significant role in muting the response of the phytoplankton to nutrients released in the effluent.

  16. Ecotoxicological risks associated with tannery effluent wastewater.

    PubMed

    Shakir, Lubna; Ejaz, Sohail; Ashraf, Muhammad; Qureshi, Naureen Aziz; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Iltaf, Imran; Javeed, Aqeel

    2012-09-01

    The problem of water pollution acquires greater relevance in the context of a developing agrarian economy like Pakistan. Even though, the leather industry is a leading economic sector in Pakistan, there is an increasing environmental concern regarding tanneries because they produce large amounts of potentially toxic wastewater containing both trivalent and hexavalent chromium, which are equally hazardous for human population, aquaculture and agricultural activities in the area. Therefore, we defined the scope of the present study as to employ different bioassays to determine the eco-toxic potential of tannery effluent wastewater (TW) and its chromium based components, i.e., potassium dichromate (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) and chromium sulfate Cr(2)(SO(4))(3). Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of TW was carried out to determine the concentration of chromium in TW and then equal concentrations of hexavalent (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) and trivalent chromium Cr(2)(SO(4))(3) were obtained for this study. Cytotoxicity assay, artemia bioassay and phytotoxicity assay was utilized to investigate the eco-toxicological potential of different concentrations of TW, K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and Cr(2)(SO(4))(3). All the dilutions of TW, K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and Cr(2)(SO(4))(3) presented concentration dependent cytotoxic effects in these assays. The data clearly represents that among all three tested materials, different dilutions of K(2)Cr(2)O(7) caused significantly more damage (P<0.001) to vero cell, brine shrimp and germination of maize seeds. Interestingly, the overall toxicity effects of TW treated groups were subsequent to K(2)Cr(2)O(7) treated group. Based on biological evidences presented in this article, it is concluded that hexavalent chromium (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) and TW has got significant eco-damaging potential clearly elaborating that environmental burden in district Kasur is numerous and high levels of chromium is posing a considerable risk to the human population, aquaculture and agricultural

  17. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility/Effluent Treatment Facility Hazards Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Simiele, G.A.

    1994-09-29

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and Effluent Treatment Facility the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  18. Facility effluent monitoring plan for WESF

    SciTech Connect

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    1999-09-01

    The FEMP for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) provides sufficient information on the WESF effluent characteristics and the effluent monitoring systems so that a compliance assessment against applicable requirements may be performed. Radioactive and hazardous material source terms are related to specific effluent streams that are in turn, related to discharge points and, finally are compared to the effluent monitoring system capability.

  19. Prognostic value of preoperative total psoas muscle area on long-term outcome in surgically treated oesophageal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong Yong; Yoon, Joon-Kee; Lee, Su Jin; Haam, Seokjin; Jung, Joonho

    2017-01-01

    Although a decrease in psoas muscle area (PMA) has been reported as a risk factor for survival in several malignancies, there have been few studies regarding its prognostic value in oesophageal cancer. We investigated the prognostic role of PMA and its F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in patients who had surgically treated oesophageal cancer. From 2004 to 2013, 131 patients who underwent surgical resection and complete lymph node dissection for oesophageal cancer were retrospectively reviewed. The PMA and mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean) of the psoas muscle were measured at the L3 spine level on preoperative positron emission tomography/computed tomography images. The mean age was 63.38 ± 8.47 years and male patients were 125 (95.4%). The pathological stage I, II and III were 38 (29.0%), 41 (31.3%) and 52 (39.7%), respectively. The mean body mass index (BMI), PMA and SUVmean of the psoas muscle were 59.50 ± 10.14, 14.42 ± 4.30 and 1.51 ± 0.27, respectively. Operative mortality occurred in 7 (5.3%) patients. The BMI and PMA were lower in patients with operative mortality than in patients who survived. The median follow-up time was 32.52 months. A multivariate analysis revealed that PMA was an adverse risk factor for overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio, HR = 0.930; P= 0.004), whereas BMI was related to OS. The 3-year OS rates were 64.9% in high-PMA (≥15.8) patients; however, it was only 37.1% in low-PMA (less than 15.8) patients (P= 0.002). Akaike information criterion was the lowest by including PMA in the multivariate model. Decreased PMA was an adverse significant prognostic factor for OS in patients with oesophageal cancer. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of livestock effluent suspended particulate in sealing effluent ponds.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J McL; Warren, B R

    2015-05-01

    Intensive livestock feed-lots have become more prevalent in recent years to help in meeting the predicted food production targets based on expected population growth. Effluent from these is stored in ponds, representing a potential concern for seepage and contamination of groundwater. Whilst previous literature suggests that effluent particulate can limit seepage adequately in combination with a clay liner, this research addresses potential concerns for sealing of ponds with low concentration fine and then evaluates this against proposed filter-cake based methodologies to describe and predict hydraulic reduction. Short soil cores were compacted to 98% of the maximum dry density and subject to ponded head percolation with unfiltered-sediment-reduced effluent, effluent filtered to <3 μm, and chemically synthesized effluent. Reduction in hydraulic conductivity was observed to be primarily due to the colloidal fraction of the effluent, with larger particulate fractions providing minimal further reduction. Pond sealing was shown to follow mathematical models of filter-cake formation, but without the formation of a physical seal on top of the soil surface. Management considerations based on the results are presented.

  1. PWR-GALE. PWR Effluent Radioactivity Releases

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, C.A.

    1992-01-13

    PWR-GALE calculates the expected annual releases of radioactive materials in gaseous and liquid effluents from pressurized light water reactors (PWRs). The calculations are based on data generated from operating reactors, field and laboratory tests, and plant-specific considerations incorporated to reduce the quantity of radioactive materials that may be released to the environment during normal operation including anticipated operational occurrences. PWR-GALE consists of two program, PGALEGS and PGALELQ. PGALEGS calculates the releases of radioactive materials (noble gases, radioactive particulates, carbon-14, tritium, argon-41, and iodine) in gaseous effluents from the waste gas processing system, steam generator blowdown system, condenser air ejector exhaust, containment purge exhaust, ventilation exhaust air from the auxiliary and turbine buildings and the spent fuel area, and steam leakage from the secondary system. PGALELQ calculates the releases of radioactive materials in liquid effluents from processed water generated from the boron recovery system to maintain plant water balance or for tritium control; processed liquid waste discharged from the waste systems, steam generator blowdown treatment system, and that discharged from the chemical waste and condensate demineralizer regeneration system; liquid waste discharged from the turbine building floor drain sumps; and detergent waste.

  2. Measurement and removal of bioconcentratable compounds in refinery effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Gala, W.R.; Dorn, P.B.; Means, J.C.; Jenkins, K.D.; Folwarkow, S.

    1994-12-31

    Public concern regarding the presence of persistent, bioconcentratable compounds in fish and shellfish has led the petroleum industry to investigate methods for the measurement of bioconcentratable compounds in refinery effluents. Research has focused on developing methods to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other hydrocarbons directly in the effluent and in bivalves exposed to refinery effluents in the field and in the laboratory. Results from a multi-refinery study in the San Francisco Bay Area using selective ion monitoring GC/MS-MS indicated that alkylated and non-substituted 2--3 ring PAHs are rarely present in refinery effluents at concentrations greater than 100 ng/L. Higher MW PAHs were rarely detected. PAHs did not substantially bioconcentrate in bivalves exposed in the laboratory to refinery effluent and reference sea water. Total PAHs were generally less than 50 {mu}g/g in the effluent-exposed bivalves. A comparison of the waste water treatment facilities at each refinery suggest that biological treatment already required by existing regulations is sufficient to reduce PAH concentrations to these low levels.

  3. Use of Bacillus pumilus CBMAI 0008 and Paenibacillus sp. CBMAI 868 for colour removal from paper mill effluent

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Patrícia Lopes; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Ponezi, Alexandre Nunes; Durrant, Lúcia Regina

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus and Paenibacillus sp. were applied on the paper mill effluent to investigate the colour remotion. Inocula were individually applied in effluent at pH 7.0, 9.0 and 11.0. The real colour and COD remotion after 48h at pH 9.0 were, respectively, 41.87% and 22.08% for B. pumilus treatment and 42.30% and 22.89% for Paenibacillus sp. Gel permeation chromatography was used to verify the molar masses of compounds in the non-treated and treated effluent, showing a decrease in the compounds responsible for the paper mill effluent colour. PMID:24031372

  4. Use of Bacillus pumilus CBMAI 0008 and Paenibacillus sp. CBMAI 868 for colour removal from paper mill effluent.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Patrícia Lopes; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Ponezi, Alexandre Nunes; Durrant, Lúcia Regina

    2009-04-01

    Bacillus pumilus and Paenibacillus sp. were applied on the paper mill effluent to investigate the colour remotion. Inocula were individually applied in effluent at pH 7.0, 9.0 and 11.0. The real colour and COD remotion after 48h at pH 9.0 were, respectively, 41.87% and 22.08% for B. pumilus treatment and 42.30% and 22.89% for Paenibacillus sp. Gel permeation chromatography was used to verify the molar masses of compounds in the non-treated and treated effluent, showing a decrease in the compounds responsible for the paper mill effluent colour.

  5. 40 CFR 436.182 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... waste water and mine dewatering discharges, shall not exceed the following limitations: Effluent... if the facilities are designed, constructed and maintained to contain or treat the volume of waste water which would result from a 10-year 24-hour precipitation event. ...

  6. 40 CFR 436.182 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... waste water and mine dewatering discharges, shall not exceed the following limitations: Effluent... if the facilities are designed, constructed and maintained to contain or treat the volume of waste water which would result from a 10-year 24-hour precipitation event. ...

  7. 40 CFR 436.182 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... practicable control technology currently available (BPT): (1) Discharges of process generated waste water and... facilities are designed, constructed and maintained to contain or treat the volume of waste water which would...

  8. 40 CFR 420.103 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cold Forming... best available technology economically achievable. (a) Cold rolling mills—(1) Recirculation—single... applicable in lieu of those for lead and zinc when cold rolling wastewaters are treated with descaling...

  9. 40 CFR 420.103 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cold Forming... best available technology economically achievable. (a) Cold rolling mills—(1) Recirculation—single... applicable in lieu of those for lead and zinc when cold rolling wastewaters are treated with descaling...

  10. 40 CFR 420.103 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cold Forming... best available technology economically achievable. (a) Cold rolling mills—(1) Recirculation—single... applicable in lieu of those for lead and zinc when cold rolling wastewaters are treated with descaling...

  11. 40 CFR 420.103 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cold Forming... best available technology economically achievable. (a) Cold rolling mills—(1) Recirculation—single... applicable in lieu of those for lead and zinc when cold rolling wastewaters are treated with descaling...

  12. 40 CFR 420.103 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cold Forming... best available technology economically achievable. (a) Cold rolling mills—(1) Recirculation—single... applicable in lieu of those for lead and zinc when cold rolling wastewaters are treated with descaling...

  13. 40 CFR 422.42 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... water recirculation system designed, constructed and operated to maintain a surge capacity equal to the... water recirculation system, which is chemically treated and then clarified or settled to meet the other... contaminated nonprocess wastewater shall not exceed the values listed in the following table: Effluent...

  14. Aqueous effluent tritium monitor development

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Wilson, H.T.

    1991-12-31

    The development of a low-level tritium monitor for aqueous effluents has explored several potential techniques. In one method, a water-immiscible liquid scintillation cocktail was ultrasonically mixed with an aqueous sample to form a water-cocktail dispersion which was analyzed by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The organic cocktail could then be reused after phase separation. Of the cocktails tested, the highest tritium detection efficiency (7%) was determined for a toluene-based cocktail. In another technique, the response of various solid scintillators (plastic beads, crushed inorganic salts, etc.) to tritium solutions was measured. A 2% tritium detection efficiency was observed for the most efficient solid scintillators tested. In a third method, a large surface area detector was constructed from thin fibers of plastic scintillator. This detector had a 0.1% intrinsic tritium detection efficiency. While sensitivities of {approximately}25 kBg/L of tritium for a short count have been attained using several of these techniques, non can reach the environmental level of <1 kBg/L in aqueous solutions.

  15. Aqueous effluent tritium monitor development

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Wilson, H.T.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a low-level tritium monitor for aqueous effluents has explored several potential techniques. In one method, a water-immiscible liquid scintillation cocktail was ultrasonically mixed with an aqueous sample to form a water-cocktail dispersion which was analyzed by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The organic cocktail could then be reused after phase separation. Of the cocktails tested, the highest tritium detection efficiency (7%) was determined for a toluene-based cocktail. In another technique, the response of various solid scintillators (plastic beads, crushed inorganic salts, etc.) to tritium solutions was measured. A 2% tritium detection efficiency was observed for the most efficient solid scintillators tested. In a third method, a large surface area detector was constructed from thin fibers of plastic scintillator. This detector had a 0.1% intrinsic tritium detection efficiency. While sensitivities of {approximately}25 kBg/L of tritium for a short count have been attained using several of these techniques, non can reach the environmental level of <1 kBg/L in aqueous solutions.

  16. Pulp mill effluent color removal process

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, H.L.; Adams, W.S. Jr.; Boyden, B.

    1991-07-16

    This paper describes a method for removing color from an effluent having a low pH and containing organic chromophores. It comprises: increasing the pressure of the effluent to between 200 and 600 psi to prevent the liquid within the effluent from changing phase; heating the effluent to a temperature between 200{degrees} and 250{degrees} C. for a retention time up to 20 minutes in accordance with the temperature to alter the chemical structure of lignin chromophores in the effluent; cooling the effluent to a temperature between 35{degrees} and 60{degrees} C.; adjusting the pressure of the effluent to between 0 to 10 psi; adjusting the pH of the effluent to between 10 and 12 to initiate flocculation of the altered chromophores in the effluent; and separating the chromophores from effluent.

  17. Radiation treatment of municipal effluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Shimokawa, Toshinari; Sawai, Takeshi

    1993-10-01

    The recycling of municipal wastewater is an effective means of coping with the water shortage in Tokyo. After irradiation, the refractory organic substances in wastewater were decomposed. COD, light brown color, offensive odor and foaminess in the effluents were reduced with increasing dose. Inactivation efficiencies (D 10) of six microorganisms added to the secondary effluents and return sludge supernatant by irradiation were investigated. The survival curves of total bacteria, total coliforms and enterococci in the secondary effluents were compared. The number of total coliforms exponentially decreased with increasing dose and fell to undetectable levels at 0.5 kGy. The elimination of suspended solids in the secondary effluents is effective in diminishing the dose required to disinfect and prevent bacteria regrowth.

  18. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) Final Hazard Category Determination

    SciTech Connect

    HUTH, L.L.

    2001-06-06

    The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility was designed to store 242-A Evaporator process condensate and other liquid waste streams for treatment at the 200 East Area Effluent Treatment Facility. The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility has been previously classified as a Category 3 Nonreactor Nuclear Facility. As defined in Hazard Categorization and Accident Analysis Techniques for Compliance with DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports (DOE 1992, DOE 1997), Category 3 Nuclear Facilities have the potential for significant localized (radiological) consequences. However, based on current facility design, operations, and radioactive constituent concentrations, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility does not have the potential for significant localized (radiological) consequences and is categorized as a Radiological Facility. This report documents the final hazard categorization process performed in accordance with DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports. This report describes the current configuration and operations of the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility. Also included is a preliminary hazard categorization, which is based on current and proposed radioactive and hazardous material inventories, a preliminary hazards and accident analysis, and a final hazard category determination. The results of the hazards and accident analysis, based on the current configuration and operations of the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and the current and proposed radioactive and hazardous material inventories, demonstrate that the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility does not have the potential for significant localized (radiological) consequences. Based on the final hazard category analysis, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility is a Radiological Facility. The final hazard category determination is based on a comparative evaluation of the consequence basis for the Category 3 threshold quantities to the calculated consequences for credible releases The basis for

  19. The use of home-based therapy with ready-to-use therapeutic food to treat malnutrition in a rural area during a food crisis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    When the international community declared a famine in Malawi in January 2006, emergency food aid reached only populations with pre-existing health care services. To treat the widespread childhood malnutrition in Machinga district, a rural area lacking health care facilities, in February 2006 five ou...

  20. Wastewater reuse in Mediterranean semi-arid areas: The impact of discharges of tertiary treated sewage on the load of polar micro pollutants in the Llobregat river (NE Spain).

    PubMed

    Köck-Schulmeyer, Marianne; Ginebreda, Antoni; Postigo, Cristina; López-Serna, Rebeca; Pérez, Sandra; Brix, Rikke; Llorca, Marta; de Alda, Miren López; Petrović, Mira; Munné, Antoni; Tirapu, Lluís; Barceló, Damià

    2011-01-01

    The presence of sewage-borne micro contaminants in environmental waters is directly related to the discharge of treated effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and the flow rate of the receiving river waters. Mediterranean rivers, in particular, are characterized by important fluctuations in the flow rates and heavy pollution pressures resulting from extensive urban, industrial and agricultural activities. This translates into contamination levels in these rivers often higher than those in other larger European basins. The present work provides an overview of the occurrence of five groups of organic contaminants (131 compounds) namely pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, polar pesticides, estrogens, alkylphenols and related ethoxylates in WWTP tertiary treatment effluents. Data gathered during a period of water reuse carried out in the lower stretch of the Llobregat river (NE Spain), in the surroundings of the town of Barcelona as a consequence of the severe drought that took place along the years 2007-2008 are presented as illustrative example. In general, measured concentrations of the target compounds were in the low to mid ngL(-1) range. The total concentration of each compound class downstream to the discharge point was similar or slightly higher than that found upstream. Regarding the loads calculated for each compound, the relative contribution from the river upstream and the tertiary effluent were highly compound depending with no apparent trend. However, estimation of the overall bulk loads for each compound class determined in the Llobregat river showed the following rank order: pharmaceuticals>alkylphenols>pesticides>illicit drugs≫estrogens.

  1. Characterization of fish hold effluent discharged from commercial fishing vessels into harbor waters.

    PubMed

    Albert, Ryan J; McLaughlin, Christine; Falatko, Debra

    2014-10-15

    Fish hold effluent and the effluent produced from the cleaning of fish holds may contain organic material resulting from the degradation of seafood and cleaning products (e.g., soaps and detergents). This effluent is often discharged by vessels into near shore waters and, therefore, could have the potential to contribute to water pollution in bays and estuaries. We characterized effluent from commercial fishing vessels with holds containing refrigerated seawater, ice slurry, or chipped ice. Concentrations of trace heavy metals, wet chemistry parameters, and nutrients in effluent were compared to screening benchmarks to determine if there is a reasonable potential for effluent discharge to contribute to nonattainment of water quality standards. Most analytes (67%) exceeded their benchmark concentration and, therefore, may have the potential to pose risk to human health or the environment if discharges are in significant quantities or there are many vessels discharging in the same areas. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Hydroponics reducing effluent's heavy metals discharge.

    PubMed

    Rababah, Abdellah; Al-Shuha, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the capacity of Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) to control effluent's heavy metals discharge. A commercial hydroponic system was adapted to irrigate lettuces with primary treated wastewater for studying the potential heavy metals removal. A second commercial hydroponic system was used to irrigate the same type of lettuces with nutrient solution and this system was used as a control. Results showed that lettuces grew well when irrigated with primary treated effluent in the commercial hydroponic system. The NFT-plant system heavy metals removal efficiency varied amongst the different elements, The system's removal efficiency for Cr was more than 92%, Ni more than 85%, in addition to more than 60% reduction of B, Pb, and Zn. Nonetheless, the NFT-plants system removal efficiencies for As, Cd and Cu were lower than 30%. Results show that lettuces accumulated heavy metals in leaves at concentrations higher than the maximum acceptable European and Australian levels. Therefore, non-edible plants such as flowers or pyrethrum are recommended as value added crops for the proposed NFT.

  3. Effluent from bulk drug production is toxic to aquatic vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Gunnar; Orn, Stefan; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2009-12-01

    Very high levels of a range of pharmaceuticals have been reported recently in the effluent from a wastewater treatment plant near Hyderabad, India. The plant serves approximately 90 manufacturers of bulk drugs that primarily are exported to the world market. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics were found at levels that are highly toxic to various microorganisms. Even though milligram-per-liter levels of drugs targeting human proteins also have been found, it is difficult to conclude whether these levels are sufficiently high to adversely affect fish or amphibians due to the lack of relevant chronic toxicity data for most human pharmaceuticals. To assess potential effects on aquatic vertebrates, tadpoles of Xenopus tropicalis were exposed to three dilutions of effluent (0.2, 0.6, and 2%) over 14 d, starting at developmental stage 51. Additionally, newly fertilized zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to diluted effluent in 96-well plates for up to 144 h postfertilization (hpf). The tadpoles' body lengths, weights, and developmental stages were recorded, whereas a larger number of sublethal and lethal endpoints were studied in the zebrafish. A 40% reduced growth of the exposed tadpoles was demonstrated at the lowest tested effluent concentration (0.2%), indicating potent constituents in the effluent that can adversely affect aquatic vertebrates. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for zebrafish at 144 hpf was between 2.7 and 8.1% in different experiments. Reduced spontaneous movements, pigmentation, and heart rate were recorded within 48 hpf at 8 and 16% effluent concentrations. Treated effluent from a plant that serves as an important link in the global supply chain for bulk drugs is thus shown to cause adverse effects to aquatic vertebrates even at very high dilutions.

  4. High-yield pulping effluent treatment technologies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Su, W.X.; Hsieh, J.S.

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this report is to examine the high-yield (mechanical) pulp processes with respect to environmental issues affected by the discharge of their waste streams. Various statistics are given that support the view that high-yield pulping processes will have major growth in the US regions where pulp mills are located, and sites for projects in the development phase are indicated. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies applicable to these processes are reviewed. The different types of mechanical pulping or high-yield processes are explained, and the chemical additives are discussed. The important relationship between pulp yield and measure of BOD in the effluent is graphically presented. Effluent contaminants are identified, along with other important characteristics of the streams. Current and proposed environmental limitations specifically related to mechanical pulp production are reviewed. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies are discussed, along with their principle applications, uses, advantages, and disadvantages. Sludge management and disposal techniques become an intimate part of the treatment of waste streams. The conclusion is made that conventional technologies can successfully treat effluent streams under current waste-water discharge limitations, but these systems may not be adequate when stricter standards are imposed. At present, the most important issue in the treatment of pulp-mill waste is the management and disposal of the resultant sludge.

  5. Sequential anaerobic and aerobic treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent in pilot scale bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pratibha

    2007-01-01

    In the present study sequential anaerobic and aerobic treatment in two step bioreactor was performed for removal of colour in the pulp and paper mill effluent. In anaerobic treatment, colour 50%, lignin 62%, COD 29%, absordable organic halides (AOX) 25% and phenol 29% were reduced in eight days. The anaerobically treated effluent was separately applied in bioreactor in presence of fungal strain, Paecilomyces sp., and bacterial strain, Microbrevis luteum. Data of study indicated reduction in colour 80%, AOX 74%, lignin 81%, COD 93% and phenol 76 per cent by Paecilomyces sp. where as Microbrevis luteum showed removal in colour 59%, lignin 71%, COD 86%, AOX 84% and phenol 88% by day third when 7 days anaerobically treated effluent was further treated by aerobic microorganisms. Change in pH of the effluent and increase in biomass of microorganism's substantiated results of the study, which was concomitant to the treatment method.

  6. [Epidemiological studies on salmonella in a particular area ("Walcheren Project"). III. The incidence of salmonella in man, insects, gulls as well as foods scrapings from butcher's blocks, effluents of sewage treatment plants and drains from butcher's shops (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Edel, W; Van Schothorst, M; Van Leusden, F M; Kampelmacher, E H

    1977-03-15

    In continuation of previous studies, various materials (meat and meat products, insects, gull droppings, scrapings from butcher's blocks, effluents of sewage treatment plants, drains from butcher's shops and faeces of patients) were examined again at the same time for the presence of Salmonella in a relatively small are (Walcheren) over a period of three months. As was also the case in previous studies, S. typhi murium (27.5 per cent), S. panama (22.2 per cent) and S. brandenburg (9.2 per cent) were the three serotypes most frequently isolated. The three most frequently isolated phage types of S. typhi murium were II 505 (62.1 per cent), II 502 (5.3 per cent) and I 650 (4.2 per cent). The serotypes and phage types were present in nearly all the materials studied which again emphasizes the fact that there are contamination cycles of Salmonella. These studies showed that the route of contamination divides in the butcher's shop. Salmonella ogranisms carried with the meat frome the slaughter-house find their way into the drains on the one hand, and, by meat and meat products, to consumers on the other. Moreover, the high degree of contamination of effluents is not in accordance with the small number of cases of salmonellosis.

  7. 40 CFR 426.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  8. 40 CFR 409.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar... beet sugar processing operation. Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day...

  9. 40 CFR 409.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar... beet sugar processing operation. Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day...

  10. 40 CFR 409.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar... beet sugar processing operation. Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day...

  11. 40 CFR 409.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar... beet sugar processing operation. Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day...

  12. 40 CFR 409.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar... beet sugar processing operation. Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day...

  13. 40 CFR 463.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cleaning Water Subcategory § 463.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  14. 40 CFR 427.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  15. 40 CFR 427.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  16. 40 CFR 430.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Fiber Deink Subcategory § 430.92 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  17. 40 CFR 428.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Solution Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  18. 40 CFR 428.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Rubber Subcategory § 428.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  19. 40 CFR 428.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Emulsion Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  20. 40 CFR 428.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Solution Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  1. 40 CFR 428.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Rubber Subcategory § 428.43 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  2. 40 CFR 428.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Rubber Subcategory § 428.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  3. 40 CFR 428.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Emulsion Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  4. 40 CFR 426.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  5. 40 CFR 426.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  6. 40 CFR 464.17 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Casting Subcategory § 464.17 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  7. 40 CFR 414.63 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.63 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  8. 40 CFR 414.61 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.61 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  9. 40 CFR 414.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.62 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  10. 40 CFR 414.81 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.81 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  11. 40 CFR 414.63 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.63 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  12. 40 CFR 414.71 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Bulk Organic Chemicals § 414.71 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  13. 40 CFR 414.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.62 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  14. 40 CFR 414.82 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.82 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  15. 40 CFR 414.61 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.61 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  16. 40 CFR 414.82 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.82 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  17. 40 CFR 414.83 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.83 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  18. 40 CFR 414.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.62 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  19. 40 CFR 414.82 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.82 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  20. 40 CFR 414.81 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.81 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  1. 40 CFR 414.81 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.81 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  2. 40 CFR 414.71 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Bulk Organic Chemicals § 414.71 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  3. 40 CFR 414.83 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.83 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  4. 40 CFR 414.61 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.61 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  5. 40 CFR 414.71 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Bulk Organic Chemicals § 414.71 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  6. 40 CFR 428.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Solution Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  7. 40 CFR 428.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Emulsion Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  8. 40 CFR 428.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Emulsion Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  9. 40 CFR 428.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Solution Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  10. 40 CFR 405.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cultured Products Subcategory § 405.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  11. 40 CFR 420.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.62 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  12. 40 CFR 420.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.62 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  13. 40 CFR 427.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Roofing Subcategory § 427.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  14. 40 CFR 427.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Millboard Subcategory § 427.52 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  15. 40 CFR 420.117 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....117 Section 420.117 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT... § 420.117 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  16. 40 CFR 422.43 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.43 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  17. 40 CFR 422.43 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.43 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  18. 40 CFR 422.43 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.43 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  19. 40 CFR 422.62 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Phosphates Subcategory § 422.62 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  20. 40 CFR 422.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...