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Sample records for area upper engadine

  1. Influence of subsurface heterogeneity on observed borehole temperatures at a mountain permafrost site in the Upper Engadine, Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, S.; Hoelzle, M.; Hauck, C.

    2012-04-01

    Permafrost in high mountain areas occurs in a large variety of surface and subsurface material within short distances. This work presents a nine-year (2002 - 2011) data set of borehole temperatures for five different (sub-) surface materials from the high alpine permafrost area, Murtèl-Corvatsch, Switzerland (Haeberli et al. (1988) and Hanson & Hoelzle (2005)). The influence of the material on the thermal regime was investigated by borehole temperature data, the temperature at the top of the permafrost (TTOP-concept) and the apparent thermal diffusivity (ATD). The results show no consistent subsurface temperature trends since 2002 within the uppermost 6 meters. Rather, the thermal regime is predominantly influenced by the composition of the subsurface material and the thickness and duration of the snow cover. At all sites the subsurface temperatures were the lowest when the snow thickness was less than 1m. As pointed out in Luetschg et al. (2008), it could be confirmed, that the longer the non-insulating snow cover lasts in autumn, the colder is the ground surface temperature (GST) through the entire year. At all sites the cooling during autumn/ winter and the duration of the zero curtain in spring had a stronger influence on the interannual variability of the thermal regime than the temperature increase during summer. At coarse blocky, ice-rich sites no changes in active layer depth were observed. Rather, the ATD values of the active layer and the high temperature transport rate of 5.6 K m-1 d-1 confirm a high thermal response of the active layer. Within coarse blocky material, the air ventilation (as described in Wakonigg (1996)) and the seasonal production of ice seem to be the main factors for permafrost occurrence in high alpine regions. While temperatures within the talus slope are close to 0 °C and a stable permafrost regime is observed, the subsurface of the fine-grained site (where convective and advective airflow can be neglected) showed positive

  2. Fi Investigations On Hp-Rocks From The Lower Engadine Window New Insights On Its Late Tectono-Metamorphic Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertle, R. J.; Götzinger, M. A.; Koller, F.

    2003-04-01

    the host rock (blueschist) epidote-clinozoisite cristalls. Futheron amphibole is visible. It is common at the base of the vein quarz and decreases towards the middle of the vein. FI are H2O-rich and indicate high pressure of trapping. Quarzes from the upper most part of the Zone of Pfunds from S of Zeblasjoch (W of Samnaun Dorf) show two main groups of primary FI which could be differentiated at room temperature: homogenous FI and such with a bubble. All FI were frozen at max. temperatures of ca. -56 ^oC. Bigger FI show cracking due to cristallisation pressure (build up of "wings"), the cracks however closed again during heating, so that the FI remained closed. Initial melting started between -20 ^oC (first recristallisation signs) and -9 ^oC, final melting was observable at -1 ^oC to 0 ^oC. Then the FI was a.) homogenous or b.) showed a bubble. Homogenisation Temp. of the inclusions with bubble were in the range of 70 to 150 ^oC , most of them between 70 and 80 ^oC and 110 - 125 ^oC. The data indicate a more or less pure H_2O-system for the FI under high pressure. Assuming a cristallisation temperature of the cristalls of about 200 to 250 ^oC and a density of the FI between 0,97 and 1,0 g/cm^3 pressures of 2,5 to 4,5 Kbar are indicated. The same P-T-conditions (same chemistry and melting & homog. Temp.) could be derived from FI in quarz from the Salaaser Kopf (Idalpe) for the late metamorphic evolution of the Fimber unit, indicating that the late metamorphic history of both units is the same. It is concluded that opening of the veins and first cristallisation of vein quarz corresponds to the first signs of updoming of the Engadine anticlinal structure. Updoming of the anticline started when the whole nappe stack was covered by the Austroalpine nappes. Therefore FI show such high pressures for trapping of the fluid. Acknowledgements: Data partly result from FWF-project P. 15278 "Bündnerschieferakkretion in the westlichen Ostalpen". Financal support is greatly

  3. 3D Structure of collision in the Central Alps: lower-plate or upper-plate indentation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Claudio; Kissling, Eduard

    2013-04-01

    Combining surface geological information with P-wave tomography we constructed three orogen-scale cross sections in the western, central, and eastern parts of the Central Alps. These sections show some very significant differences in the way collisional shortening (inferred to be post-30 Ma) is accommodated. In the eastern (Engadine) section we estimate 98 km of shortening, out of which 87 km are accommodated in the upper plate, south of the Insubric Line. In the western (Simplon) section, we estimate a total of 82-92 km of shortening, 65-75 of which are accommodated north of the Insubric Line, within the wedge of accreted lower crustal material. In the central (Bergell) section we estimate 97 km of shortening almost equally partitioned between upper, Adriatic plate, and the wedge of accreted lower crustal material. The lower crust of the Adriatic plate forms a wedge that reaches a maximum N-S extension of approximately 60 km in the Engadine section, progressively decreasing westward and completely disappearing along the Simplon section where the Ivrea body forms the northern limit of Adria. This difference of 60km in the N-S extension of the lower crust corresponds to the difference of shortening of the middle and upper crust, between Engadine and Simplon sections, suggesting that formation of a lower crustal wedge in the Adriatic plate is a direct consequence of a strong intraplate decoupling, limiting shortening to the middle and upper parts of the crust. Whereas the Simplon section shows a classical example of upper plate indentation into a collisional wedge of accreted lower plate material, the Engadine section is a good example of lower plate indentation into an intensely deforming upper plate. The causes for this dramatic along-strike change of tectonic style within a segment of the orogen less than 200 km long, are probably due to the heterogeneous rheology of the lithosphere. The Ivrea body in the Simplon section increases the strength of the Adriatic

  4. Multiple sulphur and oxygen isotopes reveal microbial sulphur cycling in spring waters in the Lower Engadin, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Harald; Chmiel, Hannah; Christ, Andreas; Fugmann, Artur; Hanselmann, Kurt; Kappler, Andreas; Königer, Paul; Lutter, Andreas; Siedenberg, Katharina; Teichert, Barbara M A

    2016-01-01

    Highly mineralized springs in the Scuol-Tarasp area of the Lower Engadin and in the Albula Valley near Alvaneu, Switzerland, display distinct differences with respect to the source and fate of their dissolved sulphur species. High sulphate concentrations and positive sulphur (δ(34)S) and oxygen (δ(18)O) isotopic compositions argue for the subsurface dissolution of Mesozoic evaporitic sulphate. In contrast, low sulphate concentrations and less positive or even negative δ(34)S and δ(18)O values indicate a substantial contribution of sulphate sulphur from the oxidation of sulphides in the crystalline basement rocks or the Jurassic sedimentary cover rocks. Furthermore, multiple sulphur (δ(34)S, Δ(33)S) isotopes support the identification of microbial sulphate reduction and sulphide oxidation in the subsurface, the latter is also evident through the presence of thick aggregates of sulphide-oxidizing Thiothrix bacteria.

  5. Multiple sulphur and oxygen isotopes reveal microbial sulphur cycling in spring waters in the Lower Engadin, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Harald; Chmiel, Hannah; Christ, Andreas; Fugmann, Artur; Hanselmann, Kurt; Kappler, Andreas; Königer, Paul; Lutter, Andreas; Siedenberg, Katharina; Teichert, Barbara M A

    2016-01-01

    Highly mineralized springs in the Scuol-Tarasp area of the Lower Engadin and in the Albula Valley near Alvaneu, Switzerland, display distinct differences with respect to the source and fate of their dissolved sulphur species. High sulphate concentrations and positive sulphur (δ(34)S) and oxygen (δ(18)O) isotopic compositions argue for the subsurface dissolution of Mesozoic evaporitic sulphate. In contrast, low sulphate concentrations and less positive or even negative δ(34)S and δ(18)O values indicate a substantial contribution of sulphate sulphur from the oxidation of sulphides in the crystalline basement rocks or the Jurassic sedimentary cover rocks. Furthermore, multiple sulphur (δ(34)S, Δ(33)S) isotopes support the identification of microbial sulphate reduction and sulphide oxidation in the subsurface, the latter is also evident through the presence of thick aggregates of sulphide-oxidizing Thiothrix bacteria. PMID:25922968

  6. 7 CFR 1030.2 - Upper Midwest marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Upper Midwest marketing area. 1030.2 Section 1030.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA...

  7. 7 CFR 1030.2 - Upper Midwest marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Upper Midwest marketing area. 1030.2 Section 1030.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA...

  8. 7 CFR 1030.2 - Upper Midwest marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Upper Midwest marketing area. 1030.2 Section 1030.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA...

  9. 7 CFR 1030.2 - Upper Midwest marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Upper Midwest marketing area. 1030.2 Section 1030.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA...

  10. 7 CFR 1030.2 - Upper Midwest marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Upper Midwest marketing area. 1030.2 Section 1030.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA...

  11. Specific analysis of the recent rockfall activity in the southeast face of the Piz Lischana (Engadin Valley, Graubünden, Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büsing, Susanna; Guerin, Antoine; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Phillips, Marcia

    2016-04-01

    The study of permafrost is now attracting more and more researchers because the warming observed in the Alps since the beginning of last century is causing changes in active layer depth and in the thermal state of this climate indicator. In mountain regions, permafrost degradation is becoming critical for the whole population since slopes and rock walls are being destabilized, thus increasing risk for infrastructure and inhabitants of mountain valleys. To anticipate the triggering of future events better, it is necessary to improve understanding on the relation between permafrost thaw and slope instabilities. A rockfall of about 7000 m3 occurred in the upper part of the southeast face of the Piz Lischana (3105 m), in the Engadin Valley (Graubünden, Switzerland) around noon on 31 July 2011. Luckily, this event was filmed and ice could be observed on the failure plane after analysis of the images. In September 2014 and in the same area, another rockfall of 2340 m3 occurred along a prominent open fracture which was apparent since the failure of the rock mass in 2011. In order to characterize and analyze these two events, three 3D high density point clouds have been made using Structure from Motion (SfM) and LiDAR, one before and two after the September 2014 rockfall. For this purpose, 120 photos were taken during a helicopter flight in July 2014 to produce the first SfM point cloud, and more than 400 terrestrial photos were taken at the end of September to produce the second SfM point cloud. In July 2015 a third point cloud was created from three LiDAR scans, taken from two different positions. The point clouds were georeferenced with a 2 m resolution digital elevation model and compared to each other in order to calculate the volume of the rockfalls. A detailed structural analysis of the two rockfalls was made and compared to the geological structures of the whole southeast face. The structural analysis also allowed to improve the understanding of the failure

  12. The Lower Engadine Window: sediment deposition and accretion in relation to the plate-tectonic evolution of the Eastern Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waibel, A. F.; Frisch, W.

    1989-05-01

    The Lower Engadine Window comprises a weakly metamorphosed, heterogeneous mixture of continental fragments and oceanic ophiolites embedded in a disrupted mass of deep-sea sediments ranging from the mid-Jurassic to the Early Eocene, mostly turbidites. Its geological features are reviewed in the light of recent research and its relationships with other Penninic outcrops in the Eastern Alps discussed. In the Falknis, Sulzfluh and Tasna zones it is thought that the entire spectrum of post-Liassic sediments was deposited to the north of the Austro-Alpine continental margin. This is based on downcurrent variations of sedimentary structures to the north or northwest in the same direction as the trend of paleocurrent indicators, and on the close petrographic resemblance of coarse parent rock materials to Austro-Alpine units. Of particular significance are granitic rocks exposed by vertical movements along fault scarps associated with the first formation of oceanic crust. These granitic rocks, together with their Permo-Mesozoic sedimentary cover, were to be eroded and slumped down from the continental margin until the Senonian. Throughout the Jurassic, the clastic sediments were shed laterally onto the abyssal plain and base of the continental slope. Pelagic sedimentation during parts of the Late Jurassic and earliest Cretaceous, including Aptychus limestones deposited close to the calcite compensation depth, suggests that maximum subsidence of the initially passive continental margin had been attained by this time period. With the onset of continental convergence in the earliest Cretaceous, underthrusting of oceanic crust gave rise to an accretionary trench system. The Cretaceous sediments were deposited in a deep-sea fan environment affected by chaotic mass movements from the inner trench wall. It is believed that the close proximity to the source area of the vast majority of Jurassic and Cretaceous deposits reflects the relative motion between the plates, which must have

  13. Pleistocene drainage incision in the upper Mississippi Valley Driftless Area

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    The deep dissection of the Wisconsin Driftless Area and topographically similar, but glaciated areas in adjacent states is generally acknowledged to have occurred during the Pleistocene, but the precise chronology has been poorly understood. The distribution of pre-Illinoian glacial outwash gravels on uplands and valley side benches near the Mississippi River, on the western margin of the Wisconsin Driftless Area, indicates that the major incision (50-60 m) of drainage had occurred during the very early Pleistocene. Deposits in cut-off valley meanders, a common feature in the lower reaches of Driftless Area rivers, provide a basis for relative dating of the valley incision. The cut-offs appear to have evolved episodically when, at various times during the Pleistocene, glacial debris blocked the drainages of the Mississippi and Wisconsin Rivers causing massive alluviation of side valley tributaries. A radiocarbon date of 21,910 +/- 350 year B.P., representing a buried soil horizon at 22 m depth and about 9 m above the bedrock floor of a cut-off valley meander and 18 m above the bedrock floor of the adjacent present-day valley, supports stratigraphic interpretations that suggest modest valley incision into bedrock probably occurred during the Illinoian and may have also occurred during the early Wisconsinan.

  14. Non-linear flow law of rockglacier creep determined from geomorphological observations: A case study from the Murtèl rockglacier (Engadin, SE Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frehner, Marcel; Amschwand, Dominik; Gärtner-Roer, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    Rockglaciers consist of unconsolidated rock fragments (silt/sand-rock boulders) with interstitial ice; hence their creep behavior (i.e., rheology) may deviate from the simple and well-known flow-laws for pure ice. Here we constrain the non-linear viscous flow law that governs rockglacier creep based on geomorphological observations. We use the Murtèl rockglacier (upper Engadin valley, SE Switzerland) as a case study, for which high-resolution digital elevation models (DEM), time-lapse borehole deformation data, and geophysical soundings exist that reveal the exterior and interior architecture and dynamics of the landform. Rockglaciers often feature a prominent furrow-and-ridge topography. For the Murtèl rockglacier, Frehner et al. (2015) reproduced the wavelength, amplitude, and distribution of the furrow-and-ridge morphology using a linear viscous (Newtonian) flow model. Arenson et al. (2002) presented borehole deformation data, which highlight the basal shear zone at about 30 m depth and a curved deformation profile above the shear zone. Similarly, the furrow-and-ridge morphology also exhibits a curved geometry in map view. Hence, the surface morphology and the borehole deformation data together describe a curved 3D geometry, which is close to, but not quite parabolic. We use a high-resolution DEM to quantify the curved geometry of the Murtèl furrow-and-ridge morphology. We then calculate theoretical 3D flow geometries using different non-linear viscous flow laws. By comparing them to the measured curved 3D geometry (i.e., both surface morphology and borehole deformation data), we can determine the most adequate flow-law that fits the natural data best. Linear viscous models result in perfectly parabolic flow geometries; non-linear creep leads to localized deformation at the sides and bottom of the rockglacier while the deformation in the interior and top are less intense. In other words, non-linear creep results in non-parabolic flow geometries. Both the

  15. Carnotite resources of the upper group area, San Miguel County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Withington, Charles Francis

    1951-01-01

    No additional diamond drilling by the Geological Survey is planned in the Upper group area.  Several specific localities, principally in the central part of the area, are recommended for further exploration by jackhammer and wagon drilling by lessees and operators.

  16. Hydrogeology and water quality of the upper Floridan aquifer, western Albany area, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Lisa M.; Warner, Debbie; Dawson, Barbara J.

    1999-01-01

    Geologic, hydrologic, and water-quality data were collected to refine the hydrogeologic framework conceptual model of the Upper Floridan aquifer, and to qualitatively evaluate the potential of human activities to impact water quality in the Upper Floridan aquifer in the western Albany area, Georgia. Ground-water age dating was conducted by using chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) and tritium concentrations in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer to determine if recharge and possible contaminant migration to the aquifer is recent or occurred prior to the introduction of CFCs and tritium in the early 1950's into the global natural water system. Data were collected from core holes and wells installed during this study and previously existing wells in the Albany area. Hydrogeologic data collected during this study compare well to the regional hydrogeologic conceptual model developed during previous studies. However, the greater data density available from this study shows the dynamic and local variability in the hydrologic character of the Upper Floridan aquifer in more detail. The occurrence of sediment sizes from clay to gravel in the overburden, the absence of overburden because of erosion or sinkhole collapse, and large areas lacking surface drainage west of the Flint River provide potential areas for recharge and contaminant migration from the surface to the Upper Floridan aquifer throughout the study area. Ground-water ages generally range from 9 to 34 years, indicating that recharge consisting of 'modern' water (post early-1950's) is present in the aquifer. Ground-water ages and hydraulic heads in the Upper Floridan aquifer have an irregular distribution, indicating that localized areas of recharge to the aquifer are present in the study area. Generally, water in the Upper Floridan aquifer is calcium-bicarbonate rich, having low concentrations of magnesium, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate. Water in the Upper Floridan aquifer is oxygenated, having dissolved

  17. Prediction of prognosis of ALS: Importance of active denervation findings of the cervical-upper limb area and trunk area.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yoko; Nakatani, Eiji; Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Fukushima, Masanori; Nakashima, Kenji; Kannagi, Mari; Kanatani, Yasuhiro; Mizushima, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a motor neuron disease characterized by serious muscle atrophy and weakness. The purpose of this study was to find prognostic factors in patients with mild ALS using application forms for the Specified Disease Treatment Research Program in Japan. We classified ALS as mild, moderate and severe. The subjects consisted of 363 patients with mild ALS who underwent needle electromyography at registration and were followed for more than one year. Time to progression to severe ALS and time to deterioration of activities of daily living such as speech dysfunction, upper limb dysfunction, and walking disability were used as outcomes. Cox proportional hazards model analysis was performed to identify prognostic factors. Of the patients with initially mild ALS, 38.3% (139/363) had progressed severe ALS at the last follow-up. In multivariate analysis of time to progression to severe ALS, bulbar onset (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.68 [1.13-2.49], p = 0.010), tongue atrophy (1.69 [1.14-2.51], p = 0.009), dyspnea (1.57 [1.02-2.41], p = 0.042) and active denervation findings (ADFs) of the cervical-upper limb area (1.81 [1.25-2.63], p = 0.002) emerged as prognostic factors. Furthermore ADFs in the trunk area were prognostic factors for upper limb dysfunction and walking disability (1.72 [1.05-2.81], p = 0.031, and 1.97 [1.09-3.59], p = 0.026). In conclusion ADFs of the cervical-upper limb area and trunk area were prognostic factors in ALS patients.

  18. Hydrogeology, chemical quality, and availability of ground water in the Upper Floridan aquifer, Albany area, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hicks, D.W.; Gill, H.E.; Longsworth, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Large withdrawals of groundwater in the 1500 sq mi Albany area of southwestern Georgia have lowered water levels in deep aquifers as much as 140 ft. This study was conducted to evaluate the development potential of the shallow Upper Floridan aquifer as an alternate source of groundwater, especially for public supply. The Upper Floridan stores and transmits large quantities of water, mainly in a zone of high permeability in the lower part of the aquifer. The transmissivity of the aquifer ranges from < 10,000 sq ft/day northwest of Albany, to as much as 150 ,000 sq ft/day south and southeast of Albany. Twenty-eight years of agricultural and industrial pumping has not produced a long-term decline of the water level in the Upper Floridan; the aquifer system remains at equilibrium. The Upper Floridan yields hard, calcium bicarbonate-type water but concentrations do not exceed State drinking water standards. In most of the study area , contaminants applied to or spilled on the land surface eventually can be expected to percolate through the overburden and reach the aquifer. Thus, it is important that wells be sited away from areas that have been used for the storage and disposal of potential contaminants and, probably to a lesser extent, the application of agricultural chemicals. In the area of greatest development potential east of the Flint River, wells may penetrate major groundwater conduits. By limiting drawdown during well development and during production, the likelihood of causing sinkholes to form can be minimized. Closed depressions, or sinks, throughout the Dougherty Plain probably are unsuitable as well sites, because (1) they are subject to flooding, (2) they collect water from upgradient areas and could concentrate potential contaminants, (3) water probably percolates through their bottoms and could transport contaminants into the aquifer, and (4) the depressions may overlie limestone cavities filled with sand or clay that could interfere with well yield

  19. Regional models of the upper mantle structure in the greater Alpine area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plomerova, J.; Babuska, V.; Vecsey, L.; Munzarova, H.; Karousova, H.

    2012-04-01

    Large-scale international passive seismic experiments proved their essential role in acquiring digital waveform data for studies of deep structure of the Earth, particularly of the upper mantle or specifically, of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system. The Alps developed at a collision zone of the Eurasian and African plates and their fragments, however an extensive passive seismic experiment similar to those in other European provinces has not been carried out yet. Interactions of European lithosphere with plates colliding from the south were not simple and resulted in complicated geometry of subductions in the Western and Eastern Alps, where two separated Alpine roots developed (Babuska et al., Tectonophysics 1990; Lippitsch et al., JGR 2003, Kissling et al., ELD 2006). Standard tomographic images of the velocity or velocity perturbations detect predominantly isotropic structure of the upper mantle. By evaluating large-scale seismic anisotropy of the upper mantle we can model its fabric and map in detail structure of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system. Studies of the mantle fabrics in 3D, exploiting body-wave anisotropic parameters, shed more light on development of the complex Alpine region and its surroundings. We present isotropic and anisotropic models of the upper mantle in tectonically different provinces of the greater Alpine area, retrieved from joint inversion/interpretation of both directional terms of relative travel-time deviations of longitudinal waves and shear-wave splitting. The 3D self-consistent anisotropic models of the continental mantle lithosphere exhibit often sharply bounded domains of uniform fossil fabrics. We interpret the domain-like structure of the mantle lithosphere as representing individual continental fragments, which are able to retain their original anisotropy, which was created a long time before their assembly (Babuska and Plomerova, PEPI 2006; Plomerova and Babuska, Lithos 2010). Deciphering the structure of paleo-plates in

  20. Thin-skinned tectonics of the Upper Ojai Valley and Sulphur Mountain area, Ventura basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Huftile, G.J. )

    1991-08-01

    By integrating surface mapping with subsurface well data and drawing cross sections and subsurface maps, the geometry of shallow structures and their geologic history of the Upper Ojai Valley of California can be reconstructed. The geometry of shallow structures, the geologic history, and the location of earthquake foci then offer constraints on the deep structure of this complex area. The Upper Ojai Valley is a tectonic depression between opposing reverse faults. Its northern border is formed by the active, north-dipping San Cayetano fault, which has 6.0 km of stratigraphic separation in the Silverthread area of the Ojai oil field and 2.6 km of stratigraphic separation west of Sisar Creek. The fault dies out farther west in Ojai Valley, where the south-vergent shortening is transferred to a blind thrust. The southern border of the Upper Ojai Valley is formed by the Quaternary Lion fault set, which dips south and merges into the Sisar decollement within the south-dipping, ductile, lower Miocene Rincon formation. By the middle Pleistocene, the Sulphur Mountain anticlinorium and the Big Canyon syncline began forming as a fault-propagation fold; the fault-propagation fold is rooted in the Sisar decollement, a passive backthrust rising from a blind thrust at depth. The formation of the Sulphur Mountain anticlinorium was followed closely by the ramping of the south-dipping Lion fault set to the surface over the nonmarine upper Pleistocene Saugus Formation. To the east, the San Cayetano fault overrides and folds the Lion Fault set near the surface. Area-balancing of the deformation shows shortening of 15.5 km, and suggests a 17 km depth to the brittle-ductile transition.

  1. Partners in flight bird conservation plan for the Upper Great Lakes Plain (Physiographic Area 16)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutson, M.G.; Butcher, G.; Fitzgerald, J.; Shieldcastle, J.

    2001-01-01

    1 November 2001. Conservation of bird habitats is a major focus of effort by Partners in Flight, an international coalition of agencies, citizens, and other groups dedicated to 'keeping common birds common'. USGS worked on a planning team to publish a bird conservation plan for the Upper Great Lakes Plain ecoregion (PIF 16), which includes large portions of southern Wisconsin, southern Michigan and parts of Minnesota, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. The conservation plan outlines specific habitat restoration and bird population objectives for the ecoregion over the next decade. The plan provides a context for on-the-ground conservation implementation by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, the US Forest Service, states, and conservation groups. Citation: Knutson, M. G., G. Butcher, J. Fitzgerald, and J. Shieldcastle. 2001. Partners in Flight Bird Conservation Plan for The Upper Great Lakes Plain (Physiographic Area 16). USGS Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center in cooperation with Partners in Flight, La Crosse, Wisconsin. Download from website: http://www.blm.gov/wildlife/pifplans.htm. The Upper Great Lakes Plain covers the southern half of Michigan, northwest Ohio, northern Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, and small portions of southwest Minnesota and northwest Iowa. Glacial moraines and dissected plateaus are characteristic of the topography. Broadleaf forests, oak savannahs, and a variety of prairie communities are the natural vegetation types. A oDriftless Areao was not glaciated during the late Pleistocene and emerged as a unique area of great biological diversity. Priority bird species for the area include the Henslow's Sparrow, Sedge Wren, Bobolink, Golden-winged Warbler, Cerulean Warbler, Black-billed Cuckoo, and Red-headed Woodpecker. There are many large urban centers in this area whose growth and sprawl will continue to consume land. The vast majority of the presettlement forest and

  2. Puhimau thermal area: a window into the upper east rift zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, K.A.; Sutton, A.J.; Elias, T.; Doukas, M.P.; Gerlach, T.M.

    2006-01-01

    We report the results of two soil CO2 efflux surveys by the closed chamber circulation method at the Puhimau thermal area in the upper East Rift Zone (ERZ) of  volcano, Hawaii. The surveys were undertaken in 1996 and 1998 to constrain how much CO2 might be reaching the ERZ after degassing beneath the summit caldera and whether the Puhimau thermal area might be a significant contributor to the overall CO2 budget of  . The area was revisited in 2001 to determine the effects of surface disturbance on efflux values by the collar emplacement technique utilized in the earlier surveys. Utilizing a cutoff value of 50 g m−2 d−1 for the surrounding forest background efflux, the CO2 emission rates for the anomaly at Puhimau thermal area were 27 t d−1 in 1996 and 17 t d−1 in 1998. Water vapor was removed before analysis in all cases in order to obtain CO2 values on a dry air basis and mitigate the effect of water vapor dilution on the measurements. It is clear that Puhimau thermal area is not a significant contributor to  CO2 output and that most of  CO2 (8500 t d−1) is degassed at the summit, leaving only magma with its remaining stored volatiles, such as SO2, for injection down the ERZ. Because of the low CO2emission rate and the presence of a shallow water table in the upper ERZ that effectively scrubs SO2 and other acid gases, Puhimau thermal area currently does not appear to be generally well suited for observing temporal changes in degassing at  .

  3. Management of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage: controversies and areas of uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Trawick, Eric P; Yachimski, Patrick S

    2012-03-21

    Upper gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage (UGIH) remains a common presentation requiring urgent evaluation and treatment. Accurate assessment, appropriate intervention and apt clinical skills are needed for proper management from time of presentation to discharge. The advent of pharmacologic acid suppression, endoscopic hemostatic techniques, and recognition of Helicobacter pylori as an etiologic agent in peptic ulcer disease (PUD) has revolutionized the treatment of UGIH. Despite this, acute UGIH still carries considerable rates of morbidity and mortality. This review aims to discuss current areas of uncertainty and controversy in the management of UGIH. Neoadjuvant proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy has become standard empiric treatment for UGIH given that PUD is the leading cause of non-variceal UGIH, and PPIs are extremely effective at promoting ulcer healing. However, neoadjuvant PPI administration has not been shown to affect hard clinical outcomes such as rebleeding or mortality. The optimal timing of upper endoscopy in UGIH is often debated. Upon completion of volume resuscitation and hemodynamic stabilization, upper endoscopy should be performed within 24 h in all patients with evidence of UGIH for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. With rising healthcare cost paramount in today's medical landscape, the ability to appropriately triage UGIH patients is of increasing value. Upper endoscopy in conjunction with the clinical scenario allows for accurate decision making concerning early discharge home in low-risk lesions or admission for further monitoring and treatment in higher-risk lesions. Concomitant pharmacotherapy with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and antiplatelet agents, such as clopidogrel, has a major impact on the etiology, severity, and potential treatment of UGIH. Long-term PPI use in patients taking chronic NSAIDs or clopidogrel is discussed thoroughly in this review. PMID:22468078

  4. Human Coronaviruses Associated with Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Three Rural Areas of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Owusu, Michael; Annan, Augustina; Corman, Victor Max; Larbi, Richard; Anti, Priscilla; Drexler, Jan Felix; Agbenyega, Olivia; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Drosten, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory tract infections (ARI) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, especially in Africa. This study sought to determine whether human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are associated with upper respiratory tract infections among older children and adults in Ghana. Methods We conducted a case control study among older children and adults in three rural areas of Ghana using asymptomatic subjects as controls. Nasal/Nasopharyngeal swabs were tested for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), HCoV-22E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1 using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction. Results Out of 1,213 subjects recruited, 150 (12.4%) were positive for one or more viruses. Of these, single virus detections occurred in 146 subjects (12.0%) and multiple detections occurred in 4 (0.3%). Compared with control subjects, infections with HCoV-229E (OR = 5.15, 95%CI = 2.24–11.78), HCoV-OC43 (OR = 6.16, 95%CI = 1.77–21.65) and combine HCoVs (OR = 2.36, 95%CI = 1.5 = 3.72) were associated with upper respiratory tract infections. HCoVs were found to be seasonally dependent with significant detections in the harmattan season (mainly HCoV-229E) and wet season (mainly HCoV-NL63). A comparison of the obtained sequences resulted in no differences to sequences already published in GenBank. Conclusion HCoVs could play significant role in causing upper respiratory tract infections among adults and older children in rural areas of Ghana. PMID:25080241

  5. Hydrogeologic evaluation of the Upper Floridan aquifer in the southwestern Albany area, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, Debbie

    1997-01-01

    A cooperative study by the Albany Water, Gas, and Light Commission and the U.S. Geological Survey was conducted to evaluate the hydrogeology of the Upper Floridan aquifer in an area southwest of Albany and west of the Flint River in Dougherty County, Ga. The study area lies in the Dougherty Plain district of the Coastal Plain physiographic province. In this area, the Upper Floridan aquifer is comprised of the upper Eocene Ocala Limestone, confined below by the middle Eocene Lisbon Formation, and semiconfined above by the undifferentiated Quaternary overburden. The overburden ranges in thickness from about 30 to 50 feet and consists of fine to coarse quartz sand, clayey sand, sandy clay, and clay. The Upper Floridan aquifer has been subdivided into an upper water-bearing zone and a lower water-bearing zone based on differences in lithology and yield. In the study area, the upper water-bearing zone generally consists of dense, highly weathered limestone of low permeability and ranges in thickness from 40 to 80 feet. The lower water-bearing zone consists of hard, slightly weathered limestone that exhibits a high degree of secondary permeability that has developed along fractures and joints, and ranges in thickness from about 60 to 80 feet. Borehole geophysical logs and borehole video surveys indicate two areas of high permeability in the lower water-bearing zone-one near the top and one near the base of the zone. A wellfield consisting of one production well and five observation-well clusters (one deep, intermediate, and shallow well in each cluster) was constructed for this study. Spinner flowmeter tests were conducted in the production well between the depths of 110 and 140 feet below land surface to determine the relative percentages of water contributed by selected vertical intervals of the lower water-bearing zone. Pumping rates during these tests were 1,080, 2,200, and 3,400 gallons per minute. The results of these pumping tests show that the interval between

  6. Seismic stratigraphic characteristics of upper Louisiana continental slope: an area east of Green Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouma, Arnold H.; Feeley, Mary H.; Kindinger, Jack G.; Stelting, Charles E.; Hilde, Thomas W.C.

    1981-01-01

    A high-resolution seismic reflection survey was conducted in a small area of the upper Louisiana Continental Slope known as Green Canyon Area. This area includes tracts 427, 428, 471, 472, 515, and 516, that will be offered for sale in March 1982 as part of Lease Sale 67. The sea floor of this region is, slightly hummocky and is underlain by salt diapirs that are mantled by early Tertiary shale. Most of the shale is overlain by younger Tertiary and Quaternary deposits, although locally some of the shale protrudes the sea floor. Because of proximity to older Mississippi River sources, the sediments are thick. The sediment cover shows an abundance of geologic phenomena such as horsts, grabens, growth faults, normal faults, and consolidation faults, zones with distinct and indistinct parallel reflections, semi-transparent zones, distorted zones, and angular unconformities. The major feature of this region is a N-S linear zone of uplifted and intruded sedimentary deposits formed due to diapiric intrusion. Small scale graben development over the crest of the structure can be attributed to extension and collapse. Large scale undulations of reflections well off the flanks of the uplifted structure suggest sediment creep and slumping. Dipping of parallel reflections show block faulting and tilting. Air gun (5 and 40 cubic inch) records reveal at least five major sequences that show masked onlap and slumping in their lower parts grading into more distinct parallel reflections in their upper parts. Such sequences can be related to local uplift and sea level changes. Minisparker records of this area show similar sequences but on a smaller scale. The distinct parallel reflections often onlap the diapir flanks. The highly reflective parts of these sequences may represent turbidite-type deposition, possibly at times of lower sea level. The acoustically more transparent parts of each sequence may represent deposits containing primarily hemipelagic and pelagic sediment. A complex

  7. Hydrology of the Upper Capibaribe Basin, Pernambuco, Brazil - A reconnaissance in an Area of Crystalline Rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chada Filho, Luiz Goncalves; Dias Pessoa, Mario; Sinclair, William C.

    1966-01-01

    only small quantities to wells. The alluvium probably is the most productive aquifer in the basin, but is limited to narrow bands along the rivers that generally are no more than a few hundred meters wide and 5 meters thick. The alluvium contains variable amounts of silty sand capable of yielding small to moderate quantities of water to wells. Wells driven or dug into the alluvium could solve many small water problems. The chemical quality of the water in the upper Capibaribe basin ranges from good to bad and generally presents a major problem that cannot be solved solely by applying geological criteria. Mineralized water is widespread in the area, both in streams and underground, and .the choice of aquifers is small. All known aquifers contain, at one place or another, water that is mineralized, leaving no alternative for a natural supply of good-quality water. Although much of the available water is unsatisfactory for human consumption, it is generally acceptable for animals and therefore meets one of the principal water needs. Some of the ground water could be made potable by diluting it with rainwater, which could be collected during rainy seasons and temporarily stored in cisterns or reservoirs.

  8. Improving the Prediction of Baseflows in the Driftless Area of the Upper Midwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Z.; Potter, K. W.

    2014-12-01

    The Driftless Area of the Upper Midwestern United States is a unique region that was not glaciated during the Quaternary Period. Groundwater discharges in the hilly landscape support over 4,000 miles of coldwater, high-class trout streams that are a destination for anglers across the Midwest. Temperature increases due to anthropogenic climate change are predicted to have a negative impact on the cold water thermal regimes that support species such as brook and brown trout. Previous work has concluded that the hillslopes in the region play an important role in producing the recharge that supports cool groundwater discharges concentrated in the headwaters of these streams. In this study, we used a set of baseflow measurements recorded by Potter and Gaffield (2001) in the headwaters of a Driftless Area stream and a simple Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis to assess the relationship between the percentage of hillslope in a watershed and average unit baseflow. We found that there is a strong correlation between the hillslope percentage and the unit baseflow values from the Potter and Gaffield (2001) study. Further work is needed to verify the findings of this study and to assess the impacts of the underlying geological layers on the production of baseflow, but these results provide a first step in understanding the conditions that produce spatial variability in baseflow conditions in the Driftless Area. Agencies such as the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources are beginning to plan for climate change adaptation in the region to protect the coldwater fisheries, so understanding the hydrology of headwater streams will be important in helping to identify areas with high, coldwater baseflow discharges that can provided refugia for coldwater species.

  9. Geohydrology and evaluation of water-resource potential of the upper Floridan Aquifer in the Albany area, southwestern Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torak, L.J.; Davis, G.S.; Strain, G.A.; Herndon, J.G.

    1993-01-01

    In the Albany area of southwestern Georgia, the Upper Floridan aquifer lies entirely within the Dougherty Plain district of the Coastal Plain physiographic province, and consists of the Ocala Limestone of late Eocene age. The aquifer is divided throughout most of the study area into an upper and a lower lithologic unit, which creates an upper and a lower water-bearing zone. The lower waterbearing zone consists of alternating layers of sandy limestone and medium-brown, recrystallized dolomitic limestone, and ranges in thickness from about 50 ft to 100 ft. It is highly fractured and exhibits well-developed permeability by solution features that are responsible for transmitting most of the ground water in the aquifer. Transmissivity of the lower water-bearing zone ranges from about 90,000 to 178,000 ft2/d. The upper water-bearing zone is a finely crystallized-to-oolitic, locally dolomitic limestone having an average thickness of about 60 ft. Transmissivities are considerably less in the upper water-bearing zone than in the lower water-bearing zone. The Upper Floridan aquifer is overlain by about 20-120 ft of undifferentiated overburden consisting of fine-to-coarse quartz sand and noncalcareous clay. A clay zone about 10-30 ft thick may be continuous throughout the southwestern part of the Albany area and, where present, causes confinement of the Upper Floridan aquifer and creates perched ground water after periods of heavy rainfall. The Upper Floridan aquifer is confined below by the Lisbon Formation, a mostly dolomitic limestone that contains trace amounts of glauconite. The Lisbon Formation is at least 50 ft thick in the study area and acts as an impermeable base to the Upper Floridan aquifer. The quality of ground water in the Upper Floridan aquifer is suitable for most uses; wells generally yield water of the hard, calcium-bicarbonate type that meets the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Primary or Secondary Drinking-Water Regulations. The water

  10. Net radiation estimated by remote sensing in Cerrado areas in the Upper Paraguay River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fausto, Marcos Alves; Machado, Nadja Gomes; de Souza Nogueira, José; Biudes, Marcelo Sacardi

    2014-01-01

    The Cerrado is a heterogeneous landscape which is shrinking due to deforestation, giving rise to managed ecosystems. The land cover changes alter net radiation (Rn), which determines the quantity of available energy to the energy balance partition. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the spatial pattern of the vegetation indices, albedo, and land surface temperature (LST) and (2) to evaluate the Rn estimated by Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) images over Cerrado areas in the Upper Paraguay River Basin. We estimated the vegetation indices, albedo, LST, and Rn of five selected vegetation types. The values estimated by Landsat 5 TM images had seasonal variations with higher values of the vegetation indices and lower values of the albedo and the LST during the wet season. The riparian and Cerrado strictu sensu had higher values of vegetation indices and lower albedo and LST than grasslands. The Rn estimated by Landsat 5 TM images was highly correlated with the measured Rn. The Rn had a seasonal pattern, following the solar radiation, with higher values during the wet season and varied spatially with higher values in the riparian forest and Cerrado strictu sensu and lower in the grasslands. This study showed the applicability of the Landsat 5 TM images to estimate Rn, which can help to understand the heterogeneity in the study area.

  11. Geothermal exploration assessment and interpretation, Upper Klamah Lake Area, Klamath Basin, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, M.; Goldstein, N.E.; Wollenberg, H.A.

    1980-09-01

    Data from public and private sources on the Klamath Basin geothermal resource are reviewed, synthesized, and reinterpreted. In this, the second and final phase of the work, geological, remote sensing, geochemical, temperature gradient, gravity, aeromagnetic, and electrical resistivity data sets are examined. These data were derived from surveys concentrated on the east and west shores of Upper Klamath Lake. The geological, remote sensing, and potential field data suggest a few northeast-trending discontinuities, which cross the regional north-westerly strike. The near-surface distribution of warm water appears to be related to the intersections of these lineaments and northwest-trending faults. The groundwater geochemical data are reviewed and the various reservoir temperature estimates compared. Particular attention is given to specific electrical conductivities of waters as an interpretational aid to the subsurface resistivity results. A clear trend emerges in the Klamath Falls/Olene Gap area; hotter waters are associated with higher specific conductivities. In the Nuss Lake/Stukel Mountain area the opposite trend prevails, although the relationship is somewhat equivocal.

  12. Vertical displacement rates in the Upper Rhine Graben area derived from precise leveling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, Thomas; Westerhaus, Malte; Zippelt, Karl; Heck, Bernhard

    2014-08-01

    The recent vertical displacement field of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) located in the tri-national region between Germany, France and Switzerland is investigated using repeatedly measured leveling data. We estimate vertical displacement rates at leveling benchmarks by applying a kinematic network adjustment on more than 40,000 height differences measured by German, French and Swiss surveying agencies. Focusing on an optimal solution for the adjusted rates in the URG area also historical data (measured before 1900) are used, significantly increasing the time span of available measurements and the number of transnational connections between the three countries. To account for inhomogeneities apparent in the database, we apply an iterative variance component estimation within the adjustment procedure, particularly revealing more realistic information on the accuracy of the estimated rates. A special focus within our analysis is put on the statistical testing of gross errors in the observations and model-related errors at benchmarks with non-linear movement. As some of the estimated vertical rates behave significantly different compared to the vertical rates of adjacent benchmarks, a filtering of outliers is applied after the adjustment procedure. The resulting map of linear height changes in an area of 280 km in N-S and 230 km in E-W direction provides detailed insight into the recent vertical displacements of the URG and neighboring regions. In the German part of the study area, it was possible for the first time to consistently constrain an average subsidence rate of 0.5 mm/a (0.2 mm/a) of the Graben interior w.r.t. the Black Forest. In addition to the tectonic displacements, some man-induced surface movements, e.g., caused by oil and groundwater extraction, are observed and discussed.

  13. Geologic Map of the Upper Wolf Island Creek Watershed, Reidsville Area, Rockingham County, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horton, J. Wright; Geddes, Donald J.

    2006-01-01

    features that may act as barriers or conduits for ground-water flow. It provides a hydrogeologic framework for the upper Wolf Island Creek drainage basin, including coreholes and ground-water monitoring wells along two transects. Collaborative hydrogeologic investigations by the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey are in progress to increase understanding of the influence of geological features on ground-water quality, availability, and transport in an area representative of large areas in the west-central Piedmont.

  14. Ancient Himalayan wolf (Canis lupus chanco) lineage in Upper Mustang of the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Chetri, Madhu; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Jnawali, Shant R; Subedi, Naresh; Dhakal, Maheshwar; Yumnam, Bibek

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomic status of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Nepal's Trans-Himalaya is poorly understood. Recent genetic studies have revealed the existence of three lineages of wolves in the Indian sub-continent. Of these, the Himalayan wolf, Canis lupus chanco, has been reported to be the most ancient lineage historically distributed within the Nepal Himalaya. These wolves residing in the Trans-Himalayan region have been suggested to be smaller and very different from the European wolf. During October 2011, six fecal samples suspected to have originated from wolves were collected from Upper Mustang in the Annapurna Conservation Area of Nepal. DNA extraction and amplification of the mitochondrial (mt) control region (CR) locus yielded sequences from five out of six samples. One sample matched domestic dog sequences in GenBank, while the remaining four samples were aligned within the monophyletic and ancient Himalayan wolf clade. These four sequences which matched each other, were new and represented a novel Himalayan wolf haplotype. This result confirms that the endangered ancient Himalayan wolf is extant in Nepal. Detailed genomic study covering Nepal's entire Himalayan landscape is recommended in order to understand their distribution, taxonomy and, genetic relatedness with other wolves potentially sharing the same landscape. PMID:27199590

  15. Ancient Himalayan wolf (Canis lupus chanco) lineage in Upper Mustang of the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Chetri, Madhu; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Jnawali, Shant R; Subedi, Naresh; Dhakal, Maheshwar; Yumnam, Bibek

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomic status of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Nepal's Trans-Himalaya is poorly understood. Recent genetic studies have revealed the existence of three lineages of wolves in the Indian sub-continent. Of these, the Himalayan wolf, Canis lupus chanco, has been reported to be the most ancient lineage historically distributed within the Nepal Himalaya. These wolves residing in the Trans-Himalayan region have been suggested to be smaller and very different from the European wolf. During October 2011, six fecal samples suspected to have originated from wolves were collected from Upper Mustang in the Annapurna Conservation Area of Nepal. DNA extraction and amplification of the mitochondrial (mt) control region (CR) locus yielded sequences from five out of six samples. One sample matched domestic dog sequences in GenBank, while the remaining four samples were aligned within the monophyletic and ancient Himalayan wolf clade. These four sequences which matched each other, were new and represented a novel Himalayan wolf haplotype. This result confirms that the endangered ancient Himalayan wolf is extant in Nepal. Detailed genomic study covering Nepal's entire Himalayan landscape is recommended in order to understand their distribution, taxonomy and, genetic relatedness with other wolves potentially sharing the same landscape.

  16. Ancient Himalayan wolf (Canis lupus chanco) lineage in Upper Mustang of the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Chetri, Madhu; Jhala, Yadvendradev V.; Jnawali, Shant R.; Subedi, Naresh; Dhakal, Maheshwar; Yumnam, Bibek

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The taxonomic status of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Nepal’s Trans-Himalaya is poorly understood. Recent genetic studies have revealed the existence of three lineages of wolves in the Indian sub-continent. Of these, the Himalayan wolf, Canis lupus chanco, has been reported to be the most ancient lineage historically distributed within the Nepal Himalaya. These wolves residing in the Trans-Himalayan region have been suggested to be smaller and very different from the European wolf. During October 2011, six fecal samples suspected to have originated from wolves were collected from Upper Mustang in the Annapurna Conservation Area of Nepal. DNA extraction and amplification of the mitochondrial (mt) control region (CR) locus yielded sequences from five out of six samples. One sample matched domestic dog sequences in GenBank, while the remaining four samples were aligned within the monophyletic and ancient Himalayan wolf clade. These four sequences which matched each other, were new and represented a novel Himalayan wolf haplotype. This result confirms that the endangered ancient Himalayan wolf is extant in Nepal. Detailed genomic study covering Nepal’s entire Himalayan landscape is recommended in order to understand their distribution, taxonomy and, genetic relatedness with other wolves potentially sharing the same landscape. PMID:27199590

  17. Factors controlling groundwater hydrogeochemistry in the area west of Tahta, Sohag, Upper Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redwan, Mostafa; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed A.

    2016-06-01

    Groundwater quality suffers from various degradation mechanisms such as extensive urbanization, agricultural and industrial activities in many developing countries. This study was carried out to identify the factors responsible for the change in the hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in the area west of Tahta, Sohag, Upper Egypt. The Piper diagrams show the predominance of Na-Cl (75%) with minor Ca-Na-HCO3 and Ca-Cl water-types. The equiline diagrams and ionic ratios show the dominance of Ca2+ + Mg2+ over Na+ + K+ and HCO3- + SO42- over Cl- suggesting silicate minerals dissolution and reverse ion exchange reactions Results of Gibb's diagram revealed that the chemical budget of the groundwater in this area is mainly derived from water-rock interaction and evaporation-crystallization dominances. The R-mode factor analysis applied to quantify the chemical characteristics of groundwater and the anthropogenic impacts that affect groundwater quality, revealed that the Pliocene clays are the major sources of Cl- and Na+ in the groundwater due to silicate minerals dissolution and ion exchange reactions and, Ca2+ and Mg2+ are mainly from dissolution of carbonates and silicate minerals abundant in the Pleistocene Qena Formation lithologies. Higher concentration of SO42- at the newly reclaimed lands may be due to the effect of rainfall, addition of potassium sulfates fertilizers to the agricultural soils and gypsum-anhydrite dissolution. The results of this study suggest that the R-mode factor analysis combined with the geological-hydrogeological analyses of the aquifer is useful in recognizing the geochemical trends and identifying the anthropogenic sources affecting the groundwater quality.

  18. Land-cover change in upper Barataria Basin estuary, Louisiana, 1972-1992: increases in Wetland area.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Stacy A C; Soranno, Patricia A; Qi, Jiaguo

    2002-05-01

    The Barataria Basin, Louisiana, USA, is an extensive wetland and coastal estuary system of great economic and intrinsic value. Although high rates of wetland loss along the coastal margin of the Barataria Basin have been well documented, little information exists on whether freshwater wetlands in the upper basin have changed. Our objectives were to quantify land-cover change in the upper basin over 20 years from 1972-1992 and to determine land-cover transition rates among land-cover types. Using 80-m resolution Landsat MSS data from the North American Landscape Characterization (NALC) data archive, we classified images from three time steps (1972, 1985, 1992) into six land-cover types: agriculture, urban, bottomland hardwood forest, swamp forest, freshwater marsh, and open water. Significant changes in land cover occurred within the upper Barataria Basin over the study period. Urban land increased from 8% to 17% of the total upper basin area, primarily due to conversions from agricultural land, and to a lesser degree, bottomland forest. Swamp forest increased from 30% to 41%, associated with conversions from bottomland hardwood forest and freshwater marsh. Overall, bottomland forest decreased 38% and total wetland area increased 21%. Within the upper Barataria, increases in total wetland area may be due to land subsidence. Based on our results, if present trends in the reduction of bottomland forest land cover were to continue, the upper Barataria Basin may have no bottomland hardwood forests left by the year 2025, as it is subjected to multiple stressors both in the higher elevations (from urbanization) and lower elevations (most likely from land subsidence). These results suggest that changes in the upper freshwater portions of coastal estuaries can be large and quite different from patterns observed in the more saline coastal margins.

  19. Geohydrology and water resources of the Papago Farms-Great Plain area, Papago Indian Reservation, Arizona, and the upper Rio Sonoyta area, Sonora, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollett, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Papago Farms-Great Plain and upper Rio Sonoyta study area includes about 490 square miles in south-central Arizona and north-central Sonora, Mexico. In the study area 23,700 acre-feet of ground water from the basin-fill deposits was used to irrigate more than 5,000 acres in 1981. Surface water is not a reliable source for irrigation or public supply. Ground water enters the area as underflow from the north and east and as recharge from the montains, moves through basin-margin sediments , around the basin-center clays, and exits the area to the west beneath the Rio Sonoyta. Ground-water withdrawals in the upper Rio Sonoyta area do not appear to have an effect on water levels in the Papago Farms-Great Plain area. Depth to water ranges from 500 feet near the southern boundary to 150 feet in the center of study area. About 10 million acre-feet of recoverable ground water is stored in the upper 400 feet of the aquifer. Storage is being depleted at a rate of 19,000 acre-feet per year. The ground water is a sodium and bicarbonate type and has an anomalously high content of arsenic and fluoride. (USGS)

  20. Hydrogeologic investigations of the Miocene Nogales Formation in the Nogales Area, Upper Santa Cruz Basin, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, William R.; Gray, Floyd; Bultman, Mark W.; Menges, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogeologic investigations were conducted to evaluate the groundwater resource potential for the Miocene Nogales Formation in the Nogales area, southern Arizona. Results indicate that parts of the formation may provide new, deeper sources of groundwater for the area. Geologic mapping determined the hydrogeologic framework of the formation by defining lithologic, mineralogic, and stratigraphic characteristics; identifying potential aquifers and confining units; and mapping faults and fractures which likely influence groundwater flow. Geophysical modeling was used to determine the basin geometry and thickness of the Nogales Formation and younger alluvial aquifers and to identify target areas (deep subbasins) which may prove to be productive aquifers.Volcaniclastic sandstone samples from the formation were analyzed for porosity, bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity, and fabric. Effective porosity ranges from 16 to 42 percent, bulk density from 1.6 to 2.47 grams per cubic centimeter, and saturated hydraulic conductivity (SHC) from 4 to 57 centimeters per day (4.9×10-5 to 6.7×10-4 centimeters per second). Thin sections show that sandstone framework grains consist of quartz, feldspar, biotite, hornblende, pumice, volcanic glass, and opaque minerals. The matrix in most samples consists of pumice fragments, and some contain predominantly silt and clay. Samples with a mostly silt and clay matrix have lower porosity and SHC compared to samples with mostly pumice, which have higher and wider ranges of porosity and SHC. Pore space in the Nogales Formation sediments includes moldic, intercrystalline, and fracture porosity. Some intercrystalline pore space is partially filled with calcite cement. About one third of the samples contain fractures, which correspond to fractures noted in outcrops in all members of the formation.Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicate that most of the samples contained the zeolite clinoptilolite

  1. Hydrogeologic investigations of the Miocene Nogales Formation in the Nogales Area, Upper Santa Cruz Basin, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, William R.; Gray, Floyd; Bultman, Mark W.; Menges, Christopher M.

    2016-07-28

    Hydrogeologic investigations were conducted to evaluate the groundwater resource potential for the Miocene Nogales Formation in the Nogales area, southern Arizona. Results indicate that parts of the formation may provide new, deeper sources of groundwater for the area. Geologic mapping determined the hydrogeologic framework of the formation by defining lithologic, mineralogic, and stratigraphic characteristics; identifying potential aquifers and confining units; and mapping faults and fractures which likely influence groundwater flow. Geophysical modeling was used to determine the basin geometry and thickness of the Nogales Formation and younger alluvial aquifers and to identify target areas (deep subbasins) which may prove to be productive aquifers.Volcaniclastic sandstone samples from the formation were analyzed for porosity, bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity, and fabric. Effective porosity ranges from 16 to 42 percent, bulk density from 1.6 to 2.47 grams per cubic centimeter, and saturated hydraulic conductivity (SHC) from 4 to 57 centimeters per day (4.9×10-5 to 6.7×10-4 centimeters per second). Thin sections show that sandstone framework grains consist of quartz, feldspar, biotite, hornblende, pumice, volcanic glass, and opaque minerals. The matrix in most samples consists of pumice fragments, and some contain predominantly silt and clay. Samples with a mostly silt and clay matrix have lower porosity and SHC compared to samples with mostly pumice, which have higher and wider ranges of porosity and SHC. Pore space in the Nogales Formation sediments includes moldic, intercrystalline, and fracture porosity. Some intercrystalline pore space is partially filled with calcite cement. About one third of the samples contain fractures, which correspond to fractures noted in outcrops in all members of the formation.Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicate that most of the samples contained the zeolite clinoptilolite

  2. Impact of the geologic setting on the groundwater using geoelectrical sounding in the area southwest of Sohag - Upper Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Hussein Hosni; Tawfik, Mohamed Zaghloul

    2015-04-01

    A geoelectrical resistivity survey has been carried out in El Kawameil area which lies to the southwest of Sohag governorate, Upper Egypt with the purpose of delineating the geologic setting and its impact on the groundwater occurrence. The study involved measuring Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) at twenty-four locations using the Schlumberger Array. The results showed that the geoelectrical succession in the study area consists of eleven geoelectric layers which were grouped into three main zones. The first zone consists of four geoelectric layers corresponding to the dry upper surface layers. The second one is composed of four geoelectric layers that constitute the Eocene limestone plateau at the western and northern parts of the study area. The third zone is consists of three geoelectric layers and corresponds to Pleistocene water bearing sand and gravel at the central and eastern parts of the study area. The area was found to be affected by a group of normal faults. The results showed, also, that the lateral lithological changes and thickness of the saturated zone have their effect on the groundwater potentiality in the study area. Moreover, the detected faults contribute to seepage of runoff water to recharge the water bearing zone and control the flow. Sites to drill new wells in the investigated area have been determined.

  3. A surface area/porosity investigation of four coals: Upper Freeport; Illinois No. 6; New Zealand Stockton; and Panther Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Good, R.J.; Cadenhead, D.A.; Asgharian, B.

    1990-01-01

    This project had as its primary objective the establishment of the specific surface areas (SSAs) and the qualitative definition of any existing pore structure of four coal samples supplied by Dr. Robert Good of the Chemical Engineering Department of the State University of New York at Buffalo. The samples included three bituminous coals (Upper Freeport, Illinois No. 6 and New Zealand Stockton) and one Anthracite (Panther Valley Mine).

  4. Black carbon contributes to organic matter in young soils in the Morteratsch proglacial area (Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckmeier, E.; Mavris, C.; Krebs, R.; Pichler, B.; Egli, M.

    2013-03-01

    Most glacier forefields of the European Alps are being progressively exposed since the glaciers reached their maximum expansion in the 1850s. Global warming and climate changes additionally promote the exposure of sediments in previously glaciated areas. In these proglacial areas, initial soils have started to develop so that they may offer a continuous chronosequence from 0 to 150-yr-old soils. The build-up of organic matter is an important factor of soil formation, and not only autochthonous but also distant sources might contribute to its accumulation in young soils and surfaces of glacier forefields. Only little is known about black carbon in soils that develop in glacier forefields, although charred organic matter could be an important component of organic carbon in Alpine soils. The aim of our study was to examine whether black carbon (BC) is present in the initial soils of a proglacial area, and to estimate its relative contribution to soil organic matter. We investigated soil samples from 35 sites distributed over the whole proglacial area of Morteratsch (Upper Engadine, Switzerland), covering a chronosequence from 0 to 150 yr. BC concentrations were determined in fine earth using the benzene polycarboxylic acid (BPCA) marker method. We found that charred organic matter occurred in the whole area, and that it was a main compound of soil organic matter in the youngest soils, where total Corg concentrations were very low. The absolute concentrations of BC in fine earth were generally low but increased in soils that had been exposed for more than 40 yr. Specific initial microbial communities may profit from this additional C source during the first years of soil evolution and potentially promote soil development in its early stage.

  5. Fluvial channel sandstones within upper Mannville (Albian) of Lloydminster area, Canada - geometry, petrography, and paleogeographic implications

    SciTech Connect

    Putnam, P.E.

    1982-04-01

    Within the Albian upper Mannville of the central Canadian plains there exists a complex of anastomosing channel sandstones which are oriented northwest-southeast and which can be traced for over 300 km. The paleoflow direction was to the north. The channel sandstones exhibit a complex mineralogy with separate quartzose and lithofeldspathic channel fills present. When viewed within the regional geologic framework of the Lower Cretaceous of western North America, the channel orientation combined with the sandstone petrography indicates that the main sediment source was the Rocky Mountains to the northwest United States. Such a conclusion is in contrast to previous studies of the upper Mannville of the Canadian plains which concluded that the Canadian Cordillera was the major sediment source for an eastwardly prograding clastic wedge. 25 figures.

  6. Groundwater quality monitoring well installation for Upper Waste Areas Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Mortimore, J.A.; Lee, T.A.

    1994-09-01

    This report documents the drilling and installation of seven groundwater quality monitoring (GQM) wells on the perimeter of Upper Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2. Upper WAG 2 is composed of portions of White Oak Creek (WOC), Melton Branch, two of Melton Branch`s tributaries, and the floodplains surrounding these water bodies. The WOC section of the subject site begins at the confluence of WOC and Melton Branch and extends 0.62 mile upstream to the 7,500 bridge. The Melton Branch portion of the site also begins at the confluence of WOC and Melton Branch and extends eastward 0.88 mile upstream. The wells at Upper WAG 2 were drilled and developed between December 1989 and October 1990. These wells were installed to characterize and assess the WAG in accordance with applicable Department of Energy, state, and Environmental Protection Agency regulatory requirements. The purpose of the well installation program was to install GQM wells for groundwater characterization at Upper WAG-2. Data packages produced during installation activities by the ERCE hydrogeologists are an important product of the program. These packages document the well drilling, installation, and development activities and provide valuable data for well sampling and WAG characterization. The forms contained in the packages include predrilling and postdrilling checklists, drilling and construction logs, development and hydraulic conductivity records, and quality control-related documents.

  7. Measurement of soil gas radon and its correlation with indoor radon around some areas of Upper Siwaliks, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Joga; Singh, Harmanjit; Singh, Surinder; Bajwa, B S

    2010-03-01

    Radon is a radioactive gas which makes the primary contribution to the natural radiation to which people are exposed. For that reason, great importance is attributed to the determination of radon concentration levels in water, indoor air and soil gas and outdoors. In this paper, measurements of radon concentration in soil gas have been carried out around some areas of the Upper Siwaliks of the Kala Amb, Nahan and Morni Hills, India, using a portable AlphaGUARD PQ 2000 device into which the soil gas is drawn using active pumping. The soil gas radon concentration around the Upper Siwaliks was found to vary from 11.5 +/- 0.9 to 78.47 +/- 3.1 kBq m(-3). The annual average indoor radon concentration in the study area was measured in the range from 71.7 +/- 21.0 to 421.7 +/- 33.6 Bq m( - 3) using LR-115 type II cellulose nitrate films in the bare mode. The values of soil gas radon concentration in the study area were compared with those from the adjoining low-radioactive areas of Punjab. Since the soil or bedrock beneath a building is one of the sources of radon gas in the indoor air, an effort has been made to find a possible correlation between soil gas radon with the indoor radon. A satisfactory positive correlation has been observed between soil gas radon and indoor radon in the study area. PMID:20220213

  8. Japanese encephalitis virus antibody among normal individuals of Dibrugarh area, upper Assam.

    PubMed

    Mahanta, J; Boruah, U; Sarmabordoloi, J N; Baruah, H C

    1996-09-01

    In a hospital based study in Dibrugarh upper Assam carried out over a period of one year, 250 normal individuals, were screened for antibody to Japanese encephalitis Virus. 44 individuals (17.6%) showed antibody to JE virus. The highest numbers were found in July and August, each 40%, and lowest in January (4%). The ratio of apparent to inapparent infection in this study was found to be 9.1 : 100, which is lower than reported in Assam earlier, but slightly higher than predicted for India as a whole. PMID:8973018

  9. Benthic foraminifers on the continental shelf and upper slope, Russian River area, northern California ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinterno, P.J.; Gardner, J.V.

    1987-01-01

    We analyzed benthic foraminifers from 71 surface samples collected from the sea floor of the continental margin. One hundred and six different taxa were identified, and Q-mode factor analysis was used to identify assemblages. Six foraminiferal assemblage factors explain 94% of the variation in the data matrix. The Inner Shelf Assemblage is characterized by Trichohyalus ornatissima, Rotalia columbiensis, Cassidulina limbata, Cibicides fletcheri, Elphidiella hannai and Elphidium sp. 1 and occupies water depths less than 50 m. The Middle Shelf Assemblage is characterized by Nonionella basispinata, Elphidium excavatum and Florilus labradoricus and occupies water depths between 50 and 90 m. A Middle Shelf to Upper Bathyal Assemblage is characterized by Uvigerina juncea, Globobulimina spp. and Nonionella basispinata and occupies depths between about 90 and 450 m. Two overlapping assemblages make up the Upper Middle Bathyal Assemblage and are most abundant between water depths of 500 and 1300 m. They are associated with low- oxygen conditions. The Mid-Bathyal Assemblage is dominated by Uvigerina proboscidea and occurs on the slope at water depths ranging from 1200 to 2500 m. -from Authors

  10. Correlation of Upper Cretaceous strata from Lima Peaks area to Madison Range, southwestern Montana and southeastern Idaho, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyman, T.S.; Tysdal, R.G.; Perry, W.J.; Obradovich, J.D.; Haley, J.C.; Nichols, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    An 40Ar/39Ar age of 85.81 Ma ?? 0.22 my was obtained on sanidine from a volcanic procellanite bed near the top of the 2135 + m-thick Upper Cretaceous Frontier Formation in the Lima Peaks area of southwestern Montana. This early Santonian age, combined with previously determined age data including a palynological age of Cenomanian for the lower Frontier at Lima Peaks, and a U-Pb isotopic date of about 95 Ma for the base of the Frontier Formation in the eastern Pioneer Mountains north of the Lima Peaks area, provides an age range for this nonmarine formation. In the Madison Range, farther east in southwestern Montana, this age range corresponds to marine strata of not only the Frontier Formation, but also the overlying Cody Shale and Telegraph Creek Formation, a sequence that totals less than 760 m thick. The Upper Cretaceous marine formations of the Madison Range are closely zoned by molluscan faunas that are well constrained with radiometric dates. The 40Ar/39Ar age of 85.81 Ma ?? 0.22 my at Lima Peaks is bracketed by radiometric dates for the Scaphites depressus - Protexanites bourgeoisianus biozone and the overlying Clioscaphites saxitonianus - Inoceramus undulatoplicatus biozone of the Western Interior. Fossils of both of these biozones are present in the Cody Shale and the Telegraph Creek Formation in the Madison Range. The Telegraph Creek contains two units of volcanic ash that are approximate time equivalents of the volcanic procellanite of the Lima Peaks area. Clasts in the conglomerate of the upper part of the Frontier in the Lima Peaks area were shed during the initial stages of uplift of the Blacktail-Snowcrest highlands which rose to the north. The dated porcellanite lies above the conglomerates and indicates that the uplift was initiated by middle or late Coniacian, 87-88 Ma. ?? 1997 Academic Press Limited.

  11. Cumulative effects of restoration efforts on ecological characteristics of an open water area within the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, B.R.; Shi, W.; Houser, J.N.; Rogala, J.T.; Guan, Z.; Cochran-Biederman, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Ecological restoration efforts in large rivers generally aim to ameliorate ecological effects associated with large-scale modification of those rivers. This study examined whether the effects of restoration efforts-specifically those of island construction-within a largely open water restoration area of the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) might be seen at the spatial scale of that 3476ha area. The cumulative effects of island construction, when observed over multiple years, were postulated to have made the restoration area increasingly similar to a positive reference area (a proximate area comprising contiguous backwater areas) and increasingly different from two negative reference areas. The negative reference areas represented the Mississippi River main channel in an area proximate to the restoration area and an open water area in a related Mississippi River reach that has seen relatively little restoration effort. Inferences on the effects of restoration were made by comparing constrained and unconstrained models of summer chlorophyll a (CHL), summer inorganic suspended solids (ISS) and counts of benthic mayfly larvae. Constrained models forced trends in means or in both means and sampling variances to become, over time, increasingly similar to those in the positive reference area and increasingly dissimilar to those in the negative reference areas. Trends were estimated over 12- (mayflies) or 14-year sampling periods, and were evaluated using model information criteria. Based on these methods, restoration effects were observed for CHL and mayflies while evidence in favour of restoration effects on ISS was equivocal. These findings suggest that the cumulative effects of island building at relatively large spatial scales within large rivers may be estimated using data from large-scale surveillance monitoring programs. Published in 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Towards A Fusion Of SAR-Interferometry, GNSS And Precise Levelling In The Upper Rhine Graben Area, Southwest Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, T.; Knopfler, A.; Mayer, M.; Schenk, A.; Westerhaus, M.; Zippelt, K.; Heck, B.

    2013-12-01

    InSAR, GNSS and precise levelling provide a unique database to detect recent displacements of the Earth's surface. Data of all three measurement techniques have been collected in order to gain detailed insight into the horizontal and vertical velocity field of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) area. This paper presents the database and the processing strategies for the calculation of displacements from InSAR, GNSS and levelling measurements in the URG area. Man-induced surface deformations caused by oil extraction in the Northern URG are investigated serving as a study area for the comparison of techniques. In order to benefit from the advantages of each technique we present a strategy to consistently link the different observation methods in a multi-technique approach.

  13. Detection of active faults using EMR-Technique and Cerescope at Landau area in central Upper Rhine Graben, SW Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagag, Wael; Obermeyer, Hennes

    2016-01-01

    Two conjugate sets of active faults oriented NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE have been detected at Landau area in SW Germany. These faults follow the old trends of the rift-related structures predominating in the Upper Rhine Graben (URG), which originated during Late Eocene-Miocene time. Linear and horizontal measurements were performed by using the Cerescope device and interpreted, applying the Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) Technique. Linear EMR-profiles were helpful for mapping active faults, while the main horizontal stress (σH, N to NNE) was easily identified with EMR-horizontal measurements. Reactivation of rift-related structures of the Upper Rhine Graben at Landau area produces a new system of active shallow fractures following old trends, and has been detected through the present study by Cerescope applying the EMR-Technique. The present results imply that the Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) to the south of Landau has a great impact on reactivation of the pre-existing rift-related faults by mechanical hydro-fracturing occurring within the reservoir rocks underneath the area.

  14. Ground-water flow and water quality in the Upper Floridan aquifer, southwestern Albany area, Georgia, 1998-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, Debbie; Lawrence, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    During 1997, the Dougherty County Health Department sampled more than 700 wells completed in the Upper Floridan aquifer in Dougherty County, Georgia, and determined that nitrate as nitrogen (hereinafter called nitrate) concentrations were above 10 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in 12 percent of the wells. Ten mg/L is the Georgia primary drinking-water standard. The ground-water flow system is complex and poorly understood in this predominantly agricultural area. Therefore, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) - in cooperation with Albany Water, Gas and Light Commission - conducted a study to better define ground-water flow and water quality in the Upper Florida aquifer in the southwestern Albany area, Georgia. Ground-water levels were measured in the southwestern Albany area, Georgia, during May 1998 and March 1999 (spring), and October 1998 and September 1999 (fall). Groundwater levels measured in 75 wells open only to the Upper Floridan aquifer were used to construct potentiometric-surface maps for those four time periods. These maps show that ground water generally flows from northwest to southeast at gradients ranging from about 2 to greater than 10 feet per mile. During spring and fall 1998, ground-water levels were high and mounding of the potentiometric surface occurred in the central part of the study area, indicating a local recharge area. Water levels declined from December through February, and by March 1999 the mound in the potentiometric surface had dissipated. Of the 75 wells in the potentiometric network, 24 were selected for a water-quality network. These 24 wells and 1 spring were sampled during fall 1998 and spring 1999. Samples were analyzed for major chemical constituents, selected minor constituents, selected nutrients, and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC). Water-quality field measurements - such as water temperature, pH, specific conductance (SC), and dissolved oxygen (DO) - were taken at each well. During August 2000, a ground-water sample was collected

  15. Classification of a wetland area along the upper Mississippi River with aerial videography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennings, C.A.; Vohs, P.A.; Dewey, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    We evaluated the use of aerial videography for classifying wetland habitats along the upper Mississippi River and found the prompt availability of habitat feature maps to be the major advantage of the video imagery technique. We successfully produced feature maps from digitized video images that generally agreed with the known distribution and areal coverages of the major habitat types independently identified and quantified with photointerpretation techniques. However, video images were not sufficiently detailed to allow us to consistently discriminate among the classes of aquatic macrophytes present or to quantify their areal coverage. Our inability to consistently distinguish among emergent, floating, and submergent macrophytes from the feature maps may have been related to the structural complexity of the site, to our limited vegetation sampling, and to limitations in video imagery. We expect that careful site selection (i.e., the desired level of resolution is available from video imagery) and additional vegetation samples (e.g., along a transect) will allow improved assignment of spectral values to specific plant types and enhance plant classification from feature maps produced from video imagery.

  16. Maps showing ground-water conditions in the upper Verde River area, Yavapai and Coconino counties, Arizona; 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levings, Gary W.; Mann, Larry J.

    1980-01-01

    The upper Verde River area includes about 3,600 square miles in north-central Arizona. The area is underlain by a regional aquifer that consists of several formations. In places ground water also is present in the igneous rocks and basalt flows and in the alluvium along the channels and flood plains of the streams. Ground-water development has been slight; in 1978 about 8,000 acre-feet of ground water was withdrawn for domestic, public-supply, industrial, and irrigation uses. Information on the maps includes the principal geologic formation that furnishes water to wells and springs, depth to water, altitude of the water level, and chemical quality of the water. Scale 1:125,000. (USGS)

  17. Upper Cisuralian palynology and palaeoclimate of Manuguru area Godavari basin, India and their global correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K, Pauline Sabina; Jha, Neerja

    2014-10-01

    The Permian system of the Palaeozoic Erathem is divided into three series, the Early Permian Cisuralian Series, the Middle Permian Guadalupian Series, and the Late Permian Lopingian Series. The Cisuralian Series encompasses the Asselian to Kungurian stages which constitute the basal part of the Gondwana supersequence I. In India, they are represented lithostratigraphically by the Talchir, Karharbari, and Barakar formations. This paper presents the palynological results from the Barakar Formation of the Upper Cisuralian Series from Manuguru which lies in the southeastern part of the Godavari basin. The succession studied comprises 35 subsurface samples from bore hole 1007 represented by clay, shale, sandstone, and coal. The palynofloras in this sequence have a homogenous composition demonstrating that not many significant floral changes took place through the considered stratigraphic range. The entire sequence is characterized by the dominance of nonstriate bisaccate genus Scheuringipollenites and sub-dominance of striate bisaccate genus Faunipollenites(= Protohaploxypinus). The other pollen genera among the nonstriate bisaccates are Rhizomaspora, Primuspollenites, Ibisporites, and Platysaccus. The striate bisaccates include Striatites, Striatopodocarpites, and Stroterosporites. The taeniate taxa are represented by Lueckisporites and Lunatisporites. The common monosaccate genera include Caheniasaccites, Potoniesporites, and Barakarites. Spores are less common and include Latosporites, Brevitriletes, Horriditriletes, Microbaculispora, and Callumispora. They characterize the palynofloral composition of the Lower Barakar Formation. The correlation of this assemblage with some of the biostratigraphic palynozones proposed previously for the Cisuralian sequences of the Paraná Basin of South America, Kalahari Karoo Basin of South Africa, Ruhuhu Basin of Tanzania, East Africa as well as palynoassemblages from South Victoria Land and Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica and

  18. Petrology of upper Eocene-Oligocene plutonic rocks of Moalleman Damghan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohansal, Reza; Zolfaghari, Seddigheh; Hashem Emami, Mohammad

    2010-05-01

    The plutonic rocks of this area include cryptodoms, hypoabyssal plutonic bodies and dikes which intruded in to the late Lutetian- late Eocene rocks. The hypoabyssal plutonic rocks in Moalleman are classified in to two main groups: - Acidic rocks, including microgranite to microgranodiorite. - Intermediate rocks, including microquartzmonzodiorite to microquartzdiorite of hypoabyssal type. Presence of fine-grained mafic xenoliths with abundant biotite, amphibole and pyroxene in the intermediate rocks may be considered as an evidence of the role of mantle melting occurrence in the formation of these rocks. Occurrence of a felsitic texture, showing a high differentiation coefficient and existence of large quarts which are embayed, rounded and infiltered by material, and finally turmalinization in the acidic rocks due to Boron metasomatism suggest the role of crust in the formation of afore mentioned rocks as well. In some acidic rocks plagioclases show oscillatory zoning. This phenomenon along with the fact that biotite granites in these rocks crystallized before crystallization of quarts and after crystallization of alkali feldspar suggest that the crystallization of these rocks accomplished in the presence of 2 percent water, pertitic texture in some feldspars of the intermediate rocks this conclusion. Supports on the basis of the geochemical studies most of the hypoabyssal rocks of Moalleman area fall in subalkaline- calcoalkaline fields. Variation of immobile incompatible trace elements versus differentiation coefficient and the situation of samples in winkler diagram show the role of crustal- melting in the formation of acidic rocks. Trace element content of some rocks (e.g. Cu and Sm) with in this group show mantle specification, while some other rocks (e.g. Zr, Th, Hf) show crustal specification. The intermediate rocks of the study area therefore, indicate a hybridization of magmas from both the mantle and crust. Study of the temperature and water vapour

  19. Thermal maturity and petroleum kitchen areas of Liassic Black Shales (Lower Jurassic) in the central Upper Rhine Graben, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böcker, Johannes; Littke, Ralf

    2016-03-01

    In the central Upper Rhine Graben (URG), several major oil fields have been sourced by Liassic Black Shales. In particular, the Posidonia Shale (Lias ɛ, Lower Toarcian) acts as excellent and most prominent source rock in the central URG. This study is the first comprehensive synthesis of Liassic maturity data in the URG area and SW Germany. The thermal maturity of the Liassic Black Shales has been analysed by vitrinite reflectance (VRr) measurements, which have been verified with T max and spore coloration index (SCI) data. In outcrops and shallow wells (<600 m), the Liassic Black Shales reached maturities equivalent to the very early or early oil window (ca. 0.50-0.60 % VRr). This maturity is found in Liassic outcrops and shallow wells in the entire URG area and surrounding Swabian Jura Mountains. Maximum temperatures of the Posidonia Shale before graben formation are in the order of 80-90 °C. These values were likely reached during Late Cretaceous times due to significant Upper Jurassic and minor Cretaceous deposition and influenced by higher heat flows of the beginning rift event at about 70 Ma. In this regard, the consistent regional maturity data (VRr, T max, SCI) of 0.5-0.6 % VRr for the Posidonia Shale close to surface suggest a major burial-controlled maturation before graben formation. These consistent maturity data for Liassic outcrops and shallow wells imply no significant oil generation and expulsion from the Posidonia Shale before formation of the URG. A detailed VRr map has been created using VRr values of 31 wells and outcrops with a structure map of the Posidonia Shale as reference map for a depth-dependent gridding operation. Highest maturity levels occur in the area of the Rastatt Trough (ca. 1.5 % VRr) and along the graben axis with partly very high VRr gradients (e.g. well Scheibenhardt 2). In these deep graben areas, the maximum temperatures which were reached during upper Oligocene to Miocene times greatly exceed those during the Cretaceous.

  20. Simulation of flow in the upper North Coast Limestone Aquifer, Manati-Vega Baja area, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cherry, Gregory S.

    2001-01-01

    A two-dimensional computer ground-water model was constructed of the Manati-Vega Baja area to improve the understanding of the unconfined upper aquifer within the North Coast Province of Puerto Rico. The modeled area covers approximately 79 square miles within the municipios of Manati and Vega Baja and small portions of Vega Alta and Barceloneta. Steady-state two-dimensional ground-water simulations were correlated to conditions prior to construction of the Laguna Tortuguero outlet channel in 1940 and calibrated to the observed potentiometric surface in March 1995. At the regional scale, the unconfined Upper North Coast Limestone aquifer is a diffuse ground-water flow system through the Aguada and Aymamon limestone units. The calibrated model input parameters for aquifer recharge varied from 2 inches per year in coastal areas to 18 inches per year in the upland areas south of Manati and Vega Baja. The calibrated transmissivity values ranged from less than 500 feet squared per day in the upland areas near the southern boundary to 70,000 feet squared per day in the areas west of Vega Baja. Increased ground-water withdrawals from 1.0 cubic foot per second for 1940 conditions to 26.3 cubic feet per second in 1995, has reduced the natural ground-water discharge to springs and wetland areas, and induced additional recharge from the rivers. The most important regional drainage feature is Laguna Tortuguero, which is the major ground-water discharge body for the upper aquifer, and has a drainage area of approximately 17 square miles. The discharge to the sea from Laguna Tortuguero through the outlet channel has been measured on a bi-monthly basis since 1974. The outflow represents a combination of ground- and surface-water discharge over the drainage area. Hydrologic conditions, prior to construction of the Laguna Tortuguero outlet channel in 1943, can be considered natural conditions with minimal ground-water pumpage (1.0 cubic foot per second), and heads in the lagoon

  1. Geologic map of the Lassen Peak, Chaos Crags, and Upper Hat Creek area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christiansen, Robert L.; Clynne, Michael A.; Muffler, L.J. Patrick

    2002-01-01

    This digital publication contains all the information used to publish U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Investigations Series I-2723 (Christiansen and others, 2002). The map shows the distribution and relationships of volcanic and surficial-sedimentary deposits in an area of Lassen Volcanic National Park and vicinity. Emphasis is on products of the 1914-1917 eruptions of Lassen Peak and the approximately 1000-year-old eruptions of Chaos Crags. ArcInfo grids were prepared from scanned composite images of four U.S. Geological Survey 7.5' topographic quadrangle maps and were georeferenced and reprojected.

  2. Thermal evolution of igneous rocks of the Upper Rhine Graben area and their relation to tectonic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Link, K.; Rahn, M.; Keller, J.

    2003-04-01

    The Upper Rhine Graben (URG) extends over a distance of 300 km from Basel (Switzerland) to Frankfurt (Germany) with an average width of 30--40 km. It is the central segment of the European Cenozoic rift system. The occurrence of Middle Eocene lake deposits is attributed to initial rifting. The main rifting phase started at the end of the Eocene and was followed by prominent uplift in the southern URG area in Miocene time (Schumacher, 2002). The igneous products in the investigated area are mainly primitive, mantle-derived alkaline basaltic rocks, occurring, in most cases, as dikes. The majority of the volcanics are found on the eastern graben shoulder with a concentration in the Freiburg area and the highest frequency in the northern part. No dikes are observed along the main border faults. Previously published K/Ar total rock age data were interpreted as intrusion ages (for review see Keller et al., 2002) and suggest a first activity peak in the Upper Cretaceous, a maximum in Eocene time and a further pronounced peak in the Miocene. This age range doubles the length of the assumed period of graben formation. Apatite fission track dating was applied to selected dikes and nearby country rocks. The temporal relation between volcanic events and the URG shoulder uplift was constrained by comparison of the fission track data of the dikes and country rocks. Important differences in respect to this relation exist among the different rift shoulder segments (Black Forest, Vosges, Palatinate Forest and Odins Forest). References: Keller, J., Kraml, M. &Henjes-Kunst, F. (2002): Schweiz. Mineral. Petrogr. Mitt. 82, 121-130. Schumacher, M.E. (2002): Tectonics, 21: 1-17.

  3. Ground-water outflow, San Timoteo-Smiley Heights area, upper Santa Ana Valley, Southern California, 1927 through 1968

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dutcher, L.C.; Fenzel, F.W.

    1972-01-01

    The San Timoteo-Smiley Heights area is in the upper Santa Ana Valley, San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, Calif., where the Yucaipa and San Timoteo-Beaumont ground-water basins border Bunker .Hill basin on the south between the San Jacinto and San Andreas faults. The area is broken by numerous faults, the topography is rough, and in a large part of the area few wells had been drilled prior to 196S. The alluvial deposits, which constitute the aquifers in the area, range in thickness from 0 where they lap onto exposed bedrock hills to about 1,000 feet. Beneath the southern part of the area near the San Jacinto fault the total thickness of alluvial and lacustrine deposits may be as much as 6,000 feet. The purpose of this study was to estimate ground-water outflow by an indirect method not involving balancing of the hydrologic budget. For this purpose it was necessary to estimate the permeability of the aquifer materials, the average annual hydraulic gradient, and the cross-sectional area through which the flow occurs; these values were estimated for five segments along a line of section between the San Jacinto fault and Crafton Hills. To provide data for the outflow estimates, several miles of reflection and refraction seismic traverses were made along and across the outflow section. Nineteen deep and shallow test holes were drilled; one of the deep test holes and several existing wells were pumped to obtain data on aquifer permeability. The estimated average permeabilities of the aquifer materials range from 5 gallons per day per square foot for the lower part of the San Timoteo beds of Frick (1921) and 40 gallons per day per square foot for the older alluvium to 220 gallons per day per square foot for the upper part of the San Timoteo beds. The estimated outflow in 1927 was 8,150 acre-feet. By 1967 the estimated total outflow was 5,350 acre-feet, a reduction of approximately 34 percent. During the 12-year period 1956 through 1967, however, the annual outflow

  4. Asperity generating upper crustal sources revealed by b value and isostatic residual anomaly grids in the area of Antofagasta, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobiesiak, M.; Meyer, U.; Schmidt, S.; GöTze, H.-J.; Krawczyk, C. M.

    2007-12-01

    In our study we show that the locations of largest coseismic slip (asperities) on the fault plane of the Mw = 8.0 1995 Antofagasta earthquake in Northern Chile can be mapped by the spatial distribution of the seismic b value obtained from the aftershock sequence of the megathrust earthquake. These areas of high seismic moment release and concurrent high-b values are congruent with anomalies of the gravity isostatic residual (IR) field in the Antofagasta region. They are superimposed on the seismogenic part of the north Chilean subduction zone where the strongest coupling of the upper and lower plate is expected. The IR anomalies are interpreted to be caused by large Jurassic-Early Cretaceous batholiths which intruded into the upper crust. The observed positive correlations between high seismic b values, IR anomalies, and geologic structures enable us to propose a mechanical model for the generation of the asperities in the Antofagasta region. We suggest that the batholiths in conjunction with buoyant forces acting on the subducted slab of the Nazca plate are responsible for locking the interface where the asperities are located. This implies long-term conditions for the existence of the asperity generating tectonic situation. Concequently, the asperities around Antofagasta could be stationary features, at least for several seismic cycles. Hence we propose that the IR anomalies along the north Chilean convergent margin can be used as an indicator for high moment release and slip in future large earthquakes.

  5. The Villeta-Caballos( ) petroleum system of the Neiva Area, upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Buitrago, J. )

    1993-02-01

    The Villeta-Caballos( ) petroleum system of the Neiva area covers 5120 km[sup 2] and includes 18 fields with ultimate recoverable reserves of 83.8[times]10*6 m[sup 3] (527 million bbl) of oil and 5.7[times]10*9 m[sup 3] (201 billion ft[sup 3]) of gas. Sedimentary rocks range in age from Aptian through Holocene, and were deposited in rift, margin-sag, and foreland basins. The hydrocarbons were sourced mainly from two intervals within the Albian-Santonian Villeta Formation and migrated from the footwall of the Chusma fault and the center of the Neiva syncline beginning at the end of the Oligocene to the present. The two main reservoirs are Cretaceous sandstones of the Caballos and Monserrate formations. Secondary reservoirs of significance are the Miocene fluvial sandstones of the Honda Group. The traps are mainly structures associated with the formation of a fold and thrust belt which began in the Oligocene and is still active. The system extends in time from the Aptian (-110 Ma) to the present. The first event was the deposition of the lower Caballos reservoir. The source rock was deposited a few million years later and reached maturity in synchronism with the formation of structural traps during the last 25 m.y. Destruction of some of the accumulations, by uplift and erosion in the fold belt, started in the Miocene. The volume of the hydrocarbons generated by the system was calculated using an average TOC content of 2.1 wt% for 235 m of total source interval in two intervals, and an area of mature source of 1650 km[sup 2]. A hydrocarbon generation of 325 mgHC/gTOC was used based on the Hydrogen Index measurements of immature Villeta source rock and a hydrocarbon generation algorithm. The efficiency of the system and the percentage of hydrocarbons generated that are present in discovered traps was determined to be about 10%.

  6. Upper Clear Creek watershed aquatic chemistry and biota surveys, 2004-5, Whiskeytown National Recreation Area, Shasta County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wulff, Marissa L.; May, Jason T.; Brown, Larry R.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service and Whiskeytown National Recreation Area, performed a comprehensive aquatic biota survey of the upper Clear Creek watershed, Shasta County, California, during 2004-5. Data collected in this study can provide resource managers with information regarding aquatic resources, watershed degradation, and regional biodiversity within Whiskeytown National Recreation Area. Surveys of water chemistry, bed-sediment chemistry, algae assemblages, benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages, aquatic vertebrate assemblages, in-stream habitat characteristics, and sediment heterogeneity were conducted at 17 stream sites during both 2004 and 2005, with an additional 4 sites surveyed in 2005. A total of 67 bed-sediment samples were analyzed for major and trace inorganic element concentrations. Forty-six water samples were analyzed for trace metals and nutrients. A total of 224 taxa of invertebrates were collected during these surveys. Eleven fish species, seven of which were native, and two species of larval amphibians, were collected. A total of 24 genera of soft algae and 159 taxa of diatoms were identified. To date, this survey represents the most comprehensive inventory of aquatic resources within Whiskeytown National Recreation Area, and this information can serve as a baseline for future monitoring efforts and to inform management decisions.

  7. Hydrology of the coal-resource areas in the upper drainages of Huntington and Cottonwood creeks, central Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Danielson, T.W.; ReMillard, Michael D.; Fuller, Richard H.

    1981-01-01

    This coal-resource area in the Upper drainages of Huntington and Cottonwood Creeks of central Utah was studied in order to better define the hydrologic system, to identify the hydrologic effects of underground coal mining, and to devise methods to detect these effects. Discharge records from gaging stations in this mountainous area indicated that there are large differences in the annual discharge of streams per unit area of drainage. These differences are attributed to differences in precipitation, differences in evaporation and sublimation of the snowpack, and to subsurface movement of water out of some basins, mainly along fractures. Dissolved-solids concentrations in surface waters ranged from 130 to 503 milligrams per liter; in ground water from about 140 springs dissolved solids ranged for 50 to 750 milligrams per liter. The Star Point Sandstone and the lower coal-bearing part of the Blackhawk Formation, both of Cretaceous age, are saturated in some areas, and the aquifer yields water to underground coal mines. Most of the larger springs in the study area discharge from the Star Point-Blackhawk aquifer where faulted. Ground water also occurs in several zones above the Star Point-Blackhawk aquifer. Possible impacts due to mine dewatering include the diminution of spring flows and increases tne ground-water recharge, both of which are more likely to occur where rocks have been fractured due to subsidence above mines. The discharge of mine waters into streams causes some degradation in surface-water quality. The year-to-year similarity of spring discharge recession curves may provide a method to detect unnatural changes in the ground-water system. Pollutants entering surface waters may be detected by changes in the population of benthic invertebrates. (USGS)

  8. Land cover mapping of the upper Kuskokwim Resource Managment Area using LANDSAT and a digital data base approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markon, Carl J.

    1988-01-01

    Digital land cover and terrain data for the Upper Kuskokwim Resource Hanagement Area (UKRMA) were produced by the U.S. Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems Field Office, Anchorage, Alaska for the Bureau of Land Management. These and other environmental data, were incorporated into a digital data base to assist in the management and planning of the UKRMA. The digital data base includes land cover classifications, elevation, slope, and aspect data centering on the UKRMA boundaries. The data are stored on computer compatible tapes at a 50-m pixel size. Additional digital data in the data base include: (a) summer and winter Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data registered to a 50-m Universal Transverse Mercator grid; (b) elevation, slope, aspect, and solar illumination data; (c) soils and surficial geology; and (e) study area boundary. The classification of Landsat MSS data resulted in seven major classes and 24 subclasses. Major classes include: forest, shrubland, dwarf scrub, herbaceous, barren, water, and other. The final data base will be used by resource personnel for management and planning within the UKRMA.

  9. Diagenetic history and hydrocarbon potential of Upper Permian carbonate buildups, Wegener Halvoe area, Jameson Land basin, east Greenland

    SciTech Connect

    Scholle, P.A.; Ulmer, D.S. ); Stemmerik, L. )

    1991-04-01

    The Upper Permian of Jameson Land includes two carbonate sequences, the Karstryggen and Wegener Halvoe formations. The Karstryggen Formation contains hypersaline carbonates and localized evaporites that were heavily weathered and dissected prior to deposition of the overlying strata. The overlying Wegener Halvoe Formation represents an abrupt and extensive marine inundation over the underlying karstified Karstryggen surface. Bryozoan-brachiopod-algal-cement buildups of the Wegener Halvoe Formation are localized on karstic highs, and show up to 150 m of depositional relief. The diagenetic histories of the core and flank facies are very different. Core facies porosity was initially obliterated by marine cements, but repeated meteoric exposure altered unstable core facies constituents. This alteration produced extensive secondary porosity through grain and cement leaching with local collapse brecciation. Flank strata, however, underwent little sea-floor diagenesis, and low permeability and mineralogically stable grain composition protected these strata from meteoric alteration. Subsequent fracturing and hydrothermal fluid flow, however, flushed hydrocarbons and filled pores with ferroan calcite, barite, fluorite, galena, and baroque dolomite. This heating and flushing is thought to have been especially intense in the Wegener Halvoe region; thus, more basinal areas may still have reservoirs containing significant oil in equivalent Upper Permian limestones. If, as is likely, the sea level changes affecting the Greenland Permian were eustatic, then this study may provide significant clues to porosity development throughout the largely unexplored northern Zechstein basin and the Arctic basin of the Barent Sea. This study also provides some important connections to the probably time-equivalent Guadalupian carbonate reservoir rocks of west Texas-New Mexico and Wyoming.

  10. Groundwater salinization survey of the Upper Cretaceous-Miocene Complexe terminal aquifer in the Sabaa Biar area of southwestern Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhamdi, Abdelkader; Dhahri, Ferid; Gouasmia, Mouez; Moumni, Lahmadi; Mohamed, Soussi

    2015-12-01

    An integrated hydrogeological study involving the Schlumberger depth sounding method, geological data and wells data was conducted at the Sabaa Biar area of southern Tunisia to elucidate the problem of increasing groundwater salinity within The "Complexe Terminal". The "Complexe Terminal" aquifer near Sabaa Biar region is a bi-layered aquifer comprised of fractured limestones of the Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrichtian) Berda Formation and sandstone of the Miocene Beglia Formation. The aquifer is affected by a main NW-trending fault, which is a chemical barrier that divides the study area into eastern and western blocks delivering freshwater and saline water, respectively. The salinization of groundwater within the limestone (Campanian-Maastrichtian Berda Formation) is linked mainly to the dissolution of outcropping Coniacian-Santonian gypsum along the core of the Jebel Sidi Bouhlel anticline to the east of the study area. Meteoric water dissolves salt from outcropping gypsum, flows through the fractures networks, and recharges the fractured limestone of the upper Berda Formation. The mobilization of salts stored in the salt-rich Quaternary sediment on hillslopes and inchannels contributes also to the salinization of groundwater within the sandstone (Miocene Beglia Formation) by lateral infiltration subsequent to water drainage during the wet season. The over exploitation of water from the Miocene sandstone causes an influx of saline-rich water from the underlying limestone of the Berda Formation into the sandstone of the Beglia Formation. Other sources of salinization of groundwater (such as ascension of hypersaline water from deep aquifer along faults, and the return flow of irrigation waters in the Djerid region) have been documented in this region, but are not discussed in this paper.

  11. Composition of the seed bank in drawdown areas of navigation pool 8 of the upper Mississippi river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenow, K.P.; Lyon, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to enhance aquatic plant production and habitat diversity on the Upper Mississippi River (UMR), resource managers considered water level reduction as a management tool to increase the area of emergent and submersed aquatic vegetation by natural seed germination. To quantify the availability of seed, we assessed the potential seed bank of selected areas of Navigation Pool 8 of the UMR from substrate samples collected in spring 2000. We tested these samples for viable seed content under four hydrologic conditions: dry, moist, shallow flooded and submerged. Forty-seven species were identified in the seed bank, including 27 obligate wetland, 10 facultative wetland and 7 upland species. Dominant taxa within the seed bank included Sagittaria spp., Lindernia dubia, Zosterella dubia, Cyperus spp., Eragrostis spp. and Leersia oryzoides. Of the four hydrologic treatments, moist substrates had the greatest species diversity and were the most productive, yielding an average density of 1420 seedlings m-2. Emergent and submersed aquatic species were widely distributed, each type occurring in more than 90% of the samples. Timing of seedling germination varied among species and has implications for scheduling drawdowns to promote establishment of desired species. Seed bank results were correlated with the vegetation response on substrates exposed during a reduction of water levels of Pool 8 during summer 2001. Experimentally determining the composition and viability of seed banks from drawdown areas provides information useful in predicting the types of vegetation that may develop on exposed substrates. Further, these findings provide resource managers a better understanding of the potential for achieving desired vegetation response through water level reductions.

  12. Hydrology of mountainous areas in the upper Indus Basin, Northern Pakistan with the perspective of climate change.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Hafeez, Mohsin; Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2012-09-01

    Mountainous areas in the northern Pakistan are blessed by numerous rivers that have great potential in water resources and hydropower production. Many of these rivers are unexploited for their water resource potential. If the potential of these rivers are explored, hydropower production and water supplies in these areas may be improved. The Indus is the main river originating from mountainous area of the Himalayas of Baltistan, Pakistan in which most of the smaller streams drain. In this paper, the hydrology of the mountainous areas in northern Pakistan is studied to estimate flow pattern, long-term trend in river flows, characteristics of the watersheds, and variability in flow and water resource due to impact of climate change. Eight watersheds including Gilgit, Hunza, Shigar, Shyok, Astore, Jhelum, Swat, and Chitral, Pakistan have been studied from 1960 to 2005 to monitor hydrological changes in relation to variability in precipitation, temperature and mean monthly flows, trend of snow melt runoff, analysis of daily hydrographs, water yield and runoff relationship, and flow duration curves. Precipitation from ten meteorological stations in mountainous area of northern Pakistan showed variability in the winter and summer rains and did not indicate a uniform distribution of rains. Review of mean monthly temperature of ten stations suggested that the Upper Indus Basin can be categorized into three hydrological regimes, i.e., high-altitude catchments with large glacierized parts, middle-altitude catchments south of Karakoram, and foothill catchments. Analysis of daily runoff data (1960-2005) of eight watersheds indicated nearly a uniform pattern with much of the runoff in summer (June-August). Impact of climate change on long-term recorded annual runoff of eight watersheds showed fair water flows at the Hunza and Jhelum Rivers while rest of the rivers indicated increased trends in runoff volumes. The study of the water yield availability indicated a minimum trend in

  13. Geohydrology and water resources of the Papago Farms--Great Plain area, Papago Indian Reservation, Arizona, and the upper Rio Sonoyta area, Sonora, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollett, Kenneth J.

    1985-01-01

    The Papago Farms-Great Plain and upper Rio Sonoyta study area includes about 490 square miles in south-central Arizona and north-central Sonora, Mexico. The area is characterized by a broad, deep, sediment-filled basin bounded by low, jagged fault-block mountains. The climate is arid to semiarid. The climate and abundant ground water provide favorable conditions for irrigated agriculture. Annual precipitation averages 5 to 8 inches per year on the desert floor. Runoff, which occurs as intermittent streamflow and sheetflow, is too short lived and too laden with suspended sediment to be a reliable source for irrigation or public supply. Nearly all the water used to irrigate more than 5,000 cultivated acres in the study area is withdrawn from the unconsolidated to partly consolidated basin fill. The ground water occurs in the deposits under unconfined (water-table) conditions with a saturated thickness that ranges from zero along the mountain fronts to more than 8,000 feet in the center of the basin. The amount of recoverable ground water in storage to a depth of 400 feet below the 1978-80 water table is estimated to be about 10 million acre-feet. Depths to water range from about 500 feet near the southern boundary of the study area to about 150 feet in the center of the study area. Ground water enters the area principally as underflow beneath the San Simon and Chukut Kuk Washes and as recharge along the mountain fronts. On the basis of model results, annual inflow to the ground-water system is estimated to be about 4,390 acre-feet. Ground water moves through the study area along paths that encircle a virtually impermeable unit in the basin center, termed 'the lakebed-clay deposits,' and moves westward to an outflow point beneath the Rio Sonoyta south of Cerro La Nariz. Rates of water movement range from less than I foot per year in clays to about 160 feet per year in well-sorted, coarse stream-channel deposits. Transmissivities along the basin margins range from 10

  14. Paleoenvironments and hydrocarbon potential of Upper Jurassic Norphlet Formation of southwestern Alabama and adjacent coastal water area

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, E.A.; Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.

    1984-09-01

    Upper Jurassic Norphlet sediments in southwestern Alabama and the adjacent coastal water area accumulated under arid climatic conditions. The Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States extended into southwestern Alabama, providing a barrier for air and water circulation during Norphlet deposition. Norphlet paleogeography was dominated by a broad desert plain rimmed to the north and east by the Appalachians and to the south by a developing shallow sea. Initiation of Norphlet sedimentation was a result of erosion of the southern Appalachians. Norphlet conglomerates were deposited in coalescing alluvial fans in proximity to an Appalachian source. The conglomeratic sandstones grade downdip into red-bed lithofacies that accumulated in distal portions of alluvial fan and wadi systems. Quartzose sandstones (Denkman Member) were deposited as dune and interdune sediments on a broad desert plain. The source of the sand was the updip and adjacent alluvial fan, plain, and wadi deposits. A marine transgression was initiated late in Denkman deposition, resulting in the reworking of previously deposited Norphlet sediments. Norphlet hydrocarbon potential in southwestern and offshore Alabama is excellent with four oil and gas fields already established. Petroleum traps discovered to date are primarily structural traps involving salt anticlines, faulted salt anticlines, and extensional fault traps associated with salt movement. Reservoir rocks consist of quartzose sandstones, which are principally eolian in origin. Smackover algal carbonate mudstones were probably the source for the Norphlet hydrocarbons.

  15. Chemical pollution assessment and prioritisation model for the Upper and Middle Vaal water management areas of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Dzwairo, B; Otieno, F A O

    2014-12-01

    A chemical pollution assessment and prioritisation model was developed for the Upper and Middle Vaal water management areas of South Africa in order to provide a simple and practical Pollution Index to assist with mitigation and rehabilitation activities. Historical data for 2003 to 2008 from 21 river sites were cubic-interpolated to daily values. Nine parameters were considered for this purpose, that is, ammonium, chloride, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, fluoride, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate. Parameter selection was based on sub-catchment pollution characteristics and availability of a consistent data range, against a harmonised guideline which provided five classes. Classes 1, 2, 3 and 4 used ideal catchment background values for Vaal Dam, Vaal Barrage, Blesbokspruit/Suikerbosrant and Klip Rivers, respectively. Class 5 represented values which fell above those for Klip River. The Pollution Index, as provided by the model, identified pollution prioritisation monitoring points on Rietspruit-W:K2, Natalspruit:K12, Blesbokspruit:B1, Rietspruit-L:R1/R2, Taaibosspruit:T1 and Leeuspruit:L1. Pre-classification indicated that pollution sources were domestic, industrial and mine effluent. It was concluded that rehabilitation and mitigation measures should prioritise points with high classes. Ability of the model to perform simple scenario building and analysis was considered to be an effective tool for acid mine drainage pollution assessment.

  16. Annual variations in the surface radiation budget and soil water and heat content in the Upper Yellow River area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Suosuo; Lü, Shihua; Ao, Yinhuan; Shang, Lunyu

    2009-03-01

    Measurements taken between July 2006 to May 2007 at the Maqu station in the Upper Yellow River area were used to study the surface radiation budget and soil water and heat content in this area. These data revealed distinct seasonal variations in downward shortwave radiation, downward longwave radiation, upward longwave radiation and net radiation, with larger values in the summer than in winter because of solar altitudinal angle. The upward shortwave radiation factor is not obvious because of albedo (or snow). Surface albedo in the summer was lower than in the winter and was directly associated with soil moisture and solar altitudinal angle. The annual averaged albedo was 0.26. Soil heat flux, soil temperature and soil water content changed substantially with time and depth. The soil temperature gradient was positive from August to February and was related to the surface net radiation and the heat condition of the soil itself. There was a negative correlation between soil temperature gradient and net radiation, and the correlation coefficient achieved a significance level of 0.01. Because of frozen state of the soil, the maximum soil thermal conductivity value was 1.21 W m-1°C-1 in January 2007. In May 2007, soil thermal conductivity was 0.23 W m-1°C-1, which is the lowest value measured in the study, likely due to the fact that the soil was drier then than in other months. The soil thermal conductivity values for the four seasons were 0.27, 0.38, 0.55 and 0.83 W m-1°C-1, respectively.

  17. Recent upper mantle structure beneath Siberia and surrounding areas according to a seismic tomography and numerical thermogravitational convection modeling data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushenkova, N.; Chervov, V.; Koulakov, I.

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the interaction between the recent lithosphere structure and dynamics of the upper mantle beneath a big segment of Asia. This study is based on the results of seismic tomography using travel times from the ISC catalog (1964-2007) and numerical thermogravitational modeling. The model contains thick lithosphere blocks of the Siberian Craton, the Tarim plate, and remnant parts of the Mongol-Tuva microcontinent. These blocks are alternated with weaker younger lithosphere corresponding to the West-Siberian plate, orogenic belts in southern Siberia and the Arctic shelves to the north. In the tomography part, we have updated a previously published model by Koulakov and Bushenkova (2010) based on a larger dataset including reflected PP and teleseismic P travel times from global catalogues. The lithosphere thickness has been estimated based on seismic anomalies at 250 km depth according to a technique described in (Bushenkova et al., 2008). These estimates were used to define the lithosphere thickness which is then implemented for setting the boundary conditions in numerical modeling and for joint interpretation of the final results. When computing the mantle dynamics, we consider the viscosity which is depends from temperature and pressure. Calculations are performed in the spherical coordinates. To minimize the boundary effects and to take into account the effect of the outside features, we considerably enlarged the calculation area by including the Russian, North- and South China Cratons and the Indian Plate. The modeling results demonstrate formation of steady ascending flows caused by overheating under the cratons (the average temperature of the upper mantle under a craton increases to ~100°) and descending flows on their periphery. The ascending flows spread along the bottom of the cratonic lithosphere and propagate towards its edges which cause smaller-scale convection cells nearly the borders of the cratons. The computed temperature distribution is

  18. 77 FR 75850 - Regulated Navigation Area; Upper Mississippi River MM 0.0 to MM 185.0; Cairo, IL to St. Louis, MO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... Automatic Identification System COTP Captain of the Port DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal.... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary regulated navigation area (RNA) for all waters of the Upper Mississippi River between miles 0.0 and 185.0. This RNA is needed to protect persons,...

  19. Sequence Stratigraphic Characterization of Upper Miocene through Pleistocene Siliciclastic Aquifer Sediments, Baton Rouge Area, Southeastern Louisiana Gulf Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, E. L.; Hanor, J. S.; Tsai, F. T.

    2012-12-01

    Saltwater encroachment northward into freshwater sands of the Baton Rouge aquifer system, southeastern Louisiana, poses a serious environmental threat to this metropolitan municipal and industrial water source. The aquifer system consists of an 850-m thick succession of interbedded, unconsolidated south-dipping siliciclastic sandy units and mudstones of Upper Miocene through Pleistocene age. A geology-based understanding of the connectivity, geometry and depositional setting of this aquifer system is necessary for developing strategies to halt or control saltwater intrusion. Seventy five digitized spontaneous potential - resistivity logs for boreholes in the area provided data for interpreting environments of deposition, for correlating sand-rich and mudstone-rich zones, and for identifying periods of low and high rates of sediment aggradation. The sands have complex geometries representing braided stream, meandering channel fill, floodplain, levee, and crevasse splay facies. A high degree of lateral discontinuity of the sands makes visual correlation of units difficult. Therefore an assessment of lithology-depth relations was made by determining the frequency of occurrence of mudstone at discrete 0.15 m depth intervals in borehole logs along five 40-km long transects parallel to the strike of the aquifer units. Percent occurrence of mudstone was graphed as a function of depth using a 41-point centered moving average for smoothing, and mudstone-poor, sand-rich trends were correlated between transects. Ten major sand cycles were identified. Individual aquifer units are interpreted to be complex zones of amalgamated sand bodies deposited during times of low aggradation associated with sea-level falling-stages and lowstand system tracts. The amalgamation created a high degree of connectivity which results in these zones behaving as single hydrologic units. Mudstone-rich aquitard sequences are interpreted to be flood-plain sediments deposited during times of high

  20. Estimating upper bounds for occupancy and number of manatees in areas potentially affected by oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Martin, Julien; Edwards, Holly H; Bled, Florent; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J; Dupuis, Jérôme A; Gardner, Beth; Koslovsky, Stacie M; Aven, Allen M; Ward-Geiger, Leslie I; Carmichael, Ruth H; Fagan, Daniel E; Ross, Monica A; Reinert, Thomas R

    2014-01-01

    The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon drilling platform created the largest marine oil spill in U.S. history. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment process, we applied an innovative modeling approach to obtain upper estimates for occupancy and for number of manatees in areas potentially affected by the oil spill. Our data consisted of aerial survey counts in waters of the Florida Panhandle, Alabama and Mississippi. Our method, which uses a Bayesian approach, allows for the propagation of uncertainty associated with estimates from empirical data and from the published literature. We illustrate that it is possible to derive estimates of occupancy rate and upper estimates of the number of manatees present at the time of sampling, even when no manatees were observed in our sampled plots during surveys. We estimated that fewer than 2.4% of potentially affected manatee habitat in our Florida study area may have been occupied by manatees. The upper estimate for the number of manatees present in potentially impacted areas (within our study area) was estimated with our model to be 74 (95%CI 46 to 107). This upper estimate for the number of manatees was conditioned on the upper 95%CI value of the occupancy rate. In other words, based on our estimates, it is highly probable that there were 107 or fewer manatees in our study area during the time of our surveys. Because our analyses apply to habitats considered likely manatee habitats, our inference is restricted to these sites and to the time frame of our surveys. Given that manatees may be hard to see during aerial surveys, it was important to account for imperfect detection. The approach that we described can be useful for determining the best allocation of resources for monitoring and conservation.

  1. Estimating upper bounds for occupancy and number of manatees in areas potentially affected by oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Martin, Julien; Edwards, Holly H; Bled, Florent; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J; Dupuis, Jérôme A; Gardner, Beth; Koslovsky, Stacie M; Aven, Allen M; Ward-Geiger, Leslie I; Carmichael, Ruth H; Fagan, Daniel E; Ross, Monica A; Reinert, Thomas R

    2014-01-01

    The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon drilling platform created the largest marine oil spill in U.S. history. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment process, we applied an innovative modeling approach to obtain upper estimates for occupancy and for number of manatees in areas potentially affected by the oil spill. Our data consisted of aerial survey counts in waters of the Florida Panhandle, Alabama and Mississippi. Our method, which uses a Bayesian approach, allows for the propagation of uncertainty associated with estimates from empirical data and from the published literature. We illustrate that it is possible to derive estimates of occupancy rate and upper estimates of the number of manatees present at the time of sampling, even when no manatees were observed in our sampled plots during surveys. We estimated that fewer than 2.4% of potentially affected manatee habitat in our Florida study area may have been occupied by manatees. The upper estimate for the number of manatees present in potentially impacted areas (within our study area) was estimated with our model to be 74 (95%CI 46 to 107). This upper estimate for the number of manatees was conditioned on the upper 95%CI value of the occupancy rate. In other words, based on our estimates, it is highly probable that there were 107 or fewer manatees in our study area during the time of our surveys. Because our analyses apply to habitats considered likely manatee habitats, our inference is restricted to these sites and to the time frame of our surveys. Given that manatees may be hard to see during aerial surveys, it was important to account for imperfect detection. The approach that we described can be useful for determining the best allocation of resources for monitoring and conservation. PMID:24670971

  2. Estimating Upper Bounds for Occupancy and Number of Manatees in Areas Potentially Affected by Oil from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Julien; Edwards, Holly H.; Bled, Florent; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J.; Dupuis, Jérôme A.; Gardner, Beth; Koslovsky, Stacie M.; Aven, Allen M.; Ward-Geiger, Leslie I.; Carmichael, Ruth H.; Fagan, Daniel E.; Ross, Monica A.; Reinert, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon drilling platform created the largest marine oil spill in U.S. history. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment process, we applied an innovative modeling approach to obtain upper estimates for occupancy and for number of manatees in areas potentially affected by the oil spill. Our data consisted of aerial survey counts in waters of the Florida Panhandle, Alabama and Mississippi. Our method, which uses a Bayesian approach, allows for the propagation of uncertainty associated with estimates from empirical data and from the published literature. We illustrate that it is possible to derive estimates of occupancy rate and upper estimates of the number of manatees present at the time of sampling, even when no manatees were observed in our sampled plots during surveys. We estimated that fewer than 2.4% of potentially affected manatee habitat in our Florida study area may have been occupied by manatees. The upper estimate for the number of manatees present in potentially impacted areas (within our study area) was estimated with our model to be 74 (95%CI 46 to 107). This upper estimate for the number of manatees was conditioned on the upper 95%CI value of the occupancy rate. In other words, based on our estimates, it is highly probable that there were 107 or fewer manatees in our study area during the time of our surveys. Because our analyses apply to habitats considered likely manatee habitats, our inference is restricted to these sites and to the time frame of our surveys. Given that manatees may be hard to see during aerial surveys, it was important to account for imperfect detection. The approach that we described can be useful for determining the best allocation of resources for monitoring and conservation. PMID:24670971

  3. SAR Interferometry and Precise Leveling for the Determination of Vertical Displacements in the Upper Rhine Graben Area, Southwest Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, T.; Schenk, A.; Westerhaus, M.; Zippelt, K.; Heck, B.

    2013-12-01

    The PS-InSAR (Persistent Scatterer SAR Interferometry) method and precise levelings provide a unique database to detect recent displacements of the Earth's surface. Data of both measurement techniques are analyzed at Geodetic Institute, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, in order to gain detailed insight into the velocity field of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG). As central and most prominent segment of the European Cenozoic rift system, the seismically and tectonically active Rhine Graben is of steady geo-scientific interest. In the last decades, the URG is characterized by small tectonic movements (< 1mm/a), but an extensive use of its geopotentials (mining, groundwater usage, oil extraction, geothermal energy) inducing larger surface displacements. To assess the geohazards in the URG area, we aim to provide a map of the current 3D surface displacements with high precision and high spatial resolution. The InSAR and leveling data, and the location of permanent GNSS sites primarily analyzed for the horizontal velocity field, are displayed in Fig. 1. Precise levelings have been carried out by the surveying authorities of Germany, France and Switzerland over the last 100 years building a network of leveling lines. A kinematic network adjustment is applied on the leveling data, providing an accurate solution for vertical displacement rates with accuracies of 0.2 to 0.4 mm/a. The biggest disadvantage of the leveling database is the sparse spatial distribution of the measurement points. Therefore, PS-InSAR is used to significantly increase the number of points within the leveling loops. To obtain a high accuracy for line of sight displacement rates, ERS-1/2 and Envisat data from ascending and descending orbits covering a period from 1992 to 2000 and 2002 to 2010, resp., are processed using StaMPS (Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers). As the tectonic displacements cover a large area, the separation of atmospheric effects and orbit errors plays an important role in

  4. Magneto-biostratigraphy of the Upper Triassic bedded chert succession from the Mino Belt, Inuyama area, central Japan: correlation to Tethyan sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, D.; Koji, U.; Onoue, T.

    2015-12-01

    Late Triassic magnetostratigraphy and biostratigraphy has recently been investigated in both continental and Tethyan marine sequences (Hounslow and Muttoni, 2010). However, there is no agreed on geomagnetic polarity timescale (GPTS) for the Late Triassic, because of poor age control of many Late Triassic magnetostratigraphic sections, missing or duplicated intervals, and within- section changes in sedimentation rates (Lucas, 2013). Here we present lower Carnian to upper Norian magnetostratigraphy and biostratigraphy (conodont and radiolaria) of the Upper Triassic bedded chert successions from the Mino belt, Inuyama area, central Japan. The bedded chert was deposited in a mid-oceanic basin of the Panthalassa Ocean. Chert samples were collected at two sections (Sakahogi and Momotaro sections) where Sugiyama (1997) investigated the radiolarian biostratigraphy. Based on detailed study of the conodont biostratigraphy from the study sections, five conodont zones are recognized in ascending order as follows: lower Carnian lower Quadralella polygnathiformis zone, upper Carnian upper Quadralella polygnathiformis zone, lower Norian Epigondolella quadrata zone, middle Norian Epigondolella postera zone, and late Norian Epigondolella bidentata zone. Thermal demagnetization showed four distinct remanent magnetization components from the cherts. The highest blocking temperature component shows positive reversal test and is regarded as the primary remanent magnetization, which produced a magnetostratigraphy of the lower Carnian to upper Norian. The magnetostratigraphy consists of 15 substantive normal- reverse polarity chrons, defined by sampling at 256 stratigraphic levels. Paleomagnetic polarity reversals observed at the vicinity of Carnian/Norian boundary and middle Norian/upper Norian boundary are correlated with those of Tethyan marine sections (Pizzo Mondello and Silickà Brezovà). Assuming that the rocks in the two Tethyan marine sections were deposited in the Northern

  5. Hydrogeology, water quality, and water-resources development potential of the upper Floridan Aquifer in the Valdosta area, south-central Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McConnell, J.B.; Hacke, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Water quality in the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Valdosta, Georgia area is adversely affected by direct recharge from the Withlacoochee River. Water enters the aquifer along a short reach of the river where sinkholes have formed in the stream bed. The water receives little filtration as it recharges the Upper Floridan aquifer through these sinkholes. Naturally occurring organic material in the river provides a readily available source of energy for the growth of microbiota in the aquifer. Microbiological processes and chemical reactions in the aquifer produce methane and hydrogen sulfide as the water from the river mixes with ground water and moves downgradient in the aquifer. Humic substances associated with the organic material in the ground water in this area can form trihalomethanes when the water is chlorinated for public supply. To assess areas most suitable for ground-water supply development, areal distributions of total organic carbon, total sulfide, and methane in the Upper Floridan aquifer were mapped and used to evaluate areas affected by recharge from the Withlacoochee River. Areas where concentrations of total organic carbon, total sulfide, and methane were less than or equal to 2.0 milligrams per liter, 0.5 milligrams per liter, and 100 micrograms per liter, respectively, were considered to be relatively unaffected by recharge from the river and to have the greatest potential for water- resources development.

  6. Stratigraphic revision and depositional environments of the Upper Cretaceous Toreva Formation in the northern Black Mesa area, Navajo and Apache counties, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Franczyk, K.J.

    1988-01-01

    Two units previously included in the upper part of the Toreva Formation in northern Black Mesa have been assigned new stratigraphic names. One unit previously assigned to the Toreva is reassigned to the Wepo Formation. This report describes the sedimentology of the Toreva Formation and these new units and the depositional history of the Black Mesa area during middle Turonian through early Santonian time. Correlations are made among these units on Black Mesa and Cretaceous sequences in southern Utah and western New Mexico.

  7. Maps showing ground-water conditions in the upper San Pedro Basin area, Pima, Santa Cruz, and Cochise counties, Arizona; 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konieczki, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    The upper San Pedro basin area includes about 1,800 square miles in southeastern Arizona. The main use of groundwater is for irrigation. During 1966-77, about 481,000 acre-feet of groundwater was withdrawn. Except near Sierra Vista and Fort Huachuca, the groundwater withdrawals have had little effect on water levels. Information shown on the maps includes altitude of the water level, depth to water, depth of well, hydrographs of the water level in selected wells, irrigated area, and specific conductance and fluoride concentration in the water. A table of pumpage also is included. (USGS)

  8. Differences in the Upper Mantle Structure between 'Hot' and 'Cold' Areas in North America based on USArray Seismic Data along California - Virginia Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dec, M.; Sroda, P.; Tesauro, M.; Kaban, M. K.; Perchuc, E.

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays, United States is an area extensively studied by seismic research due to the fact that the EarthScope USArray project provides an unique opportunity to verify previous seismological models and improve our understanding of the upper mantle structure. The data from this experiment are fundamental to study the upper mantle structure because they allow us to present much more detailed analysis. In this study we use the data recorded by the Transportable Array of the USArray and data from the ISC bulletin. We refer also to data from longitudinal Early Rise project while analysing New Madrid Seismic Zone. We use the travel time data from the earthquakes recorded at a distance up to 3500 km in order to image the upper mantle down to about 600 km depth. We present P- and S-wave velocity models for the tectonically stable central part of US and for the active western part. The 1D models are constructed based on the forward modelling of traveltimes from the events located along the California - Virginia profile, for e.g. in California, Colorado or Virginia. This provides a possibility to update the previous MP-1 model (Malinowski et al., 2010). The models were corrected for the crustal effect using the crustal model of Tesauro et al. (2013). All the models have been verified by synthetic seismograms calculated using the reflectivity method. The models show significant differences in the first-arrivals observed at the 800-1800 km epicentral distance range. In the Western, tectonically active region, the 300-km discontinuity is observed. It is interpreted based on the refracted phases with the apparent velocity of 8.9-9.0 km/s and clearly observed reflections. In this area, a low-velocity zone at the bottom of the upper mantle significantly deepens the 410-km discontinuity. The stable North American Craton is characterized by blurred arrivals from the 300-km discontinuity. These 1D models of the upper mantle structure in North America served as a starting point for

  9. Water-chemistry and chloride fluctuations in the Upper Floridan Aquifer in the Port Royal Sound area, South Carolina, 1917-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, J.E.; Belval, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    Withdrawal of water from the Upper Floridan aquifer south of Port Royal Sound in Beaufort and Jasper Counties, South Carolina, has lowered water levels and reversed the hydraulic gradient beneath Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. Ground water that had previously discharged at the Sound is now being deflected southwest, toward withdrawals located near the city of Savannah, Georgia, and the island of Hilton Head. The reversal of this hydraulic gradient and the decline of water levels have caused saltwater in the Upper Floridan aquifer north of Port Royal Sound to begin moving southwest, toward water-supply wells for the town of Hilton Head and toward industries pumping ground water near Savannah. Analytical results from ground-water samples collected from wells in the Upper Floridan aquifer beneath and adjacent to Port Royal Sound show two plumes in the aquifer with chloride concentrations above the drinking- water standard. One plume of high chloride concentration extends slightly south of the theoretical predevelopment location of the steady- state freshwater-saltwater interface as indicated by numerical modeling. The other plume is present beneath the town of Port Royal, where the upper confining unit above the Upper Floridan aquifer is thin or absent. In these areas, the decline in water levels caused by ground-water withdrawals may have made it possible for water from tidal creeks to enter the Upper Floridan aquifer. Many wells completed in the upper permeable zone of the Upper Floridan aquifer show a distinct specific- conductance profile. One non-producing, monitoring well on Hilton Head Island (BFT-1810) was selected to depict a worst-case scenario to examine the short- and long-term water-chemistry and chloride fluctuations in the aquifer. Specific conductance was monitored at depths of 170, 190, and 200 feet below the top of the well casing. The specific conductance measured in 1987 ranged from approximately 450 microsiemens per centimeter near the top of

  10. Upper Campanian calciclastic turbidite sequences from the Hacımehmet area (eastern Pontides, NE Turkey): integrated biostratigraphy and microfacies analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, Bilal; Kandemir, Raif; Özer, Sacit; Walaszczyk, Ireneusz; Görmüş, Muhittin; Demircan, Huriye; Yilmaz, Cemil

    2014-12-01

    The upper Campanian (Cretaceous) of the Hacımehmet area (south of the city of Trabzon; Eastern Pontides) is mainly composed of calciclastic turbidites. The basinal unit of the 119 m thick succession includes thin red pelagic limestone interlayers and conglomerates dominated by volcanic clasts. The overlying upper slope and lower slope units of the sequence consist of an alternation of allochthonous calcarenite/calcirudite beds and pelagic marls and mudstones. Calcarenite/calcirudite beds dominate the upper slope unit of the succession and are composed of transported material, including benthic foraminifers, red algae, bryozoan, crinoid and rudist fragments, inoceramid bivalve prisms and neritic and pelagic carbonate lithoclasts. The occurrence of Helicorbitoides boluensis (Sirel) extracted from the calcarenite/calcirudite beds indicates a Campanian age. Identifiable rudists such as Joufia reticulata Boehm, Bournonia cf. anatolica Ozer, Biradiolites cf. bulgaricus Pamouktchiev and ?Biradiolites sp. from the upper slope unit of the succession indicate a late Campanian- Maastrichtian age. The planktonic foraminifers within the red pelagic limestone beds, marls and mudstones throughout the succession consist mainly of Campanian-Maastrichtian forms and suggest mainly basinal depositional conditions. The presence of Radotruncana cf. calcarata (Cushman) accompanied by Globotruncanita elevata (Brotzen) in the basinal unit of the succession indicates an early late Campanian age for the lower part of the succession. Inoceramid bivalves have been collected from the upper part of the succession. The fauna is dominated by `Inoceramus' tenuilineatus Hall and Meek, 1854 and Cataceramus haldemensis (Giers, 1964); other taxa recognised are: `Inoceramus' algeriensis Heinz, 1932, Platyceramus vanuxemi (Meek and Hayden, 1860), `Inoceramus' cf. nebrascensis Owen, 1852, Cataceramus aff. barabini (Morton, 1834), Cataceramus gandjaensis (Aliev, 1956), and `Inoceramus' sp.; the assemblage

  11. Effect of Niagara power project on ground-water flow in the upper part of the Lockport Dolomite, Niagara Falls area, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Todd S.; Kappel, W.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Niagara River Power Project near Niagara Falls, N.Y., has created recharge and discharge areas that have modified the direction of groundwater flow east and northeast of the falls. Before construction of the power project in 1962, the configuration of the potentiometric surface in the upper part of the Silurian Lockport Dolomite generally paralleled the buried upper surface of the bedrock. Ground water in the central and east parts of the city of Niagara Falls flowed south and southwestward toward the upper Niagara River (above the falls), and ground water in the western part flowed westward into Niagara River gorge. The power project consists of two hydroelectric powerplants separated by a forebay canal that receives water from the upper Niagara River through two 4-mi-long, parallel, buried conduits. During periods of nonpeak power demand, some water in the forebay canal is pumped to a storage reservoir for later release to generate electricity during peak-demand periods. Since the power project began operation in 1962, groundwater within 0.5 mi of the buried conduits has seeped into the drain system that surrounds the conduits, then flows both south from the forebay canal and north from the Niagara River toward the Falls Street tunnel--a former sewer that crosses the conduits 0.65 mi north of the upper Niagara River. Approximately 6 million gallons of ground water a day leaks into the Falls Street tunnel, which carries it 2.3 mi westward to the Niagara River gorge below the falls. Daily water-level fluctuations in the forebay canal affect water levels in the drain system that surrounds the conduits, and this , in turn, affects the potentiometric surface in the Lockport Dolomite within 0.5 mi of the conduits. The drains transmit changes in pressure head near the forebay canal southward at least as far as the Falls Street tunnel area and possibly to the upper Niagara River. Some water in the pumped-storage reservoir recharges ground water in the Lockport

  12. Constraining frequency-magnitude-area relationships for precipitation and flood discharges using radar-derived precipitation estimates: example applications in the Upper and Lower Colorado River Basins, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orem, C. A.; Pelletier, J. D.

    2015-11-01

    Flood-envelope curves (FEC) are useful for constraining the upper limit of possible flood discharges within drainage basins in a particular hydroclimatic region. Their usefulness, however, is limited by their lack of a well-defined recurrence interval. In this study we use radar-derived precipitation estimates to develop an alternative to the FEC method, i.e. the frequency-magnitude-area-curve (FMAC) method, that incorporates recurrence intervals. The FMAC method is demonstrated in two well-studied U.S. drainage basins, i.e. the Upper and Lower Colorado River basins (UCRB and LCRB, respectively), using Stage III Next-Generation-Radar (NEXRAD) gridded products and the diffusion-wave flow-routing algorithm. The FMAC method can be applied worldwide using any radar-derived precipitation estimates. In the FMAC method, idealized basins of similar contributing area are grouped together for frequency-magnitude analysis of precipitation intensity. These data are then routed through the idealized drainage basins of different contributing areas, using contributing-area-specific estimates for channel slope and channel width. Our results show that FMACs of precipitation discharge are power-law functions of contributing area with an average exponent of 0.79 ± 0.07 for recurrence intervals from 10 to 500 years. We compare our FMACs to published FECs and find that for wet antecedent-moisture conditions, the 500-year FMAC of flood discharge in the UCRB is on par with the US FEC for contributing areas of ~ 102 to 103 km2. FMACs of flood discharge for the LCRB exceed the published FEC for the LCRB for contributing areas in the range of ~ 102 to 104 km2. The FMAC method retains the power of the FEC method for constraining flood hazards in basins that are ungauged or have short flood records, yet it has the added advantage that it includes recurrence interval information necessary for estimating event probabilities.

  13. Sex determination using discriminant analysis of upper and lower extremity bones: New approach using the volume and surface area of digital model.

    PubMed

    Lee, U-Young; Kim, In-Beom; Kwak, Dai-Soon

    2015-08-01

    This study used 110 CT images taken from donated Korean cadavers to create 3-D models of the following upper and lower limb bones: the clavicle, scapula, humerus, radius, ulna, hip bone (os coxa), femur, patella (knee cap), tibia, talus, and calcaneus. In addition, the bone volume and surface area were calculated to determine sex differences using discriminant analysis. Significant sex differences were found in all bones with respect to volume and surface area (p<0.01). The order of volume was the same in females and males (femur>hip bone>tibia>humerus>scapula), although the order of surface area was different. The largest surface area in men was the femur and in women was the hip bone (p<0.01). An interesting finding of this study was that the ulna is the bone with the highest accuracy for sex determination (94%). When using the surface area of multiple bones, the maximum accuracy (99.4%) was achieved. The equation was as follows: (discriminant equation of surface area; female<0area of extremity bones can be used for sex determination.

  14. Source area and depositional controls on diagenesis in the deep lower Tuscaloosa Formation (Upper Cretaceous), Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Weedman, S.D.; Brantley, S.L. . Geosciences Dept.)

    1992-01-01

    Sandstone cores from two widely separated gas fields within the deep lower Tuscaloosa Formation were sampled and examined with optical, cathodoluminescent, and scanning electron microscopy. Diagenetic differences between the two areas (the Moore-Sams/Morganza (MS/M) and Rigolets (R) fields) can be explained by different source areas and depositional environments. The coarsening-upward reservoir sandstones of the MS/M fields were deposited along a prograding delta front, where sand/shale ratios of at least 4:1 indicate extensive sandstone connectivity. Sandstone isolith maps suggest a source area to the north including areas of contemporaneous (Cenomanian) alkaline volcanic activity in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Arkansas. The sandstones have extremely high porosity, interpreted as secondary, despite burial depths. Porosity is preserved where compaction is inhibited by relict cements and overpressures. Additionally, pores are lined with an iron-rich chlorite, which inhibits late quartz cement. Sedimentary structures and sand/shale ratios in lower Tuscaloosa sandstones of the R field suggest more distal, shale-dominated depositional environments. Sandstone isolith maps indicate a source area to the northeast, to sandstones of the MS/M fields, R field sandstones are richer in feldspar, pore-filling kaolinite and calcite, and lack recognizable volcanic rock fragments. Secondary porosity and chlorite in these sandstones are rare.

  15. Exotic plant colonization and occupancy within riparian areas of the Interior Columbia River and Upper Missouri River basins, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Ray, Andrew M.; Roper, Brett B.; Archer, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Exotic plant invasions into riparia often result in shifts in vegetative composition, altered stream function, and cascading effects to biota at multiple scales. Characterizing the distribution patterns of exotic plants is an important step in directing targeted research to identify mechanisms of invasion and potential management strategies. In this study, we employed occupancy models to examine the associations of landscape, climate, and disturbance attributes with the colonization and occupancy patterns for spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe L.), Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense L., Scop.), and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) in the riparia of headwater streams (n = 1,091) in the Interior Columbia River and Upper Missouri River Basins. We found relatively low occupancy rates for cheatgrass (0.06, SE = 0.02) and spotted knapweed (0.04, SE = 0.01), but moderate occupancy of Canada thistle (0.28, SE = 0.05); colonization rates were low across all species (<0.01). We found the distributions of spotted knapweed, Canada thistle, and cheatgrass to exhibit significant associations with both ambient climate conditions and anthropogenic and natural disturbances. We attribute the low to moderate occupancy and colonization rates to the relatively remote locations of our sample sites within headwater streams and urge consideration of means to prevent further invasions.

  16. Paleoslope, sea-level and climate controls on Upper Miocene platform evolution, Las Negras area, southeastern Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franseen, E.K.; Goldstein, R.H.; ,

    1996-01-01

    Carbonate platforms in the Las Negras area evolved from onlapping ramps to fringing reef complexes later draped by cyclic shallow marine strata. Although sea-level history and paleoclimate had an effect on platform evolution, substrate topography played a dominant role. The strata are divided into five depositional sequences of Tortonian and Messinian age. The model of platform evolution provided by the Las Negras area exposures likely has applications for other Miocene carbonate complexes in the Mediterranean and could apply to other carbonate complexes in the rock record.

  17. 75 FR 25794 - Regulated Navigation Area: Red Bull Air Race World Championship, Upper New York Bay, Lower Hudson...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA08 Regulated Navigation Area: Red Bull Air Race World... State Park, New Jersey and Ellis Island, New Jersey and New York for the Red Bull Air Race...

  18. Age estimation of the deposition of the cretaceous Upper Sandstones and a later remagnetization event, from Hirna area, SE Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atnafu, Balemwal; Kidane, Tesfaye

    2012-01-01

    Outcrops of the Cretaceous Upper sandstone formation some 375 km to the East of Addis Ababa on the motor Highway to Harar was paleomagnetically investigated. About seventy core samples were collected at various stratigraphic levels from 250-300 meters thick sedimentary formation. After standard sample preparations in the laboratory the resulting specimens were subjected to routine paleomagnetic demagnetization protocol. In the first steps of demagnetizations process the recent and viscous magnetizations were removed by heating until a temperature of level of 300 °C. Further demagnetization of the samples resulted in the isolation of the final magnetization with stable line segments that is directed towards the origin, which is interpreted as Characteristic Remanent Magnetization (ChRM). Rock - magnetic experiments have identified goethite (αFeOOH), hematite (αFe 2O 3), detritial hematite, and magnetite as the magnetic mineral phases carrying the remanence. The ChRM identified resulted in an average value of ( Ds = 0.5°, Is = -0.7°, α95 = 4.3°, N = 34) for the red sandstones while an average value of ( Ds = 335.8°, Is = -31.8°, α95 = 4.7°, N = 14) for the limestone intercalations. The former ChRM in the red sandstone is determined to be secondary while the latter ChRM is known to be primary. Comparison of these directional results and their pole equivalents with the African plate Apparent Polar Wander Path curve established by Besse and Courtillot (2003) give ages of between 115-130 Million years for the limestone intercalation and ages of 30 million years for red sandstone unit. These are interpreted respectively as estimates of the age of deposition and a later remagnetization respectively.

  19. Accuracy and reliability of pulp/tooth area ratio in upper canines by peri-apical X-rays.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, A C; Michel-Crosato, E; Biazevic, M G H; Galić, I; Merelli, V; De Luca, S; Cameriere, R

    2014-11-01

    Due to the real need for careful staff training in age assessment, in order to improve capacity, consistency and competence, new research on the reliability and repeatability of methods frequently used in age assessment are required. The aim of this study was twofold: first, to test the accuracy of this method for age estimation; second, to obtain data on the reliability of this technique. A sample of 81 peri-apical radiographs of upper canines (44 men and 37 women), aged between 19 and 74years, was used; the teeth were taken from the osteological collection of Sassari (Sardinia, Italy). Three blinded observers used the technique in order to perform the age estimation. The mean real age of the 81 observations was 37.21 (CI95% 34.37 40.05), and estimated ages ranged from 36.65 to 38.99 (CI95%-Ex1 35.42; 41.28; CI95%-Ex2 33.89; 39.41; CI95%-Ex3 35.92; 42.06). The module differences found by the three observers were 3.43, 4.24 and 4.45, respectively for Ex1×Ex2, Ex1×Ex3 and Ex2×Ex3. The module differences observed among real and observed ages were 2.55 (CI95% 1.90; 3.20), 2.22 (CI95% 1.65; 2.78) and 4.39 (CI95% 3.80; 5.75), respectively for Ex1, Ex2 and Ex3. No differences were observed among measurements. This technique can be reproduced and repeated after proper training, since it was found high reliability and accuracy.

  20. Factors affecting the movement and persistence of nitrate and pesticides in the surficial and upper Floridan aquifers in two agricultural areas in the southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.; Berndt, M.P.; Crandall, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Differences in the degree of confinement, redox conditions, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) are the main factors that control the persistence of nitrate and pesticides in the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) and overlying surficial aquifer beneath two agricultural areas in the southeastern US. Groundwater samples were collected multiple times from 66 wells during 1993–2007 in a study area in southwestern Georgia (ACFB) and from 48 wells in 1997–98 and 2007–08 in a study area in South Carolina (SANT) as part of the US Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. In the ACFB study area, where karst features are prevalent, elevated nitrate-N concentrations in the oxic unconfined UFA (median 2.5 mg/L) were significantly (p = 0.03) higher than those in the overlying oxic surficial aquifer (median 1.5 mg/L). Concentrations of atrazine and deethylatrazine (DEA; the most frequently detected pesticide and degradate) were higher in more recent groundwater samples from the ACFB study area than in samples collected prior to 2000. Conversely, in the SANT study area, nitrate-N concentrations in the UFA were mostly <0.06 mg/L, resulting from anoxic conditions and elevated DOC concentrations that favored denitrification. Although most parts of the partially confined UFA in the SANT study area were anoxic or had mixed redox conditions, water from 28 % of the sampled wells was oxic and had low DOC concentrations. Based on the groundwater age information, nitrate concentrations reflect historic fertilizer N usage in both the study areas, but with a lag time of about 15–20 years. Simulated responses to future management scenarios of fertilizer N inputs indicated that elevated nitrate-N concentrations would likely persist in oxic parts of the surficial aquifer and UFA for decades even with substantial decreases in fertilizer N inputs over the next 40 years.

  1. Typology of potential high contribution areas in the sediment budget in the Upper Guil Catchment (Queyras, French Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lissak, Candide; Fort, Monique; Fassetta, Gilles Arnaud; Viel, Vincent; Carlier, Benoit

    2015-04-01

    In mountainous areas, especially in large river catchments with torrential tributaries, the production and sediment transport significantly increase flood impacts in the valley bottoms. For a better understanding of Alpine river catchments considered as complex systems, we focused our research on the Guil River catchment (Queyras, Southern French Alps - 317km²). This catchment is prone to catastrophic summer floods (June 1957 (> R.I. 100 yr), June 2000 (R.I. 30 yr)...) characterized by considerable sediment transport from tributaries to downvalley, very much facilitated by strong hillslope-channel connectivity (≈12,000 m3 volume of sediment aggraded during the June 2000 flood event). During the last flood events, several infrastructures and buildings were seriously damaged. Most of them were located at confluences and, at specific reaches such as canyon reaches constrained by infrastructures. For risk mitigation some protection equipments were built after the 1957 event, but most of them are now poorly maintained and might be less effective in case of flood event. In the frame of SAMCO (ANR 12 SENV-0004) project designed for mountain hazard mitigation in a context of Climate Change, one objective is to understand the hydro-geomorphological functioning of Alpine catchments for a sustainable management of sediment yield, transfer and deposition. Part of our study is aimed at a better assessment of sediment transfers, especially on adjacent sediment supply (i.e. from hillslope to channel, and from tributaries to the trunk river) for a better management of sediment fluxes in the frame of the local "River Scheme". For this reason, we decided to establish a sediment budget of the Guil River catchment, with a quantitative assessment and a spatial analysis of erosion, transport, and deposition processes. The initial phase of our study consists in identifying contributive, erosion and deposition areas with a twofold approach: (i) assessment of longitudinal sedimentary

  2. Paleopedology of the Sangamonian-Wisconsinan transition in loess of the upper Mississippi Valley Driftless Area, Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, D.S. . Geography Dept.)

    1992-01-01

    The late Quaternary Sangamonian-Wisconsinan transition in loess deposits of the Driftless Area is characterized by syndepositional weathering and upward growth of the Sangamon Soil'' within thin deposits of the early to middle Wisconsinan Roxana Silt. Complete pedologic separation of a Sangamon Soil'' and a Farmdale Soil'' in the strict sense does not occur in upland loess settings in Driftless Area. Radiocarbon ages indicate that the Roxana Silt accumulated between about 55,000 and 27,000 C-14 yr B.P. at a maximum bulk sedimentation rate of only about 5 to 10 cm/1,000 yr. Plant macrofossils throughout the thickness of the Roxana Silt, and other paleobotanical evidence, indicate that the uplands of the Driftless Area probably were characterized by a conifer forest throughout the early to middle Wisconsinan. Sedimentological characteristics separate the Roxana Silt from bounding lithostratigraphic units, but the Roxana Silt is pedogenically welded'' to underlying units which contain well developed paleosols with argillic horizons. The Roxana Silt is overlain by apedal late Wisconsinan Peoria Loess dated between 25,000 and 12,000 yr B.P. Pedologic features in the Roxana Silt is overlain by apedal late Wisconsinan Peoria Loess data between 25,000 and 12,000 yr B.P. Pedologic features in the Roxana Silt suggest cumulic A-horizon and cambric B-horizon development, indicating that weathering intensities were slight to moderate during the period of loess sedimentation. Pedologic and geochemical characteristics, including soil structure, argillans, and phosphorus concentrations, suggest that weathering intensities progressively decreased during the early to middle Wisconsinan time period. This is consistent with other proxys for paleoclimate which indicate progressive global cooling from the Sangamonian to late Wisconsinan time.

  3. Hydrologic and water-quality data related to the occurrence of arsenic for areas along the Madison and Upper Missouri Rivers, southwestern and west-central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuck, L.K.; Dutton, D.M.; Nimick, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    Geothermal waters in Yellowstone National Park contribute large quantities of arsenic to the headwaters of the Madison River. Water in some Quaternary and Tertiary valley-fill deposits along the Madison and upper Missouri Rivers also is locally enriched in arsenic. Arsenic in surface and ground water in these valleys is an important public- health concern because arsenic concentrations frequently exceed the State of Montana water- quality human health standard of 18 micrograms per liter as well as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level of 50 micrograms per liter. This report presents hydrologic and water-quality data for the Madison and upper Missouri Rivers and selected tributaries, irrigation supply canals or ditches, drains, springs and seeps, for Lake Helena, and for ground water in adjacent areas. Hydrologic and water-quality data were collected and compiled to provide information to more fully understand the extent, magnitude, and source of arsenic in surface and ground water along the Madison and upper Missouri Rivers; to assess, to the extent possible, the mechanisms that control arsenic concentrations; and to assess the effect of irrigation on arsenic concentrations. Hydrologic and arsenic- concentration data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies for 104 surface-water sites and 273 ground-water sites during this and previous studies. The quality of analytical results for arsenic concentrations was evaluated by quality-control samples that were submitted from the field and analyzed in the laboratory with routing samples. Quality-control samples consisted of replicates, standard reference samples, interlaboratory comparison samples, and field blanks.

  4. Native and transplanted Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.)Mitt. as a bioindicator of N deposition in a heavily industrialized area of Upper Silesia (S Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosior, G.; Samecka-Cymerman, A.; Chmielewski, A.; Wierzchnicki, R.; Derda, M.; Kempers, A. J.

    Over a period of 90 days, an assay was carried out with the moss Pleurozium schreberi transplanted from an uncontaminated control site to the most polluted industrialized region of Upper Silesia (centring around Katowice) in southern Poland. Within the same period, samples of native P. schreberi growing in the same industrialized region were collected, as well as P. schreberi from an unpolluted control site. The soils from the polluted sites contained high levels of N, and the concentrations of Pb and Zn in mosses also greatly exceeded those in plants from the unpolluted control sites. The deposition of atmospheric NH 4+ significantly exceeded that of airborne NO 3- at all industrialized sites. The transplanted P. schreberi was a better nitrogen accumulator than the native moss in the less polluted parts of the area, showing a relation between the δ 15N signature and tissue N concentration on the one hand and wet N deposition on the other after 45 and 90 days of exposure. P. schreberi transplanted into the more polluted sites of the industrialized area did not reach the level of nitrogen of the native species within 90 days of exposure and showed a relation to atmospheric N deposition only after 90 days of exposure. The transplants were thus poorer indicators of nitrogen deposition in heavily polluted areas than in less polluted regions. Transplanted P. schreberi was also a poorer indicator of nitrogen deposition in heavily polluted areas than native P. schreberi.

  5. Three-Dimensional Geologic Model of Complex Fault Structures in the Upper Seco Creek Area, Medina and Uvalde Counties, South-Central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pantea, Michael P.; Cole, James C.; Smith, Bruce D.; Faith, Jason R.; Blome, Charles D.; Smith, David V.

    2008-01-01

    This multimedia report shows and describes digital three-dimensional faulted geologic surfaces and volumes of the lithologic units of the Edwards aquifer in the upper Seco Creek area of Medina and Uvalde Counties in south-central Texas. This geologic framework model was produced using (1) geologic maps and interpretations of depositional environments and paleogeography; (2) lithologic descriptions, interpretations, and geophysical logs from 31 drill holes; (3) rock core and detailed lithologic descriptions from one drill hole; (4) helicopter electromagnetic geophysical data; and (5) known major and minor faults in the study area. These faults were used because of their individual and collective effects on the continuity of the aquifer-forming units in the Edwards Group. Data and information were compared and validated with each other and reflect the complex relationships of structures in the Seco Creek area of the Balcones fault zone. This geologic framework model can be used as a tool to visually explore and study geologic structures within the Seco Creek area of the Balcones fault zone and to show the connectivity of hydrologic units of high and low permeability between and across faults. The software can be used to display other data and information, such as drill-hole data, on this geologic framework model in three-dimensional space.

  6. Relations among rainstorm runoff, streamflow, pH, and metal concentrations, Summitville Mine area, upper Alamosa River basin, southwest Colorado, 1995-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.

    2001-01-01

    The upper Alamosa River Basin contains areas that are geochemically altered and have associated secondary sulfide mineralization. Occurring with this sulfide mineralization are copper, gold, and silver deposits that have been mined since the 1870's. Weathering of areas with sulfide mineralization produces runoff with anomalously low pH and high metal concentrations; mining activities exacerbate the condition. Summer rainstorms in the upper Alamosa River Basin produce a characteristic relation between streamflow and pH; streamflow suddenly increases and pH suddenly decreases (commonly by more than 1 pH unit). This report evaluates changes in pH in the upper Alamosa River Basin during July, August, and September 1995, 1996, and 1997 to examine possible adverse environmental effects due to rainstorm runoff. Ninety-three percent of the rainstorms occurring during 1995?97 produced runoff throughout the entire basin. Out of 54 storms, only 3 storms were isolated to the river reach upstream from the streamflow-gaging station Alamosa River above Wightman Fork, and only 1 storm was isolated to the river reach between the streamflow-gaging stations Alamosa River below Jasper and Alamosa River above Terrace Reservoir. Although most rainstorm runoff events occurred throughout the entire basin, pH changes were highest in parts of the basin that receive runoff from hydrothermally altered areas. The three principal altered areas within the basin are the Jasper, Stunner, and Summitville areas. Only limited mining occurred in the Stunner altered area, and yet significant decreases in pH values occur due to runoff from this area. Even after environmental restoration activities are completed at the Summitville Mine, the main stem of the Alamosa River may continue to be adversely affected by runoff from the Stunner and Jasper altered areas. A comparison of measured pH with Federal and State of Colorado water-quality standards and Toxicological Reference Values indicates pH was too low

  7. Petrology and depositional environments of lower Tuscaloosa Formation (upper Cretaceous) sandstones in North Hustler and Thompson field areas, southwestern Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Klicman, D.P.; Cameron, C.P.; Meylan, M.A.

    1988-09-01

    The lithology, diagenesis, and depositional environments of the Dykes, Denkman, and McComb units of the Stringer Sand Member of the lower Tuscaloosa Formation in the North Hustler and Thompson field areas of Amite County, Mississippi, have been determined by detailed description of cores from nine wells and examination of 61 thin sections. The cores were recovered from driller depths of about 11,100 ft (3383 m) in the updip Tuscaloosa trend, which is being actively explored for stratigraphically trapped oil. Most of the sandstone samples (65%) are quartzarenites, and the remainder are sublitharenites. Porosity is mostly secondary, resulting from partial dissolution of framework grains and cement. The depositional environment of the Dykes and Denkman sandstones in all wells is interpreted to be fluvial, with stacked point bars obvious in one well. The McComb sandstone, best developed in a wildcat well between Thompson and McComb fields, is marine, based on the occurrence of glauconite and shell fragments. The presence of a basal scour surface on shale indicates that this sandstone may be the product of marine reworking of a transgressed fluvial (distributary point or mouth bar.)sand.

  8. Creating a monthly time series of the potentiometric surface in the Upper Floridan aquifer, Northern Tampa Bay area, Florida, January 2000-December 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Terrie M.; Fouad, Geoffrey G.

    2014-01-01

    In Florida’s karst terrain, where groundwater and surface waters interact, a mapping time series of the potentiometric surface in the Upper Floridan aquifer offers a versatile metric for assessing the hydrologic condition of both the aquifer and overlying streams and wetlands. Long-term groundwater monitoring data were used to generate a monthly time series of potentiometric surfaces in the Upper Floridan aquifer over a 573-square-mile area of west-central Florida between January 2000 and December 2009. Recorded groundwater elevations were collated for 260 groundwater monitoring wells in the Northern Tampa Bay area, and a continuous time series of daily observations was created for 197 of the wells by estimating missing daily values through regression relations with other monitoring wells. Kriging was used to interpolate the monthly average potentiometric-surface elevation in the Upper Floridan aquifer over a decade. The mapping time series gives spatial and temporal coherence to groundwater monitoring data collected continuously over the decade by three different organizations, but at various frequencies. Further, the mapping time series describes the potentiometric surface beneath parts of six regionally important stream watersheds and 11 municipal well fields that collectively withdraw about 90 million gallons per day from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Monthly semivariogram models were developed using monthly average groundwater levels at wells. Kriging was used to interpolate the monthly average potentiometric-surface elevations and to quantify the uncertainty in the interpolated elevations. Drawdown of the potentiometric surface within well fields was likely the cause of a characteristic decrease and then increase in the observed semivariance with increasing lag distance. This characteristic made use of the hole effect model appropriate for describing the monthly semivariograms and the interpolated surfaces. Spatial variance reflected in the monthly

  9. [BIOMECHANICAL SUBSTANTIATION OF ONE-AXIS DEFORMITY OF ADIPOSE-CUTANEOUS FLAPS OF TEMPORAL AND ZYGOMATIC AREAS WHILE PERFORMANCE OF UPPER RHYTIDOPLASTY].

    PubMed

    Avetikov, D S; Gutnik, A A; Boyko, I V; Ivanytskaya, O S; Tsvetkova, N V

    2015-05-01

    The urgency of the problem of determining the biomechanical features adipose-cutaneous grafts due to a significant increase in the frequency of performing cosmetic surgery and the lack of a unified concept for such interventions. In 32 women aged 35 to 65 years, which will eliminate the excess soft tissues in the implementation ritidectomy and other surgical interventions, isolated patches of adipose-cutaneous flaps to determine the mechanisms of its plastic deformation. Based on the analysis of biomechanical research targeted the optimal stretching the boundaries of adipose-cutaneous flaps zygomatic--to (0.45 ± 0.021) cm and temporal--by (0.0165 ± 0.002) cm refer to areas that allowed to perform surgery with preservation of natural topographoanatomic relations persons in the performance of the upper ritidectomy. PMID:26419037

  10. Stratigraphic framework and coal correlation of the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation, Bisti-Ah-Shi-Sle-Pah area, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, Romeo M.; Erpenbeck, Michael F.

    1982-01-01

    This report illustrates and describes the detailed stratigraphic framework and coal correlation of the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation exposed in isolated badlands and along washes within a 20-mile outcrop belt in the Bisti-Ah-Shi-Sle-Pah area, southwestern San Juan Basin, Nex Mexico (see index). The stratigraphic framework showing the vertical and lateral distributions of rock types and the lateral continuity of coal beds is illustrated in cross sections. The cross sections were constructed from 112 stratigraphic sections measured at an average distance of 0.4 mi apart. Each section contained key marker beds (sandstone, coal, and tonstein) that were physically traced to adjacent sections. Each measured section was "hung" on multiple marker beds arranged in a geometric best-fit method that accounts for the differential compaction and facies associations of the deposits. 

  11. Potential effects of surface coal mining on the hydrology of the upper Otter Creek-Pasture Creek Area, Moorehead coal field, southeastern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McClymonds, N.E.; Moreland, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    The combined upper Otter Creek-Pasture Creek area, south of Ashland, Montana, contains large reserves of Federal coal for potential lease sale. A hydrologic study was conducted in the area to describe existing hydrologic systems and generalized groundwater quality, to assess potential effects of surface mining on local water resources, and to evaluate the potential for reclamation of those water resources. Principal aquifers are coal beds and sandstone in the upper Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene age), and sand and gravel in alluvium (Pleistocene and Holocene age). Hydraulic conductivity determined from aquifer tests was about 0.004 to 16 ft/d for coal or sandstone aquifers and 1 to 290 ft/d for alluvial aquifers. Dissolved-solids concentrations in water from bedrock ranged from 1,160 to 4,390 mg/L. In alluvium, the concentrations were 1,770 to 12,600 mg/L. Surface water is available from interrupted flow along downstream reaches of Otter and Pasture Creeks, from stock ponds, and from springs. Most stock ponds are dry by midsummer. Mining of coal in the Anderson, Dietz, and Canyon beds would lower the potentiometric surface within coal and sandstone aquifers. Alluvium along Otter Creek, its main tributaries, and Pasture Creek would be removed at the mines. Planned structuring of the spoils and reconstruction of alluvial aquifers could minimize downstream changes in water quality. Although mining would alter the existing hydrologic systems and destroy several shallow wells and stock ponds, alternative water supplies are available. (USGS)

  12. Composition and provenance of placer deposits in McCourt Tongue of Rock Springs Formation (Upper Cretaceous), Rock Springs uplift area, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, G.B.

    1986-08-01

    Heavy minerals from placer sandstones were studied from samples collected at five widely spaced outcrops of the McCourt Tongue on the southeastern flank of the Rock Springs uplift and on the northern flank of the Uinta Mountains. The placers were deposited along a northeast-trending, strand-plain shoreline of the Cretaceous Interior seaway. Heavy minerals from the five localities occur in very fine-grained sandstone and are composed of about 85% opaque iron and titanium minerals, including magnetite, hematite, and ilmenite. About 15% consist of nonopaque minerals, which are mostly zircon, garnet, tourmaline, and rutile with minor amounts of sphene, hornblende, and apatite. The cementing material is mostly hematite. The nonopaque suite is as much as 96% zircon grains, with 3/sup 0/ of roundness and five color varieties. The heavy minerals are from both plutonic and volcanic source areas. The plutonic minerals suggest a westerly source in Precambrian rocks of Utah and Idaho. The volcanic minerals were probably derived from areas of volcanic activity in Alberta and Montana. The composition, distribution, and provenance of the deposits help establish a framework for regressive Upper Cretaceous shorelines in the central Rocky Mountain area.

  13. Remedial investigation work plan for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek characterization area, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, located within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), is owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. The entire ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) of CERCLA sites in November 1989. Following CERCLA guidelines, sites under investigation require a remedial investigation (RI) to define the nature and extent of contamination, evaluate the risks to public health and the environment, and determine the goals for a feasibility study (FS) of potential remedial actions. The need to complete RIs in a timely manner resulted in the establishment of the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Characterization Area (CA) and the Bear Creek CA. The CA approach considers the entire watershed and examines all appropriate media within it. The UEFPC CA, which includes the main Y-12 Plant area, is an operationally and hydrogeologically complex area that contains numerous contaminants and containment sources, as well as ongoing industrial and defense-related activities. The UEFPC CA also is the suspected point of origin for off-site groundwater and surface-water contamination. The UEFPC CA RI also will address a carbon-tetrachloride/chloroform-dominated groundwater plume that extends east of the DOE property line into Union Valley, which appears to be connected with springs in the valley. In addition, surface water in UEFPC to the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek CA boundary will be addressed. Through investigation of the entire watershed as one ``site,`` data gaps and contaminated areas will be identified and prioritized more efficiently than through separate investigations of many discrete units.

  14. Multi-channel Linear Array Seismic Interferometry: Insights on Passive Seismic Imaging of the Upper 1 km in an Urban Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettinger, E. M.; Stephenson, W. J.; Odum, J. K.

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution active-source seismic imaging in heavily urbanized regions is problematic because equipment deployment is often constrained to linear roadways, where access for active seismic sources may be limited and seismic energy from ambient urban noise can overpower active sources. To investigate the application of linear-array seismic interferometry for obtaining subsurface images in the upper 1 km beneath an urban area, we acquired passive seismic data along two roadways that cross a northern segment of the Seattle fault zone, Washington State. Both of the profiles were collocated with previously acquired active-source reflection lines, which we used as control for interpretations. The interferometry profiles were roughly 1 km in length and were acquired using 8-Hz resonant frequency, vertical-component geophones that were deployed at 5 m spacing (nominally 216 sensors). Approximately 24 hours of data were acquired on each profile over four days (because of permitting and security issues, the equipment could not be deployed overnight). The basic processing sequence used to create virtual source gathers (VSG's) included pre-correlation gain correction, resampling, bandpass filtering, correlation by cross coherence, and VSG editing. After editing, around 18% of the individual virtual sources were retained for further analysis. VSG's were then dip filtered prior to stacking to further mitigate coherent noise. Our VSG's resolve 4-30 Hz Rayleigh waves, propagating at 300-600 m/s, and at least one diving P-wave propagating at roughly 1800 m/s. These apparent velocities are similar to those of comparable wave phases observed in the active-source data. Overall, these newly acquired high-resolution seismic imaging data provide insights into seismic velocity of the upper 1 km across the Seattle fault zone.

  15. Effects of two stormwater management methods on the quality of water in the upper Biscayne aquifer at two commercial areas in Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, D.J.; Irwin, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    for nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic content at the free zone. This trend suggested that the exfiltration trench at both study areas may function as a partial trap for some chemical substances present in stormwater. A comparison of the distribution of the 11 target variables and major ionic composition in water from the two trench wells and the two wells 20 feet from the trench did not indicate a notable horizontal stratification at either study area. A vertical difference between 10 and 15 feet, however, was indicated at the free zone with major ions in greater concentrations at 15 feet. The vertical variability in groundwater near the trench at the free zone may have been the result of stormwater dilution in the upper (10-foot ) zone. The groundwater quality at the swale was quite dissimilar to that near the exfiltration trench at both the airport and free zone study areas. Data indicated that the groundwater environment at both sales was anaerobic as evidenced by abundant ammonia nitrogen and iron and trace levels of sulfate. Anaerobic conditions at the swale may have been the result of poor drainage and high organic content of soils. Significant biochemical cycling in the ground water at the swales precluded any assessment of quality effects that may result from storm-water infiltration.

  16. Geologic map and upper Paleozoic stratigraphy of the Marble Canyon area, Cottonwood Canyon quadrangle, Death Valley National Park, Inyo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Paul; Stevens, Calvin H.; Belasky, Paul; Montañez, Isabel P.; Martin, Lauren G.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.; Sandberg, Charles A.; Wan, Elmira; Olson, Holly A.; Priest, Susan S.

    2014-01-01

    This geologic map and pamphlet focus on the stratigraphy, depositional history, and paleogeographic significance of upper Paleozoic rocks exposed in the Marble Canyon area in Death Valley National Park, California. Bedrock exposed in this area is composed of Mississippian to lower Permian (Cisuralian) marine sedimentary rocks and the Jurassic Hunter Mountain Quartz Monzonite. These units are overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary nonmarine sedimentary deposits that include a previously unrecognized tuff to which we tentatively assign an age of late middle Miocene (~12 Ma) based on tephrochronologic analysis, in addition to the previously recognized Pliocene tuff of Mesquite Spring. Mississippian and Pennsylvanian rocks in the Marble Canyon area represent deposition on the western continental shelf of North America. Mississippian limestone units in the area (Tin Mountain, Stone Canyon, and Santa Rosa Hills Limestones) accumulated on the outer part of a broad carbonate platform that extended southwest across Nevada into east-central California. Carbonate sedimentation was interrupted by a major eustatic sea-level fall that has been interpreted to record the onset of late Paleozoic glaciation in southern Gondwana. Following a brief period of Late Mississippian clastic sedimentation (Indian Springs Formation), a rise in eustatic sea level led to establishment of a new carbonate platform that covered most of the area previously occupied by the Mississippian platform. The Pennsylvanian Bird Spring Formation at Marble Canyon makes up the outer platform component of ten third-order (1 to 5 m.y. duration) stratigraphic sequences recently defined for the regional platform succession. The regional paleogeography was fundamentally changed by major tectonic activity along the continental margin beginning in middle early Permian time. As a result, the Pennsylvanian carbonate shelf at Marble Canyon subsided and was disconformably overlain by lower Permian units (Osborne Canyon and

  17. Geochemistry of Mine Waste and Mill Tailings, Meadow Deposits, Streambed Sediment, and General Hydrology and Water Quality for the Frohner Meadows Area, Upper Lump Gulch, Jefferson County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, Terry L.; Cannon, Michael R.; Fey, David L.

    2004-01-01

    Frohner Meadows, an area of low-topographic gradient subalpine ponds and wetlands in glaciated terrane near the headwaters of Lump Gulch (a tributary of Prickly Pear Creek), is located about 15 miles west of the town of Clancy, Montana, in the Helena National Forest. Mining and ore treatment of lead-zinc-silver veins in granitic rocks of the Boulder batholith over the last 120 years from two sites (Frohner mine and the Nellie Grant mine) has resulted in accumulations of mine waste and mill tailings that have been distributed downslope and downstream by anthropogenic and natural processes. This report presents the results of an investigation of the geochemistry of the wetlands, streams, and unconsolidated-sediment deposits and the hydrology, hydrogeology, and water quality of the area affected by these sources of ore-related metals. Ground water sampled from most shallow wells in the meadow system contained high concentrations of arsenic, exceeding the Montana numeric water-quality standard for human health. Transport of cadmium and zinc in ground water is indicated at one site near Nellie Grant Creek based on water-quality data from one well near the creek. Mill tailings deposited in upper Frohner Meadow contribute large arsenic loads to Frohner Meadows Creek; Nellie Grant Creek contributes large arsenic, cadmium, and zinc loads to upper Frohner Meadows. Concentrations of total-recoverable cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in most surface-water sites downstream from the Nellie Grant mine area exceeded Montana aquatic-life standards. Nearly all samples of surface water and ground water had neutral to slightly alkaline pH values. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc in streambed sediment in the entire meadow below the mine waste and mill tailings accumulations are highly enriched relative to regional watershed-background concentrations and exceed consensus-based, probable-effects concentrations for streambed sediment at most sites. Cadmium, copper, and

  18. Geophysical Logs, Aquifer Tests, and Water Levels in Wells in and Near the North Penn Area 7 Superfund Site, Upper Gwynedd Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, 2002-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Conger, Randall W.; Bird, Philip H.

    2008-01-01

    Ground water in the vicinity of several industrial facilities in Upper Gwynedd Township and Lansdale Borough, Montgomery County, Pa., is contaminated with several volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The 2-square-mile area was placed on the National Priorities List as the North Penn Area 7 Superfund Site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1989. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical logging, aquifer testing, water-level monitoring, and streamflow measurements in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 from October 2002 through December 2006. This followed work that began in 2000 to assist the USEPA in developing an understanding of the hydrogeologic framework in the area as part of the USEPA Remedial Investigation. The study area is underlain by Triassic- and Jurassic-age sandstones, siltstones, and shales of the Lockatong Formation and the Brunswick Group. Regionally, these rocks strike northeast and dip to the northwest. The sequence of rocks form fractured-rock aquifers that act as a set of confined to semi-confined layered aquifers of differing permeabilities. The aquifers are recharged by precipitation and discharge to streams and wells. The Wissahickon Creek headwaters are less than 1 mile northeast of the study area. This stream flows southwest approximately parallel to strike and bisects North Penn Area 7. Ground water is pumped in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 for industrial use and public supply. The USGS collected geophysical logs for 42 wells that ranged in depth from 40 to 477 ft. Aquifer-interval-isolation testing was done in 17 of the 42 wells, for a total of 122 zones tested. A multiple-well aquifer test was conducted by monitoring the response of 14 wells to pumping and shutdown of a 600-ft deep production well in November-December 2004. In addition, water levels were monitored continuously in four wells in the area from October 2002 through September 2006, and streamflow was measured quarterly at two sites on

  19. Sedimentary evolution of the upper Cretaceous and late Oligocene sequences, and its relation to oil production, North Monagas area, Eastern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Sambrano, J.; Rojas, B.; Rendon, J.; Chigne, R.; Maguregui, J.

    1996-08-01

    The most important oil reservoirs of the Eastern Venezuela Basin are located in the North Monagas Area. These reservoirs are contained within a 3500 ft Cretaceous to Late Oligocene sedimentary section. Daily production is rated at about 350 MBO and 1000 MMCFG. At this moment, these reservoirs are undergoing special studies, in order to establish enhanced recovery projects, for which heterogeneity definition is very important. The database consisted of log analyses of 136 wells, sedimentological and biostratigraphic interpretation of 10,200 ft of cores, and biostratigraphic interpretation of ditch samples from 13 wells. Sedimentary models, based on facies analyses and deltaic conceptual models of 31 separate genetic units were defined. The models allowed for the interpretation of paleoenvironments, sedimentary facies architecture, direction of sedimentation and depocenters. The preferred sediment orientation was determined to be West-East. In the Santa Barbara and Pirital reservoirs the Late Oligocene sediments are composed of fluvial deposits, and the Cretaceous sediments of estuarine deposits. In the Carito-Mulata reservoirs, the Late Oligocene sediments are composed of fluvial to marine deposits, and the Upper Cretaceous sediments of estuarine deposits. Possible preferred transmissibility pathways for fluid injection were described, providing a great support for the enhanced recovery phases of these reservoirs.

  20. Hydrogeology, water quality, and saltwater intrusion in the Upper Floridan Aquifer in the offshore area near Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, and Tybee Island, Georgia, 1999-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falls, W. Fred; Ransom, Camille; Landmeyer, James E.; Reuber, Eric J.; Edwards, Lucy E.

    2005-01-01

    To assess the hydrogeology, water quality, and the potential for saltwater intrusion in the offshore Upper Floridan aquifer, a scientific investigation was conducted near Tybee Island, Georgia, and Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. Four temporary wells were drilled at 7, 8, 10, and 15 miles to the northeast of Tybee Island, and one temporary well was drilled in Calibogue Sound west of Hilton Head Island. The Upper Floridan aquifer at the offshore and Calibogue sites includes the unconsolidated calcareous quartz sand, calcareous quartz sandstone, and sandy limestone of the Oligocene Lazaretto Creek and Tiger Leap Formations, and the limestone of the late Eocene Ocala Limestone and middle Avon Park Formation. At the 7-, 10-, and 15-mile sites, the upper confining unit between the Upper Floridan and surficial aquifers correlates to the Miocene Marks Head Formation. Paleochannel incisions have completely removed the upper confining unit at the Calibogue site and all but a 0.8-foot-thick interval of the confining unit at the 8-mile site, raising concern about the potential for saltwater intrusion through the paleochannel-fill sediments at these two sites. The paleochannel incisions at the Calibogue and 8-mile sites are filled with fine- and coarse-grained sediments, respectively. The hydrogeologic setting and the vertical hydraulic gradients at the 7- and 10-mile sites favored the absence of saltwater intrusion during predevelopment. After decades of onshore water use in Georgia and South Carolina, the 0-foot contour in the regional cone of depression of the Upper Floridan aquifer is estimated to have been at the general location of the 7- and 10-mile sites by the mid-1950s and at or past the 15-mile site by the 1980s. The upward vertical hydraulic gradient reversed, but the presence of more than 17 feet of upper confining unit impeded the downward movement of saltwater from the surficial aquifer to the Upper Floridan aquifer at the 7- and 10-mile sites. At the 10

  1. Origin of metabasites from upper tectonic unit of the Lavrion area (SE Attica, Greece): Geochemical implications for dual origin with distinct provenance of blueschist and greenschist's protoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baziotis, I.; Mposkos, E.

    2011-10-01

    The Lavrion area forms the westernmost part of the Attic-Cycladic crystalline belt (ACCB) and is built up by two tectonic units metamorphosed at HP/LT conditions. In the Upper Tectonic Unit metabasic rocks occur as greenschists and blueschists. Major and trace elements plotted against Mg# show a systematic increase in TiO 2, Fe 2O 3*, Na 2O, Zr, Y, V, La and Yb and a decrease in Al 2O 3, Ni and Cr with decreasing Mg#. Typically, the blueschists always exhibit a more evolved basaltic composition. The greenschists are characterized by LREE-depleted chondrite-normalized REE patterns and Zr/Nb values that range from 15 to 24. The blueschists are characterized by slightly LREE-enriched chondrite-normalized REE patterns and lower Zr/Nb ratios (6.6-11.3). Both rock types share common geochemical features like flat HFSE patterns or slight positive Nb anomalies with La/Nb < 1. The protoliths of both greenschists and blueschists show that two different suites generated their protoliths and that their magmatic evolution at low pressures has also been different. The observed Zr/Nb vs. Ce/Y ratios span the compositions of greenschists and blueschists out on hyperbolae at an ideal spectrum from intermediate N-MORB to E-MORB. However, the REE patterns of the studied metabasites cannot be explained by fractional crystallization processes alone. We interpret that the protoliths of the Lavrion metabasites support a dual origin; the blueschist's protoliths are comparable to rift-related mildly alkaline basalts whereas the greenschist's protoliths probably formed as typical N-MORB at an oceanic spreading center or in an evolved back-arc basin. A mélange setting with two distinct provenances of the basic protoliths is the proposed genetic model, similar to that envisioned for other parts of the ACCB, e.g. the islands of Syros, Sifnos and Tinos.

  2. Site characterization summary report for dry weather surface water sampling upper East Fork Poplar Creek characterization area Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This report describes activities associated with conducting dry weather surface water sampling of Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This activity is a portion of the work to be performed at UEFPC Operable Unit (OU) 1 [now known as the UEFPC Characterization Area (CA)], as described in the RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak- Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee and in the Response to Comments and Recommendations on RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Volume 1, Operable Unit 1. Because these documents contained sensitive information, they were labeled as unclassified controlled nuclear information and as such are not readily available for public review. To address this issue the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published an unclassified, nonsensitive version of the initial plan, text and appendixes, of this Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) Plan in early 1994. These documents describe a program for collecting four rounds of wet weather and dry weather surface water samples and one round of sediment samples from UEFPC. They provide the strategy for the overall sample collection program including dry weather sampling, wet weather sampling, and sediment sampling. Figure 1.1 is a schematic flowchart of the overall sampling strategy and other associated activities. A Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPJP) was prepared to specifically address four rounds of dry weather surface water sampling and one round of sediment sampling. For a variety of reasons, sediment sampling has not been conducted and has been deferred to the UEFPC CA Remedial Investigation (RI), as has wet weather sampling.

  3. Sedimentology, diagenesis, clay mineralogy and sequential analysis model of Upper Paleocene evaporite-carbonate ramp succession from Tamerza area (Gafsa Basin: Southern Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messadi, Abdel Majid; Mardassi, Besma; Ouali, Jamel Abdennaceur; Touir, Jamel

    2016-06-01

    Integrated sedimentological studies, diagenesis, sequential analysis and clay mineralogy on the Upper Paleocene rocks in Tamerza area provide important information on the reconstruction of the depositional basin, cyclicity, and paleoclimatic contexts. Facies analysis and petrographic studies have led to the recognition of nine facies that were deposited in three facies belts: Sebkha, inner ramp and outer ramp summarized in a carbonate ramp model: Homoclinal ramp under an arid climate. The upward and lateral changes in thickness and composition show a general regressive trend that records a transition from an outer ramp to Sebkha, creating different types of confinement. The facies stacking patterns constitute several kinds of meter-scale, shallowing-upward cycles. Nine different types of depositional cycles and several models of Sebkha sequences were defined. These different types of facies, characterized within the Thelja Formation, compose seven depositional sequences, mainly made of carbonates, marls and evaporates. Detailed multi approach analysis provides important information on evaporitic sequence stratigraphy. In carbonates beds, the diagenetic analysis provides an overview and chronology of diagenetic processes. A particular attention was paid to early stage cementation which enables us to characterize better the depositional environments. In addition to cementation, other features define the diagenetic history. X-ray diffraction reveals the presence of smectite suggesting an arid climate. Moreover, the clinoptilolite and the frequency of primary dolomite indicate different degrees of confinement. The seven depositional sequences showing a hierarchical organization of many cycles, as described above, suggested that eustatic sea level oscillations caused by cyclic perturbations of the Earth's orbit play a fundamental role in determining the formation of hierarchical cyclic rhythmicity.

  4. Cyclic deposits and hummocky cross-stratification of probable storm origins in Upper Cretaceous rocks of the Cape Sebastian area, southwestern Oregon.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, R.E.; Clifton, H.

    1982-01-01

    Cyclic deposits containing hummocky cross-stratification occur in the upper part of the Cape Sebastian Sandstone, a shallow marine transgressive sandstone of Late Cretaceous age on the southern Oregon coast. The cycles consist, where complete, of a lower hummocky cross-stratified sandstone, a middle planar- and ripple-bedded sandstone with a shale bed in its middle part, and an upper bioturbated sandstone. Depositional conditions are interpreted from the characteristics of these cycles. -from Authors

  5. Paleoenvironmental significance of aluminum phosphate-sulfate minerals in the upper Cretaceous ooidal ironstones, E-NE Aswan area, southern Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, Walid

    2014-09-01

    Aluminum phosphate-sulfate (APS) minerals are present as small, disseminated crystals in the upper Cretaceous shallow marine ooidal ironstones, E-NE Aswan area, southern Egypt. Their association with the ironstones is considered as a proxy of subaerial weathering and post-diagenetic meteoric water alteration. The mineralogical composition of the ooidal ironstones was investigated by optical and scanning electron microscopes, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy. The ooidal ironstones are composed mainly of ooids and groundmass, both of which consist of a mixture of detrital (quartz) and diagenetic (fluorapatite, chamosite and pyrite) mineral assemblages. These mineral assemblages are destabilized under acidic and oxidizing, continental conditions. These conditions resulted from the oxidation of pyrite and probably organic matter under warm and humid, tropical climate followed the Santonian Sea regression and subaerial exposure. These pedogenic conditions promoted corrosion of quartz, dissolution of chamosite and apatite and hydrolysis of feldspars of the nearby exposed granitoids. The released Si, Al and Sr from quartz, chamosite and feldspars; Fe and S from pyrite and P, Ca and light rare earth elements (LREE) from apatite are reprecipitated as hematite, kaolinite, apatite and APS minerals from the pore fluids or along fractures. The paragenetic sequence and textural relationships of this post-diagenetic mineral assemblage indicate that hematite was formed by replacement of chamosite followed by formation of a secondary generation of pore filling chlorapatite and APS minerals and finally the precipitation of kaolinite in the remaining pore spaces. The formation of APS minerals and chlorapatite is simultaneous, but APS minerals are stable at shallow depths under acidic to neutral pH conditions, whereas chlorapatite is stable under alkaline pH conditions. Alkaline conditions were maintained at greater depths when the infiltrated

  6. Estimation of small surface displacements in the Upper Rhine Graben area from a combined analysis of PS-InSAR, levelling and GNSS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, T.; Caro Cuenca, M.; Knöpfler, A.; van Leijen, F. J.; Mayer, M.; Westerhaus, M.; Hanssen, R. F.; Heck, B.

    2015-10-01

    The intra-plate deformation of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) located in Central Europe is investigated using geodetic measurement techniques. We present a new approach to calculate a combined velocity field from InSAR, levelling and GNSS measurements. As the expected tectonic movements in the URG area are small (less than 1 mm a-1), the best possible solutions for linear velocity rates from single-technique analyses are estimated in a first step. Second, we combine the velocity rates obtained from InSAR (line of sight velocity rates in ascending and descending image geometries), levelling (vertical velocity rates) and GNSS (horizontal velocity rates) using least-squares adjustment (LSA). Focusing on the Northern URG area, we analyse SAR data on four different image stacks (ERS ascending, ERS descending, Envisat ascending, Envisat descending) using the Persistent Scatterer (PS) approach. The linear velocity rates in ascending and descending image geometries, respectively, are estimated in an LSA from joint time-series analysis of ERS and Envisat data. Vertical velocity rates from levelling are obtained from a consistent adjustment of more than 40 000 measured height differences using a kinematic displacement model. Horizontal velocity rates in east and north direction are calculated from a time-series analysis of daily coordinate estimates at 76 permanently operating GNSS sites in the URG region. As the locations, at which the measurement data of PS-InSAR, levelling and GNSS reside, do not coincide, spatial interpolation is needed during several steps of the rigorous processing. We use Ordinary Kriging to interpolate from a given set of data points to the locations of interest with a special focus on the modeling and propagation of errors. The final 3-D velocity field is calculated at a 200 m grid, which carries values only close to the location of PS points, resulting in a mean horizontal and vertical precision of 0.30 and 0.13 mm a-1, respectively. The vertical

  7. Resolving the velocity and strain fields in the Upper Rhine Graben Area from a Combination of Levelling, GNSS and InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerhaus, Malte; Fuhrmann, Thomas; Mayer, Michael; Zippelt, Karl; Heck, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    The Upper Rhine Graben (URG), located in the tri-national region between Germany, France and Switzerland is the most prominent segment of the European Cenozoic rift system. In recent times, the URG area is characterised by small tectonic movements (less than 1 mm/a) and moderate seismicity up to M=5. Historically, earthquake magnitudes exceeding M=6 have been reported showing that the seismic hazard is quite high. The contemporary tectonic surface deformations are superimposed by displacements caused by anthropogenic activities in various locations in the area, such as coal and potash mining, groundwater usage, oil extraction, geothermal energy and CO2 storage. We use data sets from levelling campaigns, InSAR and permanent GNSS sites to raise an inventory of the current 3D surface displacements and strain rates in the URG with high precision and high spatial resolution. Precise levellings carried out by the surveying authorities of Germany, France and Switzerland since the end of the 19th century have been combined to form a network of levelling lines. A kinematic network adjustment is applied on the levelling data, providing an accurate solution for vertical displacement rates at the levelling benchmarks. InSAR is used to fill gaps in the interior of the levelling loops and to significantly increase the number of points. All the available ERS-1/2 and Envisat scenes from two acquisition geometries covering a period from 1992 to 2000 and 2002 to 2010, resp., are processed according to the Persistent-Scatterer approach. In addition, coordinate time series of 76 permanent sites of the GNSS URG Network are used to support the derivation of the horizontal velocity field of the region. Daily GPS-solutions obtained in differential mode are available since 2004. In a first step, estimates of the surface displacement rates are derived from each technique starting from the raw data. Subsequently, the single-technique deformation estimates are mathematically combined to a 3D

  8. Ground-water movement in the upper glacial aquifer in the Manorville area, Town of Brookhaven, Long Island, New York, in November 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckhardt, D.A.; Wexler, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Water levels in 52 wells near the Manorville scavenger-waste disposal facility in the Town of Brookhaven were measured in November 1983 to determine the direction and gradients of groundwater flow in the upper glacial aquifer. Groundwater moves south-southeastward (S22 degrees E) from the groundwater divide, about 6 miles north of the facility, to discharge points near East Moriches and beneath Moriches Bay. The hydraulic gradient beneath the disposal facility is 6.5 ft/mi (0.0012 foot/foot), and the rate of horizontal flow is 0.9 to 1.7 ft/day. Vertical movement of groundwater since closure of the disposal facility in 1982 is probably negligible because the vertical gradients are small and the upper glacial aquifer is anisotropic. During operation of the facility, however, groundwater mounding may have developed beneath the unlined settling basins, which could have induced downward movement of water in the upper glacial aquifer. (USGS)

  9. Biological monitoring of Upper Three Runs Creek, Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina. Final report on macroinvertebrate stream assessments for F/H area ETF effluent discharge, July 1987--February 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-10-01

    In anticipation of the fall 1988 start up of effluent discharges into Upper Three Creek by the F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility of the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC, a two and one half year biological study was initiated in June 1987. Upper Three Runs Creek is an intensively studied fourth order stream known for its high species richness. Designed to assess the potential impact of F?H area effluent on the creek, the study includes qualitative and quantitative macroinvertebrate stream surveys at five sites, chronic toxicity testing of the effluent, water chemistry and bioaccumulation analysis. This final report presents the results of both pre-operational and post-operational qualitative and quantitative (artificial substrate) macroinvertebrate studies. Six quantitative and three qualitative studies were conducted prior to the initial release of the F/H ETF effluent and five quantitative and two qualitative studies were conducted post-operationally.

  10. A surface area/porosity investigation of four coals: Upper Freeport; Illinois No. 6; New Zealand Stockton; and Panther Valley. Quarterly technical progress report No. 11, April 1--June 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Good, R.J.; Cadenhead, D.A.; Asgharian, B.

    1990-12-31

    This project had as its primary objective the establishment of the specific surface areas (SSAs) and the qualitative definition of any existing pore structure of four coal samples supplied by Dr. Robert Good of the Chemical Engineering Department of the State University of New York at Buffalo. The samples included three bituminous coals (Upper Freeport, Illinois No. 6 and New Zealand Stockton) and one Anthracite (Panther Valley Mine).

  11. Geochemistry of the Jurassic and Upper Cretaceous shales from the Molango Region, Hidalgo, eastern Mexico: Implications for source-area weathering, provenance, and tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong-Altrin, John S.; Nagarajan, Ramasamy; Madhavaraju, Jayagopal; Rosalez-Hoz, Leticia; Lee, Yong Il; Balaram, Vysetti; Cruz-Martínez, Adriana; Avila-Ramírez, Gladis

    2013-04-01

    This study focuses on the Jurassic (Huayacocotla and Pimienta Formations) and Upper Cretaceous (Méndez Formation) shales from the Molango Region, Hidalgo, Mexico. In this article, we discuss the mineralogy, major, and trace element geochemistry of the Mesozoic shales of Mexico. The goal of this study is to constrain the provenance of the shales, which belong to two different periods of the Mesozoic Era and to understand the weathering conditions and tectonic environments of the source region.

  12. Hydrogeologic investigation and simulation of ground-water flow in the Upper Floridan Aquifer of north-central Florida and southwestern Georgia and delineation of contributing areas for selected city of Tallahassee, Florida, water-supply wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J. Hal

    1996-01-01

    A 4-year investigation of the Upper Floridan aquifer and ground-water flow system in Leon County, Florida, and surrounding counties of north-central Florida and southwestern Georgia began in 1990. The purpose of the investigation was to describe the ground-water flow system and to delineate the contributing areas to selected City of Tallahassee, Florida, water-supply wells. The investigation was prompted by the detection of low levels of tetrachloroethylene in ground-water samples collected from several of the city's water-supply wells. Hydrologic data and previous studies indicate that; ground-water flow within the Upper Floridan aquifer can be considered steady-state; the Upper Floridan aquifer is a single water-bearing unit; recharge is from precipitation; and that discharge occurs as spring flow, leakage to rivers, leakage to the Gulf of Mexico, and pumpage. Measured transmissivities of the aquifer ranged from 1,300 ft2/d (feet squared per day) to 1,300,000 ft2/d. Steady-state ground-water flow in the Upper Floridan aquifer was simulated using a three-dimensional ground- water flow model. Transmissivities ranging from less than 5,000 ft2/d to greater than 11,000,000 ft2/d were required to calibrate to observed conditions. Recharge rates used in the model ranged from 18.0 inches per year in areas where the aquifer was unconfined to less than 2 inches per year in broad areas where the aquifer was confined. Contributing areas to five Tallahassee water-supply wells were simulated by particle- tracking techniques. Particles were seeded in model cells containing pumping wells then tracked backwards in time toward recharge areas. The contributing area for each well was simulated twice, once assuming a porosity of 25 percent and once assuming a porosity of 5 percent. A porosity of 25 percent is considered a reasonable average value for the Upper Floridan aquifer; the 5 percent porosity simulated the movement of ground-water through only solution-enhanced bedding plains

  13. Upper plate responses to active spreading ridge/transform subduction: The tectonics, basin evolution, and seismicity of the Taita area, Chile Triple Junction

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, S.; Prior, D. ); Styles, P.; Murdie, R. ); Agar, S.; Turner, P. )

    1993-02-01

    Integrated field geophysical, structural and stratigraphic studies are attempting to elucidate the mechanisms and consequences of the Late Miocene-present day subduction of the Chile Ridge triple junction system. Preliminary data indicate a shallow plane of seismicity at about 15 km to 20 km depth below the Taitao peninsula. The depths correspond to the predicted depth range of subducted upper ocean crust. The calculated Bouguer anomaly map cannot be explained by the upper plate geology, suggesting that gravity is influenced by heterogeneities in the subducting oceanic plate. Seismic data imply that a subducted transform system underlying the inner Taitao Peninsula is still an active structure. A series of Middle-Late Tertiary sedimentary basins lie inboard of the triple junction. Within the Cosmelli basin, abrupt marine to continental facies transitions give clear evidence of base level changes. The amount of basinward shift of facies across sequence boundaries gets progressively greater up stratigraphy, indicating progressively greater base level changes. The lower part of the basin fill is folded and then thrusted eastward as a series of imbricates, while the overlying, greater thickness of fluvial sediments are only gently tilted westwards. We provisionally interpret this geometry to indicate that the early basin fill was deforming due to contractional tectonics while the later basin fill was being deposited. This complex basin history may reflect initiation and development of triple junction subduction.

  14. Quantifying the uncertainty in site amplification modeling and its effects on site-specific seismic-hazard estimation in the upper Mississippi embayment and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cramer, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    The Mississippi embayment, located in the central United States, and its thick deposits of sediments (over 1 km in places) have a large effect on earthquake ground motions. Several previous studies have addressed how these thick sediments might modify probabilistic seismic-hazard maps. The high seismic hazard associated with the New Madrid seismic zone makes it particularly important to quantify the uncertainty in modeling site amplification to better represent earthquake hazard in seismic-hazard maps. The methodology of the Memphis urban seismic-hazard-mapping project (Cramer et al., 2004) is combined with the reference profile approach of Toro and Silva (2001) to better estimate seismic hazard in the Mississippi embayment. Improvements over previous approaches include using the 2002 national seismic-hazard model, fully probabilistic hazard calculations, calibration of site amplification with improved nonlinear soil-response estimates, and estimates of uncertainty. Comparisons are made with the results of several previous studies, and estimates of uncertainty inherent in site-amplification modeling for the upper Mississippi embayment are developed. I present new seismic-hazard maps for the upper Mississippi embayment with the effects of site geology incorporating these uncertainties.

  15. Use of a 2-inch, dual screen well to conduct aquifer tests in the upper and lower Lost lake aquifer zones: Western sector, A/M area, SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Novick, J.S.

    1996-09-01

    The Western Sector, A/M Area is located just west of the M-Area Settling Basin on an upland area. The area is adjacent to the gently inclined area where the upland drops off to the Savannah River floodplain. Water in the parts of the uppermost aquifers contains dissolved contaminants which originated at the land surface and have leached downward into the groundwater. Subsurface contamination originated in the locality of the M-Area Settling Basin and Lost Lake, which is a Carolina Bay. These locations functioned as disposal sites for industrial solvents during the early years of operation of the Savannah River Site. The primary groundwater contaminants are trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and groundwater concentrations of TCE are significantly greater than the PCE.

  16. Tectonic triggering of slump sheets in the Upper Cretaceous carbonate succession of the Porto Selvaggio area (Salento peninsula, southern Italy): Synsedimentary tectonics in the Apulian Carbonate Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrogiacomo, G.; Moretti, M.; Owen, G.; Spalluto, L.

    2012-08-01

    Soft-sediment deformation structures crop out in the Upper Cretaceous carbonate succession in Porto Selvaggio cove in the western Salento peninsula, Apulian foreland, southern Italy. The deformed interval is about 13 m thick and occurs between shallow-water limestones and dolostones formed in peritidal and shallow subtidal environments. It comprises well-bedded grey mudstones interlayered with dark grey laminated microbioclastic wackestones characterized by couplets of closely spaced dark and bright laminae marked by the parallel orientation of calcareous microbioclasts and thin-shelled bivalves. The low biological diversity, scarcity of burrowing biota, and presence of a well preserved fish fauna provide evidence of anoxic conditions occurring in morphological depressions within the platform, and a stagnant, stratified water body affected by weak bottom currents, indicating the sudden development of a localised and short-lived intraplatform basin. Two soft-sediment deformation horizons (slump sheets) separated by undeformed limestones with similar facies occur in this part of the succession. The lower, thicker slump sheet (1.0-1.3 m thick) contains asymmetric and box folds. Well-developed décollement surfaces (locally containing thick brecciated zones) cut the folds, forming small-scale thrust-sheets and indicating mixed plastic to brittle behaviour. The upper, thinner slump sheet (0.25-0.35 m thick) contains only asymmetric folds, indicating plastic behaviour only. The differences in deformation style are attributed to differences in facies. Measurements of fold-axis orientations in the slump sheets show that they moved in similar directions, recording the development of a local, gently dipping palaeoslope. Autogenic (internal) trigger mechanisms are ruled out by a detailed consideration of facies. The slump sheets were triggered by allogenic, tectonic effects, either the weakening of sediment by seismic activity or the tectonically induced steepening of slopes

  17. Water-quality assessment of part of the upper Mississippi River basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin - Ground-water quality in an urban part of the Twin Cities Metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, W.J.; Fong, A.L.; Harrod, Leigh; Dittes, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    Land uses in the urban land use study area affected the concentrations of some water-quality constituents. Concentrations of nitrate and chloride, and frequencies of detection of pesticides and of volatile organic compounds, were greater in water samples from the surficial sand and gravel aquifer underlying the urban land use study area than in water samples from similar aquifers from part of the Upper Mississippi River Basin National Water-Quality Assessment study unit. Land uses within 500-meter radii of each well were quantified by digitizing overlays of aerial photographs that were verified and updated in the field. Concentrations of magnesium and sulfate were greater in ground water beneath areas of denser residential development, which may be a natural artifact of better drainage and a deeper water table in those areas. Frequencies of detection of some pesticides and volatile organic compounds were greater in water from wells with greater proportions of industrial and transportation land uses. Ground water in areas with less dense residential development, mostly the more recently-developed areas, tended to have greater concentrations of agricultural herbicides and some nutrients probably a relict of previous agricultural land use.

  18. Delimiting species by reproductive isolation: the genetic structure of epigean and hypogean Trichomycterus spp. (Teleostei, Siluriformes) in the restricted area of Torotoro (Upper Amazon, Bolivia).

    PubMed

    Renno, Jean-François; Gazel, Claude; Miranda, Guido; Pouilly, Marc; Berrebi, Patrick

    2007-11-01

    Genetic variability of Trichomycterus from the region of Torotoro (Bolivia, Upper Amazon), distributed in the same watershed where the habitat is structured by waterfalls, canyons and a cave, was studied by allozyme (twelve putative loci) and RFLP-mtDNA (DLoop and cytochrome b) analyses. Alloenzymatic variation studied by Correspondence Analysis and Maximum Likelihood Analysis revealed a four-group structure, which was largely congruent with the distribution of the 14 mtDNA haplotypes. Two of these four clusters (I and II) were differentiated by two diagnostic loci (IDH and G3PDH), two semi-diagnostic loci (PGM and 6PGDH) and consequently a very high F(st )value (estimator theta = 0.77). Therefore, clusters I and II are reproductively isolated. The distribution limit of these two (sibling) species does not correspond to those of the morphological species of Trichomycterus identified in this region: the epigean T. cf. barbouri and the hypogean T. chaberti. However, hypogean fish exhibited two mtDNA haplotypes, a private one and another shared with the epigean Trichomycterus from upstream reaches. PMID:17957496

  19. Delimiting species by reproductive isolation: the genetic structure of epigean and hypogean Trichomycterus spp. (Teleostei, Siluriformes) in the restricted area of Torotoro (Upper Amazon, Bolivia).

    PubMed

    Renno, Jean-François; Gazel, Claude; Miranda, Guido; Pouilly, Marc; Berrebi, Patrick

    2007-11-01

    Genetic variability of Trichomycterus from the region of Torotoro (Bolivia, Upper Amazon), distributed in the same watershed where the habitat is structured by waterfalls, canyons and a cave, was studied by allozyme (twelve putative loci) and RFLP-mtDNA (DLoop and cytochrome b) analyses. Alloenzymatic variation studied by Correspondence Analysis and Maximum Likelihood Analysis revealed a four-group structure, which was largely congruent with the distribution of the 14 mtDNA haplotypes. Two of these four clusters (I and II) were differentiated by two diagnostic loci (IDH and G3PDH), two semi-diagnostic loci (PGM and 6PGDH) and consequently a very high F(st )value (estimator theta = 0.77). Therefore, clusters I and II are reproductively isolated. The distribution limit of these two (sibling) species does not correspond to those of the morphological species of Trichomycterus identified in this region: the epigean T. cf. barbouri and the hypogean T. chaberti. However, hypogean fish exhibited two mtDNA haplotypes, a private one and another shared with the epigean Trichomycterus from upstream reaches.

  20. Simulation of saltwater movement in the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Savannah, Georgia-Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, area, predevelopment-2004, and projected movement for 2000 pumping conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Provost, Alden M.; Payne, Dorothy F.; Voss, Clifford I.

    2006-01-01

    A digital model was developed to simulate ground-water flow and solute transport for the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Savannah, Georgia-Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, area. The model was used to (1) simulate trends of saltwater intrusion from predevelopment to the present day (1885-2004), (2) project these trends from the present day into the future, and (3) evaluate the relative influence of different assumptions regarding initial and boundary conditions and physical properties. The model is based on a regional, single-density ground-water flow model of coastal Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida. Variable-density ground-water flow and solute transport were simulated using the U.S. Geological Survey finite-element, variable-density solute-transport simulator SUTRA, 1885-2004. The model comprises seven layers: the surficial aquifer system, the Brunswick aquifer system, the Upper Floridan aquifer, the Lower Floridan aquifer, and the intervening confining units. The model was calibrated to September 1998 water levels, for single-density freshwater conditions, then refined using variable density and chloride concentration to give a reasonable match to the trend in the chloride distribution in the Upper Floridan aquifer inferred from field measurements of specific conductance made during 2000, 2002, 2003, and 2004. The model was modified to simulate solute transport by allowing saltwater to enter the system through localized areas near the northern end of Hilton Head Island, at Pinckney Island, and near the Colleton River, and was calibrated to match chloride concentrations inferred from field measurements of specific conductance. This simulation is called the 'Base Case.'

  1. A 79-Year-Old Man With Interstitial Lung Disease and Cryptic Area of High 18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake in Left Upper Lobe.

    PubMed

    Rapicetta, Cristian; Lococo, Filippo; Carbonelli, Cristiano; Sverzellati, Nicola; Di Paolo, Maria Liberata; Cavazza, Alberto; Serra, Silvia; Ricchetti, Tommaso; Gasparini, Elisa; Cesario, Alfredo; Sgarbi, Giorgio; Brandi, Loris; Paci, Massimiliano

    2015-12-01

    Seven years after left hemicolectomy and radical lymph nodal dissection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer (histotype, adenocarcinoma; stage, pT3N2M0; grading, G2), a slight increase in carcinoembryonic antigen levels (6.2 ng/mL; range, 0-5 ng/mL) was detected in a 79-year-old man. He was a heavy smoker with history of an interstitial fibrotic lung disease with associated areas of emphysema. PMID:26621296

  2. Geospatial Strategy for Adverse Impact of Urban Heat Island in upper atmospheres of the earth Mountain Areas using LANDSAT ETM+ Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Amit; Vandana, Vandana

    2016-07-01

    We are living in the age of the rapidly growing population and changing environmental conditions with advanced technical capacity. This has been resulting in widespread land cover change. Among several human-induced environmental and urban thermal problems are reported to be negatively affecting urban residents in many ways. Urban Heat Islands exist in many large cities especially metropolitan cities and can significantly affect the permafrost layer in mountain areas. The adverse effect of urban heat island has become the subject of numerous studies in recent decades and is reflected in many major mountain cities around the world. The built-up structures in urbanized areas considerably alter land cover thereby affecting thermal energy flow which leads to the development of elevated surface and air temperature. The phenomenon Urban Heat Island implies 'island' of high temperature in cities, surrounded by relatively lower temperature in rural areas. The Urban Heat Island for the temporal period is estimated using geospatial techniques which are then utilized for the impact assessment of the climate of the surrounding regions and how it reduce the sustainability of the natural resources like air, vegetation. The knowledge of surface temperature is important for the study of urban climate and human health. The rapid growth of industries in peri-urban areas results in excessive warming and variations in weather conditions. It leads to soil degradation in frozen areas due to high temperature which leads to melting of snow in mountain areas Remotely sensed data of thermal infrared band in the region of 10.4-12.5 µm of EMR spectrum, available from LANDSAT- ETM+ is proved to be very helpful to identify urban heat islands. Thermal infrared data acquired during the daytime and night time can be used to monitor the heat island associated with urban areas as well as atmospheric pollution. The present paper describes the methodology and resolution dynamic urban heat island

  3. A New Look at the Magnetostratigraphy and Paleomagnetism of the Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic Moenave Formation, St. George Area, Southwestern Utah.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donohoo-Hurley, L. L.; Geissman, J. W.; Lucas, S. G.; Roy, M.

    2006-12-01

    TJB. This interpretation is consistent with recent biostratigraphic arguments that the TJB lies in the upper part of the Dinosaur Canyon Member. The Whitmore Point Member yields more north-directed declinations, suggesting an earliest Jurassic (post-cusp) age. It is likely that more complete data from these and related sections will provide a further refinement of the stratigraphic placement of the TJB and the geometry of the J-1 cusp.

  4. Nonmarine upper cretaceous rocks, Cook Inlet, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Magoon, L.B.; Griesbach, F.B.; Egbert, R.M.

    1980-08-01

    A section of Upper Cretaceous (Maestrichtian) nonmarine sandstone, conglomerate, and siltstone with associated coal is exposed near Saddle mountain on the northwest flank of Cook Inlet basin, the only known surface exposure of nonmarine Upper Cretaceous rocks in the Cook Inlet area. The section, at least 83.3 m thick, unconformably overlies the Upper Jurassic Naknek Formation and is unconformably overlain by the lower Tertiary West Foreland Formation. These upper Cretaceous rocks correlate lithologically with the second or deeper interval of nonmarine Upper Cretaceous rocks penetrated in the lower Cook Inlet COST 1 well.

  5. Soluble reactive phosphorus levels in rainfall, cloud water, throughfall, stemflow, soil waters, stream waters and groundwaters for the Upper River Severn area, Plynlimon, mid Wales.

    PubMed

    Neal, Colin; Reynolds, Brian; Neal, Margaret; Hughes, Steve; Wickham, Heather; Hill, Linda; Rowland, Philip; Pugh, Bronwen

    2003-10-01

    Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) data are presented for rainfall, cloud water, soil waters, stream waters and groundwaters at the Plynlimon catchments in mid Wales to examine the hydrochemical functioning of inorganic phosphorus for an acidic and acid sensitive area characteristic of much of the UK uplands. In general, stream water concentrations are low compared to lowland areas. Average concentrations of SRP in rainfall and cloud water (0.3 and 0.9 microM l(-1), respectively) are higher than in stream water with wider ranges in concentration (0-19.3 and 0-20.9 microM l(-1), respectively). Throughfall and stemflow is enriched in SRP compared to rain and cloud water by a factor of approximately twofold and sixfold, respectively: the average concentrations and ranges are 0.73 and 0-6.61 microM l(-1) for throughfall and 2.12 and 0-18.61 microM l(-1) for stemflow. Soil water SRP concentrations measured in the surface layers of representative areas of podzol and gley soils, are further enriched with respect to inputs. Average concentrations and ranges for the L/F and Oh horizons in the podzols are 3.1 microM l(-1) (range: 0.03-17.2 microM l(-1)) and 0.75 microM l(-1) (range: 0.03-2.64 microM l(-1)), respectively. Correspondingly, the average values and ranges for the L/F and Oh horizons in the gley are 2 microM l(-1) (range: 0.03-16.65 microM l(-1)) and 0.4 microM l(-1) (range: 0.03-8.61 microM l(-1)). SRP concentrations in stream and ground water are lower than in atmospheric inputs and surface soil waters and show marked spatial variability. This variability is linked to three catchment features. (1) For streams draining podzolic soils, most of the SRP is retained by the catchment. For this situation, stream and ground waters have average concentrations of approximately 0.05 microM l(-1) with a range of 0-1.47 microM l(-1). There is no clear stream or groundwater SRP response to felling despite a large release of SRP from felling debris (brash) and the forest floor

  6. Soluble reactive phosphorus levels in rainfall, cloud water, throughfall, stemflow, soil waters, stream waters and groundwaters for the Upper River Severn area, Plynlimon, mid Wales.

    PubMed

    Neal, Colin; Reynolds, Brian; Neal, Margaret; Hughes, Steve; Wickham, Heather; Hill, Linda; Rowland, Philip; Pugh, Bronwen

    2003-10-01

    Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) data are presented for rainfall, cloud water, soil waters, stream waters and groundwaters at the Plynlimon catchments in mid Wales to examine the hydrochemical functioning of inorganic phosphorus for an acidic and acid sensitive area characteristic of much of the UK uplands. In general, stream water concentrations are low compared to lowland areas. Average concentrations of SRP in rainfall and cloud water (0.3 and 0.9 microM l(-1), respectively) are higher than in stream water with wider ranges in concentration (0-19.3 and 0-20.9 microM l(-1), respectively). Throughfall and stemflow is enriched in SRP compared to rain and cloud water by a factor of approximately twofold and sixfold, respectively: the average concentrations and ranges are 0.73 and 0-6.61 microM l(-1) for throughfall and 2.12 and 0-18.61 microM l(-1) for stemflow. Soil water SRP concentrations measured in the surface layers of representative areas of podzol and gley soils, are further enriched with respect to inputs. Average concentrations and ranges for the L/F and Oh horizons in the podzols are 3.1 microM l(-1) (range: 0.03-17.2 microM l(-1)) and 0.75 microM l(-1) (range: 0.03-2.64 microM l(-1)), respectively. Correspondingly, the average values and ranges for the L/F and Oh horizons in the gley are 2 microM l(-1) (range: 0.03-16.65 microM l(-1)) and 0.4 microM l(-1) (range: 0.03-8.61 microM l(-1)). SRP concentrations in stream and ground water are lower than in atmospheric inputs and surface soil waters and show marked spatial variability. This variability is linked to three catchment features. (1) For streams draining podzolic soils, most of the SRP is retained by the catchment. For this situation, stream and ground waters have average concentrations of approximately 0.05 microM l(-1) with a range of 0-1.47 microM l(-1). There is no clear stream or groundwater SRP response to felling despite a large release of SRP from felling debris (brash) and the forest floor

  7. Ambient Seismic Noise Tomography of a Deep Geothermal Area in the Upper Rhine Graben from the EstOF Dense Regional Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergne, J.; LE Chenadec, A.; Lehujeur, M.; Schmittbuhl, J.

    2015-12-01

    Passive imaging from ambient noise correlation has proven to be a robust tool to probe the internal structure of the Earth. Assessing the potential of this technique for the exploration of deep geothermal reservoirs was the main motivation of the EstOF project. In September 2014, we deployed a regular grid of 288 Zland nodes over a 30km wide disc (1.5km inter-node spacing) in the Outre-Forêt region (Bas-Rhin, France) encompassing the geothermal sites of Soultz-sous-Forêts and Rittershoffen. The correlation of one month of ambient noise data provides thousands of usable correlations in the 0.2-5Hz frequency range. We clearly observe body waves as well as the fundamental and first harmonic modes of the Rayleigh wave. The latter phases have been used to retrieve group and phase velocity maps using the Eikonal tomography thanks to the high density of the array. Depth inversion of these maps for various frequencies allows us to construct a 3D model of shear wave velocities of the region down to 5km depth. This model, having a lateral resolution of about 2km, appears to be in good agreement with our geological knowledge of the region. This case study validates the use of ambient noise recorded by spatially dense arrays at regional scale as a cheap and robust technique for the exploration of geothermal areas.

  8. Sinkhole hazard assessment in the area of abandoned mining shaft basing on microgravity survey and modelling - Case study from the Upper Silesia Coal Basin in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotyrba, Andrzej; Kortas, Łukasz

    2016-07-01

    The article describes the results of a gravimetric survey conducted in the area of an abandoned mining shaft located on the premises of the liquidated "Porąbka-Klimontów" coal mine in Sosnowiec - southern Poland. After cessation of its exploitation in the past, the shaft has probably only been protected by placing a slab on a concrete pit-bank without commencing the proper liquidation. The aim of the survey was to determine whether the shaft had been backfilled and what is the condition of the rock mass where it gets in contact with the shaft barrel. In the interpretation of the Bouguer anomaly map, a forward modelling of gravity effect generated by an empty mineshaft has been used in order to eliminate its influence on the local gravitational field. That approach to survey data analysis allowed to assess not only the type of the shaft's filling but also the changes in the rock mass structure around it. The results allowed planning an adequate type of works aiming to secure the surface from potential sinkhole deformations resulting from the shaft lining collapse or wash out of the soil into the shaft barrel.

  9. Estimates of future water demand for selected water-service areas in the Upper Duck River basin, central Tennessee; with a section on Methodology used to develop population forecasts for Bedford, Marshall, and Maury counties, Tennessee, from 1993 through 2050

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutson, S.S.; Schwarz, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    Estimates of future water demand were determined for selected water-service areas in the upper Duck River basin in central Tennessee through the year 2050. The Duck River is the principal source of publicly-supplied water in the study area providing a total of 15.6 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) in 1993 to the cities of Columbia, Lewisburg, Shelbyville, part of southern Williamson County, and several smaller communities. Municipal water use increased 19 percent from 1980 to 1993 (from 14.5 to 17.2 Mgal/d). Based on certain assumptions about socioeconomic conditions and future development in the basin, water demand should continue to increase through 2050. Projections of municipal water demand for the study area from 1993 to 2015 were made using econometric and single- coefficient (unit-use) requirement models of the per capita type. The models are part of the Institute for Water Resources-Municipal and Industrial Needs System, IWR-MAIN. Socioeconomic data for 1993 were utilized to calibrate the models. Projections of water demand in the study area from 2015 to 2050 were made using a single- coefficient requirement model. A gross per capita use value (unit-requirement) was estimated for each water-service area based on the results generated by IWR-MAIN for year 2015. The gross per capita estimate for 2015 was applied to population projections for year 2050 to calculate water demand. Population was projected using the log-linear form of the Box-Cox regression model. Water demand was simulated for two scenarios. The scenarios were suggested by various planning agencies associated with the study area. The first scenario reflects a steady growth pattern based on present demographic and socioeconomic conditions in the Bedford, Marshall, and Maury/southern Williamson water-service areas. The second scenario considers steady growth in the Bedford and Marshall water-service areas and additional industrial and residential development in the Maury/southern Williamson water

  10. The effect of deforestation and land-use changes on CO2 and H2O exchange between land surface and the atmosphere in the Upper Volga area in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olchev, Alexander; Kurbatova, Juliya; Mukhartova, Juliya; Molchanov, Alexander; Konstantinov, Pavel; Levashova, Natalia; Avilov, Vitaliy; Sandlersky, Robert; Belotelov, Nikolay; Novenko, Elena

    2016-04-01

    The main goal of the study to describe the possible impact of deforestation (or/and afforestation) and land-use changes in the Upper Volga area in European Russia on regional fluxes of sensible heat, H2O and CO2 between a land surface and the atmosphere as well as on regional climate conditions. This is experimental and modeling study that integrates intensive field campaigns to derive the spatial and temporal variability of H2O and CO2 fluxes at the local ecosystem scale, analysis and interpretation of remote sensing data, development and application of local scale process-based 2D and 3D turbulent transfer models to quantify atmospheric fluxes, analysis of paleogeographical data to reconstruct vegetation dynamics in past epochs and its interaction with climatic conditions, application of mesoscale models to derive the possible influence of deforestation and land-use changes on regional climate under present and projected future climate conditions. To describe the difference in the H2O and CO2 exchange between anthropogenically changed (e.g. a clear-cut area) and undisturbed forest the eddy covariance measurements was applied. The spatial heterogeneity of soil respiration within the clear-cut area and surrounding forest the chamber method was used. In particular it was shown during the field measurements that the soil CO2 emission from clear-cut plots is significantly exceed CO2 emission rate from control plots within surrounding forest. For all plots it was shown a well manifested seasonal course of soil respiration and quite small amplitude of its diurnal variability. It was revealed a close dependence of soil CO2 emission from temperature and moisture of the upper soil horizon. It was found that the plots with various damage degrees of the upper soil horizon, and non-damaged soil covered with a litter and felling remains are characterized by different respiration rates and different dependences on environmental factors. To assess the influence of clear cuttings

  11. Rare earth element and stable sulphur (δ 34S) isotope study of baryte-copper mineralization in Gulani area, Upper Benue Trough, NE Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Nafaty, Jalo Muhammad

    2015-06-01

    The geology of Gulani area comprises of inliers of diorite and granites of the Older Granite suite of the Pan-African (600 ± 150 Ma) age within Cretaceous sediments of the Bima, Yolde and Pindiga Formations and the Tertiary/Quaternary basalts of the Biu Plateau. Epigenetic baryte-copper mineralization occurs as baryte veins within the Bima and Yolde sandstones and fracture-filling malachite in Pan-African granites. Unaltered (distal), hydrothermally altered (proximal) granites and sandstones and vein materials (mineral separates of baryte and chalcopyrite/malachite mineralized rocks) were analysed for rare earth elements (REE) and stable sulphur isotopes. The REE patterns of the unaltered rocks (both granites and sandstones) indicate background values before mineralization, depicted by enriched LREE, depleted HREE and weak negative Eu anomalies typical of Pan-African (calc-alkaline) granites and sandstones derived from them. On the other hand, the hydrothermally altered and mineralized rocks and mineral separates show a distinct baryte and copper mineralization sub-systems characterized by similar high LREE and corresponding low HREE abundances. However, the negative Eu anomalies of the copper sub-system hosted by granites are typical of Pan-African (calc-alkaline) granites. The sandstone host rocks of the baryte sub-system are marked by positive Eu anomalies interpreted as reflecting the injection and subsequent deposition of the baryte-bearing hydrothermal solutions under oxidizing conditions. The baryte mineral separates show δ (34S) isotope range of 12.3-13.1‰ (CDT) indicating sulphur from sedimentary formation sources. This ruled out magmatic source of the sulphur from the nearby Tertiary/Quaternary volcanic rocks of the Biu Plateau as well as ocean water. However, the stable sulphur isotopic determination of the sulphides (chalcopyrite/malachite mineral separates and mineralized rocks) did not yield peaks and therefore no inferences drawn in this regard.

  12. The Purisima Formation and related rocks (upper Miocene - Pliocene), greater San Francisco Bay area, central California; review of literature and USGS collection now housed at the Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, C.L.

    1998-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks more than 1.6 kilometers thick are attributed to the upper Miocene to upper Pliocene Purisima Formation in the greater San Francisco Bay area. These rocks occur as scattered, discontinuous outcrops from Point Reyes National Seashore in the north to south of Santa Cruz. Lithologic divisions of the Formation appear to be of local extent and are of limited use in correlating over this broad area. The Purisima Formation occurs in several fault-bounded terranes which demonstrate different stratigraphic histories and may be found to represent more than a single depositional basin. The precise age and stratigraphic relationship of these scattered outcrops are unresolved and until they are put into a stratigraphic and paleogeographic context the tectonic significance of the Purisima Foramtion can only be surmised. This paper will attempt to resolve some of these problems. Mollusks and echinoderms are recorded from the literature and more than 70 USGS collections that have not previously been reported. With the exception of one locality, the faunas suggest deposition in normal marine conditions at water depths of less than 50 m and with water temperatures the same or slightly cooler than exist along the present coast of central California. The single exception is a fauna from outcrops between Seal Cove and Pillar Point, where both mollusks and foraminifers suggest water depths greater than 100 m. Three molluscan faunas, the La Honda, the Pillar Point, and the Santa Cruz, are recognized based on USGS collections and published literature for the Purisima Formation. These biostratigraphically distinct faunas aid in the correlation of the scattered Purisima Formation outcrops. The lowermost La Honda fauna suggests shallow-water depths and an age of late Miocene to early Pliocene. This age is at odds with a younger age determination from an ash bed in the lower Purisima Formation along the central San Mateo County coast. The Pillar Point fauna contains only a

  13. [Effects of different fertilization measures on N2O emission in oil sunflower field in irrigation area of upper Yellow River].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Chen, Yuan-yuan; Gao, Ji; Liu, Ru-liang; Yang, Zheng-li; Zhang, Ai-ping

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural soil has become the largest anthropogenic source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N20). To estimate the impacts of long-term combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on N20 emission in a typical winter wheat-oil sunflower cropping system in the Ningxia irrigation area, we measured N20 fluxes using the static opaque chamber-gas chromatograph method and monitored the seasonal dynamics of related factors. Our results showed that nitrogen addition in the previous crop field significantly stimulated N2O emissions during the following oil-sunflower cultivation, and the mean fluxes of N300-OM, N240-OM1/2, N300 and N240 were (34.16 ± 9.72), (39.69 ±10.70), (27.75 ±9.57) and (26.30 ± 8.52) µg . m-2 . h-1, respectively, which were 4.09, 4.75, 3.32 and 3.15 times of the control groups. The total cumulative N2O emissions of fertilizer treatments in growing season was as high as 796.7 to 1242.5 g . hm-2, which was 2.99 to 4.67 times of the control groups. During the growing season, the rates of N2O emission in each month organic and inorganic fertlizers combined treatments were similar at high levels. N2O emission in chemical fertilizer treatments gradually decreased, and the main period of N2O emission occurred at the beginning of growing season. Taking July for example, N2O emission accounted for 41.3% to 41. 8% of total cumulative amount. The amounts of N20 emission under organic and inorganic fertilizers combined treatments were significantly higher than under chemical fertilizer treatments. The N2O emissions were not significantly different between conventional and optimized applications of nitrogen fertilizer under the same fertilizing method, either between N300-OM and N240-OM1/2, or between N300 and N240. On account of the drought, N2O emission in each treatment was mainly affected by soil moisture. N2O emission had a significant positive correlation with soil ammonium nitrogen content under combined applications of organic and inorganic

  14. [Effects of different fertilization measures on N2O emission in oil sunflower field in irrigation area of upper Yellow River].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Chen, Yuan-yuan; Gao, Ji; Liu, Ru-liang; Yang, Zheng-li; Zhang, Ai-ping

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural soil has become the largest anthropogenic source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N20). To estimate the impacts of long-term combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on N20 emission in a typical winter wheat-oil sunflower cropping system in the Ningxia irrigation area, we measured N20 fluxes using the static opaque chamber-gas chromatograph method and monitored the seasonal dynamics of related factors. Our results showed that nitrogen addition in the previous crop field significantly stimulated N2O emissions during the following oil-sunflower cultivation, and the mean fluxes of N300-OM, N240-OM1/2, N300 and N240 were (34.16 ± 9.72), (39.69 ±10.70), (27.75 ±9.57) and (26.30 ± 8.52) µg . m-2 . h-1, respectively, which were 4.09, 4.75, 3.32 and 3.15 times of the control groups. The total cumulative N2O emissions of fertilizer treatments in growing season was as high as 796.7 to 1242.5 g . hm-2, which was 2.99 to 4.67 times of the control groups. During the growing season, the rates of N2O emission in each month organic and inorganic fertlizers combined treatments were similar at high levels. N2O emission in chemical fertilizer treatments gradually decreased, and the main period of N2O emission occurred at the beginning of growing season. Taking July for example, N2O emission accounted for 41.3% to 41. 8% of total cumulative amount. The amounts of N20 emission under organic and inorganic fertilizers combined treatments were significantly higher than under chemical fertilizer treatments. The N2O emissions were not significantly different between conventional and optimized applications of nitrogen fertilizer under the same fertilizing method, either between N300-OM and N240-OM1/2, or between N300 and N240. On account of the drought, N2O emission in each treatment was mainly affected by soil moisture. N2O emission had a significant positive correlation with soil ammonium nitrogen content under combined applications of organic and inorganic

  15. Exploring Subduction, Slab Breakoff, and Upper-Plate Deformation in the Georgian Greater Caucasus: Shortening Estimates from Area- and Line-Balanced Crustal Scale Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trexler, C. C.; Cowgill, E.; Niemi, N. A.; Godoladze, T.

    2015-12-01

    observations. These sections contain ~230 km of total shortening. Based on area-balanced cross sections along the same transects, this magnitude of shortening falls within the expected range of the subduction/ slab breakoff model, and is greater than might be expected from either buoyancy driven uplift or closure of a small basin.

  16. Upper Texas Gulf Coast, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Upper Texas Gulf Coast (29.0N, 95.5W) is clearly represented in this view from space. The area covered stretches almost 300 miles from Aransas Pass, on the Texas coast in the south to Cameron, Louisiana in the north. The sharp detail of both the natural and cultural features throughout the scene is especially evident in the Houston area where highways, major streets, airport runways and even some neighborhood lanes can be easily seen.

  17. 27 CFR 9.216 - Upper Mississippi River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Upper Mississippi River... Areas § 9.216 Upper Mississippi River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Upper Mississippi River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter,...

  18. 27 CFR 9.216 - Upper Mississippi River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Upper Mississippi River... Areas § 9.216 Upper Mississippi River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Upper Mississippi River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter,...

  19. 27 CFR 9.216 - Upper Mississippi River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Upper Mississippi River... Areas § 9.216 Upper Mississippi River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Upper Mississippi River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter,...

  20. 27 CFR 9.216 - Upper Mississippi River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Upper Mississippi River... Areas § 9.216 Upper Mississippi River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Upper Mississippi River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter,...

  1. 27 CFR 9.216 - Upper Mississippi River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Upper Mississippi River... Areas § 9.216 Upper Mississippi River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Upper Mississippi River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter,...

  2. Relations of benthic macroinvertebrates to concentrations of trace elements in water, streambed sediments, and transplanted bryophytes and stream habitat conditions in nonmining and mining areas of the upper Colorado River basin, Colorado, 1995-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mize, Scott V.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.

    2002-01-01

    Intensive mining activity and highly mineralized rock formations have had significant impacts on surface-water and streambed-sediment quality and aquatic life within the upper reaches of the Uncompahgre River in western Colorado. A synoptic study by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program was completed in the upper Uncompahgre River Basin in 1998 to better understand the relations of trace elements (with emphasis on aluminum, arsenic, copper, iron, lead, and zinc concentrations) in water, streambed sediment, and aquatic life. Water-chemistry, streambed-sediment, and benthic macroinvertebrate samples were collected during low-flow conditions between October 1995 and July 1998 at five sites on the upper Uncompahgre River, all downstream from historical mining, and at three sites in drainage basins of the Upper Colorado River where mining has not occurred. Aquatic bryophytes were transplanted to all sites for 15 days of exposure to the water column during which time field parameters were measured and chemical water-quality and benthic macroinvertebrate samples were collected. Stream habitat characteristics also were documented at each site. Certain attributes of surface-water chemistry among streams were significantly different. Concentrations of total aluminum, copper, iron, lead, and zinc in the water column and concentrations of dissolved aluminum, copper, and zinc were significantly different between nonmining and mining sites. Some sites associated with mining exceeded Colorado acute aquatic-life standards for aluminum, copper, and zinc and exceeded Colorado chronic aquatic-life standards for aluminum, copper, iron, lead, and zinc. Concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc in streambed sediments were significantly different between nonmining and mining sites. Generally, concentrations of arsenic, copper, lead, and zinc in streambed sediments at mining sites exceeded the Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines probable effect level (PEL

  3. Interpretation of geophysical logs, aquifer tests, and water levels in wells in and near the North Penn Area 7 Superfund site, Upper Gwynedd Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, 2000-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Cinotto, Peter J.; Conger, Randall W.; Bird, Philip H.; Pracht, Karl A.

    2005-01-01

    Ground water in the vicinity of various industrial facilities in Upper Gwynedd Township and Lansdale Borough, Montgomery County, Pa., is contaminated with various volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The 2-square-mile area was placed on the National Priorities List as the North Penn Area 7 Superfund site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1989. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical logging, aquifer testing, water-level monitoring, and streamflow measurements in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 beginning autumn 2000 to assist the USEPA in developing an understanding of the hydrogeologic framework in the area as part of the USEPA Remedial Investigation. The study area is underlain by Triassic and Jurassic-age sandstones, siltstones, and shales of the Lockatong Formation and the Brunswick Group. Regionally, these rocks strike northeast and dip to the northwest. The sequence of rocks form a fractured-sedimentary-rock aquifer that acts as a set of confined to partially confined layered aquifers of differing permeabilities. The aquifers are recharged by precipitation and discharge to streams and wells. The Wissahickon Creek headwaters are less than 1 mile northeast of the study area, and this stream flows southwest to bisect North Penn Area 7. Ground water is pumped in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 for industrial use and public supply. The USGS collected geophysical logs for 16 wells that ranged in depth from 50 to 623 feet. Aquifer-interval-isolation testing was done in 9 of the 16 wells, for a total of 30 zones tested. A multiple-well aquifer test was conducted by monitoring the response of 14 wells to pumping a 600-ft deep production well in February and March 2002. In addition, water levels were monitored continuously in three wells in the area and streamflow was measured quarterly at two sites on Wissahickon Creek from December 2000 through September 2002. Geophysical logging identified water-bearing zones associated with

  4. 4. Side of view of upper dam overspill, taken from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Side of view of upper dam overspill, taken from west bank of Millstone Creek, VIEW EAST - Loleta Recreation Area, Upper Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  5. 5. View of upper dam side sluice taken from east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of upper dam side sluice taken from east bank of Millstone Creek. VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Upper Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  6. 3. Side view of upper dam overspill, taken from east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Side view of upper dam overspill, taken from east bank of Millstone Creek. VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Upper Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  7. Late Oligocene to early Miocene lateral extrusion at the eastern border of the Lepontine dome of the central Alps (Bergell and Insubric areas, eastern central Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciancaleoni, Laurent; Marquer, Didier

    2008-07-01

    How the internal domain of the central Alps deformed during late stages of the continental collision remains poorly understood. To fill this gap in knowledge, we present new data constraining the late Alpine brittle and brittle-ductile tectonics in Oligocene intrusions of the Bergell Alps (eastern central Alps). Syncollisional late normal faulting is widespread at all investigated scales, but part of the deformation observed is also associated with oblique-slip and transcurrent displacements. The faults are explained by stress permutations in space and time implying the three principal stress axes and correspond to different homoaxial states of stress of one single transtensive tectonic event. Motion on these faults accommodated coeval orogen-parallel extension and orogen-perpendicular contraction, during oblique indentation by the Southern alpine crust. Extensional and transcurrent structures likely formed by lateral extrusion of the Bergell Alps via distributed eastward extrusion of imbricated wedge-shaped crustal blocks, during the late Oligocene and lower Miocene. A first-order wedge-shaped crustal block in the Bergell Alps is represented by three coeval segments of the Periadriatic Fault System (namely the Tonale, Engadine, and Forcola faults). The eastern central segment of the Alpine belt appears to have deformed during the late Oligocene and lower Miocene in a similar way to its extremities where lateral escape tectonics occurred at least until the upper Miocene, according to free boundary availabilities.

  8. Estimated Loads of Suspended Sediment and Selected Trace Elements Transported through the Milltown Reservoir Project Area Before and After the Breaching of Milltown Dam in the Upper Clark Fork Basin, Montana, Water Year 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambing, John H.; Sando, Steven K.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents estimated daily and cumulative loads of suspended sediment and selected trace elements transported during water year 2008 at three streamflow-gaging stations that bracket the Milltown Reservoir project area in the upper Clark Fork basin of western Montana. Milltown Reservoir is a National Priorities List Superfund site where sediments enriched in trace elements from historical mining and ore processing have been deposited since the construction of Milltown Dam in 1907. Milltown Dam was breached on March 28, 2008, as part of Superfund remedial activities to remove the dam and contaminated sediment that had accumulated in Milltown Reservoir. The estimated loads transported through the project area during the periods before and after the breaching of Milltown Dam, and for the entire water year 2008, were used to quantify the net gain or loss (mass balance) of suspended sediment and trace elements within the project area during the transition from a reservoir environment to a free-flowing river. This study was done in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Streamflow during water year 2008 compared to long-term streamflow, as represented by the record for Clark Fork above Missoula (water years 1930-2008), generally was below normal (long-term median) from about October 2007 through April 2008. Sustained runoff started in mid-April, which increased flows to near normal by mid-May. After mid-May, flows sharply increased to above normal, reaching a maximum daily mean streamflow of 16,800 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) on May 21, which essentially equaled the long-term 10th-exceedance percentile for that date. Flows substantially above normal were sustained through June, then decreased through the summer and reached near-normal by August. Annual mean streamflow during water year 2008 (3,040 ft3/s) was 105 percent of the long-term mean annual streamflow (2,900 ft3/s). The annual peak flow (17,500 ft3/s) occurred on May 21 and was 112

  9. Upper Lid Blepharoplasty.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Samuel; Holds, John B; Couch, Steven M

    2016-05-01

    Upper lid blepharoplasty is a common procedure for restoration and rejuvenation of the upper eyelids that can be performed safely and reliably. Understanding the anatomy and aging process of the brow-upper lid aesthetic unit along with properly assessing the excesses and deficiencies of the periorbital region helps to formulate an appropriate surgical plan. Volume deficiency in the aging upper lid may require corrective augmentation. Preexisting asymmetries and ptosis need to be identified and discussed before surgery. Standardized photography along with a candid discussion regarding patients' desired outcomes and realistic expectations are essential to a successful outcome. PMID:27105797

  10. Exposures of the shoulder and upper humerus.

    PubMed

    Hoyen, Harry; Papendrea, Rick

    2014-11-01

    Extensile and adequate exposures of the shoulder and upper humerus are important in trauma surgery. The standard deltopectoral approach can be extended distally to expose the whole humerus if necessary. Often, wide exposures of the upper humerus are necessary to reduce complex fractures and apply the plate on the lateral aspect of the humerus. A thorough knowledge of the anatomy as well as strategies of nerve mobilization is necessary for achieving adequate exposures in this area. This article details the many exposure methods for the shoulder, upper humerus, and their extensile extensions.

  11. [Upper extremity arterial diseases].

    PubMed

    Becker, F

    2007-02-01

    Compared to lower limb arterial diseases, upper limb arterial diseases look rare, heterogeneous with various etiologies and a rather vague clinical picture, but with a negligible risk of amputation. Almost all types of arterial diseases can be present in the upper limb, but the anatomical and hemodynamic conditions particular to the upper limb often confuse the issue. Thus, atherosclerosis affects mainly the subclavian artery in its proximal segment where the potential of collateral pathway is high making the symptomatic forms not very frequent whereas the prevalence of subclavian artery stenosis or occlusion is relatively high. The clinical examination and the etiologies are discussed according to the clinical, anatomical and hemodynamic context.

  12. Nile behaviour and Upper Palaeolithic humans in Upper Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeersch, Pierre M.

    2014-05-01

    There is evidence of a decreasing human occupation of the Upper Egyptian Nile valley during the MIS 5 to MIS 3 period. Whereas very large extraction sites of the Middle Stone Age have been recorded, only very few sites of the Upper Palaeolithic have been found. The best explanation of this fact is that during the Late Middle Stone Age and the Upper Palaeolithc there was nearly no need for raw materials because there was only a very restricted population present in Upper Egypt. From about 22 ka BP an important population increase is registered by the presence of numerous Late Palaeolithic sites. During the whole LGM there is abundant presence of humans along the Nile Valley in Upper Egypt. This population was mainly living from fishing. There seems to be an abrupt end of the Palaeolithic occupation after 12.8 ka BP. Until now, no sites were found in the Valley until some rare Epipaleolithic sites occur about 8.0 ka BP. It will be suggested that these population changes are influenced by the river Nile behaviour. The best interpretation of the observations in the Upper Egyptian Nile Valley is the hypothesis that at the same time that Nile flow was reduced because of the dryness in its source area, the impact of aeolian activity was increased over Northeast Africa. The increased aeolian activity by northern winds in the Fayum and Wadi Ryan during the LGM resulted in the accumulation of aeolian sand in the valley. That aeolian sand was transported along the western Nile valley cliffs until it was accumulated when the Nile Valley change it S-N direction, such as at Nag'Hammadi. At other places sand was invading the Nile valley, directly from the Western Desert, creating a damming of the Nile at several places such as Armant and Aswan. As Nile flow was quite reduced, the Nile was unable to erode all the incoming sand and the Nile water with its important clay content was dammed. At several places large lakes were created in the Nile Valley. Those lakes were an ideal

  13. Upper limb prostheses.

    PubMed

    Bogucki, A

    2001-04-30

    This article discusses the technical and medical difficulties involved in managing prostheses of the upper limb. The level of amputation governs the type of prosthesis construction chosen, but does not affect emotional acceptance. The factors determining therapeutic success include the quality of the stump, the skill involved in prosthetic socket fabrication, and the proper selection of modular components, as well as good rehabilitation and professional care for the patient with amputated upper limb. PMID:17987000

  14. Upper GI Bleeding in Children

    MedlinePlus

    Upper GI Bleeding in Children What is upper GI Bleeding? Irritation and ulcers of the lining of the esophagus, stomach or duodenum can result in upper GI bleeding. When this occurs the child may vomit ...

  15. Non-invasive quick diagnosis of cardiovascular problems from visible and invisible abnormal changes with increased cardiac troponin I appearing on cardiovascular representation areas of the eyebrows, left upper lip, etc. of the face & hands: beneficial manual stimulation of hands for acute anginal chest pain, and important factors in safe, effective treatment.

    PubMed

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Jones, Marilyn K; Duvvi, Harsha; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu; Rodriques, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study indicated that there are at least 7 cardiovascular representation areas on the face, including the "Eyebrows", both sides of the "Nose", "Lelt Upper Lip" and the "Outside of the corner of both sides of the mouth," in addition to 2 areas in each hand. When there are cardiovascular problems, some of the heart representation areas of these areas often show the following changes: 1) Most distinctive visible changes such as the initial whitening with or without long white hair, then hair loss and complete disappearance of the hairs of the heart representation area of "Eyebrows" 2) Invisible biochemical changes that happen in heart representation areas at the "Left Upper Lips", 3) "Nose" below eye level as well as 4) "3rd segment of Middle Finger of Hands." Most distinctive visible & invisible changes are found in heart representation areas on the "Eyebrow", located nearest to the midline of face, where the color of the hairs becomes white compared with the rest of the Eyebrow. Then the cardiovascular problem advances, and hair starts disappearing. When there are no hairs at the heart representation areas of the Eyebrow, usually Cardiac Troponin I is increased to a very serious, abnormal high value. Most of the cardiovascular representation areas of the face show, regardless of presence or absence of visible change. When there is a cardiovascular problem, not only simple Bi-Digital O-Ring Test can detect without using any instrument in several minutes but also, corresponding biochemical changes of abnormally increased Cardiac Troponin I level can often be detected non-invasively from these Organ Representation Areas of Face & Hands, although changes in Eyebrows, L-Upper Lip & 3rd segment of middle fingers are clinically the most reliable changes & easy to identify the locations. Manual Stimulation of Hand's heart representation areas often eliminated acute anginal chest pain before medical help became available. Important factors for safe, effective

  16. Non-invasive quick diagnosis of cardiovascular problems from visible and invisible abnormal changes with increased cardiac troponin I appearing on cardiovascular representation areas of the eyebrows, left upper lip, etc. of the face & hands: beneficial manual stimulation of hands for acute anginal chest pain, and important factors in safe, effective treatment.

    PubMed

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Jones, Marilyn K; Duvvi, Harsha; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu; Rodriques, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study indicated that there are at least 7 cardiovascular representation areas on the face, including the "Eyebrows", both sides of the "Nose", "Lelt Upper Lip" and the "Outside of the corner of both sides of the mouth," in addition to 2 areas in each hand. When there are cardiovascular problems, some of the heart representation areas of these areas often show the following changes: 1) Most distinctive visible changes such as the initial whitening with or without long white hair, then hair loss and complete disappearance of the hairs of the heart representation area of "Eyebrows" 2) Invisible biochemical changes that happen in heart representation areas at the "Left Upper Lips", 3) "Nose" below eye level as well as 4) "3rd segment of Middle Finger of Hands." Most distinctive visible & invisible changes are found in heart representation areas on the "Eyebrow", located nearest to the midline of face, where the color of the hairs becomes white compared with the rest of the Eyebrow. Then the cardiovascular problem advances, and hair starts disappearing. When there are no hairs at the heart representation areas of the Eyebrow, usually Cardiac Troponin I is increased to a very serious, abnormal high value. Most of the cardiovascular representation areas of the face show, regardless of presence or absence of visible change. When there is a cardiovascular problem, not only simple Bi-Digital O-Ring Test can detect without using any instrument in several minutes but also, corresponding biochemical changes of abnormally increased Cardiac Troponin I level can often be detected non-invasively from these Organ Representation Areas of Face & Hands, although changes in Eyebrows, L-Upper Lip & 3rd segment of middle fingers are clinically the most reliable changes & easy to identify the locations. Manual Stimulation of Hand's heart representation areas often eliminated acute anginal chest pain before medical help became available. Important factors for safe, effective

  17. STS upper stage operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchens, M. D.; Schnyer, A. D.

    1977-01-01

    Several design/development and operational approaches for STS upper stages are being pursued to realize maximum operational and economic benefits upon the introduction of the STS in the 1980s. The paper focuses special attention on safety operations, launch site operations and on-orbit operations.

  18. 4. SHOWING BRIDGE AT UPPER LEFT, UPPER FALLS AND TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SHOWING BRIDGE AT UPPER LEFT, UPPER FALLS AND TOP OF MAIN WATERFALL, FACING NORTHEAST - Paradise River First Crossing Bridge, Spanning Paradise River at Narada Falls on Service Road, Longmire, Pierce County, WA

  19. 8. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & GUSSET PLATE, ONE DIAGONAL BRACE - Enterprise Parker Truss Bridge, Spanning Smoky Hill River on K-43 Highway, Enterprise, Dickinson County, KS

  20. 7. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & GUSSET PLATE, TWO DIAGONAL BRACES - Enterprise Parker Truss Bridge, Spanning Smoky Hill River on K-43 Highway, Enterprise, Dickinson County, KS

  1. Studies in upper and lower atmosphere coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Y. T.; Rice, C. J.; Sharp, L. R.

    1979-01-01

    The theoretical and data-analytic work on upper and lower atmosphere coupling performed under a NASA Headquarters contract during the period April 1978 to March 1979 are summarized. As such, this report is primarily devoted to an overview of various studies published and to be published under this contract. Individual study reports are collected as exhibits. Work performed under the subject contract are in the following four areas of upper-lower atmosphere coupling: (1) Magnetosphere-ionosphere electrodynamic coupling in the aurora; (2) Troposphere-thermosphere coupling; (3) Ionosphere-neutral-atmosphere coupling; and (4) Planetary wave dynamics in the middle atmosphere.

  2. 2. Rear view of upper dam with Millstone Creek flowing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Rear view of upper dam with Millstone Creek flowing over overspill. Photograph taken from west bank of Millstone Creek. VIEW SOUTHEAST - Loleta Recreation Area, Upper Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  3. 1. East apron upper dam with water flowing over overspill. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. East apron upper dam with water flowing over overspill. Photograph taken from crest of lower dam in foreground). VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Upper Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  4. Upper extremity golf injuries.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Michael A; Lee, Steven K; Strauss, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    Golf is a global sport enjoyed by an estimated 60 million people around the world. Despite the common misconception that the risk of injury during the play of golf is minimal, golfers are subject to a myriad of potential pathologies. While the majority of injuries in golf are attributable to overuse, acute traumatic injuries can also occur. As the body's direct link to the golf club, the upper extremities are especially prone to injury. A thorough appreciation of the risk factors and patterns of injury will afford accurate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of further injury.

  5. Upper lumbar disk herniations.

    PubMed

    Cedoz, M E; Larbre, J P; Lequin, C; Fischer, G; Llorca, G

    1996-06-01

    Specific features of upper lumbar disk herniations are reviewed based on data from the literature and from a retrospective study of 24 cases treated surgically between 1982 and 1994 (seven at L1-L2 and 17 at L2-L3). Clinical manifestations are polymorphic, misleading (abdominogenital pain suggestive of a visceral or psychogenic condition, meralgia paresthetica, isolated sciatica; femoral neuralgia is uncommon) and sometimes severe (five cases of cauda equina syndrome in our study group). The diagnostic usefulness of imaging studies (radiography, myelography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and results of surgery are discussed. The risk of misdiagnosis and the encouraging results of surgery are emphasized. PMID:8817752

  6. Vallejo family sleeping space, west wing, upper floor, looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vallejo family sleeping space, west wing, upper floor, looking north from the south end. The doorway at far right connects with the dining area. - Vallejo Adobe, Adobe Road at Casa Grande, Petaluma, Sonoma County, CA

  7. Acute upper airway infections.

    PubMed

    West, J V

    2002-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections are common and important. Although rarely fatal, they are a source of significant morbidity and carry a considerable economic burden. Numerous therapies for the common cold have no effect on symptoms or outcome. Complications such as cough are not improved by over-the-counter preparations, while labelling cough alone as a symptom of asthma may result in unnecessary use of inhaled steroid treatment. Clinical presentation of sore throat does not accurately predict whether the infection is viral or bacterial, while throat culture and rapid antigen tests do not significantly change prescribing practice. Antibiotics have only a limited place in the management of recurrent sore throat due to group A beta-haemolytic streptococcal infection. Routine use of antibiotics in upper respiratory infection enhances parent belief in their effectiveness and increases the likelihood of future consultation in primary care for minor self-limiting illness. Respiratory viruses play a major role in the aetiology of acute otitis media (AOM); prevention includes the use of influenza or RSV vaccination, in addition to reducing other risk factors such as early exposure to respiratory viruses in day-care settings and to environmental tobacco smoke. The use of ventilation tubes (grommets) in secretory otitis media (SOM) remains controversial with conflicting data on developmental outcome and quality of life in young children. New conjugate pneumococcal vaccines appear safe in young children and prevent 6-7% of clinically diagnosed AOM.

  8. Upper Limit for Regional Sea Level Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jackson, Luke; Riva, Riccardo; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John

    2016-04-01

    With more than 150 million people living within 1 m of high tide future sea level rise is one of the most damaging aspects of warming climate. The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report (AR5 IPCC) noted that a 0.5 m rise in mean sea level will result in a dramatic increase the frequency of high water extremes - by an order of magnitude, or more in some regions. Thus the flood threat to the rapidly growing urban populations and associated infrastructure in coastal areas are major concerns for society. Hence, impact assessment, risk management, adaptation strategy and long-term decision making in coastal areas depend on projections of mean sea level and crucially its low probability, high impact, upper range. With probabilistic approach we produce regional sea level projections taking into account large uncertainties associated with Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets contribution. We calculate the upper limit (as 95%) for regional sea level projections by 2100 with RCP8.5 scenario, suggesting that for the most coastlines upper limit will exceed the global upper limit of 1.8 m.

  9. Moeglichkeiten eines gegenwartsorientierten Landeskundeunterrichts. Unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Haupt- und Realschuloberstufe (Possibilities of Present-Oriented Area-Study Teaching, with Special Reference to the Upper Grade of High Schools)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermes, Liesel

    1975-01-01

    Area study materials should be factual, contemporary, objective, and designed with regard to the student's level. Content should be limited to material contrasting with, or supplementary to, the students' knowledge. Penguin's series "Connexions" is better than available German texts. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  10. Soccer players' fitting perception of different upper boot materials.

    PubMed

    Olaso Melis, J C; Priego Quesada, J I; Lucas-Cuevas, A G; González García, J C; Puigcerver Palau, S

    2016-07-01

    The present study assessed the influence of upper boot materials on fitting perception. Twenty players tested three soccer boots only differing in the upper boot material (natural calf leather, natural kangaroo leather and synthetic leather). Players reported fitting perception and preference on specific foot areas using a perceived fitting scale. Ratings were averaged for every foot area. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze the differences between boots. The kangaroo leather boots were perceived tighter and closer to the preferred fitting in general fitting, metatarsals area and instep area. The synthetic leather boots were perceived as the loosest and as the most distant boot from the preferred fitting in medial front area and instep area. In conclusion, the type of upper boot material influences the fitting perception of soccer players. The kangaroo leather was the material whose fitting was perceived closest to the players fitting preference. PMID:26995033

  11. Soccer players' fitting perception of different upper boot materials.

    PubMed

    Olaso Melis, J C; Priego Quesada, J I; Lucas-Cuevas, A G; González García, J C; Puigcerver Palau, S

    2016-07-01

    The present study assessed the influence of upper boot materials on fitting perception. Twenty players tested three soccer boots only differing in the upper boot material (natural calf leather, natural kangaroo leather and synthetic leather). Players reported fitting perception and preference on specific foot areas using a perceived fitting scale. Ratings were averaged for every foot area. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze the differences between boots. The kangaroo leather boots were perceived tighter and closer to the preferred fitting in general fitting, metatarsals area and instep area. The synthetic leather boots were perceived as the loosest and as the most distant boot from the preferred fitting in medial front area and instep area. In conclusion, the type of upper boot material influences the fitting perception of soccer players. The kangaroo leather was the material whose fitting was perceived closest to the players fitting preference.

  12. Altitude and configuration of the potentiometric surface in the Upper Triassic sedimentary rocks at and near the North Penn Area 12 Superfund site, Worcester Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, July 20-27, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grazul, Kevin E.

    1996-01-01

    A map showing the altitude of the potentiometric surface defined by measured water levels near the North Penn Area 12 Superfund Site in Worcester Township, Montgomery County, Pa., was constructed from water levels measured in 35 wells from July 20-27, 1995. Observed water-level altitudes range from 435 feet above sea level in a well near Church Road to 261 feet above sea level in a well near Land Road in Worcester Township.

  13. HALOE Algorithm Improvements for Upper Tropospheric Sounding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Robert Earl; McHugh, Martin J.; Gordley, Larry L.; Hervig, Mark E.; Russell, James M., III; Douglass, Anne (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report details the ongoing efforts by GATS, Inc., in conjunction with Hampton University and University of Wyoming, in NASA's Mission to Planet Earth Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) Science Investigator Program entitled 'HALOE Algorithm Improvements for Upper Tropospheric Sounding.' The goal of this effort is to develop and implement major inversion and processing improvements that will extend Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) measurements further into the troposphere. In particular, O3, H2O, and CH4 retrievals may be extended into the middle troposphere, and NO, HCl and possibly HF into the upper troposphere. Key areas of research being carried out to accomplish this include: pointing/tracking analysis; cloud identification and modeling; simultaneous multichannel retrieval capability; forward model improvements; high vertical-resolution gas filter channel retrievals; a refined temperature retrieval; robust error analyses; long-term trend reliability studies; and data validation. The current (first year) effort concentrates on the pointer/tracker correction algorithms, cloud filtering and validation, and multichannel retrieval development. However, these areas are all highly coupled, so progress in one area benefits from and sometimes depends on work in others.

  14. Additional mineral resources assessment of the Battle Creek, Bruneau River, Deep Creek-Owyhee River, Jarbidge River, Juniper Creek, Little Owyhee River, North Fork Owyhee River, Owyhee River Canyon, South Fork Owyhee River, Upper Deep Creek, and Yatahoney Creek Wilderness Study Areas, Owyhee County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diggles, Michael F.; Berger, Byron R.; Vander Meulen, Dean B.; Minor, Scott A.; Ach, Jay A.; Sawlan, Michael G.

    1989-01-01

    From 1984 to 1986, studies were conducted to assess the potential for undiscovered mineral resources in wilderness study areas on the Owyhee Plateau. The results of these studies have been published in a series of U.S. Geological Survey Bulletins. Since that time, low-grade, high-tonnage epithermal hot-spring gold-silver deposits have been recognized in the region north of the wilderness study areas. The recognition that this mineral-deposit model is applicable in the region, coupled with new data that has become available to the U.S. Geological Survey, reinterpretation of existing geochemical data, and known-deposit data suggest that similar deposits may be present elsewhere on the Owyhee Plateau. This report is an additional assessment of the Battle Creek, Bruneau River, Deep Creek-Owyhee River, Jarbidge River, Juniper Creek, Little Owyhee River, North Fork Owyhee River, Owyhee River Canyon, South Fork Owyhee River (ID-016-053), Upper Deep Creek, and Yatahoney Creek Wilderness Study Areas in Idaho Wilderness Study Areas in Idaho in light of those new data.

  15. Reply to comment by D. Nývlt on "Development of the topography-controlled Upper Odra ice lobe (Scandinavian Ice Sheet) in the fore-mountain area of southern Poland during the Saalian glaciation"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamon, Tomasz

    2016-02-01

    D. Nyvlt's comment provides an opportunity to re-discuss the problem of the maximum extent of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet during the Saalian glaciation in the area of the Moravian Gate, which has been a subject of debate for many years (Lewandowski, 1988; Badura and Przybylski, 1998). The controversies arise from different conclusions derived from studies in neighbouring areas of Poland and Czech Republic (Fig. 1a). In Poland, a generally accepted view is that the ice sheet reached its maximum extent during the Elsterian glaciation (Marks, 2004; Mojski, 2005), when it advanced up to the foothills of the Carpathian Mountains. During the Saalian glaciation it did not over-pass the Middle Polish Upland belt, but only through the Silesian Lowland slipped further southward, but not as far as the Czech authors suggest. They propose that the ice sheet advanced deeply into the Moravian Gate, crossed the main European water divide and its maximum extent was even larger than during Elsterian glaciation (Nývlt et al., 2011; Tyráček, 2011). A less extensive Saalian ice sheet was proposed by Lewandowski (1988), who claimed that the concept of deep penetration of the Moravian Gate by the ice lobe is in contradiction to data obtained from the area to the north of the Ostrava Basin, and especially from the Oświęcim Basin and the Rybnik Plateau (Fig. 1a). If the ice-sheet reached as far as the Czech authors claim, the mentioned areas should also have been glaciated (at least partially), however there is no evidence for this. Only a single (Elsterian) horizon of till is known from the Oświęcim Basin and the Rybnik Plateau (Karaś-Brzozowska, 1963; Klimek, 1972; Lewandowski, 1988; Haisig and Wilanowski, 2003). Sediments of Saalian age have been identified there, but these are only proglacial sands and silts (e.g. Lewandowski, 1988; Salamon, 2009). There is no evidence of the Saalian glaciation at the immediate foreland of the Beskidy Mountains to the east of the Ostrava Basin

  16. Venus upper atmosphere structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, G. M.; Nicholson, J. Y.; Lake, L. R.

    1980-12-01

    Atmospheric densities of Venus were measured from the orbital decay of the Pioneer Venus from Dec. 9, 1978 to Aug. 7, 1979 near the 16 deg latitude between 140 and 190 km during the entire day. Comparative atmospheric densities on earth at 150 km are higher by a factor of 3.5 with only a 1% diurnal variation; an atmospheric composition, temperature, and density model based on the orbiter atmospheric drag (OAD) vertical structure is presented. The model shows that atomic oxygen is the major component in the Venus atmosphere above 145 km at night and above 160 km during the day with mixing ratios over 0.1 near 140 km; drag measurements indicate O concentrations from 1 x 10 to the 9th/cu cm in daytime to 3 x 10 to the 7th/cu cm at night. It is concluded that the neutral upper atmosphere of Venus is surprisingly insensitive to solar extreme UV variations and changes in the solar wind.

  17. The Impact of Upper Tropospheric Humidity from Microwave Limb Sounder on the Midlatitude Greenhouse Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Hua; Liu, W. Timothy

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of upper tropospheric humidity, as measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder, and the impact of the humidity on the greenhouse effect in the midlatitudes. Enhanced upper tropospheric humidity and an enhanced greenhouse effect occur over the storm tracks in the North Pacific and North Atlantic. In these areas, strong baroclinic activity and the large number of deep convective clouds transport more water vapor to the upper troposphere, and hence increase greenhouse trapping. The greenhouse effect increases with upper tropospheric humidity in areas with a moist upper troposphere (such as areas over storm tracks), but it is not sensitive to changes in upper tropospheric humidity in regions with a dry upper troposphere, clearly demonstrating that there are different mechanisms controlling the geographical distribution of the greenhouse effect in the midlatitudes.

  18. Upper atmosphere pollution measurements (GASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The environmental effects are discussed of engine effluents of future large fleets of aircraft operating in the stratosphere. Topics discussed include: atmospheric properties, aircraft engine effluents, upper atmospheric measurements, global air sampling, and data reduction and analysis

  19. Upper Extremity Amputations and Prosthetics

    PubMed Central

    Ovadia, Steven A.; Askari, Morad

    2015-01-01

    Upper extremity amputations are most frequently indicated by severe traumatic injuries. The location of the injury will determine the level of amputation. Preservation of extremity length is often a goal. The amputation site will have important implications on the functional status of the patient and options for prosthetic reconstruction. Advances in amputation techniques and prosthetic reconstructions promote improved quality of life. In this article, the authors review the principles of upper extremity amputation, including techniques, amputation sites, and prosthetic reconstructions. PMID:25685104

  20. Extensive upper respiratory tract sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Soares, Mafalda Trindade; Sousa, Carolina; Garanito, Luísa; Freire, Filipe

    2016-04-18

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology. It can affect any part of the organism, although the lung is the most frequently affected organ. Upper airway involvement is rare, particularly if isolated. Sarcoidosis is a diagnosis of exclusion, established by histological evidence of non-caseating granulomas and the absence of other granulomatous diseases. The authors report a case of a man with sarcoidosis manifesting as a chronic inflammatory stenotic condition of the upper respiratory tract and trachea.

  1. HALOE Algorithm Improvements for Upper Tropospheric Sounding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    This report details the ongoing efforts by GATS, Inc., in conjunction with Hampton University and University of Wyoming, in NASA's Mission to Planet Earth UARS Science Investigator Program entitled "HALOE Algorithm Improvements for Upper Tropospheric Sounding." The goal of this effort is to develop and implement major inversion and processing improvements that will extend HALOE measurements further into the troposphere. In particular, O3, H2O, and CH4 retrievals may be extended into the middle troposphere, and NO, HCl and possibly HF into the upper troposphere. Key areas of research being carried out to accomplish this include: pointing/tracking analysis; cloud identification and modeling; simultaneous multichannel retrieval capability; forward model improvements; high vertical-resolution gas filter channel retrievals; a refined temperature retrieval; robust error analyses; long-term trend reliability studies; and data validation. The current (first year) effort concentrates on the pointer/tracker correction algorithms, cloud filtering and validation, and multichannel retrieval development. However, these areas are all highly coupled, so progress in one area benefits from and sometimes depends on work in others.

  2. HALOE Algorithm Improvements for Upper Tropospheric Sounding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McHugh, Martin J.; Gordley, Larry L.; Russell, James M., III; Hervig, Mark E.

    1999-01-01

    This report details the ongoing efforts by GATS, Inc., in conjunction with Hampton University and University of Wyoming, in NASA's Mission to Planet Earth UARS Science Investigator Program entitled "HALOE Algorithm Improvements for Upper Tropospheric Soundings." The goal of this effort is to develop and implement major inversion and processing improvements that will extend HALOE measurements further into the troposphere. In particular, O3, H2O, and CH4 retrievals may be extended into the middle troposphere, and NO, HCl and possibly HF into the upper troposphere. Key areas of research being carried out to accomplish this include: pointing/tracking analysis; cloud identification and modeling; simultaneous multichannel retrieval capability; forward model improvements; high vertical-resolution gas filter channel retrievals; a refined temperature retrieval; robust error analyses; long-term trend reliability studies; and data validation. The current (first-year) effort concentrates on the pointer/tracker correction algorithms, cloud filtering and validation, and multi-channel retrieval development. However, these areas are all highly coupled, so progress in one area benefits from and sometimes depends on work in others.

  3. HALOE Algorithm Improvements for Upper Tropospheric Soundings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Robert E.; Douglass, Anne (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This report details the ongoing efforts by GATS, Inc., in conjunction with Hampton University and University of Wyoming, in NASA's Mission to Planet Earth UARS Science Investigator Program entitled "HALOE Algorithm Improvements for Upper Tropospheric Sounding." The goal of this effort is to develop and implement major inversion and processing improvements that will extend HALOE measurements further into the troposphere. In particular, O3, H2O, and CH4 retrievals may be extended into the middle troposphere, and NO, HCl and possibly HF into the upper troposphere. Key areas of research being carried out to accomplish this include: pointing/tracking analysis; cloud identification and modeling; simultaneous multichannel retrieval capability; forward model improvements; high vertical-resolution gas filter channel retrievals; a refined temperature retrieval; robust error analyses; long-term trend reliability studies; and data validation. The current (first year) effort concentrates on the pointer/tracker correction algorithms, cloud filtering and validation, and multichannel retrieval development. However, these areas are all highly coupled, so progress in one area benefits from and sometimes depends on work in others.

  4. Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. J.; Cook, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    The Agency s Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) will be the first human rated space transportation system developed in the United States since the Space Shuttle. The CLV will utilize existing Shuttle heritage hardware and systems combined with a "clean sheet design" for the Upper Stage. The Upper Stage element will be designed and developed by a team of NASA engineers managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. The team will design the Upper Stage based on the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) Team s point of departure conceptual design as illustrated in the figure below. This concept is a self-supporting cylindrical structure, approximately 1 15 feet long and 216 inches in diameter. While this "clean-sheet" upper stage design inherently carries more risk than utilizing a modified design, the approach also has many advantages. This paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of pursuing a "clean-sheet" design for the new CLV Upper Stage as well as describe in detail the overall design of the Upper Stage and its integration into NASA s CLV.

  5. Anatomic Optical Coherence Tomography of Upper Airways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin Loy, Anthony; Jing, Joseph; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Yong; Elghobashi, Said; Chen, Zhongping; Wong, Brian J. F.

    The upper airway is a complex and intricate system responsible for respiration, phonation, and deglutition. Obstruction of the upper airways afflicts an estimated 12-18 million Americans. Pharyngeal size and shape are important factors in the pathogenesis of airway obstructions. In addition, nocturnal loss in pharyngeal muscular tone combined with high pharyngeal resistance can lead to collapse of the airway and periodic partial or complete upper airway obstruction. Anatomical optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the potential to provide high-speed three-dimensional tomographic images of the airway lumen without the use of ionizing radiation. In this chapter we describe the methods behind endoscopic OCT imaging and processing to generate full three dimensional anatomical models of the human airway which can be used in conjunction with numerical simulation methods to assess areas of airway obstruction. Combining this structural information with flow dynamic simulations, we can better estimate the site and causes of airway obstruction and better select and design surgery for patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

  6. Recognizing upper-extremity stress lesions.

    PubMed

    Cervoni, T D; Martire, J R; Curl, L A; McFarland, E G

    1997-08-01

    Athletes in sports such as baseball, gymnastics, weight lifting, javelin, and racket sports are susceptible to stress lesions in the bones of the upper extremities. Injuries range from periostitis to bone spurs to stress fractures. Injuries in adolescents typically involve the growth plates, while midshaft injuries at the area of muscle insertion are more common in adults. It's especially important to detect these injuries in adolescents because untreated stress lesions at growth plates can have serious consequences. Plain films demonstrate obvious fractures and physeal injuries, but triple-phase bone scans are often needed to define the extent of stress lesions.

  7. Robust warming of the global upper ocean.

    PubMed

    Lyman, John M; Good, Simon A; Gouretski, Viktor V; Ishii, Masayoshi; Johnson, Gregory C; Palmer, Matthew D; Smith, Doug M; Willis, Josh K

    2010-05-20

    A large ( approximately 10(23) J) multi-decadal globally averaged warming signal in the upper 300 m of the world's oceans was reported roughly a decade ago and is attributed to warming associated with anthropogenic greenhouse gases. The majority of the Earth's total energy uptake during recent decades has occurred in the upper ocean, but the underlying uncertainties in ocean warming are unclear, limiting our ability to assess closure of sea-level budgets, the global radiation imbalance and climate models. For example, several teams have recently produced different multi-year estimates of the annually averaged global integral of upper-ocean heat content anomalies (hereafter OHCA curves) or, equivalently, the thermosteric sea-level rise. Patterns of interannual variability, in particular, differ among methods. Here we examine several sources of uncertainty that contribute to differences among OHCA curves from 1993 to 2008, focusing on the difficulties of correcting biases in expendable bathythermograph (XBT) data. XBT data constitute the majority of the in situ measurements of upper-ocean heat content from 1967 to 2002, and we find that the uncertainty due to choice of XBT bias correction dominates among-method variability in OHCA curves during our 1993-2008 study period. Accounting for multiple sources of uncertainty, a composite of several OHCA curves using different XBT bias corrections still yields a statistically significant linear warming trend for 1993-2008 of 0.64 W m(-2) (calculated for the Earth's entire surface area), with a 90-per-cent confidence interval of 0.53-0.75 W m(-2).

  8. Role of upper airway ultrasound in airway management.

    PubMed

    Osman, Adi; Sum, Kok Meng

    2016-01-01

    Upper airway ultrasound is a valuable, non-invasive, simple, and portable point of care ultrasound (POCUS) for evaluation of airway management even in anatomy distorted by pathology or trauma. Ultrasound enables us to identify important sonoanatomy of the upper airway such as thyroid cartilage, epiglottis, cricoid cartilage, cricothyroid membrane, tracheal cartilages, and esophagus. Understanding this applied sonoanatomy facilitates clinician to use ultrasound in assessment of airway anatomy for difficult intubation, ETT and LMA placement and depth, assessment of airway size, ultrasound-guided invasive procedures such as percutaneous needle cricothyroidotomy and tracheostomy, prediction of postextubation stridor and left double-lumen bronchial tube size, and detecting upper airway pathologies. Widespread POCUS awareness, better technological advancements, portability, and availability of ultrasound in most critical areas facilitate upper airway ultrasound to become the potential first-line non-invasive airway assessment tool in the future. PMID:27529028

  9. Role of upper airway ultrasound in airway management.

    PubMed

    Osman, Adi; Sum, Kok Meng

    2016-01-01

    Upper airway ultrasound is a valuable, non-invasive, simple, and portable point of care ultrasound (POCUS) for evaluation of airway management even in anatomy distorted by pathology or trauma. Ultrasound enables us to identify important sonoanatomy of the upper airway such as thyroid cartilage, epiglottis, cricoid cartilage, cricothyroid membrane, tracheal cartilages, and esophagus. Understanding this applied sonoanatomy facilitates clinician to use ultrasound in assessment of airway anatomy for difficult intubation, ETT and LMA placement and depth, assessment of airway size, ultrasound-guided invasive procedures such as percutaneous needle cricothyroidotomy and tracheostomy, prediction of postextubation stridor and left double-lumen bronchial tube size, and detecting upper airway pathologies. Widespread POCUS awareness, better technological advancements, portability, and availability of ultrasound in most critical areas facilitate upper airway ultrasound to become the potential first-line non-invasive airway assessment tool in the future.

  10. Condylomatous lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract.

    PubMed

    Nash, M; Lucente, F E; Srinivasan, K; Gould, W J

    1987-12-01

    Condyloma acuminatum is one of four types of common human verrucous lesions that are of viral etiology. Also known as "moist wart," condyloma acuminatum is most often seen on the mucosal surfaces of the anogenital area. However, occurrences in the mucosal lined areas of the head and neck region are quite rare. Since 1901, 30 cases of condylomatous lesions have been reported in the upper aerodigestive tract, occurring mainly in the various regions of the oral cavity. Eighteen of the cases were confirmed by histopathologic documentation, while the remainder were anecdotal. We have recently encountered six new cases of condyloma acuminatum, verified by histologic examination. One occurred on the tongue, another in the tonsillar fossa, one in the hypopharynx and three on the vocal cords. We present these cases and review the previously reported cases. In addition, we will discuss the differential diagnosis of these lesions, and their importance to the practicing otolaryngologist.

  11. Simulation of Upper Limb Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uherčík, Filip; Hučko, Branislav

    2011-12-01

    The paper deals with controlling an upper limb prosthesis based on the measurement of myoelectric signals (MES) while drinking. MES signals have been measured on healthy limbs to obtain the same response for the prosthesis. To simulate the drinking motion of a healthy upper limb, the program ADAMS was used, with all degrees of freedom and a hand after trans-radial amputation with an existing hand prosthesis. Modification of the simulation has the exact same logic of control, where the muscle does not have to be strenuous all the time, but it is the impulse of the muscle which drives the motor even though the impulse disappears and passed away.

  12. Estimation of the Change in Freshwater Volume in the North Coast Limestone Upper Aquifer of Puerto Rico in the Rio Grande de Manati-Rio de la Plata Area between 1960 and 1990 and Implications on Public-Supply Water Availability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gómez-Gómez, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Ground water in the upper aquifer of the North Coast Limestone aquifer system historically has been the principal source of public-supply and self-supplied industrial water use in north-central Puerto Rico. Development of the aquifer for these two major water-use categories began in about 1930; however, withdrawals did not become an important water-supply source for sustaining local development until the 1960s. Ground-water withdrawals averaged about 6 million gallons per day from 1948 to the mid-1960s and peaked at about 33 million gallons per day in the 1980s. Withdrawals have since declined, averaging about 11.5 million gallons per day in 2002. Aquifer contamination by industrial chemical spills and by nitrates from agricultural and domestic sources initially reduced pumpage for public-supply use within localized areas, leading eventually to increased withdrawals at unaffected well fields. The long-term effect of unconstrained ground-water withdrawals has been a regional thinning of the freshwater lens in an area encompassing 50,600 acres between the Rio Grande de Manati and Rio de la Plata, generally north of latitude 18?25?. The effects of aquifer overdraft have been documented in the regional thinning of the freshwater lens, with an increase in dissolved-solids concentration in ground-water wells. Dissolved-solids concentration in public-supply wells were generally between 250 and 350 milligrams per liter during the 1960s, but increased to greater than 500 milligrams per liter in virtually all of the wells by 2000. Depletion of fresh ground water was estimated at 282,000 acre-feet: 103,000 acre-feet in the Rio Grande de Manati to Rio Cibuco area between 1960 and 1995, and 179,000 acre-feet in the Rio Cibuco to Rio de la Plata area between 1960 and 1992. Thus, aquifer freshwater volume depletion below mean sea level datum may have contributed as much as 38 percent (7.5 million gallons per day) of the 20-million gallons per day average withdrawal rate during

  13. Upper Secondary Students' Task Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergqvist, T.; Lithner, J.; Sumpter, L.

    2008-01-01

    Upper secondary students' task solving reasoning was analysed, with a focus on grounds for different strategy choices and implementations. The results indicate that mathematically well-founded considerations were rare. The dominating reasoning types were algorithmic reasoning, where students tried to remember a suitable algorithm, sometimes in a…

  14. CRYOGENIC UPPER STAGE SYSTEM SAFETY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. Kenneth; French, James V.; LaRue, Peter F.; Taylor, James L.; Pollard, Kathy (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    NASA s Exploration Initiative will require development of many new systems or systems of systems. One specific example is that safe, affordable, and reliable upper stage systems to place cargo and crew in stable low earth orbit are urgently required. In this paper, we examine the failure history of previous upper stages with liquid oxygen (LOX)/liquid hydrogen (LH2) propulsion systems. Launch data from 1964 until midyear 2005 are analyzed and presented. This data analysis covers upper stage systems from the Ariane, Centaur, H-IIA, Saturn, and Atlas in addition to other vehicles. Upper stage propulsion system elements have the highest impact on reliability. This paper discusses failure occurrence in all aspects of the operational phases (Le., initial burn, coast, restarts, and trends in failure rates over time). In an effort to understand the likelihood of future failures in flight, we present timelines of engine system failures relevant to initial flight histories. Some evidence suggests that propulsion system failures as a result of design problems occur shortly after initial development of the propulsion system; whereas failures because of manufacturing or assembly processing errors may occur during any phase of the system builds process, This paper also explores the detectability of historical failures. Observations from this review are used to ascertain the potential for increased upper stage reliability given investments in integrated system health management. Based on a clear understanding of the failure and success history of previous efforts by multiple space hardware development groups, the paper will investigate potential improvements that can be realized through application of system safety principles.

  15. Upper proterozoic geology and hydrocarbon prospects, Metropolitan Moscow District

    SciTech Connect

    Kuz`menko, Yu.T.; Kuklinskii, A.Ya.; Pimenov, Yu.G.

    1994-09-01

    New data on the geological makeup of the Teplostansk Graben of the Moscow Aulacogen deals with lithological-geochemical rock characteristics in deep drillholes in the Moscow area and about the enclosed bituminoids. Hydrocarbon prospects of the Upper Proterozoic beds in the graben have been evaluated.

  16. IRON TEEMING FROM CUPOLA (UPPER RIGHT CORNER) RECENTLY CHARGED LADLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IRON TEEMING FROM CUPOLA (UPPER RIGHT CORNER) RECENTLY CHARGED LADLE CONTAINING DUCTILE IRON, MAGNESIUM IS ADDED TO GRAY IRON TO MAKE DUCTILE IRON. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Melting & Treatment Areas, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  17. Lung mass, right upper lung - chest x-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This picture is a chest x-ray of a person with a lung mass. This is a front view, where the lungs are the two dark areas and ... visible in the middle of the chest. The x-ray shows a mass in the right upper lung, ...

  18. Upper-Division Student Difficulties with Separation of Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Pollock, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Separation of variables can be a powerful technique for solving many of the partial differential equations that arise in physics contexts. Upper-division physics students encounter this technique in multiple topical areas including electrostatics and quantum mechanics. To better understand the difficulties students encounter when utilizing the…

  19. A Multiweek Upper-Division Inorganic Laboratory Based on Metallacrowns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirovetz, Brian J.; Walters, Nicole E.; Bender, Collin N.; Lenivy, Christopher M.; Troup, Anna S.; Predecki, Daniel P.; Richardson, John N.; Zaleski, Curtis M.

    2013-01-01

    Metallacrowns are a versatile class of inorganic compounds with uses in several areas of chemistry. Students engage in a multiweek, upper-division inorganic laboratory that explores four different metallacrown compounds: Fe[superscript III](O[subscript 2]CCH[subscript 3])[subscript 3][9-MC[subscript Fe][superscript III][subscript…

  20. Orographic disturbances in the upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Anatoly I.; Shefov, Nikolay N.; Medvedeva, Irina V.

    2012-12-01

    Interaction of atmospheric non-stationary stream with obstacles on the Earth's terrestrial surface causes disturbances which are a source of various wave processes. A study of such processes and their influence on the upper atmosphere temperature regime was carried out at Kislovodsk high-mountainous scientific station of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS) by measuring the mesopause temperature in the northern leeward area of the Caucasian ridge. Using the data of the spectrophotometric measurements of the upper atmosphere hydroxyl emission characteristics over almost two decades, information about the orographic disturbances at the mesopause altitudes were obtained and features of their generation in the surface atmosphere were studied. It was found that the atmospheric temperature at altitudes around 90 km in the lee of mountains increased by 10 K (the mean value is about 200 K) at a distance of about 150 km from the ridge. The 300-km width of the observed airglow disturbances is from the observations near the Ural and Caucasian mountains.The sources of wave disturbances are shown to be concentrated near the mountainous irregularities of the Caucasian ridge. These sources appear in the troposphere at altitudes of about 4 km. The process of generating waves with periods from 7 to 20 min were believed to be caused by wind gusts. The spatial distribution of energy flow in the lee of the mountains was calculated and amounts to about 3 erg cm-2 s-1.

  1. Mammal extinctions in the Vallesian (Upper Miocene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agusti, J.; Moya-Sola, S.

    The term Vallesian was created by Crusafont (1950) to designate the first European Mammalian palaeofaunas containing the equid Hipparion, the remainder of the faunas being composed of typical elements coming from the Middle Miocene such as Micromeryx, Euprox, Sansanosmilus, Pseudaelurus, and Listriodon. Thus, the Aragonian-Vallesian boundary does not show a strong change among European Miocene mammalian faunas (Agusti et al., 1984). On the other hand, the Lower Vallesian/Upper Vallesian transition corresponds to a major biotic crisis. This boudnary is characterized by the disappearence of most of the Aragonian artiodactyl forms such as Protragocerus, Miotragocerus, Listriodon, Hyotherium, Parachleusastochoerus, etc. Among the rodents, this crisis affects the family Eomyidae and most of the cricetid and glirid species. On the other hand, a number of eastern elements appear in the area at the same time. This is the case of the suid Schizochoerus and the murid Progonomys. Other eastern forms are Tragoportax, Graecoryx, Adcrocuta, Paramachairodus, Microstonyx, etc. Most of these are typical elements of the next Mammal stage, the Turolian. Thus, whereas the Lower Vallesian fauna has a typical Aragonian composition except for Hipparion. After the Middle Vallesian event, the Upper Vallesian faunas are already largely Turolian in character. The possible factors involved in this extinction event are discussed.

  2. Upper Blepharoplasty for Areola Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, O L; Heil, J; Golatta, M; Domschke, C; Sohn, C; Blumenstein, M

    2013-07-01

    Blepharoplasty is one of the most common rejuvenating facial plastic surgery procedures. The procedure has been described many times and has very few complications. The tissue removed from the upper eyelid during blepharoplasty can be used as a skin graft for areola reconstruction due to the tissue's similarity to the areola's natural skin. The present study investigated the use of upper blepharoplasty for areola reconstruction. Criteria were patient satisfaction, objective measurements and the assessment of cosmesis by a panel of physicians. All eight patients included in the study were very satisfied with the cosmetic result. Objective measurements and assessment by a panel of physicians using photographs of the reconstructed nipple-areola complex showed very good aesthetic results.

  3. Upper Blepharoplasty for Areola Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, O. L.; Heil, J.; Golatta, M.; Domschke, C.; Sohn, C.; Blumenstein, M.

    2013-01-01

    Blepharoplasty is one of the most common rejuvenating facial plastic surgery procedures. The procedure has been described many times and has very few complications. The tissue removed from the upper eyelid during blepharoplasty can be used as a skin graft for areola reconstruction due to the tissueʼs similarity to the areolaʼs natural skin. The present study investigated the use of upper blepharoplasty for areola reconstruction. Criteria were patient satisfaction, objective measurements and the assessment of cosmesis by a panel of physicians. All eight patients included in the study were very satisfied with the cosmetic result. Objective measurements and assessment by a panel of physicians using photographs of the reconstructed nipple-areola complex showed very good aesthetic results. PMID:24771929

  4. A Subject-Specific Acoustic Model of the Upper Airway for Snoring Sounds Generation

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Shumit; Bradley, T. Douglas; Taheri, Mahsa; Moussavi, Zahra; Yadollahi, Azadeh

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring variations in the upper airway narrowing during sleep is invasive and expensive. Since snoring sounds are generated by air turbulence and vibrations of the upper airway due to its narrowing; snoring sounds may be used as a non-invasive technique to assess upper airway narrowing. Our goal was to develop a subject-specific acoustic model of the upper airway to investigate the impacts of upper airway anatomy, e.g. length, wall thickness and cross-sectional area, on snoring sounds features. To have a subject-specific model for snoring generation, we used measurements of the upper airway length, cross-sectional area and wall thickness from every individual to develop the model. To validate the proposed model, in 20 male individuals, intensity and resonant frequencies of modeled snoring sounds were compared with those measured from recorded snoring sounds during sleep. Based on both modeled and measured results, we found the only factor that may positively and significantly contribute to snoring intensity was narrowing in the upper airway. Furthermore, measured resonant frequencies of snoring were inversely correlated with the upper airway length, which is a risk factor for upper airway collapsibility. These results encourage the use of snoring sounds analysis to assess the upper airway anatomy during sleep. PMID:27210576

  5. Upper Texas Gulf Coast, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The upper Texas Gulf Coast (29.0N, 95.5W), though mostly cloud covered in this view, is still readily identifiable because of the distinctive features of the Texas Gulf Coast. Galveston Island, Galveston Bay and the coastal prairie are in the clear. Most of the city of Houston is cloud covered but the Gulf Freeeway connecting Houston and Galveston can be traced for most of it's route.

  6. Ares I Upper Stage Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    These presentation slides review the progress in the development of the Ares I upper stage. The development includes development of a manufacturing and processing assembly that will reduce the time required over 100 days, development of a weld tool that is a robotic tool that is the largest welder of its kind in the United States, development of avionics and software, and development of logisitics and operations systems.

  7. Orthoses of the upper limb.

    PubMed

    Bogucki, A

    2001-01-01

    This article presents the medical indications and contemporary technological capabilities in the orthotic treatment of the upper limb. The devices that today constitute an integral part of therapeutic procedures are presented, as well as the potential created by the application of low-temperature thermoplastic materials. Therapeutic success is conditioned by professional cooperation between the physician, the kinesitherapist, the orthotic technician, and the patient. PMID:17984921

  8. Technology improves upper extremity rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Kowalczewski, Jan; Prochazka, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Stroke survivors with hemiparesis and spinal cord injury (SCI) survivors with tetraplegia find it difficult or impossible to perform many activities of daily life. There is growing evidence that intensive exercise therapy, especially when supplemented with functional electrical stimulation (FES), can improve upper extremity function, but delivering the treatment can be costly, particularly after recipients leave rehabilitation facilities. Recently, there has been a growing level of interest among researchers and healthcare policymakers to deliver upper extremity treatments to people in their homes using in-home teletherapy (IHT). The few studies that have been carried out so far have encountered a variety of logistical and technical problems, not least the difficulty of conducting properly controlled and blinded protocols that satisfy the requirements of high-level evidence-based research. In most cases, the equipment and communications technology were not designed for individuals with upper extremity disability. It is clear that exercise therapy combined with interventions such as FES, supervised over the Internet, will soon be adopted worldwide in one form or another. Therefore it is timely that researchers, clinicians, and healthcare planners interested in assessing IHT be aware of the pros and cons of the new technology and the factors involved in designing appropriate studies of it. It is crucial to understand the technical barriers, the role of telesupervisors, the motor improvements that participants can reasonably expect and the process of optimizing IHT-exercise therapy protocols to maximize the benefits of the emerging technology.

  9. The upper atmosphere of Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobel, Darrell F.; Yelle, Roger V.; Shemansky, Donald E.; Atreya, Sushil K.

    1991-01-01

    Voyager measurements of the upper atmosphere of Uranus are analyzed and developed. The upper atmosphere of Uranus is predominantly H2, with at most 10 percent He by volume, and the dominant constituent of the exosphere is H. The thermosphere is warm, with an asymptotic isothermal temperature of about 800 K. Atomic hydrogen at this temperature forms an extensive thermal corona and creates gas drag that severely limits the lifetime of small ring particles. The upper atmosphere emits copious amounts of UV radiation from pressures greater than 0.01 microbar. The depth of this emission level imposes a powerful constraint on permissible emission mechanisms. Electron excitation from a thin layer near the exobase appears to violate this constraint. Solar fluorescence is consistent with the observed trend in solar zenith-angle variation of the emissions and is absent from the night side of the planet. On Uranus, it accounts for the observed Lyman beta to H2 bands intensity ratio and an important fraction of the observed intensity (about 55 percent).

  10. Technology improves upper extremity rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Kowalczewski, Jan; Prochazka, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Stroke survivors with hemiparesis and spinal cord injury (SCI) survivors with tetraplegia find it difficult or impossible to perform many activities of daily life. There is growing evidence that intensive exercise therapy, especially when supplemented with functional electrical stimulation (FES), can improve upper extremity function, but delivering the treatment can be costly, particularly after recipients leave rehabilitation facilities. Recently, there has been a growing level of interest among researchers and healthcare policymakers to deliver upper extremity treatments to people in their homes using in-home teletherapy (IHT). The few studies that have been carried out so far have encountered a variety of logistical and technical problems, not least the difficulty of conducting properly controlled and blinded protocols that satisfy the requirements of high-level evidence-based research. In most cases, the equipment and communications technology were not designed for individuals with upper extremity disability. It is clear that exercise therapy combined with interventions such as FES, supervised over the Internet, will soon be adopted worldwide in one form or another. Therefore it is timely that researchers, clinicians, and healthcare planners interested in assessing IHT be aware of the pros and cons of the new technology and the factors involved in designing appropriate studies of it. It is crucial to understand the technical barriers, the role of telesupervisors, the motor improvements that participants can reasonably expect and the process of optimizing IHT-exercise therapy protocols to maximize the benefits of the emerging technology. PMID:21763524

  11. An assessment of skin preparation in upper limb surgery.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, P J; Healy, C E; Hirpara, K M; Hussey, A J; Potter, S M; Kelly, J L

    2008-08-01

    Postoperative wound infections remain a major source of upper limb morbidity. The effectiveness of peri-operative human upper limb preparation was determined using a clear fluid antiseptic and an iodine-based solution over 60 and 90 seconds. Less area was missed using iodine over both times and increasing clear solution preparation time from 60 to 90 seconds improved coverage. Surgical experience had little outcome relevance and a 90-second preparation time with either solution was insufficient, with fingers being the sites most commonly missed.

  12. Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract X-Ray (Radiography)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Upper GI Tract Upper gastrointestinal tract radiography or ... X-ray? What is Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract Radiography? Upper gastrointestinal tract radiography, also called an upper ...

  13. Resistivity sections, upper Arkansas River basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zohdy, Adel A.R.; Hershey, Lloyd A.; Emery, Philip A.; Stanley, William D.

    1971-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation of ground-water resources in the upper Arkansas River basin from Pueblo to Leadville is being made by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southeastern Colorado Water Conservancy District, and the Colorado Division of Water Resources, Colorado State Engineer. As part of the investigation, surface geophysical electrical resistivity surveys were made during the summer and fall of 1970 near Buena Vista and Westcliffe, Colo. (p1.1). The resistivity surveys were made to verify a previous gravity survey and to help locate areas where ground-water supplies might be developed. This report presents the results of the surveys in the form of two resistivity sections.

  14. Improved Mars Upper Atmosphere Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bougher, S. W.

    2004-01-01

    The detailed characterization of the Mars upper atmosphere is important for future Mars aerobraking activities. Solar cycle, seasonal, and dust trends (climate) as well as planetary wave activity (weather) are crucial to quantify in order to improve our ability to reasonably depict the state of the Mars upper atmosphere over time. To date, our best information is found in the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Accelerometer (ACC) database collected during Phase 1 (Ls = 184 - 300; F10.7 = 70 - 90) and Phase 2 (Ls = 30 - 90; F10.7 = 90 - 150) of aerobraking. This database (100 - 170 km) consists of thermospheric densities, temperatures, and scale heights, providing our best constraints for exercising the coupled Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) and the Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MTGCM). The Planetary Data System (PDS) contains level 0 and 2 MGS Accelerometer data, corresponding to atmospheric densities along the orbit track. Level 3 products (densities, temperatures, and scale heights at constant altitudes) are also available in the PDS. These datasets provide the primary model constraints for the new MGCM-MTGCM simulations summarized in this report. Our strategy for improving the characterization of the Mars upper atmospheres using these models has been three-fold : (a) to conduct data-model comparisons using the latest MGS data covering limited climatic and weather conditions at Mars, (b) to upgrade the 15-micron cooling and near-IR heating rates in the MGCM and MTGCM codes for ad- dressing climatic variations (solar cycle and seasonal) important in linking the lower and upper atmospheres (including migrating tides), and (c) to exercise the detailed coupled MGCM and MTGCM codes to capture and diagnose the planetary wave (migrating plus non-migrating tidal) features throughout the Mars year. Products from this new suite of MGCM-MTGCM coupled simulations are being used to improve our predictions of the structure of the Mars upper atmosphere for the

  15. Instability Regions in the Upper HR Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deJager, Cornelis; Lobel, Alex; Nieuwenhuijzen, Hans; Stothers, Richard; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The following instability regions for blueward evolving supergiants are outlined and compared: (1) Areas in the Hertzsprung-Russell(HR) diagram where stars are dynamically unstable. (2) Areas where the effective acceleration in the upper part of the photospheres is negative, hence directed outward. (3) Areas where the sonic points of the stellar wind (Where wind velocity = sound velocity) are situated inside the photospheres, at a level deeper than tau(sub Ross) = 0.01. We compare the results with the positions of actual stars in the HR diagram and we find evidence that the recent strong contraction of the yellow hypergiant HR8752 was initiated in a period during which (g(sub eff)) is less than 0, whereupon the star became dynamically unstable. The instability and extreme shells around IRC+10420 are suggested to be related to three factors: (g(sub eff)) is less than 0; the sonic point is situated inside the photosphere; and the star is dynamically unstable.

  16. The NASA program on upper atmospheric research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the NASA Upper Atmospheric Research Program is to develop a better understanding of the physical and chemical processes that occur in the earth's upper atmosphere with emphasis on the stratosphere.

  17. Physical examination of upper extremity compressive neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Popinchalk, Samuel P; Schaffer, Alyssa A

    2012-10-01

    A thorough history and physical examination are vital to the assessment of upper extremity compressive neuropathies. This article summarizes relevant anatomy and physical examination findings associated with upper extremity compressive neuropathies.

  18. Upper GI and small bowel series

    MedlinePlus

    GI series; Barium swallow x-ray; Upper GI series ... An upper GI and small bowel series is done in a health care office or hospital radiology department. You may get an injection of a medicine that slows muscle ...

  19. [Distalization of the upper second molar: biomechanics].

    PubMed

    Castaldo, A

    1991-01-01

    The Author shows a system to dystalize the second upper molars and, if necessary, the third upper molars. This system, easy to be adapted, is made up by a palatal bar inserted between the first upper molars, by a sectional and a 100 grams precalibrated open Sentalloy coil spring used as an active force. PMID:1784296

  20. Upper extremity sensorimotor control among collegiate football players.

    PubMed

    Laudner, Kevin G

    2012-03-01

    Injuries stemming from shoulder instability are very common among athletes participating in contact sports, such as football. Previous research has shown that increased laxity negatively affects the function of the sensorimotor system potentially leading to a pathological cycle of shoulder dysfunction. Currently, there are no data detailing such effects among football players. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the differences in upper extremity sensorimotor control among football players compared with that of a control group. Forty-five collegiate football players and 70 male control subjects with no previous experience in contact sports participated. All the subjects had no recent history of upper extremity injury. Each subject performed three 30-second upper extremity balance trials on each arm. The balance trials were conducted in a single-arm push-up position with the test arm in the center of a force platform and the subjects' feet on a labile device. The trials were averaged, and the differences in radial area deviation between groups were analyzed using separate 1-way analyses of variance (p < 0.05). The football players showed significantly more radial area deviation of the dominant (0.41 ± 1.23 cm2, p = 0.02) and nondominant arms (0.47 ± 1.63 cm2, p = 0.03) when compared with the control group. These results suggest that football players may have decreased sensorimotor control of the upper extremity compared with individuals with no contact sport experience. The decreased upper extremity sensorimotor control among the football players may be because of the frequent impacts accumulated during football participation. Football players may benefit from exercises that target the sensorimotor system. These findings may also be beneficial in the evaluation and treatment of various upper extremity injuries among football players.

  1. The statistical upper mantle assemblage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meibom, Anders; Anderson, Don L.

    2004-01-01

    A fundamental challenge in modern mantle geochemistry is to link geochemical data with geological and geophysical observations. Most of the early geochemical models involved a layered mantle and the concept of geochemical reservoirs. Indeed, the two layer mantle model has been implicit in almost all geochemical literature and the provenance of oceanic island basalt (OIB) and mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) [van Keken et al., Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 30 (2002) 493-525]. Large-scale regions in the mantle, such as the 'convective' (i.e. well-stirred, homogeneous) upper mantle, sub-continental lithosphere, and the lower mantle were treated as distinct and accessible geochemical reservoirs. Here we discuss evidence for a ubiquitous distribution of small- to moderate-scale (i.e. 10 2-10 5 m) heterogeneity in the upper mantle, which we refer to as the statistical upper mantle assemblage (SUMA). This heterogeneity forms as the result of long-term plate tectonic recycling of sedimentary and crustal components. The SUMA model does not require a convectively homogenized MORB mantle reservoir, which has become a frequently used concept in geochemistry. Recently, Kellogg et al. [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 204 (2002) 183-202] modeled MORB and OIB Sr and Nd isotopic compositions as local mantle averages of random distributions of depleted residues and recycled continental crustal material. In this model, homogenization of the MORB source region is achieved by convective stirring and mixing. In contrast, in the SUMA model, the isotopic compositions of MORB and OIB are the outcome of homogenization during sampling, by partial melting and magma mixing (e.g. [Helffrich and Wood, Nature 412 (2001) 501-507]), of a distribution of small- to moderate-scale upper mantle heterogeneity, as predicted by the central limit theorem. Thus, the 'SUMA' acronym also captures what we consider the primary homogenization process: sampling upon melting and averaging. SUMA does not require the

  2. Pediatric feline upper respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Jane E

    2014-03-01

    Infectious feline upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) continues to be a widespread and important cause of morbidity and mortality in kittens. Multiple pathogens can contribute to URTD in kittens, and coinfections are common in overcrowded environments and contribute to increased disease severity. Worldwide, the most prevalent pathogens are feline herpesvirus-1 and feline calicivirus. Primary bacterial causes of URTD in cats include Bordetella bronchiseptica, Chlamydia felis, and Mycoplasma species. Streptococcus canis and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus occasionally play a role as primary pathogens in shelter situations and catteries. This article reviews the major causes of disease in kittens, and provides an update on treatment and prevention strategies. PMID:24580994

  3. Upper stage technology evaluation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Studies to evaluate advanced technology relative to chemical upper stages and orbit-to-orbit stages are reported. The work described includes: development of LH2/LOX stage data, development of data to indicate stage sensitivity to engine tolerance, modified thermal routines to accommodate storable propellants, added stage geometries to computer program for monopropellant configurations, determination of the relative gain obtainable through improvement of stage mass fraction, future propulsion concepts, effect of ultrahigh chamber-pressure increases, and relative gains obtainable through improved mass fraction.

  4. Upper Bound for Induced Gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khuri, N. N.

    1982-08-01

    Given the assumption that Gind-1 given by the Adler-Zee formula is positive, an explicit and rigorous upper bound is derived for it. For pure SU(N) gauge theory, (16πG)-1<=(2512π2)(N2-1)ΛN2 is obtained where ΛN is the mass scale. In general the bound (16πG)-1<=25(π2144)CψΛ2 is obtained, where Cψ is the coefficient of the most singular anomaly contribution in x space, a constant easily determined by low-order perturbation theory for any gauge group.

  5. FAST CHOPPER BUILDING, TRA665, INTERIOR. UPPER LEVEL. CONCRETE WALLS. INL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FAST CHOPPER BUILDING, TRA-665, INTERIOR. UPPER LEVEL. CONCRETE WALLS. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD42-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 3/2004 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. Depth and thickness of selected units in Upper Permian, Upper Jurassic, and Lower Cretaceous rocks in southwestern Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kume, Jack; Spinazola, Joseph M.

    1984-01-01

    As ground-water reserves decline in the Ogallala aquifer in an area of about 17,400 square miles in 26 counties of southwestern Kansas, sandstone aquifers in underlying Upper Jurassic and Lower and Upper Cretaceous rocks may be developed to supplement or replace the Ogallala as a source of water for some uses. Maps show that depths from land surface to Upper Permian rocks range from 0 at the outcrop to over 2,100 feet, depths to Upper Jurassic rocks ran from 0 at the outcrop to about 2,000 feet, depths to the Cheyenne Sandstone range from about 150 to about 1 ,950 feet, and depths to the Dakota Formation range from 0 at the outcrop to about 1,650 feet. Additional maps show that the thickness of Upper Jurassic rocks, where present, ranges from less than 50 feet to about 250 feet, the thickness of the Cheyenne Sandstone, where present, ranges from about 20 feet to about 250 feet, and the thickness of the Dakota Formation, where present, ranges from about 60 feet to about 460 feet. (USGS)

  7. Estuarine studies in upper Grays Harbor, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beverage, Joseph P.; Swecker, Milton N.

    1969-01-01

    . The carbon content of bottom materials was related to channel fine material: C= 0.315+0.0238 F where C is in percent by dry weight, and F is percent by weight finer than 0.062 millimeter. Carbon content was low upstream and downstream of the upper harbor area, and high in the Cow Point-Rennie Island reach. The high-carbon-content reach coincides with the general area of a dissolved-oxygen sag. The logarithm of the fresh-water discharge gave a high degree of correlation with daily maximum specific conductance at Cosmopolis. The regression equation is: Kc max---- 76.4-- 17.7 logl0 Qf where Kc max is in millimhos at 25 ? Celsius (centigrade), and Qf is the estimated daily fresh-water discharge, in cubic feet per second. Dissolved oxygen is the most critical water-quality parameter in Grays Harbor. At Cosmopolis, the daily minimum dissolved oxygen content, DOc min, correlated well with discharge and tidal range, delta H. The regression equation relating the variables is: DOc min---- 6.03 + 0.00096 Qf - 0.291 delta H in which DOc min is in milligrams per liter and delta H is in feet. The upper harbor was found to contain 250 million cubic feet less water than average during the critical low-flow period, on the basis of the frequency distribution of predicted tides. About 78,000 pounds of dissolved oxygen is thus unavailable for oxidation of waste during summer.

  8. Geologic and economic case histories of Upper Devonian natural gas production in Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Mangini, K.N.

    1988-08-01

    The Upper Devonian gas sands of western Pennsylvania have been commercially exploited since the turn of the century. The economic success of this exploitation may be attributed to the existence of multiply-stacked or en echelon reservoirs. The serendipity of development drilling coupled with multiple reservoirs made drilling for Upper Devonian gas very attractive to operators. As a result of many years of concentrated drilling, a current shortage of Upper Devonian developmental prospects exists and is forcing operators to explore nearshore more sporadically deposited Devonian sand reservoirs. The depositional modeling of developed areas can, however, help identify new prospective areas for exploration and development and increase economic success.

  9. Riparian restoration framework for the Upper Gila River, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orr, Bruce K.; Leverich, Glen L.; Diggory, Zooey E.; Dudley, Tom L.; Hatten, James R.; Hultine, Kevin R.; Johnson, Matthew P.; Orr, Devyn A.

    2014-01-01

    This technical report summarizes the methods and results of a comprehensive riparian restoration planning effort for the Gila Valley Restoration Planning Area, an approximately 53-mile portion of the upper Gila River in Arizona (Figure 1-1). This planning effort has developed a Restoration Framework intended to deliver science-based guidance on suitable riparian restoration actions within the ecologically sensitive river corridor. The framework development was conducted by a restoration science team, led by Stillwater Sciences with contributions from researchers at the Desert Botanical Garden (DBG), Northern Arizona University (NAU), University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB), and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). All work was coordinated by the Gila Watershed Partnership of Arizona (GWP), whose broader Upper Gila River Project Area is depicted in Figure 1-1, with funding from the Walton Family Foundation’s Freshwater Initiative Program.

  10. Upper-Stage Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. E.; Boxwell, R.; Crockett, D. V.; Ross, R.; Lewis, T.; McNeal, C.; Verdarame, K.

    1999-01-01

    For propulsion applications that require that the propellants are storable for long periods, have a high density impulse, and are environmentally clean and non-toxic, the best choice is a combination of high-concentration hydrogen peroxide (High Test Peroxide, or HTP) and a liquid hydrocarbon (LHC) fuel. The HTP/LHC combination is suitable for low-cost launch vehicles, space taxi and space maneuvering vehicles, and kick stages. Orbital Sciences Corporation is under contract with the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in cooperation with the Air Force Research Lab to design, develop and demonstrate a new low-cost liquid upper stage based on HTP and JP-8. The Upper Stage Flight Experiment (USFE) focuses on key technologies necessary to demonstrate the operation of an inherently simple propulsion system with an innovative, state-of-the-art structure. Two key low-cost vehicle elements will be demonstrated - a 10,000 lbf thrust engine and an integrated composite tank structure. The suborbital flight test of the USFE is scheduled for 2001. Preceding the flight tests are two major series of ground tests at NASA Stennis Space Center and a subscale tank development program to identify compatible composite materials and to verify their compatibility over long periods of time. The ground tests include a thrust chamber development test series and an integrated stage test. This paper summarizes the results from the first phase of the thrust chamber development tests and the results to date from the tank material compatibility tests. Engine and tank configurations that meet the goals of the program are described.

  11. Constraints on Upper Jurassic palaeogeography in the Ula Gyda trend

    SciTech Connect

    Mundal, I.; Milton, N.; Robinson, N.

    1995-08-01

    BP Norway`s semi-regional 3D database in the Central Trough covers an area of nearly 3000 sq.km. around BP Norway`s two producing fields, Ula and Gyda, and includes strategic acreage within tie-back distance to the fields. Prospectivity in the Ula Gyda trend involves complex salt influenced structures and localized Upper Jurassic depositional systems. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate how the understanding of the semi-regional structures and salt tectonics helped constrain the interpretation of the Upper Jurassic palaeogeography. The control of basement structures (Permian) on cover structures (Upper Jurassic/Base Cretaceous) through Zechstein Salt was interpreted using the 3D semi-regional dataset. Analogue sandbox experiments from the Austin Geodynamics Laboratory provide support for the complex structures which were interpreted on the 3D seismic data. Sandbox models mimic the interpreted monoclinal drape of the Triassic and Jurassic section over the critical basin bounding fault in the Base Zechstein. Structural cells can be identified with the help of the salt isochore. The understanding of the relationship between structural development and salt distribution was a major control on the interpretation. This interpretation coupled with the Upper Jurassic reservoir distribution from well data provided the primary evidence for the gross depositional environment maps which were used in prospect evaluation in the area. 3D visualization and shaded relief displays of the interpreted horizons and isochores played a significant part in developing an understanding of the interplay between the deeper structures and the likely Upper Jurassic palaeogeography and depocentres.

  12. Obesity and upper airway control during sleep

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Susheel P.; Squier, Samuel; Schneider, Hartmut; Kirkness, Jason P.; Smith, Philip L.

    2010-01-01

    Mechanisms linking obesity with upper airway dysfunction in obstructive sleep apnea are reviewed. Obstructive sleep apnea is due to alterations in upper airway anatomy and neuromuscular control. Upper airway structural alterations in obesity are related to adipose deposition around the pharynx, which can increase its collapsibility or critical pressure (Pcrit). In addition, obesity and, particularly, central adiposity lead to reductions in resting lung volume, resulting in loss of caudal traction on upper airway structures and parallel increases in pharyngeal collapsibility. Metabolic and humoral factors that promote central adiposity may contribute to these alterations in upper airway mechanical function and increase sleep apnea susceptibility. In contrast, neural responses to upper airway obstruction can mitigate these mechanical loads and restore pharyngeal patency during sleep. Current evidence suggests that these responses can improve with weight loss. Improvements in these neural responses with weight loss may be related to a decline in systemic and local pharyngeal concentrations of specific inflammatory mediators with somnogenic effects. PMID:19875707

  13. [Injury of upper cervical spine].

    PubMed

    Ryba, Luděk; Cienciala, Jan; Chaloupka, Richard; Repko, Martin; Vyskočil, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Injuries of the upper cervical spine represent 1/3 of all cervical spine injuries and approximately 40 % result by the death. Every level of the cervical spine can be injured - fractures of condyles of the occipital bone (CO), atlantooccipital dislocation (AOD), fractures of the Atlas (C1), atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) and fractures of the axis (C2). Most of cases in younger patients are caused by high-energy trauma, while by elderly people, because of the osteoporosis, is needed much less energy and even simple falls can cause the injury of the cervical spine. That´s why the etiology of injuries can be different. In younger patients are caused mainly by car accidents, motorcycle and bicycle accidents and pedestrian crashes by car and in elderly populations are the main reason falls. The mechanism of the injury is axial force, hyperflexion, hyperextension, latero-flexion, rotation and combination of all. The basic diagnostic examination is X ray in AP, lateral and transoral projection. But in the most of cases is CT examination necessary and in the suspicion of the ligamentous injury and neurological deterioration must be MRI examination added. Every injury of the upper cervical spine has its own classification. Clinical symptoms can vary from the neck pain, restricted range of motion, antalgic position of the head, injury of the cranial nerves and different neurologic symptoms from the irritation of nerves to quadriplegia. A large percentage of deaths is at the time of the injury. Therapy is divided to conservative treatment, which is indicated in bone injuries with minimal dislocation. In more severe cases, with the dislocation and ligamentous injury, when is high chance of the instability, is indicated the surgical treatment. We can use anterior or posterior approach, make the osteosynthesis, stabilisation and fusion of the spine. Complex fractures and combination of different types of injuries are often present in this part of the spine. Correct and early

  14. Anomalous Feeding of the Left Upper Lobe.

    PubMed

    Hazzard, Christopher; Itagaki, Shinobu; Lajam, Fouad; Flores, Raja M

    2016-09-01

    We report the case of a 53-year-old woman who presented with massive hemoptysis. Computed tomographic angiography revealed an anomalous vessel arising from the abdominal aorta, coursing anteriorly and through the diaphragm, and feeding the left upper lobe. At operation the vessel was found to anastomose to the left upper lobe lingula, which contained multiple vascular abnormalities and arteriovenous fistulas. The vessel was ligated, and the affected portion of the left upper lobe was resected. Anomalous systemic arterial supply of an upper lobe is an especially rare form of a Pryce type 1 abnormality. Recognition of these unusual anatomic variants is crucial to successful treatment and avoidance of adverse events.

  15. Stratigraphy of the Upper Pleistocene Miami Limestone of Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.A.

    1993-03-01

    The upper Pleistocene Miami Limestone is probably the most stratigraphically-complex formation in the Cenozoic of Florida. The Miami overlies and vertically/laterally grades into the upper Pleistocene Ft. Thompson Formation to the west in southeast Palm Beach County (west of I-95); to the west in Broward County (west of the Turnpike); and to the north in south Broward County (along U.S. 27). The Miami overlies and very locally vertically grades into the Ft. Thompson in all of Dade County. The Miami overlies and vertically/laterally grades into the upper Pleistocene Anastasia Formation to the north and east in southeast Palm Beach County (east of I-95), and to the northeast in east Broward County (east of the Turnpike). The Miami laterally grades into the upper Pleistocene Key Largo Limestone to the southeast in extreme southeast Dade County, and overlies and locally vertically grades into the Key Largo in the Lower Keys, south Monroe County. The Miami unconformably overlies the Pliocene Tamiami Formation and pinches out to the west in northeast mainland Monroe and southeast Collier Counties, and also pinches out to the north in east-central Palm Beach County. In all areas, the Miami Limestone is either overlain unconformably by very discontinuous undifferentiated surficial sediments or forms land surface.

  16. Large Abundances of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Titan's Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez-Puertas, M.; Dinelli, B. M.; Adriani, A.; Funke, B.; Garcia-Comas, M.; Moriconi, M. L.; D'Aversa, E.; Boersma, C.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the strong unidentified emission near 3.28 micron in Titan's upper daytime atmosphere recently discovered by Dinelli et al.We have studied it by using the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), after absorbing UV solar radiation, are able to emit strongly near 3.3 micron. By using current models for the redistribution of the absorbed UV energy, we have explained the observed spectral feature and have derived the vertical distribution of PAH abundances in Titan's upper atmosphere. PAHs have been found to be present in large concentrations, about (2-3) × 10(exp 4) particles / cubic cm. The identified PAHs have 9-96 carbons, with a concentration-weighted average of 34 carbons. The mean mass is approx 430 u; the mean area is about 0.53 sq. nm; they are formed by 10-11 rings on average, and about one-third of them contain nitrogen atoms. Recently, benzene together with light aromatic species as well as small concentrations of heavy positive and negative ions have been detected in Titan's upper atmosphere. We suggest that the large concentrations of PAHs found here are the neutral counterpart of those positive and negative ions, which hence supports the theory that the origin of Titan main haze layer is located in the upper atmosphere.

  17. LARGE ABUNDANCES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN TITAN'S UPPER ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Puertas, M.; Funke, B.; Garcia-Comas, M.; Dinelli, B. M.; Adriani, A.; D'Aversa, E.; Moriconi, M. L.; Boersma, C.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2013-06-20

    In this paper, we analyze the strong unidentified emission near 3.28 {mu}m in Titan's upper daytime atmosphere recently discovered by Dinelli et al. We have studied it by using the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), after absorbing UV solar radiation, are able to emit strongly near 3.3 {mu}m. By using current models for the redistribution of the absorbed UV energy, we have explained the observed spectral feature and have derived the vertical distribution of PAH abundances in Titan's upper atmosphere. PAHs have been found to be present in large concentrations, about (2-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} particles cm{sup -3}. The identified PAHs have 9-96 carbons, with a concentration-weighted average of 34 carbons. The mean mass is {approx}430 u; the mean area is about 0.53 nm{sup 2}; they are formed by 10-11 rings on average, and about one-third of them contain nitrogen atoms. Recently, benzene together with light aromatic species as well as small concentrations of heavy positive and negative ions have been detected in Titan's upper atmosphere. We suggest that the large concentrations of PAHs found here are the neutral counterpart of those positive and negative ions, which hence supports the theory that the origin of Titan main haze layer is located in the upper atmosphere.

  18. [Structural and functional organization of the upper esophageal sphincter].

    PubMed

    Baĭtinger, V F; Saks, F F; Ettinger, A P

    1989-01-01

    Using traditional anatomical and histological methods, the muscle envelope of the pharynx-esophagus junction was investigated in humans and dogs. In the upper (cranial) portion of the esophagus of man and dogs, an inferior anatomical sphincter was detected which histologically can be referred to the group of rhabdo-sphincters. The upper esophageal sphincter is a purely esophageal structure which in man is located at a distance of 25-30 cm from the maxillary incisors. In adult humans, it is 25-30 mm long and is situated obliquely to the long esophageal axis. The posterior semicircle of the sphincter is located higher than the anterior one. In the area of the upper esophageal sphincter the esophageal wall is of different thickness. Due to the muscle envelope and submucous membrane of the base, the right wall is 1.7-2.0 times thicker than the left, anterior or posterior wall. The data obtained from fiber esophagoscopy of patients and electromyography of the pharynx-esophagus junction of dogs have shown that the upper (cranial) esophageal sphincter control food passage from the pharynx to the esophagus and prevents food reflux to the laryngopharynx, protecting airways from aspiration. PMID:2741289

  19. Mapping Irrigation Potential in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akomeah, E.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; Barry, B.

    2009-04-01

    The Upper East Region together with the other two regions in Northern Ghana (Upper West and Northern Region) is seen as the locus of perennial food deficit (GPRS, 2003). Despite, the provision of over 200 small scale dams and various mechanisms aimed at poverty alleviation, the region is still plagued with poverty and yearly food shortages. To achieve food security and alleviate poverty in the region however, modernization of agriculture through irrigation is deemed inevitable. While it is true that considerable potential still exists for future expansion of irrigation, it cannot be refuted that water is becoming scarcer in the regions where the need for irrigation is most important, hence mapping the irrigation potential of the region will be the first step toward ensuring sound planning and sustainability of the irrigation developments. In this study, an attempt has been made to map out the irrigation potential of the Upper East Region. The river basin approach was used in assessing the irrigation potential. The catchments drained by The White Volta river, Red volta river, River Sissili and River Kulpawn were considered in the assessment. The irrigation potential for the sub basins was computed by combining information on gross irrigation water requirements for the selected cash crops, area of soil suitable for irrigation and available water resources. The capacity of 80%, 70%, 60% and 50% time of exceedance flow of the available surface water resources in the respective sub basins was estimated. The area that can be irrigated with this flow was computed with selected cropping pattern. Combining the results of the potential irrigable areas and the land use map of the respective sub basins, an irrigation potential map has been generated showing potential sites in the upper east region that can be brought under irrigation. Keywords: Irrigation potential, irrigation water requirement, land evaluation, dependable flow

  20. Upper Atmospheric Particulate Monitoring and Sample Return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddell, Alan; Sohl, John E.

    2010-10-01

    H.A.R.B.O.R. (High Altitude Reconnaissance Balloon for Outreach and Research) is a student-run program in which high-altitude balloon systems are designed, constructed, and flown by students conducting individual or group research projects. One area of interest is in the sampling of particles in the upper atmosphere. Collecting airborne particulates and studying them under an SEM can answer questions on the origins of airborne particulate matter. We could find explanations for climate change or directly measure pollution caused by smokestacks. The SEM has the capacity to capture images of particulates and determine their composition. I am building a system capable of sampling air up to 30km (100,000 ft). The system will contain a servo-controlled filter system for sampling air captured by the ascent of the balloon. Currently, filter types are being evaluated for capture rate and air flow resistance. A circuit has been built to test the mass throughput of the airflow as the balloon travels its course. A vacuum chamber is being built to simulate the nearspace environment. Testing and simulation should be complete in time to fly a finalized sample return mission in spring 2011.

  1. HELLS GATE ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conway, Clay M.; McColly, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    Although no mineral-resource potential was identified in the Hells Gate Roadless Area during mineral surveys, the area is largely underlain by a regionally extensive Proterozoic granite-rhyolite complex which is tin-bearing. The geologic setting precludes the occurrence of fossil fuel resources and no other energy resources were identified. The potential for tin and associated metals in the Hells Gate Roadless Area and the region cannot be fully evaluated at this point. The granophyre and the upper part of the granite pluton along the northwestern margin of the area should be explored.

  2. SNOWBIRD ROADLESS AREA, NORTH CAOLINA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lesure, Frank G.; Chatman, Mark L.

    1984-01-01

    The Snowbird Roadless Area includes all the upper reaches of Snowbird Creek and the surrounding rugged ridges of the Unicoi Mountains, North Carolina. Mineral-resource surveys show that the area contains folded metasedimentary rocks of the Great Smoky Group of Late Proterozoic age and that the area has little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. Abundant rock suitable for crushed rock and rough building stone is the only identified mineral resource, but extensive deposits of this commodity occur throughout the region outside the roadless area. Oil and gas and massive sulfide deposits are possible resources.

  3. Essential anatomy for contemporary upper lid blepharoplasty.

    PubMed

    Siegel, R J

    1993-04-01

    A clear understanding of upper eyelid anatomy is an absolute prerequisite for performing advanced invagination-type blepharoplasty. This article describes the author's simple, systematic approach to intraoperative identification of the levator aponeurosis as well as the other key layers of fascia in the upper lid.

  4. The Upper Atmosphere; Threshold of Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, John

    This booklet contains illustrations of the upper atmosphere, describes some recent discoveries, and suggests future research questions. It contains many color photographs. Sections include: (1) "Where Does Space Begin?"; (2) "Importance of the Upper Atmosphere" (including neutral atmosphere, ionized regions, and balloon and investigations); (3)…

  5. Upper High School Students' Understanding of Electromagnetism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saglam, Murat; Millar, Robin

    2006-01-01

    Although electromagnetism is an important component of upper secondary school physics syllabuses in many countries, there has been relatively little research on students' understanding of the topic. A written test consisting of 16 diagnostic questions was developed and used to survey the understanding of electromagnetism of upper secondary school…

  6. Congenital midline sinus of the upper lip.

    PubMed

    Al-Qattan, M M

    2000-01-01

    A rare case of congenital midline sinus of the upper lip is presented. The patient had recurrent cellulitis with swelling at the base of the medial crus of the right lower lateral cartilage. Excision was performed using the intraoral approach. Theories concerning the etiology of the midline sinus of the upper lip are discussed. PMID:10651370

  7. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel, that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  8. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image, depicts a manufactured aluminum panel, that will be used to fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  9. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel that will be used to fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California.

  10. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, processes for upper stage barrel fabrication are talking place. The aluminum panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  11. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel that will be used to fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  12. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, processes for upper stage barrel fabrication are talking place. The aluminum panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution Available)

  13. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts confidence testing of a manufactured aluminum panel that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. In this test, bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  14. ARES I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, processes for upper stage barrel fabrication are talking place. Aluminum panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Largest resolution available)

  15. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured panel that will be used for the Ares I upper stage barrel fabrication. The aluminum panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  16. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel, that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  17. Puberty and Upper Airway Dynamics During Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Bandla, Preetam; Huang, Jingtao; Karamessinis, Laurie; Kelly, Andrea; Pepe, Michelle; Samuel, John; Brooks, Lee; Mason, Thornton. A.; Gallagher, Paul R.; Marcus, Carole L.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: The upper airway compensatory response to subatmospheric pressure loading declines with age. The epidemiology of obstructive sleep apnea suggests that sex hormones play a role in modulating upper airway function. Sex hormones increase gradually during puberty, from minimally detectable to adult levels. We hypothesized that the upper airway response to subatmospheric pressure loading decreased with increasing pubertal Tanner stage in males but remained stable during puberty in females. Design: Upper airway dynamic function during sleep was measured over the course of puberty. Participants: Normal subjects of Tanner stages 1 to 5. Measurements: During sleep, maximal inspiratory airflow was measured while varying the level of nasal pressure. The slope of the upstream pressure-flow relationship (SPF) was measured. Results: The SPF correlated with age and Tanner stage. However, the relationship with Tanner stage became nonsignificant when the correlation due to the mutual association with age was removed. Females had a lower SPF than males. Conclusions: In both sexes, the upper airway compensatory response to subatmospheric pressure loading decreased with age rather than degree of pubertal development. Thus, changes in sex hormones are unlikely to be a primary modulator of upper airway function during the transition from childhood to adulthood. Although further studies of upper airway structural changes during puberty are needed, we speculate that the changes in upper airway function with age are due to the depressant effect of age on ventilatory drive, leading to a decrease in upper airway neuromotor tone. Citation: Bandla P; Huang J; Karamessinis L; Kelly A; Pepe M; Samuel J; Brooks L; Mason TA; Gallagher PR; Marcus CL. Puberty and Upper Airway Dynamics During Sleep. SLEEP 2008;31(4):534-541. PMID:18457241

  18. Effects of virtual reality-based bilateral upper-extremity training on brain activity in post-stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Hyun; Kim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the therapeutic effects of virtual reality-based bilateral upper-extremity training on brain activity in patients with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Eighteen chronic stroke patients were divided into two groups: the virtual reality-based bilateral upper-extremity training group (n = 10) and the bilateral upper-limb training group (n = 8). The virtual reality-based bilateral upper-extremity training group performed bilateral upper-extremity exercises in a virtual reality environment, while the bilateral upper-limb training group performed only bilateral upper-extremity exercise. All training was conducted 30 minutes per day, three times per week for six weeks, followed by brain activity evaluation. [Results] Electroencephalography showed significant increases in concentration in the frontopolar 2 and frontal 4 areas, and significant increases in brain activity in the frontopolar 1 and frontal 3 areas in the virtual reality-based bilateral upper-extremity training group. [Conclusion] Virtual reality-based bilateral upper-extremity training can improve the brain activity of stroke patients. Thus, virtual reality-based bilateral upper-extremity training is feasible and beneficial for improving brain activation in stroke patients.

  19. Role of Photodynamic Therapy for the Upper Gut

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kenneth K.

    2013-01-01

    It may be questioned if PDT is still relevant for practicing gastroenterologists since other types of therapy have currently gained momentum. Important aspects of PDT that continue its development are it’s intrinsic applicability to the luminal GI tract where there are often areas of mechanical narrowing, unusual topography, and difficult accessibility where a modality that does not require contact or optical visualization has advantages. Although not used as often in the upper gastrointestinal tract for it’s original approved indications such as esophageal cancer or Barrett’s esophagus, its value in biliary lesions appears to be well substantiated. In this paper, we will review its current application in the upper gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24223481

  20. (Modeling the upper ocean and its interaction with the atmosphere)

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Tsung-Hung.

    1990-03-28

    The traveler attended the International Meeting on Modeling the Physics, Biology and Chemistry of the Upper Ocean and Its Interaction with the Atmosphere in London, England, and presented a lecture entitled Modeling the Seasonality of CO{sub 2} in the North Atlantic.'' This international meeting was jointly sponsored by the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme and the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study. Most lectures focused on the modeling of the upper ocean, with a particular emphasis in the area of marine biology and marine ecosystems. Models ranged from simple box ocean models to general circulation models. A total of 16 papers were presented in this two-day conference. At the end of the conference, it became clear that a better understanding of global change in climate atmospheric CO{sub 2} variations requires a closer link between the studies of marine biology and ocean physics and chemistry.

  1. Imaging Upper Mantle Interfaces under the Pacific Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Leahy, G. M.

    2005-12-01

    The Pacific provides an ideal region for the study of upper mantle interfaces due to its broad extent and relatively homogeneous structure. Multi-taper correlation (MTC) methods for the estimation of teleseismic receiver fuctions (RF's) provide a natural way to study these interfaces due to their sensitivity to impedence contrasts and desirable statistical properties. Recent improvements to the MTC algorithm (Park and Levin, 2005 GJI, submitted) permit the reconstruction of Ps conversions from interfaces below 100km depth. Here we apply these new techniques to imaging interfaces in the upper mantle beneath four ocean islands in the Pacific (broadband stations RAR, PPT, POHA, and XMAS). In particular, we attempt to constrain the depth, sharpness, and topography of the 410 km and 660 km discontinuities, and examine evidence for a low velocity zone above the transition zone in this area.

  2. Integrated geological, geophysical, and geochemical interpretation of Upper Jurassic petroleum trends in eastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, E.A.; Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.

    1986-09-01

    The petroleum potential of the Upper Jurassic strata in the eastern Gulf of Mexico region is excellent. At least three Upper Jurassic petroleum trends can be delineated in the region. An oil trend can be identified onshore in the area north of the regional peripheral fault trend and is interpreted to extend offshore into the area north of the Destin anticline in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. An oil and gas-condensate trend can be defined onshore between the regional peripheral fault trend and the Wiggins arch. This trend is projected to extend offshore into the area of the Destin anticline. A deep natural gas trend can be delineated onshore south of the Wiggins arch and extends offshore into the Mississippi-Alabama shelf area. These trends are recognized by hydrocarbon types, basinal position, and relationship to regional structural features. The main petroleum source rocks for the Upper Jurassic hydrocarbons are Smackover carbonate mudstones.

  3. Global distributions of upper tropospheric relative humidity derived from SAGE II observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiou, E. W.; Larsen, J. C.; Mccormick, M. P.; Chu, W. P.; Rind, D.

    1992-01-01

    The global distributions of upper tropospheric relative humidity derived from the archived SAGE II water vapor data set are presented. For both summer and winter months, vertical profiles of zonal mean relative humidity are derived for each of the six 20-deg latitude bands covering 60 deg N - 60 deg S. Some examples of global maps of upper tropospheric relative humidity are shown to illustrate the relationship between moist areas and convective activity.

  4. Stratigraphic relations and U-Pb geochronology of the Upper Cretaceous upper McCoy Mountains Formation, southwestern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tosdal, R.M.; Stone, P.

    1994-01-01

    A previously unrecognized angular unconformity divides the Jurassic and Cretaceous McCoy Mountains Formation into a lower and an upper unit in the Dome Rock Mountains and Livingston Hills of western Arizona. The intraformation unconformity in the McCoy Mountains Formation developed where rocks of the lower unit were deformed adjacent to the southern margin of the Maria fold and thrust belt. The upper unit of the formation is interpreted as a foreland-basin deposit that was shed southward from the actively rising and deforming fold and thrust belt. The apparent absence of an equivalent unconformity in the McCoy Mountains Formation in adjacent California is presumably a consequence of the observed westward divergence of the outcrop belt from the fold and thrust belt. Tectonic burial beneath the north-vergent Mule Mountains thrust system in the latest Late Cretaceous (~70 Ma) marked the end of Mesozoic contractile deformation in the area. -from Authors

  5. 75 FR 62137 - Notice of Intent To Collect Fees on Public Land in Fremont County, Idaho, Upper Snake Field...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... Snake Field Office Under the Federal Lands Enhancement Act AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior...), the Upper Snake Field Office will begin collecting fees for the day use area and a fee for use of the... collection at this site. Six months after the publication of this notice, the Upper Snake Field Office...

  6. Upper Subcritical Calculations Based on Correlated Data

    SciTech Connect

    Sobes, Vladimir; Rearden, Bradley T; Mueller, Don; Marshall, William BJ J; Scaglione, John M; Dunn, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    The American National Standards Institute and American Nuclear Society standard for Validation of Neutron Transport Methods for Nuclear Criticality Safety Calculations defines the upper subcritical limit (USL) as “a limit on the calculated k-effective value established to ensure that conditions calculated to be subcritical will actually be subcritical.” Often, USL calculations are based on statistical techniques that infer information about a nuclear system of interest from a set of known/well-characterized similar systems. The work in this paper is part of an active area of research to investigate the way traditional trending analysis is used in the nuclear industry, and in particular, the research is assessing the impact of the underlying assumption that the experimental data being analyzed for USL calculations are statistically independent. In contrast, the multiple experiments typically used for USL calculations can be correlated because they are often performed at the same facilities using the same materials and measurement techniques. This paper addresses this issue by providing a set of statistical inference methods to calculate the bias and bias uncertainty based on the underlying assumption that the experimental data are correlated. Methods to quantify these correlations are the subject of a companion paper and will not be discussed here. The newly proposed USL methodology is based on the assumption that the integral experiments selected for use in the establishment of the USL are sufficiently applicable and that experimental correlations are known. Under the assumption of uncorrelated data, the new methods collapse directly to familiar USL equations currently used. We will demonstrate our proposed methods on real data and compare them to calculations of currently used methods such as USLSTATS and NUREG/CR-6698. Lastly, we will also demonstrate the effect experiment correlations can have on USL calculations.

  7. Uncratered Area on Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A dark, smooth, relatively uncratered area on Mercury was photographed (FDS 226) two hours after Mariner 10 flew by the planet on March 29 from a range of 86,000 kilometers (54,000 miles). Above and to the left of center is a surface similar to the mane material of Earth's moon. It embays and covers rougher, older, heavily cratered topography like that, which can be seen in both upper corners of this picture. The history of heavy cratering seems to be followed by volcanic filling, similar to the process on the Moon. The prominent, sharp crater with a central peak (center) is 30 kilometers (19 miles) across. It is located on the upper left edge of a very bright surface area. The bright crater, to its right is 10 kilometers (6 miles) in diameter. The sun is from the right.

    The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.

    Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Northwestern University

  8. Ground-Water Hydrology of the Upper Deschutes Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannett, Marshall W.; Lite, Kenneth E.; Morgan, David S.; Collins, Charles A.

    2001-01-01

    The upper Deschutes Basin is among the fastest growing regions in Oregon. The rapid population growth has been accompanied by increased demand for water. Surface streams, however, have been administratively closed to additional appropriation for many years, and surface water is not generally available to support new development. Consequently, ground water is being relied upon to satisfy the growth in water demand. Oregon water law requires that the potential effects of ground-water development on streamflow be evaluated when considering applications for new ground-water rights. Prior to this study, hydrologic understanding has been insufficient to quantitatively evaluate the connection between ground water and streamflow, and the behavior of the regional ground-water flow system in general. This report describes the results of a hydrologic investigation undertaken to provide that understanding. The investigation encompasses about 4,500 square miles of the upper Deschutes River drainage basin.A large proportion of the precipitation in the upper Deschutes Basin falls in the Cascade Range, making it the principal ground-water recharge area for the basin. Water-balance calculations indicate that the average annual rate of ground- water recharge from precipitation is about 3,500 ft3/s (cubic feet per second). Water-budget calculations indicate that in addition to recharge from precipitation, water enters the ground-water system through interbasin flow. Approximately 800 ft3/s flows into the Metolius River drainage from the west and about 50 ft3/s flows into the southeastern part of the study area from the Fort Rock Basin. East of the Cascade Range, there is little or no ground-water recharge from precipitation, but leaking irrigation canals are a significant source of artificial recharge north of Bend. The average annual rate of canal leakage during 1994 was estimated to be about 490 ft3/s. Ground water flows from the Cascade Range through permeable volcanic rocks

  9. Upper limb prosthetic use in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Burger, H; Marincek, C

    1994-04-01

    The article deals with the use of different types of upper limb prostheses in Slovenia. Four hundred and fourteen upper limb amputees were sent a questionnaire on the type of their prosthesis, its use and reasons for non-use, respectively. The replies were subject to statistical analysis. Most of the questioned upper limb amputees (70%) wear a prosthesis only for cosmesis. The use of a prosthesis depends on the level of upper limb amputation, loss of the dominant hand, and time from amputation. Prosthetic success appears to be unrelated to age at the time of amputation and the rehabilitation programme. The most frequent reason for not wearing a prosthesis is heat and consequent sweating of the stump. More than a third of amputees are dissatisfied with their prostheses.

  10. Anomalous Feeding of the Left Upper Lobe.

    PubMed

    Hazzard, Christopher; Itagaki, Shinobu; Lajam, Fouad; Flores, Raja M

    2016-09-01

    We report the case of a 53-year-old woman who presented with massive hemoptysis. Computed tomographic angiography revealed an anomalous vessel arising from the abdominal aorta, coursing anteriorly and through the diaphragm, and feeding the left upper lobe. At operation the vessel was found to anastomose to the left upper lobe lingula, which contained multiple vascular abnormalities and arteriovenous fistulas. The vessel was ligated, and the affected portion of the left upper lobe was resected. Anomalous systemic arterial supply of an upper lobe is an especially rare form of a Pryce type 1 abnormality. Recognition of these unusual anatomic variants is crucial to successful treatment and avoidance of adverse events. PMID:27549539

  11. CONGENITAL DEFORMITIES OF THE UPPER LIMBS.

    PubMed Central

    Bisneto, Edgard Novaes França

    2015-01-01

    This article, divided into three parts, had the aims of reviewing the most common upper-limb malformations and describing their treatments. In this first part, failure of formation is discussed. The bibliography follows after the first part. PMID:27047864

  12. Surgical anatomy of the upper eyelid fascia.

    PubMed

    Siegel, R

    1984-10-01

    There is a network of fascia in the upper eyelid that serves to transmit and distribute the motor power of the levator palpebrae muscle to the superficial tissues. The architecture of this network was studied intraoperatively. The results demonstrate that there is a superficial fascia under the orbicularis muscle which fuses with the levator aponeurosis at the level of the lid fold. Below the fold, these fascia remain fused or "conjoined." Thus, the fold in the upper eyelid reflects the union of fascia occurring internally and dose not result simply from the levator aponeurosis inserting into the skin. This article describes the anatomy and surgical identification of the upper eyelid fascia. I contend that the fascia constitutes an important internal framework for the upper eyelid, shaping the lid fold while elevating the tarsal plate in perfect synchrony. For the surgeon, visualizing the fascial architecture is a great aid in the correction of a variety of difficult eyelid deformities.

  13. MAVEN: Exploring the Upper Atmosphere of Mars

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN), set to launch in 2013, will explore the planet’s upper atmosphere, ionosphere and interactions with the sun and solar wind. Bruce Jakos...

  14. Stress fractures of the upper limb.

    PubMed

    Brukner, P

    1998-12-01

    Stress fractures are commonly found in the lower limb, but also occur in the upper limb, and are particularly associated with upper limb-dominated sports such as tennis and swimming and those involving throwing activities. Stress fractures of the clavicle and scapula are rare but have been reported, whereas those of the humerus are more frequent and have been described mainly in adolescent baseball pitchers. Olecranon stress fractures occur in throwers and gymnasts. Stress fractures of the ulna and radius have also been reported in a number of different upper limb-dominated sports. In all cases, these fractures heal with conservative management. The physician should consider stress fracture as a possible diagnosis in cases of upper limb pain of bony origin where the pain is associated with overuse.

  15. 30. BEARING SHOE / VERTICAL / DIAGONAL / UPPER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. BEARING SHOE / VERTICAL / DIAGONAL / UPPER AND LOWER CHORD DETAIL OF DECK TRUSS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Abraham Lincoln Memorial Bridge, Spanning Missouri River on Highway 30 between Nebraska & Iowa, Blair, Washington County, NE

  16. Updating upper extremity temporary prosthesis: thermoplastics.

    PubMed

    Fletchall, S; Tran, T; Ungaro, V; Hickerson, W

    1992-01-01

    Since 1989 amputees with upper-extremity burns have been fitted with a temporary prosthesis fabricated from low-temperature thermoplastic. Before 1989 conventional temporary prostheses were fabricated with plaster. The use of the thermoplastic material has produced a lightweight, cost-effective, modular system. No patients exhibited skin breakdown with the thermoplastic material. It appears that thermoplastics may be the next major breakthrough in terms of a design for a temporary upper-extremity prosthesis.

  17. Enhancing Terminological Knowledge With Upper Level Ontologies

    PubMed Central

    Seppälä, Selja; Hicks, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    In this communication, we advocate the use of upper level ontologies such as the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) to enhance terminological resources and research. First, we present common issues in ontologized terminological work. Then, we review two projects that illustrate the potential advantages of integrating rigorous formal upper level ontologies. Finally, we discuss possible challenges and conclude with a summary of the benefits that such ontologies can bring to both terminological theory and practice. PMID:27011763

  18. Recent Changes of Sediment Yield in the Upper Yangtze, China

    PubMed

    Lu; Higgitt

    1998-09-01

    / Reservoir sedimentation is one of the many environmental problems associated with the Three Gorges Project in China. The rate and characteristics of sedimentation that directly affect the operating life of the reservoir are closely related to soil erosion and sediment transport dynamics in the upstream catchment and to the ability to manage the throughput of sediment-laden waters. The recent changes in sediment yield were examined using gauging data from 187 stations of varying sizes from less than 100 km2 to larger than 1,000,000 km2 in the Upper Yangtze basin between 1956 and 1987. Whereas many previous studies have concentrated on the trends in the main channel of the Yangtze, the distributed pattern of changes across the whole catchment is complex. Results from time series analysis indicate ten stations, mainly located in the Dadu and Wu tributaries (with a total incremental catchment area of 78,963 km2) have shown increasing trajectories of sediment yield, and six stations, located in the upper Jialing and Tuo tributaries (with a total incremental area of 27,816 km2) have experienced decreasing trajectories. By dividing the time series into three components, it is possible to map significant decadal changes in sediment yields that can be related to phases of deforestation and the construction of water conservancy projects. Most of the observed decreases in sediment yield are associated with large reservoir schemes on tributary rivers. The lack of evidence for increasing sediment input to the Three Gorges area masks a considerable variation in sediment conveyance and storage within the Upper Yangtze catchment.KEY WORDS: Sediment yield; Reservoir sedimentation; Three Gorges Project; Time series analysis; China PMID:9680538

  19. Connecting the Threads of Area and Perimeter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hede, Jordan T.; Bostic, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, authors Jordan T. Hede and Jonathan D. Bostic present a classroom activity that challenges upper elementary students' understanding of area beyond a memorized formula and explores the meaning behind students using A = l × w to solve rectangular area problems. This activity will deepen students' understanding of the area…

  20. Vlasov Simulations of Ionospheric Turbulence near the Upper Hybrid Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najmi, Amir; Eliasson, Bengt; Shao, Xi; Milikh, Gennady; Sharma, Surja; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos

    2015-11-01

    High-frequency, ordinary (O) mode electromagnetic waves incident on a magnetized plasma near the upper hybrid resonance can excite magnetic field aligned density striations, associated with both turbulence and electron heating. We have used Vlasov simulations, which combine low noise and high resolution of all areas of phase space, in one spatial and two velocity dimensions to study the induced turbulence in the presence of striations near the upper hybrid resonance, where the O-mode pump is mode converted to large amplitude upper hybrid oscillations trapped in a striation. By taking moments of the resulting electron and ion distribution functions, we were able to correlate the evolution of stationary electron and ion oscillations with the onset of turbulence, and the heating of electrons in the striation with large amplitude, short wavelength electron Bernstein waves. These Bernstein waves excite stochastic electron heating when the normalized gradients of their electric field exceed the electron gyroradius, breaking the drift approximation, and causing particle orbits in phase space to diverge exponentially, rapidly increasing the electron temperature by several thousand Kelvin. These results are relevant to ongoing high-latitude heating experiments.

  1. Exposure to cold and acute upper respiratory tract infection.

    PubMed

    Eccles, R; Wilkinson, J E

    2015-06-01

    The incidence of acute upper respiratory tract viral infections (URTI) is directly correlated to air temperature with most URTI occurring seasonally in cold weather. This review looks at four types of cold exposure and examines the evidence and possible mechanisms for any relationship to URTI. The effects of cold are discussed as: 1) Chilling of the nose and upper respiratory tract by breathing cold air, 2) Chilling of the mouth and upper digestive tract by ingestion of cold drinks and food, 3) Acute chilling of the body surface, and, 4) Chilling of the body as a whole with a fall in body temperature, hypothermia. Some studies were found to support a relationship between breathing cold air and chilling the body surface with the development of URTI, although this area is controversial. No evidence was found in the literature to support any relationship between ingestion of cold drinks and food and URTI, and similarly no evidence was found to link hypothermia and URTI. PMID:26030031

  2. Cortical bone trajectory screws for the middle-upper thorax

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Sun-Ren; Chen, Jiao-Xiang; Chen, Wei; Xue, En-Xing; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Zhu, Qing-An

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To quantify the reference data concerning the morphometrics of the middle-upper thorax to guide the placement of cortical bone trajectory (CBT) screws. Eighty patients were studied on computed tomography (CT) scans. The reference anatomical parameters were measured. Next, 20 cadaveric specimens were implanted with CBT screws based on CT measurements. These specimens were then judged directly from the cadaveric vertebrae and X-ray. The maximum length of the trajectory, the maximum diameter, and the cephaled angle exhibited a slight increase trend while the transverse and sagittal angles of the pedicle tended to decrease from T3 to T8. We recommend that the width of CBT screw for middle-upper thoracic spine is 5.0 mm, the length is 25 to 35 mm. The cadaveric anatomical study revealed that 5/240 screws penetrated in the medial or lateral areas, 5/240 screws penetrated in the superior or inferior pedicle wall, and 2/240 screws did not fit into the superior endplate of the pedicle. The CBT screws are safe for the middle-upper thorax. This study provides a theoretical basis for clinical surgery. PMID:27583893

  3. High temperature microbial activity in upper soil layers.

    PubMed

    Santana, M M; Gonzalez, J M

    2015-11-01

    Biomineralization at high temperatures in upper soil layers has been largely ignored, although desertification and global warming have led to increasing areas of soils exposed to high temperatures. Recent publications evidenced thermophilic bacteria ubiquity in soils as viable cells, and their role in nutrient cycling and seedling development. High temperature events, frequently observed at medium and low latitudes, locate temporal niches for thermophiles to grow in soils. There, at temperatures inhibitory for common mesophiles, thermophilic bacteria could perform biogeochemical reactions important to the soil food web. Nutrient cycling analyses in soils at medium and low latitudes would benefit from considering the potential role of thermophiles.

  4. Seasonal forecast of Kharif flows from Upper Jhelum catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogacki, Wolfgang; Fraz Ismail, M.

    2016-10-01

    An operational hydrological forecast model was set-up based on the Snowmelt-Runoff Model (SRM) in order to forecast Kharif flows from Upper Jhelum catchment. Zone-wise degree-day factor functions were derived by diagnostic calibration and are applied according to a defined temperature rule when melting starts. While predicting the depletion of snow-covered area by SRM's modified depletion curve approach, scenario runs with temperature and precipitation of past years are carried out which are evaluated statistically to forecast the seasonal flow volume.

  5. Predictability of upper-atmospheric density and composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straus, J. M.; Hickman, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    Empirical models of upper-atmospheric density and composition are employed in a number of areas, ranging from basic research in atmospheric and ionospheric physics to practical applications in satellite ephemeris prediction. Such models are based on various kinds of data sets and have varying levels of complexity, strengths, and weaknesses. The characteristics of several of the widely used models are described and studies in which the predictions of these models were compared with observational data are reviewed. The relative advantages and limitations of the models in current use are discussed as well as ways in which the models might be improved.

  6. Inter-university Upper atmosphere Global Observation NETwork (IUGONET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, H.; Tanaka, Y.; Hori, T.; Koyama, Y.; Kagitani, M.; Shinbori, A.; Abe, S.; Kouno, T.; Yoshida, D.; Ueno, S.; Kaneda, N.; Iugonet Project Team

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the mechanism of long-term variations in the upper atmosphere, we need to create integrated and organic links between various types of ground-based observation made at different locations and altitudes. The databases of such observations, however, have been maintained and made available to the community by each institution that conducted the observations. That is one of the reasons why those data have been used only for studies of specific phenomena. For the same reason some of the observational data have been used by only researcher groups who were involved in the observation campaign and have never been made available to other researchers. A six-year research project, Inter-university Upper atmosphere Global Observation NETwork (IUGONET), was just initiated in 2009 to overcome such problems of data use by the five Japanese research institutes (NiPR, Tohoku Univ., Nagoya Univ., Kyoto Univ., and Kyushu Univ.) that have been leading ground-based observations of the upper atmosphere for decades. We are collaborating to build a database system for the metadata of our various kinds of observational data acquired by the global network of radars, magnetometers, optical sensors, helioscopes, etc. The metadata database (MDB) will be of great help to researchers in efficiently finding and obtaining various observational data we have accumulated over many years. The MDB system will significantly facilitate the analyses of a variety of observational data, which we believe will lead to more comprehensive studies of the mechanisms of long-term variations in the upper atmosphere. Moreover, we expect that researchers will become familiar with not only data in their area of expertise but also data from different atmospheric regions by using the MDB. This will contribute to the promotion of new interdisciplinary studies regarding the upper atmosphere. The IUGONET development team has designed the initial version of our metadata format based on the Space Physics

  7. Nonnative Fishes in the Upper Mississippi River System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irons, Kevin S.; DeLain, Steven A.; Gittinger, Eric; Ickes, Brian S.; Kolar, Cindy S.; Ostendort, David; Ratcliff, Eric N.; Benson, Amy J.; Irons, Kevin S.

    2009-01-01

    The introduction, spread, and establishment of nonnative species is widely regarded as a leading threat to aquatic biodiversity and consequently is ranked among the most serious environmental problems facing the United States today. This report presents information on nonnative fish species observed by the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program on the Upper Mississippi River System a nexus of North American freshwater fish diversity for the Nation. The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program, as part of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Environmental Management Plan, is the Nation's largest river monitoring program and stands as the primary source of standardized ecological information on the Upper Mississippi River System. The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program has been monitoring fish communities in six study areas on the Upper Mississippi River System since 1989. During this period, more than 3.5 million individual fish, consisting of 139 species, have been collected. Although fish monitoring activities of the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program focus principally on entire fish communities, data collected by the Program are useful for detecting and monitoring the establishment and spread of nonnative fish species within the Upper Mississippi River System Basin. Sixteen taxa of nonnative fishes, or hybrids thereof, have been observed by the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program since 1989, and several species are presently expanding their distribution and increasing in abundance. For example, in one of the six study areas monitored by the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program, the number of established nonnative species has increased from two to eight species in less than 10 years. Furthermore, contributions of those eight species can account for up to 60 percent of the total annual catch and greater than 80 percent of the observed biomass. These observations are critical because the Upper Mississippi River System stands as a nationally significant pathway for

  8. Upper limb amputations and prostheses.

    PubMed

    Beasley, R W; de Bese, G M

    1986-07-01

    The management of amputations is an important area of surgery of the hand and demands the same measured judgment, global perspective, and technical skill of any other reconstructive procedure. The needs of each patient are different, even when physical losses are similar. In terms of physical impairment, the bilateral hand amputee is a totally different problem than the unilateral. Logical choice requires knowledge of and consideration of all the alternatives, including prosthetic fitting potentials. As surgical procedures often are irreversible, it is important that the best master plan be devised as early as possible. Major reconstructions for the partially amputated hand and prosthetic fitting usually have a remarkably common physical goal--restoration of a simple vise mechanism. Today, this goal must include restoration of a socially acceptable presentation of the constantly exposed hands. To many patients in our mobile and competitive society, the latter will be their greater need. Both active and passive prosthetic devices are functional; they simply meet different needs and each has advantages and disadvantages. The usefulness of motorized units for unilateral amputees remains severely limited as all such devices are "second-thought" mechanisms having no sensory feedback, an indispensable requirement for automatic control. Hand prostheses are playing an increasingly important role in the treatment of amputees. The surgeon charged with primary responsibility of care must be knowledgeable about them. With the rapid changes in our work force and the ever-increasing mobility of our society, it is unrealistic to ignore or deny that a grotesque or badly deformed hand is a serious socioeconomic liability. The needs of each patient are different, but the prosthetic needs of most patients in the future will include mechanically simple devices of socially acceptable appearance.

  9. ON COMPUTING UPPER LIMITS TO SOURCE INTENSITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Van Dyk, David A.; Xu Jin; Connors, Alanna; Freeman, Peter E.; Zezas, Andreas E-mail: asiemiginowska@cfa.harvard.ed E-mail: jinx@ics.uci.ed E-mail: pfreeman@cmu.ed

    2010-08-10

    A common problem in astrophysics is determining how bright a source could be and still not be detected in an observation. Despite the simplicity with which the problem can be stated, the solution involves complicated statistical issues that require careful analysis. In contrast to the more familiar confidence bound, this concept has never been formally analyzed, leading to a great variety of often ad hoc solutions. Here we formulate and describe the problem in a self-consistent manner. Detection significance is usually defined by the acceptable proportion of false positives (background fluctuations that are claimed as detections, or Type I error), and we invoke the complementary concept of false negatives (real sources that go undetected, or Type II error), based on the statistical power of a test, to compute an upper limit to the detectable source intensity. To determine the minimum intensity that a source must have for it to be detected, we first define a detection threshold and then compute the probabilities of detecting sources of various intensities at the given threshold. The intensity that corresponds to the specified Type II error probability defines that minimum intensity and is identified as the upper limit. Thus, an upper limit is a characteristic of the detection procedure rather than the strength of any particular source. It should not be confused with confidence intervals or other estimates of source intensity. This is particularly important given the large number of catalogs that are being generated from increasingly sensitive surveys. We discuss, with examples, the differences between these upper limits and confidence bounds. Both measures are useful quantities that should be reported in order to extract the most science from catalogs, though they answer different statistical questions: an upper bound describes an inference range on the source intensity, while an upper limit calibrates the detection process. We provide a recipe for computing upper

  10. Microbes in the upper atmosphere and unique opportunities for astrobiology research.

    PubMed

    Smith, David J

    2013-10-01

    Microbial taxa from every major biological lineage have been detected in Earth's upper atmosphere. The goal of this review is to communicate (1) relevant astrobiology questions that can be addressed with upper atmosphere microbiology studies and (2) available sampling methods for collecting microbes at extreme altitudes. Precipitation, mountain stations, airplanes, balloons, rockets, and satellites are all feasible routes for conducting aerobiology research. However, more efficient air samplers are needed, and contamination is also a pervasive problem in the field. Measuring microbial signatures without false positives in the upper atmosphere might contribute to sterilization and bioburden reduction methods for proposed astrobiology missions. Intriguingly, environmental conditions in the upper atmosphere resemble the surface conditions of Mars (extreme cold, hypobaria, desiccation, and irradiation). Whether terrestrial microbes are active in the upper atmosphere is an area of intense research interest. If, in fact, microbial metabolism, growth, or replication is achievable independent of Earth's surface, then the search for habitable zones on other worlds should be broadened to include atmospheres (e.g., the high-altitude clouds of Venus). Furthermore, viable cells in the heavily irradiated upper atmosphere of Earth could help identify microbial genes or enzymes that bestow radiation resistance. Compelling astrobiology questions on the origin of life (if the atmosphere synthesized organic aerosols), evolution (if airborne transport influenced microbial mutation rates and speciation), and panspermia (outbound or inbound) are also testable in Earth's upper atmosphere. PMID:24106911

  11. Microbes in the upper atmosphere and unique opportunities for astrobiology research.

    PubMed

    Smith, David J

    2013-10-01

    Microbial taxa from every major biological lineage have been detected in Earth's upper atmosphere. The goal of this review is to communicate (1) relevant astrobiology questions that can be addressed with upper atmosphere microbiology studies and (2) available sampling methods for collecting microbes at extreme altitudes. Precipitation, mountain stations, airplanes, balloons, rockets, and satellites are all feasible routes for conducting aerobiology research. However, more efficient air samplers are needed, and contamination is also a pervasive problem in the field. Measuring microbial signatures without false positives in the upper atmosphere might contribute to sterilization and bioburden reduction methods for proposed astrobiology missions. Intriguingly, environmental conditions in the upper atmosphere resemble the surface conditions of Mars (extreme cold, hypobaria, desiccation, and irradiation). Whether terrestrial microbes are active in the upper atmosphere is an area of intense research interest. If, in fact, microbial metabolism, growth, or replication is achievable independent of Earth's surface, then the search for habitable zones on other worlds should be broadened to include atmospheres (e.g., the high-altitude clouds of Venus). Furthermore, viable cells in the heavily irradiated upper atmosphere of Earth could help identify microbial genes or enzymes that bestow radiation resistance. Compelling astrobiology questions on the origin of life (if the atmosphere synthesized organic aerosols), evolution (if airborne transport influenced microbial mutation rates and speciation), and panspermia (outbound or inbound) are also testable in Earth's upper atmosphere.

  12. Water-quality data for streams in the Upper North Fork of the Gunnison River, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norris, J.M.; Maura, W.S.

    1985-01-01

    The upper reaches of the North Fork of the Gunnison River have been an area of active coal mining for many years. Recently, concerns about impacts of coal mining on surface-water quality have been raised. To answer these concerns, information on existing, or background, water quality must be known. To obtain this information for the study area, a program for the synoptic collection of water quality data was established in 1982. Water quality data were collected on continuously flowing streams in the upper North Fork of the Gunnison River basin in 1982 and 1983. Each site was sampled repetitively as changes occurred in streamflow and specific conductance. (USGS)

  13. Small-scale convective instability and upper mantle viscosity under California

    SciTech Connect

    Zandt, G.; Carrigan, C.R. )

    1993-07-23

    Thermal calculations and convection analysis, constrained by seismic tomography results, suggest that a small-scale convective instability developed in the upper 200 kilometers of the mantle under California after the upwelling and cooling of asthenosphere into the slab window associated with the formation of the San Andreas transform boundary. The upper bound for the upper mantle viscosity in the slab window, 5 [times] 10[sup 19] pascal seconds, is similar to independent estimates for the asthenosphere beneath young oceanic and tectonically active continental regions. These model calculations suggest that many tectonically active continental regions characterized by low upper mantle seismic velocities may be affected by time-dependent small-scale convection that can generate localized areas of uplift and subsidence.

  14. Trilobite biostratigraphy in the Middle and Upper Ordovician of western Leningrad Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgov, O.; Meidla, T.

    2011-12-01

    Biostatigraphical significance of trilobites of the Middle and Upper Ordovician in the eastern Baltic area is discussed, based on a new material from numerous outcrops from Leningrad Region. The study of the Middle and Upper Ordovician trilobites in the Mednikovo, Viivikonna, Gryazno, Khrevitsa and Elizavetino formations allows establishing two trilobite interval-zones. The zone of Chasmops odini in the upper part of the Uhaku and Kukruse stages, and the zone of Chasmops marginatus in the lower part of the Haljala Stage (the Idavere Substage). The upper part of the Haljala Stage (J~ohvi Substage) is characterized by the occurrence of Rollmops wenjukowi. Distribution and biostratigraphical significance of some trilobite taxa ( Asaphus ( Neoasaphus) lepidus, Illaenus intermedius, Toxochasmops maximus) is discussed.

  15. Potentiometric map of the Meridian-Upper Wilcox Aquifer in Mississippi, fall 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darden, Daphne

    1986-01-01

    The Meridian-upper Wilcox aquifer consists of the Meridian Sand member of the Tallahatta Formation and the uppermost sand beds of the Wilcox Group. Thickness of the aquifer ranges from 50 ft to 500 ft. Precipitation recharges the Meridian-upper Wilcox in the outcrop area, which extends from Benton County, MS, in the north to Clarke County, MS, in the south. The potentiometric map is based on water level measurements made in about 170 wells in the Meridian-upper Wilcox aquifer in October 1983, and on the approximate altitudes of water surfaces in some major streams. The contours show altitudes at which water levels would have stood in tightly cased unpumped wells. This map, the second in the series for the Meridian-upper Wilcox aquifer, updates a map that delineated the potentiometric surface of the aquifer in 1979. (Lantz-PTT)

  16. Small-scale convective instability and upper mantle viscosity under california.

    PubMed

    Zandt, G; Carrigan, C R

    1993-07-23

    Thermal calculations and convection analysis, constrained by seismic tomography results, suggest that a small-scale convective instability developed in the upper 200 kilometers of the mantle under California after the upwelling and cooling of asthenosphere into the slab window associated with the formation of the San Andreas transform boundary. The upper bound for the upper mantle viscosity in the slab window, 5 x 10(19) pascal seconds, is similar to independent estimates for the asthenosphere beneath young oceanic and tectonically active continental regions. These model calculations suggest that many tectonically active continental regions characterized by low upper mantle seismic velocities may be affected by time-dependent small-scale convection that can generate localized areas of uplift and subsidence. PMID:17770025

  17. Small-scale convective instability and upper mantle viscosity Under California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandt, George; Carrigan, Charles R.

    1993-07-01

    Thermal calculations and convection analysis, constrained by seismic tomography results, suggest that a small-scale convective instability developed in the upper 200 kilometers of the mantle under California after the upwelling and cooling of asthenosphere into the slab window associated with the formation of the San Andreas transform boundary. The upper bound for the upper mantle viscosity in the slab window, 5 x 1019 pascal seconds, is similar to independent estimates for the asthenosphere beneath young oceanic and tectonically active continental regions. These model calculations suggest that many tectonically active continental regions characterized by low upper mantle seismic velocities may be affected by time-dependent small-scale convection that can generate localized areas of uplift and subsidence.

  18. Global Change in the Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, L.; Solomon, S. C.; Lastovicka, J.; Roble, R. G.

    2011-12-01

    Anthropogenic increases of greenhouse gases warm the troposphere but have a cooling effect in the middle and upper atmosphere. The steady increase of CO2 is the dominant cause of upper atmosphere trends. Long-term changes of other radiatively active trace gases such as CH4, O3, and H2O, long-term changes of geomagnetic and solar activity, and other possible drivers also play a role. Observational and model studies have confirmed that in the past several decades, global cooling has occurred in the mesosphere and thermosphere; the cooling and contraction of the upper atmosphere has lowered the ionosphere, increased electron density in the lower ionosphere, but slightly decreased electron density in the upper ionosphere. Limited observations have suggested long-term changes in the occurrence rate of major stratospheric warming, mesosphere and lower thermosphere dynamics, wave activities and turbulence in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, and occurrence of noctilucent clouds or polar mesospheric clouds. However, possible long-term changes of these parameters remain to be open questions due to lack of measurements. We will review recent progress in observations and simulations of global change in the upper atmosphere, and discuss future investigations with a focus on how measurements by commercial reusable suborbital vehicles can help resolve the open questions.

  19. Applying the laser beam for reconstruction of the upper airway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukwa, Andrzej; Tulibacki, Marek P.; Wojtowicz, Piotr; Dudziec, Katarzyna; Oledzka, Iwona

    2000-11-01

    The authors present their own experience in restoration of the upper airway using a different source of high power laser. There are many patients with a stricture of the upper airway. One of the most common cause insufficiency of this is nosal polyps. Surgical treatment of polyps till now is not sufficiently effective. For this reason we work out a Nd:YAG laser applying technique that let us to reduce a hospitalization time with elongation of an asymptotic period of our patients. Nd:YAG energy we apply for conchoplasty benefiting of its profound coagulation as a distinctive role. This type of laser is very useful in removing of granulation tissue from different areas of the upper airway. Other applications of Nd:YAG laser in our hands is very useful for: coagulation of vessels in Kisselbach area, especially in Rendou-Osler's diseases, resection of the nosal Septo-turbinate adhesions, treatment of hemangiomas and small papillomas in nasal cavity, diminishing of the hypertrophied mucosa in the nasopharyngeal space as well as, reduction of the uvula and soft palate in OSAS patients. In our department we use a Nd:YAG for treatment of precancerous and early stages of cancer and for a palliation procedures in an advanced cancer infiltration in mouth, pharynx and laryngeal region. For treatment removing of cicatrix tissue in a larynx and trachea we use to use a Holm: YAG laser their very superficial penetration of tissues is used for a coagulation of small vessels too let us to resect it without bleeding from a bony and mucosa tissue, as a fragments maxillary sinus wall, nosal septum crest or spine with resection of the posterior pole of a turbinate. Both laser are conveyed by fiberoptic, to reach a pathological changes in many plans, places for this reason we are able to continuously work on a new its applications.

  20. Hydrology of upper Black Earth Creek basin, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cline, Denzel R.; Busby, Mark W.

    1963-01-01

    The upper Black Earth Creek drainage basin has an area of 46 square miles and is in Dane County in south-central Wisconsin. The oldest rock exposed in the valley walls is the sandstone of Late Cambrian age. Dolomite of the Prairie du Chien Group of Ordovician age overlies the sandstone and forms the. resistant cap on the hills. The St. Peter Sandstone, Platteville and Decorah Formations, and Galena Dolomite, all Ordovician in age, form a narrow belt along the southern boundary of the area. Outwash and alluvium of Pleistocene and Recent age fill the valleys. The eastern half of the area was glaciated and is covered with till. The sandstone of Late Cambrian age and the sand and gravel of the outwash deposits are hydraulically connected. Ground water occurs under unconfined (water-table) conditions in the western unglaciated part of the basin and under artesian conditions beneath the till locally in the eastern part. The source of most of the ground water is direct infiltration of precipitation; however, some ground water enters the area as underflow from the south. About 7 inches of the 30 inches of average annual precipitation recharges the ground-water reservoir. The ground water generally moves toward Black Earth Creek where it is discharged. Some ground water moves out of the basin as underflow beneath the valley of Black Earth Creek, and some is discharged by evapotranspiration or is withdrawn by pumping from wells. Water levels in shallow nonartesian wells respond rapidly to precipitation. The effect of precipitation on water levels in artesian wells is slower and more subdued. Water levels are generally highest in spring and lowest in fall and winter. The flow of upper Black Earth Creek is derived mostly from ground-water discharge, except during short periods of and immediately after precipitation when most of the flow is derived from surface runoff. The runoff from upper Black Earth Creek basin decreased from an average of 8.72 inches per square mile of

  1. A Climatic Review of Summer 1983 in the Upper Midwest.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendland, W. M.; Bark, L. D.; Clark, D. R.; Curry, R. B.; Enz, J. W.; Hubbard, K. G.; Jones, V.; Kuehnast, E. L.; Lytle, W.; Newman, J.; Nurnberger, F. V.; Waite, P.

    1984-10-01

    The review of the climate of the summer of 1983 and associated economic impacts were collated by the state climatologists of 12 states of the Upper Midwest. Their data archives and facilities permitted relatively fast analysis of cooperative station data.Whereas June temperature was near normal across the region, July and August temperatures were generally higher than the 1951-80 normal, with anomalies of +2°C common, and some August anomalies representing a departure greater than 4, Cooling degree days were 50% greater than normal over about 1/3 of the 12-state area.Precipitation was mixed over the area in June, with the greatest anomalies (ca. 200% of normal) in Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska. July and August precipitation anomalies were similar to each other, and generally negative. Twenty-five percent of normal precipitation was not uncommon. Indeed, two stations in Nebraska and Missouri recorded no precipitation in August.The impact of high temperatures and low rainfall resulted in substantially less corn and bean yields than expected, but yields of wheat in Kansas, and corn in Wisconsin were greater than last summer. Electrical demand was generally higher than one year earlier, with increases of +15% to +25% common, and 60% greater this July than July 1982 in South Dakota.New climatological records of high temperatures, low rainfall, and number of days with high temperatures were established and re-established during the summer, primarily in the southwestern Upper Midwest.

  2. Upper entropy axioms and lower entropy axioms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jin-Li; Suo, Qi

    2015-04-01

    The paper suggests the concepts of an upper entropy and a lower entropy. We propose a new axiomatic definition, namely, upper entropy axioms, inspired by axioms of metric spaces, and also formulate lower entropy axioms. We also develop weak upper entropy axioms and weak lower entropy axioms. Their conditions are weaker than those of Shannon-Khinchin axioms and Tsallis axioms, while these conditions are stronger than those of the axiomatics based on the first three Shannon-Khinchin axioms. The subadditivity and strong subadditivity of entropy are obtained in the new axiomatics. Tsallis statistics is a special case of satisfying our axioms. Moreover, different forms of information measures, such as Shannon entropy, Daroczy entropy, Tsallis entropy and other entropies, can be unified under the same axiomatics.

  3. Upper entropy axioms and lower entropy axioms

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jin-Li Suo, Qi

    2015-04-15

    The paper suggests the concepts of an upper entropy and a lower entropy. We propose a new axiomatic definition, namely, upper entropy axioms, inspired by axioms of metric spaces, and also formulate lower entropy axioms. We also develop weak upper entropy axioms and weak lower entropy axioms. Their conditions are weaker than those of Shannon–Khinchin axioms and Tsallis axioms, while these conditions are stronger than those of the axiomatics based on the first three Shannon–Khinchin axioms. The subadditivity and strong subadditivity of entropy are obtained in the new axiomatics. Tsallis statistics is a special case of satisfying our axioms. Moreover, different forms of information measures, such as Shannon entropy, Daroczy entropy, Tsallis entropy and other entropies, can be unified under the same axiomatics.

  4. Hypnosis and upper digestive function and disease

    PubMed Central

    Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Palsson, Olafur S; Whitehead, William E

    2008-01-01

    Hypnosis is a therapeutic technique that primarily involves attentive receptive concentration. Even though a small number of health professionals are trained in hypnosis and lingering myths and misconceptions associated with this method have hampered its widespread use to treat medical conditions, hypnotherapy has gained relevance as an effective treatment for irritable bowel syndrome not responsive to standard care. More recently, a few studies have addressed the potential influence of hypnosis on upper digestive function and disease. This paper reviews the efficacy of hypnosis in the modulation of upper digestive motor and secretory function. The present evidence of the effectiveness of hypnotherapy as a treatment for functional and organic diseases of the upper bowel is also summarized, coupled with a discussion of potential mechanisms of its therapeutic action. PMID:19009639

  5. [Ultrasound diagnostics of upper urinary tract calculi].

    PubMed

    Belyĭ, L E

    2006-01-01

    The review is dedicated to ultrasonography of the upper urinary tract in patients with nephrolithiasis. Ultrasonographic semiotics of urolithiasis, the ability of unlrasonography to detect nephrolithiasis, and methods of the optimization of these diagnostic techniques in patients with upper urinary tract calculi are covered. The author discusses difficulties that may be faced while differentiating between nephrolithiasis and such conditions as spongious kidney, nephrocalcinosis, calcification of renal papillae, cysts, tumors, and vascular walls, as well as other kinds of renal calcification, associated with ultrasonographic acoustic path phenomenon. The advantages and disadvantages of ultrasonography in cases of X-ray urolithiasis are evaluated in the paper. The article describes hardships in ultrasound visualization of ureteral calculi causing acute upper urinary tract obstruction, and the ways of getting over them.

  6. Environmental fate of mercury discharged into the upper Wisconsin River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rada, R.G.; Findley, J.E.; Wiener, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The authors studied the distribution of Hg in sediments, fish, and crayfish in a 60 km reach of the Upper Wisconsin River that formerly received Hg in discharges from pulp and paper mills. The most heavily contaminated strata of sediments were deposited during the 1950s and early 1960s and buried under subsequent deposits; however, surficial sediments remained substantially enriched at certain sites in 1981. Median concentrations of Hg in surficial sediments, adjusted for grain size, were at least 10-fold greater at the main study area than at an upstream reference site. Total concentrations exceeded 1.0 mu g g super(-1) wet weight in axial muscle tissue in only 2 of 173 fish analyzed from the study area; however, historical comparisons revealed that Hg contamination of fish (common carp Cyprinus carpio and walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum ) and crayfish (Orconectes ) in the river had not decreased since the early 1970s.

  7. Habitat and movement of lake sturgeon in the upper Mississippi River system, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knights, Brent C.; Vallazza, Jonathon M.; Zigler, Steven J.; Dewey, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    Lake sturgeon Acipenser fluvescens, which are now protected from harvest, are considered rare in the upper Mississippi River and little information is available on the remaining populations. Transmitters were implanted into 31 lake sturgeon from two sites in the upper Mississippi River to describe their habitats and movement. The areas surrounding the tagging sites were core areas for both groups of lake sturgeon based on the high use (about 50% of locations by group) and frequent return to these areas by many of the tagged fish. Core areas contained sites with unique hydraulic characteristics, such that depositional substrates were common yet flow was present; these areas probably provide important feeding habitat for lake sturgeon. Minimal geographical overlap in range occurred between groups, suggesting that river reaches and associated core areas were unique to groups or substocks of fish. Lake sturgeon exhibited complex movement behaviors and had ranges of 3-198 km (median, 56 km) during the study. Tagged fish moved both downstream and upstream through upper Mississippi River navigation dams. However, dams appeared to be intermittent barriers to upstream passage because upstream passage events (10 fish, 19 passages) were fewer than downstream events (13 fish, 35 passages). Extensive use of the Wisconsin River by one group of lake sturgeon tagged in the upper Mississippi River has implications regarding management of a threatened population that transcends regulatory boundaries. Our study indicates that lake sturgeon In the upper Mississippi River system share many movement and habitat use characteristics with populations in other systems. However, significant data gaps preclude development of cogent management strategies, including information on population numbers and dynamics, identification of spawning areas, relations between groups, and assessment of the effects of commercial navigation.

  8. Upper stage alternatives for the shuttle era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The status and general characteristics of Space Shuttle upper stages now in use or in development, as well as new vehicle possibilities are examined. Upper stage requirements for both civil and Department of Defense missions, categorized generally into near-term (early and mid-1980's), mid-term (late 1980's to mid-1990's), and far-term (late 1990's and beyond) are discussed. Finally, the technical, schedule and cost impact of alternative ways in which these requirements could be met are examined, and a number of conclusions and recommendations are reached.

  9. Management of Major Traumatic Upper Extremity Amputations.

    PubMed

    Solarz, Mark K; Thoder, Joseph J; Rehman, Saqib

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic upper extremity amputation is a life-altering event, and recovery of function depends on proper surgical management and postoperative rehabilitation. Many injuries require revision amputation and postoperative prosthesis fitting. Care should be taken to preserve maximal length of the limb and motion of the remaining joints. Skin grafting or free tissue transfer may be necessary for coverage to allow preservation of length. Early prosthetic fitting within 30 days of surgery should be performed so the amputee can start rehabilitation while the wound is healing and the stump is maturing. Multidisciplinary care is essential for the overall care of the patient following a traumatic amputation of the upper limb.

  10. Trajectory Software With Upper Atmosphere Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The Trajectory Software Applications 6.0 for the Dec Alpha platform has an implementation of the Jacchia-Lineberry Upper Atmosphere Density Model used in the Mission Control Center for International Space Station support. Previous trajectory software required an upper atmosphere to support atmosphere drag calculations in the Mission Control Center. The Functional operation will differ depending on the end-use of the module. In general, the calling routine will use function-calling arguments to specify input to the processor. The atmosphere model will then compute and return atmospheric density at the time of interest.

  11. Transition region of the earth's upper mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Bass, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The chemistry of the earth's mantle is discussed using data from cosmochemistry, geochemistry, petrology, seismology, and mineral physics. The chondritic earth, the upper mantle and the 400-km discontinuity, the transition region, lower mantle mineralogy, and surface wave tomography are examined. Three main issues are addressed: (1) whether the mantle is homogeneous in composition or chemically stratified, (2) whether the major element chemistry of the mantle is more similar to upper mantle peridotites or to chondrites, and (3) the nature of the composition of the source region of basalts erupted at midocean ridges.

  12. ARNOLD MESA ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, Edward W.; McColly, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic geochemical, and aeromagnetic investigations and a survey of mines and prospects in the Arnold Mesa Roadless Area, Arizona, provide little evidence for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Buried Proterozoic basement rocks are possible hosts of porphyry-type copper and massive sulfide deposits but the thick cover of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks and upper Cenozoic volcanic rocks precluded assessment of this possibility. Chemistry and temperature of spring and well waters suggest that a geothermal resource may exist near the eastern margin of the roadless area, but the anomaly has not been tested by drilling and this resource remains unverified. No other energy resources were identified.

  13. Team Teaching at Upper Arlington School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Annette R.

    1968-01-01

    Team teaching has been used for 4 years in the 10th-grade English classes at Upper Arlington High School near Columbus, Ohio. Units are prepared, presented, and evaluated by teachers working together voluntarily. A 6-day American literature unit introducing Romanticism has been particularly successful. The contrasts between Neoclassicism and…

  14. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    PubMed

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum.

  15. VATS right upper lobe bronchial sleeve resection

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qianli

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to discuss video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) sleeve bronchial lobectomy when handling the locally advanced central lung cancer (involving the trachea and/or main bronchus). Methods A 2.5 cm × 1.0 cm mass was found in the right upper lobe. Bronchoscopy demonstrated the tumor obstructing the right upper lobe bronchus and involved the right main bronchus and bronchus intermedius. Interrupted sutures were chosen for bronchial anastomosis. Bronchial membrane was sutured first, and then circumference end-to-end anastomoses were carried out using 3-0 absorbable sutures. Results There were no complications and the patient was discharged 8 days postoperatively. Conclusions The third intercostal space of the anterior axillary line was suggested for right upper lobe bronchial sleeve resection. This incision can reduce the distance and angle between the anastomosis to the incision, and facilitate anastomosis. This approach can also prevent operator from fatigue for keeping one posture for a long time. Clearance of the mediastinal lymph nodes before cutting the bronchus was helpful for exposing the right main bronchus, the upper lobe bronchus and bronchus intermedius satisfied. And this option would avoid pulling bronchial anastomosis during mediastinal lymph nodes clearance. Interrupted suture was safe and effective for VATS bronchial anastomosis. PMID:27621889

  16. Evidence-based equine upper respiratory surgery.

    PubMed

    Beard, Warren L; Waxman, Sarah

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the veterinary literature for various surgical procedures of the equine upper respiratory tract in an effort to evaluate the evidence supporting various therapies. This article focuses on the therapeutic benefit from more widely occurring conditions, such as laryngeal hemiplegia, dorsal displacement of the soft palate, arytenoid chondritis, and epiglottic entrapment.

  17. Opinion formation with upper and lower bounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Ryosuke; Martin, Arnaud

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the opinion formation with upper and lower bounds. We formulate the binary exchange of opinions between two peoples under the second (or political) party using the relativistic inelastic-Boltzmann-Vlasov equation with randomly perturbed motion. In this paper, we discuss the relativistic effects on the opinion formation of peoples from the standpoint of the relativistic kinetic theory.

  18. Upper Washita River experimental watersheds: Sediment Database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving the scientific understanding of the effectiveness of watershed conservation practices and floodwater-retardation structures to control floods and soil erosion is one of the primary objectives for sediment studies in the upper Washita River Experimental Watersheds. This paper summarizes se...

  19. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    PubMed

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum. PMID:1659854

  20. Surgical revision of the upper eyelid fold.

    PubMed

    Cies, W A; Baylis, H I

    1975-12-01

    We performed surgery on 107 patients primarily with blepharoptosis and eyelid fold abnormalities, between 1973 and 1974. Production of an eyelid fold at the time of an initial blepharoptosis procedure should be a primary goal. Lack of a distinct symmetrical upper eyelid fold constituted a cosmetic blemish and necessitated revision.

  1. Upper Limb Motor Impairment Post Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis Understanding upper limb impairment after stroke is essential to planning therapeutic efforts to restore function. However determining which upper limb impairment to treat and how is complex for two reasons: 1) the impairments are not static, i.e. as motor recovery proceeds, the type and nature of the impairments may change; therefore the treatment needs to evolve to target the impairment contributing to dysfunction at a given point in time. 2) multiple impairments may be present simultaneously, i.e., a patient may present with weakness of the arm and hand immediately after a stroke, which may not have resolved when spasticity sets in a few weeks or months later; hence there may be a layering of impairments over time making it difficult to decide what to treat first. The most useful way to understand how impairments contribute to upper limb dysfunction may be to examine them from the perspective of their functional consequences. There are three main functional consequences of impairments on upper limb function are: (1) learned nonuse, (2) learned bad-use, and (3) forgetting as determined by behavioral analysis of tasks. The impairments that contribute to each of these functional limitations are described. PMID:26522900

  2. Neutron spectral measurements in the upper atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zobel, W.; Love, T. A.; Delorenzo, J. T.; Mcnew, C. O.

    1972-01-01

    An experiment to measure neutrons in the upper atmosphere was performed on a balloon flight from Palestine, Texas, at an altitude of about 32 km. The experimental arrangement is discussed briefly, and results of a preliminary analysis of the data for neutrons in the energy range 3 to 30 MeV are given.

  3. Mechanical Properties of the Upper Airway

    PubMed Central

    Strohl, Kingman P.; Butler, James P.; Malhotra, Atul

    2013-01-01

    The importance of the upper airway (nose, pharynx, and larynx) in health and in the pathogenesis of sleep apnea, asthma, and other airway diseases, discussed elsewhere in the Comprehensive Physiology series, prompts this review of the biomechanical properties and functional aspects of the upper airway. There is a literature based on anatomic or structural descriptions in static circumstances, albeit studied in limited numbers of individuals in both health and disease. As for dynamic features, the literature is limited to studies of pressure and flow through all or parts of the upper airway and to the effects of muscle activation on such features; however, the links between structure and function through airway size, shape, and compliance remain a topic that is completely open for investigation, particularly through analyses using concepts of fluid and structural mechanics. Throughout are included both historically seminal references, as well as those serving as signposts or updated reviews. This article should be considered a resource for concepts needed for the application of biomechanical models of upper airway physiology, applicable to understanding the pathophysiology of disease and anticipated results of treatment interventions. PMID:23723026

  4. Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shu-Lei; Li, Peng; Ji, Ming; Zong, Ye; Zhang, Shu-Tian

    2010-01-01

    Superwarfarins are a class of rodenticides. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a fatal complication of superwarfarin poisoning, requiring immediate treatment. Here, we report a 55-year-old woman with tardive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning after endoscopic cold mucosal biopsy. PMID:20355251

  5. Dentulous appliance for upper anterior edentulous span.

    PubMed

    Chalakkal, Paul; Devi, Ramisetty Sabitha; Srinivas, G Vijay; Venkataramana, Pammi

    2013-12-01

    This article discusses about a fixed dentulous appliance that was constructed to replace the primary upper anterior edentulous span in a four year old girl. It constituted a design, whereby the maxillary primary second molars were used to support the appliance through bands and a wire that contained an acrylic flange bearing trimmed acrylic teeth, anteriorly. The appliance was functionally and aesthetically compliant.

  6. Uprated OMS engine for upper stage propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, William C.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a pre-development component demonstration program on the use of a gas generator-driven turbopump that increases the Space Shuttle's Orbital Maneuvering Engine (OME) operating pressure are given. Tests and analysis confirm the the capability of the concept to meet or exceed performance and life requirements. Storable propellant upper stage concepts are also discussed.

  7. Radiative Decay of Upper Tropospheric Anticyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, Vincent; Legras, Bernard

    We investigate the dynamics and the decay of upper tropospheric anticyclones. First, we focus on the nature, the frequency and the formation of these atmospheric patterns. Standard Isentropic Potential Vorticity maps (using analysed fields from ECMWF) show that these synoptic situations are common in the northern hemisphere with a higher frequency during autumn. Massive back-trajectory calculations (using the kinematic trajectory model FLEX- TRA) reveal that most of air parcels are coming from the tropical or the subtropical boundary layer following "warm conveyor belts". Advection of humid air into upper tropospheric anticyclones is in agreement with aircraft data from SONEX and POLI- NAT airborne campaigns and with MOZAIC humidity measurements. In anticyclonic vorticies, these data show frequent relative humidity sursaturation with respect to ice. Mesoscale simulations (using MesoNH model from Meteo-France) has been per- formed to investigate more precisely the advection of boundary layer air into an upper tropospheric anticyclone. Online lagrangian calculations have been performed and we plan to estimate the meridian humidity flux induced by this process. In a second stage, decay of upper tropospheric anticyclones is studied. The presence of thin cirrus clouds in these anticyclonic vortices is an open question. Nevertheless, airborne lidar measurements during the SONEX III campaign show that thin cirrus are present during the first stage of the anticyclone life. These clouds may play a ma- jor role concerning radiative decay. Idealized mesoscale simulations (using MesoNH model) have been performed. At the present time, realistic decay is obtained only in clear sky conditions. Radiative decay induces a net mass flux from the troposphere to the stratosphere. This flux is increased with the moistening of upper tropospheric cy- clones. Using realistic humidity fields, it is found to be of the same order of magnitude that net flux from the stratosphere to the

  8. Effect of Upper Limb Deformities on Gross Motor and Upper Limb Functions in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Eun Sook; Sim, Eun Geol; Rha, Dong-wook

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the nature and extent of upper limb deformities via the use of various classifications, and to analyze the relationship between upper limb deformities and gross motor or upper limb functionality levels. Upper extremity data were collected from 234 children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) who were…

  9. Simulation of the Lower and Upper Atmosphere Interconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beloushko, Konstantin

    Attempt to develop the united numerical model of the Earth’s atmosphere is undertaken. Purpose of the project is development of the general methodologies and technologies of coupling of models with use of the so-called frame approach [1]. As a basis to this metamodel was taken Upper Atmosphere Model (UAM) [2, 3]. UAM is for today the advanced and perspective Russian model of the upper atmosphere qualitatively comparable to foreign analogues and in a number of aspects surpassing them (on a covered range of heights, for example, from 60 up to 100000 km). As model of the lower atmosphere the General circulation model of atmosphere and ocean by Institute of Numerical Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Science (INM RAS, Moscow) is chosen. This model is equal to quality and competes with modern foreign forecasting models of weather and climate [4]. Coupling of UAM and INM RAS models will allow not only to develop united model of atmosphere of the Earth, but also thus to remove the uncertainty, connected with definition the upper boundary conditions in weather area and lower boundary conditions in upper atmosphere. As a result of named problem analysis the following algorithm for coupling of models is offered: on range of coverage by both models an interval of heights (60-90 km) the iterative exchange of boundary conditions performed. Results of some joined simulations on the basis of model of upper atmosphere UAM and model of general circulation of INM RAS are presented and discussed. Author thanks for discussions and giving model data by A.A. Namgaladze (MSTU, Murmansk) and E.M. Volodin (INM, Moscow). References begin{enumerate} Beloushko K. E. Simulation of the Coupling of the Upper and Lower Atmosphere // Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 2013, Vol. 7, № 6, pp. 783-787. DOI: 10.1134/S199079311305014X Namgaladze A.A., Korenkov Yu.N., Klimenko V.V., Karpov I.V., Bessarab F.S., Surotkin V.A., Gluschenko T.A., Naumova N.M. Global model of the thermosphere

  10. Reading Interventions for Students with Learning Disabilities in the Upper Elementary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Kent, Shawn C.

    2012-01-01

    For students with learning disabilities, the upper elementary grades may represent a unique opportunity to provide successful remediation for lessening a reading difficulty and preventing students with learning disabilities from falling behind in other content areas. This article discusses effective reading interventions for students with learning…

  11. Language: Talking or Trading Blows in the Upper Silesian Industrial Basin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamusella, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    In the 19th century, in the eastern half of Prussia's region of Upper Silesia, continental Europe's second largest industrial basin emerged. In the course of the accelerated urbanization that followed, an increasing number of German- and Germanic-speakers arrived in this overwhelmingly Slavophone area that historically skirted the Germanic dialect…

  12. Observations on Student Difficulties with Mathematics in Upper-Division Electricity and Magnetism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepper, Rachel E.; Chasteen, Stephanie V.; Pollock, Steven J.; Perkins, Katherine K.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss common difficulties in upper-division electricity and magnetism (E&M) in the areas of Gauss's law, vector calculus, and electric potential using both quantitative and qualitative evidence. We also show that many of these topical difficulties may be tied to student difficulties with mathematics. At the junior level, some students…

  13. Redox Models in Chemistry Textbooks for the Upper Secondary School: Friend or Foe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterlund, Lise-Lotte; Berg, Anders; Ekborg, Margareta

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated how chemistry textbooks use models of redox reactions in different subject areas, how they change models between and within the topics, and how they deal with specific learning difficulties identified in the literature. The textbooks examined were published for use in the natural science programme in Swedish upper secondary…

  14. 77 FR 28255 - Safety Zone; Upper Mississippi River, Mile 183.0 to 183.5

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... inspections for the NPRM process would unnecessarily impede the flow of commercial river traffic and railroad traffic. This rule is needed to protect repair workers and vessels transiting this area on the Upper... Guard determined that a temporary safety zone is necessary to protect repair workers and marine...

  15. FAST CHOPPER BUILDING, TRA665. DETAIL SHOWS UPPER AND LOWER LEVEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FAST CHOPPER BUILDING, TRA-665. DETAIL SHOWS UPPER AND LOWER LEVEL WALLS OF DIFFERING MATERIALS. NOTE DOORWAY TO MTR TO RIGHT OF CHOPPER BUILDING'S CLIPPED CORNER. CAMERA FACING WEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD42-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 3/2004 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA605. FLASH EVAPORATORS ARE PLACED ON UPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA-605. FLASH EVAPORATORS ARE PLACED ON UPPER LEVEL OF EAST SIDE OF BUILDING. WALLS WILL BE FORMED AROUND THEM. WORKING RESERVOIR BEYOND. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY. EXHAUST AIR STACK IS UNDER CONSTRUCTION AT RIGHT OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2579. Unknown Photographer, 6/18/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Steinway piano and stained glass clerestory window in lounge area, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Steinway piano and stained glass clerestory window in lounge area, upper deck. Hot water radiators can be seen at base of wall. These run throughout the houseboat. - Houseboat LA DUCHESSE, The Antique Boat Museum, Clayton, Jefferson County, NY

  18. 33. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. AERIAL VIEW OF AREA DURING FLOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. AERIAL VIEW OF AREA DURING FLOOD STAGE. GIANELLA BRIDGE AT UPPER RIGHT Photographer unknown, January 24, 1970 - Gianella Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at State Highway 32, Hamilton City, Glenn County, CA

  19. Upper mantle beneath Southeast Asia from S velocity tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Sergei; Nolet, Guust

    2003-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional, S velocity model of the SE Asian-western Pacific upper mantle with 400-km lateral resolution. Using the novel Automated Multimode Inversion technique, we processed 4038 vertical-component seismograms and extracted 22,708 linear equations with uncorrelated uncertainties that constrain upper mantle structure. We used time-frequency windows to select signal with negligible proportion of scattered energy. The windows included the fundamental Rayleigh mode and S and multiple S waves. The observed range of S velocity variations is the widest (17-18%) in the upper 150 km of the mantle. High-velocity continental roots can reach beyond the present extent of the overlying Archean-Proterozoic crust by 500 km. Beneath some Precambrian units the roots are absent, which can be attributed to deformation and gradual destruction of the ancient lithosphere. At 120-150 km, S velocity beneath some cratons reaches 4.8 km/s; this can be accounted for by thermal and compositional effects. Beneath the Hainan Island area a low-velocity anomaly is observed from near the surface to the bottom of our model; the hot spot-type volcanism here may be caused by the deep-mantle Hainan plume. A low-velocity mantle domain underlies the south central Sea of Japan, surrounded on the surface by intraplate volcanoes. A deep-seismicity gap is present near 40°N in the Pacific slab subducting below and may result from a plume-slab interaction. A high-velocity anomaly is present in the transition zone beneath the northern boundary of the Yangtze Craton. We propose that the anomaly corresponds to subducted continental lithosphere, stagnant atop the 660-km discontinuity.

  20. Rhinometric evaluation of nasal cavity geometry and its relation to the upper arch transverse distance.

    PubMed

    Paiva, João Batista; Alves, Adriana Silva; Ribeiro, Annelise Nazareth Cunha; Rino Neto, José; Fantini, Solange Mongeli de

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate children's respiratory patterns in the mixed dentition, by means of acoustic rhinometry, and its relation to the upper arch width development. Fifty patients were examined, 25 females and 25 males with mean age of eight years and seven months. All of them were submitted to acoustic rhinometry and upper and lower arch impressions to obtain plaster models. The upper arch analysis was accomplished by measuring the interdental transverse distance of the upper teeth, deciduous canines (measurement 1), deciduous first molars (measurement 2), deciduous second molars (measurement 3) and the first molars (measurement 4). The results showed that an increased left nasal cavity area in females means an increased interdental distance of the deciduous first molars and deciduous second molars and an increased interdental distance of the deciduous canines, deciduous first and second molars in males. It was concluded that there is a correlation between the nasal cavity area and the upper arch transverse distance in the anterior and mid maxillary regions for both genders. PMID:20027450

  1. Hydrogeologic and water-quality characteristics of the Upper Carbonate aquifer, Southeast Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruhl, J.F.; Wolf, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    The quality of water in the Upper Carbonate aquifer is suitable for most uses. However, the water is susceptible to contamination in karst areas because sinkholes and disappearing streams provide direct passageways for entry of contaminants into the aquifer. Calcium magnesium bicarbonate type waters are most common. Concentrations of dissolved solids and some major ions, specifically magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, and sulfate, are generally highest in the southwestern part of the study area.

  2. Fatiguing upper body aerobic exercise impairs balance.

    PubMed

    Douris, Peter C; Handrakis, John P; Gendy, Joseph; Salama, Mina; Kwon, Dae; Brooks, Richard; Salama, Nardine; Southard, Veronica

    2011-12-01

    Douris, PC, Handrakis, JP, Gendy, J, Salama, M, Kwon, D, Brooks, R, Salama, N, and Southard, V. Fatiguing upper body aerobic exercise impairs balance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3299-3305, 2011-There are many studies that have examined the effects of selectively fatiguing lower extremity muscle groups with various protocols, and they have all shown to impair balance. There is limited research regarding the effect of fatiguing upper extremity exercise on balance. Muscle fiber-type recruitment patterns may be responsible for the difference between balance impairments because of fatiguing aerobic and anaerobic exercise. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect that aerobic vs. anaerobic fatigue, upper vs. lower body fatigue will have on balance, and if so, which combination will affect balance to a greater degree. Fourteen healthy subjects, 7 men and 7 women (mean age 23.5 ± 1.7 years) took part in this study. Their mean body mass index was 23.6 ± 3.2. The study used a repeated-measures design. The effect on balance was documented after the 4 fatiguing conditions: aerobic lower body (ALB), aerobic upper body (AUB), anaerobic lower body, anaerobic upper body (WUB). The aerobic conditions used an incremental protocol performed to fatigue, and the anaerobic used the Wingate protocol. Balance was measured as a single-leg stance stability score using the Biodex Balance System. A stability score for each subject was recorded immediately after each of the 4 conditions. A repeated-measures analysis of variance with the pretest score as a covariate was used to analyze the effects of the 4 fatiguing conditions on balance. There were significant differences between the 4 conditions (p = 0.001). Post hoc analysis revealed that there were significant differences between the AUB, mean score 4.98 ± 1.83, and the WUB, mean score 4.09 ± 1.42 (p = 0.014) and between AUB and ALB mean scores 4.33 ± 1.40 (p = 0.029). Normative data for single-leg stability testing for

  3. Potentiometric surface of the upper Patapsco Aquifer in southern Maryland, September 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, D.C.; Mack, Frederick K.

    1993-01-01

    A map showing the potentiometric surface of the upper Patapsco aquifer in the Patapsco Formation of Cretaceous age in southern Maryland during September 1991 was prepared from water levels measured in wells. The potentiometric surface was at least 70 feet above sea level near the northwestern boundary and outcrop area of the aquifer in a topographically high area of Anne Arundel County, and at least 56 feet above sea level in a similar setting in Prince Georges County. From these high areas, the potentiometric surface declined to the south and southeast toward large well fields in the Annapolis and Waldorf areas and at the Chalk Point powerplant.

  4. Upper mantle flow and lithospheric dynamics beneath the Eurasian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G.; Jiang, G.; Jia, Z.; Gao, R.; Fu, R.

    2010-12-01

    plateau, Tarim Basin, Tian Shan Mountains, Zungarian Basin and Altai Mountains correspond successively to the downward flow, the upward flow, the downward flow and the upward flow in the mantle. It shows that the basic tectonic pattern of the interphase basin-and-range structure corresponds to the convective pattern of the interphase downward-and-upward flows. In China-Mongolian Continent, the convective pattern in the eastern area of 105°E structural zone is entirely different from the western area, weak in the East and intensive in the West. West Pacific island arc-underthrust belt is located in the intensive convective areas and along this northeastern belt, there exist a series of interphase downward-and-upward flows. In summary, our results suggest that small-scale mantle convection in the upper mantle is one of the main driving forces of lithospheric dynamics of the Eurasian region. This work was supported by the Sinoprobe-02 project, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (40874067) and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (20070491520)

  5. Physical stratigraphy and hydrostratigraphy of Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene sediments, Burke and Screven Counties, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falls, W.F.; Baum, J.S.; Prowell, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    confining unit impedes vertical ground-water flow in the middle and downdip parts of the study area and is a leaky confining unit in the updip part of the study area. Recognition of the upper Dublin confining unit as a regional confining unit between the Millers Pond and the upper Dublin aquifers also confirms that the Millers Pond aquifer is a separate hydrologic unit from the rest of the Dublin aquifer system. This multi-aquifer framework increases the vertical hydrostratigraphic resolution of hydraulic properties and gradients in the Dublin and Midville aquifer systems for the investigation of ground-water flow beneath the Savannah River in the vicinity of the U.S. Department of Energy Savannah River Site.

  6. Analyzing runoff processes through conceptual hydrological modelling in the Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessie, M.; Verhoest, N. E. C.; Pauwels, V. R. N.; Admasu, T.; Poesen, J.; Adgo, E.; Deckers, J.; Nyssen, J.

    2014-05-01

    Understanding runoff processes in a basin is of paramount importance for the effective planning and management of water resources, in particular in data scarce regions of the Upper Blue Nile. Hydrological models representing the underlying hydrological processes can predict river discharges from ungauged catchments and allow for an understanding of the rainfall-runoff processes in those catchments. In this paper, such a conceptual process-based hydrological model is developed and applied to the upper Gumara and Gilgel Abay catchments (both located within the Upper Blue Nile basin, the Lake Tana sub-basin) to study the runoff mechanisms and rainfall-runoff processes in the basin. Topography is considered as a proxy for the variability of most of the catchment characteristics. We divided the catchments into different runoff production areas using topographic criteria. Impermeable surfaces (rock outcrops and hard soil pans, common in the Upper Blue Nile basin) were considered separately in the conceptual model. Based on model results, it can be inferred that about 65% of the runoff appears in the form of interflow in the Gumara study catchment, and baseflow constitutes the larger proportion of runoff (44-48%) in the Gilgel Abay catchment. Direct runoff represents a smaller fraction of the runoff in both catchments (18-19% for the Gumara, and 20% for the Gilgel Abay) and most of this direct runoff is generated through infiltration excess runoff mechanism from the impermeable rocks or hard soil pans. The study reveals that the hillslopes are recharge areas (sources of interflow and deep percolation) and direct runoff as saturated excess flow prevails from the flat slope areas. Overall, the model study suggests that identifying the catchments into different runoff production areas based on topography and including the impermeable rocky areas separately in the modeling process mimics well the rainfall-runoff process in the Upper Blue Nile basin and brings a useful result

  7. Analyzing runoff processes through conceptual hydrological modeling in the Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessie, M.; Verhoest, N. E. C.; Pauwels, V. R. N.; Admasu, T.; Poesen, J.; Adgo, E.; Deckers, J.; Nyssen, J.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding runoff processes in a basin is of paramount importance for the effective planning and management of water resources, in particular in data-scarce regions such as the Upper Blue Nile. Hydrological models representing the underlying hydrological processes can predict river discharges from ungauged catchments and allow for an understanding of the rainfall-runoff processes in those catchments. In this paper, such a conceptual process-based hydrological model is developed and applied to the upper Gumara and Gilgel Abay catchments (both located within the Upper Blue Nile Basin, the Lake Tana sub-basin) to study the runoff mechanisms and rainfall-runoff processes in the basin. Topography is considered as a proxy for the variability of most of the catchment characteristics. We divided the catchments into different runoff production areas using topographic criteria. Impermeable surfaces (rock outcrops and hard soil pans, common in the Upper Blue Nile Basin) were considered separately in the conceptual model. Based on model results, it can be inferred that about 65% of the runoff appears in the form of interflow in the Gumara study catchment, and baseflow constitutes the larger proportion of runoff (44-48%) in the Gilgel Abay catchment. Direct runoff represents a smaller fraction of the runoff in both catchments (18-19% for the Gumara, and 20% for the Gilgel Abay) and most of this direct runoff is generated through infiltration excess runoff mechanism from the impermeable rocks or hard soil pans. The study reveals that the hillslopes are recharge areas (sources of interflow and deep percolation) and direct runoff as saturated excess flow prevails from the flat slope areas. Overall, the model study suggests that identifying the catchments into different runoff production areas based on topography and including the impermeable rocky areas separately in the modeling process mimics the rainfall-runoff process in the Upper Blue Nile Basin well and yields a useful

  8. Real time flood forecasting in the Upper Danube basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nester, Thomas; Komma, Jürgen; Blöschl, Günter

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution, we report on experiences with developing the flood forecasting model for the Upper Danube basin and its operational use since 2006. The model system consists of a hydrological model for the catchments and a hydrodynamic model for the Danube and uses meteorological forecasts for the next 48 hours. The parameters of the hydrological model were estimated based on the Dominant Processes Concept. Runoff data are assimilated in real time to update modelled soil moisture. An analysis of the performance of the hydrological model indicates 88% of the snow cover in the basin to be modelled correctly on more than 80% of the days. Runoff forecasting errors decrease with catchment area and increase with forecast lead time. The forecast ensemble spread is shown to be a meaningful indicator of the forecast uncertainty. We also show forecasts from the 2013 flood in the Upper Danube basin. There was a tendency for the precipitation forecasts to underestimate event precipitation and for the runoff model to overestimate runoff generation which resulted in, overall, rather accurate runoff forecasts.

  9. Approach to complex upper extremity injury: an algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ng, Zhi Yang; Askari, Morad; Chim, Harvey

    2015-02-01

    Patients with complex upper extremity injuries represent a unique subset of the trauma population. In addition to extensive soft tissue defects affecting the skin, bone, muscles and tendons, or the neurovasculature in various combinations, there is usually concomitant involvement of other body areas and organ systems with the potential for systemic compromise due to the underlying mechanism of injury and resultant sequelae. In turn, this has a direct impact on the definitive reconstructive plan. Accurate assessment and expedient treatment is thus necessary to achieve optimal surgical outcomes with the primary goal of limb salvage and functional restoration. Nonetheless, the characteristics of these injuries places such patients at an increased risk of complications ranging from limb ischemia, recalcitrant infections, failure of bony union, intractable pain, and most devastatingly, limb amputation. In this article, the authors present an algorithmic approach toward complex injuries of the upper extremity with due consideration for the various reconstructive modalities and timing of definitive wound closure for the best possible clinical outcomes. PMID:25685098

  10. Aquatic vertebrate assemblages of the upper Clear Creek Watershed, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, L.R.; May, J.T.

    2007-01-01

    We sampled streams in the Upper Clear Creek Watershed in northwestern California in fall 2004 and fall 2005 to document assemblages of aquatic vertebrates and to provide resource managers with information on the importance of these assemblages in terms of regional biodiversity. We used single-pass backpack electrofishing to sample 15 sites in fall 2004 and the same 15 sites plus 4 new sites in fall 2005. We captured 10 fish taxa and 2 species of larval amphibians. Seven of the fish taxa were native species. Of the exotic species, only brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) occurred at more than 1 site. Ordinations by nonmetric multidimensional scaling indicated a gradient from sites with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Pacific giant salamander (Dicamptodon tenebrosus), and tailed frog (Ascaphus truei) to sites dominated by riffle sculpin (Cottus gulosus), California roach (Hesperoleucas symmetricus), and Sacramento sucker (Catostomus occidentalis). The gradient in species composition was associated with changes in elevation, gradient, discharge, and substrate. The Upper Clear Creek Watershed represents a unique area of overlap between the North Coast California amphibian fauna and the Central Valley fish fauna with a notable paucity of exotic fishes and amphibians. Preservation of the integrity of native aquatic assemblages is an important goal for aquatic resource management in the region; our results provide a critcial baseline to gauge future management actions.

  11. USGS Activities at Lake Roosevelt and the Upper Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Cynthia; Turney, Gary L.

    2010-01-01

    Lake Roosevelt (Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake) is the impoundment of the upper Columbia River behind Grand Coulee Dam, and is the largest reservoir within the Bureau of Reclamation's Columbia Basin Project (CBP). The reservoir is located in northeastern Washington, and stretches 151 miles from Grand Coulee Dam north to the Canadian border. The 15-20 miles of the Columbia River downstream of the border are riverine and are under small backwater effects from the dam. Grand Coulee Dam is located on the mainstem of the Columbia River about 90 miles northwest of Spokane. Since the late 1980s, trace-element contamination has been known to be widely present in Lake Roosevelt. Trace elements of concern include arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, and zinc. Contaminated sediment carried by the Columbia River is the primary source of the widespread occurrence of trace-element enrichment present in Lake Roosevelt. In 2001, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a preliminary assessment of environmental contamination of the Lake Roosevelt area (also referred to as Upper Columbia River, UCR site, or UCR/LR site) and has subsequently begun remedial investigations of the UCR site.

  12. Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage/Upper Stage Engine Element Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McArthur, J. Craig

    2008-01-01

    The Ares I upper stage is an integral part of the Constellation Program transportation system. The upper stage provides guidance, navigation and control (GN and C) for the second stage of ascent flight for the Ares I vehicle. The Saturn-derived J-2X upper stage engine will provide thrust and propulsive impulse for the second stage of ascent flight for the Ares I launch vehicle. Additionally, the upper stage is responsible for the avionics system of the the entire Ares I. This brief presentation highlights the requirements, design, progress and production of the upper stage. Additionally, test facilities to support J-2X development are discussed and an overview of the operational and manufacturing flows are provided. Building on the heritage of the Apollo and Space Shuttle Programs, the Ares I Us and USE teams are utilizing extensive lessons learned to place NASA and the US into another era of space exploration. The NASA, Boeing and PWR teams are integrated and working together to make progress designing and building the Ares I upper stage to minimize cost, technical and schedule risks.

  13. Transforming Upper-Division Electricity and Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chasteen, Stephanie V.; Pollock, Steven J.

    2008-10-01

    We transformed an upper-division electricity and magnetism course for physics and engineering majors using principles of active engagement and learning theory. The teaching practices and new curricular materials were guided by observations and interviews to identify common student difficulties. We established explicit learning goals for the course, created homeworks that addressed key aspects of those learning goals, offered interactive help room sessions, created and ran small-group tutorial sessions, and used interactive classroom techniques such as peer discussion and "clickers." We find that students in the transformed course exhibit improved performance over the traditional course, as assessed by common exam questions and a newly developed conceptual post-test. These results suggest that it is valuable to further investigate how physics is taught at the upper-division, and how PER may be applied in this context.

  14. Fibrolipoma on upper eyelid in child

    PubMed Central

    Corredor-Osorio, Rafael; Ramos-Pineda, Nelly; Eugenia Orellana, María

    2016-01-01

    An 18-months-old male infant presented with a rapidly growing tumor on the right upper eyelid. Orbital computed tomography (CT) revealed a large, well-circumscribed mass with low density signal in the right upper eyelid. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) showed a lesion of mixed T1-signal intensity and high signal intensity in T2-weighted images. The tumor was treated by simple anterior orbitotomy with excisional biopsy, and the diagnosis of fibrolipoma was made by histopathologic examination. There was no evidence of tumor at the four-year follow-up. Fibrolipoma is one of the rare variant of the lipoma and only four cases have been reported in the orbit including the present case. Except for this case all other cases were reported in adults.

  15. SPORTS INJURIES OF THE UPPER LIMBS

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Rogerio Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Sports injuries of the upper limbs are very common in physical activities and therefore, they need to be studied in detail, taking into consideration specific aspects of the types of sports practiced. Special attention should be paid to the dynamics of the shoulder girdle and the entire scapular belt, since the most appropriate treatment for athletes can only be provided in this manner. This can also help to prevent recurrences, which can occur in some cases because athletes always seek to return to their pre-injury level of sports activity. This article will focus primarily on the management of upper-limb tendon injuries, from the physiopathology through to the new methods of injury treatment that are more prevalent in sports practice in Brazil. PMID:27022529

  16. The upper limb of Australopithecus sediba.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Steven E; Holliday, Trenton W; Carlson, Kristian J; Jashashvili, Tea; Macias, Marisa E; Mathews, Sandra; Sparling, Tawnee L; Schmid, Peter; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Berger, Lee R

    2013-04-12

    The evolution of the human upper limb involved a change in function from its use for both locomotion and prehension (as in apes) to a predominantly prehensile and manipulative role. Well-preserved forelimb remains of 1.98-million-year-old Australopithecus sediba from Malapa, South Africa, contribute to our understanding of this evolutionary transition. Whereas other aspects of their postcranial anatomy evince mosaic combinations of primitive (australopith-like) and derived (Homo-like) features, the upper limbs (excluding the hand and wrist) of the Malapa hominins are predominantly primitive and suggest the retention of substantial climbing and suspensory ability. The use of the forelimb primarily for prehension and manipulation appears to arise later, likely with the emergence of Homo erectus. PMID:23580536

  17. Upper Hybrid Effects in Artificial Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, K.; Eliasson, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    A most fascinating result of recent ionospheric experiments has been the discovery of artificial ionization by Pedersen et al. (GRL, 37, L02106, 2010). The Artificial Ionospheric Layers (AIL) were the result of F-region O-mode HF irradiation using the HAARP ionospheric heater operating at 3.6 MW power. As demonstrated by Eliasson et al. (JGR, 117, A10321, 2012) the physics controlling the observed phenomenon and its threshold can be summarized as: " Collisional ionization due to high energy (~ 20 eV) electron tails generated by the interaction of strong Langmuir turbulence with plasma heated at the upper hybrid resonance and transported at the reflection height". The objective of the current presentation is to explore the role of the upper hybrid heating in the formation of AIL and its implications to future experiments involving HF heaters operating in middle and equatorial latitudes.

  18. Centaur upper-stage rocket for shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A popular topic for discussion among those still hoping that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) space shuttle will be able to launch large scientific space probes from earth orbit is the matter of the so-called US, or upper-stage, rocket vehicle. Programs slated for the middle of the decade that include sending probes deep into space will not be possible without a very powerful upper-stage rocket, and thus there was a surge of optimism among space scientists and NASA officials this past September when Congress voted not to eliminate the big Centaur rocket from space shuttle's portion of the NASA 1983 fiscal year budget.Support for construction of the Centaur followed the Air Force's requirement for greater lifting power because of the shielding required to prevent contamination of certain classified payloads (Science, 1 October 1982). The large rocket will also be needed to place massive communications satellites into geosynchronous earth orbit.

  19. Mangling upper limb injuries in industry.

    PubMed

    Ring, D; Jupiter, J B

    1999-01-01

    The salvage of upper limbs mangled by industrial machinery became possible with the development of predictable techniques of vascular and microvascular anastamosis. Unfortunately, many of these salvaged limbs are associated with fair and poor functional outcomes. The quality of the skeletal fixation can have a substantial effect on the functional outcome and should be a major focus of the limb repair process. Internal plate fixation facilitates wound care and limb mobilization without tethering muscle-tendon units and is safe in the majority of severe upper limb injuries provided that all devitalized tissue is debrided and, if necessary, reconstructed using microvascular tissue transfers. Injury patterns, especially those which involve associated injury of the elbow or forearm ligaments, must be identified and treated appropriately. Internal fixation should restore anatomical alignment and provide sufficient stability to allow immediate active mobilization of the limb without contributing to devascularization of the soft tissues or skeleton. PMID:10562855

  20. Upper limit on Titan's atmospheric argon abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobel, D. F.; Hall, D. T.; Zhu, X.; Summers, M. E.

    1993-06-01

    An analysis is conducted on the Voyager 1 UV Spectrometer solar-occultation data and a Titan flyby spectrum of the north polar region dayglow, in order to infer the tropopausal Ar mixing ratio's upper limit as a function of the CH4 mixing ratio, f(CH4). The mole-fraction upper limit of tropopausal Ar mixing ratio ranges from 0.01 to 0.1 at f(CH4) of 0.026 to as low as 0.08 at f(CH4) of 0.05. Since the best fits to the solar occultation data require f(CH4) of more than 0.26, the Ar mixing ratio must be lower than 0.1.

  1. Fibrolipoma on upper eyelid in child.

    PubMed

    Corredor-Osorio, Rafael; Ramos-Pineda, Nelly; Eugenia Orellana, María

    2016-01-01

    An 18-months-old male infant presented with a rapidly growing tumor on the right upper eyelid. Orbital computed tomography (CT) revealed a large, well-circumscribed mass with low density signal in the right upper eyelid. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) showed a lesion of mixed T1-signal intensity and high signal intensity in T2-weighted images. The tumor was treated by simple anterior orbitotomy with excisional biopsy, and the diagnosis of fibrolipoma was made by histopathologic examination. There was no evidence of tumor at the four-year follow-up. Fibrolipoma is one of the rare variant of the lipoma and only four cases have been reported in the orbit including the present case. Except for this case all other cases were reported in adults. PMID:27625962

  2. Upper limit on Titan's atmospheric argon abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobel, Darrell F.; Hall, Doyle T.; Zhu, Xun; Summers, Michael E.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis is conducted on the Voyager 1 UV Spectrometer solar-occultation data and a Titan flyby spectrum of the north polar region dayglow, in order to infer the tropopausal Ar mixing ratio's upper limit as a function of the CH4 mixing ratio, f(CH4). The mole-fraction upper limit of tropopausal Ar mixing ratio ranges from 0.01 to 0.1 at f(CH4) of 0.026 to as low as 0.08 at f(CH4) of 0.05. Since the best fits to the solar occultation data require f(CH4) of more than 0.26, the Ar mixing ratio must be lower than 0.1.

  3. An upper limit for stratospheric hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, K. V.; Traub, W. A.

    1984-01-01

    It has been postulated that hydrogen peroxide is important in stratospheric chemistry as a reservoir and sink for odd hydrogen species, and for its ability to interconvert them. The present investigation is concerned with an altitude dependent upper limit curve for stratospheric hydrogen peroxide, taking into account an altitude range from 21.5 to 38.0 km for January 23, 1983. The data employed are from balloon flight No. 1316-P, launched from the National Scientific Balloon Facility (NSBF) in Palestine, Texas. The obtained upper limit curve lies substantially below the data reported by Waters et al. (1981), even though the results are from the same latitude and are both wintertime measurements.

  4. Seismic Q of the lunar upper mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Koyama, J.

    1982-01-01

    Shallow moonquake data are used to determine the frequency dependence of Q values for both compressional and shear waves in the upper mantle of the moon at frequencies between 3 and 8 Hz. The seismic P wave Q is estimated to be at least 4000 and is nearly independent of frequency or decreases slightly with increasing frequency, while the S wave Q increases from at least 4000 at 3 Hz to at least 7000 at 8 Hz. The rate of increase of Q(S) is approximately proportional to the 0.7 + or - 0.1 power of the frequency above 5 Hz. With the absence of other dissipation mechanisms, compressional heat loss may be a dominant factor in the lunar interior. Uncertainty remains, however, in the absolute values of Q's owing to the largely unknown detailed structure of the lunar upper mantle.

  5. Sources of particulates in the upper stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigg, E. Keith

    2011-10-01

    The dominant forms of particles collected at altitudes of 39, 42 and 45km during three balloon flights over Australia were aggregates having components with diameters typically 40 to 50nm. Their partial electron transparency suggested an organic composition and all were accompanied by a volatile liquid that could be stabilised by reaction with a thin copper film. They closely resembled particles called "fluffy micrometeorites" collected earlier in the mesosphere from rockets and their properties were consistent with those of particles collected from a comet by a recent spacecraft experiment. Particles in the upper stratosphere included some that resembled viruses and cocci, the latter being one of the organisms cultured from upper stratospheric air in a recent experiment. A plausible source of the stratospheric, mesospheric and cometary aggregates is consistent with the "panspermia" theory, that microorganisms present in space at the birth of the solar system could have reproduced in water within comets and brought life to Earth.

  6. Upper extremity quad splint: indications and technique.

    PubMed

    DeFroda, Steven F; Gil, Joseph A; Bokshan, Steven; Waryasz, Gregory

    2015-12-01

    Patients experiencing high-energy trauma evaluated at level I trauma centers often present with multiple injuries and varying levels of hemodynamic instability. The polytrauma patient requires immediate assessment and stabilization of their orthopedic injuries once the primary trauma survey is complete, and oftentimes, operative fixation of injuries is delayed while patients are resuscitated by general trauma services. The authors describe the application of the upper extremity "quad" splint which includes components of a sugar tong, intrinsic plus, thumb spica, and dorsal extension blocking splint and its indication for patients with multiple upper extremity fractures distal to the humerus. This splint is efficiently applied using minimal material while simultaneously allowing for the stabilizing aspects of 4 splints commonly applied in the emergency setting. PMID:26472510

  7. Fibrolipoma on upper eyelid in child

    PubMed Central

    Corredor-Osorio, Rafael; Ramos-Pineda, Nelly; Eugenia Orellana, María

    2016-01-01

    An 18-months-old male infant presented with a rapidly growing tumor on the right upper eyelid. Orbital computed tomography (CT) revealed a large, well-circumscribed mass with low density signal in the right upper eyelid. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) showed a lesion of mixed T1-signal intensity and high signal intensity in T2-weighted images. The tumor was treated by simple anterior orbitotomy with excisional biopsy, and the diagnosis of fibrolipoma was made by histopathologic examination. There was no evidence of tumor at the four-year follow-up. Fibrolipoma is one of the rare variant of the lipoma and only four cases have been reported in the orbit including the present case. Except for this case all other cases were reported in adults. PMID:27625962

  8. Upper Rio Grande Simulation Model (URGSIM)

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Jesse; & Tidwell, Vincent

    2010-08-05

    URGSIM estimates the location of surface water and groundwater resources in the upper Rio Grande Basin between the Colorado-New Mexico state line, and Caballo Reservoir from 1975 - 2045. It is a mass balance hydrology model of the Upper Rio Grande surface water, groundwater, and water demand systems which runs at a monthly timestep from 1975-1999 in calibration mode, 2000 – 2004 in validation mode, and 2005 – 2045 in scenario analysis mode.

  9. Upper bounds on sequential decoding performance parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jelinek, F.

    1974-01-01

    This paper presents the best obtainable random coding and expurgated upper bounds on the probabilities of undetectable error, of t-order failure (advance to depth t into an incorrect subset), and of likelihood rise in the incorrect subset, applicable to sequential decoding when the metric bias G is arbitrary. Upper bounds on the Pareto exponent are also presented. The G-values optimizing each of the parameters of interest are determined, and are shown to lie in intervals that in general have nonzero widths. The G-optimal expurgated bound on undetectable error is shown to agree with that for maximum likelihood decoding of convolutional codes, and that on failure agrees with the block code expurgated bound. Included are curves evaluating the bounds for interesting choices of G and SNR for a binary-input quantized-output Gaussian additive noise channel.

  10. Seismic Q of the lunar upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Koyama, J.

    1982-06-01

    Shallow moonquake data are used to determine the frequency dependence of Q values for both compressional and shear waves in the upper mantle of the moon at frequencies between 3 and 8 Hz. The seismic P wave Q is estimated to be at least 4000 and is nearly independent of frequency or decreases slightly with increasing frequency, while the S wave Q increases from at least 4000 at 3 Hz to at least 7000 at 8 Hz. The rate of increase of Q(S) is approximately proportional to the 0.7 + or - 0.1 power of the frequency above 5 Hz. With the absence of other dissipation mechanisms, compressional heat loss may be a dominant factor in the lunar interior. Uncertainty remains, however, in the absolute values of Q's owing to the largely unknown detailed structure of the lunar upper mantle.

  11. Bone Lengthening in the Pediatric Upper Extremity.

    PubMed

    Farr, Sebastian; Mindler, Gabriel; Ganger, Rudolf; Girsch, Werner

    2016-09-01

    ➤Bone lengthening has been used successfully for several congenital and acquired conditions in the pediatric clavicle, humerus, radius, ulna, and phalanges.➤Common indications for bone lengthening include achondroplasia, radial longitudinal deficiency, multiple hereditary exostosis, brachymetacarpia, symbrachydactyly, and posttraumatic and postinfectious growth arrest.➤Most authors prefer distraction rates of <1 mm/day for each bone in the upper extremity except the humerus, which can safely be lengthened by 1 mm/day.➤Most authors define success by the amount of radiographic bone lengthening, joint motion after lengthening, and subjective patient satisfaction rather than validated patient-related outcome measures.➤Bone lengthening of the upper extremity is associated with a high complication rate, with complications including pin-track infections, fixation device failure, nerve lesions, nonunion, fracture of regenerate bone, and joint dislocations. PMID:27605694

  12. Acute compartment syndrome of the upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Prasarn, Mark L; Ouellette, Elizabeth A

    2011-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome occurs when pressure within a fibro-osseous space increases to a level that results in a decreased perfusion gradient across tissue capillary beds. Compartment syndromes of the hand, forearm, and upper arm can result in tissue necrosis, which can lead to devastating loss of function. The etiology of acute compartment syndrome in the upper extremity is diverse, and a high index of suspicion must be maintained. Pain out of proportion to injury is the most reliable early symptom of impending compartment syndrome. Diagnosis is particularly difficult in obtunded patients and in young children. Early recognition and expeditious surgical treatment are essential to obtain a good clinical outcome and prevent permanent disability.

  13. Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS): Emergency support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osler, S.; Moore, V.

    1991-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) mission support requirements for the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) are summarized. The UARS satellite will be placed into a circular orbit of 600 km and 57 deg inclination with a period of 97 minutes. The mission objectives are outlined and the DSN support requirements are defined through the presentation of tables and narratives describing the spacecraft flight profile; DSN support coverage; frequency assignments; support parameters for telemetry, command and support systems; and tracking support responsibility.

  14. Upper Limit of Weights in TAI Computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Claudine; Azoubib, Jacques

    1996-01-01

    The international reference time scale International Atomic Time (TAI) computed by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) relies on a weighted average of data from a large number of atomic clocks. In it, the weight attributed to a given clock depends on its long-term stability. In this paper the TAI algorithm is used as the basis for a discussion of how to implement an upper limit of weight for clocks contributing to the ensemble time. This problem is approached through the comparison of two different techniques. In one case, a maximum relative weight is fixed: no individual clock can contribute more than a given fraction to the resulting time scale. The weight of each clock is then adjusted according to the qualities of the whole set of contributing elements. In the other case, a parameter characteristic of frequency stability is chosen: no individual clock can appear more stable than the stated limit. This is equivalent to choosing an absolute limit of weight and attributing this to to the most stable clocks independently of the other elements of the ensemble. The first technique is more robust than the second and automatically optimizes the stability of the resulting time scale, but leads to a more complicated computatio. The second technique has been used in the TAI algorithm since the very beginning. Careful analysis of tests on real clock data shows that improvement of the stability of the time scale requires revision from time to time of the fixed value chosen for the upper limit of absolute weight. In particular, we present results which confirm the decision of the CCDS Working Group on TAI to increase the absolute upper limit by a factor of 2.5. We also show that the use of an upper relative contribution further helps to improve the stability and may be a useful step towards better use of the massive ensemble of HP 507IA clocks now contributing to TAI.

  15. Dentulous Appliance for Upper Anterior Edentulous Span

    PubMed Central

    Chalakkal, Paul; Devi, Ramisetty Sabitha; Srinivas, G. Vijay; Venkataramana, Pammi

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses about a fixed dentulous appliance that was constructed to replace the primary upper anterior edentulous span in a four year old girl. It constituted a design, whereby the maxillary primary second molars were used to support the appliance through bands and a wire that contained an acrylic flange bearing trimmed acrylic teeth, anteriorly. The appliance was functionally and aesthetically compliant. PMID:24551736

  16. An upper bound on quantum entropy.

    SciTech Connect

    Zachos, C. K.; High Energy Physics

    2008-01-01

    Following ref [1], a classical upper bound for quantum entropy is identified and illustrated, 0 {le} S{sub q} {le} ln (e{sigma}{sup 2}/2{h_bar}), involving the variance {sigma}{sup 2} in phase space of the classical limit distribution of a given system. A fortiori, this further bounds the corresponding information-theoretical generalizations of the quantum entropy proposed by Renyi.

  17. Upper critical field of copper molybdenum sulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, S. A.; Woollam, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The upper critical field of sintered and sputtered copper molybdenum sulfide Cu(x)Mo6S8 was measured and found to exceed the Werthamer, Helfand, and Hohenberg (1966) value for a type II superconductor characterized by dirty limit, weak isotropic electron phonon coupling, and no paramagnetic limiting. It is suggested that the enhancement results from anisotropy or clean limit or both. Other ternary molybdenum sulfides appear to show similar anomalies.

  18. Throwing injuries of the upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Patel, Neel B; Thomas, Stephen; Lazarus, Martin L

    2013-03-01

    The overhead throwing motion is a complex sequence of maneuvers that requires coordinated muscle activity in the upper and lower extremities. The shoulder and elbow are subject to multidirectional forces and are particularly vulnerable to injury during specific phases of the overhead throwing motion. Ligamentous, tendinous, neural, and osseous pathology that may occur in the shoulder or elbow of an overhead-throwing athlete will be discussed, with an emphasis on the role of MR imaging and MR arthrography.

  19. Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) software analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grayson, W. L.; Nickel, C. E.; Rose, P. L.; Singh, R. P.

    1979-01-01

    The Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) System, an extension of the Space Transportation System (STS) operating regime to include higher orbits, orbital plane changes, geosynchronous orbits, and interplanetary trajectories is presented. The IUS software design, the IUS software interfaces with other systems, and the cost effectiveness in software verification are described. Tasks of the IUS discussed include: (1) design analysis; (2) validation requirements analysis; (3) interface analysis; and (4) requirements analysis.

  20. Endoluminal pharmacologic stimulation of the upper urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Jørn Skibsted

    2013-05-01

    perfusion compared to saline perfusion alone. Pressures obtained during ISO perfusion were kept below the critical pressure for intrarenal reflux. The pressure flow relation during semirigid ureterorenoscopy was linear and ISO reduced pelvic pressure significantly, but not below the critical level for intrarenal reflux. In conclusion, ISO 0.1 µg/ml added to the irrigation fluid during endoscopic procedures was safe in this porcine model. Alongside this thesis, we have demonstrated the relaxing potency of 0.1 µg/ml ISO added to the irrigation fluid in a human trial and found it safe. Future research in this area, especially randomized clinical trials, regarding the relaxing potency, complication rates, pain episodes etc. should be evaluated. The addition of a relaxant drug to the irrigation fluid may prove to favour therapeutic or diagnostic endoscopic procedures in the upper urinary tract in the future. PMID:23673271

  1. Seasonal ozone variations in the upper mesosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.J. )

    1990-05-20

    The global daytime ozone was measured by the Solar Mesosphere Explorer satellite (SME) for 5 years. The measurements extend through the mesosphere, covering from 50 km to over 90 km. The ozone in the upper mesosphere varies annually by up to a factor of 3. The observed seasonal variations may be summarized in several different ways. From year to year there is a great deal of repeatability of these variations. This repeatability occurs in most of the upper mesosphere outside the tropics. Near 0.01 mbar (80 km) the mid- and high-latitude mixing ratio peaks each year in mid-April. A secondary maximum in the altitude profile of ozone density usually occurs near 85 km. Changes in this structure are directly related to the April maximum and other seasonal changes seen at 0.01 mbar. The changing seasonal structure produces a bump at the ozone mixing ratio minimum that is largest just after spring equinox. This perturbation to the mixing ratio profile seems to move upward during the first half of the year. The seasonal changes of ozone were analyzed in terms of annual and semiannual structure. The variations generally have both an annual and semiannual component depending on altitude and latitude. The phases of the variations change quickly with both altitude and latitude. The semiannual component peaks in April, over most of the upper mesosphere.

  2. The upper mantle transition region - Eclogite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    The upper mantle transition region is usually considered to be peridotite which undergoes a series of phase changes involving spinel and post-spinel assemblages. There are difficulties associated with attempts to explain the 220, 400 and 670 km discontinuities in terms of phase changes in a peridotitic mantle. Moreover, in a differentiated earth there should be large quantities of eclogite in the upper mantle. Eclogite is denser than Al2O3-poor mantle to depths of 670 km, but it stays in the garnet stability field to pressures in excess of those required to transform depleted mantle to denser phases such as ilmenite and perovskite. Eclogite, therefore, remains above 670 km. The seismic properties of the transition region are more consistent with eclogite than peridotite. Most of the mantle's inventory of incompatible trace elements may be in this layer, which is a potential source region for some basalt magmas. The radioactivity in this layer is the main source of mantle heat flow, 0.7 microcalorie/sq cm-sec, and drives upper mantle convection.

  3. Upper ocean response to typhoon Kalmaegi (2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Han; Chen, Dake; Zhou, Lei; Liu, Xiaohui; Ding, Tao; Zhou, Beifeng

    2016-08-01

    Typhoon Kalmaegi passed over an array of buoys and moorings in the northern South China Sea in September 2014, leaving a rare set of observations on typhoon-induced dynamical and thermohaline responses in the upper ocean. The dynamical response was characterized by strong near-inertial currents with opposite phases in the surface mixed layer and in the thermocline, indicating the dominance of the response by the excitation of the first baroclinic mode. The thermohaline response showed considerable changes in the mean fields in addition to a near-inertial oscillation. In particular, temperature and salinity anomalies generally exhibited a three-layer vertical structure, with the surface layer becoming cooler and saltier, the subsurface layer warmer and fresher, and the lower layer cooler and saltier again. The response in the surface and subsurface layers was much stronger to the right of the typhoon track, while that in the lower layer was stronger along the track and to the left. These features of the upper ocean response were grossly reproduced by a three-dimensional numerical model. A model-based heat budget analysis suggests that vertical mixing was mainly responsible for the surface cooling and subsurface warming, while upwelling was the cause of cooling from below. Both observations and model results indicate that the whole upper ocean experienced an overall cooling in the wake of typhoon Kalmaegi.

  4. A prototype Upper Atmospheric Research Collaboratory (UARC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauer, C. R.; Atkins, D. E; Weymouth, T. E.; Olson, G. M.; Niciejewski, R.; Finholt, T. A.; Prakash, A.; Rasmussen, C. E.; Killeen, T.; Rosenberg, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    The National Collaboratory concept has great potential for enabling 'critical mass' working groups and highly interdisciplinary research projects. We report here on a new program to build a prototype collaboratory using the Sondrestrom Upper Atmospheric Research Facility in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland and a group of associated scientists. The Upper Atmospheric Research Collaboratory (UARC) is a joint venture of researchers in upper atmospheric and space science, computer science, and behavioral science to develop a testbed for collaborative remote research. We define the 'collaboratory' as an advanced information technology environment which enables teams to work together over distance and time on a wide variety of intellectual tasks. It provides: (1) human-to-human communications using shared computer tools and work spaces; (2) group access and use of a network of information, data, and knowledge sources; and (3) remote access and control of instruments for data acquisition. The UARC testbed is being implemented to support a distributed community of space scientists so that they have network access to the remote instrument facility in Kangerlussuaq and are able to interact among geographically distributed locations. The goal is to enable them to use the UARC rather than physical travel to Greenland to conduct team research campaigns. Even on short notice through the collaboratory from their home institutions, participants will be able to meet together to operate a battery of remote interactive observations and to acquire, process, and interpret the data.

  5. Endoscopic detection of early upper GI cancers.

    PubMed

    Wong Kee Song, Louis-Michel; Wilson, Brian C

    2005-12-01

    The detection of early-stage neoplastic lesions in the upper GI tract is associated with improved survival and the potential for complete endoscopic resection that is minimally invasive and less morbid than surgery. Despite technological advances in standard white-light endoscopy, the ability of the endoscopist to reliably detect dysplastic and early cancerous changes in the upper GI tract remains limited. In conditions such as Barrett's oesophagus, practice guidelines recommend periodic endoscopic surveillance with multiple biopsies, a methodology that is hindered by random sampling error, inconsistent histopathological interpretation, and delay in diagnosis. Early detection may be enhanced by several promising diagnostic modalities such as chromoendoscopy, magnification endoscopy, and optical spectroscopic/imaging techniques, as these modalities offer the potential to identify in real-time lesions that are inconspicuous under conventional endoscopy. The combination of novel diagnostic techniques and local endoscopic therapies will provide the endoscopist with much needed tools that can considerably enhance the detection and management of early stage lesions in the upper GI tract.

  6. HESS upper limits for Kepler's supernova remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Bazer-Bachi, A. R.; Behera, B.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Berge, D.; Bernlöhr, K.; Boisson, C.; Bolz, O.; Borrel, V.; Braun, I.; Brion, E.; Brucker, J.; Bühler, R.; Bulik, T.; Büsching, I.; Boutelier, T.; Carrigan, S.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chounet, L.-M.; Clapson, A. C.; Coignet, G.; Cornils, R.; Costamante, L.; Dalton, M.; Degrange, B.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubois, F.; Dubus, G.; Dyks, J.; Egberts, K.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Feinstein, F.; Fiasson, A.; Förster, A.; Fontaine, G.; Füßling, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Goret, P.; Hadjichristidis, C.; Hauser, D.; Hauser, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Hofmann, W.; Holleran, M.; Hoppe, S.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; de Jager, O. C.; Jung, I.; Katarzyński, K.; Kendziorra, E.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Khélifi, B.; Keogh, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Lamanna, G.; Latham, I. J.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Martin, J. M.; Martineau-Huynh, O.; Marcowith, A.; Masterson, C.; Maurin, D.; McComb, T. J. L.; Moderski, R.; Moulin, E.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nekrassov, D.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; Olive, J.-P.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Orford, K. J.; Osborne, J. L.; Ostrowski, M.; Panter, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raubenheimer, B. C.; Raue, M.; Rayner, S. M.; Renaud, M.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Ruppel, J.; Sahakian, V.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schöck, F. M.; Schröder, R.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Shalchi, A.; Sol, H.; Spangler, D.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Superina, G.; Tam, P. H.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Vincent, P.; Vivier, M.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.

    2008-09-01

    Aims: Observations of Kepler's supernova remnant (G4.5+6.8) with the HESS telescope array in 2004 and 2005 with a total live time of 13 h are presented. Methods: Stereoscopic imaging of Cherenkov radiation from extensive air showers is used to reconstruct the energy and direction of the incident gamma rays. Results: No evidence for a very high energy (VHE: >100 GeV) gamma-ray signal from the direction of the remnant is found. An upper limit (99% confidence level) on the energy flux in the range 230 GeV{-}12.8 TeV of 8.6 × 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1 is obtained. Conclusions: In the context of an existing theoretical model for the remnant, the lack of a detectable gamma-ray flux implies a distance of at least 6.4 kpc. A corresponding upper limit for the density of the ambient matter of 0.7 cm-3 is derived. With this distance limit, and assuming a spectral index Γ = 2, the total energy in accelerated protons is limited to Ep < 8.6 × 1049 erg. In the synchrotron/inverse Compton framework, extrapolating the power law measured by RXTE between 10 and 20 keV down in energy, the predicted gamma-ray flux from inverse Compton scattering is below the measured upper limit for magnetic field values greater than 52 μ G.

  7. Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thromboses: The Bowler and the Barista

    PubMed Central

    du Breuil, Anne L.; Close, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Effort thrombosis of the upper extremity refers to a deep venous thrombosis of the upper extremity resulting from repetitive activity of the upper limb. Most cases of effort thrombosis occur in young elite athletes with strenuous upper extremity activity. This article reports two cases who both developed upper extremity deep vein thromboses, the first being a 67-year-old bowler and the second a 25-year-old barista, and illustrates that effort thrombosis should be included in the differential diagnosis in any patient with symptoms concerning DVT associated with repetitive activity. A literature review explores the recommended therapies for upper extremity deep vein thromboses. PMID:27800207

  8. Stratigraphic framework of the upper Fort Union Formation, TA Hills, Western Powder River basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, Jean N.; Flores, Romeo M.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to interpret a relationship between the stratigraphy and the environment of deposition of the upper part of the Fort Union Formation in the TA Hills in the western part of the Powder River Basin, Johnson County, Wyoming.  This framework was used to map and correlate coal beds with those mapped by Hose (1955) and Mapel (1959) in the southern and northern parts of the study area, respectively.  More specifically, the established stratigraphic and environmental relationships of the coal beds and associated rocks contribute to a depositional model for the upper part of the Fort Union Formation in the TA Hills.

  9. Longitudinal patterns in abundance of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, W.G.; Bartsch, M.R.; Hayden, R.R.

    1997-01-01

    We assessed the abundance of zebra mussels in the upper Mississippi River during 1995, four years after they were first found in the river. Samplers were deployed from May 30 to October 19, 1995, at 19 lock and dam facilities in the upper Mississippi River from Minneapolis, Minnesota, to Muscatine, Iowa. Zebra mussels were found at every lock and dam except the two sites farthest upstream (Minneapolis). Generally, densities of zebra mussels were greatest at sites 161 km and farther downstream of the Minneapolis area. The greatest mean mussel density was 11,432/m(2) at Fulton, Illinois.

  10. Revisions to the original extent of the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Enomoto, Catherine B.; Rouse, William A.; Trippi, Michael H.; Higley, Debra K.

    2016-04-11

    Technically recoverable undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in continuous accumulations are present in Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian strata in the Appalachian Basin Petroleum Province. The province includes parts of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama. The Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian strata are part of the previously defined Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System (TPS) that extends from New York to Tennessee. This publication presents a revision to the extent of the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic TPS. The most significant modification to the maximum extent of the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic TPS is to the south and southwest, adding areas in Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi where Devonian strata, including potential petroleum source rocks, are present in the subsurface up to the outcrop. The Middle to Upper Devonian Chattanooga Shale extends from southeastern Kentucky to Alabama and eastern Mississippi. Production from Devonian shale has been established in the Appalachian fold and thrust belt of northeastern Alabama. Exploratory drilling has encountered Middle to Upper Devonian strata containing organic-rich shale in west-central Alabama. The areas added to the TPS are located in the Valley and Ridge, Interior Low Plateaus, and Appalachian Plateaus physiographic provinces, including the portion of the Appalachian fold and thrust belt buried beneath Cretaceous and younger sediments that were deposited on the U.S. Gulf Coastal Plain.

  11. Lower Pennsylvanian-Upper Mississippian Deposystems, Monteagle Mountain, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Warmouth, M. )

    1990-10-01

    Exposures of Carboniferous rocks are located along Interstate 24 on the east and west sides of Monteagle Mountain (three exposures in all). Here the Upper Mississippian Pennington formation accumulated in a high intertidal paleoenvironment. Lowermost Pennsylvanian marginal marine deposits form the Raccoon Mountain formation. In this area, the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian systemic boundary may be placed at different levels, depending on the bias of the observer, and therefore may be considered either as transitional or erosional. Five cycles of braided stream fining upward sequences are mapped as Warren Point Sandstone, Signal Point Shale, and Sewanee Sandstone. These cyclic Pennsylvanian deposits on Monteagle Mountain may be an eastern extension of the well-known, mid-continent Pennsylvanian cyclothems.

  12. Gasoline and tourism in the Upper Midwest. [Booklet

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of high gasoline prices on tourism in the Midwest is confusing as some data show Americans finding new ways to express their right to freedom of mobility through shorter and less-expensive trips, while other data reveal no impact on travel behavior. Although the tourism patterns of out-of-state visitors during 1979-80 are based on statistics that are collected differently in each state, several major findings in this report are that (1) high prices affect vacation plans; (2) the upper Midwest states were especially hurt because of their remoteness; (3) new transportation modes are replacing cars as vacationers select single destinations; and (4) small, independent businesses have suffered the most. This report suggests ways to promote tourism in the immediate vicinity of recreation areas, and recommends state promotional efforts that will taken advantage of new travel trends. 29 references, 4 tables. (DCK)

  13. Lymphatic filariasis in two distinct communities of upper Assam.

    PubMed

    Khan, A M; Dutta, P; Khan, S A; Mohapatra, P K; Baruah, N K; Sharma, C K; Mahanta, A J

    1999-06-01

    Current status of bancroftian filariasis among two distinct communities of Upper Assam was evaluated. High prevalence (10.3% mf rate) in tea workers descendents of tribals migrated from endemic states such as Orissa, Bengal, Uttar Pradesh and southern states of India, were recorded. Among non tea workers (indigenous population) significantly low mf rate was found in spite of the fact that both the communities are living in close vicinity and in similar ecological and mosquitogenic conditions. Culex quinquefasciatus was incriminated as vector in the areas of both the communities. A group of recent migrants of Bihar and Bengal living in the locality of non tea worker population were also found microfilaraemic. Significantly lower infection rate in non tea worker population appears to be associated with host susceptibility to the infection. Familial clustering in microfilaraemic subjects noticed in tea workers group also suggests involvement of racial susceptibility to infection. PMID:10810596

  14. Spacesuit Soft Upper Torso Sizing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graziosi, David; Splawn, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The passive sizing system consists of a series of low-profile pulleys attached to the front and back of the shoulder bearings on a spacesuit soft upper torso (SUT), textile cord or stainless steel cable, and a modified commercial ratchet mechanism. The cord/cable is routed through the pulleys and attached to the ratchet mechanism mounted on the front of the spacesuit within reach of the suited subject. Upon actuating the ratchet mechanism, the shoulder bearing breadth is changed, providing variable upper torso sizing. The active system consists of a series of pressurizable nastic cells embedded into the fabric layers of a spacesuit SUT. These cells are integrated to the front and back of the SUT and are connected to an air source with a variable regulator. When inflated, the nastic cells provide a change in the overall shoulder bearing breadth of the spacesuit and thus, torso sizing. The research focused on the development of a high-performance sizing and actuation system. This technology has application as a suit-sizing mechanism to allow easier suit entry and more accurate suit fit with fewer torso sizes than the existing EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) suit system. This advanced SUT will support NASA s Advanced EMU Evolutionary Concept of a two-sizes-fit-all upper torso for replacement of the current EMU hard upper torso (HUT). Both the passive and nastic sizing system approaches provide astronauts with real-time upper torso sizing, which translates into a more comfortable suit, providing enhanced fit resulting in improved crewmember performance during extravehicular activity. These systems will also benefit NASA by reducing flight logistics as well as overall suit system cost. The nastic sizing system approach provides additional structural redundancy over existing SUT designs by embedding additional coated fabric and uncoated fabric layers. Two sizing systems were selected to build into a prototype SUT: one active and one passive. From manned testing, it

  15. Neurotoxins: Current Concepts in Cosmetic Use on the Face and Neck--Upper Face (Glabella, Forehead, and Crow's Feet).

    PubMed

    Monheit, Gary

    2015-11-01

    There are 3 Food and Drug Administration-approved botulinum toxin formulations now being successfully used for treatment in the upper face. The most common areas for botulinum toxin treatment are the upper face, including the glabella, forehead, brows, and lateral canthal lines or crow's feet. The frozen look is no more desired in patients. Thus, physicians are more commonly individualizing dosage based on the patient's variation in anatomy, muscle mass, asymmetry, and, most importantly, desired outcome.

  16. Upper airway segmentation and measurement in MRI using fuzzy connectedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianguo; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; McDonough, Joe M.; Arens, Raanan

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to build a computerized system for the delineation of upper airway structures via MRI and to evaluate its effectiveness for routine clinical use in aiding diagnosis of upper airway disorders in children. We use two MRI protocols, axial T1 and T2, to gather information about different aspects of the airway and its surrounding soft tissue structures including adenoid, tonsils, tongue and soft palate. These images are processed and segmented to compute the architectural parameters of the airway such as its surface description, volume, central (medial) line, and cross-sectional areas at planes orthogonal to the central line. We have built a software package based on 3DVIEWNIX and running on a 450 MHz Pentium PC under Linux system (and on a Sun workstation under Unix) for the various operations of visualization, segmentation, registration, prefiltering, interpolation, standardization, and quantitative analysis of the airway. The system has been tested utilizing 40 patient studies. For every study, the system segmented and displayed a smooth 3D rendition of the airway, its central line and a plot of the cross-sectional area of the airway orthogonal to the central line as a function of the distance from one end of the central line. The tests indicate 97% precision and accuracy for segmentation. The mean time taken per study is about 4 minutes for the airway. This includes operator interaction time and processing time. This method provides a robust and fast means of assessing the airway size, shape, and places of restriction, as well as providing a structural data set suitable for use in modeling studies of airflow and mechanics.

  17. Tumors involving the skin of the upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Fleegler, E J

    1987-05-01

    This review can only introduce the subject of tumors found involving the skin of the upper extremity. Many benign masses as well as some malignant tumors have to be considered when a patient calls to the physician's attention a lump, firm area, color change, ulcer, or other alteration in the skin. In response, the physician must have a high index of suspicion, take a careful history, and carry out a thorough examination in order to develop a safe approach. Thought has to be given to the complex anatomy of this area. Understanding of the pathophysiology of tumors and of possible later additional therapy is needed to plan an appropriate biopsy. In the brief discussions of treatment, the difficulty in choosing margins of resection and assessing the efficacy of lymph node dissection is mentioned. An open mind and assessment of future reports of studies in progress may be helpful. Whatever treatment is applied to the malignant tumors under consideration, it is my opinion that one must persist in this until one obtains tumor-free margins. The surgeon undertaking this responsibility must apply the same tumor techniques including operating room discipline that would be applied to any serious malignancy. Consultation and careful work with colleagues that are able to assess the potential for response to chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and/or radiotherapy, should be sought. Subtle hazards in our environment, such as changing risk of sun exposure, industrial chemicals, and irradiation should be pointed out to our patients. These are a challenge to the student of this subject, just as tobacco products are to those involved with malignancies of the head and neck, respiratory, and other systems. All of the previously mentioned methods must be used in the anatomically complex upper extremity to preserve function while ridding the patient of the burden of a disfiguring or painful benign process, or even a life-threatening malignancy. PMID:3034925

  18. Investigation of upper crustal structure beneath eastern Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martha, Agustya Adi; Widiyantoro, Sri; Cummnins, Phil; Saygin, Erdinc; Masturyono

    2016-05-01

    The complexity of geology structure in eastern Java causes this region has many potential resources as much as the disasters. Therefore, the East Java province represents an interesting area to be explored, especially regarding its upper crustal structure. To investigate this structure, we employ the Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT) method. We have used seismic waveform data from 25 Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency (BMKG) stationary seismographic stations and 26 portable seismographs installed for 2 to 8 weeks. Inter-station cross-correlation produces more than 800 Rayleigh wave components, which depict the structure beneath eastern Java. Based on the checkerboard resolution test, we found that the optimal grid size is 0.25ox0.25o. Our inversion results for the periods of 1 to 10 s indicate a good agreement with geological and Bouguer anomaly maps. Rembang high depression, most of the southern mountains zone, the northern part of Rembang zone and the central part of the Madura Island, the area of high gravity anomaly and areas dominated with igneous rocks are associated with high velocity zones. On the other hand, Kendeng zone and most of the basin in the Rembang zone are associated with low velocity zones.

  19. Understanding the Anatomy of the Upper Face When Providing Aesthetic Injection Treatments.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Tracey A

    2016-01-01

    Advanced rejuvenation procedures for the upper face are becoming increasingly popular for aesthetic providers but are considered a high-risk treatment area for dermal filler/contouring products. Risks may range from bruising, which is manageable, to blindness, most often irreversible. Detailed comprehension of the facial anatomy is imperative when performing aesthetic injections including neuromodulators and dermal filler/contouring products. Understanding the location and function of the muscles, as well as landmarking the blood vessels and nerves, will assist the aesthetic provider to perform safe, confident injection procedures. This article focuses on the upper face anatomy as identified by the author's cadaveric dissections and includes the treatment areas of the frontalis, temporalis, and glabellar complex. The author's next article for the Plastic Surgical Nursing journal will focus on the periorbital area. PMID:27606584

  20. Plans: Poop Deck, Boat Deck, Housetop, Bridge Deck, Upper Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plans: Poop Deck, Boat Deck, Housetop, Bridge Deck, Upper Bridge Deck, Navigating Bridge, Forecastle Deck, Upper Deck, Second Deck and Hold - Saugatuck, James River Reserve Fleet, Newport News, Newport News, VA

  1. 25. DETAIL VIEW OF CONCRETE MONOLITH CONSTRUCTION AT UPPER END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. DETAIL VIEW OF CONCRETE MONOLITH CONSTRUCTION AT UPPER END OF MAIN LOCK AND DAM PIERS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST (DOWNSTREAM). NOTE GANTRY CRANES - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  2. 26. DETAIL VIEW OF CONCRETE MONOLITH CONSTRUCTION AT UPPER END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. DETAIL VIEW OF CONCRETE MONOLITH CONSTRUCTION AT UPPER END OF MAIN LOCK AND DAM PIERS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST (DOWNSTREAM) - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  3. Upper internals arrangement for a pressurized water reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, Norman R; Altman, David A; Yu, Ching; Rex, James A; Forsyth, David R

    2013-07-09

    In a pressurized water reactor with all of the in-core instrumentation gaining access to the core through the reactor head, each fuel assembly in which the instrumentation is introduced is aligned with an upper internals instrumentation guide-way. In the elevations above the upper internals upper support assembly, the instrumentation is protected and aligned by upper mounted instrumentation columns that are part of the instrumentation guide-way and extend from the upper support assembly towards the reactor head in hue with a corresponding head penetration. The upper mounted instrumentation columns are supported laterally at one end by an upper guide tube and at the other end by the upper support plate.

  4. 19. DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER EAST WALL CONTROL STATION, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER EAST WALL CONTROL STATION, SHOWING EMERGENCY BULKHEAD STIFFLEG DERRICK TO RIGHT, LOOKING WEST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 27, Granite City, Madison County, IL

  5. Detail of upper part of statuary niche, Federal Street lobby. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of upper part of statuary niche, Federal Street lobby. Wood storage platform in foreground divides Federal Street lobby into upper and lower sections - Stamford Post Office, 421 Atlantic Street, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  6. 14. Detail, upper chord connection point on upstream side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Detail, upper chord connection point on upstream side of truss, showing connection of upper chord, laced vertical compression member, strut, counters, and laterals. - Dry Creek Bridge, Spanning Dry Creek at Cook Road, Ione, Amador County, CA

  7. 10. UPSTREAM SIDE OF UPPER MITER GATES SHOWING STOWED LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. UPSTREAM SIDE OF UPPER MITER GATES SHOWING STOWED LEFT WING OF UPPER GUARD GATE (FAR LEFT). VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Starved Rock Locks & Dam, Illinois Waterway River mile 231, Peru, La Salle County, IL

  8. Physical Mechanisms Controlling Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor as Revealed by MLS Data from UARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, Reginald E.

    1998-01-01

    The seasonal changes of the upper tropospheric humidity are studied with the water vapor data from the Microwave Limb Sounder on the NASA Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite, and the winds and vertical velocity data obtained from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Using the same algorithm for vertical transport as that used for horizontal transport (Zhu and Newell, 1998), we find that the moisture in the tropical upper troposphere may be increased mainly by intensified local convection in a small portion, less than 10%, of the whole area between 40 deg S to 40 deg N. The contribution of large scale background circulations and divergence of horizontal transport is relatively small in these regions. These dynamic processes cannot be revealed by the traditional analyses of moisture fluxes. The negative feedback suggested by Lindzen (1990) also exists, if enhanced convection is concentrated in the tropics, but is apparently not the dominant process in the moisture budget.

  9. Advanced upper limb prosthetic devices: implications for upper limb prosthetic rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda; Meucci, Marissa R; Lieberman-Klinger, Shana; Fantini, Christopher; Kelty, Debra L; Disla, Roxanne; Sasson, Nicole

    2012-04-01

    The number of catastrophic injuries caused by improvised explosive devices in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars has increased public, legislative, and research attention to upper limb amputation. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has partnered with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and DEKA Integrated Solutions to optimize the function of an advanced prosthetic arm system that will enable greater independence and function. In this special communication, we examine current practices in prosthetic rehabilitation including trends in adoption and use of prosthetic devices, financial considerations, and the role of rehabilitation team members in light of our experiences with a prototype advanced upper limb prosthesis during a VA study to optimize the device. We discuss key challenges in the adoption of advanced prosthetic technology and make recommendations for service provision and use of advanced upper limb prosthetics. Rates of prosthetic rejection are high among upper limb amputees. However, these rates may be reduced with sufficient training by a highly specialized, multidisciplinary team of clinicians, and a focus on patient education and empowerment throughout the rehabilitation process. There are significant challenges emerging that are unique to implementing the use of advanced upper limb prosthetic technology, and a lack of evidence to establish clinical guidelines regarding prosthetic prescription and treatment. Finally, we make recommendations for future research to aid in the identification of best practices and development of policy decisions regarding insurance coverage of prosthetic rehabilitation. PMID:22464092

  10. Advanced upper limb prosthetic devices: implications for upper limb prosthetic rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda; Meucci, Marissa R; Lieberman-Klinger, Shana; Fantini, Christopher; Kelty, Debra L; Disla, Roxanne; Sasson, Nicole

    2012-04-01

    The number of catastrophic injuries caused by improvised explosive devices in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars has increased public, legislative, and research attention to upper limb amputation. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has partnered with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and DEKA Integrated Solutions to optimize the function of an advanced prosthetic arm system that will enable greater independence and function. In this special communication, we examine current practices in prosthetic rehabilitation including trends in adoption and use of prosthetic devices, financial considerations, and the role of rehabilitation team members in light of our experiences with a prototype advanced upper limb prosthesis during a VA study to optimize the device. We discuss key challenges in the adoption of advanced prosthetic technology and make recommendations for service provision and use of advanced upper limb prosthetics. Rates of prosthetic rejection are high among upper limb amputees. However, these rates may be reduced with sufficient training by a highly specialized, multidisciplinary team of clinicians, and a focus on patient education and empowerment throughout the rehabilitation process. There are significant challenges emerging that are unique to implementing the use of advanced upper limb prosthetic technology, and a lack of evidence to establish clinical guidelines regarding prosthetic prescription and treatment. Finally, we make recommendations for future research to aid in the identification of best practices and development of policy decisions regarding insurance coverage of prosthetic rehabilitation.

  11. 51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner building 105 from upper catwalk level showing emanating waveguides from upper switch (upper one-fourth of photograph) and emanating waveguides from lower radar scanner switch in vertical runs. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  12. Aspects of fish conservation in the upper Patos Lagoon basin.

    PubMed

    Fontoura, N F; Vieira, J P; Becker, F G; Rodrigues, L R; Malabarba, L R; Schulz, U H; Möller, O O; Garcia, A M; Vilella, F S

    2016-07-01

    The Patos Lagoon basin is a large (201 626 km(2) ) and complex drainage system in southern Brazil. The lagoon is 250 km long and 60 km wide, covering an area of 10 360 km(2) . The exchange of water with the Atlantic Ocean occurs through a 0·8 km wide and 15 m deep inlet, fixed by 4 km long jetties, at the southernmost part of the Patos Lagoon. The estuarine area is restricted to its southern portion (10%), although the upper limit of saline waters migrates seasonally and year to year, influenced by the wind regime and river discharge. The known number of recorded limnetic fish species is 200, but this number is expected to increase. A higher endemism is observed in fish species occurring in upper tributaries. The basin suffers from the direct impact of almost 7 million inhabitants, concentrated in small to large cities, most with untreated domestic effluents. There are at least 16 non-native species recorded in natural habitats of the Patos Lagoon basin, about half of these being from other South American river basins. Concerning the fishery, although sport and commercial fisheries are widespread throughout the Patos Lagoon basin, the lagoon itself and the estuarine area are the main fishing areas. Landing statistics are not available on a regular basis or for the whole basin. The fishery in the northern Patos Lagoon captures 31 different species, nine of which are responsible for most of the commercial catches, but only three species are actually sustaining the artisanal fishery: the viola Loricariichthys anus: 455 kg per 10 000 m(2) gillnet per day, the mullet Mugil liza: 123 kg per 10 000 m(2) gillnet per day and the marine catfish Genidens barbus: 50 kg per 10 000 m(2) gillnet per day. A decline of the fish stocks can be attributed to inadequate fishery surveillance, which leads to overfishing and mortality of juveniles, or to decreasing water quality because of urban and industrial activities and power production. Global climatic changes also represent a

  13. Aspects of fish conservation in the upper Patos Lagoon basin.

    PubMed

    Fontoura, N F; Vieira, J P; Becker, F G; Rodrigues, L R; Malabarba, L R; Schulz, U H; Möller, O O; Garcia, A M; Vilella, F S

    2016-07-01

    The Patos Lagoon basin is a large (201 626 km(2) ) and complex drainage system in southern Brazil. The lagoon is 250 km long and 60 km wide, covering an area of 10 360 km(2) . The exchange of water with the Atlantic Ocean occurs through a 0·8 km wide and 15 m deep inlet, fixed by 4 km long jetties, at the southernmost part of the Patos Lagoon. The estuarine area is restricted to its southern portion (10%), although the upper limit of saline waters migrates seasonally and year to year, influenced by the wind regime and river discharge. The known number of recorded limnetic fish species is 200, but this number is expected to increase. A higher endemism is observed in fish species occurring in upper tributaries. The basin suffers from the direct impact of almost 7 million inhabitants, concentrated in small to large cities, most with untreated domestic effluents. There are at least 16 non-native species recorded in natural habitats of the Patos Lagoon basin, about half of these being from other South American river basins. Concerning the fishery, although sport and commercial fisheries are widespread throughout the Patos Lagoon basin, the lagoon itself and the estuarine area are the main fishing areas. Landing statistics are not available on a regular basis or for the whole basin. The fishery in the northern Patos Lagoon captures 31 different species, nine of which are responsible for most of the commercial catches, but only three species are actually sustaining the artisanal fishery: the viola Loricariichthys anus: 455 kg per 10 000 m(2) gillnet per day, the mullet Mugil liza: 123 kg per 10 000 m(2) gillnet per day and the marine catfish Genidens barbus: 50 kg per 10 000 m(2) gillnet per day. A decline of the fish stocks can be attributed to inadequate fishery surveillance, which leads to overfishing and mortality of juveniles, or to decreasing water quality because of urban and industrial activities and power production. Global climatic changes also represent a

  14. High levels of endemism in suckermouth catfishes (Mochokidae: Chiloglanis) from the Upper Guinean forests of West Africa.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Ray C; Bart, Henry L; Pezold, Frank

    2016-07-01

    Freshwater systems are under threat globally, yet the biodiversity in many areas is still unknown. This is especially true for the aquatic biodiversity of the Upper Guinean forests of Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Côte d'Ivoire. Access to this area is largely restricted, though recent surveys by the authors are allowing us to reassess the area's diversity. This area has vast mineral reserves and hydroelectric potential. As the area emerges from civil strife and the recent public health crisis, policy makers and resource managers require accurate accounts of biodiversity to evaluate future development projects. Here we look at the diversity of the suckermouth catfishes (Chiloglanis) populations from the area; inferred from mitochondrial (cyt b) and nuclear (Growth Hormone intron) markers. The phylogenies revealed additional lineages, independent of the currently recognized taxa, suggesting the presence of ten new candidate species. These new taxa are largely endemic and allopatrically distributed in rivers of the Upper Guinean forests. Our results suggest that the aquatic diversity within the Upper Guinean forests is currently underestimated. This study provides the foundation for elucidating the historical biogeography of the region and highlights the endemism within rivers in the Upper Guinean forests and surrounding areas. PMID:27090447

  15. 33 CFR 117.1103 - Upper Mississippi River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Upper Mississippi River. 117.1103... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1103 Upper Mississippi River. See § 117.671, Upper Mississippi River, listed under Minnesota....

  16. 33 CFR 117.1103 - Upper Mississippi River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Upper Mississippi River. 117.1103... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1103 Upper Mississippi River. See § 117.671, Upper Mississippi River, listed under Minnesota....

  17. 33 CFR 117.1103 - Upper Mississippi River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Upper Mississippi River. 117.1103... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1103 Upper Mississippi River. See § 117.671, Upper Mississippi River, listed under Minnesota....

  18. 33 CFR 117.1103 - Upper Mississippi River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Upper Mississippi River. 117.1103... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1103 Upper Mississippi River. See § 117.671, Upper Mississippi River, listed under Minnesota....

  19. 33 CFR 117.1103 - Upper Mississippi River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Upper Mississippi River. 117.1103... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1103 Upper Mississippi River. See § 117.671, Upper Mississippi River, listed under Minnesota....

  20. Asian upper lid blepharoplasty: an update on indications and technique.

    PubMed

    Chen, William Pai-Dei; Park, John D J

    2013-02-01

    This article (1) briefly reviews the topographical and surgical anatomy of the Asian upper eyelid, (2) provides guidelines for preoperative assessment and postoperative management for upper Asian blepharoplasty, (3) describes the senior author's surgical technique for external incisional approach to upper eyelid crease formation, and (4) discusses potential pitfalls and complications.

  1. Extratropical Influence of Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor on Greenhouse Warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, H.; Liu, W.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to re-examine the impact of upper tropospheric water vapor on greenhouse warming in midlatitudes by analyzing the recent observations of the upper tropospheric water vapor from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), in conjuction with other space-based measurement and model simulation products.

  2. New insights into upper airway innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Hariri, Benjamin M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Protecting the upper airway from microbial infection is an important function of the immune system. Proper detection of these pathogens is paramount for sinonasal epithelial cells to be able to prepare a defensive response. Toll-like receptors and, more recently, bitter taste receptors and sweet taste receptors have been implicated as sensors able to detect the presence of these pathogens and certain compounds that they secrete. Activation of these receptors also triggers innate immune responses to prevent or counteract infection, including mucociliary clearance and the production and secretion of antimicrobial compounds (e.g., defensins). Objective: To provide an overview of the current knowledge of the role of innate immunity in the upper airway, the mechanisms by which it is carried out, and its clinical relevance. Methods: A literature review of the existing knowledge of the role of innate immunity in the human sinonasal cavity was performed. Results: Clinical and basic science studies have shown that the physical epithelial cell barrier, mucociliary clearance, and antimicrobial compound secretion play pivotal innate immune roles in defending the sinonasal cavity from infection. Clinical findings have also linked dysfunction of these defense mechanisms with diseases, such as chronic rhinosinusitis and cystic fibrosis. Recent discoveries have elucidated the significance of bitter and sweet taste receptors in modulating immune responses in the upper airway. Conclusion: Numerous innate immune mechanisms seem to work in a concerted fashion to keep the sinonasal cavity free of infection. Understanding sinonasal innate immune function and dysfunction in health and disease has important implications for patients with respiratory ailments, such as chronic rhinosinusitis and cystic fibrosis.

  3. Upper and lower bounds on quantum codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Graeme Stewart Baird

    This thesis provides bounds on the performance of quantum error correcting codes when used for quantum communication and quantum key distribution. The first two chapters provide a bare-bones introduction to classical and quantum error correcting codes, respectively. The next four chapters present achievable rates for quantum codes in various scenarios. The final chapter is dedicated to an upper bound on the quantum channel capacity. Chapter 3 studies coding for adversarial noise using quantum list codes, showing there exist quantum codes with high rates and short lists. These can be used, together with a very short secret key, to communicate with high fidelity at noise levels for which perfect fidelity is, impossible. Chapter 4 explores the performance of a family of degenerate codes when used to communicate over Pauli channels, showing they can be used to communicate over almost any Pauli channel at rates that are impossible for a nondegenerate code and that exceed those of previously known degenerate codes. By studying the scaling of the optimal block length as a function of the channel's parameters, we develop a heuristic for designing even better codes. Chapter 5 describes an equivalence between a family of noisy preprocessing protocols for quantum key distribution and entanglement distillation protocols whose target state belongs to a class of private states called "twisted states." In Chapter 6, the codes of Chapter 4 are combined with the protocols of Chapter 5 to provide higher key rates for one-way quantum key distribution than were previously thought possible. Finally, Chapter 7 presents a new upper bound on the quantum channel capacity that is both additive and convex, and which can be interpreted as the capacity of the channel for communication given access to side channels from a class of zero capacity "cloning" channels. This "clone assisted capacity" is equal to the unassisted capacity for channels that are degradable, which we use to find new upper

  4. New insights into upper airway innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Hariri, Benjamin M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Protecting the upper airway from microbial infection is an important function of the immune system. Proper detection of these pathogens is paramount for sinonasal epithelial cells to be able to prepare a defensive response. Toll-like receptors and, more recently, bitter taste receptors and sweet taste receptors have been implicated as sensors able to detect the presence of these pathogens and certain compounds that they secrete. Activation of these receptors also triggers innate immune responses to prevent or counteract infection, including mucociliary clearance and the production and secretion of antimicrobial compounds (e.g., defensins). Objective: To provide an overview of the current knowledge of the role of innate immunity in the upper airway, the mechanisms by which it is carried out, and its clinical relevance. Methods: A literature review of the existing knowledge of the role of innate immunity in the human sinonasal cavity was performed. Results: Clinical and basic science studies have shown that the physical epithelial cell barrier, mucociliary clearance, and antimicrobial compound secretion play pivotal innate immune roles in defending the sinonasal cavity from infection. Clinical findings have also linked dysfunction of these defense mechanisms with diseases, such as chronic rhinosinusitis and cystic fibrosis. Recent discoveries have elucidated the significance of bitter and sweet taste receptors in modulating immune responses in the upper airway. Conclusion: Numerous innate immune mechanisms seem to work in a concerted fashion to keep the sinonasal cavity free of infection. Understanding sinonasal innate immune function and dysfunction in health and disease has important implications for patients with respiratory ailments, such as chronic rhinosinusitis and cystic fibrosis. PMID:27657896

  5. Ground-water quality of the Upper Floridan Aquifer near an abandoned manufactured gas plant in Albany, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Manufactured gas plants produced gas for heating and lighting in the United States from as early as 1816 into the 1960's. By-products including, but not limited to, oil residues and tar, were generated during the gas-manufacturing process. Organic compounds (hydrocarbons) were detected in water in the upper water-bearing zone of the Upper Floridan aquifer near an abandoned manufactured gas plant (MGP) in Albany, Georgia, during an earlier investigation in 1990. Chemical analyses of ground-water samples collected from five existing monitoring wells in 1991 verify the presence of hydrocarbons and metals in the upper water-beating zone of the Upper Floridan aquifer. One well was drilled into the lower water-beating zone of the Upper Floridan aquifer in 1991 for water-quality sampling and water-level monitoring. Analyses of ground water sampled from this well did not show evidence of benzene, toluene, xylene, napthalene, acenaphthlene, or other related compounds detected in the upper water-bearing zone in the study area. Low concentrations of tetrachloroethane, trichloromethane, and l,2-cisdichloroethene were detected in a water sample from the deeper well; however, these compounds were not detected in the upper water-bearing zone in the study area. Inorganic constituent concentrations also were substantially lower in the deeper well. Overall, ground water sampled from the lower water-bearing zone had lower specific conductance and alkalinity; and lower concentrations of dissolved solids, iron, and manganese compared to ground water sampled from the upper water-bearing zone. Water levels for the upper and lower water-bearing zones were similar throughout the study period.

  6. Trajectory Simulations of Upper Tropospheric Humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessler, A. E.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Sherwood, S. C.

    1999-01-01

    We present comparisons of simulations of upper tropospheric humidity at 215 and 146 hPa with satellite measurements. Our model uses diabatic trajectories to advect water vapor from an initial condition of 100% relative humidity to the final state. The model does not allow parcels' relative humidity to exceed 100%, and in this way crudely incorporates condensation. We find that this simple model does a good job of simulating the observations. Sensitivity studies suggest that one must have realistic wind velocities in order to accurately simulate the humidity distribution; microphysical parameterizations seem to be less important. Comparisions between simulations using UKMO and NCEP horizontal winds will be discussed.

  7. [Epidemiology of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in Gabon].

    PubMed

    Gaudong Mbethe, G L; Mounguengui, D; Ondounda, M; Magne, C; Bignoumbra, R; Ntsoumou, S; Moussavou Kombila, J-B; Nzenze, J R

    2014-01-01

    The department of internal medicine of the military hospital of Gabon managed 92 cases of upper gastrointestinal bleeding from April 2009 to November 2011. The frequency of these hemorrhages in the department was 8.2%; they occurred most often in adults aged 30-40 years and 50-60 years, and mainly men (74%). Erosive-ulcerative lesions (65.2%) were the leading causes of hemorrhage, followed by esophageal varices (15.2%). These results underline the importance of preventive measures for the control of this bleeding.

  8. Radar measurement of the upper atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Walker, J C

    1979-10-12

    In the last two decades large radars have proved to be powerful instruments for the measurement of the properties of the upper atmosphere. These radars were used initially to measure properties of the ionosphere by the Thomson scattering technique at heights above 100 kilometers. Careful interpretation of the power and spectrum of radar echoes yielded data on electron and ion densities and temperatures as well as on bulk motion of the ionospheric plasma, all as functions of height and time. More recent developments have made it possible to measure wind speeds and the structure of turbulence in the stratosphere and mesosphere at altitudes below 100 kilometers.

  9. Endoscopic management of upper urinary tract stones.

    PubMed Central

    Tolley, D. A.; Buist, T. A.

    1986-01-01

    In a two year period from March 1983, 157 patients with upper urinary tract stones were managed primarily by endoscopy. Of 90 patients with renal stones, extraction was achieved in 91% of patients with complete extraction in 76%. Of the remaining patients with ureteric stones, successful extraction was achieved in 75%. Ten patients required open surgery which was for failed extraction in 9. Morbidity is low with a mean hospital stay of 4.7 days for patients with kidney stones, and of 3.7 days for patients undergoing extraction of ureteric stones. Images Fig. 2 PMID:3954313

  10. Dynamic model of the Earth's upper atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slowey, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    An initial modification to the MSF/J70 Thermospheric Model, in which the variations due to sudden geomagnetic disturbances upon the Earth's upper atmospheric density structure were modeled is presented. This dynamic model of the geomagnetic variation included is an improved version of one which SAO developed from the analysis of the ESRO 4 mass spectrometer data that was incorporated in the Jacchia 1977 model. The variation with geomagnetic local time as well as with geomagnetic latitude are included, and also the effects due to disturbance of the temperature profiles in the region of energy deposition.

  11. Upper bounds on the photon mass

    SciTech Connect

    Accioly, Antonio; Helayeel-Neto, Jose; Scatena, Eslley

    2010-09-15

    The effects of a nonzero photon rest mass can be incorporated into electromagnetism in a simple way using the Proca equations. In this vein, two interesting implications regarding the possible existence of a massive photon in nature, i.e., tiny alterations in the known values of both the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron and the gravitational deflection of electromagnetic radiation, are utilized to set upper limits on its mass. The bounds obtained are not as stringent as those recently found; nonetheless, they are comparable to other existing bounds and bring new elements to the issue of restricting the photon mass.

  12. Proximal monomelic amyotrophy of the upper limb.

    PubMed

    Amir, D; Magora, A; Vatine, J J

    1987-07-01

    A 30-year-old patient of Central European origin, suffering from monomelic amyotrophy, is presented. The disease was characterized by proximal weakness of one upper limb, mainly of the shoulder girdle, accompanied by atrophy. The electrodiagnostic examination revealed signs of partial denervation in the presence of normal motor and sensory conduction. The disease, which is probably of the anterior horn cells, had a benign course and good prognosis, as evident from repeated examinations during a follow-up of eight years. PMID:3606370

  13. Laboratory Simulation Of Upper-Body Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lantz, R.; Vykukal, H.; Webbon, B.

    1992-01-01

    Paper describes exercise method evoking muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, and thermoregulatory responses typical of activity involving upper body, to simulate effects of working in zero gravity in space suit. Used in research on thermoregulatory subsystem of advanced portable life-support system for space suit. Discusses requirements for simulation of zero-gravity work in space suit and describes evolution of method through three versions. In preferred version, one performs arm-crank ergometry with gimbaled body-support mechanism that react forces at feet.

  14. [Plasmacytomas of the upper respiratory tract].

    PubMed

    Gegova, A; Kunev, K; Popkhristova, E; Terziev, I

    1995-01-01

    Nine cases of plasmocytoma of the upper airways in the current biopsy material are studied over a three-year period (1991-1993). Initially, all nine cases are clinically diagnosed as neoplasms: hemangiofibroma--one, chondrosarcoma--one, suspected carcinoma--five, and unspecified diagnosis--two. "Plasmocytoma" diagnosis is made on the ground of histological investigation of the material, supported histochemically and electron-microscopically. Some diagnostic problems (differential diagnosis inclusive) are discussed, as well as issues relating to the clinical and morphological evolution of the disease, and predilected gender and age groups.

  15. Flood-plain study of the Upper Iowa River in the vicinity of Decorah, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christiansen, Daniel E.; Eash, David A.

    2008-01-01

    The city of Decorah, Iowa, has experienced severe flooding from the Upper Iowa River resulting in property damage to homes and businesses. Streamflow data from two U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations, the Upper Iowa River at Decorah, Iowa (station number 05387500), located upstream from the College Drive bridge; and the Upper Iowa River near Decorah, Iowa (station number 05388000), at the Clay Hill Road bridge (locally known as the Freeport bridge) were used in the study. The three largest floods on the Upper Iowa River at Decorah occurred in 1941, 1961, and 1993, for which the estimated peak discharges were 27,200 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), 20,200 ft3/s, and 20,500 ft3/s, respectively. Flood-discharge information can be obtained from the World Wide Web at URL (uniform resource locator) http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/. In response to the need to provide the City of Decorah and other flood-plain managers with an assessment of the risks of flooding to properties and facilities along an 8.5-mile (mi) reach of the Upper Iowa River, the USGS, in cooperation with the City of Decorah, initiated a study to map 100- and 500-year flood-prone areas.

  16. Heat up and potential failure of BWR upper internals during a severe accident

    SciTech Connect

    Robb, Kevin R

    2015-01-01

    In boiling water reactors, the steam dome, steam separators, and dryers above the core are comprised of approximately 100 tons of stainless steel. During a severe accident in which the coolant boils away and exothermic oxidation of zirconium occurs, gases (steam and hydrogen) are superheated in the core region and pass through the upper internals. Historically, the upper internals have been modeled using severe accident codes with relatively simple approximations. The upper internals are typically modeled in MELCOR as two lumped volumes with simplified heat transfer characteristics, with no structural integrity considerations, and with limited ability to oxidize, melt, and relocate. The potential for and the subsequent impact of the upper internals to heat up, oxidize, fail, and relocate during a severe accident was investigated. A higher fidelity representation of the shroud dome, steam separators, and steam driers was developed in MELCOR v1.8.6 by extending the core region upwards. This modeling effort entailed adding 45 additional core cells and control volumes, 98 flow paths, and numerous control functions. The model accounts for the mechanical loading and structural integrity, oxidation, melting, flow area blockage, and relocation of the various components. The results indicate that the upper internals can reach high temperatures during a severe accident; they are predicted to reach a high enough temperature such that they lose their structural integrity and relocate. The additional 100 tons of stainless steel debris influences the subsequent in-vessel and ex-vessel accident progression.

  17. Oil reservoirs in grainstone aprons around Bryozoan Mounds, Upper Harrodsburg Limestone, Mississippian, Illinois Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Jobe, H.; Saller, A.

    1995-06-01

    Several oil pools have been discovered recently in the upper Harrodsburg Limestone (middle Mississippian) of the Illinois basin. A depositional model for bryozoan mound complexes has allowed more successful exploration and development in this play. In the Johnsonville area of Wayne County, Illinois, three lithofacies are dominant in the upper Harrodsburg: (1) bryozoan boundstones, (2) bryozoan grainstones, and (3) fossiliferous wackestones. Bryozoan boundstones occur as discontinuous mounds and have low porosity. Although bryozoan boundstones are not the main reservoir lithofacies, they are important because they influenced the distribution of bryozoan grainstones and existing structure. Bryozoan grainstones have intergranular porosity and are the main reservoir rock. Bryozoan fragments derived from bryozoan boundstone mounds were concentrated in grainstones around the mounds. Fossiliferous wackestones are not porous and form vertical and lateral seals for upper Harrodsburg grainstones. Fossiliferous wackestones were deposited in deeper water adjacent to bryozoan grainstone aprons, and above grainstones and boundstones after the mounds were drowned. Upper Harrodsburg oil reservoirs occur where grainstone aprons are structurally high. The Harrodsburg is a good example of a carbonate mound system where boundstone cores are not porous, but adjacent grainstones are porous. Primary recovery in these upper Harrodsburg reservoirs is improved by strong pressure support from an aquifer in the lower Harrodsburg. Unfortunately, oil production is commonly decreased by water encroaching from that underlying aquifer.

  18. [Arterial surgery of the upper limb].

    PubMed

    Perrault, L; Lassonde, J; Laurendeau, F

    1991-01-01

    Arterial surgery of the upper limb represents 2.5% of peripheral vascular procedures in our center. From 1976 to 1989, 58 procedures were performed in 45 patients. There were 26 men and 19 women with average age of 52 years, ranging from 6 to 92 years. These patients were grouped in three categories according to etiology: 1) trauma; 2) acute non traumatic ischemia and 3) chronic ischemia. Sixteen patients (35.5%) were operated on for arterial trauma including three false aneurysms. Blunt trauma was the cause in 9 patients, penetrating in 6 and iatrogenic in one. Angioplasty and primary end to end anastomosis were used in 6, bypass in 4, simple ligation in 3, thrombectomy in 3. The outcome was excellent in 15/16 (93%). Non traumatic acute ischemia occurred in 16 patients (35.5%) and was due to emboli of cardiac origin in 92%. All patients were treated by thromboembolectomy. This group had a high mortality (5/16, 31%) because of associated medical conditions. The third group of 13 patients (29%) underwent surgery for chronic ischemia of the upper limb localized to the subclavian artery in 92%. They were treated with carotid subclavian bypasses in 9, other types of bypass in 3 and endarterectomy in 1. Excellent results were obtained in 10/13 (78%). Overall, satisfactory results were obtained in 90% of surviving patients. Operative mortality was 11.1% and the amputation rate was 13%.

  19. Current management of the mangled upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Bumbasirevic, Marko; Stevanovic, Milan; Lesic, Aleksandar; Atkinson, Henry D E

    2012-11-01

    Mangled describes an injury caused by cutting, tearing, or crushing, which leads to the limb becoming unrecognizable; in essence, there are two treatment options for mangled upper extremities, amputation and salvage reconstruction. With advances in our understanding of human physiology and basic science, and with the development of new fixation devices, modern microsurgical techniques and the possibility of different types of bony and soft tissue reconstruction, the clinical and functional outcomes are often good, and certainly preferable to those of contemporary prosthetics. Early or even immediate (emergency) complete upper extremity reconstruction appears to give better results than delayed or late reconstruction and should be the treatment of choice where possible. Before any reconstruction is attempted, injuries to other organs must be excluded. Each step in the assessment and treatment of a mangled extremity is of utmost importance. These include radical tissue debridement, prophylactic antibiotics, copious irrigation with a lavage system, stable bone fixation, revascularization, nerve repair, and soft tissue coverage. Well-planned and early rehabilitation leads to a better functional outcome. Despite the use of scoring systems to help guide decisions and predict outcomes, the decision to reconstruct or to amputate still ultimately lies with the surgical judgment and experience of the treating surgeon.

  20. The ionosphere and upper atmosphere of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, S.

    1975-01-01

    A summary is presented of current understanding of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere of Venus and its interaction with the solar wind, based on data from the Mariner 5 and Mariner 10 fly-bys and on far UV spectra obtained in rocket experiments. The major constituent of the upper atmosphere is CO2. Minor constituents include H, He, O, C, and CO and probably N2, Cl, and S. Although the thermal escape rate is only about 10,000/sq cm/sec, the H content in the exosphere appears to be highly variable. A prominent peak in the ionosphere profile near 140 km, appearing both on the day and nightside, is identified as an F(1) layer. An E layer and possibly an F(2) layer are present at 125 and 170 km, respectively. The dayside ionosphere may be explained in terms of the absorption of solar radiation by CO2, O, and He. The transport of ions from day to nightside may be important in the formation of the nightside ionosphere; an additional source may be needed to explain the nightside E layer. There is observational evidence that the solar wind interacts directly with the Venusian atmosphere, resulting in the formation of a bow shock. This may in part be explained by a balance at the ionopause between the solar wind ram pressure and the planetary plasma pressure.

  1. [Exoprosthetic Replacement of the Upper Extremity].

    PubMed

    Salminger, S; Mayer, J A; Sturma, A; Riedl, O; Bergmeister, K D; Aszmann, O C

    2016-08-01

    During the last years, the prosthetic replacement in upper limb amputees has undergone different developments. The use of new nerve surgical concepts improved the control strategies tremendously, especially for high-level amputees. Technological innovation in the field of pattern recognition enables the control of multifunctional myoelectric hand prostheses in a natural and intuitive manner. However, the different levels of amputation pose different challenges for the therapeutic team which concern not only the prosthetic attachment; also the expected functional outcome of prosthetic limb replacement differs greatly between the individual levels of amputation. Therefore, especially in partial hand amputations the indication for prosthetic fitting has to be evaluated critically, as these patients may benefit more from biologic reconstructive concepts. The value of the upper extremity, in particular of the hand, is undisputable and, as such represents the driving force for the technological and surgical developments within the exoprosthetic replacement. This article discusses the possibilities and limitations of exoprosthetic limb replacement on the different amputation levels and explores new developments. PMID:27547980

  2. Venous gangrene of the upper extremity.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, B M; Shield, G W; Riddell, D H; Snell, J D

    1985-01-01

    Gangrene of the hand associated with acute upper extremity venous insufficiency has been seen in four limbs in three patients treated at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. All three patients had life-threatening illnesses associated with diminished tissue perfusion, hypercoagulability, and venous injury. One patient progressed to above-elbow amputation, but venous thrombectomy in one limb and thrombolytic therapy in two others were successful in preventing major tissue loss. All three patients eventually died from their underlying illness. Thirteen previously reported patients with "venous gangrene" of the upper extremity have been analyzed. An underlying life-threatening illness was present in the majority of these patients (7/13, 54%) and, like the Vanderbilt series, amputations were frequent (7/13, 54%) and mortality (5/13, 38%) was high. This unusual form of ischemia appears to be produced by permutations of global circulatory stasis, subclavian or axillary vein occlusion, and peripheral venous thrombosis. Early, aggressive restoration of adequate cardiac output and thrombectomy and/or thrombolytic therapy may provide the best chance for tissue salvage and survival in this group of patients. Images FIG. 1. FIG. 2. FIG. 3. FIG. 4. FIG. 5. FIGS. 6A and B. FIGS. 7A and B. FIG. 8. PMID:3977453

  3. Severe upper airway obstruction during sleep.

    PubMed

    Bonekat, H William; Hardin, Kimberly A

    2003-10-01

    Few disorders may manifest with predominantly sleep-related obstructive breathing. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder, varies in severity and is associated with significant cardiovascular and neurocognitive morbidity. It is estimated that between 8 and 18 million people in the United States have at least mild OSA. Although the exact mechanism of OSA is not well-delineated, multiple factors contribute to the development of upper airway obstruction and include anatomic, mechanical, neurologic, and inflammatory changes in the pharynx. OSA may occur concomitantly with asthma. Approximately 74% of asthmatics experience nocturnal symptoms of airflow obstruction secondary to reactive airways disease. Similar cytokine, chemokine, and histologic changes are seen in both disorders. Sleep deprivation, chronic upper airway edema, and inflammation associated with OSA may further exacerbate nocturnal asthma symptoms. Allergic rhinitis may contribute to both OSA and asthma. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the gold standard treatment for OSA. Treatment with CPAP therapy has also been shown to improve both daytime and nighttime peak expiratory flow rates in patients with concomitant OSA and asthma. It is important for allergists to be aware of how OSA may complicate diagnosis and treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis. A thorough sleep history and high clinical suspicion for OSA is indicated, particularly in asthma patients who are refractory to standard medication treatments.

  4. Measles: an epidemic of upper airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Manning, S C; Ridenour, B; Brown, O E; Squires, J

    1991-09-01

    Between October 1989 and August 1990, Dallas County experienced an 11-month epidemic of measles. Of 995 cases of pediatric measles diagnosed in the outpatient department of Children's Medical Center, 108 patients were admitted and 34 of these demonstrated significant upper airway obstruction at the time of admission. Airway problems ranged from mild inspiratory stridor with nasal flaring to frank obstruction and arrest in the emergency room, requiring intubation. Eight of the 34 airway patients were eventually diagnosed with bacterial tracheitis on the basis of endoscopic findings and culture results. The remaining patients had pictures more consistent with viral laryngotracheitis, but all patients were treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics to prevent possible progression to bacterial tracheitis. A total of nine patients overall required intubation for airway obstruction and all were successfully extubated. Large outbreaks of measles are becoming common again in populations of urban poor--largely unvaccinated children. The disease in these populations tends to occur at a younger age and may be more aggressive with more associated complications. Physicians must keep in mind the possibility of upper airway obstruction in a significant proportion of these patients. Early diagnosis on the basis of clinical signs and symptoms, endoscopy, and radiographs is the key to timely appropriate management.

  5. Attenuation Tomography of the Upper Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adenis, A.; Debayle, E.; Ricard, Y. R.

    2014-12-01

    We present a 3-D model of surface wave attenuation in the upper mantle. The model is constrained by a large data set of fundamental and higher Rayleigh mode observations. This data set consists of about 1,800,000 attenuation curves measured in the period range 50-300s by Debayle and Ricard (2012). A careful selection allows us to reject data for which measurements are likely biased by the poor knowledge of the scalar seismic moment or by a ray propagation too close to a node of the source radiation pattern. For each epicenter-station path, elastic focusing effects due to seismic heterogeneities are corrected using DR2012 and the data are turned into log(1/Q). The selected data are then combined in a tomographic inversion using the non-linear least square formalism of Tarantola and Valette (1982). The obtained attenuation maps are in agreement with the surface tectonic for periods and modes sensitive to the top 200km of the upper mantle. Low attenuation regions correlate with continental shields while high attenuation regions are located beneath young oceanic regions. The attenuation pattern becomes more homogeneous at depths greater than 200 km and the maps are dominated by a high quality factor signature beneath slabs. We will discuss the similarities and differences between the tomographies of seismic velocities and of attenuations.

  6. Interhemispheric sensorimotor integration; an upper limb phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Ruddy, Kathy L; Jaspers, Ellen; Keller, Martin; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2016-10-01

    Somatosensory information from the limbs reaches the contralateral Primary Sensory Cortex (S1) with a delay of 23ms for finger, and 40ms for leg (somatosensory N20/N40). Upon arrival of this input in the cortex, motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) are momentarily inhibited. This phenomenon is called 'short latency afferent inhibition (SAI)' and can be used as a tool for investigating sensorimotor interactions in the brain. We used SAI to investigate the process of sensorimotor integration in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the stimulated limb. We hypothesized that ipsilateral SAI would occur with a delay following the onset of contralateral SAI, to allow for transcallosal conduction of the signal. We electrically stimulated the limb either contralateral or ipsilateral to the hemisphere receiving TMS, using a range of different interstimulus intervals (ISI). We tested the First Dorsal Interosseous (FDI) muscle in the hand, and Tibialis Anterior (TA) in the lower leg, in three separate experiments. Ipsilateral SAI was elicited in the upper limb (FDI) at all ISIs that were greater than N20+18ms (all p<.05) but never at any earlier timepoint. No ipsilateral SAI was detected in the lower limb (TA) at any of the tested ISIs. The delayed onset timing of ipsilateral SAI suggests that transcallosal communication mediates this inhibitory process for the upper limb. The complete absence of ipsilateral SAI in the lower limb warrants consideration of the potential limb-specific differences in demands for bilateral sensorimotor integration. PMID:27425210

  7. Volcanic Effects in the Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiti, A.; Zhang, S.; Holt, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Large volcanic eruptions have a well observed impact on the lower atmosphere and climate. In the past forty years, two eruptions, El Chichon in 1982 and Pinatubo in 1991, released significant amounts of aerosols. The effects of these two volcanos have been studied in the stratosphere (10km - 50km), but not in the upper atmosphere. This project attempted to find traces of the two eruptions at altitudes of 250km to 500km through temperature trend studies of long-term observations of the upper atmosphere. An ion temperature trend model was refined and then used to subtract solar, geomagnetic, annual, semi-annual, and correlated effects from Millstone Hill Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) data, which span more than 3 solar cycles starting in 1970s. After subtraction, the ion temperature residuals were studied around the years 1982 and 1991 for anomalous dips. This modeling technique was then applied to the Sondrestrom (1990-) and St. Santin (1966-1987) ISR sites to validate temperature trends and volcanic effects at different locations., Effects of the 1982 El Chichon eruption appeared to exist with a visible ion temperature drop in Millstone Hill and St. Santin measurements. The 1991 Pinatubo eruption was not immediately present until up to 2 years later over Millstone Hill and Sondrestrom, but this result contains large uncertainty due to solar and magnetic activities. Further study is needed to understand the theoretical effects of volcanic activity at those altitudes and gauge the significance of the observed temperature residuals.

  8. Shuttle/Centaur Upper Stage Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, H. J.

    1984-01-01

    A joint project to design, develop, procure, and produce Centaur upper stages for use with the Space Shuttle is discussed. A common Centaur G stage 6 meters (19.5 feet) in length is being jointly developed. A longer version designated Centaur G Prime is being developed by NASA to accomplish the Galileo and International Solar-Polar Mission flights in 1986. The Centaur G and G Prime will have the capability to place, respectively, approximately 4540 kilograms (10,000 pounds) and 5910 kilograms (13,000 pounds) into geosynchronous orbit from a standard Shuttle parking orbit of 278 kilometers (150 nautical miles) and Shuttle performance (lift) capability 29,500 kilograms (65,000 pounds). The advent of high energy upper stage capability in 1986 will permit space users and spacecraft developers to utilize spacecraft growth, stage combination concepts with storage modules, teleoperator systems, and other mission peculiar devices to satisfy complex mission demands. These capabilities should greatly enhance the usefulness of the space environment and stimulate mission planners toward conception of innovative means to meet ever increasing mission requirements.

  9. Interhemispheric sensorimotor integration; an upper limb phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Ruddy, Kathy L; Jaspers, Ellen; Keller, Martin; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2016-10-01

    Somatosensory information from the limbs reaches the contralateral Primary Sensory Cortex (S1) with a delay of 23ms for finger, and 40ms for leg (somatosensory N20/N40). Upon arrival of this input in the cortex, motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) are momentarily inhibited. This phenomenon is called 'short latency afferent inhibition (SAI)' and can be used as a tool for investigating sensorimotor interactions in the brain. We used SAI to investigate the process of sensorimotor integration in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the stimulated limb. We hypothesized that ipsilateral SAI would occur with a delay following the onset of contralateral SAI, to allow for transcallosal conduction of the signal. We electrically stimulated the limb either contralateral or ipsilateral to the hemisphere receiving TMS, using a range of different interstimulus intervals (ISI). We tested the First Dorsal Interosseous (FDI) muscle in the hand, and Tibialis Anterior (TA) in the lower leg, in three separate experiments. Ipsilateral SAI was elicited in the upper limb (FDI) at all ISIs that were greater than N20+18ms (all p<.05) but never at any earlier timepoint. No ipsilateral SAI was detected in the lower limb (TA) at any of the tested ISIs. The delayed onset timing of ipsilateral SAI suggests that transcallosal communication mediates this inhibitory process for the upper limb. The complete absence of ipsilateral SAI in the lower limb warrants consideration of the potential limb-specific differences in demands for bilateral sensorimotor integration.

  10. Orographic Disturbances of Upper Atmosphere Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shefov, N. N.; Pertsev, N. N.

    1984-01-01

    There are some increases of the temperature of the hydroxyl emission (delta T approximately 20 K, z approximately 90 km) and of the intensity of the 63000 oxygen emission (delta I/I approximately 20 per cent, z approximately 250 km) for the lee of the mountains at distances about 150 km in the case of the latitudinal direction of the wind (U approximately 10 m/s) at the 3000 m level. Airflow motions over mountains may be one of the possible processes of generation of wave disturbances penetrating into the upper atmospheres (HINES, 1974; LINDZEN, 1971). The purpose here is to study the penetration of orographic disturbances into upper atmosphere. Airplane measurements of emission variations of hydroxyl and atomic oxygen 6300 A near the Northern Ural mountains were made. Several nocturnal flights were carried out in March, 1980 and January to February, 1981 at heights about 3000 m along 64 deg northern latitude in the Ural region. Spectrographs SP-48 with electronic image converters registration for OH ((9,4) and (5,1) bands - 7700 to 8100 A) and OI (6300 A) emissions were used. The zenith region was observed, and exposure time was 2 minutes. This corresponds to averaging of the emission intensities along the airplane trace over a distance of 10 km. Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric temperature variations at the flight altitude were made.

  11. Fourteen cases of imposed upper airway obstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, M P; McClaughlin, W; Jacobson, R R; Poets, C F; Southall, D P

    1992-01-01

    Imposed upper airway obstruction was diagnosed as the cause of recurrent and severe cyanotic episodes in 14 patients. Episodes started between 0.8 and 33 months of age (median 1.4) and occurred over a period of 0.8 to 20 months (median 3.5). Diagnosis was made by covert video surveillance, instituted after either (a) the observation that episodes began only in the presence of one person, or (b) characteristic findings on physiological recordings, lasting between 12 hours and three weeks, performed in hospital or at home. Surveillance was undertaken for between 15 minutes and 12 days (median 24 hours) and resulted in safety for the patient and psychiatric assessment of the parent: mother (n = 12), father (n = 1), and grandmother (n = 1). These revealed histories of sexual, physical, or emotional abuse (n = 11), self harm (n = 9), factitious illness (n = 7), eating disorder (n = 10), and previous involvement with a psychiatrist (n = 7). Management of the abusing parents is complex, but recognition of their psychosocial characteristics may allow earlier diagnosis. Imposed upper airway obstruction should be considered and excluded by physiological recordings in any infant or young child with recurrent cyanotic episodes. If physiological recordings fail to substantiate a natural cause for episodes, covert video surveillance may be essential to protect the child from further injury or death. PMID:1543373

  12. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Tsai, C J; Kuo, C H; Chen, P C; Changcheng, C S

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-six virologically and serologically confirmed Dengue patients with signs of upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding (13.1%) were studied during the 1987 outbreak in southern Taiwan. Within a 1-yr period from 1987 to 1988 in Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, there were 198 patients with Dengue fever confirmed. Viral isolation and serological studies indicated that type I Dengue was the cause. There was no evidence of sequential secondary infection among them. The 26 patients were evaluated gastroduodenoscopically. Most of the Dengue patients who developed upper gastrointestinal bleeding had gastric ulcers or duodenal ulcers; superficial and hemorrhagic gastritis are the other relevant endoscopic findings. Thirteen patients (50%) had a past history of peptic ulcer symptoms, whereas the other 13 did not. Dengue infection is a precipitating factor in inducing peptic ulcer bleeding because of hemostatic derangements. Supportive therapy and blood transfusions alone were adequate treatment, except for one patient who required surgery due to massive bleeding of a duodenal ulcer. No mortality was observed in this study.

  13. Giant myoepithelioma of the upper lip.

    PubMed

    Shiomori, Teruo; Udaka, Tsuyoshi; Tokui, Naokimi; Morio, Takashi; Ohbuchi, Toyoaki; Suzuki, Hideaki

    2005-08-01

    Myoepithelioma is a relatively rare form of salivary gland tumor composed entirely of myoepithelial cells. This tumor was formerly considered to be a subtype of pleomorphic adenoma; however, in the latest World Health Organization classification of 1991 it is listed as an independent entity. We report herein an extremely rare case of myoepithelioma of the upper lip. A 78-year-old Japanese female presented with a huge, painless mass on her upper lip. CT and MRI revealed a 50 x 40 mm(2) well-defined ovoid tumor. A benign minor salivary gland tumor was clinically suspected, and the patient underwent complete resection of the tumor under general anesthesia. The surgical defect was immediately reconstructed using an Abbe-Estlander flap. The tumor was histopathologically diagnosed as a benign myoepithelioma of the minor salivary gland. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for vimentin, cytokeratins, alpha-smooth muscle actin and S-100 protein, confirming the morphological diagnosis of myoepithelioma. The patient's postoperative clinical course was uneventful, and satisfactory results were obtained both functionally and esthetically. The pathology, clinical manifestations and treatment of myoepithelioma are reviewed.

  14. Health of white sucker within the St. Louis River area of concern associated with habitat usage as assessed using stable isotopes

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Spring 2011, 200 adult white sucker were collected in four areas of the St. Louis River Area of Concern (AOC), located in Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA. The areas included the upper AOC as a reference area, the upper estuary, St. Louis Bay and Superior Bay. Grossly visible abno...

  15. Upper Basalt-Confined Aquifer System in the Southern Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Thorne, P.

    1999-01-04

    The 1990 DOE Tiger Team Finding GW/CF-202 found that the hydrogeologic regime at the Hanford Site was inadequately characterized. This finding also identified the need for completing a study of the confined aquifer in the central and southern portions of the Hanford Site. The southern portion of the site is of particular interest because hydraulic-head patterns in the upper basalt-confined aquifer system indicate that groundwater from the Hanford central plateau area, where contaminants have been found in the aquifer, flows southeast toward the southern site boundary. This results in a potential for offsite migration of contaminants through the upper basalt-confined aquifer system. Based on the review presented in this report, available hydrogeologic characterization information for the upper basalt-confined aquifer system in this area is considered adequate to close the action item. Recently drilled offsite wells have provided additional information on the structure of the aquifer system in and near the southern part of the Hanford Site. Information on hydraulic properties, hydrochemistry, hydraulic heads and flow directions for the upper basalt-confined aquifer system has been re-examined and compiled in recent reports including Spane and Raymond (1993), Spane and Vermeul ( 1994), and Spane and Webber (1995).

  16. Hydroclimatic and landscape controls on phosphorus loads to hypereutrophic Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Records, R.; Fassnacht, S. R.; Arabi, M.; Duffy, W. G.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated total phosphorus (P) loading into Upper Klamath Lake, southern Oregon, United States has caused hypereutrophic conditions impacting endangered lake fish species. Increases in P loading have been attributed to land use changes, such as timber harvest and wetland drainage. The contribution of P to Upper Klamath Lake has been estimated from each major tributary, yet little research has explored what land use or other variables have most influence on P loading within the tributaries. In addition, previous work has shown a range of potential hydroclimatic shifts by the 2040s, with potential to alter P loading mechanisms. In this study, we use statistical methods including principle component analysis and multiple linear regression to determine what hydroclimatic and landscape variables best explain flow-weighted P concentration in the Sprague River, one of three main tributaries to Upper Klamath Lake. Identification of key variables affecting P loading has direct implications for management decisions in the Upper Klamath River Basin. Increases in P loading related to sediment loading are due to bank and upslope erosion. The former is more prevalent in areas of historic channel alteration and cattle grazing, while the latter is more dominant in areas of heavy timber harvesting and more precipitation as rain.

  17. LOWER SAN FRANCISCO WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND CONTIGUOUS ROADLESS AREAS, ARIZONA AND NEW MEXICO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratte, James C.; Lane, Michael

    1984-01-01

    The Lower San Francisco study area consists of about 40 sq mi, in a strip between 1 and 6 mi wide, along a 20-30 mi stretch of the San Francisco River in Arizona and New Mexico. The study area and contiguous roadless areas were examined for mineral potential and found to have an area of probable mineral-resource potential for base- or precious-metal deposits in middle to upper Tertiary volcanic rocks. The entire area has a largely unassessable potential for base-metal deposits related to igneous intrusives of Laramide age, like those in the nearby Morenci mining district, Arizona. The contiguous roadless area has an area of probable mineral-resource potential for molybdenum or copper deposits related to intrusive igneous rocks in the core of a dacitic volcano of Oligocene age. An area in the west part of the study area has a probable geothermal-resource potential.

  18. Bore holes and the vanishing of guinea worm disease in Ghana's upper region.

    PubMed

    Hunter, J M

    1997-07-01

    Ghana's Upper Region provides an excellent example of the beneficial effects of improved water security provided by hand-pump tube wells. Following a Ghana-Canada bilateral development project that installed some 2500 pumps, protection rates against guinea worm disease may be estimated as 88% in the west, and 96% in the east. Survey comparisons between ca 1960 and 1990 show that dracunculiasis declined in 32 of a total of 38 areas. The shadow of guinea worm has been lifted from the land and, in many areas, a true "vanishing" has occurred. The few areas of disease increase are characterized by the lowest population densities, pioneer settlement for cotton farming, and an absence of bore holes. Vagaries of development have inadvertently produced disease transformations or "metamorphoses" from dracunculiasis to elephantiasis (lymphatic filariasis) in one area, and to red water disease (schistosomiasis hematobium) in other areas. Correlative associations between pump densities and guinea worm disease are weakened by the large size of areas for which disease is reported in 1990. One preliminary finding is that geographical distance to the pump is a stronger influence than demographic pressure on pumps, regarding dracunculiasis. Diminishing returns on higher pump densities in many areas support the idea of making fuller, safer use of supplementary non-pump water. Despite crises of fee payment and pump maintenance, the rural bore hole project has struck a mortal blow against guinea worm, and permanently raised the quality of life in the Upper Region.

  19. Enhanced Drought Monitoring in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doesken, N.; Smith, R.; Ryan, W.; Schwalbe, Z.; Verdin, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    As a part of the National Integrated Drought Information System's Upper Colorado River Basin pilot project, an aggressive collaborative drought monitoring and communication process was initiated in 2010. Weekly climate, drought and water supply assessments were begun which included webinars during critical times of the year -- primarily late January through mid summer. A diverse set of stakeholders ranging from ski area operators, river commissioners, state and federal agency representatives, public land managers, municipal water providers, agricultural interests and media from a 3-state area were invited to participate along with National Weather Service forecast office personal, state climate office representatives and other information providers. The process evolved to become a weekly drought monitoring "committee" providing detailed input to the U.S. Drought Monitor national author. In 2012 this new system was put to the test as dry winter conditions exploded into extreme and widespread drought as the normal spring storms failed to materialize and instead long-duration above average temperatures added evaporative stress to the already limited water supplies. This presentation examines this effort with an emphasis on stakeholder engagement. The overall impact of the 2012 drought appears, so far, to be less than what was experienced in 2002 although measured stream flow appears tp be similar. To what extent this could be attributed to the enhanced drought monitoring and communication will be discussed. The sustainability of this aggressive monitoring effort will also be assessed.

  20. Hydrocarbon potential of Upper Devonian black shale, eastern Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, I.M.; Frankie, W.T.; Moody, J.R.; Kemper, J.R.; Elkin, R.R.

    1987-09-01

    The gas-producing Upper Devonian black shales of eastern Kentucky represent cycles of organic units alternating with less-organic units that were dominated by an influx of clastics from a northeastern source. This pattern of sedimentation is typical throughout the southern Appalachian basin in areas basinal to, yet still influenced by, the Catskill delta to the northwest. These black shales, which thin westward onto the Cincinnati arch, dip eastward into the Appalachian basin. To evaluate the future gas potential of Devonian shale, a data base has been compiled, consisting of specific geologic and engineering information from 5920 Devonian shale wells in Letcher, Knott, Floyd, Martin, and Pike Counties, Kentucky. The first successful gas completion in eastern Kentucky was drilled in Martin County in 1901. Comparison of initial open-flow potential (IP) and long-term production data for these wells demonstrates that higher IP values generally indicate wells of higher production potential. Areas of higher IP are aligned linearly, and these lineaments are interpreted to be related to fracture systems within the Devonian shale. These fractures may be basement influenced. Temperature log analyses indicate that the greatest number of natural gas shows occur in the lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale. Using both the temperature log to indicate gas shows and the gamma-ray log to determine the producing unit is a workable method for selecting the interval for treatment.

  1. Using CREST to Model Floods for the Upper Missouri Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, L.; Spelman, D.; Skym, P.; Oguamanam, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Upper Missouri River basin in Montana is prone to frequent floods during the months of May through June. During the summer of 2011, the duration of heavy rain and high snow melt caused floods in the Missouri Watershed to last for several weeks. Although organizations and citizens are aware of the flooding, the severity of any given flood is difficult to predict. Thus, a flood forecasting system would benefit the community by providing advance notice of areas prone to floods. The team addressed these issues by calibrating a fully distributed hydrological model on this region using the University of Oklahoma's Coupled Routing Excess STorage (CREST) 2.0 model. The CREST model contains ten internal parameters that must be optimized through calibration to in-situ data which was done using only remotely sensed data as inputs; these include: rainfall from TRMM, Digital Elevation Model (DEM) from SRTM, and potential evapotranspiration (PET). At a one kilometer spatial and three hour temporal resolutions, CREST was calibrated over a three year period. This calibration was unsuccessful, resulting in a maximum NSCE of just 0.24, due to the heavy impact of snow-pack melt on the hydrology of the Upper Missouri River watershed and the lack of snow melt inputs to the model. Because of this, a modeled snow melt product, which was selected to be the Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS), was implemented into the model for the first time. This implementation required substantial data processing prior to input as well as substantial troubleshooting within the CREST model. Additionally, the San Bernard watershed, which is in the absence of snow, was used and calibrated in the model for comparison. The arrangement of these calibrations was performed, and the necessary steps required were documented. However, the actual calibrations were not carried out due to lack of access needed in computational power and time. Significant progress was made in understanding the fundamental steps

  2. Incidence and socioeconomic determinants of abortion in rural Upper Egypt.

    PubMed

    Yassin, K M

    2000-07-01

    Because of a growing cultural and religious sensitivity and controversy over reproductive health issues, particularly abortion, this area remains relatively unexplored in Egypt. This study was conducted using a participatory approach to determine the morbidity and determinants of abortion in rural Upper Egypt. In all, 1025 women from six villages in Upper Egypt were included in the study. Information regarding the incidence of abortion, patterns of health care utilization and risk factors was obtained using a structured interview format. The local dialect was used in formulating questions and they were revised and amended by a panel of local leaders, interviewers and representatives of the study population. Interviewers were local educated (secondary or university level) female volunteers. Information about exposure to 17 risk factors was also collected and statistical analysis was done by estimating the odds ratio and applying a test of statistical significance. Then, a multivariate logistic regression model was applied to control for possible interactions and confounding effects. The results were that 40.6% (n=416) had aborted at least once; of them 24.6% (n=252) had aborted more than once and were designated as recurrent aborters. The lifetime prevalence of recurrent abortion was estimated to be 25% and nearly 21% of pregnancies were aborted. The incidence of abortion was estimated to be 265 per 1000 live birth. Only 21.9% (n=91) of women received medical care for the last abortion. The vast majority of women (92%, n=299) who did not seek medical help received help from traditional and domestic sources. These sources are midwife (59.9%, n=179), relative or neighbour (29.8%, n=89), and traditional practitioner (10.4%, n=31). The multivariate analysis revealed that the incidence of abortion is significantly associated with gravidity, consanguinity, and mother occupation, while recurrent abortion is associated with gravidity, consanguinity and woman's age at

  3. Upper Campanian (Upper Cretaceous) cephalopods from the Parras Shale near Saucedas, Coahuila, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ifrim, Christina; Stinnesbeck, Wolfgang; Espinosa, Belinda; Ventura, José Flores

    2015-12-01

    72 specimens of ammonites and the nautilid Eutrephoceras, collected from the upper Cretaceous Parras Shale at Saucedas in southern Coahuila, Mexico, are here assigned to twelve genera and fourteen species. The assemblage represents three to four upper Campanian biozones reaching from the Western Interior lower upper Campanian Exiteloceras jenneyi to the uppermost Campanian Tethyan Nostoceras hyatti biozone. Eutrephoceras irritilasi and Trachyscaphites sp. are endemic taxa, while Baculites taylorensis is restricted to the northern Gulf of Mexico Coast and E. jenneyi, Oxybeloceras crassum and Solenoceras elegans are Western Interior Seaway elements. Didymoceras donezianum is a southern Euramerican species, while Bostrychoceras polyplocum and N. hyatti occur throughout lower and middle latitudes. Diplomoceras cylindraceum and Phyllopachyceras forbesianum are cosmopolitan taxa with their main occurrences in the Maastrichtian; their record at Saucedas is the oldest of these species in North America. A clear paleobiogeographic signal is identified in the upper Campanian ammonite assemblages at Saucedas by a change from restricted towards geographically widespread faunas. This suggests gradual disappearence of faunal barriers which separated the Gulf Coast from the rest of the world.

  4. What Makes an Upper-Division Course Upper-Division? Differing Perspectives of Students and Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Mary; Lee, Lindsey

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare faculty and student expectations of course content, structure and requirements of lower and upper-division courses. Two groups of participants were recruited: 1) undergraduate psychology majors, and 2) Social Sciences faculty. The survey consisted of a series of questions regarding expectations and…

  5. The impacts of open-mouth breathing on upper airway space in obstructive sleep apnea: 3-D MDCT analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Joong; Choi, Ji Ho; Kim, Kang Woo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Sang Hag; Lee, Heung Man; Shin, Chol; Lee, Ki Yeol; Lee, Seung Hoon

    2011-04-01

    Open-mouth breathing during sleep is a risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and is associated with increased disease severity and upper airway collapsibility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of open-mouth breathing on the upper airway space in patients with OSA using three-dimensional multi-detector computed tomography (3-D MDCT). The study design included a case-control study with planned data collection. The study was performed at a tertiary medical center. 3-D MDCT analysis was conducted on 52 patients with OSA under two experimental conditions: mouth closed and mouth open. Under these conditions, we measured the minimal cross-sectional area of the retropalatal and retroglossal regions (mXSA-RP, mXSA-RG), as well as the upper airway length (UAL), defined as the vertical dimension from hard palate to hyoid. We also computed the volume of the upper airway space by 3-D reconstruction of both conditions. When the mouth was open, mXSA-RP and mXSA-RG significantly decreased and the UAL significantly increased, irrespective of the severity of OSA. However, between the closed- and open-mouth states, there was no significant change in upper airway volume at any severity of OSA. Results suggest that the more elongated and narrow upper airway during open-mouth breathing may aggravate the collapsibility of the upper airway and, thus, negatively affect OSA severity.

  6. Screening for retinopathy of prematurity: a report from upper Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Nassar, Mahmoud M.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To detect the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in a tertiary referral neonatal intensive care unit in upper Egypt and to describe the obstacles faced during implementing the screening protocol for the first time. METHODS Consecutive infants were enrolled at birth and screened for ROP. We used the UK ROP guideline (May 2008) for infant selection, follow up and treatment. Repeat examinations were performed until retinal vascularisation was complete. RESULTS Fifty-two infants were enrolled: 24 males and 28 females. Mean gestational age was 31.3wk (±2.8 SD) and mean birth weight was 1234.6 g (±221.1 SD). Incidence of ROP was 36.5% (stages 1, 2, 3 and 4a were 9.6%, 9.6%, 15.4% and 1.9% respectively), no stages 4b or 5 were found in this series. Six infants (11.5%) died during screening without ROP, 25 infants (48.1%) were discharged from screening with retinal vascularisation reaching zone III, 5 infants (9.6%) were treated with indirect diode with or without additional cryotherapy and 16 infants (30.8%) were lost to follow up. In this series gestational age rather than birth weight was found significantly correlated and predictive (P<0.05) with ROP stages. CONCLUSION ROP in a single site in Upper Egypt appears to have comparable incidence to other areas worldwide. The main screening obstacle was missing cases due to the absence of a national ROP screening protocol. PMID:26949647

  7. Giant Upper Cretaceous oysters from the Gulf coast and Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohl, Norman F.; Kauffman, Erle G.

    1964-01-01

    Two unusually massive ostreid species, representing the largest and youngest Mesozoic members of their respective lineages, occur in Upper Cretaceous sediment of the gulf coast and Caribbean areas. Their characteristics and significance, as well as the morphologic terminology of ostreids in general, are discussed. Crassostrea cusseta Sohl and Kauffman n. sp. is the largest known ostreid from Mesozoic rocks of North America; it occurs sporadically in the Cusseta Sand and rarely in the Blufftown Formation of the Chattahoochee River region in Georgia and Alabama. It is especially notable in that it lacks a detectable posterior adductor muscle scar on large adult shells. C. cusseta is the terminal Cretaceous member of the C. soleniscus lineage in gulf coast sediments; the lineage continues, however, with little basic modification, throughout the Cenozoic, being represented in the Eocene by C. gigantissima (Finch) and probably, in modern times, by C. virginica (Gmelin). The C. soleniscus lineage is the first typically modern crassostreid group recognized in the Mesozoic. Arctostrea aguilerae (Böse) occurs in Late Campanian and Early Maestrichtian sediments of Alabama, Mississippi, Texas(?), Mexico, and Cuba. The mature shell of this species is larger and more massive than that of any other known arctostreid. Arctostrea is well represented throughout the Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous of Europe, but in North America, despite the great numbers and diversity of Cretaceous oysters, only A. aguilerae and the Albian form A. carinata are known. The presence of A. aquilerae in both the Caribbean and gulf coast faunas is exceptional, as the Late Cretaceous faunas of these provinces are generally distinct and originated in different faunal realms.

  8. Local extirpations and regional declines of endemic upper beach invertebrates in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, D. M.; Dugan, J. E.; Schooler, N. K.; Viola, S. M.

    2014-10-01

    Along the world's highly valued and populous coastlines, the upper intertidal zones of sandy beach ecosystems and the biodiversity that these zones support are increasingly threatened by impacts of human activities, coastal development, erosion, and climate change. The upper zones of beaches typically support invertebrates with restricted distributions and dispersal, making them particularly vulnerable to habitat loss and fragmentation. We hypothesized that disproportionate loss or degradation of these zones in the last century has resulted in declines of upper shore macroinvertebrates in southern California. We identified a suite of potentially vulnerable endemic upper beach invertebrates with direct development, low dispersal and late reproduction. Based on the availability of printed sources and museum specimens, we investigated historical changes in distribution and abundance of two intertidal isopod species (Tylos punctatus, Alloniscus perconvexus) in southern California. Populations of these isopods have been extirpated at numerous historically occupied sites: T. punctatus from 16 sites (57% decrease), and A. perconvexus from 14 sites (64% decrease). During the same period, we found evidence of only five colonization events. In addition, the northern range limit of the southern species, T. punctatus, moved south by 31 km (8% of range on California mainland) since 1971. Abundances of T. punctatus have declined on the mainland coast; only three recently sampled populations had abundances >7000 individuals m-1. For A. perconvexus populations, abundances >100 individuals m-1 now appear to be limited to the northern part of the study area. Our results show that numerous local extirpations of isopod populations have resulted in regional declines and in greatly reduced population connectivity in several major littoral cells of southern California. Two of the six major littoral cells (Santa Barbara and Zuma) in the area currently support 74% of the remaining isopod

  9. The difference between the potentiometric surfaces of the upper Patapsco aquifer, September 1990 and September 1999 in southern Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Wheeler, Judith C.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the change in the potentiometric surface of the Upper Patapsco aquifer in the Upper Patapsco Formation of Cretaceous age in Southern Maryland for September 1990 and September 1999. The map, based on water?level measurements in 37 wells, shows that the potentiometric surface during the 9- year period ranged from a decline of 1 foot in the northernmost part of the study area, which is near the outcrop of the aquifer, to a decline of 22 feet at LaPlata, which is near the southwesternmost part of the study area.

  10. Role of melatonin in upper gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Konturek, S J; Konturek, P C; Brzozowski, T; Bubenik, G A

    2007-12-01

    Melatonin, an indole formed enzymatically from L-tryptophan, is the most versatile and ubiquitous hormone molecule produced not only in all animals but also in some plants. This review focuses on the role of melatonin in upper portion of gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including oral cavity, esophagus, stomach and duodenum, where this indole is generated and released into the GIT lumen and into the portal circulation to be uptaken, metabolized by liver and released with bile into the duodenum. The biosynthetic steps of melatonin with two major rate limiting enzymes, arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), transforming tryptophan to melatonin, originally identified in pinealocytes have been also detected in entero-endocrine (EE) cells of GIT wall, where this indole may act via endocrine, paracrine and/or luminal pathway through G-protein coupled receptors. Melatonin in GIT was shown to be generated in about 500 times larger amounts than it is produced in pineal gland. The production of melatonin by pineal gland shows circadian rhythm with high night-time peak, especially at younger age, followed by the fall during the day-light time. As a highly lipophilic substance, melatonin reaches all body cells within minutes, to serve as a convenient circadian timing signal for alteration of numerous body functions.. Following pinealectomy, the light/dark cycle of plasma melatonin levels disappears, while its day-time blood concentrations are attenuated but sustained mainly due to its release from the GIT. After oral application of tryptophan, the plasma melatonin increases in dose-dependent manner both in intact and pinealectomized animals, indicating that extrapineal sources such as GIT rather than pineal gland are the major producers of this indole. In the upper portion of GIT, melatonin exhibits a wide spectrum of activities such as circadian entrainment, free radicals scavenging activity, protection of mucosa against

  11. Upper Stage Engine Composite Nozzle Extensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Allen, Lee R.; Gradl, Paul R.; Greene, Sandra E.; Sullivan, Brian J.; Weller, Leslie J.; Koenig, John R.; Cuneo, Jacques C.; Thompson, James; Brown, Aaron; Shigley, John K.; Dovey, Henry N.; Roberts, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-carbon (C-C) composite nozzle extensions are of interest for use on a variety of launch vehicle upper stage engines and in-space propulsion systems. The C-C nozzle extension technology and test capabilities being developed are intended to support National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and United States Air Force (USAF) requirements, as well as broader industry needs. Recent and on-going efforts at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) are aimed at both (a) further developing the technology and databases for nozzle extensions fabricated from specific CC materials, and (b) developing and demonstrating low-cost capabilities for testing composite nozzle extensions. At present, materials development work is concentrating on developing a database for lyocell-based C-C that can be used for upper stage engine nozzle extension design, modeling, and analysis efforts. Lyocell-based C-C behaves in a manner similar to rayon-based CC, but does not have the environmental issues associated with the use of rayon. Future work will also further investigate technology and database gaps and needs for more-established polyacrylonitrile- (PAN-) based C-C's. As a low-cost means of being able to rapidly test and screen nozzle extension materials and structures, MSFC has recently established and demonstrated a test rig at MSFC's Test Stand (TS) 115 for testing subscale nozzle extensions with 3.5-inch inside diameters at the attachment plane. Test durations of up to 120 seconds have been demonstrated using oxygen/hydrogen propellants. Other propellant combinations, including the use of hydrocarbon fuels, can be used if desired. Another test capability being developed will allow the testing of larger nozzle extensions (13.5- inch inside diameters at the attachment plane) in environments more similar to those of actual oxygen/hydrogen upper stage engines. Two C-C nozzle extensions (one lyocell-based, one PAN-based) have been fabricated for testing with the larger

  12. Energy Deposition Processes in Titan's Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, Edward C., Jr.; Bertucci, Cesar; Coates, Andrew; Cravens, Tom; Dandouras, Iannis; Shemansky, Don

    2008-01-01

    Most of Titan's atmospheric organic and nitrogen chemistry, aerosol formation, and atmospheric loss are driven from external energy sources such as Solar UV, Saturn's magnetosphere, solar wind and galactic cosmic rays. The Solar UV tends to dominate the energy input at lower altitudes of approximately 1100 km but which can extend down to approximately 400 km, while the plasma interaction from Saturn's magnetosphere, Saturn's magnetosheath or solar wind are more important at higher altitudes of approximately 1400 km, but the heavy ion plasma [O(+)] of approximately 2 keV and energetic ions [H(+)] of approximately 30 keV or higher from Saturn's magnetosphere can penetrate below 950km. Cosmic rays with energies of greater than 1 GeV can penetrate much deeper into Titan's atmosphere with most of its energy deposited at approximately 100 km altitude. The haze layer tends to dominate between 100 km and 300 km. The induced magnetic field from Titan's interaction with the external plasma can be very complex and will tend to channel the flow of energy into Titan's upper atmosphere. Cassini observations combined with advanced hybrid simulations of the plasma interaction with Titan's upper atmosphere show significant changes in the character of the interaction with Saturn local time at Titan's orbit where the magnetosphere displays large and systematic changes with local time. The external solar wind can also drive sub-storms within the magnetosphere which can then modify the magnetospheric interaction with Titan. Another important parameter is solar zenith angle (SZA) with respect to the co-rotation direction of the magnetospheric flow. Titan's interaction can contribute to atmospheric loss via pickup ion loss, scavenging of Titan's ionospheric plasma, loss of ionospheric plasma down its induced magnetotail via an ionospheric wind, and non-thermal loss of the atmosphere via heating and sputtering induced by the bombardment of magnetospheric keV ions and electrons. This

  13. Stellar occultation studies of Saturn's upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foust, Jeffrey Alan

    1999-10-01

    The properties of Saturn's upper atmosphere are not well- known despite several spacecraft flybys. However, the region of 1-100 μbar can be studied in detail by observing stellar occultations-when the planet passes in front of a star-from groundbased or Earth-orbiting telescopes. We use data from five such occultations: three observed in 1995 by the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), one observed in 1996 at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and one in 1989 observed by a different instrument at the IRTF. The data span latitudes from 52° south to 75° north. We fit isothermal models to each data set and also perform numerical inversions. These analyses show that temperatures in the 1-10 μbar range can vary significantly as a function of season and latitude, ranging from 121 to 160 K, in accordance with radiative transfer models for the atmosphere. We also search for evidence of gravity wave saturation in Saturn's upper atmosphere, as seen in other planetary atmospheres, by analyzing the power spectra of temperature and density data and by studying the temperature lapse rate in the atmosphere. Our analysis is consistent with saturated gravity waves for all data sets, although gravity wave saturation is not the sole explanation for the spectra. We take advantage of the wavelength-resolved HST FOS data to study the composition of Saturn's upper atmosphere. We measured the difference in feature times for data taken at two wavelengths, and use the different refractivities of hydrogen and helium, as a function of wavelength to compute the relative amounts of the two elements in the planet's atmosphere. We find that the helium mass fraction is 0.26 +/- 0.10, higher than that found using Voyager data, but marginally consistent with theoretical models for the evolution of Saturn's atmosphere, although the large error bars on the results make a definitive conclusion problematic. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm

  14. Determination of 3D surface displacement rates in the Upper Rhine Graben based on GURN (GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, M.; Knöpfler, A.; Masson, F.; Ulrich, P.; Heck, B.

    2012-04-01

    In September 2008, the Institut de Physique du Globe de Strasbourg (Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre) and the Geodetic Institute of Karlsruhe University (now: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology) established the transnational cooperation GURN (GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network). Within the GURN initiative, these institutions are cooperating in order to carry out geo-scientific research in the framework of the transnational project TOPO-WECEP (Western and Central European Platform; link: http://www.topo-wecep.eu/), which succeeded the former project URGENT (Upper Rhine Graben Evolution and NeoTectonics; link: http://comp1.geol.unibas.ch) of the EUCOR universities (European Confederation of Upper Rhine Universities). The Rhine Graben is the central segment of the European Cenozoic rift system, which extends from the North Sea through Germany and France to the Mediterranean coast over a distance of some 1100 km. GURN focusses on the Upper Rhine Graben (URG). The URG is a 300 km long and 40 km wide SSW-NNE trending rift, extending from Basel (Switzerland) to Frankfurt (Germany). It is limited to the west by the Vosges Mountains and to the east by the Black Forest Mountains, culminating in elevations of approx. 1500 m. The uplifted area of the Rhenish Massif bounds the URG to the north. To the south, the Leymen, Ferrette, and Vendlincourt folds represent the northernmost structural front of the Jura fold and thrust belt. Present-day distribution of the seismicity in the URG area is classified as moderate but not null. Expected velocities and strain rates are very low (relative velocities lower than 0.1mm/yr). The research is actually based on data of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems). A highly precise and highly sensitive geodetic network of permanently operating GNSS sites region has been established in the URG region in order to detect recent short-term (data base starting in year 2002) crustal movements based on displacements of GNSS sites. The

  15. Primary lymphoma of the upper small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Nasr, Khosrow; Haghighi, Parviz; Bakhshandeh, Kiumars; Haghshenas, Mansour

    1970-01-01

    Seven patients with primary lymphoma involving the upper small intestine and presenting with diarrhoea, non-specific abdominal pain, and clubbing are reported. The disease appears to be more prevalent in young women, and clinical and radiological findings can provide an excellent preliminary diagnosis which is usually confirmed by peroral biopsy of the small intestine. This type of lymphoma is found to be clinically distinguishable both from the primary intestinal lymphomas reported from western countries and also from gastrointestinal involvement as part of a more systemic disease. It appears to be prevalent in the Middle East, and because of clear clinical, radiological, and histological features, it can be singled out from other primary intestinal lymphomas and considered as a distinct clinical entity. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:4919259

  16. Nitrogen Chemistry in Titan's Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Christopher P.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    In Titan's upper atmosphere N2 is dissociated to N by solar UV and high energy electrons. This flux of N provides for interesting organic chemistry in the lower atmosphere of Titan. Previously the main pathway for the loss of this N was thought to be the formation of HCN, followed by diffusion of this HCN to lower altitudes leading ultimately to condensation. However, recent laboratory simulations of organic chemistry in Titan's atmosphere suggest that formation of the organic haze may be an important sink for atmospheric N. Because estimates of the eddy diffusion profile on Titan have been based on the HCN profile, inclusion of this additional sink for N will affect estimates for all transport processes in Titan's atmosphere. This and other implications of this sink for the N balance on Titan are considered.

  17. Full scale upper surface blown flap noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidelberg, L. J.; Homyak, L.; Jones, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    A highly noise suppressed TF 34 engine was used to investigate the noise of several powered lift configurations involving upper surface blown (USB) flaps. The configuration variables were nozzle type (i.e. slot and circular with deflector), flap chord length, and flap angle. The results of velocity surveys at both the nozzle exit and the flap trailing edge are also presented and used for correlation of the noise data. Configurations using a long flap design were 4 db quieter than a short flap typical of current trends in USB flap design. The lower noise for the long flap is attributed primarily to the greater velocity decay of the jet at the flap trailing edge. The full-scale data revealed substantially more quadrupole noise in the region near the deflected jet than observed in previous sub-scale tests.

  18. Upper Colorado River Basin Climate Effects Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, Jayne; Campbell, Donald; Kershner, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    The Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) Climate Effects Network (CEN) is a science team established to provide information to assist land managers in future decision making processes by providing a better understanding of how future climate change, land use, invasive species, altered fire cycles, human systems, and the interactions among these factors will affect ecosystems and the services they provide to human communities. The goals of this group are to (1) identify science needs and provide tools to assist land managers in addressing these needs, (2) provide a Web site where users can access information pertinent to this region, and (3) provide managers technical assistance when needed. Answers to the team's working science questions are intended to address how interactions among climate change, land use, and management practices may affect key aspects of water availability, ecosystem changes, and societal needs within the UCRB.

  19. Upper surface blowing aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryle, D. M., Jr.; Braden, J. A.; Gibson, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    Aerodynamic performance at cruise, and noise effects due to variations in nacelle and wing geometry and mode of operation are studied using small aircraft models that simulate upper surface blowing (USB). At cruise speeds ranging from Mach .50 to Mach .82, the key determinants of drag/thrust penalties are found to be nozzle aspect ratio, boattailing angle, and chordwise position; number of nacelles; and streamlined versus symmetric configuration. Recommendations are made for obtaining favorable cruise configurations. The acoustic studies, which concentrate on the noise created by the jet exhaust flow and its interaction with wing and flap surfaces, isolate several important sources of USB noise, including nozzle shape, exit velocity, and impingement angle; flow pathlength; and flap angle and radius of curvature. Suggestions for lessening noise due to trailing edge flow velocity, flow pathlength, and flow spreading are given, though compromises between some design options may be necessary.

  20. Aerosol properties in Titan's upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavvas, Panayotis; Koskinen, Tommi; Royer, Emilie; Rannou, Pascal; West, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Multiple Cassini observations reveal that the abundant aerosol particles in Titan's atmosphere are formed at high altitudes, particularly in the thermosphere. They subsequently fall towards the lower atmosphere and in their path their size, shape, and population change in reflection to the variable atmospheric condition. Although multiple observations can help us retrieve information for the aerosol properties in the lower atmosphere, we have limited information for the aerosol properties between their formation region in the thermosphere and the upper region of the main haze layer or the detached aerosol layer. Observations at UV wavelengths are the only way to probe this part of the atmosphere and help us retrieve the aerosol properties. The presentation will provide an overview of the available observations, and discuss their implications for the production and evolution of Titan's aerosols.