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Sample records for area west valley

  1. An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and surrounding area, West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, H.A.

    1991-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and the surrounding area was conducted from mid-August through early September 1984 by EG G Energy Measurements, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy. The radiological survey was part of the United States Department of Energy Comprehensive Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS) program, which provides state-of-the-art remote sensing to support the needs of the various DOE facilities. The survey consisted of airborne measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. These measurements allowed an estimate of the distribution of isotopic concentrations in the area surrounding the project site. Results are reported as isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area. Gamma ray energy spectra are also presented for the net man-made radionuclides. 8 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Under the West Valley Demonstration Project Act, Public Law 96-368, liquid high-level radioactive waste stored at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in West Valley, New York, is to be solidified (vitrified) in borosilicate glass and transported to a federal repository for geologic disposal. This waste material resulted from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing operations conducted between 1966 and 1972. Project costs are shared by the US Department of Energy (90 percent) and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (10 percent). The site on which the Project is located is owned by New York State. This report is an overview of West Valley's plans and accomplishments.

  3. Purge at West Valley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Warren

    1977-01-01

    Tells how the adviser of the student newspaper at West Valley College (Saratoga, California) was dismissed after the newspaper published stories based on investigations into alleged wrongdoings by administration members. (GW)

  4. Hydrogeochemical investigation of groundwater in Jericho area in the Jordan Valley, West Bank, Palestine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da'as, Ammar; Walraevens, Kristine

    2013-06-01

    Water resources in the Middle East, particularly in Palestine, are extremely scarce and costly. The Jordan Valley is a fertile productive region, described as the food basket of Palestine. Groundwater originating from the Quaternary Aquifer System forms the main water resource in the Jordan Valley. However, the quality of this groundwater is threatened mainly by the high chloride concentration. The most representative area of the Jordan Valley is Jericho area, which was chosen to be the study area. The study area (65 km2) is almost a flat area with a gentle decline towards the east. It is the lowest land on earth with ground levels reaching 400 meters below sea level (mbsl) near the Dead Sea shores. The Quaternary Aquifer System in the study area could be divided into an upper alluvial layer with thickness varying from 40 to 150 m and a lower low-permeable Lisan layer, which crops out in the eastern part of the study area with thickness over 200 m. Hydrogeochemical investigation reveals that the water is generally earth alkaline with higher content of earth alkalis and prevailing chloride. According to Stuyfzand (1986) and Piper's (1944) classification systems, water type in the Alluvial Aquifer varies from fresh hard CaMgHCO3 or MgCaHCO3 water in the west and northwest to brackish very-hard MgNaCl or NaMgCl in the middle. In the east, the water becomes brackish-salt extremely-hard MgNaCl or NaCl. Groundwater quality is deteriorating (increase in salinity) spatially towards the east and vertically with increasing depth (when nearing the Lisan Formation). As an indication of groundwater salinity, total dissolved solids show some variability with time over the last 21 years (1983-2004). In short-time scale, there are high seasonal and yearly fluctuations with regard to salinity, specifically in Cl- and SO42- contents. Spring water from the Upper Cenomanian Aquifer (CaHCO3) represents the fresh end member, while Rift Valley Brines (RVB-CaNaCl) and Dead Sea Brines (DSB

  5. West Valley Demonstration Project, Waste Management Area #3 -- Closure Alternative I

    SciTech Connect

    Marschke, Stephen F.

    2000-06-30

    The Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the completion of the West Valley Demonstration Project and closure and/or long-term management of facilities at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center divided the site into Waste Management Areas (WMAs), and for each WMA, presented the impacts associated with five potential closure alternatives. This report focuses on WMA 3 (the High-Level Waste (HLW) Storage Area (Tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2), the Vitrification Facility and other facilities) and closure Alternative I (the complete removal of all structures, systems and components and the release of the area for unrestricted use), and reestimates the impacts associated with the complete removal of the HLW tanks, and surrounding facilities. A 32-step approach was developed for the complete removal of Tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2, the Supernatant Treatment System Support Building, and the Transfer Trench. First, a shielded Confinement Structure would be constructed to reduce the shine dose rate and to control radioactivity releases. Similarly, the tank heels would be stabilized to reduce potential radiation exposures. Next, the tank removal methodology would include: 1) excavation of the vault cover soil, 2) removal of the vault roof, 3) cutting off the tank’s top, 4) removal of the stabilized heel remaining inside the tank, 5) cutting up the tank’s walls and floor, 6) removal of the vault’s walls, the perlite blocks, and vault floor, and 7) radiation surveying and backfilling the resulting hole. After the tanks are removed, the Confinement Structure would be decontaminated and dismantled, and the site backfilled and landscaped. The impacts (including waste disposal quantities, emissions, work-effort, radiation exposures, injuries and fatalities, consumable materials used, and costs) were estimated based on this 32 step removal methodology, and added to the previously estimated impacts for closure of the other facilities within WMA 3 to obtain the total impacts from

  6. Principal facts for gravity stations in the Antelope Valley-Bedell Flat area, west-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jewel, Eleanore B.; Ponce, David A.; Morin, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    In April 2000 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) established 211 gravity stations in the Antelope Valley and Bedell Flat area of west-central Nevada (see figure 1). The stations were located about 15 miles north of Reno, Nevada, southwest of Dogskin Mountain, and east of Petersen Mountain, concentrated in Antelope Valley and Bedell Flat (figure 2). The ranges in this area primarily consist of normal-faulted Cretaceous granitic rocks, with some volcanic and metavolcanic rocks. The purpose of the survey was to characterize the hydrogeologic framework of Antelope Valley and Bedell Flat in support of future hydrologic investigations. The information developed during this study can be used in groundwater models. Gravity data were collected between latitude 39°37.5' and 40°00' N and longitude 119°37.5' and 120°00' W. The stations were located on the Seven Lakes Mountain, Dogskin Mountain, Granite Peak, Bedell Flat, Fraser Flat, and Reno NE 7.5 minute quadrangles. All data were tied to secondary base station RENO-A located on the campus of the University of Nevada at Reno (UNR) in Reno, Nevada (latitude 39°32.30' N, longitude 119°48.70' W, observed gravity value 979674.69 mGal). The value for observed gravity was calculated by multiple ties to the base station RENO (latitude 39°32.30' N, longitude 119°48.70' W, observed gravity value 979674.65 mGal), also on the UNR campus. The isostatic gravity map (figure 3) includes additional data sets from the following sources: 202 stations from a Geological Survey digital data set (Ponce, 1997), and 126 stations from Thomas C. Carpenter (written commun., 1998).

  7. Gold anomaly in soil of the West End Creek area, Yellow Pine District, Valley County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, B.F.

    1973-01-01

    A gold anomaly recently found by soil sampling near the Yellow Pine mine is accompanied by a silver anomaly and by conspicuous though minor mercury, antimony, arsenic, and tungsten anomalies. The anomalies are not completely delimited by the sampling, but preliminary results indicate that a gold anomaly extends 600 feet along one fault and 500 feet along a fault that intersects it. The gold content of 128 soil samples ranges from less than 0.05 ppm (part per million) to 8.0 ppm; the median value is 0.70 ppm. Within the area in which gold in the soil samples is equal to or greater than 1 ppm, 23 samples have as the mean 2.91 ppm, equivalent to 0.085 troy ounce of gold per ton. The gold anomaly in soil helps define an attractive exploration target for low-grade gold ore in this area, which overlaps that of the West End Creek gold prospects described by J. R. Cooper in 1951 in U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 969-F (p. 151-197).

  8. West Valley Demonstration Project, West Valley, New York: Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    Under the West Valley Demonstration Project Act, Public Law 96-368, liquid high-level radioactive waste stored at the Western New York Nuclear Services Center, West Valley, New York, that resulted from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing operations conducted between 1966 and 1972, is to be solidified in borosilicate glass and transported to a federal repository for geologic disposal. A major milestone was reached in May 1988 when the Project began reducing the volume of the liquid high-level waste. By the end of 1988, approximately 15 percent of the initial inventory had been processed into two waste streams. The decontaminated low-level liquid waste is being solidified in cement. The high-level waste stream is being stored in an underground tank pending its incorporation into borosilicate glass. Four tests of the waste glass melter system were completed. These tests confirmed equipment operability, control system reliability, and provided samples of waste glass for durability testing. In mid-1988, the Department validated an integrated cost and schedule plan for activities required to complete the production of the waste borosilicate glass. Design of the radioactive Vitrification Facility continued.

  9. Quantitative risk assessment of the New York State operated West Valley Radioactive Waste Disposal Area.

    PubMed

    Garrick, B John; Stetkar, John W; Bembia, Paul J

    2010-08-01

    This article is based on a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) that was performed on a radioactive waste disposal area within the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in western New York State. The QRA results were instrumental in the decision by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to support a strategy of in-place management of the disposal area for another decade. The QRA methodology adopted for this first of a kind application was a scenario-based approach in the framework of the triplet definition of risk (scenarios, likelihoods, consequences). The measure of risk is the frequency of occurrence of different levels of radiation dose to humans at prescribed locations. The risk from each scenario is determined by (1) the frequency of disruptive events or natural processes that cause a release of radioactive materials from the disposal area; (2) the physical form, quantity, and radionuclide content of the material that is released during each scenario; (3) distribution, dilution, and deposition of the released materials throughout the environment surrounding the disposal area; and (4) public exposure to the distributed material and the accumulated radiation dose from that exposure. The risks of the individual scenarios are assembled into a representation of the risk from the disposal area. In addition to quantifying the total risk to the public, the analysis ranks the importance of each contributing scenario, which facilitates taking corrective actions and implementing effective risk management. Perhaps most importantly, quantification of the uncertainties is an intrinsic part of the risk results. This approach to safety analysis has demonstrated many advantages of applying QRA principles to assessing the risk of facilities involving hazardous materials.

  10. Properties of the West Valley waste form

    SciTech Connect

    Cadoff, L.H.; Pope, J.M.; Barnes, S.M.

    1990-10-01

    This paper reviews the physical and chemical properties of an envelope of West Valley waste form compositions that encompass the centroid composition and which fulfill criteria mandating high chemical durability and good processibility. Data are presented to demonstrate that full-scale process controls at West Valley are sufficiently good to produce acceptably durable non-radioactive glass waste forms.

  11. 66. View of west Woodstock Valley, looking west from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. View of west Woodstock Valley, looking west from the south peak Carriage Road loop, in Billings Park (town of Woodstock). The view includes a rustic log bench. The distant valley meadows at left contain the Riverside Cemetery extension, and the Woodstock Union High School. - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  12. 34. View of west Woodstock Valley, looking west from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. View of west Woodstock Valley, looking west from the south peak Carriage Road loop, in Billings Park (town of Woodstock). The view includes a rustic log bench. The distant valley meadows at left contain the Riverside Cemetery extension, and the Woodstock Union High School. - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  13. West Valley facility spent fuel handling, storage, and shipping experience

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.

    1990-11-01

    The result of a study on handling and shipping experience with spent fuel are described in this report. The study was performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The purpose of the study was to document the experience with handling and shipping of relatively old light-water reactor (LWR) fuel that has been in pool storage at the West Valley facility, which is at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center at West Valley, New York and operated by DOE. A subject of particular interest in the study was the behavior of corrosion product deposits (i.e., crud) deposits on spent LWR fuel after long-term pool storage; some evidence of crud loosening has been observed with fuel that was stored for extended periods at the West Valley facility and at other sites. Conclusions associated with the experience to date with old spent fuel that has been stored at the West Valley facility are presented. The conclusions are drawn from these subject areas: a general overview of the West Valley experience, handling of spent fuel, storing of spent fuel, rod consolidation, shipping of spent fuel, crud loosening, and visual inspection. A list of recommendations is provided. 61 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1999

    SciTech Connect

    None Available

    2000-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1999 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  15. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1997 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  16. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report calendar year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1998 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  17. Preliminary design of a biological treatment facility for trench water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal area at West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Rosten, R.; Malkumus, D.; Sonntag, T.; Sundquist, J.

    1993-03-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) owns and manages a State-Licensed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area (SDA) at West Valley, New York. Water has migrated into the burial trenches at the SDA and collected there, becoming contaminated with radionuclides and organic compounds. The US Environmental Protection Agency issued an order to NYSERDA to reduce the levels of water in the trenches. A treatability study of the contaminated trench water (leachate) was performed and determined the best available technology to treat the leachate and discharge the effluent. This paper describes the preliminary design of the treatment facility that incorporates the bases developed in the leachate treatability study.

  18. Environmental audit: West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Audit of West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) located in West Valley, New York. The WVDP Environmental Audit was conducted from July 29 through August 16, 1991, by the Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24). This Audit evaluated environmental programs and activities at WVDP as well as the overall environmental management system. The scope of the Environmental Audit was comprehensive, addressing environmental media and Federal, state, and local regulations, with the exception of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Also addressed were DOE Orders, WVDP 1989 ES&H Assessment Action Plan, formalized facility or program operating procedures, and BMPS. The technical disciplines addressed by the Audit were: Air; Surface Water; Soils, Sediment and Biota; Groundwater; Waste Management; Toxic and Chemical Materials; Radiation; Quality Assurance; and Inactive Waste Sites. In addition, the Audit included a review of environmental management programs within the West Valley Project Office (WVPO). West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS), and Subcontractor organizations. The effectiveness of environmental monitoring programs was a major component of the review conducted within each technical discipline.

  19. Environmental audit: West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Audit of West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) located in West Valley, New York. The WVDP Environmental Audit was conducted from July 29 through August 16, 1991, by the Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24). This Audit evaluated environmental programs and activities at WVDP as well as the overall environmental management system. The scope of the Environmental Audit was comprehensive, addressing environmental media and Federal, state, and local regulations, with the exception of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Also addressed were DOE Orders, WVDP 1989 ES H Assessment Action Plan, formalized facility or program operating procedures, and BMPS. The technical disciplines addressed by the Audit were: Air; Surface Water; Soils, Sediment and Biota; Groundwater; Waste Management; Toxic and Chemical Materials; Radiation; Quality Assurance; and Inactive Waste Sites. In addition, the Audit included a review of environmental management programs within the West Valley Project Office (WVPO). West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS), and Subcontractor organizations. The effectiveness of environmental monitoring programs was a major component of the review conducted within each technical discipline.

  20. COHORT OF WOMEN LIVING IN OR NEAR A HIGHLY INDUSTRIALIZED AREA OF KANAWHA RIVER VALLEY IN WEST VIRGINIA: ENDOMETRIOSIS AND BLOOD LEVELS OF DIOXIN AND DIOXIN-LIKE CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction Historical releases of dioxin and dioxin-like chemicals with subsequent impacts to environmental media in the Kanawha River Valley (KRV) of West Virginia have been well documented.' The bulk of dioxin found in this area appears to be derived from the production of 2,...

  1. 114. Doughton Park Recreation Area. View of Laurel Spring Valley ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    114. Doughton Park Recreation Area. View of Laurel Spring Valley in distance, alligator back, and overlook in foreground. Looking west. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  2. Facility decontamination for reuse at West Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Gessner, R.F.; Tundo, D.; Lawrence, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project has been created to decontaminate and decommission a civilian fuel reprocessing plant. This activity involves decontamination of the former facility for installation of high- and low-level liquid waste processing equipment. About 70% of the plant has been decontaminated and liquid waste processing equipment installed. The decontamination effort utilized both contact and remote practices and a variety of commonplace and unique tools and equipment. Lessons learned during the cleanup are reviewed in this paper.

  3. Surficial geologic map of the Heath-Northfield-Southwick-Hampden 24-quadrangle area in the Connecticut Valley region, west-central Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Janet R.; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.

    2010-01-01

    The surficial geologic map layer shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of 24 7.5-minute quadrangles (1,238 mi2 total) in west-central Massachusetts. Across Massachusetts, these materials range from a few feet to more than 500 ft in thickness. They overlie bedrock, which crops out in upland hills and as resistant ledges in valley areas. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (such as grain size and sedimentary structures), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial materials also are known in engineering classifications as unconsolidated soils, which include coarse-grained soils, fine-grained soils, and organic fine-grained soils. Surficial materials underlie and are the parent materials of modern pedogenic soils, which have developed in them at the land surface. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for assessing water resources, construction aggregate resources, and earth-surface hazards, and for making land-use decisions. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This report includes explanatory text, quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale (PDF files), GIS data layers (ArcGIS shapefiles), metadata for the GIS layers, scanned topographic base maps (TIF), and a readme.txt file.

  4. West Valley waste removal system study

    SciTech Connect

    Janicek, G P

    1981-04-01

    This study addresses the specific task of removing high-level wastes from underground tanks at Western New York Nuclear Center and delivering them to an onsite waste solidification plant. It begins with a review of the design and construction features of the waste storage tanks pertinent to the waste removal task with particular emphasis on the unique and complex tank internals which severely complicate the task of removal. It follows with a review of tank cleaning techniques used and under study at both Hanford and Savannah River and previous studies proposing the use of these techniques at West Valley. It concludes from these reviews that existing techniques are not directly transferable to West Valley and that a new approach is required utilizing selected feature and attributes from existing methodology. The study also concludes, from an investigation of the constraints imposed by the processing facility, that waste removal will be intermittent, requiring batch transfer over the anticipated 3 years of processing operations. Based on these reviews and conclusions, the study proposes that the acid waste be processed first and that one of the 15,000-gallon acid tanks then be used for batch feeding the neutralized waste. The proposed system would employ commercially available pumping equipment to transfer the wastes from the batch tank to processing via existing process piping. A commercially available mixed-flow pump and eight turbine pumps would homogenize the neutralized waste in conjunction with eight custom-fabricated sluicers for periodic transfer to the batch tank.

  5. Environment, safety and health, management and organization compliance assessment, West Valley Demonstration Program, West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    An Environment, Safety and Health Tiger Team'' Assessment was conducted at the West Valley Demonstration Project. The Tiger Team was chartered to conduct an onsite, independent assessment of WVDP's environment, safety and health (ES H) programs to assure compliance with applicable Federal and State laws, regulations, and standards, and Department of Energy Orders. The objective is to provide to the Secretary of Energy the following information: current ES H compliance status of each facility; specific noncompliance items; root causes'' for noncompliance items; evaluation of the adequacy of ES H organization and resources (DOE and contractor) and needed modifications; and where warranted, recommendations for addressing identified problem areas.

  6. Bench-scale treatability testing of biological, UV oxidation, distillation, and ion-exchange treatment of trench water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal area at West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Sundquist, J.A.; Gillings, J.C.; Sonntag, T.L.; Denault, R.P.

    1993-03-01

    Ecology and Environment, Inc. (E and E), under subcontract to Pacific Nuclear Services (PNS), conducted for the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) treatability tests to support the selection and design of a treatment system for leachate from Trench 14 of the West Valley State-Licensed, Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area (SDA). In this paper E and E presents and discusses the treatability test results and provides recommendations for the design of the full-scale treatment system.

  7. 10. View along graveyard road to the west, valley of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View along graveyard road to the west, valley of Ewing's attack, stockade redan is visible in distance to the middle and left. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  8. Experimental Rift Valley fever in West African Dwarf sheep.

    PubMed

    Fagbami, A H; Tomori, O; Fabiyi, A; Isoun, T T

    1975-05-01

    West African Dwarf sheep were challenged with a low mouse brain-passaged Rift Valley fever virus (Ib-AR 55172) isolated from Nigeria. Viraemia, mild febrile reaction and neutralising antibodies were demonstrated in inoculated animals.

  9. 77. Rocky Knob Recreation area. View of the valley from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    77. Rocky Knob Recreation area. View of the valley from Belcher's Curve. Notice that the scenic easement allows A the boundary of the parkway to disappear creating a park that appears bigger than it is. View to west-southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  10. Groundwater-level change and evaluation of simulated water levels for irrigated areas in Lahontan Valley, Churchill County, west-central Nevada, 1992 to 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, David W.; Buto, Susan G.; Welborn, Toby L.

    2016-09-14

    The acquisition and transfer of water rights to wetland areas of Lahontan Valley, Nevada, has caused concern over the potential effects on shallow aquifer water levels. In 1992, water levels in Lahontan Valley were measured to construct a water-table map of the shallow aquifer prior to the effects of water-right transfers mandated by the Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribal Settlement Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-618, 104 Stat. 3289). From 1992 to 2012, approximately 11,810 water-righted acres, or 34,356 acre-feet of water, were acquired and transferred to wetland areas of Lahontan Valley. This report documents changes in water levels measured during the period of water-right transfers and presents an evaluation of five groundwater-flow model scenarios that simulated water-level changes in Lahontan Valley in response to water-right transfers and a reduction in irrigation season length by 50 percent.Water levels measured in 98 wells from 2012 to 2013 were used to construct a water-table map. Water levels in 73 of the 98 wells were compared with water levels measured in 1992 and used to construct a water-level change map. Water-level changes in the 73 wells ranged from -16.2 to 4.1 feet over the 20-year period. Rises in water levels in Lahontan Valley may correspond to annual changes in available irrigation water, increased canal flows after the exceptionally dry and shortened irrigation season of 1992, and the increased conveyance of water rights transferred to Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge. Water-level declines generally occurred near the boundary of irrigated areas and may be associated with groundwater pumping, water-right transfers, and inactive surface-water storage reservoirs. The largest water-level declines were in the area near Carson Lake.Groundwater-level response to water-right transfers was evaluated by comparing simulated and observed water-level changes for periods representing water-right transfers and a shortened irrigation season in areas near Fallon

  11. Rod consolidation at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.

    1986-12-01

    A rod consolidation demonstration with irradiated pressurized water reactor fuel was recently conducted by personnel from Nuclear Assurance Corporation and West Valley Nuclear Services Company at the West Valley Demonstration Project in West Valley, New York. The rod consolidation demonstration involved pulling all of the fuel rods from six fuel Assemblies. In general, the rod pulling proceeded smoothly. The highest compaction ratio attained was 1:8:1. Among the total of 1074 fuel rods were some known degraded rods (they had collapsed cladding, a result of in-reactor fuel densification), but no rods were broken or dropped during the demonstration. One aim was to gather information on the effect of rod consolidation operations on the integrity of the fuel rods during subsequent handling and storage. Another goal was to collect information on the condition and handling of intact, damaged, and failed fuel that has been in storage for an extended period. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  12. East and west elevations. San Berardino Valley Union Junior College, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East and west elevations. San Berardino Valley Union Junior College, Library Building. Also includes miscellaneous full size details. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 4, Job no. 315. Scales 1/8 inch to the foot (elevations). No date given on sheet (probably March or April, 1927). - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  13. West elevation. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West elevation. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Also includes plan of entrance, section EE showing tiling and typical transom design, and a full size detail of a door jamb for inside concrete walls. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 7, job no. 311. Scale 1.2 inch to the foot. February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  14. East and west elevations. San Berardino Valley Union Junior College, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East and west elevations. San Berardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Also includes elevations and sections of chemistry department shelving. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 4, Job no. 311. Scales 1/8 inch to the foot (elevations) and 1/2 inch t other foot (shelving). February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  15. Gravity survey of Dixie Valley, west-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaefer, Donald H.

    1983-01-01

    Dixie Valley, a northeast-trending structural trough typical of valleys in the Basin and Range Province, is filled with a maximum of about 10,000 feet of alluvial and lacustrine deposits , as estimated from residual-gravity measurements obtained in this study. On the basis of gravity measurements at 300 stations on nine east-west profiles, the gravity residuals reach a maximum of 30 milligals near the south-central part of the valley. Results from a three-dimensional inversion model indicate that the central depression of the valley is offset to the west of the geographic axis. This offset is probably due to major faulting along the west side of the valley adjacent to the Stillwater Range. Comparison of depths to bedrock obtained during this study and depths obtained from a previous seismic-refraction study indicates a reasonably good correlation. A heterogeneous distribution of densities within the valley-fill deposits would account for differing depths determined by the two methods. (USGS)

  16. Vitrification facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    DesCamp, V.A.; McMahon, C.L.

    1996-07-01

    This report is a description of the West Valley Demonstration Project`s vitrification facilities from the establishment of the West Valley, NY site as a federal and state cooperative project to the completion of all activities necessary to begin solidification of radioactive waste into glass by vitrification. Topics discussed in this report include the Project`s background, high-level radioactive waste consolidation, vitrification process and component testing, facilities design and construction, waste/glass recipe development, integrated facility testing, and readiness activities for radioactive waste processing.

  17. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2004

    SciTech Connect

    West Valley Nuclear Services Company and URS Group, Inc.

    2005-09-30

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2004. The report summarizes the environmental protection program at the West Valley Demonstration Project for CY 2004.

  18. West Valley transfer cart control system design description

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Crutcher, R.I.; Halliwell, J.W.; Hileman, M.S.; Moore, M.R.; Nodine, R.N.; Ruppel, F.R.; Vandermolen, R.I.

    1993-01-01

    Detail design of the control system for the West Valley Nuclear Services Vitrification Facility transfer cart has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report documents the requirements and describes the detail design of that equipment and control software. Copies of significant design documents including analysis and testing reports and design drawings are included in the Appendixes.

  19. West Valley College: Educational and Facilities Master Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Valley Coll., Saratoga, CA.

    This report discusses the outcomes of West Valley College's (WVC) (California) planning process, which was based on an extensive community needs assessment. Statistics include: (1) the local county, Santa Clara, was estimated to be approximately 24% Hispanic and Asian, and 4% African American; (2) student enrollment at WVC was approximately 11,500…

  20. Final West Valley Demonstration Project Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement, Cattaraugus County, West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-01-16

    The purpose of the ''Final West Valley Demonstration Project Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement'' is to provide information on the environmental impacts of the Department of Energy's proposed action to ship radioactive wastes that are either currently in storage, or that will be generated from operations over the next 10 years, to offsite disposal locations, and to continue its ongoing onsite waste management activities. Decommissioning or long-term stewardship decisions will be reached based on a separate EIS that is being prepared for that decisionmaking. This EIS evaluates the environmental consequences that may result from actions to implement the proposed action, including the impacts to the onsite workers and the offsite public from waste transportation and onsite waste management. The EIS analyzes a no action alternative, under which most wastes would continue to be stored onsite over the next 10 years. It also analyzes an alternative under which certain wastes would be shipped to interim offsite storage locations prior to disposal. The Department's preferred alternative is to ship wastes to offsite disposal locations.

  1. West wall, display area (room 101), view 1 of 4: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West wall, display area (room 101), view 1 of 4: southwest corner, showing stairs to commander's quarters and viewing bridge, windows to controller's room (room 102), south end of control consoles, and holes in pedestal floor for computer equipment cables (tape drive I/O?) - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  2. West wall, display area (room 101), view 4 of 4: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West wall, display area (room 101), view 4 of 4: northwest corner, with D.M. logistics office below (room 137), and D.O./D.D.O. offices above. Lower stairs lead to entry shown in view 13 - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  3. West wall, display area (room 101), view 2 of 4: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West wall, display area (room 101), view 2 of 4: south part, showing commander's quarters and viewing bridge on second floor, controller's room, console, and projection booth on main floor - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  4. West wall, display area (room 101), view 3 of 4: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West wall, display area (room 101), view 3 of 4: north part, showing senior battle staff viewing bridge), projection booths, control consoles, and pneumatic tube message port - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  5. Elevations. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. West, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevations. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. West, south, east elevations, elevation of loggia, areaway railing detail. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet 7, job no. 692. Scales 1/8 inch to the foot (elevations) and 3/4 inch to the foot (detail). March 27, 1936. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, April 22, 1936. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  6. New vectors of Rift Valley fever in West Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Fontenille, D.; Traore-Lamizana, M.; Diallo, M.; Thonnon, J.; Digoutte, J. P.; Zeller, H. G.

    1998-01-01

    After an outbreak of Rift Valley fever in Southern Mauritania in 1987, entomologic studies were conducted in a bordering region in Sénégal from 1991 to 1996 to identify the sylvatic vectors of Rift Valley fever virus. The virus was isolated from the floodwater mosquitoes Aedes vexans and Ae. ochraceus. In 1974 and 1983, the virus had been isolated from Ae. dalzieli. Although these vectors differ from the main vectors in East and South Africa, they use the same type of breeding sites and also feed on cattle and sheep. Although enzootic vectors have now been identified in West Africa, the factors causing outbreaks remain unclear. PMID:9621201

  7. New vectors of Rift Valley fever in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Fontenille, D; Traore-Lamizana, M; Diallo, M; Thonnon, J; Digoutte, J P; Zeller, H G

    1998-01-01

    After an outbreak of Rift Valley fever in Southern Mauritania in 1987, entomologic studies were conducted in a bordering region in Sénégal from 1991 to 1996 to identify the sylvatic vectors of Rift Valley fever virus. The virus was isolated from the floodwater mosquitoes Aedes vexans and Ae. ochraceus. In 1974 and 1983, the virus had been isolated from Ae. dalzieli. Although these vectors differ from the main vectors in East and South Africa, they use the same type of breeding sites and also feed on cattle and sheep. Although enzootic vectors have now been identified in West Africa, the factors causing outbreaks remain unclear.

  8. Case histories of West Valley spent fuel shipments: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    In 1983, NRC/FC initiated a study on institutional issues related to spent fuel shipments originating at the former spent fuel processing facility in West Valley, New York. FC staff viewed the shipment campaigns as a one-time opportunity to document the institutional issues that may arise with a substantial increase in spent fuel shipping activity. NRC subsequently contracted with the Aerospace Corporation for the West Valley Study. This report contains a detailed description of the events which took place prior to and during the spent fuel shipments. The report also contains a discussion of the shipment issues that arose, and presents general findings. Most of the institutional issues discussed in the report do not fall under NRC's transportation authority. The case histories provide a reference to agencies and other institutions that may be involved in future spent fuel shipping campaigns. 130 refs., 7 figs., 19 tabs.

  9. Laboratory work in support of West Valley glass development

    SciTech Connect

    Bunnell, L.R.

    1988-05-01

    Over the past six years, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted several studies in support of waste glass composition development and testing of glass compositions suitable for immobilizing the nuclear wastes stored at West Valley, New York. As a result of pilot-scale testing conducted by PNL, the glass composition was changed from that originally recommended in response to changes in the waste stream, and several processing-related problems were discovered. These problems were solved, or sufficiently addressed to determine their likely effect on the glass melting operations to be conducted at West Valley. This report describes the development of the waste glass composition, WV-205, and discusses solutions to processing problems such as foaming and insoluble sludges, as well as other issues such as effects of feed variations on processing of the resulting glass. An evaluation of the WV-205 glass from a repository perspective is included in the appendix to this report.

  10. The West Valley Demonstration Project's vitrification system operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, J.M.; Barnes, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    A full-sized, integrated vitrification system is being tested at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) to establish its operational characteristics that will allow a quality, high-level nuclear waste (HLW) glass product to be consistently produced. Recently, this nonradioactive verification testing has emphasized (a) ensuring flow sheet and feed makeup chemistry that enables well-balanced melter performance, (b) achieving design basis melter throughput rates at steady-state operating conditions, and (c) demonstrating that the release limit of NO{sub x} is met by the vitrification off-gas system. The West Valley vitrification process testing is rapidly converging to demonstrate that the acceptance specification in the glass product and the environmental requirements on the off-gas will indeed be met, thereby providing the basis for approval to begin radioactive operations in 1992.

  11. Radiation safety at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, R.L.

    1997-05-06

    This is a report on the Radiation Safety Program at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). This Program covers a number of activities that support high-level waste solidification, stabilization of facilities, and decontamination and decommissioning activities at the Project. The conduct of the Program provides confidence that all occupational radiation exposures received during operational tasks at the Project are within limits, standards, and program requirements, and are as low as reasonably achievable.

  12. Product consistency testing of West Valley Compositional Variation Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, K.M.; Marschman, S.C.; Piepel, G.F.; Whiting, G.K.

    1994-11-01

    Nuclear waste glass produced by the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) must meet the requirements of the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specification (WAPS) as developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To assist WVDP in complying with WAPS, the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) used the Product Consistency Test (PCT) to evaluate 44 West Valley glasses that had previously been tested in FY 1987 and FY 1988. This report summarizes the results of the PCTs. The glasses tested, which were fabricated as sets of Compositional Variation Glasses for studies performed by the West Valley Support Task (WVST) at PNL during FY 1987 and FY 1988, were doped with Th and U and were variations of West Valley reference glasses. In addition, Approved Reference Material-1 (ARM-1) was used as a test standard (ARM-1 is supplied by the MCC). The PCT was originated at Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) by C. M. Jantzen and N. R. Bibler (Jantzen and Bibler 1989). The test is a seven-day modified MCC-3 test that uses crushed glass in the size range -100 +200 mesh with deionized water in a Teflon container. There is no agitation during the PCT, and no attempt to include CO{sub 2} from the test environment. Based on B and Li release, the glasses performed about the same as in previous modified MCC-3 testing performed in FY 1987 and FY 1988 (Reimus et al. 1988). The modified MCC-3 tests performed by Reimus et al. were similar to the PCT containers and the exclusion of CO{sub 2} from the tests.

  13. Status of high-level waste processing at West Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, A.J.; Baker, M.N. )

    1991-11-01

    The US Department of Energy is charged with the solidification of high-level liquid waste remaining from nuclear fuel reprocessing activities that were conducted at West Valley, New York, between 1966 and 1972. The 2.27 million liters (600,000 gal) of waste in an underground storage tank has separated into a sludge layer, {approximately}10% of the original volume, and a liquid layer. Prior to the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification, volume reduction of the waste is necessary. Sine May 1988, West Valley has successfully processed >1.59 million liters (420,000 gal) of HLW. Processing to date has involved the removal of {sup 139}Cs from the HLW effluent by ion exchange, evaporation to concentrate the effluent to a predetermined salt concentration, and finally cementation. This process has removed {approximately}80% of the {sup 137}Cs from the HLW liquid phase. Modifications are currently being made to begin the second phase of the HLW processing at West Valley. The second phase of HLW processing will include the removal of plutonium as well as cesium from the HLW sludge. This paper describes the progress made to date and the modifications being made to the process and to the feed stream to begin the second phase of HLW processing.

  14. Hydrogeology of McMullen Valley, west-central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pool, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The geohydrology of McMullen Valley, west-central Arizona, was investigated using geologic, geophysical, and hydrologic data and a numerical model of the groundwater system. Interpretation of geologic and geophysical information indicates that the main structure of McMullen Valley is a syncline that has been normal faulted on the southeast side. Basin fill that accumulated in the structural depression during late Miocene to Pleistocene time is the main aquifer and is divided into upper and lower units on the basis of lithologic information. The upper unit is a thin layer of coarse-grained sediments and generally is not saturated. The lower unit is 3,000 to 4,000 ft thick, includes a fine-grained facies in the upper 1,000 ft, and is the main source of water. The fine-grained facies is found in the southwest half of the basin and is further divided into upper and lower parts. The lower part of the fine-grained facies has: a higher percentage of silt and clay than the upper part, contains evaporites, does not yield water to wells, and separates the aquifer into shallow and deep systems. A numerical model was used to analyze the groundwater system for both steady-state and transient conditions. The transient model was used to analyze system response to pumping stress. The transient system is one of storage depletion, and water level declines are controlled by pumping and specific yield distributions. Water level declines are also influenced by hydraulic properties and areal extent of the fine-grained facies. Significant water level declines may extend to aquifer boundaries in most of the basin; in one area, impermeable boundary greatly influences declines. The location of the nearby boundary was estimated through gravity data modeling. Several hydrologic components, including hydraulic properties and areal extent of the fine-grained facies , storage properties, and aquifer boundaries, need better definition in order to develop a more accurate model of the groundwater

  15. West Valley Demonstration Project full-scale canister impact tests

    SciTech Connect

    Whittington, K.F.; Lutz, C.E.

    1995-12-31

    Five West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) high-level waste (HLW) canisters were impact tested during 1994 to demonstrate compliance with the drop test requirements of the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications. The specifications state that the canistered waste form must be able to survive a 7-m (23 ft) drop unbreached. The 10-gauge stainless steel canisters were approximately 85% filled with simulated vitrified waste and weighed about 2100 kg (4600 lb). Each canister was dropped vertically from a height of 7 m (23 ft) onto an essentially unyielding surface. The integrity of the canister was determined by the application and analysis of strain circles, dimensional measurements, and helium leak testing. The canisters were also visually inspected before and after the drop for physical damage. After the impact, very little deformation of the canisters was observed. The strain circles deformed in the axial direction less than 3% and up to 7% in the hoop direction. The canisters on average showed a slight diameter increase of approximately 2% (1 to 2 cm) in the area nearest to the bottom head. The diameter only increased an average of 0.8% (0.5 cm) at the 76-cm elevation. The canister height decreased by an average of 0.4% (1.2 cm). Helium leak testing of each weld showed either no detectable leaks or very slight leaks much less than the acceptance criteria of 10{sup {minus}4} atm cc/sec. Each of the canisters passed the ``straightness`` test in which the canisters were fit into an inspection sleeve, a straight cylinder with a 63.5-cm (25 in) diameter, after the impact. The results of the impact test verify that the canisters survived the 7-m drops unbreached. Therefore, these results demonstrate that the reference canister meets the drop test specification of the Waste Acceptance Product Specification.

  16. West Valley Support Program evacuated canister system design

    SciTech Connect

    Ketner, G.L.; Berger, D.N. ); Liu, K.J. )

    1993-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory has prepared a preliminary design of the evacuated canister system for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). The function of the evacuated canister is to remove molten radioactive glass from the WVDP melter cavity during a planned melter shutdown. The proposed evacuated canister system consists of an L-shaped, 4-in.-diam Type 304L stainless steel schedule-40 pipe sealed with an aluminum plug at one end and attached to a canister at the other. While it is lifted, the canister is positioned and held above the melter by two cranes at [approximately] 15 deg from horizontal.

  17. Performance testing of West Valley Reference 6 glass

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W.L.; Bates, J.K.

    1995-06-01

    The chemical durability of West Valley Reference 6 glass is being evaluated by using a suite of laboratory tests which highlight the early, interim, and long-term stages of corrosion. The test results are being used to describe the glass corrosion path and its long-term durability. The long-term durability of the SRL Environmental Assessment glass is being evaluated for comparison. Test results also provide parameter values for an analytical corrosion model that can be used in performance assessments of specific disposal sites.

  18. An rf communications system for the West Valley transfer cart

    SciTech Connect

    Crutcher, R.I.; Moore, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype radio frequency communications system for digital data was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in controlling the vitrification facility transfer cart at the West Valley Nuclear Services facility in New York. The communications system provides bidirectional wireless data transfer between the operator control station and the material transfer cart. The system was designed to operate in radiation fields of 10[sup 4] R/h while withstanding a total integrated dose of 10[sup 7] R of gamma radiation. Implementation of antenna spatial diversity, automatic gain control, and spectral processing improves operation in the reflective environment of the metal-lined reprocessing cells.

  19. An rf communications system for the West Valley transfer cart

    SciTech Connect

    Crutcher, R.I.; Moore, M.R.

    1993-05-01

    A prototype radio frequency communications system for digital data was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in controlling the vitrification facility transfer cart at the West Valley Nuclear Services facility in New York. The communications system provides bidirectional wireless data transfer between the operator control station and the material transfer cart. The system was designed to operate in radiation fields of 10{sup 4} R/h while withstanding a total integrated dose of 10{sup 7} R of gamma radiation. Implementation of antenna spatial diversity, automatic gain control, and spectral processing improves operation in the reflective environment of the metal-lined reprocessing cells.

  20. Waste Form Qualification Experience at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.A.; Misercola, A.J.

    2003-02-24

    Since 1996, the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) has operated a slurry-fed ceramic melter to vitrify high-level nuclear waste (HLW) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). More than 65 batches of HLW were mixed with glass-forming chemicals between June 1996 and August 2002 to make a ''qualified'' HLW form. The nuances of this procedure and the lessons learned from the application of the process will be provided in this paper to guide future producers of immobilized HLW.

  1. FINDING SOLUTIONS AT THE WEST VALLEY DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, John L.; Gramling, James M.; Houston, Helene M.

    2003-02-27

    The United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) faces a number of sizeable challenges as it begins to transform its mission from managing risk to reducing and eliminating risk throughout the DOE Complex. One of the greatest challenges being addressed by DOE-EM as this transformation takes place is accelerating the deactivation and decommissioning of thousands of facilities within the DOE Complex that were once used to support nuclear-related programs and projects. These facilities are now unused and aging. Finding solutions to complete the cleanup of these aging facilities more safely, efficiently, and effectively while reducing costs is critical to successfully meeting DOE-EM's cleanup challenge. The Large-Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project (LSDDP) of Hot Cells at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is a near-term project funded through the DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL) for the specific purpose of identifying, evaluating, demonstrating, and deploying commercially available technologies that are capable of streamlining the cleanup of hot cells in unused facilities while improving worker safety. Two DOE project sites are participating in this LSDDP: the WVDP site in West Valley, New York and the Hanford River Corridor Project (RCP) site in Richland, Washington. The WVDP site serves as the host site for the project. Technologies considered for demonstration and potential deployment at both LSDDP sites are targeted for application in hot cells that require the use of remote and semi-remote techniques to conduct various cleanup-related activities because of high radiation or high contamination levels. These hot cells, the type of cleanup activities being conducted, and technologies selected for demonstration are the main topics discussed in this paper. The range of cleanup-related activities addressed include in-situ characterization, size-reduction, contamination control, decontamination, in

  2. Draft West Valley Demonstration Project Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-05-16

    As part of its ongoing West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), and in accordance with the West Valley Demonstration Project Act and previous U.S. Department of Energy (DOE or the Department) decisions, DOE proposes to: (1) Continue onsite management of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) until it can be shipped for disposal to a geologic repository (assumed for the purposes of analysis to be the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository near Las Vegas, Nevada), (2) Ship low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) LLW offsite for disposal at DOE or other disposal sites, (3) Ship transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), and (4) Actively manage the waste storage tanks. The waste volumes that are the subject of evaluation in this EIS include only those wastes that are either currently in storage or that would be generated over the next 10 years from ongoing operations and decontamination activities. This EIS analyzes activities that would occur during a 10-year period.

  3. Technical safety appraisal of the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    This report presents the results of one in a series of Technical Safety Appraisals (TSAs) being conducted of DOE nuclear operations by the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health Office of Safety Appraisals TSAs are one of the ititiatives announced by the Secretary of Energy on September 18, 1985, to enhance the DOE environment, safety and health program. This report presents the results of a TSA of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). The appraisal was conducted by a team of exerts assembled by the DOE Office of Safety Appraisal and was conducted during onsite visits of June 26-30 and July 10-21, 1989. West Valley, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, New York is the location of the only commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing facility operated in the United States. Nuclear Fuels Services, Inc. (NFS) operated the plant from 1966 to 1972 and processed about 640 metric tons of spent reactor fuel. The reprocessing operation generated about 560,000 gallons of high-level radioactive waste, which was transferred into underground tanks for storage. In 1972 NFS closed the plant and subsequently decided not to reopen it.

  4. West Valley operation of an integrated radwaste treatment system

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, P.J.; Cwynar, J.C.; Gessner, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is charged with the solidification of high-level liquid waste remaining from nuclear fuel reprocessing activities, which were conducted at West Valley, New York, between 1966 and 1972. One important aspect of the project's fully integrated waste program is the management of low-level wastes (LLWs) that result from treating high-level waste. At the West Valley Demonstration Project, {approximately}650,000 gal of high-level radioactive waste is stored in an underground tank. The waste has separated into two phases, i.e., a liquid or supernatant that comprises 90% of this 650,000 gal and a 10% layer of sludge on the bottom of the tank. Estimates based on radiochemical analysis show that the supernatant contains {approximately}7.4 million Ci of predominantly {sup 137}Cs. The purpose of the integrated radwaste treatment system (IRTS) is to remove as much {sup 137}Cs as possible from the supernatant by utilizing an ion exchange technique and to solidify the remaining liquid into a certifiable class C cement LLW form that meets the waste form criteria specified in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) 10CFR61. Waste is to be solidified in 71-gal square drums and remotely handled and stored on-site until determination of final disposition. This paper describes the very successful experiences gained in the treatment and solidification of the LLW stream produced as well as the processes and controls employed on the cemented waste.

  5. A remote sensing and GIS-based wetlands analysis in Canaan Valley, West Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yisha

    With the increasing influence in climate change and human activity, more and more people have begun to recognize the benefits of wetlands. However, there was a continuous annual net loss in the wetlands area since 1980s. Many programs have been implemented to monitor the status and trend of wetlands recently. In West Virginia, the wetlands area is a small portion of State's land but it plays a key role in the whole ecosystem. This research aimed to detect the land cover and vegetation changes focusing on Canaan Valley area, which represents the greatest wetlands area of West Virginia. Remote sensing datasets and GIS were used to analyze the trend change with the supervised maximum likelihood classification and Post-classification change detection methods. The potential causes of wetland loss were analyzed after the classification.

  6. 78 FR 3026 - Establishment of Swan Valley Conservation Area, Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Establishment of Swan Valley Conservation Area, Montana AGENCY: Fish and... Wildlife Service (Service) has established the Swan Valley Conservation Area as a unit of the National Wildlife Refuge System. The Service established the Swan Valley Conservation Area on August 6, 2012,...

  7. Functional description of the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Borisch, R.R.; McMahon, C.L.

    1990-07-01

    The primary objective of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is the solidification of approximately 2.1 million liters (560,000 gallons) of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) which resulted from the operation of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Since the original plant was not built to accommodate the processing of waste beyond storage in underground tanks, HLW solidification by vitrification presented numerous engineering challenges. Existing facilities required redesign and conversion to meet their new purpose. Vitrification technology and systems needed to be created and then tested. Equipment modifications, identified from cold test results, were incorporated into the final equipment configuration to be used for radioactive (hot) operations. Cold operations have defined the correct sequence and optimal functioning of the equipment to be used for vitrification and have verified the process by which waste will be solidified into borosilicate glass.

  8. West Valley Demonstration Project annual report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    By the end of the fiscal year, the West Valley Demonstration Project had processed 757,000 litres of liquid high-level waste, removing most of the radioactive constituents by ion exchange. The radioactive ion exchange material is being stored in an underground tank pending its incorporation, along with sludge still in the tank, into borosilicate glass. The decontaminated salt solution was solidified into a cement low-level waste form which has been reviewed and endorsed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Five tests of the waste glass melter system were completed. A Notice of Intent was published to prepare a joint federal/state Environmental Impact Statement. Design of the Vitrification Facility, a major milestone, was completed and construction of the facility enclosure has begun. A Department of Energy Tiger Team and Technical Safety Appraisal of the Project found no undue risks to worker or public health and safety or the environment.

  9. Laboratory testing of West Valley reference 6 glass

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W.L.

    1995-07-01

    A series of laboratory tests is being conducted to characterize the corrosion of West Valley reference 6 glass (WV6) and to provide parametric values for modeling its long-term durability. Models require measurement of the corrosion rate in the absence of corrosion products and in fluids that are {open_quotes}saturated{close_quotes} with corrosion products, and the identification of alteration phases. Corrosion rates in dilute and saturated conditions were measured using MCC-1 and PCT tests, respectively. Vapor hydration tests were performed to generate secondary phases. The PCT tests show the WV6 glass to be more durable than SRL EA, SRL 202, and HW-39-1 glasses. Vapor hydration tests show weeksite (a uranyl silicate), a potassium-bearing zeolite, analcime, potassium feldspar, a calcium silicate phase, and lithium phosphate to form as WV6 glass corrodes. Test results are presented and their relevance to long-term performance discussed.

  10. Hydrogeologic framework of Antelope Valley and Bedell Flat, Washoe County, west-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, D.L.; Ponce, D.A.; Ross, W.C.

    2001-01-01

    Description of the hydrogeologic framework of Antelope Valley and Bedell Flat in west-central Nevada adds to the general knowledge of regional ground-water flow north of the Reno-Sparks metropolitan area. The hydrogeologic framework is defined by the rocks and deposits that transmit ground water or impede its movement and by the combined thickness of Cenozoic deposits. When data are lacking about the subsurface geology of an area, geophysical methods can be used to provide additional information. In this study, gravimetric and seismic-refraction methods were used to infer the form of structural features and to estimate the thickness of Cenozoic deposits in each of the two valleys. In Antelope Valley, the thickness of these deposits probably does not exceed about 300 feet, suggesting that ground-water storage in the basin-fill aquifer is limited. Beneath Bedell Flat is an elongated, northeast-trending structural depression in the pre-Cenozoic basement; the maximum thickness of Cenozoic deposits is about 2,500 feet beneath the south-central part of the valley. Shallow ground water in the northwest corner of Bedell Flat may be a result of decreasing depth to the pre-Cenozoic basement.

  11. Depositional environments and sedimentary tectonics of subsurface Cotton Valley group (upper Jurassic), west-central Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Sydboten, B.D. Jr.; Bowen, R.L.

    1987-09-01

    Study of data from 65 selected wells in a 6-county area (about 60 by 60 mi) north and west of Jackson, Mississippi, discloses that Cotton Valley strata, now within the axial trough of the Mississippi embayment, display thickness variations which demonstrate that Late Jurassic sedimentation was strongly controlled by maximum subsidence along the same trough axis. Examination of well logs, other records, and cutting sets from 38 wells has resulted in preparation of dip and strike cross sections that permit information definition of lower, middle, and upper parts of the Cotton Valley Group throughout the area evaluated. Within these lithostratigraphic diversions, lithofacies are discriminable that represent alluvial, upper delta plain, lower delta plain, and prodeltaic environments. These facies display a general variation from coarse, commonly red, oxidized sediments on the north and east, to mudrocks, locally calcareous and carbonaceous, on the southwest. Within the Cotton Valley Group examined, two persistent clastic lobes demonstrate relative environmental stability while deposits ranging in thickness from 1500 ft (northwestern corner of study area) to 4500 ft (axial depocenter on the south) accumulated. During Cotton Valley deposition, west-central Mississippi was the site of a two-toed birdfoot delta within which lignites were deposited. Major sediment supply was from the east and north; a minor source was to the northwest (Ouachita-Ozarks). Irregulatories in both rates of supply of clastics and of shelf subsidence permitted intermittent shallow, clear-water, marine incursions from the south during which thin carbonate beds were deposited, interfingering with the clastics. Thus, potential source and host rocks for hydrocarbon traps are closely associated, for thick, organic-rich, interlobate mudrocks pass laterally and vertically into fluvial sands of the delta lobes.

  12. Assessing the continuity of the blue ice climate record at Patriot Hills, Horseshoe Valley, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Kate; Woodward, John; Dunning, Stuart A.; Turney, Chris S. M.; Fogwill, Christopher J.; Hein, Andrew S.; Golledge, Nicholas R.; Bingham, Robert G.; Marrero, Shasta M.; Sugden, David E.; Ross, Neil

    2016-03-01

    We use high-resolution ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to assess the continuity of the Blue Ice Area (BIA) horizontal climate record at Patriot Hills, Horseshoe Valley, West Antarctica. The sequence contains three pronounced changes in deuterium isotopic values at ~18 cal ka, ~12 cal ka, and ~8 cal ka. GPR surveys along the climate sequence reveal continuous, conformable dipping isochrones, separated by two unconformities in the isochrone layers, which correlate with the two older deuterium shifts. We interpret these unconformities as discontinuities in the sequence, rather than direct measures of climate change. Ice sheet models and Internal Layer Continuity Index plots suggest that the unconformities represent periods of erosion occurring, as the former ice surface was scoured by katabatic winds in front of mountains at the head of Horseshoe Valley. This study demonstrates the importance of high-resolution GPR surveys for investigating both paleoflow dynamics and interpreting BIA climate records.

  13. Hydrogeology and water quality of the West Valley Creek Basin, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, L.A.; Sloto, R.A.; Reif, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    The West Valley Creek Basin drains 20.9 square miles in the Piedmont Physiographic Province of southeastern Pennsylvania and is partly underlain by carbonate rocks that are highly productive aquifers. The basin is undergoing rapid urbanization that includes changes in land use and increases in demand for public water supply and wastewater disposal. Ground water is the sole source of supply in the basin. West Valley Creek flows southwest in a 1.5-mile-wide valley that is underlain by folded and faulted carbonate rocks and trends east-northeast, parallel to regional geologic structures. The valley is flanked by hills underlain by quartzite and gneiss to the north and by phyllite and schist to the south. Surface water and ground water flow from the hills toward the center of the valley. Ground water in the valley flows west-southwest parallel to the course of the stream. Seepage investigations identified losing reaches in the headwaters area where streams are underlain by carbonate rocks and gaining reaches downstream. Tributaries contribute about 75 percent of streamflow. The ground-water and surface-water divides do not coincide in the carbonate valley. The ground-water divide is about 0.5 miles west of the surface-water divide at the eastern edge of the carbonate valley. Underflow to the east is about 1.1 inches per year. Quarry dewatering operations at the western edge of the valley may act partly as an artificial basin boundary, preventing underflow to the west. Water budgets for 1990, a year of normal precipitation (45.8 inches), and 1991, a year of sub-normal precipitation (41.5 inches), were calculated. Streamflow was 14.61 inches in 1990 and 12.08 inches in 1991. Evapotranspiration was estimated to range from 50 to 60 percent of precipitation. Base flow was about 62 percent of streamflow in both years. Exportation by sewer systems was about 3 inches from the basin and, at times, equaled base flow during the dry autumn of 1991. Recharge was estimated to be 18

  14. 12. VIEW WEST, AREA SOUTH OF RECESS AREA, SHOWING CUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW WEST, AREA SOUTH OF RECESS AREA, SHOWING CUT STONE AND RUBBLESTONE CONSTRUCTION - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  15. Detailed study of selenium and other constituents in water, bottom sediment, soil, alfalfa, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Uncompahgre Project area and in the Grand Valley, west-central Colorado, 1991-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, D.L.; Wright, W.G.; Stewart, K.C.; Osmundson, B.C.; Krueger, R.P.; Crabtree, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    In 1985, the U.S. Department of the Interior began a program to study the effects of irrigation drainage in the Western United States. These studies were done to determine whether irrigation drainage was causing problems related to human health, water quality, and fish and wildlife resources. Results of a study in 1991-93 of irrigation drainage associated with the Uncompahgre Project area, located in the lower Gunnison River Basin, and of the Grand Valley, located along the Colorado River, are described in this report. The focus of the report is on the sources, distribution, movement, and fate of selenium in the hydrologic and biological systems and the effects on biota. Generally, other trace- constituent concentrations in water and biota were not elevated or were not at levels of concern. Soils in the Uncompahgre Project area that primarily were derived from Mancos Shale contained the highest concentrations of total and watrer-extractable selenium. Only 5 of 128\\x11alfalfa samples had selenium concentrations that exceeded a recommended dietary limit for livestock. Selenium data for soil and alfalfa indicate that irrigation might be mobilizing and redistributing selenium in the Uncompahgre Project area. Distribution of dissolved selenium in ground water is affected by the aqueous geochemical environment of the shallow ground- water system. Selenium concentrations were as high as 1,300\\x11micrograms per liter in water from shallow wells. The highest concentrations of dissolved selenium were in water from wells completed in alluvium overlying the Mancos Shale of Cretaceous age; selenium concentrations were lower in water from wells completed in Mancos Shale residuum. Selenium in the study area could be mobilized by oxidation of reduced selenium, desorption from aquifer sediments, ion exchange, and dissolution. Infiltration of irrigation water and, perhaps nitrate, provide oxidizing conditions for mobilization of selenium from alluvium and shale residuum and for

  16. WEST PIONEER WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, Byron R.; Benham, John R.

    1984-01-01

    The West Pioneer Wilderness Study Area is in the Pioneer Mountains, Beaverhead County, Montana. A mineral-resource study of the area identified eight areas with molybdenum potential, four areas with gold-silver potential, one area with tungsten potential, and one area with barite potential. Several small mines were encountered, but none were accessible for the purposes of resource evaluation. No energy resources were identified in the study.

  17. Correlation of laboratory testing and actual operations for the West Valley supernatant treatment system

    SciTech Connect

    Kurath, D E; Bray, L A; Ross, W A; Ploetz, D K

    1989-04-01

    An ion exchange process which removes Cs-137 from the supernatant liquid associated with neutralized PUREX high-level waste at the West Valley Demonstration Project was developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. West Valley has now achieved initial operation of the supernatant treatment system, and results have confirmed the laboratory studies. This paper addresses the development of the predictions of system operations and the initial results of the system. 2 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. West Valley Demonstration Project full-scale canister impact tests

    SciTech Connect

    Whittington, K.F.; Alzheimer, J.M.; Lutz, C.E.

    1995-09-01

    Five West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) high-level waste (HLW) canisters were impact tested during 1994 to demonstrate compliance with the drop test requirements of the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications. The specifications state that the canistered waste form must be able to survive a 7{minus}m (23 ft) drop unbreached. The 10-gauge (0.125 in. wall thickness) stainless steel canisters were approximately 85% filled with simulated vitrified waste and weighed about 2100 kg (4600 lb). Each canister was dropped vertically from a height of 7 m (23 ft) onto an essentially unyielding surface. The integrity of the canister was determined by the application and analysis of strain circles, dimensional measurements, and helium leak testing. The canisters were also visually inspected before and after the drop for physical damage. The results of the impact test verify that the canisters survived the 7{minus}m drops unbreached. Therefore, these results demonstrate that the reference canister meets the drop test specification of the Waste Acceptance Product Specification.

  19. Redox systematics in model glass compositions from West Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, H.D.; Schreiber, C.W.; Ward, C.C.

    1993-12-31

    At a processing temperature of 1150{degrees}C for model West Valley glass composition, the prescribed range of oxygen fugacities needed to achieve an [Fe{sup 2+}]/[Fe{sup 3+}] of 0.1 to 0.5 is 10{sup -4} to 10{sup -7} atm. Establishment of the Fe{sup 2+}-Fe{sup 0} equilibrium, resulting in metal precipitation from the melt, occurs at oxygen fugacities lower than 10{sup -11} atm at this temperature. The target processing range as defined by the iron redox ratio is equally valid at both lower and higher temperatures ({+-}100{degrees}C). Elevations of the concentrations of redox-active components to 1 wt% Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 1 wt% NiO, 1 wt% CeO{sub 2}, and 4 wt% Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the waste glass will not affect the redox limits as established by the iron redox ratio of 0.1 to 0.5; these limits provide sufficiently large margins of safety to assure no stabilization of reduced or oxidized forms of these elements.

  20. Moessbauer study of iron redox in West Valley glass

    SciTech Connect

    Yaschenko, E.; Salahuddin, H.; Muller, I.S.; Pegg, I.L.; Macedo, P.B.

    1994-12-31

    High-level nuclear wastes at West Valley are high in iron which results in a target glass composition for the vitrification process that contains about 12 wt% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. We have developed a series of high-iron glass formulations (up to 21 wt% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in order to accommodate all reasonable waste stream variability. An additional process control variable is the glass redox ratio, Fe{sup 2+}/(Fe{sup 2+}+Fe{sup 3+}), since this affects the resultant glass properties including durability, crystallization, glass transition temperature, and melt viscosity. In this study, a range of redox states was obtained by bubbling CO/CO{sub 2} mixtures through the melts. The redox state was determined by Moessbauer spectroscopy and correlations between redox state and CO/CO{sub 2} ratio, flow rate, and time were obtained. Analysis of the spectroscopic data provides additional information on changes in the occupation of tetrahedral and octahedral sites with redox state.

  1. Sulfur systematics in model glass compositions from West Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, H.D.; Schreiber, C.W.; Sisk, E.D.; Kozak, S.J.

    1994-12-31

    Sulfur is incorporated into model glass melts, representative of West Valley compositions for the vitrification of high level nuclear waste, as the sulfate ion under oxidizing conditions and as the sulfide ion under reducing conditions. A narrow range of oxygen fugacities, around 10{sup {minus}8.8} atm at 1150{degrees}C, under which the two redox forms of sulfur coexist is also the minimum in the sulfur solubility. Under the redox conditions prescribed for waste processing, sulfur dissolves as the sulfate ion. The capacity to dissolve sulfur as sulfate is about 1 to 2.5 wt% sulfur; an immiscible sulfate layer floats on the glass melt if waste loading introduces sulfur contents greater than this under oxidizing conditions. If the waste/melt system is exposed to sufficiently reducing conditions, the first phase to separate from the melt is likely nickel sulfide. The presence of the immiscible sulfate or sulfide layer buffers the iron redox ratio of the resulting glass.

  2. Use of Optical and Imaging Techniques for Inspection of Off-Line Joule-Heated Melter at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Plodinec, M. J.; Jang, P-R; Long, Z.; Monts, D. L.; Philip, T.; Su, Y.

    2003-02-25

    The West Valley melter has been taken out of service. Its design is the direct ancestor of the current melter design for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. Over its eight years of service, the West Valley melter has endured many of the same challenges that the Hanford melter will encounter with feeds that are similar to many of the Hanford double shell tank wastes. Thus, inspection of the West Valley melter prior to its disposal could provide valuable--even crucial--information to the designers of the melters to be used at the Hanford Site, particularly if quantitative information can be obtained. The objective of Mississippi State University's Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory's (DIAL) efforts is to develop, fabricate, and deploy inspection tools for the West Valley melter that will (i) be remotely operable in the West Valley process cell; (ii) provide quantitative information on melter refractory wear and deposits on the refractory; and (iii) indicate areas of heterogeneity (e.g., deposits) requiring more detailed characterization. A collaborative arrangement has been established with the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) to inspect their melter.

  3. 200 West Area Dust Mitigation Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Becker, James M.

    2001-04-12

    Various strategies were developed for the purpose of mitigating respirable dust experienced at facilities in the southwest corner of the 200 West Area. These strategies focused on treatment of that portion of the dust source located within the 200 West Expansion Area. Strategies included direct shielding of the facilities via establishment of a poplar windbreak and installation of an artificial windscreen; soil stabilization via seeding of herbaceous plants, soil fixatives, straw crimping, straw blankets, gravel mulches, drift fences, baled straw, and living fences; and various irrigation systems that would function both to water seeded herbs and to suppress dust.

  4. Statistical analysis of nitrate in ground water, West Salt River Valley, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Andy E.; Brown, James G.; Gellenbeck, Dorinda J.

    1997-01-01

    Accurate estimates of the nitrate concentrations in ground water in west Salt River Valley are needed to better manage ground water affected by nitrate. Statistical analyses were done to establish the best statistical method to produce these estimates. Three sets of ground-water data for different time periods --1975-77, 1980-85, and 1986-90--were used to analyze spatial and temporal variations in concentrations of nitrate in ground water. The use of inverse-distance squared weighting, radial-basis function, kriging, and cokriging were evaluated for estimating nitrate concentrations in ground water. From an analysis of the cross-validation results, cokriging maps resulted in the best estimates, and they were accepted as being the most reliable. Cross-validation results also indicated that nitrate cokriged best with magnesium for 1975-77 and 1986-90 and with calcium for 1980-85. Kriging results consistently were almost as reliable as any of the cokriging results. Because of the difficulties inherent in the cokriging process, kriging, although not optimal, was the fastest way to obtain reasonably good results. In 1980-85, cokriged nitrate concentrations exceeded 20 milligrams per liter in a 12-square-kilometer area in Phoenix and Glendale and exceeded 10 milligrams per liter in a 280-square-kilometer area that extended to the Salt River. In 1986-90, nitrate concentrations along the entire reach of the Salt River in west Salt River Valley were less than 10 milligrams per liter and were smaller probably as a result of recharge from the Salt and Gila Rivers in 1982. Farther north in Phoenix and Glendale, the area in which nitrate concentrations exceeded 10 milligrams per liter expanded to 490 square kilometers for 1986-90. In Buckeye Valley, nitrate concentrations exceeded 10 milligrams per liter in an area of 300 square milometers for 1980-85 from the Gila River in the early 1980's but possibly could be an artifact of the different data distributions associated with

  5. Areas subject to inundation by the 100-year flood in Avra Valley, Pima County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roeske, R.H.

    1978-01-01

    Avra Valley in Pima County, Arizona, is sparsely populated and is used mainly for agriculture and cattle grazing; however, its proximity to Tucson makes it desirable for urban development. Administrators and planners concerned with future land development may use the map report to determine the approximate areas that are subject to inundation by the 100-year flood. Avra Valley is drained mainly by Brawley Wash; Blanco Wash drains the west side of the valley. Most of the natural drainage system consists of small braided channels bordered by narrow bands of dense vegetation, which cause floodwater to spread over wide areas of shallow depths. During the 100-year flood, the areas inundated by Brawley and Blanco Washes may join in several places. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. View of the Salinas River Valley area south of Monterey Bay, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of the Salinas River Valley area south of Monterey Bay, California area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The valley is an irrigated agricultural area, as indicated by the dark-green and light-gray rectangular patterns in the center of the picture. The city of Salinas is barely visible under the cloud cover at the top (north) end of the valley. The dark mass on the left (west) side of the valley is the Santa Lucia mountain range. The Big Sur area is on the left and partly covered by clouds. The Diablo Range forms the dark mass in the lower right (southeast) corner of the photograph. The town of Hillister is the grey area in the dark-green rectangular farm tracts which occupy the floor of the San Benito Valley in the upper right (northeast) corner of the photograph. The Salinas River flows northwestward toward Monterey Bay. The towns of Soleda

  7. Front-end planning and evaluation for West Valley Demonstration Project completion

    SciTech Connect

    Gramling, J.; Sharma, V.; Marschke, S.

    1995-12-31

    In December 1988, the U.S. Department of Energy and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority announced their intent to prepare a joint environmental impact statement (EIS) to evaluate alternatives for West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) completion and closure and/or long-term maintenance of the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC) in West Valley, New York. Planning was initiated for the eventual closure of the site, even though vitrification of the high-level waste (HLW) stored at the site was, at that time, a number of years in the future. West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSC), the WVDP management and operations contractor, and their architect/engineer, Raytheon Nuclear Incorporated, were authorized to develop characterization studies and engineering evaluations of closure alternatives for the various facilities of the WNYNSC. This paper presents a summary of the status of that effort, including the resolution of unique problems.

  8. WEST SLOPE TETONS ROADLESS AREA, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, W. Bradley; Kluender, Steven E.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and mines and prospects surveys, the West Slope Tetons Roadless Area, Wyoming, offers little or no promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. A block estimated to contain about 2. 5 million short tons of high-grade phosphate rock, lies along the western boundary; about 430,000 tons of this resource lie in an area of substantiated phosphate potential within the roadless area. Although adjacent to the Overthrust Belt, reassessment of the structural setting suggests that the roadless area has little promise for the occurrence of oil and gas resources.

  9. WEST VALLEY DEMONSTRATION PROJECT ANNUAL SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT CALENDAR YEAR 2002

    SciTech Connect

    2003-09-12

    This annual environmental monitoring report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP or Project) is published to inform those with interest about environmental conditions at the WVDP. In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting, the report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2002 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system, confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs. In 2002, the West Valley Demonstration Project, the site of a DOE environmental cleanup activity operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co. (WVNSCO), was in the final stages of stabilizing high-level radioactive waste (HLW) that remained at the site after commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing had been discontinued in the early 1970s. The Project is located in western New York State, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, within the New York State-owned Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). The WVDP is being conducted in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). Ongoing work activities at the WVDP during 2002 included: (1) completing HLW solidification and melter shutdown; (2) shipping low-level radioactive waste off-site for disposal; (3) constructing a facility where large high-activity components can be safely packaged for disposal; (4) packaging and removing spent materials from the vitrification facility; (5) preparing environmental impact statements for future activities; (6) removing as much of the waste left behind in waste tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2 as was reasonably possible; (7) removing storage racks, canisters, and debris from the fuel receiving and storage pool, decontaminating pool walls, and beginning shipment of debris for disposal; (8) ongoing decontamination in the general purpose cell and the process mechanical cell (also referred to as the head end cells); (9) planning

  10. Y Chromosome analysis of prehistoric human populations in the West Liao River Valley, Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The West Liao River valley in Northeast China is an ecologically diverse region, populated in prehistory by human populations with a wide range of cultures and modes of subsistence. To help understand the human evolutionary history of this region, we performed Y chromosome analyses on ancient human remains from archaeological sites ranging in age from 6500 to 2700 BP. Results 47 of the 70 individuals provided reproducible results. They were assigned into five different Y sub-haplogroups using diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms, namely N1 (xN1a, N1c), N1c, C/C3e, O3a (O3a3) and O3a3c. We also used 17 Y short tandem repeat loci in the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome. There appears to be significant genetic differences between populations of the West Liao River valley and adjacent cultural complexes in the prehistoric period, and these prehistoric populations were shown to carry similar haplotypes as present-day Northeast Asians, but at markedly different frequencies. Conclusion Our results suggest that the prehistoric cultural transitions were associated with immigration from the Yellow River valley and the northern steppe into the West Liao River valley. They reveal the temporal continuity of Y chromosome lineages in populations of the West Liao River valley over 5000 years, with a concurrent increase in lineage diversity caused by an influx of immigrants from other populations. PMID:24079706

  11. Pleistocene drainage incision in the upper Mississippi Valley Driftless Area

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    The deep dissection of the Wisconsin Driftless Area and topographically similar, but glaciated areas in adjacent states is generally acknowledged to have occurred during the Pleistocene, but the precise chronology has been poorly understood. The distribution of pre-Illinoian glacial outwash gravels on uplands and valley side benches near the Mississippi River, on the western margin of the Wisconsin Driftless Area, indicates that the major incision (50-60 m) of drainage had occurred during the very early Pleistocene. Deposits in cut-off valley meanders, a common feature in the lower reaches of Driftless Area rivers, provide a basis for relative dating of the valley incision. The cut-offs appear to have evolved episodically when, at various times during the Pleistocene, glacial debris blocked the drainages of the Mississippi and Wisconsin Rivers causing massive alluviation of side valley tributaries. A radiocarbon date of 21,910 +/- 350 year B.P., representing a buried soil horizon at 22 m depth and about 9 m above the bedrock floor of a cut-off valley meander and 18 m above the bedrock floor of the adjacent present-day valley, supports stratigraphic interpretations that suggest modest valley incision into bedrock probably occurred during the Illinoian and may have also occurred during the early Wisconsinan.

  12. Final Report West Valley High-Level Waste Tank Lay-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Elmore, Monte R.; Henderson, Colin

    2002-06-21

    This report documents completion of Milestone A.4-1 "Issue Tank Lay-Up Strategies for WVDP Final Report," in Technical Task Plan RL3-WT21A, "Post-Retrieval and Pre-Closure HLW Tank Lay-Up." This task was a collaborative effort among Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Jacobs Engineering Group Inc., and West Valley Nuclear Services. The primary objective of the overall task was to develop and evaluate conceptual strategies for preclosure lay-up of the two large high-level waste storage tanks at the West Valley Demonstration Project.

  13. Indoor/outdoor measurements of volatile organic compounds in the Kanawha Valley of West Virginia.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M A; Ryan, P B; Yanagisawa, Y; Spengler, J D; Ozkaynak, H; Epstein, P S

    1989-08-01

    The Kanawha Valley region of West Virginia which is comprised of Charleston and surrounding communities is the center of a heavily industrialized area known for its chemical manufacturing. As part of a larger study designed to investigate the impact of the chemical industry on human exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOC), a study of the relationship between indoor and outdoor concentrations was conducted. Thirty-five homes were selected for monitoring from among volunteers; approximately ten in each of three distinct population-industry centers and four outside the Valley to act as controls. Monitoring was performed using passive, badge samplers with a three-week monitoring period. Two separate questionnaires were administered: one for characterization of the residence; and one to characterize source use during monitoring. Participants were also asked to keep a record of their activities with respect to in-home, outdoors and other indoor environments. Analysis of the samplers was performed by solvent extraction followed by gas chromatography using a flame-ionization detector. Results suggest that indoor VOC concentrations are higher than outdoor concentrations. Additionally, certain ventilation-related parameters were identified that afforded some predictive power for indoor concentrations. No statistically significant differences between regions were identified.

  14. Indoor/Outdoor measurements of volatile organic compounds in the Kanawha Valley of West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.A.; Ryan, P.B.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Spengler, J.D. ); Oezkaynak, H. ); Epstein, P.S. )

    1989-08-01

    The Kanawha Valley region of West Virginia which is comprised of Charleston and surrounding communities is the center of a heavily industrialized area known for its chemical manufacturing. As part of a larger study designed to investigate the impact of the chemical industry on human exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOC), a study of the relationship between indoor and outdoor concentrations was conducted. Thirty-five homes were selected for monitoring from among volunteers; approximately ten in each of three distinct population-industry centers and four outside the Valley to act as controls. Monitoring was performed using passive, badge samplers with a three-week monitoring period. Two separate questionnaires were administered: one for characterization of the residence; and one to characterize source used during monitoring. Participants were also asked to keep a record of their activities with respect to in-home, outdoors and other indoor environments. Analysis of the samplers was performed by solvent extraction followed by gas chromatography using a flame-ionization detector. Results suggest that indoor VOC concentrations are higher than outdoor concentrations. Additionally, certain ventilation-related parameters were identified that afforded some predictive power for indoor concentrations. No statistically significant differences between regions were identified.

  15. West Valley Tank 8D-1 and 8D-2 Inventory Estimation Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Robert F.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Rowell, Laurene

    2001-07-20

    This report details work funded by the West Valley Support Project (WVSP) and the Tanks Focus Area Retrieval and Closure Program. The work was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and is in support of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). The WVDP site in New York was originally the site of a commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The high-level waste (HLW), approximately 2 million liters, produced during plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) and thorium extraction (THOREX) reprocessing campaigns at the plant and subsequent HLW preprocessing, was stored on site in three tanks identified as 8D-1, 8D-2, and 8D-4. Waste from the PUREX process was neutralized with NaOH for storage in a carbon steel tank designated as 8D-2. Neutralization resulted in a precipitated hydroxide sludge that settled to the bottom of the tank and was covered by a supernatant salt solution. The acidic THOREX waste, approximately 55,000 L, was first stored in a stainless steel tank (8D-4) and then added to the PUREX waste in Tank 8D-2. Supernatant decontamination, primarily cesium removal, was conducted by ion-exchange using in-tank columns suspended in Tank 8D-1. The cesium-loaded zeolite, resulting from the supernatant decontamination process, was dumped to the bottom of Tank 8D-1. Approximately 90% of the spent zeolite was transferred from Tank 8D-1 into Tank 8D-2 by the start of vitrification processing in June 1996. Periodically, the remaining spent zeolite contained in Tank 8D-1 is incrementally transferred to 8D-2. The combined waste in Tank 8D-2 continues to be processed through the Vitrification Facility into canisters for final repository disposal.

  16. Cheat Mountain Roadless Area, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Englund, K.J.; Behum, P.T.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey by the USGS and USBM in 1980 determined that coal is the most important mineral resource in the Cheat Mountain Roadless Area, West Virginia. It is tentatively ranked as high-volatile A to medium-volatile bituminous similar to coal in nearby mining areas, and is primarily of coking quality. Demonstrated coal resources are estimated to total about 11.6 million short tons in beds more than 28 in. thick in areas of substantiated resource potential and an additional 32.7 million short tons in beds between 14 and 28 in. thick have been identified. Limestone, shale, clay, and sandstone occur in the area but these commodities are readily available outside the roadless area. Available information suggests little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or other energy resources in the area.

  17. CHEAT MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, WEST VIRGINIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Englund, K.J.; Behum, P.T.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey determined that coal is the most important mineral resource in the Cheat Mountain Roadless Area, West Virginia. It is tentatively ranked as high-volatile A to medium-volatile bituminous similar to coal in nearby mining areas, and is primarily of coking quality. Demonstrated coal resources are estimated to total about 11. 6 million short tons in beds more than 28 in. thick in areas of substantiated resource potential and an additional 32. 7 million short tons in beds between 14 and 28 in. thick have been identified. Limestone, shale, clay, and sandstone occur in the area but these commodities are readily available outside the roadless area. Available information suggests little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or other energy resources in the area.

  18. Hydrogeologic characterization of the Modesto Area, San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burow, Karen R.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Hevesi, Joseph A.; Weissmann, Gary S.

    2004-01-01

    Tuolumne River east of Modesto, a feature that may have important implications for ground-water flow and transport in the region. Although extensive work has been done by earlier investigators to define the structure of the Modesto area aquifer system, this report has resulted in some modification to the lateral extent of the Corcoran Clay and the regional dip of the Mehrten Formation. Well logs in the database indicating the presence of the Corcoran Clay were used to revise the eastern extent of the Corcoran Clay, which lies approximately parallel to the axis of valley. The Mehrten Formation is distinguished in the well-log database by its characteristic black sands consisting of predominantly andesitic fragments. Black sands in wells listed in the database indicate that the formation may lie as shallow as 120 meters (400 feet) below land surface under Modesto, approximately 90 meters (300 feet) shallower than previously thought. The alluvial aquifer system in the Modesto area comprises an unconfined to semiconfined aquifer above and east of the Corcoran Clay confining unit and a confined aquifer beneath the Corcoran Clay. The unconfined aquifer is composed of alluvial sediments of the Modesto, Riverbank, and upper Turlock Lake formations. The unconfined aquifer east of the Corcoran Clay becomes semiconfined with depth due to the numerous discontinuous clay lenses and extensive paleosols throughout the aquifer thickness. The confined aquifer is composed primarily of alluvial sediments of the Turlock Lake and upper Mehrten Formations, extending from beneath the Corcoran Clay to the base of fresh water. Ground water in the unconfined to semiconfined aquifer flows to the west and southwest. The primary source of present-day recharge is percolating excess irrigation water. The primary ground-water discharge is extensive ground-water pumping in the unconfined to semiconfined aquifer, imposing a significant component of vertical flo

  19. Geologic characterization report for the Paradox Basin Study Region, Utah Study Areas. Volume 6. Salt Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    Surface landforms in the Salt Valley Area are generally a function of the Salt Valley anticline and are characterized by parallel and subparallel cuestaform ridges and hogbacks and flat valley floors. The most prominent structure in the Area is the Salt Valley anticline. Erosion resulting from the Tertiary uplift of the Colorado Plateau led to salt dissolution and subsequent collapse along the crest of the anticline. Continued erosion removed the collapse material, forming an axial valley along the crest of the anticline. Paleozoic rocks beneath the salt bearing Paradox Formation consist of limestone, dolomite, sandstone, siltstone and shale. The salt beds of the Paradox Formation occur in distinct cycles separated by an interbed sequence of anhydrite, carbonate, and clastic rocks. The Paradox Formation is overlain by Pennsylvanian limestone; Permian sandstone; and Mesozoic sandstone, mudstone, conglomerate and shale. No earthquakes have been reported in the Area during the period of the historic record and contemporary seismicity appears to be diffusely distributed, of low level and small magnitude. The upper unit includes the Permian strata and upper Honaker Trail Formation. The current data base is insufficient to estimate ground-water flow rates and directions in this unit. The middle unit includes the evaporites in the Paradox Formation and no laterally extensive flow systems are apparent. The lower unit consists of the rocks below the Paradox Formation where permeabilities vary widely, and the apparent flow direction is toward the west. 108 refs., 39 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. DETAIL VIEW OF BLACKSMITH'S FORGE AND WORK AREA ON WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF BLACKSMITH'S FORGE AND WORK AREA ON WEST SIDE OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, LOOKING EAST. FORGE IS IN FOREGROUND, WITH THE ANVIL BLOCK JUST TO THE RIGHT AND BEHIND IT. A TRAM CAR IS UPSIDE DOWN TO THE LEFT OF THE FORGE. THE PIPE GOING INTO THE FORGE ON THE RIGHT CARRIED COMPRESSED AIR TO BLOW THE COALS. AT CENTER RIGHT ON THE TRAM TERMINAL ARE THE OPENING AND CLOSING MECHANISMS FOR THE ORE BUCKETS. AT CENTER LEFT IS A BRAKE WHEEL. THE ANCHOR POINTS FOR THE STATIONARY TRAM CABLES ARE JUST BELOW THIS WHEEL. THE FRONT END OF THE TERMINAL IS JUST OFF FRAME ON THE RIGHT. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  1. Sedimentation architecture of the volcanically-dammed Alf valley in the West Eifel Volcanic Field, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, Luise; Lange, Thomas; Engelhardt, Jörn; Polom, Ulrich; Pirrung, Michael; Büchel, Georg

    2015-04-01

    In the southeastern part of the Quaternary West Eifel Volcanic Field, the Alf valley with its morphologically wide (~ 500 m) and flat valley bottom is visibly outstanding. This flat valley bottom was formed during the Marine Isotope Stage 2 due to fluviolacustrine sediments which deposited upstream of a natural volcanic dam. The dam consisted of lava and scoria breccia from the Wartgesberg Volcano complex (Cipa 1958, Hemfler et al. 1991) that erupted ~ 31 BP (40Ar/ 39Ar dating on glass shards, Mertz, pers. communication 2014). Due to this impoundment, the Alf creek turned into a dendritic lake, trapping the catchment sediments. The overall aim is to create the sedimentation architecture of the Alf valley. In comparison to maar archives like Holzmaar or Meerfelder Maar in the vicinity, the fluviolacustrine sediments of the Alf valley show clay-silt lamination despite the water percolation. This archive covers the transition from the Last Glacial Maximum to Early Holocene (Pirrung et al. 2007). Focus of this study is the creation of a 3D model by applying the program ESRI ArcGIS 10.2 to reconstruct the pre-volcanic Alf valley. Moreover, the sedimentation architecture is reconstructed and the sediment fill quantified. Therefore, the digital elevation model with 5 m resolution from the State Survey and Geobasis Information of Rhineland-Palatinate, polreduced magnetic data measured on top of the Strohn lava stream, shear seismic data and core stratigraphies were utilized. Summarizing previous results, Lake Alf had a catchment area of ~ 55 km² (Meerfelder Maar: 1.27 km²) and a surface area of 8.2 km² (Meerfelder Maar: 0.24 km²) considering a maximum lake water level of 410 m a.s.l.. In the deepest parts (~ 50 m) of Lake Alf, lake sediments are laminated, up to 21 m thick and show a very high sedimentation rate ~ 3 mm a-1 (Dehner Maar ~ 1.5 mm a-1, (Sirocko et al. 2013)). The sediments become coarser upstream und stratigraphically above the fine-grained lake sediments

  2. CRANBERRY WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, WEST VIRGINIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meissner, Charles R.; Mory, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Cranberry Wilderness Study Area, West Virginia contains a large demonstrated resource of bituminous coal of coking quality. Demonstrated coal resources in beds more than 14 in. thick are about 110 million short tons of which 56. 5 million tons are in beds more than 28 in. thick in areas of substantiated coal resource potential. Other mineral resources in the study area include peat, shale and clay suitable for building brick and lightweight aggregate, sandstone suitable for low-quality glass sand, and sandstone suitable for construction material. These commodities are found in abundance in other areas throughout the State. Study of the drill-hole data did not reveal indications of a potential for oil and gas resources in the study area. Evidence of metallic mineral potential was not found during this investigation.

  3. Perspective view of Chapel from west at grave area A. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of Chapel from west at grave area A. Note squared English yew hedge that provides a backdrop for each of the four grave areas. - Flanders Field American Cemetery & Memorial, Wortegemseweg 117, Waregem, West Flanders (Belgium)

  4. Agreement between Association of Certificated Educators and West Valley-Mission Community College District, July 1, 1988 through June 30, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Valley-Mission Community Coll. District, Saratoga, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the West Valley-Mission Community College District (including West Valley College and Mission College) and the West Valley-Mission Community College District Association of Certified Educators is presented. This contract, covering the period from July 1, 1988 through June 30, 1991, deals with the…

  5. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2006

    SciTech Connect

    West Valley Nuclear Services Company and URS Group, Inc.

    2007-09-27

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2006. The report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2006 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP’s environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs that protect public health and safety and the environment.

  6. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendard Year 2005

    SciTech Connect

    West Valley Nuclear Services Company and URS Group, Inc.

    2006-09-21

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2005. The report summarizes calendar year (CY) 2005 environmental monitoring data so as to describe the performance of the WVDP's environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs.

  7. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2007

    SciTech Connect

    West Valley Environmental Services LLC and URS - Washington Division

    2008-12-17

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2007. The report summarizes the calendar year (CY) 2007 environmental protection program at the WVDP. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment.

  8. West Valley transfer cart control system design description. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Crutcher, R.I.; Halliwell, J.W.; Hileman, M.S.; Moore, M.R.; Nodine, R.N.; Ruppel, F.R.; Vandermolen, R.I.

    1993-01-01

    Detail design of the control system for the West Valley Nuclear Services Vitrification Facility transfer cart has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report documents the requirements and describes the detail design of that equipment and control software. Copies of significant design documents including analysis and testing reports and design drawings are included in the Appendixes.

  9. Design of equipment used for high-level waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, R.F.; Brill, B.A.; Carl, D.E.

    1997-06-01

    The equipment as designed, started, and operated for high-level radioactive waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project in western New York State is described. Equipment for the processes of melter feed make-up, vitrification, canister handling, and off-gas treatment are included. For each item of equipment the functional requirements, process description, and hardware descriptions are presented.

  10. AQUATIC IMPACTS STUDY OF MOUNTAINTOP MINING AND VALLEY FILL OPERATIONS IN WEST VIRGINIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The practice of mountaintop mining and valley fill operations in West Virginia is fraught with controversy. In 1999, EPA, along with several state and federal agencies, initiated an environmental impact study (EIS) to investigate the economic, social and ecological impacts of th...

  11. A Rural New Town for the West Side of the San Joaquin Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirshner, Edward M.; And Others

    There are three major phases in the process of community development projected for the San Joaquin Valley's west side. The first phase involves agricultural experiments using different kinds of crops, agricultural techniques, and ownership arrangements. Beginning when enough people have returned to the land to create a demand for an expanded town,…

  12. West Valley College Comprehensive Plan for Special Education, 1977-1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuscher, Melvin; And Others

    The West Valley Community College District has developed a comprehensive plan for providing special programs and services for its students with communication, learning, and physical disabilities. This document discusses the needs assessments and other preliminary work that went into developing the plan and describes the objectives, functions,…

  13. Hydrogeology of the western part of the Salt River Valley area, Maricopa County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, James G.; Pool, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Salt River Valley is a major population and agricultural center of more than 3,000 mi2 in central Arizona (fig. 1). The western part of the Salt River Valley area (area of this report) covers about 1,500 mi2. The Phoenix metropolitan area with a population of more than 1.6 million in 1985 (Valley National Bank, 1987) is located within the valley. The watersheds of the Salt, Verde, and Agua Fria Rivers provide the valley with a reliable but limited surface-water supply that must be augmented with ground water even in years of plentiful rainfall. Large-scale ground-water withdrawals began in the Salt River Valley in the early part of the 20th century; between 1915 and 1983, the total estimated ground-water pumpage was 81 million acre-ft (U.S. Geological Survey, 1984). Because of the low average annual rainfall and high potential evapotranspiration, the principal sources of ground-water recharge are urban runoff, excess irrigation, canal seepage and surface-water flows during years of higher-than-normal rainfall. Withdrawals greatly exceed recharge and, in some area, ground-water levels have declines as much as 350 ft (Laney and other, 1978; Ross, 1978). In the study area, ground-water declines of more than 300 ft have occurred in Deer Valley and from Luke Air Force Base north to Beardsley. As a result, a large depression of the water table has developed west of Luke Air Force Base (fig. 2). Ground-water use has decreased in recent years because precipitation and surface-water supplies have been greater than normal. Increased precipitation also caused large quantities of runoff to be released into the normally dry Salt and Gila River channels. From February 1978 to June 1980, streamflow losses of at least 90,000 acre-ft occurred between Jointhead Dam near the east boundary of the study area and Gillespie Dam several miles southwest of the west edge of the study area (Mann and Rhone, 1983). Consequently, ground-water declines in a large part of the basin have

  14. Decision Plan for West Valley High-Level Waste Tank Lay-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Elmore, Monte R.; Henderson, Colin

    2002-06-21

    Documents completion of Milestone A.3-1, "Issue Decision Plan for WVDP Tank Lay-Up," in Technical Task Plan RL30WT21A, "Post-Retrieval and Pre-Closure HLW Tank Lay-Up." This task is a collaborative effort among, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Jacobs Engineering Group Inc., and West Valley Nuclear Services. Thi primary objective of the overall task is to develop and evaluate conceptual strategies for preclosure lay-up of the two large high-level waste storage tanks at the West Valley Demonstration Project. Functions and requirments for tank lay-up were developed and previously documented in "Functions and Requirements for WVDP Lay-Up". These functions nad requirments served as the basis for cristeria to evaluate potential aly-up options documented in "West Valey High-Level Waste Tank Lay-Up Strategies".

  15. Hydrogeologic framework and occurrence, movement, and chemical characterization of groundwater in Dixie Valley, west-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntington, Jena M.; Garcia, C. Amanda; Rosen, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Dixie Valley, a primarily undeveloped basin in west-central Nevada, is being considered for groundwater exportation. Proposed pumping would occur from the basin-fill aquifer. In response to proposed exportation, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation and Churchill County, conducted a study to improve the understanding of groundwater resources in Dixie Valley. The objective of this report is to characterize the hydrogeologic framework, the occurrence and movement of groundwater, the general water quality of the basin-fill aquifer, and the potential mixing between basin-fill and geothermal aquifers in Dixie Valley. Various types of geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical data were compiled from previous studies and collected in support of this study. Hydrogeologic units in Dixie Valley were defined to characterize rocks and sediments with similar lithologies and hydraulic properties influencing groundwater flow. Hydraulic properties of the basin-fill deposits were characterized by transmissivity estimated from aquifer tests and specific-capacity tests. Groundwater-level measurements and hydrogeologic-unit data were combined to create a potentiometric surface map and to characterize groundwater occurrence and movement. Subsurface inflow from adjacent valleys into Dixie Valley through the basin-fill aquifer was evaluated using hydraulic gradients and Darcy flux computations. The chemical signature and groundwater quality of the Dixie Valley basin-fill aquifer, and potential mixing between basin-fill and geothermal aquifers, were evaluated using chemical data collected from wells and springs during the current study and from previous investigations. Dixie Valley is the terminus of the Dixie Valley flow system, which includes Pleasant, Jersey, Fairview, Stingaree, Cowkick, and Eastgate Valleys. The freshwater aquifer in the study area is composed of unconsolidated basin-fill deposits of Quaternary age. The basin-fill hydrogeologic unit

  16. 36 CFR 7.17 - Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area. 7.17 Section 7.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Recreation Area. (a) Alcoholic beverages—(1) Possession. The possession or consumption of a bottle, can,...

  17. 36 CFR 7.17 - Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area. 7.17 Section 7.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Recreation Area. (a) Alcoholic beverages—(1) Possession. The possession or consumption of a bottle, can,...

  18. Instructional Television Transmission System for the Genesee Valley Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown Associates, Rochester, NY.

    In the entire Genessee Valley area of New York, only two channels are available to educators. Therefore, a study was made of the feasibility of constructing a multi-channel system for the transmission of television and data signals to schools in the area. Field strength measurements were taken of the local educational broadcast signal WXXI-TV to…

  19. Paleomagnetic and structural evidence for middle Tertiary counterclockwise block rotation in the Dixie Valley region, west-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, M.R.; Geissman, J.W.

    1987-07-01

    Paleomagnetic data from late Oligocene to early Miocene ash-flow tuffs at four localities in the northern Dixie Valley region, west-central Nevada, indicate that parts of the crust have rotated counterclockwise by at least 25/sup 0/ and perhaps significantly more in late Cenozoic time. Field relations in White Rock Canyon, Stillwater Range, suggest that rotation (1) was accommodated by right-lateral slip on northwest-trending faults, (2) spanned ash-flow tuff emplacement, and (3) probably ceased before eruption of overlying middle Miocene basalts. Accurate estimates of Cenozoic extension, as well as evaluation of earlier Mesozoic structures, must include the strain partitioned into rotation in the area.

  20. High level radioactive waste processing experience in the US (an overview of the West Valley Demonstration Project)

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, R.F.; Borisch, R.R.

    1993-12-31

    The West Valley Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant was constructed in 1966. Operations were stopped in 1972 after reprocessing 640 Mg (700 tons) of spent fuel. About 560,000 gallons of high-level radioactive liquid wastes from the Purex Process and 8,000 gallons of fuel containing thorium from the THOREX process were stored in underground steel tanks. The DOE contracted with West Valley Nuclear Services to operate the West Valley Demonstration Project for the processing of the radioactive wastes into a borosilicate waste form. This report provides a process overview and status report.

  1. 7. INTERIOR VIEW, PATTERN MAKING WORK BENCH AREA WEST WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR VIEW, PATTERN MAKING WORK BENCH AREA WEST WALL LOOKING WEST LATHE ON LEFT DELTA BAND SAW LEFT, DELTA 6' JOINTS AND DELTA TABLE SAW ON RIGHT. - Knight Foundry, 13 Eureka Street, Sutter Creek, Amador County, CA

  2. 5. GENERAL VIEW OF GARAGE AREA FROM WEST; STEPS TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW OF GARAGE AREA FROM WEST; STEPS TO WEST FRONT ENTRANCE VISABLE TO THE RIGHT - Isaac N. Hagan House, Kentuck Knob, U.S. Route 40 vicinity (Stewart Township), Chalkhill, Fayette County, PA

  3. Fabrication, characterization, and evaluation of a fully radioactive glass using commercial nuclear waste from the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, K.M.; Elliott, M.L.; Shade, J.W.; Smith, H.D.

    1991-05-01

    There were two objectives in performing this work. The first was to fabricate a glass containing high-level waste produced at West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) during reprocessing of spent commercial nuclear fuel. The second was to compare composition and behavior of the glass with West Valley's reference high-level waste glass, Approved Test Material-10 (ATM-10). A single melt of fully radioactive West Valley glass, batched and processed as similarly as possible to ATM-10, was produced by the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The resulting glass, West Valley Sludge Glass-1 (WVSG-1), was chemically analyzed and submitted to a limited number of leach tests. 2 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. West Valley demonstration project: alternative processes for solidifying the high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Holton, L.K.; Larson, D.E.; Partain, W.L.; Treat, R.L.

    1981-10-01

    In 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established the West Valley Solidification Project as the result of legislation passed by the US Congress. The purpose of this project was to carry out a high level nuclear waste management demonstration project at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in West Valley, New York. The DOE authorized the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which is operated by Battelle Memorial Institute, to assess alternative processes for treatment and solidification of the WNYNSC high-level wastes. The Process Alternatives Study is the suject of this report. Two pretreatment approaches and several waste form processes were selected for evaluation in this study. The two waste treatment approaches were the salt/sludge separation process and the combined waste process. Both terminal and interim waste form processes were studied.

  5. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    West Valley Environmental Services LLC and URS Corporation

    2010-09-17

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2009. The report, prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2009. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program by the DOE ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2009 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  6. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2011-09-28

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2010. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2010. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE's effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2010 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  7. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Rendall, John D.; Steiner, Alison F.; Klenk, David P.

    2013-09-19

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2012. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2012. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2012 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  8. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-09-27

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2011. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2011. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2011 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  9. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Rendall, John D.; Steiner, Alison F.; Pendl, Michael P.; Biedermann, Charles A.; Steiner, II, Robert E.; Fox, James R.; Hoch, Jerald J.; Wrotniak, Chester M.; Werchowski, Rebecca L.

    2016-09-15

    West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2015. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2015. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2015 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  10. West Valley High-Level Waste Tank Lay-Up Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Elmore, Monte R.; Henderson, Colin

    2002-06-21

    Documents completion of Milestone A.2-1, "Issue Tanks Lay-Up Strategies for WVDP," in Technical Task Plan RL30WT21A, "Post-Retrieval and Pre-Closure HLW Tank Lay-Up." This task is a collabrative effort among Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Jacobs Engineering Group Inc., and West Valley Nuclear Servies. The primary objective of the overall task is to develop and evaluate conceptual strategies for preclosure lay-up of the two large high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). Functions and requirements for tank lay-up were developed and previously documented in "Functions and Requirements for WVDP Lay-Up". Theses functions and requirements will serve as decision criteria to support selection of a strategy for safe and cost-effective lay-up of the HLW tanks.

  11. Nuclear characteristics of vitrified high-level waste at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Arakali, V.S.; Barnes, S.M. )

    1991-11-01

    High-level liquid nuclear waste stored in underground tanks at West Valley, New York, will be vitrified as borosilicate glass and stored in stainless steel canisters prior to disposal at a waste repository. The nuclear characteristics of the vitrified waste must meet certain repository design specifications. This paper presents an evaluation of the waste form produced at West Valley with respect to its compliance to the repository specifications of heat and gas generation rates and neutron and gamma dose rates. The method consists of analyzing the composition of liquid nuclear waste in underground tanks and estimating the amount of other chemicals needed to encapsulate radionuclides in glass matrices. The number of waste canisters and the composition of each batch of canistered waste are determined from the vitrification process flow sheet. This data is used in computer codes to evaluate the waste form against repository specifications.

  12. Testing of the West Valley Vitrification Facility transfer cart control system

    SciTech Connect

    Halliwell, J.W.; Bradley, E.C.

    1995-02-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed and tested the control system for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Facility transfer cart. The transfer cart will transfer canisters of vitrified high-level waste remotely within the Vitrification Facility. The control system operates the cart under battery power by wireless control. The equipment includes cart-mounted control electronics, battery charger, control pendants, engineer`s console, and facility antennas. Testing was performed in several phases of development: (1) prototype equipment was built and tested during design, (2) board-level testing was then performed at ORNL during fabrication, and (3) system-level testing was then performed by ORNL at the fabrication subcontractor`s facility for the completed cart system. These tests verified (1) the performance of the cart relative to design requirements and (2) operation of various built-in cart features. The final phase of testing is planned to be conducted during installation at the West Valley Vitrification Facility.

  13. Low-Level Legacy Waste Processing Experience at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, P.J.; Rowell, L.E.; Kurasch, D.H.; Moore, H.R.

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents detailed results and lessons learned from the very challenging and highly successful 2005 low level radioactive waste sorting, packaging, and shipping campaign that removed over 95% of the available inventory of 350,000 ft{sup 3} of legacy low level waste at the West Valley Demonstration Project near West Valley, New York. First some programmatic perspective and site history is provided to provide pertinent context for DOE's waste disposal mandates at the site. This is followed by a detailed description of the waste types, the storage locations, the containers, and the varied sorting and packaging facilities used to accomplish the campaign. The overall sorting and packaging protocols for this inventory of wastes are defined. This is followed by detailed sorting data and results concluding with lessons learned. (authors)

  14. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Rendall, John D.; Steiner, Alison F.; Pendl, Michael P.

    2014-09-16

    West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2013. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2013. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2013 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  15. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Rendall, John D.; Steiner, Alison F.; Pendl, Michael P.; Biedermann, Charles A.; Steiner, II, Robert E.; Fox, James R.; Hoch, Jerald J.; Werchowski, Rebecca L.

    2015-09-15

    West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for Calendar Year 2014. The report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy West Valley Demonstration Project office (DOE-WVDP), summarizes the environmental protection program at the WVDP for calendar year (CY) 2014. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment. The report is a key component of DOE’s effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at the WVDP. The quality assurance protocols applied to the environmental monitoring program ensure the validity and accuracy of the monitoring data. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2014 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  16. Overview of the West Valley Vitrification Facility transfer cart control system

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Rupple, F.R.

    1993-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed the control system for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Facility transfer cart. The transfer cart will transfer canisters of vitrified high-level waste remotely within the Vitrification Facility. The control system will operate the cart under battery power by wireless control. The equipment includes cart mounted control electronics, battery charger, control pendants, engineer's console, and facility antennas.

  17. Overview of the West Valley Vitrification Facility transfer cart control system

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Rupple, F.R.

    1993-05-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed the control system for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Facility transfer cart. The transfer cart will transfer canisters of vitrified high-level waste remotely within the Vitrification Facility. The control system will operate the cart under battery power by wireless control. The equipment includes cart mounted control electronics, battery charger, control pendants, engineer`s console, and facility antennas.

  18. West Valley vitrified HLW and spent-fuel on-site storage alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Rothstein, H.; Swanson, J.; Kumar, S.

    1995-12-31

    Design layouts were developed for a West Valley Demonstration Project SSA with integrated interim storage of high-level radioactive waste canisters, spent fuel, and GTCC wastes from potential closure activities. Overall SSA cost estimates were prepared for the potential use of any of the NRC-licensed dry storage concepts. Using the costs for the concept closest to the average cost of all the concepts, comparisons were made to estimated costs for continued storage in the process building and FRS.

  19. The integrated melter off-gas treatment systems at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, R.F.

    1991-12-01

    The West Valley Demonstration project was established by an act of Congress in 1980 to solidify the high level radioactive liquid wastes produced from operation of the Western New York Nuclear Services Center from 1966 to 1972. The waste will be solidified as borosilicate glass. This report describes the functions, the controlling design criteria, and the resulting design of the melter off-gas treatment systems.

  20. Suitability Evaluation for Lowland Rice in Inland Valleys in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hideto, Fujii; Muralikrishna, Gumma; Prasad, Thenkabail; Regassa, Namara

    A GIS based model developed by the authors are applied for selecting suitable rice cultivation area in inland valleys that has high potential for rice production in West Africa where rice consumption is increasing very rapidly. The model has the following features. 1) The model is to evaluate the suitability of the land for lowland rice based on score distribution maps respectively made by the data of 29 evaluation parameters. 2) The parameters are classified into 4 categories; bio-physical, technical, socio-economic and health-environmental parameters. 3) Each scored map (layer) is integrated to obtain total scores by multiplying a weight which is determined by the importance of parameters. The suitability for rice in two study sites was evaluated using the model. Mankran and Jolo-Kwaha watershed selected as the study sites from different agro-ecological zone in Ghana. Applying the data of 12 parameters acquired in the study sites to the model, “very suitable” or “suitable” occupies around 30% in Mankran study site and around 60% in Jolo-Kwaha study site.

  1. TARZAN: A REMOTE TOOL DEPLOYMENT SYSTEM FOR THE WEST VALLEY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce R. Thompson; James Veri

    1999-09-30

    RedZone Robotics, Inc. undertook a development project to build Tarzan, a Remote Tool Delivery system to work inside nuclear waste storage tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2 at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). The removal of waste deposits from large storage tanks poses significant challenges during tank operations and closure. Limited access, the presence of chemical, radiological, and /or explosive hazards, and the need to deliver retrieval equipment to all regions of the tank exceed the capabilities of most conventional methods and equipment. Remotely operated devices for mobilizing and retrieving waste materials are needed. Some recent developments have been made in this area. However, none of these developments completely and cost-effectively address tanks that are congested with internal structures (e.g., support columns, cooling coils, fixed piping, etc.). The Tarzan system consists of the following parts: Locomotor which is deployed in the tank for inspection and cleanup; Hydraulic power unit providing system power for the locomotor and deployment unit; and Control system providing the man machine interface to control, coordinate and monitor the system. This document presents the final report on the Tarzan project.

  2. Thin-skinned tectonics of the Upper Ojai Valley and Sulphur Mountain area, Ventura basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Huftile, G.J. )

    1991-08-01

    By integrating surface mapping with subsurface well data and drawing cross sections and subsurface maps, the geometry of shallow structures and their geologic history of the Upper Ojai Valley of California can be reconstructed. The geometry of shallow structures, the geologic history, and the location of earthquake foci then offer constraints on the deep structure of this complex area. The Upper Ojai Valley is a tectonic depression between opposing reverse faults. Its northern border is formed by the active, north-dipping San Cayetano fault, which has 6.0 km of stratigraphic separation in the Silverthread area of the Ojai oil field and 2.6 km of stratigraphic separation west of Sisar Creek. The fault dies out farther west in Ojai Valley, where the south-vergent shortening is transferred to a blind thrust. The southern border of the Upper Ojai Valley is formed by the Quaternary Lion fault set, which dips south and merges into the Sisar decollement within the south-dipping, ductile, lower Miocene Rincon formation. By the middle Pleistocene, the Sulphur Mountain anticlinorium and the Big Canyon syncline began forming as a fault-propagation fold; the fault-propagation fold is rooted in the Sisar decollement, a passive backthrust rising from a blind thrust at depth. The formation of the Sulphur Mountain anticlinorium was followed closely by the ramping of the south-dipping Lion fault set to the surface over the nonmarine upper Pleistocene Saugus Formation. To the east, the San Cayetano fault overrides and folds the Lion Fault set near the surface. Area-balancing of the deformation shows shortening of 15.5 km, and suggests a 17 km depth to the brittle-ductile transition.

  3. Lessons learned at West Valley during facility decontamination for re-use (1982--1988)

    SciTech Connect

    Tundo, D.; Gessner, R.F.; Lawrence, R.E.

    1988-11-01

    The primary mission of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is to solidify a large volume of high-level liquid waste (2.3 million liters -- 600,000 gallons) produced during reprocessing plant operations and stored in underground tanks. This is to be accomplished through the maximum use of existing facilities. This required a significant effort to remove existing equipment and to decontaminate areas for installation of liquid and cement processing systems in a safe environment while maintaining exposure to workers as low as reasonably achievable. The reprocessing plant occupied a building of about 33,000 m/sup 2/ (350,000 ft/sup 2/). When the WVDP was initiated, approximately 6 percent of the plant area was in a non-contaminated condition where personnel could function without protective clothing or radiological controls. From 1982 to 1988, an additional 64 percent of the plant was cleaned up and much of this converted to low- and high-level waste processing areas. The high-level liquid and resulting low-level liquids are now being treated in these areas using an Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS). The Project has now focused attention on installation, qualification and operation of a vitrification system which will convert the remaining high-level waste into borosilicate glass logs. The stabilized waste will be sent to a Federal Repository for long-term storage. From 1982 to 1988, about 70 technical reports were dealing with specific tasks and cleanup efforts. This report provides an overview of the decontamination and decommissioning work done in that period. The report emphasizes lessons learned during that effort. Significant advances were made in: remote and contact decontamination technology; personnel protection and training; planning and procedures; and radiological controls. 62 refs., 35 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Environmental assessment for the Waste Water Treatment Facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project and finding of no significant impact

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The possible environmental impacts from the construction and operation of a waste water treatment facility for the West Valley Demonstration Project are presented. The West Valley Project is a demonstration project on the solidification of high-level radioactive wastes. The need for the facility is the result of a rise in the work force needed for the project which rendered the existing sewage treatment plant incapable of meeting the nonradioactive waste water treatment needs.

  5. Experimental data developed to support the selection of a treatment process for West Valley alkaline supernatant

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, L.A.; Holton, L.K.; Myers, T.R.; Richardson, G.M.; Wise, B.M.

    1984-01-01

    At the request of West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has studied alternative treatment processes for the alkaline PUREX waste presently being stored in Tank 8D2 at West Valley, New York. Five tasks were completed during FY 1983: (1) simulation and characterization of the alkaline supernatant and sludge from the tank. The radiochemical and chemical distributions between the aqueous and solid phase were determined, and the efficiency of washing sludge with water to remove ions such as Na/sup +/ and SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ was investigated; (2) evaluation of a sodium tetraphenylboron (Na-TPB) precipitation process to recover cesium (Cs) and a sodium titanate (Na-TiA) sorption process to recover strontium (Sr) and plutonium (Pu) from the West Valley Alkaline supernatant. These processes were previously developed and tested at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant; (3) evaluation of an organic cation-exchange resin (Duolite CS-100) to recover Cs and Pu from the alkaline supernatant followed by an organic macroreticular cation exchange resin (Amberlite IRC-718) to recover Sr; (4) evaluation of an inorganic ion exchanger (Linde Ionsiv IE-95) to recover Cs, Sr, and Pu from the alkaline supernatant; and (5) evaluation of Dowex-1,X8 organic anion exchange resin to recover technetium (Tc) from alkaline supernatant. The findings of these tasks are reported. 21 references, 36 figures, 34 tables.

  6. Use of DWPF redox measurement technique on glasses from West Valley Nuclear Fuel Services Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1990-10-01

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). A similar vitrification facility exists at the West Valley Nuclear Fuel Services. In both of these facilities, control of the oxidation/reduction (redox) equilibrium in the glass melter is critical for processing of the nuclear waste. Redox can be determined by measuring the ratio of ferrous to ferric ions in the glass melt. A colorimetric procedure has been developed for the DWPF which has been shown to give rapid and reliable analytical results. This colorimetric technique has been shown to measure the Fe{sup 2+} component of glasses more accurately than other existing redox measurement methods. The DWPF redox technique was applied to a series of six glasses taken from the West Valley melter during a transient melter excursion. This excursion caused the glasses to become progressively more reducing with time. Application of the DWPF redox technique to these glasses correctly indicated the redox trends with a higher precision and with more accuracy than the West Valley wet chemical method and/or Alfred University's Mossbauer method. 1 fig., 18 refs.

  7. Geophysical Investigation of Avon Valley, West-Central Montana, using Gravity and Seismic Reflection Profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knatterud, L.; Mosolf, J.; Speece, M. A.; Zhou, X.

    2014-12-01

    The Avon Valley and adjacent mountains in west-central Montana lie within the Lewis and Clark Line, a major system of WNW-striking faults and folds that transect the more northerly structural grain of the northern Rockies and represent alternating episodes of transtensional and transpressional deformation. The northwest-trending valley has been previously interpreted as an extensional half graben filled with Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic deposits; however, little-to-no geophysical constraints on basin architecture or the thickness of Tertiary fill have been reported. A major northwest-striking fault with significant normal displacement clearly bounds the valley to the northeast, juxtaposing Tertiary sedimentary deposits against Proterozoic-Mesozoic units deformed by shortening structures and crosscut by Cretaceous granitic intrusions. Tertiary volcanic deposits unconformably overlying faulted and folded Phanerozoic-Proterozoic sequences in the eastern Garnet Range bound the valley to the southwest, but in the past no faults had been mapped along this margin. New mapping by the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology (MBMG) has identified a system of high-angle, northwest- and northeast-striking, oblique-slip faults along the southwest border of the Avon calling into question if the valley is a half, full, or asymmetrical graben. Geophysical data has recently been acquired by Montana Tech to help define the structural architecture of the Avon Valley and the thickness of its Tertiary fill. Gravity data and a short seismic reflection profile have been collected and a preliminary interpretation of these data indicates a half graben with a series of normal faults bounding the western side of the valley. Ongoing gravity data collection throughout 2014 should refine this interpretation by better defining the bedrock-Tertiary interface at depth.

  8. Gravity survey in the San Luis Valley area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaca, J. Robert; Karig, Daniel E.

    1965-01-01

    During the summers of 1963 and 1964, a regional gravity survey covering 6,000 square miles of the San Luis Valley and surrounding areas was made to determine subsurface basement configurations and to guide future crustal studies. The San Luis Valley, a large intermontane basin, is a segment of the Rio Grande trough, a reef system characterized by volcanism, normal faulting, and tilted fault blocks. The gravity data, accurate to about 0.5 mgal, were reduced to complete-Bouguer anomaly values. The Bouguer-anomaly gravity map delineates a series of en-echelon gravity highs in the central and western San Luis Valley. These gravity highs are interpreted as horsts of Precambrian rock buried by basin fill. A series of en-echelon gravity lows along the eastern edge of the Valley is interpreted as a graben filled with sedimentary and igneous rock estimated to be up to 30,000 ft thick. The relatively high regional gravity over the Sangre de Cristo Mountains suggests that these mountains are locally uncompensated. A subcircular gravity low in the Bonanza area is interpreted as an indication of low-density volcanic rocks within a caldera structure.

  9. Water resources of the Rincon and Mesilla Valleys and adjacent areas, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Clyde A.; White, Robert R.; Orr, Brennon R.; Roybal, R. Gary

    1981-01-01

    The Rincon and Mesilla Valleys of New Mexico extend from Caballo Reservoir to El Paso del Norte, west of El Paso, Texas. Water supplies for this area are obtained from the Rio Grande and from the saturated sediments filling the intermontane basins of south-central New Mexico. The two major aquifers are the Santa Fe Group of Miocene to middle Pleistocene age and the flood-plain alluvium of late Pleistocene and Holocene age. The Santa Fe Group is composed of thick deposits of interbedded clay, silt, sand, and gravel. The flood-plain alluvium, generally less than 80 feet thick, is composed of a basal gravel layer overlain by interbedded sand, silt, and clay. In the Rincon Valley, the flood-plain alluvium is the principal source of ground water because the underlying Santa Fe is composed predominantly of lacustrine clay deposits. In the Mesilla Valley, thick deposits of fluvial sands and gravels in the Santa Fe Group are hydraulically connected with the flood-plain alluvium. Water-table conditions occur in the flood-plain alluvium, which is recharged primarily by infiltration of surface water from the Rio Grande, irrigation canals, and irrigated fields. Recharge to the Santa Fe Group occurs primarily from downward infiltration of water from the flood-plain alluvium and secondarily from runoff infiltrating upland sediments and mountain-front fan deposits. In the short term, the Santa Fe Group responds as a leaky confined aquifer due to the presence of interbedded clays that reduce vertical permeability. Aquifer tests Were conducted on 58 wells and test holes, most of which were completed in the Santa Fe Group. Transmissivities range from 1.3 to 21,100 feet squared per day. Average well yields range from about 1,050 gallons per minute in the Rincon Valley to about 1,500 gallons per minute in the Mesilla Valley. Yields in the Jornada del Muerto generally are much smaller. Movement of ground water is generally southward in the Rincon and Mesilla Valleys and toward the

  10. Phase 1 Final status survey plan for the West Valley demonstration project.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R. L.

    2011-05-31

    This plan provides the technical basis and associated protocols to support Phase 1 final status survey (FSS) data collection and interpretation as part of the West Valley Demonstration Project Phase 1 Decommissioning Plan process. This plan is consistent with the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM). The Phase 1 Decommissioning Plan provides the relevant derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs) for the Phase 1 radionuclides of interest. This plan includes protocols that will be applied to the deep excavations planned for Waste Management Area (WMA) 1 and WMA 2, for surface soils outside the WMA 1 and WMA 2 excavations that do not have contamination impacts at depths greater than one meter, and for areas that are used for Phase 1 contaminated soil lay-down purposes. All excavated and lay-down areas will be classified as MARSSIM Class 1 areas. Surface soils that have not been excavated, are not expected to exceed DCGLs, and do not have contamination impacts at depths greater than one meter will be divided into either Class 1 or Class 2 areas depending on the expected potential for surface soil contamination in those areas. The plan uses gamma scans combined with biased soil samples to address DCGLemc concerns. The plan uses systematic soil sampling combined with area factors to address DCGLw and DCGLemc concerns. The Sign test will be used to statistically evaluate DCGLw compliance. If the results from the characterization sampling and analysis plan (CSAP) data collection indicate that background may be a significant issue for Sign test implementation, the Wilcoxon rank sum (WRS) test will be used instead to demonstrate DCGLw compliance. A reference area will be selected on the basis of CSAP data results if the WRS test becomes a necessity. The WMA 1 excavation footprint includes approximately 476 foundation pilings that will be trimmed and left in place. Piling-specific systematic and biased sampling will be conducted to

  11. Mould incidence and mycotoxin contamination in maize kernels from Swat Valley, North West Frontier Province of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shah, Hamid Ullah; Simpson, Thomas J; Alam, Sahib; Khattak, Khanzadi Fatima; Perveen, Sajida

    2010-04-01

    Mould incidence and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination as well as proximate composition and minerals content of maize kernels from Swat Valley, North West Frontier Province of Pakistan was studied during the year, 2007. Results indicated that the mean moisture content of the kernels was within the recommended safe storage levels of 15%. Across the whole valley, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium and Rhizopus were the most predominant fungal genera identified and amongst the mycotoxigenic species, Aspergillus flavus had the highest incidence. AFB1 content ranged from none to 30.92 microg/kg with the average values of 14.94 and 16.22 microg/kg for Upper and Lower Swat regions, respectively. Similar trend was observed for OTA with the contamination level ranged from <0.001 to 7.32 microg/kg. A significant numbers of samples contained AFB1 and OTA levels above the safe limits as recommended by the USFDA and EU but on the average the results were within the safe limit. These results indicate that maize consumers in Swat Valley may be exposed to the danger of aflatoxins and ochratoxins poisoning. Thus, there is a need for policy makers to establish and enforce maize quality standards and regulations related to moulds and mycotoxins across the area.

  12. Soils developed from alluvial and proluvial deposits in the Gröndalselva River valley in West Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereverzev, V. N.; Litvinova, T. I.

    2012-05-01

    The genetic characterization of soils developed from alluvial and proluvial deposits in the Gröndalselva River valley (West Spitsbergen) is presented. These soils are compared with analogous soils formed on marine terraces along the coasts of Isfjord and Grönfjord. Gray-humus (soddy) soils with an O-AY-C profile have been described on parent materials of different origins, including alluvial and proluvial sediments. The texture of the soils in the Gröndalselva River valley varies from medium to heavy loam and differs from the texture of the soils on other geomorphic positions in the higher content of fine particles. The soils developed from the alluvial deposits are characterized by their richer mineralogical and chemical composition in comparison with the soils developed from proluvial deposits, marine deposits, and bedrocks. All the deposits are impoverished in CaO. No differentiation of the chemical composition of the soils along the soil profiles has been found in the soils of the coastal areas and the river valley. Some accumulation of oxalate-soluble Al and Fe compounds takes place in the uppermost mineral horizon. The soils of all the geomorphic positions have a high humus content and a high exchange capacity.

  13. Estimates of natural ground-water discharge and characterization of water quality in Dry Valley, Washoe County, West-Central Nevada, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, David L.; Maurer, Douglas K.; Lopes, Thomas J.; Halford, Keith J.

    2004-01-01

    The Dry Valley Hydrographic Area is being considered as a potential source area for additional water supplies for the Reno-Sparks area, which is about 25 miles south of Dry Valley. Current estimates of annual ground-water recharge to Dry Valley have a considerable range. In undeveloped valleys, such as Dry Valley, long-term ground-water discharge can be assumed the same as long-term ground-water recharge. Because estimating ground-water discharge has more certainty than estimating ground-water recharge from precipitation, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Washoe County, began a three-year study to re-evaluate the ground-water resources by estimating natural ground-water discharge and characterize ground-water quality in Dry Valley. In Dry Valley, natural ground-water discharge occurs as subsurface outflow and by ground-water evapotranspiration. The amount of subsurface outflow from the upper part of Dry Valley to Winnemucca and Honey Lake Valleys likely is small. Subsurface outflow from Dry Valley westward to Long Valley, California was estimated using Darcy's Law. Analysis of two aquifer tests show the transmissivity of poorly sorted sediments near the western side of Dry Valley is 1,200 to 1,500 square feet per day. The width of unconsolidated sediments is about 4,000 feet between exposures of tuffaceous deposits along the State line, and decreases to about 1,500 feet (0.5 mile) west of the State line. The hydraulic gradient east and west of the State line ranges from 0.003 to 0.005 foot per foot. Using these values, subsurface outflow to Long Valley is estimated to be 50 to 250 acre-feet per year. Areas of ground-water evapotranspiration were field mapped and partitioned into zones of plant cover using relations derived from Landsat imagery acquired July 8, 2002. Evapotranspiration rates for each plant-cover zone were multiplied by the corresponding area and summed to estimate annual ground-water evapotranspiration. About 640 to 790 acre-feet per

  14. The first australopithecine 2,500 kilometres west of the Rift Valley (Chad)

    PubMed

    Brunet, M; Beauvilain, A; Coppens, Y; Heintz, E; Moutaye, A H; Pilbeam, D

    1995-11-16

    The first sites with Pliocene and Pleistocene mammals west of the Rift Valley in Central Africa in northern Chad were reported in 1959 (ref. 1), and documented the presence of mixed savannah and woodland habitats. Further sites and a probable Homo erectus cranio-facial fragment were subsequently discovered. In 1993 a survey of Pliocene and Pleistocene formations in the Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti Province of Chad (B.E.T.) led to the discovery of 17 new sites in the region of Bahr el Ghazal (classical Arabic for River of the Gazelles) near Koro Toro. One site, KT 12 (15 degrees 58'10"N, 18 degrees 52'46"E) yielded an australopithecine mandible associated with a fauna biochronologically estimated to be 3.0-3.5 Myr old. Australopithecine species described since 1925 are known from southern Africa and from sites spread along the eastern Rift Valley from Tanzania to Ethiopia (Fig. 1). This new find from Chad, which is most similar in morphology to Australopithecus afarensis, documents the presence of an early hominid a considerable distance, 2,500 km, west of the Rift Valley.

  15. Biomass analyses for four areas in the Tennessee Valley Authority

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, J.D.

    1985-04-01

    Analyses for four biomass procurement areas in the Tennessee Valley are presented. The Marlow and Perryville, Tennessee, sites can provide 38,000 dry tons of industrial residue annually. Mulberry Creek, Alabama, and Watts Bar, Tennessee, can annually provide 330,000 dry tons of industrial residue and/or forest biomass. Methanol can be produced at the Perryville and Marlow sites and ethanol at Mulberry Creek and Watts Bar. 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. First field evidence for natural vertical transmission of West Nile virus in Culex univittatus complex mosquitoes from Rift Valley province, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Miller, B R; Nasci, R S; Godsey, M S; Savage, H M; Lutwama, J J; Lanciotti, R S; Peters, C J

    2000-02-01

    West Nile virus is a mosquito borne flavivirus endemic over a large geographic area including Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. Although the virus generally causes a mild, self-limiting febrile illness in humans, it has sporadically caused central nervous system infections during epidemics. An isolate of West Nile virus was obtained from a pool of four male Culex univittatus complex mosquitoes while we were conducting an investigation of Rift Valley fever along the Kenya-Uganda border in February-March 1998. This represents the first field isolation of West Nile virus from male mosquitoes and strongly suggests that vertical transmission of the virus occurs in the primary maintenance mosquito vector in Kenya. A phylogenetic analysis of the complete amino acid sequence of the viral envelope glycoprotein demonstrated a sister relationship with a Culex pipiens mosquito isolate from Romania made in 1996. This unexpected finding probably reflects the role of migratory birds in disseminating West Nile virus between Africa and Europe.

  17. 2. VIEW EAST, East Control Area, west radar tower in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW EAST, East Control Area, west radar tower in foreground, east radar lower in background - Newport NIKE Missile Battery D-57/58, Integrated Fire Control Area, Newport Road, Carleton, Monroe County, MI

  18. Phase 1 Characterization sampling and analysis plan West Valley demonstration project.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R. L.

    2011-06-30

    The Phase 1 Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan (CSAP) provides details about environmental data collection that will be taking place to support Phase 1 decommissioning activities described in the Phase 1 Decommissioning Plan for the West Valley Demonstration Project, Revision 2 (Phase I DP; DOE 2009). The four primary purposes of CSAP data collection are: (1) pre-design data collection, (2) remedial support, (3) post-remediation status documentation, and (4) Phase 2 decision-making support. Data collection to support these four main objectives is organized into two distinct data collection efforts. The first is data collection that will take place prior to the initiation of significant Phase 1 decommissioning activities (e.g., the Waste Management Area [WMA] 1 and WMA 2 excavations). The second is data collection that will occur during and immediately after environmental remediation in support of remediation activities. Both data collection efforts have a set of well-defined objectives that encompass the data needs of the four main CSAP data collection purposes detailed in the CSAP. The main body of the CSAP describes the overall data collection strategies that will be used to satisfy data collection objectives. The details of pre-remediation data collection are organized by WMA. The CSAP contains an appendix for each WMA that describes the details of WMA-specific pre-remediation data collection activities. The CSAP is intended to expand upon the data collection requirements identified in the Phase 1 Decommissioning Plan. The CSAP is intended to tightly integrate with the Phase 1 Final Status Survey Plan (FSSP). Data collection described by the CSAP is consistent with the FSSP where appropriate and to the extent possible.

  19. Tectonic implications of gravity and magnetic models along east-west seismic profiles across the Great Valley near Coalinga

    SciTech Connect

    Griscom, A.; Jachens, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have used gravity and magnetic data to compute east-west crustal models along a profile extending eastward from the San Andreas fault in the eastern Coast Ranges, through the town of Coalinga, and across the Great Valley of California. These models agree well with seismic refraction and reflection models, support the idea that the Franciscan assemblage near its contact with the Great Valley sequence was emplaced by tectonic wedging, and do not indicate the presence of a fossil subduction zone. The west half of the Great Valley is underlain by a thick, west-dipping slab of magnetic high-density rock that may be an ophiolite obducted from the west onto the continental margin during Jurassic time. Warping and faulting of this slab during deposition of the overlying Great Valley sequence created structures parallel to the basin's east side that later may have acted as barriers limiting the eastward intrusion of Franciscan wedges. Multiple wedging is implied by a mostly concealed magnetic slab, presumed to be Coast Range ophiolite, that is consistently present for a strike distance of 600 km along the contact of the Franciscan assemblage and the Great Valley sequence, and that has its west edge emplaced within the Franciscan assemblage.

  20. Functions and Requirements for West Valley Demonstration Project Tank Lay-up

    SciTech Connect

    Elmore, Monte R.; Henderson, Colin

    2002-06-21

    Documents completion of Milstone A.1-1, "Issue Functions and Requirements for WVDP Tank Lay-Up," in Technical Task Plan TTP RL3-WT21A - "Post-Retrival and Pre-Closure HLW Tank Lay-Up." This task is a collaborative effort among Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Jacobs Engineering Group Inc., and West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS). Because of the site-specific nature oft his task, the involvement of WVNS personnel is critical to the success of this task.

  1. Comparison of peak discharges among sites with and without valley fills for the July 8-9, 2001 flood in the headwaters of Clear Fork, Coal River basin, mountaintop coal-mining region, southern West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Brogan, Freddie D.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of mountaintop-removal mining practices on the peak discharges of streams were investigated in six small drainage basins within a 7-square-mile area in southern West Virginia. Two of the small basins had reclaimed valley fills, one basin had reclaimed and unreclaimed valley fills, and three basins did not have valley fills. Indirect measurements of peak discharge for the flood of July 8-9, 2001, were made at six sites on streams draining the small basins. The sites without valley fills had peak discharges with 10- to 25-year recurrence intervals, indicating that rainfall intensities and totals varied among the study basins. The flood-recurrence intervals for the three basins with valley fills were determined as though the peak discharges were those from rural streams without the influence of valley fills, and ranged from less than 2 years to more than 100 years.

  2. Emergence of West Nile virus in mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) communities of the New Mexico Rio Grande Valley.

    PubMed

    DiMenna, Mark A; Bueno, Rudy; Parmenter, Robert R; Norris, Douglas E; Sheyka, Jeff M; Molina, Josephine L; LaBeau, Elisa M; Hatton, Elizabeth S; Glass, Gregory E

    2006-05-01

    The first appearances of West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) in New Mexico were reported in late summer to early fall 2002. Several dead birds tested positive for WNV, and 78 equine cases were confirmed. All mosquito pools tested (n = 268) were negative. A statewide surveillance program was launched in May 2003 to study the emergence and spread of this new arbovirus in mosquitoes from the Rio Grande valley. Mosquitoes were trapped at 32 sites along a 750-km stretch of the Rio Grande valley. Sites were trapped for one night either weekly or biweekly, by using CO2-baited CDC light traps and gravid traps. Pools of captured mosquitoes were tested for WNV by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. By mid-July 2003, WNV levels in the mosquito population had reached levels that were detectable by the surveillance program. Positive pools of mosquitoes were found in the Rio Grande valley from mid-July through late September. In total, 75 positive pools were found, from sites throughout the study area. The predominant species infected with WNV in this region were Culex tarsalis (Coquillett) in rural areas, and Culex salinarius (Coquillett) and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Say) in urban areas. There were 202 human cases and 438 equine cases of WNV in New Mexico in 2003, which corresponded well in time with the positive mosquitoes. Our results seemed to be consistent with introduction of WNV in late summer 2002, followed by a period of transmission and amplification cycles between local avian hosts and mosquito vectors.

  3. Emergence of West Nile Virus in Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Communities of the New Mexico Rio Grande Valley

    PubMed Central

    DiMenna, Mark A.; Bueno, Rudy; Parmenter, Robert R.; Norris, Douglas E.; Sheyka, Jeff M.; Molina, Josephine L.; LaBeau, Elisa M.; Hatton, Elizabeth S.; Glass, Gregory E.

    2014-01-01

    The first appearances of West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) in New Mexico were reported in late summer to early fall 2002. Several dead birds tested positive for WNV, and 78 equine cases were confirmed. All mosquito pools tested (n = 268) were negative. A statewide surveillance program was launched in May 2003 to study the emergence and spread of this new arbovirus in mosquitoes from the Rio Grande valley. Mosquitoes were trapped at 32 sites along a 750-km stretch of the Rio Grande valley. Sites were trapped for one night either weekly or biweekly, by using CO2-baited CDC light traps and gravid traps. Pools of captured mosquitoes were tested for WNV by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. By mid-July 2003, WNV levels in the mosquito population had reached levels that were detectable by the surveillance program. Positive pools of mosquitoes were found in the Rio Grande valley from mid-July through late September. In total, 75 positive pools were found, from sites throughout the study area. The predominant species infected with WNV in this region were Culex tarsalis (Coquillett) in rural areas, and Culex salinarius (Coquillett) and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Say) in urban areas. There were 202 human cases and 438 equine cases of WNV in New Mexico in 2003, which corresponded well in time with the positive mosquitoes. Our results seemed to be consistent with introduction of WNV in late summer 2002, followed by a period of transmission and amplification cycles between local avian hosts and mosquito vectors. PMID:16739421

  4. Operational strategy for soil concentration predictions of strontium/yttrium-90 and cesium-137 in surface soil at the West Valley Demonstration Project site

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, J.A.

    1995-06-05

    There are difficulties associated with the assessment of the interpretation of field measurements, determination of guideline protocols and control and disposal of low level radioactive contaminated soil in the environmental health physics field. Questions are raised among scientists and in public forums concerning the necessity and high costs of large area soil remediation versus the risks of low-dose radiation health effects. As a result, accurate soil activity assessments become imperative in decontamination situations. The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), a US Department of Energy facility located in West Valley, New York is managed and operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc. (WVNS). WVNS has identified contaminated on-site soil areas with a mixed variety of radionuclides (primarily fission product). Through the use of data obtained from a previous project performed during the summer of 1994 entitled ``Field Survey Correlation and Instrumentation Response for an In Situ Soil Measurement Program`` (Myers), the WVDP offers a unique research opportunity to investigate the possibility of soil concentration predictions based on exposure or count rate responses returned from a survey detector probe. In this study, correlations are developed between laboratory measured soil beta activity and survey probe response for the purposes of determining the optimal detector for field use and using these correlations to establish predictability of soil activity levels.

  5. Is It Working? Lysimeter Monitoring in the Southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in the southern Willamette Valley and many more across the Pacific Northwest. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (SWV GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nitrate levels in the groundwater ...

  6. Conversion of the chemical process cell at West Valley to a high-level-waste storage facility

    SciTech Connect

    Meigs, R.A. )

    1989-11-01

    A former spent-fuel dissolver cell has been decontaminated at the West Valley demonstration project to provide a shielded storage area for the temporary storage of solidified high-level waste (HLW). The cell, called the chemical process cell (CPC), contained two chopped fuel dissolvers, three waste and recycle evaporators, and three accountability tanks. The cell is 28 m (93 ft) long, 6.7 m (22 ft) wide, 13 m (43 ft) high and is serviced by two overhead, remotely operated bridge cranes. Engineering work is under way to design a storage rack system, decay heat coolers, waste solution rerouting jumpers, and reliability and service upgrades for the remotely operated bridge cranes.

  7. Geohydrology and Water Quality of the Valley-Fill Aquifer System in the Upper Sixmile Creek and West Branch Owego Creek Valleys in the Town of Caroline, Tompkins County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Todd S.

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Town of Caroline and Tompkins County Planning Department, began a study of the valley-fill aquifer system in upper Sixmile Creek and headwaters of West Branch Owego Creek valleys in the Town of Caroline, NY. The purpose of the study is to provide geohydrologic data to county and town planners as they develop a strategy to manage and protect their water resources. The first aquifer reach investigated in this series is in the Town of Caroline and includes the upper Sixmile Creek valley and part of West Branch Owego Creek valley. The portions of the valley-fill aquifer system that are comprised of saturated coarse-grained sediments including medium to coarse sand and sandy gravel form the major aquifers. Confined sand and gravel units form the major aquifers in the western and central portions of the upper Sixmile Creek valley, and an unconfined sand and gravel unit forms the major aquifer in the eastern portion of the upper Sixmile Creek valley and in the headwaters of the West Branch Owego Creek valley. The valley-fill deposits are thinnest near the edges of the valley where they pinch out along the till-mantled bedrock valley walls. The thickness of the valley fill in the deepest part of the valley, at the western end of the study area, is about 100 feet (ft); the thickness is greater than 165 ft on top of the Valley Heads Moraine in the central part of the valley. An estimated 750 people live over and rely on groundwater from the valley-fill aquifers in upper Sixmile Creek and West Branch Owego Creek valleys. Most groundwater withdrawn from the valley-fill aquifers is pumped from wells with open-ended 6-inch diameter casings; the remaining withdrawals are from shallow dug wells or cisterns that collect groundwater that discharges to springs (especially in the Brooktondale area). The valley-fill aquifers are the sources of water for about 200 households, several apartment complexes, two mobile home parks

  8. 11. VIEW WEST, RECESS AREA WITH PORTION OF MITER SILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW WEST, RECESS AREA WITH PORTION OF MITER SILL (Numbers painted on stones for reconstruction purposes) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  9. Slurry feed variability in West Valley's melter feed tank and sampling system

    SciTech Connect

    Fow, C.L.; Kurath, D.E.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Bauer, B.P.

    1989-04-01

    The present plan for disposal of high-level wastes at West Valley is to vitrify the wastes for disposal in deep geologic repository. The vitrification process involves mixing the high-level wastes with glass-forming chemicals and feeding the resulting slurry to a liquid-fed ceramic melter. Maintaining the quality of the glass product and proficient melter operation depends on the ability of the melter feed system to produce and maintain a homogeneous mixture of waste and glass-former materials. To investigate the mixing properties of the melter feed preparation system at West Valley, a statistically designed experiment was conducted using synthetic melter feed slurry over a range of concentrations. On the basis of the statistical data analysis, it was found that (1) a homogeneous slurry is produced in the melter feed tank, (2) the liquid-sampling system provides slurry samples that are statistically different from the slurry in the tank, and (3) analytical measurements are the major source of variability. A statistical quality control program for the analytical laboratory and a characterization test of the actual sampling system is recommended. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Statistical methods to monitor the West Valley off-gas system

    SciTech Connect

    Eggett, D.L.

    1990-10-01

    The off-gas system for the ceramic melter operated at the West Valley Demonstration Project at West Valley, NY, is monitored during melter operation. A one-at-a-time method of monitoring the parameters of the off-gas system is not statistically sound. Therefore, multivariate statistical methods appropriate for the monitoring of many correlated parameters will be used. Monitoring a large number of parameters increases the probability of a false out-of-control signal. If the parameters being monitored are statistically independent, the control limits can be easily adjusted to obtain the desired probability of a false out-of-control signal. However, a high degree of correlation generally exists among the parameters being monitored in the off-gas system. This makes it very difficult to control the probability of false calls (saying the system is out-of-control when it is in-control or saying the system is in-control when it is actually out-of-control). The interpretation of the individual control charts is difficult in the presence of correlation among the variables. When a high degree of correlation exists, variable reduction techniques can be used to reduce the number of parameters. Principal components have been used as a variable reduction technique. The principal component (PC) scores have desirable statistical properties when the original variables are distributed as multivariate normals. Two statistics derived from the PC scores and used to form multivariate control charts are outlined and their distributional properties reviewed. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  11. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report for calendar year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), the site of a US Department of Energy environmental cleanup activity operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., (WVNS), is in the process of solidifying liquid high-level radioactive waste remaining at the site after commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing was discontinued. The Project is located in Western New York State, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, within the New York State-owned Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1996 by environmental monitoring personnel. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. Appendix A is a summary of the site environmental monitoring schedule. Appendix B lists the environmental permits and regulations pertaining to the WVDP. Appendices C through F contain summaries of data obtained during 1996 and are intended for those interested in more detail than is provided in the main body of the report.

  12. Pretreatment of high-level radioactive waste at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, P.J.; Gessner, R.F.; Yeazel, J.A.

    1993-12-31

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is an environmental remediation effort focused on demonstrating technologies to solidify high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The HLW remains from reprocessing activities conducted between 1966 and 1972 at the Western New York Nuclear Services Center (WNYNSC) in West Valley, New York, where spent nuclear fuel was reprocessed using essentially the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) process. The waste (approximately 2,518 m{sup 3}) is stored in an underground carbon steel tank and consists of an alkaline supernate (90%) and precipitated sludge (10%). To prepare for HLW solidification, the WVDP is actively pretreating the waste by removing liquid HLW from the underground tank, extracting radioactive cesium from the liquid by an ion-exchange process, and stabilizing the resulting low-level liquid waste (LLW) in cement. Sludge at the tank bottom is washed to remove undesirable sodium salts, and the resulting liquid is again treated by ion-exchange before stabilizing the LLW waste in cement. This paper describes the pretreatment processes used for both the liquid and sludge phases of the HLW tank and the cementation of the resulting LLW.

  13. A West Valley Demonstration Project Milestone - Achieving Certification to Ship Waste to the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J. P.; Pastor, R. S.

    2002-02-28

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) has successfully pretreated and vitrified nearly all of the 600,000 gallons of liquid high-level radioactive waste that was generated at the site of the only commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant to have operated in the United States. Low-level waste (LLW) generated during the course of the cleanup effort now requires disposal. Currently the WVDP only ships Class A LLW for off-site disposal. It has been shipping Class A wastes to Envirocare of Utah, Inc. since 1997. However, the WVDP may also have a future need to ship Class B and Class C waste, which Envirocare is not currently authorized to accept. The Nevada Test Site (NTS), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility, can accept all three waste classifications. The WVDP set a goal to receive certification to begin shipping Class A wastes to NTS by 2001. Formal certification/approval was granted by the DOE Nevada Operations Office on July 12, 2001. This paper discusses how the WVDP contractor, West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO), completed the activities required to achieve NTS certification in 2001 to ship waste to its facility. The information and lessons learned provided are significant because the WVDP is the only new generator receiving certification based on an NTS audit in January 2001 that resulted in no findings and only two observations--a rating that is unparalleled in the DOE Complex.

  14. Noble-metal testing results for the West Valley vitrification system

    SciTech Connect

    Bowan, B.W.; Jain, V.

    1989-01-01

    At the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), the slurry-fed ceramic melter (SFCM) has been in test operation since December 1984 to vitrify simulated waste slurries. Over 4 yr, a moderate range of glass formulations, some containing RuO{sub 2}, have been processed. Since these noble-metal oxides not only have a limited solubility in the melt, and are also electrically conductive, their accumulation in large amounts on the floor of the SFCM poses a potential electrical hazard to the joule-heated SFCM. The design of the WVDP melter cavity and electrode configuration is specifically intended to allow modest noble-metal accumulation without compromise to melter life or performance. In this study, an attempt has been made to estimate the amount of RuO{sub 2} that has accumulated on the floor of the SFCM since initiation of the WVDP vitrification test program. The total amount of RuO{sub 2} that has been processed in the SFCM to date is shown. This preliminary study indicates that the West Valley SFCM displays a good capability for sweeping insoluble noble metals through and for tolerating the remaining fraction on the floor without compromising melter life or performance over the course of the WVDP radioactive vitrification campaign.

  15. Water quality and processes affecting dissolved oxygen concentrations in the Blackwater River, Canaan Valley, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldron, M.C.; Wiley, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    The water quality and environmental processes affecting dissolved oxygen were determined for the Blackwater River in Canaan Valley, West Virginia. Canaan Valley is oval-shaped (14 miles by 5 miles) and is located in the Allegheny Mountains at an average elevation of 3,200 feet above sea level. Tourism, population, and real estate development have increased in the past two decades. Most streams in Canaan Valley are a dilute calcium magnesium bicarbonate-type water. Streamwater typicaly was soft and low in alkalinity and dissolved solids. Maximum values for specific conductance, hardness, alkalinity, and dissolved solids occurred during low-flow periods when streamflow was at or near baseflow. Dissolved oxygen concentrations are most sensitive to processes affecting the rate of reaeration. The reaeration is affected by solubility (atmospheric pressure, water temperature, humidity, and cloud cover) and processes that determine stream turbulence (stream depth, width, velocity, and roughness). In the headwaters, photosynthetic dissolved oxygen production by benthic algae can result in supersaturated dissolved oxygen concentrations. In beaver pools, dissolved oxygen consumption from sediment oxygen demand and carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand can result in dissolved oxygen deficits.

  16. Impact of valley fills on streamside salamanders in southern West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Petra Bohall; Williams, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Valley fills associated with mountaintop-removal mining bury stream headwaters and affect water quality and ecological function of reaches below fills. We quantified relative abundance of streamside salamanders in southern West Virginia during 2002 in three streams below valley fills (VFS) and in three reference streams (RS). We surveyed 36 10- × 2-m stream transects, once in summer and fall, paired by order and structure. Of 2,343 salamanders captured, 66.7% were from RS. Total salamanders (adults plus larvae) were more abundant in RS than VFS for first-order and second-order reaches. Adult salamanders had greater abundance in first-order reaches of RS than VFS. Larval salamanders were more abundant in second-order reaches of RS than VFS. No stream width or mesohabitat variables differed between VFS and RS. Only two cover variables differed. Silt cover, greater in VFS than RS first-order reaches, is a likely contributor to reduced abundance of salamanders in VFS. Second-order RS had more boulder cover than second-order VFS, which may have contributed to the higher total and larval salamander abundance in RS. Water chemistry assessments of our VFS and RS reported elevated levels of metal and ion concentrations in VFS, which can depress macroinvertebrate populations and likely affect salamander abundance. Valley fills appear to have significant negative effects on stream salamander abundance due to alterations in habitat structure, water quality and chemistry, and macroinvertebrate communities in streams below fills.

  17. 78 FR 16827 - Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; State of California; Imperial Valley...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; State of California; Imperial Valley Planning Area for PM 10 Clarification of Nonattainment Area Boundary AGENCY: Environmental... Imperial Valley planning area, an area designated as nonattainment for the national ambient air...

  18. West Valley glass product qualification durability studies, FY 1987--1988: Effects of composition, redox state, thermal history, and groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Piepel, G.F.; Mellinger, G.B.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1988-11-01

    The product qualification subtask of the West Valley Support Task (WVST) at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provides support for the waste form qualification efforts at West Valley Nuclear Services Co. Testing is being conducted to determine waste form chemical durability in support of these efforts. The effects of composition, ferrous/ferric ratio (redox state), thermal history, and groundwater are being investigated. Glasses were tested using modified Materials Characterization Center (MCC) -3 and MCC-1 test methods. Results obtained in fiscal years (FY) 1987 and 1988 are presented here. 13 refs., 27 figs., 36 tabs.

  19. Ground-water hydrology of Pahvant Valley and adjacent areas, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1990-01-01

    The primary ground-water reservoir in Pahvant Valley and adjacent areas is in the unconsolidated basin fill and interbedded basalt. Recharge in 1959 was estimated to be about 70,000 acre-feet per year and was mostly by seepage from streams, canals, and unconsumed irrigation water and by infiltration of precipitation. Discharge in 1959 was estimated to be about 109,000 acre-feet and was mostly from springs, evapotranspiration, and wells.Water-level declines of more than 50 feet occurred in some areas between 1953 and 1980 because of less-than-normal precipitation and extensive pumping for irrigation. Water levels recovered most of these declines between 1983 and 1986 because of reduced withdrawals and record quantities of precipitation.The quality of ground water in the area west of Kanosh has deteriorated since large ground-water withdrawals began in about 1953. The cause of the deterioration probably is movement of poor quality water into the area from the southwest and possibly the west during periods of large ground-water withdrawals and recycling of irrigation water. The quality of water from some wells has improved since 1983, due to increased recharge and decreased withdrawals for irrigation.Water-level declines of m:>re than 80 feet in some parts of Pahvant Valley are projected if ground-water withdrawals continue for 20 years at the 1977 rate of about 96,000 acre-feet. Rises of as much as 58 feet and declines of as much as 47 feet are projected with withdrawals of 48,000 acre-feet per year for 20 years. The elimination of recharge from the Central Utah Canal is projected to cause water-level declines of up to 8 feet near the canal.

  20. 15. Topside facility, entry area, view towards west. Lyon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Topside facility, entry area, view towards west. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  1. CENTER AISLE, WEST STORAGE AREA, FROM EAST, SHOWING ADDED WIRE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CENTER AISLE, WEST STORAGE AREA, FROM EAST, SHOWING ADDED WIRE MESH, GYPSUM BOARD PARTITIONS, AND EXPOSED CEILING FRAMING - Fort Huachuca, Cavalry Stable, Clarkson Road, Sierra Vista, Cochise County, AZ

  2. West end of rail yard where dump area presumably stood. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West end of rail yard where dump area presumably stood. Foundation wall and pipes in foreground. Wood foundation in background with railroad tracks beyond. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  3. 1. General view of building front looking west from area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of building front looking west from area near abandoned fog signal building. - Block Island Southeast Light, Spring Street & Mohegan Trail at Mohegan Bluffs, New Shoreham, Washington County, RI

  4. Vault Area (original section), south corridor, looking west Fort ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), south corridor, looking west - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. VIEW OF NORTHERN QUARRY AREA, OVERGROWN WITH VEGETATION, FACING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTHERN QUARRY AREA, OVERGROWN WITH VEGETATION, FACING WEST - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  6. Pool area showing steel trusses from mezzanine on west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pool area showing steel trusses from mezzanine on west - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  7. DETAIL OF ELECTRICAL CART, WEST SHED AREA Cape Canaveral ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF ELECTRICAL CART, WEST SHED AREA - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 34, Operations Support Building, Freedom Road, Southwest of Launch Stand CX-34, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  8. DETAIL OF WEST STORAGE AREA, FACING NORTHEAST Cape Canaveral ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF WEST STORAGE AREA, FACING NORTHEAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 34, Operations Support Building, Freedom Road, Southwest of Launch Stand CX-34, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  9. 2. VIEW OF EAST PORTAL, FACING WEST. FORMER PARKING AREA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF EAST PORTAL, FACING WEST. FORMER PARKING AREA TO LEFT OF WALL NOW RE-LANDSCAPED. - Big Oak Flat Road Tunnel No. 3, Through mountain spur on New Big Oak Flat Road, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  10. INTERIOR VIEW FROM THE STAGE AREA LOOKING WEST TOWARDS THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW FROM THE STAGE AREA LOOKING WEST TOWARDS THE BALCONY, SHOWING THE CARVED AND GILDED MOULDING AND PAINTED WALLS AND CEILING. - Anaconda Historic District, Washoe Theater, 305 Main Street, Anaconda, Deer Lodge County, MT

  11. 6. INTERIOR VIEW FROM THE STAGE AREA LOOKING WEST TOWARDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR VIEW FROM THE STAGE AREA LOOKING WEST TOWARDS THE BALCONY, SHOWING THE CARVED AND GILDED MOULDINGS AND PAINTED WALLS AND CEILING - Anaconda Historic District, Washoe Theater, 305 Main Street, Anaconda, Deer Lodge County, MT

  12. Seroprevalence of West Nile, Rift Valley, and sandfly arboviruses in Hashimiah, Jordan.

    PubMed Central

    Batieha, A.; Saliba, E. K.; Graham, R.; Mohareb, E.; Hijazi, Y.; Wijeyaratne, P.

    2000-01-01

    We conducted a serosurvey among patients of a health center in Hashimiah, a Jordanian town of 30,000 inhabitants located near a wastewater treatment plant and its effluent channel. Serum samples from 261 patients >/=5 years of age were assessed for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies against West Nile, sandfly Sicilian, sandfly Naples, and Rift Valley viruses; the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies was 8%, 47%, 30%, and 0%, respectively. Female participants were more likely to have been infected than male. Persons living within 2 km of the treatment plant were more likely to have been infected with West Nile (p=0.016) and sandfly Sicilian (p=0.010) viruses. Raising domestic animals within the house was a risk factor for sandfly Sicilian (p=0.003) but not for sandfly Naples virus (p=0.148). All serum samples were negative for IgM antibodies against the tested viruses. Our study is the first documentation of West Nile and sandfly viruses in Jordan and calls attention to the possible health hazards of living close to wastewater treatment plants and their effluent channels. PMID:10905968

  13. Seroprevalence of West Nile, Rift Valley, and sandfly arboviruses in Hashimiah, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Batieha, A; Saliba, E K; Graham, R; Mohareb, E; Hijazi, Y; Wijeyaratne, P

    2000-01-01

    We conducted a serosurvey among patients of a health center in Hashimiah, a Jordanian town of 30,000 inhabitants located near a wastewater treatment plant and its effluent channel. Serum samples from 261 patients >/=5 years of age were assessed for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies against West Nile, sandfly Sicilian, sandfly Naples, and Rift Valley viruses; the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies was 8%, 47%, 30%, and 0%, respectively. Female participants were more likely to have been infected than male. Persons living within 2 km of the treatment plant were more likely to have been infected with West Nile (p=0.016) and sandfly Sicilian (p=0.010) viruses. Raising domestic animals within the house was a risk factor for sandfly Sicilian (p=0.003) but not for sandfly Naples virus (p=0.148). All serum samples were negative for IgM antibodies against the tested viruses. Our study is the first documentation of West Nile and sandfly viruses in Jordan and calls attention to the possible health hazards of living close to wastewater treatment plants and their effluent channels.

  14. Preliminary report on geology and ground water of the Pajaro Valley area, Santa Cruz and Monterey counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muir, K.S.

    1972-01-01

    The Pajaro Valley area, California, covering about 120 square miles, extends from the southern part of Santa Cruz County to several miles south of the county line into Monterey County. It borders the Pacific Ocean on the west and the Santa Cruz Mountains on the east. The city of Watsonville is the largest center of population. Deposits that range in age from Pliocene to Holocene make up the ground-water reservoir. These include, from oldest to youngest, the Purisima Formation, Aromas Red Sands of Allen (1946), terrace deposits, alluvium, and dune sand. These deposits underlie an area of about 80 square miles and have a maximum thickness of about 4,000 feet. The alluvium yields most of the water pumped from wells in the area. Pre-Pliocene rocks underlie and form the boundaries of the ground-water reservoir. These rocks contain ground water in fractures and in sandstone beds. However, they are not an important source of ground water. There is close continuity between the geology of the Pajaro Valley area and that of the Soquel-Aptos area, which is contiguous on the north. Ground water in the Pajaro Valley area is derived from three sources: (1) Precipitation within the Pajaro Valley area that reaches the ground-water body by direct infiltration or by seepage from streams, (2) seepage from the Pajaro River as it crosses the Pajaro Valley carrying runoff which originates upstream from the valley, and (3) precipitation in the Soquel-Aptos area that infiltrates and then moves southeastward at depth into the Pajaro Valley area. Ground water in most wells in the Pajaro Valley area occurs under confined (artesian) conditions; the only exception is ground water in the upper, near-surface part of the alluvium and that in the dune sand. It moves south from the north part of the area and southwest away from the San Andreas fault toward and out under Monterey Bay. In the south part of the area, ground-water movement is almost due west. The San Andreas fault probably is the only

  15. Statistical Modeling of the Abundance of Vectors of West African Rift Valley Fever in Barkédji, Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Talla, Cheikh; Diallo, Diawo; Dia, Ibrahima; Ba, Yamar; Ndione, Jacques-André; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Morse, Andy; Diop, Aliou; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley fever is an emerging mosquito-borne disease that represents a threat to human and animal health. The exophilic and exophagic behavior of the two main vector in West Africa (Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes), adverse events post-vaccination, and lack of treatment, render ineffective the disease control. Therefore it is essential to develop an information system that facilitates decision-making and the implementation of adaptation strategies. In East Africa, RVF outbreaks are linked with abnormally high rainfall, and can be predicted up to 5 months in advance by modeling approaches using climatic and environmental parameters. However, the application of these models in West Africa remains unsatisfactory due to a lack of data for animal and human cases and differences in the dynamics of the disease emergence and the vector species involved in transmission. Models have been proposed for West Africa but they were restricted to rainfall impact analysis without a spatial dimension. In this study, we developed a mixed Bayesian statistical model to evaluate the effects of climatic and ecological determinants on the spatiotemporal dynamics of the two main vectors. Adult mosquito abundance data were generated from July to December every fortnight in 2005–2006 at 79 sites, including temporary ponds, bare soils, shrubby savannah, wooded savannah, steppes, and villages in the Barkédji area. The results demonstrate the importance of environmental factors and weather conditions for predicting mosquito abundance. The rainfall and minimum temperature were positively correlated with the abundance of Cx. poicilipes, whereas the maximum temperature had negative effects. The rainfall was negatively correlated with the abundance of Ae. vexans. After combining land cover classes, weather conditions, and vector abundance, our model was used to predict the areas and periods with the highest risks of vector pressure. This information could support decision-making to improve

  16. Statistical modeling of the abundance of vectors of West African Rift Valley fever in Barkédji, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Talla, Cheikh; Diallo, Diawo; Dia, Ibrahima; Ba, Yamar; Ndione, Jacques-André; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Morse, Andy; Diop, Aliou; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley fever is an emerging mosquito-borne disease that represents a threat to human and animal health. The exophilic and exophagic behavior of the two main vector in West Africa (Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes), adverse events post-vaccination, and lack of treatment, render ineffective the disease control. Therefore it is essential to develop an information system that facilitates decision-making and the implementation of adaptation strategies. In East Africa, RVF outbreaks are linked with abnormally high rainfall, and can be predicted up to 5 months in advance by modeling approaches using climatic and environmental parameters. However, the application of these models in West Africa remains unsatisfactory due to a lack of data for animal and human cases and differences in the dynamics of the disease emergence and the vector species involved in transmission. Models have been proposed for West Africa but they were restricted to rainfall impact analysis without a spatial dimension. In this study, we developed a mixed Bayesian statistical model to evaluate the effects of climatic and ecological determinants on the spatiotemporal dynamics of the two main vectors. Adult mosquito abundance data were generated from July to December every fortnight in 2005-2006 at 79 sites, including temporary ponds, bare soils, shrubby savannah, wooded savannah, steppes, and villages in the Barkédji area. The results demonstrate the importance of environmental factors and weather conditions for predicting mosquito abundance. The rainfall and minimum temperature were positively correlated with the abundance of Cx. poicilipes, whereas the maximum temperature had negative effects. The rainfall was negatively correlated with the abundance of Ae. vexans. After combining land cover classes, weather conditions, and vector abundance, our model was used to predict the areas and periods with the highest risks of vector pressure. This information could support decision-making to improve RVF

  17. View from west to east of exclusion area sentry building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from west to east of exclusion area sentry building. A portion of the warhead handling building can be seen on the left. Launch area is in the background - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Exclusion Area Sentry Station, On Patrol Road at entrance to Missile Field, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  18. Development of the Decontamination Approach for the West Valley Demonstration Project Decontamination Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Milner, T. N.; Watters, W. T.

    2002-02-25

    This paper details the development of a decontamination approach for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), Decontamination Project Plan (Plan). The WVDP is operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO), a subsidiary of Westinghouse Government and Environmental Services, and its parent companies Washington Group International and British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL). The WVDP is a waste management effort being conducted by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) at the site of the only commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing facility to have operated in the United States. This facility is part of the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC), which is owned by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). As authorized by Congress in 1980 through the West Valley Demonstration Project Act (WVDP Act, Public Law 96-368), the DOE's primary mission at the WVDP is to solidify high-level liquid nuclear waste safely; transport the high-level waste (HLW) to a federal repository; and decontaminate and decommission the facilities and hardware used to solidify the HLW and conduct the WVDP. This includes a provision for the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) and transuranic waste (TRU) produced during processing of the HLW. Continuation of the effort to reduce the hazard and risk associated with historic operations to the extent needed to ensure the health and safety of the public and the environment will see a change in focus from stabilization of liquid HLW to stabilization of former plutonium and uranium extraction (PUREX) reprocessing plant facilities. This will be achieved through the activities of in-cell component removal and packaging, and preparation for long-term disposal of the long- lived radionuclides. These radionuclides are associated with the former PUREX facility operations, including, and upstream from, facilities utilized in the primary separation and first plutonium/uranium split cycles. The closure

  19. EPAs $2.48 million grant will support efforts to improve air quality, protect people, in Idahos West Silver Valley

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Seattle, WA - October 22, 2015) The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality has received a $2.48 million EPA grant to reduce pollution and protect air quality in northern Idaho's West Silver Valley. The grant is part of EPA's 2015 Targeted Air Shed Gran

  20. Hydrogeology of the Susquehanna River valley-fill aquifer system and adjacent areas in eastern Broome and southeastern Chenango Counties, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heisig, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer system along a 32-mile reach of the Susquehanna River valley and adjacent areas was evaluated in eastern Broome and southeastern Chenango Counties, New York. The surficial geology, inferred ice-marginal positions, and distribution of stratified-drift aquifers were mapped from existing data. Ice-marginal positions, which represent pauses in the retreat of glacial ice from the region, favored the accumulation of coarse-grained deposits whereas more steady or rapid ice retreat between these positions favored deposition of fine-grained lacustrine deposits with limited coarse-grained deposits at depth. Unconfined aquifers with thick saturated coarse-grained deposits are the most favorable settings for water-resource development, and three several-mile-long sections of valley were identified (mostly in Broome County) as potentially favorable: (1) the southernmost valley section, which extends from the New York–Pennsylvania border to about 1 mile north of South Windsor, (2) the valley section that rounds the west side of the umlaufberg (an isolated bedrock hill within a valley) north of Windsor, and (3) the east–west valley section at the Broome County–Chenango County border from Nineveh to East of Bettsburg (including the lower reach of the Cornell Brook valley). Fine-grained lacustrine deposits form extensive confining units between the unconfined areas, and the water-resource potential of confined aquifers is largely untested. Recharge, or replenishment, of these aquifers is dependent not only on infiltration of precipitation directly on unconfined aquifers, but perhaps more so from precipitation that falls in adjacent upland areas. Surface runoff and shallow groundwater from the valley walls flow downslope and recharge valley aquifers. Tributary streams that drain upland areas lose flow as they enter main valleys on permeable alluvial fans. This infiltrating water also recharges valley aquifers. Current (2012) use of

  1. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2008

    SciTech Connect

    West Valley Environmental Services LLC and URS - Washington Division

    2009-09-24

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2008. The report summarizes the calendar year (CY) 2008 environmental monitoring program data at the WVDP so as to describe the performance of the WVDP’s environmental management system (EMS), confirm compliance with standards and regulations, and highlight important programs. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of the environment, continual improvement, prevention and/or minimization of pollution, public outreach, and stakeholder involvement. In addition to demonstrating compliance with environmental regulations and directives, evaluation of data collected in 2008 continued to indicate that WVDP activities pose no threat to public health or safety, or to the environment.

  2. Rift Valley fever in West Africa: the role of space in endemicity.

    PubMed

    Favier, Charly; Chalvet-Monfray, Karine; Sabatier, Philippe; Lancelot, Renaud; Fontenille, Didier; Dubois, Marc A

    2006-12-01

    Rift Valley fever is an endemic vector-borne disease in West Africa, which mainly affects domestic ruminants and occasionally humans. The aetiological mechanisms of its endemicity remain under debate. We used a simple spatially explicit model to assess the possibility of endemicity without wild animals providing a permanent virus reservoir. Our model takes into account the vertical transmission in some mosquito species, the rainfall-driven emergence of their eggs and local and distant contacts because of herd migration. Endemicity without such a permanent virus reservoir would be impossible in a single site except when there is a strictly periodic rainfall pattern; but it would be possible when there are herd movements and sufficient inter-site variability in rainfall, which drives mosquito emergence.

  3. Central and South West Services (CSWS) transmission system studies: (Rio Grande Valley FACTS studies). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Arabi, S.; Hamadanizadeh, H.

    1998-12-01

    Stability limitations impose constraints on power imports into the Rio Grande Valley, the southern region of Central Power and Light`s (CPL) system. CPL`s parent company, Central and South West Services, sought to identify viable plans for eliminating these constraints to enable power transfers via two 345-kV transmission lines. This project conducted assessment studies of the CPL system, using applications from EPRI`s Power System Analysis Package, and identified two scenarios as the most likely remedial measures required. These consisted of the addition of generating units and the use of series compensation of the two transmission lines, in conjunction with shunt compensation. While Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) devices were not indicated in this study phase, the researchers indicated a Thyristor Controlled Series Compensation device could be considered to address a potential subsynchronous resonance issue.

  4. West Valley Demonstration Project community relations plan FY 1990/91

    SciTech Connect

    Damerow, M. W.

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of the Community Relations Plan is to fully inform the community about the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) and provide opportunities for public input. A sound approach to community relations is essential to the creation and maintenance of public awareness and community support. The WVDP is a matter of considerable public interest because it deals with nuclear waste. The mission of the WVDP is to solve an existing environmental concern by solidifying high-level radioactive waste and transporting the solidified waste to a federal repository for permanent disposal. The public requires evidence of the continued commitment and demonstrated progress of the industry and government in carrying out the mission in order to sustain confidence that the WVDP is being managed well and will be discussed successfully completed. For this reason, a comprehensive communication plan is essential for the successful completion of the WVDP.

  5. Supplement analysis 2 of environmental impacts resulting from modifications in the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-23

    The West Valley Demonstration Project, located in western New York, has approximately 600,000 gallons of liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in storage in underground tanks. While corrosion analysis has revealed that only limited tank degradation has taken place, the failure of these tanks could release HLW to the environment. Congress requires DOE to demonstrate the technology for removal and solidification of HLW. DOE issued the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) in 1982. The purpose of this second supplement analysis is to re-assess the 1982 Final Environmental Impact Statement's continued adequacy. This report provides the necessary and appropriate data for DOE to determine whether the environmental impacts presented by the ongoing refinements in the design, process, and operations of the Project are considered sufficiently bounded within the envelope of impacts presented in the FEIS and supporting documentation.

  6. Comparisons by peptide mapping of proteins specified by Kunjin, West Nile and Murray Valley encephalitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Wright, P J; Warr, H M; Westaway, E G

    1983-12-01

    The relationships among virus-specified proteins of Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE), Kunjin (KUN) and West Nile (WN) viruses were investigated by peptide mapping of exhaustive proteolytic digests of radioactively labelled polypeptides. Maps of the three structural proteins (E, C and M) derived from purified virions and of two non-structural proteins (NV5 and NV4) obtained from infected cells were compared. For each polypeptide considered, the peptide maps of the KUN and WN virus-specified proteins were more similar to each other than either was to the map of the corresponding MVE virus-specified protein. Since the polypeptides considered together account for approximately 60% of the coding capacity of the flavivirus genome, our results suggested that, for the three viruses examined, the genomes of KUN and WN viruses are the most closely related.

  7. West Valley Demonstration Project Community Relations Plan, FY 1992/93

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlain, J.D.

    1991-09-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Community Relations Plan establishes a framework of community outreach activities through which to provide the public current, accurate WVDP information, respond to public inquiries, and to receive comments from interested individuals and organizations. An open, effective community relations program is essential to developing public understanding of WVDP goals and direction. The mission of the WVDP is to solve an existing environmental concern by solidifying high-level nuclear waste, transporting the solidified waste to a federal repository for permanent disposal, and effectively closing the facilities used. As an environmental restoration and radioactive waste management project, being conducted at the site of a former nuclear fuel reprocessing facility, the WVDP is a matter of considerable public interest. Safe, effective site operations and the development of technology to meet WVDP goals are both focal points for interested individuals, technical organizations and societies, and environmental and educational groups.

  8. Environmental Compliance at the West Valley Demonstration Project: The Vitrification Permitting Program

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Salvatori; C. B. Banzer; W. T. Watters

    1996-05-28

    The major environmental laws that apply to the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) are the: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Clean Air Act (CAA), Clean Water Act (CWA), Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act (EPCRA). Regulations developed in accordance with these laws are administered by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through state and federal programs, and regulatory requirements such as permitting. The Environmental Permits & Reports (EP&R) Group of the Environmental Affairs (EA) Department has the primary responsibility for developing a site-wide permitting program for the WVDP and obtaining the necessary permits. This report discusses the permits and the permitting process associated with the Vitrification Facility (VF).

  9. Operating experience during high-level waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, P.J.; Elliott, D.I.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides a summary of operational experiences, component and system performance, and lessons learned associated with the operation of the Vitrification Facility (VF) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). The VF was designed to convert stored high-level radioactive waste (HLW) into a stable waste form (borosilicate glass) suitable for disposal in a federal repository. Following successful completion on nonradioactive test, HLW processing began in July 1995. Completion of Phase 1 of HLW processing was reached on 10 June 1998 and represented the processing of 9.32 million curies of cesium-137 (Cs-137) and strontium-90 (Sr-90) to fill 211 canisters with over 436,000 kilograms of glass. With approximately 85% of the total estimated curie content removed from underground waste storage tanks during Phase 1, subsequent operations will focus on removal of tank heel wastes.

  10. Geologic Map of the House Rock Valley Area, Coconino County, Northern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Billingsley, George H.; Priest, Susan S.

    2010-01-01

    This geologic map is a cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Bureau of Land Management, the National Park Service, and the U.S. Forest Service to provide a geologic database for resource management officials and visitor information services. This map was produced in response to information needs related to a proposed withdrawal of three segregated land areas near Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, from new hard rock mining activity. House Rock Valley was designated as the east parcel of the segregated lands near the Grand Canyon. This map was needed to provide connectivity for the geologic framework of the Grand Canyon segregated land areas. This geologic map of the House Rock Valley area encompasses approximately 280 mi2 (85.4 km2) within Coconino County, northern Arizona, and is bounded by longitude 111 degrees 37'30' to 112 degrees 05' W. and latitude 36 degrees 30' to 36 degrees 50' N. The map area is in the eastern part of the Arizona Strip, which lies within the southern Colorado Plateaus geologic province (herein Colorado Plateau). The Arizona Strip is the part of Arizona lying north of the Colorado River. The map is bound on the east by the Colorado River in Marble Canyon within Grand Canyon National Park and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, on the south and west by the Kaibab National Forest and Grand Canyon National Game Preserve, and on the north by the Vermilion Cliffs Natural Area, the Paria Canyon Vermilion Cliffs Wilderness Area, and the Vermilion Cliffs National Monument. House Rock State Buffalo Ranch also bounds the southern edge of the map area. The Bureau of Land Management Arizona Field Office in St. George, Utah, manages public lands of the Vermilion Cliffs Natural Area, Paria Canyon - Vermilion Cliffs Wilderness and Vermilion Cliffs National Monument. The North Kaibab Ranger District in Fredonia, Arizona, manages U.S. Forest Service land along the west edge of the map area and House Rock State Buffalo Ranch

  11. Evaluation of West Valley High-Level Waste Tank Lay-up Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Mcclure, Lloyd W.; Henderson, J C.; Elmore, Monte R.

    2002-06-28

    The primary objective of this task was to demonstrate a methodology for evaluating alternative strategies for preclosure lay-up of the two high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). Lay-up is defined as the period between operational use of tanks for waste storage and final closure. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is planning to separate the environmental impact statement (EIS) for completion of closure of the WVDP into two separate EISs. The first EIS will cover only waste management and decontamination. DOE expects to complete this EIS in about 18 months. The second EIS will cover final decommissioning and closure, and may take up to five years to complete. This approach has been proposed to expedite continued management of the waste and decontamination activities in advance of the final EIS and Record of Decision on final site closure. Final closure of the WVDP site may take 10 to 15 years. Therefore, the tanks need to be placed in a safe, stable condition with minimum surveillance during an extended lay-up period. The methodology developed for ranking the potential strategies for lay-up of the WVDP tanks can be used to provide a basis for a decision on the preferred path forward. The methodology is also applicable to determining preferred lay-up approaches at other DOE sites. Some of the alternative strategies identified for West Valley should also be considered for implementation at the other sites. Each site has unique characteristics that would require unique considerations for lay-up.

  12. Aquatic habitats of Canaan Valley, West Virginia: Diversity and environmental threats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, C.D.; Young, J.A.; Stout, B. M.

    2006-01-01

    We conducted surveys of aquatic habitats during the spring and summer of 1995 in Canaan Valley, WV, to describe the diversity of aquatic habitats in the valley and identify issues that may threaten the viability of aquatic species. We assessed physical habitat and water chemistry of 126 ponds and 82 stream sites, and related habitat characteristics to landscape variables such as geology and terrain. Based on our analyses, we found two issues likely to affect the viability of aquatic populations in the valley. The first issue was acid rain and the extent to which it potentially limits the distribution of aquatic and semi-aquatic species, particularly in headwater portions of the watershed. We estimate that nearly 46%, or 56 kilometers of stream, had pH levels that would not support survival and reproduction of Salvelinuw fontinalis (brook trout), one of the most acid-tolerant fishes in the eastern US. The second issue was the influence of Castor canadensis (beaver) activity. In the Canaan Valley State Park portion of the valley, beaver have transformed 4.7 kilometers of stream (approximately 17% of the total) to pond habitat through their dam building. This has resulted in an increase in pond habitat, a decrease in stream habitat, and a fragmented stream network (i.e., beaver ponds dispersed among stream reaches). In addition, beaver have eliminated an undetermined amount of forested riparian area through their foraging activities. Depending on the perspective, beaver-mediated changes can be viewed as positive or negative. Increases in pond habitat may increase habitat heterogeneity with consequent increases in biological diversity. In contrast, flooding associated with beaver activity may eliminate lowland wetlands and associated species, create barriers to fish dispersal, and possibly contribute to low dissolved oxygen levels in the Blackwater River. We recommend that future management strategies for the wildlife refuge be viewed in the context of these two issues

  13. Cranberry Wilderness study area, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Meissner, C.R. Jr.; Mory, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Cranberry Wilderness study area contains a large demonstrated resource of bituminous coal of coking quality according to studies made in 1977. Demonstrated coal resources in beds more than 14 in. thick are about 110 million short tons of which 56.5 million tons are in beds more than 28 in. thick in areas of substantiated coal resource potential. Other mineral resources in the study area include peat, shale and clay suitable for building brick and lightweight aggregate, sandstone suitable for low-quality glass sand, and sandstone suitable for construction material. These commodities are found in abundance in other areas throughout the State. Study of the drill-hole data did not reveal indications of a potential for oil and gas resources in the study area. Evidence of metallic mineral potential was not found during this investigation.

  14. West Nile virus epizootiology, central Red River Valley, North Dakota and Minnesota, 2002-2005.

    PubMed

    Bell, Jeffrey A; Brewer, Christina M; Mickelson, Nathan J; Garman, Gabriel W; Vaughan, Jefferson A

    2006-08-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) epizootiology was monitored from 2002 through 2005 in the area surrounding Grand Forks, North Dakota. Mosquitoes were tested for infection, and birds were surveyed for antibodies. In 2003, WNV was epidemic; in 2004, cool temperatures precluded WNV amplification; and in 2005, immunity in passerines decreased, but did not preclude, WNV amplification.

  15. West Nile Virus Epizootiology, Central Red River Valley, North Dakota and Minnesota, 2002–2005

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Jeffrey A.; Brewer, Christina M.; Mickelson, Nathan J.; Garman, Gabriel W.

    2006-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) epizootiology was monitored from 2002 through 2005 in the area surrounding Grand Forks, North Dakota. Mosquitoes were tested for infection, and birds were surveyed for antibodies. In 2003, WNV was epidemic; in 2004, cool temperatures precluded WNV amplification; and in 2005, immunity in passerines decreased, but did not preclude, WNV amplification. PMID:16965705

  16. 3. SHOP AREA. Looking west into storage cage from near ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SHOP AREA. Looking west into storage cage from near northeast corner of room. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. 33 CFR 110.189a - Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area. (a) The anchorage ground. A circular area with its center at latitude 24°30′50.6″, longitude 81°50′31.6″ with a radius of 300 yards, for use for ammunition exceeding the prescribed limits for pier-side handling. (b) The regulations. (1) When occupied by a...

  18. Mosquito-borne West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance in the Upper Rhine Valley, Germany.

    PubMed

    Timmermann, Ute; Becker, Norbert

    2010-06-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) could be introduced into Germany via migratory birds originating from Africa or southern Europe and subsequently transmitted to indigenous birds, humans, or horses by mosquitoes. Neither the virus itself nor antibodies against WNV have yet to be found in mosquitoes and horses, whereas antibodies have been detected in migrating birds and in humans that were in close contact with birds. At present, the West Nile virus itself has yet to be detected in Germany. This investigation was conducted primarily in major bird breeding, resting, and roosting habitats (hotspots) in the Upper Rhine Valley. Adult mosquitoes were trapped using CO2-baited Encephalitis Vector Surveillance (EVS)-traps and were tested for WNV by the VecTest WNV Antigen Assay. In 2007 and 2008, a total of 11,073 host-seeking adult female mosquitoes (13 species) were tested, and all tests were negative for WNV. Statistical calculations could be performed only where sufficient numbers of mosquitoes were trapped. For these sites, WNV infection among mosquitoes could be ruled out with 80% certainty. For the evaluation of the WNV situation in Germany, the results of this investigation are a further indication that the virus has not yet arrived.

  19. Chemical quality of ground water in the Tehama-Colusa Canal service area, Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bertoldi, Gilbert L.

    1976-01-01

    The Tehama-Colusa Canal Service Area consists of about 450 square miles of irrigable land located on the west side of the Sacramento Valley, Calif. Upon the completion of the Tehama-Colusa Canal, it is expected that most of the service area will switch from passive forms of agriculture (dry farming and grazing) to intensive irrigated farming. Importation and application of surface water may affect the chemical quality of native ground water. This study documents the chemical quality of native ground water before large-scale importation and application of surface water provide the potential of altering the ground-water chemistry. Analyses of samples from 222 wells show that most of the area is underlain by ground water of a quality suitable for most agricultural and domestic uses. In the vicinities of College City-Arbuckle and the city of Williams, boron, chloride, sodium, and dissolved solids may be a threat to future agricultural activities where boron- or chloride-sensitive crops would be grown. The source of degraded ground water in the two areas is local intermittent streams that drain areas having numerous saline springs and seeps. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. Land-use legacies from dry farming in the Park Valley area of Box Elder County

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Last fall in this newsletter, we reported on the initiation of a study on the land-use legacies of dry farming in the Park Valley area. Land-use legacies are the long lasting impacts of historic land uses; such as, cultivation for dry farming. The Park Valley area and Box Elder County experienced ...

  1. Digital tabulation of stratigraphic data from oil and gas wells in Cuyama Valley and surrounding areas, central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweetkind, Donald S.; Bova, Shiera C.; Langenheim, V.E.; Shumaker, Lauren E.; Scheirer, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    Stratigraphic information from 391 oil and gas exploration wells from Cuyama Valley, California, and surrounding areas are herein compiled in digital form from reports that were released originally in paper form. The Cuyama Basin is located within the southeasternmost part of the Coast Ranges and north of the western Transverse Ranges, west of the San Andreas fault. Knowledge of the location and elevation of stratigraphic tops of formations throughout the basin is a first step toward understanding depositional trends and the structural evolution of the basin through time, and helps in understanding the slip history and partitioning of slip on San Andreas and related faults.

  2. VIEW, LOOKING WEST TOWARD GRINDING AREA, OF MAINTENCE SHOP. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW, LOOKING WEST TOWARD GRINDING AREA, OF MAINTENCE SHOP. NOTE TRACK IN FLOOR FOR CARTS WITH HEAVY ITEMS, OVERHEAD JIB CRANE AT UPPER RIGHT, PARTIALLY OBSCURED "SG" LOGO ON CABINET, AND SIGNS ABOVE DOORWAY TO MILL. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  3. 16. DETAIL VIEW OF DAMAGED AREA OF WEST APPROACH SPAN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL VIEW OF DAMAGED AREA OF WEST APPROACH SPAN, SHOWING REMAINING GRANITE OUTCROP BEING BROKEN UP BY HYDRAULIC HAMMER MOUNTED ON A BACKHOE, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST - Middle Fork Stanislaus River Bridge, Spans Middle Fork Stanislaus River at State Highway 108, Dardanelle, Tuolumne County, CA

  4. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, TOWARD HEAVY DUTY COIL PROCESSING AREA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, TOWARD HEAVY DUTY COIL PROCESSING AREA WITH HEAVY DUTY CUT TO LENGTH LINE MACHINE AND KERRY MITCHELL, LOADER ('HOOKER'); JAMES BOWMAN, CRANE OPERATOR; WILLIAM BART DORINEY, OPERATOR. - O'Neal Steel, Incorporated, Fabrication Shop, 744 Forty-first Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  5. VIEW LOOKING WEST, HARDIETYNES IN MIDDLE GROUND, BIRMINGHAM AREA 'MAX' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING WEST, HARDIE-TYNES IN MIDDLE GROUND, BIRMINGHAM AREA 'MAX' BUS FACILITY IN FOREGROUND. 10TH AVENUE TO THE LEFT, US 280 IN BACKGROUND. - Hardie-Tynes Manufacturing Company, 800 Twenty-eighth Street, North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  6. 113. VIEW OF MACHINE SHOP FROM WEST. AREA IN FOREGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. VIEW OF MACHINE SHOP FROM WEST. AREA IN FOREGROUND WAS ONCE ENCLOSED AS PART OF THE SHOP. THE TRAM LINE AND SNOWSHED RAN TO THE RIGHT (SOUTH) TO EAGLE MINE PORTAL. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  7. 7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END OF BUILDING 149; INCLINED CONVEYOR AT LEFT CENTER CARRIED TROLLEYS TO THE AUTOMATIC WASHER/OILER ON THE GALLERY LEVEL - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  8. Morphologic characteristics of upland bluffs east and west of Crowley's Ridge in the New Madrid area

    SciTech Connect

    Church, A.; Mayer, L. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Although presumed to be purely erosional in origin, the development of the bluffs bounding the Mississippi River may be ultimately influenced by tectonic processes. Quantitative morphologic characterization of the bluffs may provide insights to their erosional history and possible tectonic impacts on their evolution. Characterization consists of digitizing topographic planforms of the bluffs, valley floor morphology, and calculation of such parameters as sinuosity (S), valley floor/valley height ratios (Vf) and stream gradient indices for streams cutting the bluffs. Bluff planforms vary in sinuosity from nearly straight, S = 1.3, to highly sinuous, S = 8.2. Sinuosity appears to primarily reflect the size of the streams that dissect the bluffs. On the west side of the river, sinuosities are systematically higher than on the east side, reflecting the consequences of larger streams which effectively embay the bluffs. Interestingly, the lowest sinuosities in the area studied are geographically juxtaposed to the highest ones, both found on the east side of the river. The low sinuosities are due to the near coincidence of the drainage divide with the bluffs themselves resulting in east flowing drainage away from the bluffs. Vf ratios show a geographic pattern similar to that of sinuosity.

  9. Early Pleistocene Glacial Lake Lesley, West Branch Susquehanna River valley, central Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramage, Joan M.; Gardner, Thomas W.; Sasowsky, Ira D.

    1998-02-01

    Laurentide glaciers extended into north central Pennsylvania repeatedly during at least the last 2 million years. Early Pleistocene glaciation extended farther south into central Pennsylvania than any subsequent glaciation, reaching the West Branch Susquehanna River (WBSR) valley. Early Pleistocene ice dammed the northeast-flowing West Branch Susquehanna River at Williamsport, forming Glacial Lake Lesley, a 100-km-long proglacial lake. In this paper, we present compelling evidence for the lake and its age. Maximum lake volume (˜ 100 km 3) was controlled by the elevation of the lowest drainage divide, ˜ 340 m above sea level at Dix, Pennsylvania. Stratified deposits at McElhattan and Linden are used to reconstruct depositional environments in Glacial Lake Lesley. A sedimentary section 40 m thick at McElhattan fines upward from crossbedded sand to fine, wavy to horizontally laminated clay, consistent with lake deepening and increasing distance from the sediment source with time. At Linden, isolated cobbles, interpreted as dropstones, locally deform glacio-lacustrine sediment. We use paleomagnetism as an age correlation tool in the WBSR valley to correlate contemporaneous glaciofluvial and proglacial lacustrine sediments. Reversed remanent polarity in finely-laminated lacustrine clay and silt at McElhattan ( I = 20.4°, D = 146.7°, α95 = 17.7°) and in interbedded silt and sand at Linden ( I = 55.3°, D = 175.2°, α95 = 74.6°) probably corresponds to the latter part of the Matuyama Reversed Polarity Chron, indicating an age between ˜ 770 and ˜ 970 ka. At McElhattan, a diamicton deformed the finely laminated silt and clay by loading and partial fluidization during or soon after lake drainage. As a result, the deformed clay at McElhattan lacks discrete bedding and records a different characteristic remanent magnetism from underlying, undeformed beds. This difference indicates that the characteristic remanent magnetism is detrital. An electrical resistivity

  10. Catch tank inhibitor addition 200-East and 200-West Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Palit, A.N.

    1996-06-21

    Reported is the study of 11 catch tanks in the 200-East Area and the 7 catch tanks in the 200-West Area listed as active. The location, capacity, material of construction, annual total accumulation, annual rain intrusion, waste transfer rate, and access for chemical injection in these tanks are documented. The present and future utilization and isolation plans for the catch tanks are established.

  11. Use of the Waste-Incidental-to-Reprocessing Citation Process at the West Valley Demonstration Project - 12250

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Dan; Suttora, Linda; Goldston, Sonny; Petras, Robert; Rowell, Laurene; McNeil, Jim

    2012-07-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project recently achieved a breakthrough in management of radioactive waste from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel by taking advantage of lessons learned at other Department of Energy (DOE) sites in implementation of the waste-incidental-to-reprocessing citation process of DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management. This breakthrough involved a revision to the site procedure on waste-incidental to reprocessing. This procedure revision served as the basis for a determination by the DOE West Valley field office using the citation process that three secondary waste streams consisting of equipment that had once been contaminated by association with HLW are not HLW following decontamination and may be disposed of as low-level waste (LLW) or transuranic waste. These waste streams, which comprised much of the approximately 380 cubic meters of West Valley waste contaminated by association with HLW, included several vessels and certain tank farm equipment. By making use of lessons learned in use of the citation process by other DOE sites and information developed to support use of the citation process at the Hanford site and the Savannah River Site, the team developed a technical basis for showing that use of the citation process of DOE Manual 435.1-1 for the three new waste stream was appropriate and technically justified. The Waste Management Working Group of the EFCOG assisted in transferring lessons learned by drawing on experience from around the DOE complex. This process shared knowledge about effective implementation of the citation process in a manner that proved to be beneficial to the West Valley Demonstration Project and resulted in a technical basis document that could be used to determine that the three new waste streams were not HLW. (authors)

  12. Corrosion monitoring of high-level waste storage Tank 8-D2 at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, R.K.; Bourgeois, P.M.; Jaramins, R.J.; Secen, W.G.; Stroud, D.J.; Perkins, A.J.

    1994-12-31

    From 1966 to 1972, nearly 600,000 gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste were generated at the site of the only commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing facility to have operated in the United States, located in West Valley, New York. This waste has been held in underground storage tanks since reprocessing operations ceased in 1972. Premature failure of tank walls represents a significant safety risk at West Valley. For this reason, application of conventional methods of probe insertion and data acquisition are impractical. Because a satisfactory corrosion monitoring system must allow for remote monitoring, as well as decontamination of any probe or coupon that comes into contact with the liquid high-level waste (HLW) held in the tanks, a fully automated Integrated Corrosion Monitoring System has been implemented at West Valley. This system allows for remote continuous monitoring of corrosion effects by linear polarization and electrical resistance probes. Real time corrosion data that indicates metal loss versus time and corrosion rate for electrical resistance probes, as well as corrosion rate and pitting tendencies for linear polarization resistance probes is depicted on a electroluminescent display. Because corrosion rates are being continuously checked, this system is ideal for monitoring the corrosive conditions that will affect the life of the containment HLW storage vessels. The probes in the system also permits the simultaneous use of coupons for determining specific types of corrosion occurring, and the average corrosion rate for the entire exposure period. This paper describes the design parameters, installation procedures, and the results of data collected from the Integrated Corrosion Monitoring System installed at West Valley.

  13. BELL STAR EAST AND WEST ROADLESS AREAS, ARKANSAS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Mary H.; Harris, Lyle E.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of mineral and geologic surveys, it was concluded that Bell Star East and West Roadless Areas, Arkansas, have inferred resources of coal in areas of substantiated coal resource potential from the Lower Hartshorne coal bed at depths of 2000 to 4000 ft below the surface. These areas also have a probable potential for natural gas from the Atoka and Hall Formations at depths as much as 6000 ft below the surface. No metallic mineral resources were identified in the roadless areas.

  14. The Ohio River Valley CO2 Storage Project AEP Mountaineer Plan, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Neeraj Gupta

    2009-01-07

    This report includes an evaluation of deep rock formations with the objective of providing practical maps, data, and some of the issues considered for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage projects in the Ohio River Valley. Injection and storage of CO{sub 2} into deep rock formations represents a feasible option for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from coal-burning power plants concentrated along the Ohio River Valley area. This study is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), American Electric Power (AEP), BP, Ohio Coal Development Office, Schlumberger, and Battelle along with its Pacific Northwest Division. An extensive program of drilling, sampling, and testing of a deep well combined with a seismic survey was used to characterize the local and regional geologic features at AEP's 1300-megawatt (MW) Mountaineer Power Plant. Site characterization information has been used as part of a systematic design feasibility assessment for a first-of-a-kind integrated capture and storage facility at an existing coal-fired power plant in the Ohio River Valley region--an area with a large concentration of power plants and other emission sources. Subsurface characterization data have been used for reservoir simulations and to support the review of the issues relating to injection, monitoring, strategy, risk assessment, and regulatory permitting. The high-sulfur coal samples from the region have been tested in a capture test facility to evaluate and optimize basic design for a small-scale capture system and eventually to prepare a detailed design for a capture, local transport, and injection facility. The Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} Storage Project was conducted in phases with the ultimate objectives of demonstrating both the technical aspects of CO{sub 2} storage and the testing, logistical, regulatory, and outreach issues related to conducting such a project at a large point source under realistic constraints. The site

  15. Product acceptance of a certified Class C low-level waste form at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, P.J.; Maestas, E.; Yeazel, J.A.; McIntosh, T.W.

    1989-11-01

    The Department of Energy, is charged with the solidification of high-level liquid waste (HLW) remaining from nuclear fuel reprocessing activities, which were conducted at West Valley, New York between 1966 and 1972. One important aspect of the West Valley Demonstration Project`s fully integrated waste program is the treatment and conditioning of low-level wastes which result from processing liquid high-level waste. The treatment takes place in the project`s Integrated Radwaste Treatment System which removes Cesium-137 from the liquid or supernatant phase of the HLW by utilizing an ion exchange technique. The resulting decontaminated and conditioned liquid waste stream is solidified into a Class C low-level cement waste form that meets the waste form criteria specified in NRC 10 CFR 61. The waste matrix is placed in 71-gallon square drums, remotely handled and stored on site until determination of final disposition. This paper discusses the programs in place at West Valley to ensure production of an acceptable cement-based product. Topics include the short and long term test programs to predict product storage and disposal performance, description of the Process Control Plan utilized to control and maintain cement waste form product specifications and finally discuss the operational performance characteristics of the Integrated Radwaste Treatment System. Operational data and product statistics are provided.

  16. Benchmarking the Remote-Handled Waste Facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    O. P. Mendiratta; D. K. Ploetz

    2000-02-29

    ABSTRACT Facility decontamination activities at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), the site of a former commercial nuclear spent fuel reprocessing facility near Buffalo, New York, have resulted in the removal of radioactive waste. Due to high dose and/or high contamination levels of this waste, it needs to be handled remotely for processing and repackaging into transport/disposal-ready containers. An initial conceptual design for a Remote-Handled Waste Facility (RHWF), completed in June 1998, was estimated to cost $55 million and take 11 years to process the waste. Benchmarking the RHWF with other facilities around the world, completed in November 1998, identified unique facility design features and innovative waste pro-cessing methods. Incorporation of the benchmarking effort has led to a smaller yet fully functional, $31 million facility. To distinguish it from the June 1998 version, the revised design is called the Rescoped Remote-Handled Waste Facility (RRHWF) in this topical report. The conceptual design for the RRHWF was completed in June 1999. A design-build contract was approved by the Department of Energy in September 1999.

  17. High-Level Waste Tank Cleaning and Field Characterization at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, J. L.; McMahon, C. L.; Meess, D. C.

    2002-02-26

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is nearing completion of radioactive high-level waste (HLW) retrieval from its storage tanks and subsequent vitrification of the HLW into borosilicate glass. Currently, 99.5% of the sludge radioactivity has been recovered from the storage tanks and vitrified. Waste recovery of cesium-137 (Cs-137) adsorbed on a zeolite media during waste pretreatment has resulted in 97% of this radioactivity being vitrified. Approximately 84% of the original 1.1 x 1018 becquerels (30 million curies) of radioactivity was efficiently vitrified from July 1996 to June 1998 during Phase I processing. The recovery of the last 16% of the waste has been challenging due to a number of factors, primarily the complex internal structural support system within the main 2.8 million liter (750,000 gallon) HLW tank designated 8D-2. Recovery of this last waste has become exponentially more challenging as less and less HLW is available to mobilize and transfer to the Vitrification Facility. This paper describes the progressively more complex techniques being utilized to remove the final small percentage of radioactivity from the HLW tanks, and the multiple characterization technologies deployed to determine the quantity of Cs-137, strontium-90 (Sr-90), and alpha-transuranic (alpha-TRU) radioactivity remaining in the tanks.

  18. West Valley low-level radioactive waste site revisited: Microbiological analysis of leachates

    SciTech Connect

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.

    1990-10-01

    The abundance and types of microorganisms in leachate samples from the West Valley low-level radioactive waste disposal site were enumerated. This study was undertaken in support of the study conducted by Ecology and Environment, Inc., to assess the extent of radioactive gas emissions from the site. Total aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were enumerated as colony forming units (CFU) by dilution agar plate technique, and denitrifiers, sulfate-reducers and methanogens by the most probable number technique (MPN). Of the three trenches 3, 9, and 11 sampled, trench 11 contained the most number of organisms in the leachate. Concentrations of carbon-14 and tritium were highest in trench 11 leachate. Populations of aerobes and anaerobes in trench 9 leachate were one order of magnitude less than in trench 11 leachate while the methanogens were three orders of magnitude greater than in trench 11 leachate. The methane content from trench 9 was high due to the presence of a large number of methanogens; the gas in this trench also contained the most radioactivity. Trench 3 leachate contained the least number of microorganisms. Comparison of microbial populations in leachates sampled from trenches 3 and 9 during October 1978 and 1989 showed differences in the total number of microbial types. Variations in populations of the different types of organisms in the leachate reflect the changing nutrient conditions in the trenches. 14 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Geothermal gradients in the Missoula and Bitterroot Valleys, west-central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, Robert B.; Wood, Wayne A.

    1980-01-01

    Temperature-depth profiles of six cased test holes in the Missoula and Bitterroot Valleys, west-central Montana, consist of linear segments, the intersections of which commonly correspond with lithologic boundaries. Geothermal gradients commonly decreased with depth, probably as a result of compaction and higher quartz content of the deeper sedimentary deposits. There is no evidence for hydrothermal discharge. A maximum temperature of 31.7 degrees Celsius was measured at a depth of 869 meters. Estimated temperatures at a depth of 1 kilometer at the drill sites ranged from about 34 to 63 degrees Celsius. Temperatures exceeding 90 degrees Celsius probably would not occur at depths less than 1,500 meters. Values of thermal conductivity needed to maintain an assumed regional heat flow of about 2.1 heat flow units along the measured geothermal gradients generally exceeded published values for the rock and soil penetrated by the wells. Laboratory determinations of the thermal conductivity of cores and cuttings would be useful to refine the estimates and to test the conclusion that the measured temperatures are not hotter than normal. (USGS)

  20. Progress on Fuel Receiving and Storage Decontamination Work at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonski, J. F.; Al-Daouk, A. M.; Moore, H. R.

    2003-02-25

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) removed the last of its spent nuclear fuel assemblies from an on-site storage pool last year and is now decontaminating its Fuel Receiving and Storage (FRS) Facility. The decontamination project will reduce the long-lived curie inventory, associated radiological hazards, and the operational costs associated with the maintenance of this facility. Workers at the WVDP conducted the first phase of the FRS decontamination project in late 2001 by removing 149 canisters that previously contained spent fuel assemblies from the pool. Removal of the canisters from the pool paved the way for nuclear divers to begin removing canister storage racks and other miscellaneous material from the FRS pool in February 2002. This was only the third time in the history of the WVDP that nuclear divers were used to perform underwater work. After decontaminating the pool, it will be drained slowly until all of the water is removed. The water will be processed through an ion exchanger to remove radioactive contaminants as it is being drained, and a fixative will be applied to the walls above the water surface to secure residual contamination.

  1. Development of derived investigation levels for use in internal dosimetry at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.

    1991-12-31

    The objective was to determine if the routine intemal dosimetry program at the West Valley Demonstration Project is capable of meeting the performance objective of 1 mSv annual effective dose equivalent due to internal contamination. With the use of the computer code REMedy the annual effective dose equivalent is calculated. Some of the radionuclides of concern result in an annual effective dose equivalent that exceeds the performance objective. Although the results exceed the performance objective, in all but two cases they do not exceed the US DOE regulatory limits. In these instances the Th-232 and Am-241 were determined to exceed the committed dose equivalent limit to their limiting tissue. In order to document the potential missed dose for regulatory compliance, Sr-90 is used as an indicator for Th-232. For Am-241 an investigation as to whether or not the minimum detectable amount can be lowered is performed. The derived investigation levels as a result of this project are 4.9E3 Bq/lung count for Co-60, 2.2E4 Bq/lung count for Cs-137, 1.9 Bq/1 for Sr-90 and for radionuclides other than Sr-90 any value greater than or equal to three standard deviations above their net count is considered to require further investigation.

  2. Laboratory studies in support of the West Valley sludge mobilization wash

    SciTech Connect

    Fauth, D.J.; Michnik, L.E.; Palmer, R.A.; Hara, F.T.; Kazmierczak, T.F. )

    1992-01-01

    The vitrification of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) high-level waste (HLW) requires the removal of substantial amounts of sulfate. The solubility of sulfate in the glass produced in the existing flow sheet using a slurry-fed ceramic melter is 0.3 wt%. Any sulfate above this level would form a molten salt layer on the surface of the melt. This layer would interfere with the melting process and result in an unacceptable borosilicate glass. The amount of sludge that could be put in the glass would be much less than planned, and the number of glass canisters necessary for solidifying the WVDP HLW would be substantially increased. Laboratory studies were recently performed to determine an acceptable flow sheet and operational parameters for the sulfate removal. Three technologies that meet the WVDP requirements were identified and tested in the laboratory to reduce the concentration of plutonium and uranium in the wash water. At this time, experimental results strongly indicate that the technologies can be implemented successfully at the WVDP. Current information also suggests that there should be no significant delay in solidifying the HLW as a result of using these methods.

  3. Clean up standards for decontamination and decommissioning of the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, D.; Szalinski, S.; Gramling, J.; Westcott, D.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the process for developing decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) criteria for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). The WVDP is a project being conducted to demonstrate solidification techniques that can be used for preparing high-level radioactive waste (HLW) for disposal. The D and D criteria for the WVDP is being developed in a unique and evolving regulatory environment. The basis for the development of the D and D criteria for the WVDP is the assumption that NRC will execute its responsibilities for the WVDP in a manner consistent with its rules, regulations, and licensing processes, even though DOE is not subject to NRC licensing requirements. This is a reasonable assumption because upon completion of the WVDP, the DOE will turn over operational responsibility to New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), the licensee. NYSERDA will then be subject to the NRC license requirements. Within the licensing context there are four options: (1) license termination and unrestricted release of the facility, (2) license conversions (3) amending the existing license, and (4) rulemaking. These options are evaluated to address a means for the DOE to satisfy its commitments in completing the WVDP and to then turn operational responsibility for the site back to NYSERDA.

  4. Characterization of the Process Mechanical Cell at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, John; Schneider, Ken; Choroser, Jeff; Hughes, Karl

    2003-02-27

    The West Valley Demonstration Project has initiated decontamination and dismantlement (D&D) of the most highly radioactive and contaminated cells in a former spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The goals of the D&D project are to remove loose debris in the cells and estimate the residual radioactivity level of legacy plant equipment. To support accomplishment of these goals, a unique characterization approach was developed to gather the information to meet anticipated Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) acceptance criteria for remote-handled transuranic waste, and to facilitate segregation and packaging operations. Implementation of the characterization approach included the development and use of innovative, remote technology for measuring gamma radiation within the hot cell. The technology was used to identify and quantify radiation from individual debris items in radiation fields up to 2,000 R/hr (20 sieverts/hr). Sampling and analysis of the debris were also performed via remote handling means. Significant challenges associated with characterizing the highly radioactive and highly contaminated hot cells were encountered. The innovative solutions for meeting these challenges are applicable throughout the Department of Energy Complex and help support the goal of targeting D&D efforts toward reducing risks to public health and the environment.

  5. High-level-waste treatment at West Valley: integrated radwaste treatment system

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M.N. )

    1992-01-01

    The West Valley Site was the location of the only operating nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in the United States. A private firm operated the facility from 1966 to 1972, processing 640 tonnes of commercial and defense fuels using the plutonium uranium reduction extraction (Purex) process. Approximately 2.1 million liters of liquid reprocessing waste resulted from this operation. These wastes were stored in an underground storage tank. The integrated radwaste treatment system (IRTS) began operation in May 1988. This is a liquid waste pretreatment system designated to decontaminate the high-level liquid waste (HLLW), forming a low-level liquid waste (LLLW). The LLLW is encapsulated in cement, poured into 71-gal square drums and stored in a remotely operated shielded retrievable storage location. From May 1988 through November 1990, the IRTS decontaminated 450,000 gal of HLLW, encapsulating the resulting concentrates into 10,393, 71-gal square drums. All of the technical difficulties encountered during 2 1/2 yr of processing were resolved using available technology without compromising safety or product quality. There was no abnormal or unacceptable personnel exposure during this processing period.

  6. A COMPLETE HISTORY OF THE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE PLANT AT THE WEST VALLEY DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Petkus, Lawrence L.; Paul, James; Valenti, Paul J.; Houston, Helene; May, Joseph

    2003-02-27

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) vitrification melter was shut down in September 2002 after being used to vitrify High Level Waste (HLW) and process system residuals for six years. Processing of the HLW occurred from June 1996 through November 2001, followed by a program to flush the remaining HLW through to the melter. Glass removal and shutdown followed. The facility and process equipment is currently in a standby mode awaiting deactivation. During HLW processing operations, nearly 24 million curies of radioactive material were vitrified into 275 canisters of HLW glass. At least 99.7% of the curies in the HLW tanks at the WVDP were vitrified using the melter. Each canister of HLW holds approximately 2000 kilograms of glass with an average contact dose rate of over 2600 rem per hour. After vitrification processing ended, two more cans were filled using the Evacuated Canister Process to empty the melter at shutdown. This history briefly summarizes the initial stages of process development and earlier WVDP experience in the design and operation of the vitrification systems, followed by a more detailed discussion of equipment availability and failure rates during six years of operation. Lessons learned operating a system that continued to function beyond design expectations also are highlighted.

  7. Study of mortality among chemical workers in the Kanawha Valley of West Virginia.

    PubMed

    Rinsky, R A; Ott, G; Ward, E; Greenberg, H; Halperin, W; Leet, T

    1988-01-01

    To assess the mortality experience of a cohort of chemical workers in the Kanawha Valley of West Virginia, 29,139 males who worked at any one of three facilities over a 39-year period were followed-up for vital status. The facilities include two chemical manufacturing plants and a research and development center. From this cohort, 5,785 men were found to have died as of the study end, December 31, 1978. This was less than the 6,148.5 men expected to have died, based upon the United States white male population (standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 94, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 92-96). Eighty-six specific causes of death were examined. Statistically significant increased deaths were observed for two causes; cancers of the liver (not specified as primary or secondary) (SMR = 174; CI = 102-280) and lympho- and reticulosarcoma (SMR = 140; CI = 104-187). When all biliary and liver cancer was examined by duration and time since initial employment, the SMR for those who worked at least 25 years and whose deaths occurred 30 years or more after first employment was 301 (95% confidence limit = 168-497). The identification and follow-up of this complete cohort provides the basis for future study of subcohorts with specific chemical and process exposures and case control studies of specific causes of death.

  8. Pump room level, looking west in the service bay area. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pump room level, looking west in the service bay area. Cable trays and two ventilation fans (part of the evaporative-cooling system) are visible at right. The vacuum pump is in the center in front of a concrete partition, and a water discharge pipe is visible beyond the partition at left - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  9. Hydrology of Area 5, Eastern Coal Province, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herb, William J.; Shaw, L.C.; Brown, Deborah E.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrologic data are presented for area 5 of the Eastern Coal Province, the 7,384 square-mile Monongahela River basin in western Pennsylvania, western Maryland, and north-central West Virginia. One hundred thirty-four streams were sampled about three times during the 1979 and 1980 water years for specific conductance, pH, acidity, alkalinity dissolved and total iron, dissolved and total manganese, dissolved sulfate, and dissolved solids. Benthic invertebrate populations were determined and bottom material samples were analyzed for metals. Eleven streams had pH, acidity, alkalinity, total iron, total manganese, and dissolved-sulfate levels indicative of acid-mine drainage. These streams were most common in the Tygart Valley River basin, although indicators of acid-mine drainage were found throughout the Monongahela basin. No benthic invertebrates were found in 25 of 129 streams sampled. Such streams were most common in the Cheat and Tygart Valley River basins. Low flow, mean flow, peak flow, and flow duration data are presented for gaging stations in area 5. Techniques for estimating these data for ungaged sites are presented and referenced. The functions of, and access to, the National Water Data Exchange, WATSTORE, and indexes to water-data activities in coal provinces are presented. (USGS)

  10. Isotopic and chemical composition of parbati valley geothermal discharges, North-West Himalaya, India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giggenbach, W.F.; Gonfiantini, R.; Jangi, B.L.; Truesdell, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    The isotopic compositions of the waters discharged from Parbati Valley geothermal areas indicate a higher altitude meteoric origin, with discharge temperatures reflecting variations in the depth of penetration of the waters to levels heated by the existence of a 'normal' geothermal gradient. On the basis of mixing models involving silica, tritium, discharge temperatures and chloride contents, deep equilibration temperatures of 120-140??C were obtained for Manikaran, possibly reaching 160??C at even greater depth. Geothermometers based on sulfate-water 18O exchange and gas reactions point to similar temperatures. Exceptionally high helium contents of the discharges correspond to apparent crustal residence times of the waters in the order of 10-100 Ma; relative nitrogen-argon contents support a largely meteoric origin of the waters with a possible fossil brine, but no detectable magmatic component. ?? 1983.

  11. Paleoseismology study of Luyeh fault, the west branch of southern-most Longitudinal Valley fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, C.; Chen, W.

    2010-12-01

    The Longitudinal Valley fault (LVF) is the active suture between Eurasian plate and Philippine Sea plate. This study we focus on the southern-most segment of LVF, where it branches into two parallel imbricated faults, the Luyeh fault (LYF) in the west and Lichi fault (LCF) in the east. A trench for paleoseismologic research has been excavated across a 3 m high monoclino-scarp near the north end of the LYF. All the layers in the trench are folded and are west dipping with a tendency of steepening downward. Based on the onlapping structures, dip angle change, and fault cutting relation, we resolve 3 paleoearthquake events. The timing of these events which are in about 4300 yr BP (E3), 2200 yr BP (E2), and after 2200 yr BP (E1) are constrained by 14C dating of the sedimentary layers. The vertical uplift restored from the unconformities are 2.24-2.47 m (E3), 1.02-1.36 m (E2), and 2.92-3.07 m (E1) respectively. Long-term uplift rate is about 1.5 mm/yr and the slip rate is about 4.5 mm/yr calculated by fault dip angle 20°. Two boreholes in the south of the trench were drilled. The mud deposits dated as 13060-12840 cal yr BP in MB-01 core has sheared, these shear zone can be correlated to the surface lineament (F1) extend to the trench site. This suggests the fault has activated after 13000 yr BP. The shear zone in 186.0-187.0 m of MB-02 core can be extrapolated to the scarp in the surface. This branch (F2) should be less or no more active because it doesn’t have any imprint on the terrace surface in the north. The unusual thick mud deposit in MB-01 core is dated as 18510-17690 cal yr BP in 69.6 m depth. This means a sudden depositional environment change from fluvial to lacustrine environment before this age. We infer the F2 branch was active and uplifted the terrace at that time. Therefore it can serve as a barrier that dammed the downstream side of the stream and formed a lake. The recurrence time deduced from E3 and E2 is about 2100 yr. If this is almost the same

  12. Occupational Safety and Health Program at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Calderon

    1999-04-30

    The West Valley Nuclear Services Co. LLC (WVNS) is committed to provide a safe, clean, working environment for employees, and to implement U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements affecting worker safety. The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Occupational Safety and Health Program is designed to protect the safety, health, and well-being of WVDP employees by identifying, evaluating, and controlling biological, chemical, and physical hazards in the work place. Hazards are controlled within the requirements set forth in the reference section at the end of this report. It is the intent of the WVDP Occupational Safety and Health Program to assure that each employee is provided with a safe and healthy work environment. This report shows the logical path toward ensuring employee safety in planning work at the WVDP. In general, planning work to be performed safely includes: combining requirements from specific programs such as occupational safety, industrial hygiene, radiological control, nuclear safety, fire safety, environmental protection, etc.; including WVDP employees in the safety decision-making processes; pre-planning using safety support re-sources; and integrating the safety processes into the work instructions. Safety management principles help to define the path forward for the WVDP Occupational Safety and Health Program. Roles, responsibilities, and authority of personnel stem from these ideals. WVNS and its subcontractors are guided by the following fundamental safety management principles: ''Protection of the environment, workers, and the public is the highest priority. The safety and well-being of our employees, the public, and the environment must never be compromised in the aggressive pursuit of results and accomplishment of work product. A graded approach to environment, safety, and health in design, construction, operation, maintenance, and deactivation is incorporated to ensure the protection of the workers, the public, and the environment

  13. A summary of the geology and mineral resources of the Paris Plateau-House Rock Valley area, Coconino County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, Morris W.; Pierson, C.T.; Bauer, D.P.; Umshler, D.B.

    1977-01-01

    The Paria Plateau-House Rock Valley area of north-central Arizona is located on the southwestern edge Of the Colorado Plateau physiographic province in an area underlain by about 5,000 meters of fossiliferous marine and continental sedimentary rock ranging in age from Precambrian through Quaternary. The area, which lies north of the Grand and Marble Canyons, is bounded on the west by the East Kaibab monocline and on the east by the Echo monocline. The Paria Plateau, bounded on the South by the scenic Vermilion Cliffs, is composed of continental red-beds of Triassic and Jurassic age, which dip gently northward at 2? to ? away from the north end of the Marble Platform upon which the Paria Plateau sits.

  14. Development of analytical cell support for vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, F.H.; Borek, T.T.; Christopher, J.Z.

    1997-12-01

    Analytical and Process Chemistry (A&PC) support is essential to the high-level waste vitrification campaign at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). A&PC characterizes the waste, providing information necessary to formulate the recipe for the target radioactive glass product. High-level waste (HLW) samples are prepared and analyzed in the analytical cells (ACs) and Sample Storage Cell (SSC) on the third floor of the main plant. The high levels of radioactivity in the samples require handling them in the shielded cells with remote manipulators. The analytical hot cells and third floor laboratories were refurbished to ensure optimal uninterrupted operation during the vitrification campaign. New and modified instrumentation, tools, sample preparation and analysis techniques, and equipment and training were required for A&PC to support vitrification. Analytical Cell Mockup Units (ACMUs) were designed to facilitate method development, scientist and technician training, and planning for analytical process flow. The ACMUs were fabricated and installed to simulate the analytical cell environment and dimensions. New techniques, equipment, and tools could be evaluated m in the ACMUs without the consequences of generating or handling radioactive waste. Tools were fabricated, handling and disposal of wastes was addressed, and spatial arrangements for equipment were refined. As a result of the work at the ACMUs the remote preparation and analysis methods and the equipment and tools were ready for installation into the ACs and SSC m in July 1995. Before use m in the hot cells, all remote methods had been validated and four to eight technicians were trained on each. Fine tuning of the procedures has been ongoing at the ACs based on input from A&PC technicians. Working at the ACs presents greater challenges than had development at the ACMUs. The ACMU work and further refinements m in the ACs have resulted m in a reduction m in analysis turnaround time (TAT).

  15. Physical, chemical, and biological data for four wetland habitats in Canaan Valley, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chambers, D.B.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains data collected during 1992 as part of a project designed to identify microenvironmental factors affecting rates of denitrification in wetlands in Canaan Valley, West Virginia. Four wetland habitats were selected for the study--a moss-lichen wetland, a persistent emergent wetland, a scrub-shrub wetland, and a riverine wetland. Physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of each habitat were determined by field measurements and laboratory analyses. Samples were collected in March, June, August, and October. Sediment pH, temperature, and oxidation-reduction potential were measured in the field. Sediment samples were analyzed for concentrations of calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium, nitrate and nitrite, ammonia, ammonia plus organic nitrogen, phosphorus, inorganic carbon, and total carbon. The most probable number of denitrifying bacteria was determined by a multiple-tube test. The dominant plant species were identified by plant-community analysis. The moss-lichen wetland was characterized by low pH (3.4 to 5.0) and small populations of denitrifying bacteria (70 to 400 per gram of wet soil). The scrub-shrub wetland was also acidic (pH 4.0 to 5.0), but supported larger numbers of denitrifying bacteria (510 to 11,000 per gram of wet soil). The number of denitrifying bacteria in the persistent emergent wetland exceeded 1,000,000 per gram of wet soil in early summer and pH in this habitat was higher (5.1 to 6.6) than in the bogs. Riverine wetland pH ranged from 5.4 to 6.9, and the number of denitrifying bacteria ranged from 200 to 11,000 per gram of wet soil.

  16. Evaluation of West Valley High-Level Waste Tank Lay-Up Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, L. W.; Henderson, J. C.; Elmore, M. R.

    2002-02-25

    The primary objective of the task summarized in this paper was to demonstrate a methodology for evaluating alternative strategies for preclosure lay-up of the two high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). Lay-up is defined as the period between operational use of tanks for waste storage and final closure. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is planning to separate the environmental impact statement (EIS) for completion of closure of the WVDP into two separate EISs. The first EIS will cover only waste management and decontamination. DOE expects to complete this EIS in about 18 months. The second EIS will cover final decommissioning and closure and may take up to five years to complete. This approach has been proposed to expedite continued management of the waste and decontamination activities in advance of the final EIS and its associated Record of Decision on final site closure. Final closure of the WVDP site may take 10 to 15 years; therefore, the tanks need to be placed in a safe, stable condition with minimum surveillance during an extended lay-up period. The methodology developed for ranking the potential strategies for lay-up of the WVDP tanks can be used to provide a basis for a decision on the preferred path forward. The methodology is also applicable to determining preferred lay-up approaches at other DOE sites. Some of the alternative strategies identified for the WVDP should also be considered for implementation at the other DOE sites. Each site has unique characteristics that would require unique considerations for lay-up.

  17. West Valley Demonstration Project vitrification process equipment Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Carl, D.E.; Paul, J.; Foran, J.M.; Brooks, R.

    1990-09-30

    The Vitrification Facility (VF) at the West Valley Demonstration Project was designed to convert stored radioactive waste into a stable glass for disposal in a federal repository. The Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) program was conducted from 1984 to 1989. During this time new equipment and processes were developed, installed, and implemented. Thirty-seven FACTS tests were conducted, and approximately 150,000 kg of glass were made by using nonradioactive materials to simulate the radioactive waste. By contrast, the planned radioactive operation is expected to produce approximately 500,000 kg of glass. The FACTS program demonstrated the effectiveness of equipment and procedures in the vitrification system, and the ability of the VF to produce quality glass on schedule. FACTS testing also provided data to validate the WVNS waste glass qualification method and verify that the product glass would meet federal repository acceptance requirements. The system was built and performed to standards which would have enabled it to be used in radioactive service. As a result, much of the VF tested, such as the civil construction, feed mixing and holding vessels, and the off-gas scrubber, will be converted for radioactive operation. The melter was still in good condition after being at temperature for fifty-eight of the sixty months of FACTS. However, the melter exceeded its recommended design life and will be replaced with a similar melter. Components that were not designed for remote operation and maintenance will be replaced with remote-use items. The FACTS testing was accomplished with no significant worker injury or environmental releases. During the last FACTS run, the VF processes approximated the remote-handling system that will be used in radioactive operations. Following this run the VF was disassembled for conversion to a radioactive process. Functional and checkout testing of new components will be performed prior to radioactive operation.

  18. The Holocene sedimentary history of the Kangerlussuaq Fjord-valley fill, West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storms, Joep E. A.; de Winter, Ilja L.; Overeem, Irina; Drijkoningen, Guy G.; Lykke-Andersen, Holger

    2012-03-01

    West Greenland has been intensively studied to reconstruct and better understand past relative sea level changes and deglacial history. This study extends these efforts by linking sea level and deglacial history to the sedimentary infill successions of Kangerlussuaq Fjord and associated landward valleys. Based on published and new land- and sea-based geophysical data, radiocarbon dates and geological observations we have characterized the infill and reconstructed the sedimentation history during the Holocene. Based on a revised sea level curve and data presented in this paper we defined three depositional phases. Phase I (>7000 yr BP) is represented by dominant glaciomarine deposition associated with a tide-water glacier system. As the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) continued to retreat it became land based. During phase II (7000-1500 yr BP) two separate depocenters formed. Keglen delta depocenter arose from a temporary stabilization phase of the GIS and prograded rapidly over the glaciomarine deposits of Phase I. Further inland, proglacial lake formation and subsequent sedimentary infill associated with the ongoing GIS retreat is represents the second depocenter. The Watson River connected both depocenters by a flood plain which transferred sediment from the GIS to the Keglen delta. Ongoing sea level fall due to glacio-isostastic uplift combined with a gradually cooler and dryer climate resulted in terrace formation along the Watson River flood plain. Around 4000 yr BP, the GIS margin reached its most landward location and began to advance to its present location. The final phase (Phase III; <1500 yr BP) is represented by a stabilized GIS position and a relative sea level rise which led to aggrading conditions near the present-day delta plain of Watson River. Simultaneously, subaqueous channels were formed at the delta front by hyperpycnal flows associated with jökulhlaup events.

  19. Factors associated with rift valley fever in south-west Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Elfadil, A A; Hasab-Allah, K A; Dafa-Allah, O M

    2006-12-01

    The authors undertook a study of environmental and animal risk factors associated with Rift Valley fever (RVF) in south-west Saudi Arabia. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the presence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against the RVF virus in serum samples from sentinel animals. In addition, a further 32 known IgM-positive serum samples were tested using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect the RVF virus genome. The results were analysed using the univariate odds ratio (OR). To control for confounding, Mantel-Haenszel adjusted odds ratio (M-H OR) was used. Positive associations were found between RVF and the following factors: a dense mosquito population (OR = 4.2), high rainfall (M-H OR = 2) and the presence of lakes and/or ponds (M-H OR = 2.2). The RVF virus genome was detected in four (12.5%) serum samples, indicating an early stage of RVF. The study found that the probability of detecting the virus genome was greater in animals with a high percentage of IgM antibodies against the virus (OR = 3) and in animals who had aborted (OR = 4.3). In addition, more sheep than goats tested positive for the presence of the genome (OR = 4). The authors conclude that the environmental and animal risk factors identified in this study can be considered good predictors for RVF and that the animal factors, in particular, should be considered when developing an efficient and cost-effective control strategy.

  20. An information system for the utility of the ephemeral tributaries west of the Nile Valley in Sudan. Based on remote sensing and geological techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Al Biely, A.I.; Mohamed, A.H.A.; Khidir, S.O.

    1996-08-01

    Interpretation of landsat MSS and TM satellite and NOAA-AVHRR images, climatological data and conventional geological methods were integrated in this study to arrive at a rigorous scientific geoinformation system that could assist the on-going endeavours to rehabilitate areas west of the Nile Valley. The study area, which repetitively suffered severe spells of drought, extends between latitudes 12{degrees}N-18{degrees}N and longitudes 27{degrees}E-32{degrees}E. The area considered abodes four major ephemeral tributaries of the River Nile, they are Wadi Howar, Wadi El Milk, Wadi El Mugaddam and Khor Abu Habil. Visual interpretation of remotely sensed data coupled with geological investigations revealed that these ephemeral tributaries are structurally controlled and their lower courses are buried under extensive sand sheets, that block their channels from reaching the Nile Valley. Sites where those tributaries disappear could constitute huge reservoirs of groundwater that could be utilized to harness desert encroachment and to plan rehabilitation projects. It is envisaged that, surface and subsurface hydrological engineering constructions in favourable sites, across those tributaries may lead to permanent surface water ponding. The performed study demonstrated the possibility of combating the environmental degradation on the area under consideration through carefully designed rehabilitation and development projects based on the integration of available data in a geoinformation system.

  1. Rift Valley fever among domestic animals in the recent West African outbreak.

    PubMed

    Ksiazek, T G; Jouan, A; Meegan, J M; Le Guenno, B; Wilson, M L; Peters, C J; Digoutte, J P; Guillaud, M; Merzoug, N O; Touray, E M

    1989-01-01

    Severe haemorrhagic disease among the human population of the Senegal River Basin brought the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) outbreak of 1987 to the attention of science. As in previous RVFV outbreaks, local herdsmen reported a high incidence of abortion and disease in their livestock. Serum samples were obtained from domestic animal populations from areas near Rosso, the best studied focus of human infection, as well as other areas distant from known human disease. Among animals from the area of high incidence of human disease, antibody prevalence was as high as 85%, with approximately 80% of the sera positive for both RVFV IgG- and viral-specific IgM antibodies. In contrast, human populations in the same area had lower RVFV antibody prevalences, 40% or less, with 90% also being IgM-positive. Sera from livestock in coastal areas 280 km south of the epidemic area were negative for RVFV antibodies. Thus, the detection of RVFV specific IgG and IgM antibodies provided evidence of recent disease activity without the requirement to establish pre-disease antibody levels in populations or individuals and without viral isolation. Subsequently, detection of modest levels of IgG and IgM in the Ferlo region, 130 km south of the Senegal River flood plain, established that RVFV transmission also occurred in another area of the basin. Similar serological testing of domestic ungulates in The Gambia, 340 km south of Rosso, demonstrated antibody prevalence consistent with a lower level of recent transmission of RVFV, i.e., 24% IgG-positive with 6% of the positive sera also having RVFV-specific IgM.

  2. Epidemiological processes involved in the emergence of vector-borne diseases: West Nile fever, Rift Valley fever, Japanese encephalitis and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, V; de la Rocque, S; Baldet, T; Vial, L; Roger, F

    2004-08-01

    Over the past few decades, the geographical distribution of arthropod-borne zoonoses has dramatically expanded. The influence of human-induced or ecological changes on the risk of disease outbreaks is undeniable. However, few hypotheses have been proposed which address the re-emergence of these diseases, the spread of these viruses to previously uninfected areas and their establishment therein. Host and vector movements play an important role in the dissemination of pathogens, and the ability of these diseases to colonise previously uninfected areas may be explained by the diversity of hosts and vectors, the presence of favourable ecological conditions, and the successful adaptations of vectors or pathogens to new ecosystems. The objective of this paper is to describe the epidemiological processes of the vector-borne diseases Rift Valley fever, West Nile fever, Japanese encephalitis and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever.

  3. Is it working? A look at the changing nutrient practices in the Southern Willamette Valley's Groundwater Management Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in the southern Willamette Valley and many more across the Pacific Northwest. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (SWV GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nitrate levels in the groundwater ...

  4. Groundwater discharge by evapotranspiration, Dixie Valley, west-central Nevada, March 2009-September 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, C. Amanda; Huntington, Jena M; Buto, Susan G.; Moreo, Michael T.; Smith, J. LaRue; Andraski, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Mean annual basin-scale ETg totaled about 28 million cubic meters (Mm3) (23,000 acre-feet [acre-ft]), and represents the sum of ETg from all ET units. Annual groundwater ET from vegetated areas totaled about 26 Mm3 (21,000 acre-ft), and was dominated by the moderate-to-dense shrubland ET unit (54 percent), followed by sparse shrubland (37 percent) and grassland (9 percent) ET units. Senesced grasses observed in the northern most areas of the moderate-to-dense ET unit likely confounded the vegetation index and led to an overestimate of ETg for this ET unit. Therefore, mean annual ETg for moderate-to-dense shrubland presented here is likely an upper bound. Annual groundwater ET from the playa ET unit was 2.2 Mm3 (1,800 acre-ft), whereas groundwater ET from the playa lake ET unit was 0–0.1 Mm3 (0–100 acre-ft). Oxygen-18 and deuterium data indicate discharge from the playa center predominantly represents removal of local precipitation-derived recharge. The playa lake estimate, therefore, is considered an upper bound. Mean annual ETg estimates for Dixie Valley are assumed to represent the pre‑development, long-term ETg rates within the study area.

  5. Early Eocene Molluscan biostratigraphy, Mount Pinos-Lockwood Valley area, northern Ventura County, southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Squires, R.L.; Wilson, M.

    1987-05-01

    A 600-m thick unnamed marine, predominantly transition-zone siltstone unit along the south flank of the Mount Pinos uplift, in the northern Lockwood Valley area, previously has been suggested to be early Eocene (Capay Stage) in age at its base. This present study shows the entire unit to be this age. Unconformably overlying the pre-Tertiary granite basement is 30 m of unfossiliferous muddy siltstone that grades upward into 50 m of very fine sandstone with rarely fossiliferous lenses of medium to coarse sandstone. Gradationally above the sandstone is 100 m of muddy siltstone with less rarely fossiliferous lenses of conglomeratic sandstone. Macrofossil collections made at 10 localities in these lower 180 m yielded a sparse fauna of subtropical shallow-marine gastropods and bivalves, as well as rare specimens of discocyclinid foraminifera. from 180 to 500 m above the base of the section is unfossiliferous siltstone with local occurrences of lower shoreface, alternating laminated and bioturbated very fine sandstone. The uppermost 100 m of the section is siltstone with rarely fossiliferous lenses of fine to medium sandstone. Collections made at five localities yielded subtropical shallow-marine mollusks. Evidence of a West Coast provincial molluscan Capay Stage (early Eocene) age for all the fossiliferous beds of the siltstone unit is the presence of Turritella andersoni, a species diagnostic of this stage. Commonly associated mollusks are Cryptoconus cooperi, Cylichnina tantilla, Ectinochilus (Macilentos) macilentus, and Turritella buwaldana. Unconformably overlying the unit is the Oligocene-lower Miocene nonmarine Plush Ranch Formation.

  6. Hydrologic Evaluation of the Jungo Area, Southern Desert Valley, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    RecologyTM, the primary San Francisco waste-disposal entity, is proposing to develop a Class 1 landfill near Jungo, Nevada. The proposal calls for the landfill to receive by rail about 20,000 tons of waste per week for up to 50 years. On September 22, 2009, the Interior Appropriation (S.A. 2494) was amended to require the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate the proposed Jungo landfill site for: (1) potential water-quality impacts on nearby surface-water resources, including Rye Patch Reservoir and the Humboldt River; (2) potential impacts on municipal water resources of Winnemucca, Nevada; (3) locations and altitudes of aquifers; (4) how long it will take waste seepage from the site to contaminate local aquifers; and (5) the direction and distance that contaminated groundwater would travel at 95 and 190 years. This evaluation was based on review of existing data and information. Desert Valley is tributary to the Black Rock Desert via the Quinn River in northern Desert Valley. The Humboldt River and Rye Patch Reservoir would not be affected by surface releases from the proposed Jungo landfill site because they are in the Humboldt basin. Winnemucca, on the Humboldt River, is 30 miles east of the Jungo landfill site and in the Humboldt basin. Groundwater-flow directions indicate that subsurface flow near the proposed Jungo landfill site is toward the south-southwest. Therefore, municipal water resources of Winnemucca would not be affected by surface or subsurface releases from the proposed Jungo landfill site. Basin-fill aquifers underlie the 680-square-mile valley floor in Desert Valley. Altitudes around the proposed Jungo landfill site range from 4,162 to 4,175 feet. Depth to groundwater is fairly shallow in southern Desert Valley and is about 60 feet below land surface at the proposed Jungo landfill site. A groundwater divide exists about 7 miles north of the proposed Jungo landfill site. Groundwater north of the divide flows north towards the Quinn River. South of

  7. Hydrology of area 8, eastern Coal Province, West Virginia and Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friel, E.A.; Ehlke, T.A.; Hobba, W.A.; Ward, S.M.; Schultz, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The hydrology of Area 8 in the Ohio River basin in northwestern West Virginia and southeastern Ohio, is influenced by geology and geologic structure. Rocks underlying the area consist of alternating beds of sandstone, siltstone, shale, limestone, and mudstone. Minable coal is contained within the Pennsylvania and Permian rocks. Coal production in 1980 totaled 6.7 million tons from underground mines and one million tons from surface mines. There is a wide range of soil types (29 soil associations) in five land-resource areas. Precipitation averages about 41 inches annually and is greatest at higher altitudes along the eastern boundary of the area. Average annual runoff ranges from 13 to 29 inches per year. The principal land uses are forest and agriculture. Estimated water use during 1980 was 1,170 million gallons per day. Surface-water quality ranges from excellent to poor. The highest iron, manganese and sulfate concentrations were present in mined areas. Well yields range from less than 1 to 350 gallons per minute. Groundwater from the Mississippian rocks contain lesser amounts of dissolved solids than water from the Lower Pennsylvanian rocks. Water high in chloride content is present in some valley areas. (USGS)

  8. Hydrogeology of shallow basin-fill deposits in areas of Salt Lake Valley, Salt Lake County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thiros, Susan A.

    2003-01-01

    A study of recently developed residential/commercial areas of Salt Lake Valley, Utah, was done from 1999 to 2001 in areas in which shallow ground water has the potential to move to a deeper aquifer that is used for public supply. Thirty monitoring wells were drilled and sampled in 1999 as part of the study. The ground water was either under unconfined or confined conditions, depending on depth to water and the presence or absence of fine-grained deposits. The wells were completed in the shallowest water-bearing zone capable of supplying water. Monitoring-well depths range from 23 to 154 feet. Lithologic, geophysical, hydraulic-conductivity, transmissivity, water-level, and water-temperature data were obtained for or collected from the wells.Silt and clay layers noted on lithologic logs correlate with increases in electrical conductivity and natural gamma radiation shown on many of the electromagnetic-induction and natural gamma logs. Relatively large increases in electrical conductivity, determined from the electromagnetic-induction logs, with no major changes in natural gamma radiation are likely caused by increased dissolved-solids content in the ground water. Some intervals with high electrical conductivity correspond to areas in which water was present during drilling.Unconfined conditions were present at 7 of 20 monitoring wells on the west side and at 2 of 10 wells on the east side of Salt Lake Valley. Fine-grained deposits confine the ground water. Anthropogenic compounds were detected in water sampled from most of the wells, indicating a connection with the land surface. Data were collected from 20 of the monitoring wells to estimate the hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity of the shallow ground-water system. Hydraulic-conductivity values of the shallow aquifer ranged from 30 to 540 feet per day. Transmissivity values of the shallow aquifer ranged from 3 to 1,070 feet squared per day. There is a close linear relation between transmissivity determined

  9. Engineering and Environmental Geology of the Indian Wells Valley Area.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-06

    Lake playa. The local hydrologic system is composed of two ground-water bodies (Reference 45): a shallow aquifer perched on lacustrine clays near and...6404, publication UNCLASSIFIED.) 42. U.S. Geological Survey. Geologic and Hydrologic Features of Indian Wells Valley, California, by L. C. Dutcher and W...R. Moyle, Jr., Water Supply Paper 2007, 1973, 30 pp. 36 SA NWC TP 6854 43. Leedshill-Herkenhoff, Inc. Alternative Measures to Lower the Groundwater

  10. Towards a better understanding of Rift Valley fever epidemiology in the south-west of the Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Balenghien, Thomas; Cardinale, Eric; Chevalier, Véronique; Elissa, Nohal; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Jean Jose Nipomichene, Thiery Nirina; Nicolas, Gaelle; Rakotoharinome, Vincent Michel; Roger, Matthieu; Zumbo, Betty

    2013-09-09

    Rift Valley fever virus (Phlebovirus, Bunyaviridae) is an arbovirus causing intermittent epizootics and sporadic epidemics primarily in East Africa. Infection causes severe and often fatal illness in young sheep, goats and cattle. Domestic animals and humans can be contaminated by close contact with infectious tissues or through mosquito infectious bites. Rift Valley fever virus was historically restricted to sub-Saharan countries. The probability of Rift Valley fever emerging in virgin areas is likely to be increasing. Its geographical range has extended over the past years. As a recent example, autochthonous cases of Rift Valley fever were recorded in 2007-2008 in Mayotte in the Indian Ocean. It has been proposed that a single infected animal that enters a naive country is sufficient to initiate a major outbreak before Rift Valley fever virus would ever be detected. Unless vaccines are available and widely used to limit its expansion, Rift Valley fever will continue to be a critical issue for human and animal health in the region of the Indian Ocean.

  11. Towards a better understanding of Rift Valley fever epidemiology in the south-west of the Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (Phlebovirus, Bunyaviridae) is an arbovirus causing intermittent epizootics and sporadic epidemics primarily in East Africa. Infection causes severe and often fatal illness in young sheep, goats and cattle. Domestic animals and humans can be contaminated by close contact with infectious tissues or through mosquito infectious bites. Rift Valley fever virus was historically restricted to sub-Saharan countries. The probability of Rift Valley fever emerging in virgin areas is likely to be increasing. Its geographical range has extended over the past years. As a recent example, autochthonous cases of Rift Valley fever were recorded in 2007–2008 in Mayotte in the Indian Ocean. It has been proposed that a single infected animal that enters a naive country is sufficient to initiate a major outbreak before Rift Valley fever virus would ever be detected. Unless vaccines are available and widely used to limit its expansion, Rift Valley fever will continue to be a critical issue for human and animal health in the region of the Indian Ocean. PMID:24016237

  12. Simulation of Ground-Water Flow in the Shenandoah Valley, Virginia and West Virginia, Using Variable-Direction Anisotropy in Hydraulic Conductivity to Represent Bedrock Structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Richard M.; Southworth, Scott C.; Voss, Clifford I.

    2008-01-01

    ) variable strike and dip, in which conductivity tensors were aligned with the strike and dip of the bedding, and (2) uniform strike in which conductivity tensors were assumed to be horizontally isotropic with the maximum conductivity direction parallel to the N30 deg E axis of the valley and the minimum conductivity direction perpendicular to the horizontal plane. Simulated flow penetrated deeper into the aquifer system with the uniform-strike tensor than with the variable-strike-and-dip tensor. Sensitivity analyses suggest that additional information on recharge rates would increase confidence in the estimated parameter values. Two applications of the model were conducted - the first, to determine depth of recent ground-water flow by simulating the distribution of ground-water ages, showed that most shallow ground water is less than 10 years old. Ground-water age distributions computed by variable-strike-and-dip and uniform-strike models were similar, but differed beneath Massanutten Mountain in the center of the valley. The variable-strike-and-dip model simulated flow from west to east parallel to the bedding of the carbonate rocks beneath Massanutten Mountain, while the uniform-strike model, in which flow was largely controlled by topography, simulated this same area as an east-west ground-water divide. The second application, which delineated capture zones for selected well fields in the valley, showed that capture zones delineated with both models were similar in plan view, but differed in vertical extent. Capture zones simulated by the variable-strike-and-dip model extended downdip with the bedding of carbonate rock and were relatively shallow, while those simulated by the uniform-strike model extended to the bottom of the flow system, which is unrealistic. These results suggest that simulations of ground-water flow through folded fractured rock can be constructed using SUTRA to represent variable orientations of the hydraulic-conductivity tensor and produce a

  13. The statistics of the time-temperature-transformation diagram for oxidized and reduced West Valley Reference 6 glass

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.C.; Oksoy, D.; Cleveland, T.C.; Pye, L.D.; Jain, V.

    1994-12-31

    Crystallization in glasses selected for the containment of high level nuclear waste (West Valley Reference 6 glass, oxidized and reduced) was studied with a Time-Temperature-Transformation (TTT) diagram. Statistical data analysis was performed on the data collected from samples heat treated for various times and temperatures. The volume percent crystals in the samples was determined by image analysis. Distance weighted least squares smoothing method was used to fit a surface to the volume percent crystals versus time and temperature. Confidence intervals for the time to achieve a given volume percent crystals in the region of the nose of the TTT diagram were also determined.

  14. Paired, facing monoclines in the Sanpete-Sevier Valley area, central Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witkind, I.J.

    1992-01-01

    Several major monoclines that trend northward through the Sanpete-Sevier Valley area of central Utah are paired and face one another. This pairing of monoclines may have occurred when near-horizontal sedimentary and volcanic strata subsided into voids created as salt was removed from a salt diapir concealed beneath valley fill. Removal was mostly by dissolution or extrusion during Neogene time. The paired monoclines, thus, are viewed as collapse features rather than as normal synclinal folds. -from Author

  15. Waste-Incidental-to-Reprocessing Evaluation for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Melter - 12167

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Jim; Kurasch, David; Sullivan, Dan; Crandall, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that the vitrification melter used in the West Valley Demonstration Project can be disposed of as low-level waste (LLW) after completion of a waste-incidental-to-reprocessing evaluation performed in accordance with the evaluation process of DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. The vitrification melter - which consists of a ceramic lined, electrically heated box structure - was operated for more than 5 years melting and fusing high-level waste (HLW) slurry and glass formers and pouring the molten glass into 275 stainless steel canisters. Prior to shutdown, the melter was decontaminated by processing low-activity decontamination flush solutions and by extracting molten glass from the melter cavity. Because it could not be completely emptied, residual radioactivity conservatively estimated at approximately 170 TBq (4,600 Ci) remained in the vitrification melter. To establish whether the melter was incidental to reprocessing, DOE prepared an evaluation to demonstrate that the vitrification melter: (1) had been processed to remove key radionuclides to the maximum extent technically and economically practical; (2) would be managed to meet safety requirements comparable to the performance objectives for LLW established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); and (3) would be managed by DOE in accordance with DOE's requirements for LLW after it had been incorporated in a solid physical form with radionuclide concentrations that do not exceed the NRC concentration limits for Class C LLW. DOE consulted with the NRC on the draft evaluation and gave other stakeholders an opportunity to submit comments before the determination was made. The NRC submitted a request for additional information in connection with staff review of the draft evaluation; DOE provided the additional information and made improvements to the evaluation, which was issued in January 2012. DOE considered the NRC Technical Evaluation Report

  16. Reconnaissance of the chemical quality of water in western Utah, Part I: Sink Valley area, drainage basins of Skull, Rush, and Government Creek Valleys, and the Dugway Valley-Old River Bed area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waddell, K.M.

    1967-01-01

    This report presents data collected during the first part of an investigation that was started in 1963 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Geological and Mineralogical Survey. The investigation has the purpose of providing information about the chemical quality of water in western Utah that will help interested parties to evaluate the suitability of the water for various uses in a broad area of Utah where little information of this type previously has been available. The area studied includes the Sink Valley area, the drainage basins of Skull, Rush, and Government Creek Valleys, and the Dugway Valley-Old River Bed area (fig. 1). Osamu Hattori and G. L. Hewitt started the investigation, and the author completed it and prepared the report.

  17. Measuring ground movement in geothermal areas of Imperial Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofgren, B. E.

    1974-01-01

    Significant ground movement may accompany the extraction of large quantities of fluids from the subsurface. In Imperial Valley, California, one of the potential hazards of geothermal development is the threat of both subsidence and horizontal movement of the land surface. Regional and local survey nets are being monitored to detect and measure possible ground movement caused by future geothermal developments. Precise measurement of surface and subsurface changes will be required to differentiate man-induced changes from natural processes in this tectonically active region.

  18. Quaternary geology and geologic hazards of the West Desert Hazardous Industry Area, Tooele County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Solomon, Barry J.; Black, Bill D.; ,

    1990-01-01

    The study of Quaternary geology provides information to evaluate geologic conditions and identify geologic constraints on construction in the West Desert Hazardous Industry Area (WDHIA). The WDHIA includes portions of the Great Salt Lake Desert to the west, underlain by several thousand feet of sediments capped by saline mudflats, and Ripple Valley to the east, separated from the Desert by the Grayback Hills and underlain by several hundred feet of sediments in the Cedar Mountains piedmont zone. Quaternary surficial units include marginal, shore-zone, and deep-water lacustrine sediments deposited in Pleistocene Lake Bonneville; eolian deposits; and alluvial sediments. The level of Lake Bonneville underwent major oscillations resulting in the creation of four basin-wide shorelines, three of which are recognized in the WDHIA. Geologic hazards in the WDHIA include the possible contamination of ground water in basin-fill aquifers, debris flows and flash floods in the piedmont zone, and earthquakes and related hazards. Numerous factors contribute to unsafe foundation conditions. Silty and sandy sediments may be subject to liquefaction or hydrocompaction, clayey sediments and mud flats of the Great Salt Lake Desert may be subject to shrinking or swelling, and gypsiferous dunes and salt flats are subject to subsidence due to dissolution.

  19. Isolation of west nile and sindbis viruses from mosquitoes collected in the Nile Valley of Egypt during an outbreak of Rift Valley fever.

    PubMed

    Turell, Michael J; Morrill, John C; Rossi, Cynthia A; Gad, Adel M; Cope, Stanton E; Clements, Tamara L; Arthur, Ray R; Wasieloski, Leonard P; Dohm, David J; Nash, Denise; Hassan, Mosaad M; Hassan, Ali N; Morsy, Zakaria S; Presley, Steven M

    2002-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of potential vectors of arboviruses during a Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreak in the Nile Valley of Egypt in August 1993, we collected mosquitoes in villages with known RVF viral activity. Mosquitoes were sorted to species, pooled, and processed for virus isolation both by intracerebral inoculation into suckling mice and by inoculation into cell culture. A total of 33 virus isolates was made from 36,024 mosquitoes. Viruses were initially identified by indirect fluorescent antibody testing and consisted of 30 flaviviruses (all members of the Japanese encephalitis complex, most probably West Nile [WN] virus) and three alphaviruses (all members of western equine encephalitis complex, most probably Sindbis). The identity of selected viruses was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Culex antennatus (Becker) and Culex perexiguus Theobald accounted for five (17%) and 23 (77%) of the WN virus isolations, respectively. Despite isolation of viruses from 32 pools of mosquitoes (both WN and Sindbis viruses were isolated from a single pool), RVF virus was not isolated from these mosquitoes, even though most of them are known competent vectors collected during an ongoing RVF outbreak. Thus, it should be remembered, that even during a known arbovirus outbreak, other arboviruses may still be circulating and causing disease.

  20. WEST AND EAST PALISADES ROADLESS AREAS, IDAHO AND WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oriel, Steven S.; Benham, John R.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of the West and East Palisades Roadless Areas, which lie within the Idaho-Wyoming thrust belt, document structures, reservoir formations, source beds, and thermal maturities comparable to those in producing oil and gas field farther south in the belt. Therefore, the areas are highly favorable for the occurrence of oil and gas. Phosphate beds of appropriate grade within the roadless areas are thinner and less accessible than those being mined from higher thrust sheets to the southwest; however, they contain 98 million tons of inferred phosphate rock resources in areas of substantiated phosphate resource potential. Sparsely distributed thin coal seams occur in the roadless areas. Although moderately pure limestone is present, it is available from other sources closer to markets. Geochemical anomalies from stream-sediment and rock samples for silver, copper, molydenum, and lead occur in the roadless areas but they offer little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. A possible geothermal resource is unproven, despite thermal phenomena at nearby sites.

  1. Combining Hydrology and Mosquito Population Models to Identify the Drivers of Rift Valley Fever Emergence in Semi-Arid Regions of West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Soti, Valérie; Tran, Annelise; Degenne, Pascal; Chevalier, Véronique; Lo Seen, Danny; Thiongane, Yaya; Diallo, Mawlouth; Guégan, Jean-François; Fontenille, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Background Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne viral zoonosis of increasing global importance. RVF virus (RVFV) is transmitted either through exposure to infected animals or through bites from different species of infected mosquitoes, mainly of Aedes and Culex genera. These mosquitoes are very sensitive to environmental conditions, which may determine their presence, biology, and abundance. In East Africa, RVF outbreaks are known to be closely associated with heavy rainfall events, unlike in the semi-arid regions of West Africa where the drivers of RVF emergence remain poorly understood. The assumed importance of temporary ponds and rainfall temporal distribution therefore needs to be investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings A hydrological model is combined with a mosquito population model to predict the abundance of the two main mosquito species (Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes) involved in RVFV transmission in Senegal. The study area is an agropastoral zone located in the Ferlo Valley, characterized by a dense network of temporary water ponds which constitute mosquito breeding sites. The hydrological model uses daily rainfall as input to simulate variations of pond surface areas. The mosquito population model is mechanistic, considers both aquatic and adult stages and is driven by pond dynamics. Once validated using hydrological and entomological field data, the model was used to simulate the abundance dynamics of the two mosquito species over a 43-year period (1961–2003). We analysed the predicted dynamics of mosquito populations with regards to the years of main outbreaks. The results showed that the main RVF outbreaks occurred during years with simultaneous high abundances of both species. Conclusion/Significance Our study provides for the first time a mechanistic insight on RVFV transmission in West Africa. It highlights the complementary roles of Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes mosquitoes in virus transmission, and recommends the

  2. Agriculture, irrigation, and drainage on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley, California: Unified perspective on hydrogeology, geochemistry and management

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.; Quinn, N.W.T.

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a broad understanding of water-related issues of agriculture and drainage on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley. To this end, an attempt is made to review available literature on land and water resources of the San Joaquin Valley and to generate a process-oriented framework within which the various physical-, chemical-, biological- and economic components of the system and their interactions are placed in mutual perspective.

  3. Design and operating features of the high-level waste vitrification system for the West Valley demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Siemens, D.H.; Beary, M.M.; Barnes, S.M.; Berger, D.N.; Brouns, R.A.; Chapman, C.C.; Jones, R.M.; Peters, R.D.; Peterson, M.E.

    1986-03-01

    A liquid-fed joule-heated ceramic melter system is the reference process for immobilization of the high-level liquid waste in the US and several foreign countries. This system has been under development for over ten years at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and other national laboratories operated for the US Department of Energy. Pacific Northwest Laboratory contributed to this research through its Nuclear Waste Treatment Program and used applicable data to design and test melters and related systems using remote handling of simulated radioactive wastes. This report describes the equipment designed in support of the high-level waste vitrification program at West Valley, New York. Pacific Northwest Laboratory worked closely with West Valley Nuclear Services Company to design a liquid-fed ceramic melter, a liquid waste preparation and feed tank and pump, an off-gas treatment scrubber, and an enclosed turntable for positioning the waste canisters. Details of these designs are presented including the rationale for the design features and the alternatives considered.

  4. West African and Amerindian ancestry and risk of myocardial infarction and metabolic syndrome in the Central Valley population of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A; Bare, Lance; Arellano, Andre; Catanese, Joseph; Campos, Hannia

    2010-06-01

    Genetic ancestry and environmental factors may contribute to the ethnic differences in risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), metabolic syndrome (MS) or its individual components. The population of the Central Valley of Costa Rica offers a unique opportunity to assess the role of genetic ancestry in these chronic diseases because it derived from the admixture of a relatively small number of founders of Southern European, Amerindian, and West African origin. We aimed to determine whether genetic ancestry is associated with risk of myocardial infarction (MI), MS and its individual components in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. We genotyped 39 ancestral informative markers in cases (n = 1,998) with a first non-fatal acute MI and population-based controls (n = 1,998) matched for age, sex, and area of residence, to estimate individual ancestry proportions. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using conditional (MI) and unconditional (MS and its components) logistic regression adjusting for relevant confounders. Mean individual ancestry proportions in cases and controls were 57.5 versus 57.8% for the Southern European, 38.4 versus 38.3% for the Amerindian and 4.1 versus 3.8% for the West African ancestry. Compared with Southern European ancestry, each 10% increase in West African ancestry was associated with a 29% increase in MI, OR (95% CI) = 1.29 (1.07, 1.56), and with a 30% increase on the risk of hypertension, OR (95% CI) = 1.30 (1.00, 1.70). Each 10% increase in Amerindian ancestry was associated with a 14% increase on the risk of MS, OR (95% CI) = 1.14 (1.00, 1.30), and 20% increase on the risk of impaired fasting glucose, OR (95% CI) = 1.20 (1.01, 1.42). These results show that the high variability of admixture proportions in the Central Valley population offers a unique opportunity to uncover the genetic basis of ethnic differences on the risk of disease.

  5. 33 CFR 334.610 - Key West Harbor, at U.S. Naval Base, Key West, Fla.; naval restricted areas and danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Key West Harbor, at U.S. Naval Base, Key West, Fla.; naval restricted areas and danger zone. 334.610 Section 334.610 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.610 Key West Harbor, at U.S. Naval Base, Key West, Fla.; naval...

  6. 33 CFR 334.610 - Key West Harbor, at U.S. Naval Base, Key West, Fla.; naval restricted areas and danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Base, Key West, Fla.; naval restricted areas and danger zone. 334.610 Section 334.610 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.610 Key West Harbor, at U.S. Naval Base, Key West, Fla.; naval restricted areas and danger zone. (a) The areas. (1) All waters within 100 yards of the south shoreline of...

  7. MX Siting Investigation. Mineral Resources Survey, Seven Additional Valleys, Nevada/Utah Siting Area. Volume IV.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-23

    8217 AD-AI13 146 ERTEC WESTERN INC. LONG BEACH CA F/6 B/7 MX SITING INVESTIGATION. MINERAL RESOURCES SURVEY, SEVEN AGOITI--ETC(U) UNCLASSIFIED E-TR...50 MINERAL RESOURCES SURVEY SEVEN ADDITIONAL VALLEYS NEVADA/UTAH SITING AREA VOLUME IV 4Prepared for: U. S. Department of the Air Force Ballistic...VALLEY MINERAL RESOURCES SURVEfV STUDY AREA OXJNOARY SEPT. 26, 1960 I MX SITING INVESTIGATION 27 FEDC t97 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE I ik 320’- 36 37 4

  8. Geologic characterization report for the Paradox Basin Study Region, Utah Study Areas. Volume 6: Salt Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-12-01

    Surface landforms in the Salt Valley Area are generally a function of the Salt Valley anticline and are characterized by parallel and subparallel cuestaform ridges and hogbacks and flat valley floors. The most prominent structure in the Area is the Salt Valley anticline. Erosion resulting from the Tertiary uplift of the Colorado Plateau led to salt dissolution and subsequent collapse along the crest of the anticline. Continued erosion removed the collapse material, forming an axial valley along the crest of the anticline. Paleozoic rocks beneath the salt bearing Paradox Formation consist of limestone, dolomite, sandstone, siltstone and shale. The salt beds of the Paradox formation occur in distinct cycles separated by an interbed sequence of anhydrite, carbonate, and clastic rocks. The Paradox Formation is overlain by Pennsylvanian limestone; Permian sandstone; and Mesozoic sandstone, mudstone, conglomerate and shale. No earthquakes have been reported in the area during the period of the historic record and contemporary seismicity appears to be diffusely distributed, of low level and small magnitude. The upper unit includes the Permian strata and upper Honaker trail formation.

  9. Role of strain for cover geometry in Valley and Ridge province of West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Billman, D.A.; Johnston, M.A.; Dunne, W.M.

    1988-08-01

    Within the study area, samples for strain determination were collected along six section lines, which extended from the Little North Mountain thrust in the east to the Alleghenian structural front in the west. Along each section line, 20-25 oriented samples of well-sorted, quartz-rich, framework-supported sandstones were collected from seven levels between the basal Silurian and basal Mississippian. The use of seven levels enabled sampling in both cover anticlines and synclines and allowed assessment of strain variation with stratigraphic level. Strain determination was performed on oriented sample thin sections using the normalized Fry and Rf/phi methods. These strain data are presented on the six new cross sections that were constructed from new field data and existing geologic maps. These strain data were used to determine whether microscale deformation (1) made little contribution to cover deformation, (2) occurred as a layer-parallel shortening preceding the emplacement of underlying horses, (3) occurred as only local strains in response to flexural flow during folding, or (4) occurred as flattening during emplacement of underlying horses.

  10. Ground water in the Eola-Amity Hills area, northern Willamette Valley, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, Don

    1967-01-01

    The Eola-Amity Hills area ,comprises about 230 square miles on the west side of the Willamette Valley between Salem and McMinnville, Oreg. The area is largely rural, and agriculture is the principal occupation. Rocks ranging in age from Eocene to Recent underlie the area. The oldest rocks are a sequence more than 5,000 feet thick of marine-deposited shale and siltstone strata, with thin interbeds of sandstone that range in age from Eocene to middle Oligocene. They are widely exposed in and west of the Eola-Amity Hills and underlie younger sedimentary and volcanic rocks throughout the study area. In the Eola-Amity Hills and Red Hills of Dundee, the Columbia River Group, a series of eastward-dipping basaltic lava flows locally of Miocene age, and conformably overlies the marine sedimentary rocks. The Columbia River Group ranges in thickness from less than 1 foot to about 900 feet and has an average thickness of about 200 feet. The formation is exposed in the Eola-Amity Hills and Red Hills of Dundee and, at places, extends to the east beneath younger rocks. Overlying the Columbia River Group and marine sedimentary rocks are nonmarine sedimentary deposits that range in thickness from less than 1 foot, where they lap up (to an altitude of about 200 ft) on the flanks of the higher hills, to several hundred feet along the east margin of the study area. These deposits include the Troutdale Formation of Pliocene age, the Willamette Silt of late Pleistocene age, and alluvium of the Willamette River and its tributaries. The Troutdale Formation and the alluvium of the Willamette River contain the most productive aquifers in the Eola-Amity Hills area. These aquifers, which consist mainly of sand and gravel, generally yield moderate to large quantities of water to properly constructed wells. Basalt of the Columbia River Group yields small to moderate quantities of water to wells, and the marine sedimentary rocks and Willamette Silt generally yield small but adequate quantities

  11. Water-resources of the Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bloyd, R.M.

    1967-01-01

    The Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency (AVEK) area, most of which is within the Mojave Desert region of southern California, lacks adequate water resources to sustain the existing rate of ground-water pumpage for irrigation, industrial, and domestic use. However, by 1972 the California Aqueduct, a part of the California Water Plan, will be completed and will begin to convey water from northern California into the area. The chief economic pursuits in the area are irrigated agriculture and poultry production. At present, the major industries are related to national defense and mining. In the future, industry will increase and probably become the major economic activity. The Mojave Desert region, part of which lies within the AVEK area, is characterized by fault-block mountains and fault-block basins. The Tehachapi and San Gabriel Mountains are the major bordering fault blocks. The adjacent lowland areas of Antelope and Fremont Valleys have been depressed by movements along major faults. There are two major ground-water basins in the AVEK area: Antelope Valley and Fremont Valley basins. Each large basin is divided by faults or bodies of consolidated rock into several groundwater subunits.

  12. Stress transferred by the 2014 M=6.0 American Canyon (Napa), California, earthquake, to the West Napa and Concord-Green Valley faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, S.; Stein, R. S.; Sevilgen, V.

    2014-12-01

    We explore how stress imparted from the 2014 Napa earthquake influences regional seismicity and thus hazard on the densely populated Bay Area faults nearby. We first calculate Coulomb stress change in the surrounding crust and on adjacent faults as identified by UCERF3 (Field et al., 2013) using the finite fault source model of Barnhart et al. (2014, v2). We then examine the seismic response to the stress transfer by comparing seismicity during the month after 24 August 2014 to the preceding 1.5 yr, for which seismic detection has been stable. There is a seismicity rate increase north of the mainshock, and a modest increase south of the mainshock, both sites roughly along the West Napa fault, where the stress is calculated to have increased by ~0.5 bar. A cluster of earthquakes was triggered at the center of the southern Concord-Green Valley (GV) fault where the stress is calculated to have increased by ~0.2 bar. The post-Napa seismic cluster on the Green Valley fault locates on the N-S (180°) striking trace rather than general trend of 160°, so perhaps by a combination of by its locally more favorable strike and its presumed low friction, since it is a creeping fault. The relationship between the Napa source and the triggered aftershock cluster on the GV fault is analogous to the Landers source, which immediately triggered concentrated seismicity on part of the Hector Mine fault. Like at Napa, Coulomb stress imparted from Landers along most of the Hector Mine rupture zone was negative except near the cluster. Paleoseismic evidence for the GV fault yields a ~200-yr recurrence interval and ~400-yr elapsed time since the last large earthquake, in which case it might be close to rupture (Lienkaemper et al., 2014). We thus suggest that the hazard on the Concord-Green Valley fault has likely increased, and so should be closely monitored for seismicity, strain, and creep.

  13. Trends in chloride, dissolved-solids, and nitrate concentrations in ground water, Carson Valley and Topaz Lake Areas, Douglas County, Nevada, 1959-88

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thodal, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    Rapid population growth in Douglas County, an area of approximately 750 square miles in west-central Nevada, has led to concern about the present and future effects of development on ground water. This report describes the results of two nonparametric statistical procedures applied to detect trends in concentrations of chloride, dissolved solids, and nitrate in ground water. The water-quality data consist of analytical results from ground-water samples collected and analyzed by the U. S. Geological Survey and ground-water-quality data provided by the Nevada Bureau of Health Protection Services for the Carson Valley and Topaz Lake areas of Douglas County, Nevada. For purposes of this study, statistical significance, expressed as the p-value, was set at 0.1. The Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxan rank-sum test detected increasing step-trends for nitrate in one of seven residential areas and for dissolved-solids concentrations throughout the study area. Decreasing step-trends for chloride and dissolved-solids concentrations were detected in the west Carson Valley area. Kendall's Tau detected monotonic trends for increasing nitrate concentrations at four domestic wells and for increasing dissolved-solids concentrations at two domestic wells. No other statistically significant trends were indicated by either test. Land-use relations to areas where increasing trends were detected suggest that the density of individual wastewater-treatment systems may exceed the capacity of soils to treat wastewater leachate.

  14. Landslide susceptibility in the Tully Valley area, Finger Lakes region, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jager, Stefan; Wieczorek, Gerald E.

    1994-01-01

    As a consequence of a large landslide in the Tully Valley, Onondaga County, New York, an investigation was undertaken to determine the factors responsible for the landslide in order to develop a model for regional landslide susceptibility. The April 27, 1993 Tully Valley landslide occurred within glacial lake clays overlain by till and colluvium on gentle slopes of 9-12 degrees. The landslide was triggered by extreme climatic events of prolonged heavy rainfall combined with rapid melting of a winter snowpack. A photoinventory and field checking of landslides within a 415 km2 study area, including the Tully Valley, revealed small recently-active landslides and other large dormant prehistoric landslides, probably Pleistocene in age. Similar to the larger Tully Valley landslide, the smaller recently-active landslides occurred in red, glacial lake clays very likely triggered by seasonal rainfall. The large dormant landslides have been stable for long periods as evidenced by slope denudational processes that have modified the landslides. These old and ancient landslides correspond with proglacial lake levels during the Pleistocene, suggesting that either inundation or rapid drainage was responsible for triggering these landslides. A logistic regression analysis was performed within a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment to develop a model of landslide susceptibility for the Tully Valley study area. Presence of glacial clays, slope angle, and glacial lake levels were used as explanatory variables for landslide incidence. The spatial probability of landsliding, categorized as low, moderate and high, is portrayed within 90-m square cells on the susceptibility map.

  15. Geology and ground water in Russian River Valley areas and in Round, Laytonville, and Little Lake Valleys, Sonoma and Mendocino Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cardwell, G.T.

    1965-01-01

    This report describes the occurrence, availability, and quality of ground water in seven valley areas along the course of the Russian River in Sonoma and Mendocino Counties, Calif., and in three valleys in the upper drainage reach of the Eel River in Mendocino County. Except for the westward-trending lower Russian River valley, the remaining valley areas along the Russian River (Healdsburg, Alexander, Cloverdale, Sanel, Ukiah, and Potter Valleys) lie in northwest-trending structurally controlled depressions formed in marine rocks of Jurassic and Cretaceous age. The principal aquifer in all the valleys is the alluvium of Recent age, which includes highly permeable channel deposits of gravel and sand. Water for domestic, irrigation, industrial, and other uses is developed by (1) direct diversion from the Russian River and its tributaries, (2) withdrawal of ground water and river water from shallow wells near the river, and (3) withdrawals of ground water from wells in alluvial deposits at varying distances from the river. Surface water in the Russian River and most tributaries is of good chemical quality. The water is a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type and contains 75,200 parts per million of dissolved solids. Ground water is also of good chemical quality throughout most of the drainage basin, but the concentration of dissolved solids (100-300 parts per million) is somewhat higher than that in the surface water. Round, Laytonville, and Little Lake Valleys are in central and northern Mendocino County in the drainage basin of the northwestward flowing Eel River. In Round Valley the alluvium of Recent age yields water of good chemical quality in large quantities. Yields are lower and the chemical quality poorer in Laytonville Valley. Ground water in Little Lake Valley is relatively undeveloped. Selected descriptions of wells, drillers' logs, chemical analyses, and hydrographs showing water-level fluctuations are included in the report. Accompanying maps show the

  16. Mosquito vectors of the 1998-1999 outbreak of Rift Valley Fever and other arboviruses (Bagaza, Sanar, Wesselsbron and West Nile) in Mauritania and Senegal.

    PubMed

    Diallo, M; Nabeth, P; Ba, K; Sall, A A; Ba, Y; Mondo, M; Girault, L; Abdalahi, M O; Mathiot, C

    2005-06-01

    Following an outbreak of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in south-eastern Mauritania during 1998, entomological investigations were conducted for 2 years in the affected parts of Senegal and Mauritania, spanning the Sénégal River basin. A total of 92 787 mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), belonging to 10 genera and 41 species, were captured in light traps. In Senegal, Culex poicilipes (41%) and Mansonia uniformis (39%) were the most abundant species caught, whereas Aedes vexans (77%) and Cx. poicilipes (15%) predominated in Mauritania. RVF virus was isolated from 63 pools of Cx. poicilipes: 36 from Senegal in 1998 and 27 from Mauritania in 1999. These results are the first field evidence of Cx. poicilipes naturally infected with RVFV, and the first isolations of this virus from mosquitoes in Mauritania - the main West African epidemic and epizootic area. Additional arbovirus isolates comprised 25 strains of Bagaza (BAG) from Aedes fowleri, Culex neavei and Cx. poicilipes; 67 Sanar (ArD 66707) from Cx. poicilipes; 51 Wesselsbron (WSL) from Ae. vexans and 30 strains of West Nile (WN) from Ma. uniformis, showing differential specific virus-vector associations in the circulation activity of these five arboviruses.

  17. [Epidemiology of Rift Valley fever in west Africa. 1. Serological investigation of small ruminants in Niger].

    PubMed

    Akakpo, A J; Saluzzo, J F; Bada, R; Bornarel, P; Sarradin, P

    1991-01-01

    A serosurvey of Rift Valley Fever virus infection conducted among 557 sheep and 643 goats from Niger in 1986 points out that 2.8% of the 1,200 animals tested had RVF virus reacting antibodies. The circulation of the virus is demonstrated, as well for another phlebovirus related to RVF virus, the strain Arumowot.

  18. [Use of insecticide-treated cattle to control Rift Valley fever and West Nile virus vectors in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Diallo, D; Ba, Y; Dia, I; Lassana, K; Diallo, M

    2008-12-01

    Rift Valley Fever (RVF) and West Nile fever (WN) viruses are transmitted by several mosquito species and share the same vectors in Northern Senegal (West Africa). In absence of an effective treatment and vaccines, vector control remains an alternative method of prevention and control of these vector-borne diseases. The methods targeting adults' pest mosquitoes and malaria vectors which are currently used by the population in the Barkedji area (insecticides treated nets, bombs and copper coil) would not be effective against these vectors because of their exophagic and zoophilic behavior. Thus, we decided to evaluate the effectiveness of insecticide-treated cattle as a method to control these vectors. We evaluated the effects of this treatment on the mortality and the behaviour (attractiveness and engorgement) of the main vectors and subsidiary the whole mosquito fauna. Our study was conducted during September 2005, and between July and November 2006, at Niakha pond located 4 km from the Barkedji village in the Sahelian region of Senegal. A bull-calf was treated with 25 mg/m2 of deltamethrin and compared to an untreated calf of the same weight used as a control. The assays were conducted using two net-traps placed at the edge of the pond from 19:00 PM to 22:00 PM each night for 4 nights per week for 4 consecutive weeks after each treatment. The risk that host- seeking mosquitoes that do not have possibility to feed on cattle might turn to men cohabiting with these cattle was evaluated simultaneously during the bioassay. The deltamethrin treatment led to a significant reduction in the average number of mosquitoes attracted by the treated-calf compared to the control during the first 2 weeks post-treatment both for all species and for the main vectors such as Ae. vexans, Ae. ochraceus, Cx. poicilipes, Cx. neavei and Ma. uniformis. However these means were comparable for the last two weeks post-treatment both for the whole mosquito fauna and the main vectors with the

  19. 76 FR 30002 - Establishment of the Antelope Valley of the California High Desert Viticultural Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... the upper elevations of the terraces and alluvial fans. And, although the proposed viticultural area... elevations of the alluvial fans and terraces of the basin. The soils in the Antelope Valley formed in... granitic rock on alluvial fans and terraces. Generally, they vary in drainage, slope, elevation,...

  20. Earthquakes, active faults, and geothermal areas in the imperial valley, california.

    PubMed

    Hill, D P; Mowinckel, P; Peake, L G

    1975-06-27

    A dense seismograph network in the Imperial Valley recorded a series of earthquake swarms along the Imperial and Brawley faults and a diffuse pattern of earthquakes along the San Jacinto fault. Two known geothermal areas are closely associated with these earthquake swarms. This seismicity pattern demonstrates that seismic slip is occurring along both the Imperial-Brawley and San Jacinto fault systems.

  1. Isostatic gravity map of the Death Valley ground-water model area, Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponce, D.A.; Blakely, R.J.; Morin, R.L.; Mankinen, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    An isostatic gravity map of the Death Valley groundwater model area was prepared from over 40,0000 gravity stations as part of an interagency effort by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Department of Energy to help characterize the geology and hydrology of southwest Nevada and parts of California.

  2. 77 FR 64033 - Establishment of the Ancient Lakes of Columbia Valley Viticultural Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... climate, geology, soils, physical features, and elevation, and that make the proposed viticultural area... of Columbia Valley Petition TTB received a petition from Joan R. Davenport, a professor of soil sciences at Washington State University, and Cameron Fries of White Heron Cellars, on behalf of...

  3. Geologic and hydrologic research at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, West Valley, New York. Final report, August 1982-December 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Albanese, J.R.; Anderson, S.L.; Fakundiny, R.H.; Potter, S.M.; Rogers, W.B.; Whitbeck, L.F.; LaFleur, R.G.; Boothroyd, J.C.; Timson, B.S.

    1984-06-01

    This report is the last in a series by the New York State Geological Survey on studies funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The report covers five important aspects of the geology and hydrology of the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, near West Valley, New York: geomorphology, stratigraphy, sedimentology, surface water, and radionuclide analyses. We reviewed past research on these subjects and present new data obtained in the final phase of NYSGS research at the site. Also presented are up-to-date summaries of the present knowledge of geomorphology and stratigraphy. The report contains a significant bibliography of previous West Valley studies. Appendices include a report on the Fall 1983 Drilling Project and the procedures used, history and prognosis of Cattaraugus Creek and tributaries down cutting, and bar modification and landslide processes of Buttermilk Valley. 100 references, 7 figures, 7 tables.

  4. Chemical and Physical Characterization of the First West Valley Demonstration Project High-Level Waste Feed Batch

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Ronald A.; Smith, Harry D.; Smith, Gary L.; Smith, Monty R.; Russell, Renee L.; Patello, Gertrude K.

    2002-10-07

    To support the West Valley Demonstration Project's (WVDP) Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR) and data needs associated with the support flowsheet, equipment, and process testing, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked to completely characterize a sample of the first batch of high-level waste (HLW) slurry transferred to the Concentrator Feed Make-Up Tank (CFMT) identified as CW-H. Cation, anion, and radionuclide concentrations as well as the slurry physical properties including density, total solids, and suspended solids were measured. This data will be compared to the predicted inventory of the waste. Also, laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma/mass spectroscopy (LA-ICP/MS) results for cation analysis will be compared to cation analysis results from inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Radionuclide analysis methods were developed during this work for iodine-129, selenium-79, actinium-227, and neptunium-236 and will also be presented.

  5. Evaluation of low-level radioactive waste characterization and classification programs of the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Taie, Karren R.

    1994-01-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is preparing to upgrade their low-level radioactive waste (LLW) characterization and classification program. This thesis describes a survey study of three other DOE sites conducted in support of this effort. The LLW characterization/classification programs of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory were critically evaluated. The evaluation was accomplished through tours of each site facility and personnel interviews. Comparative evaluation of the individual characterization/classification programs suggests the WVDP should purchase a real-time radiography unit and a passive/active neutron detection system, make additional mechanical modifications to the segmented gamma spectroscopy assay system, provide a separate building to house characterization equipment and perform assays away from waste storage, develop and document a new LLW characterization/classification methodology, and make use of the supercompactor owned by WVDP.

  6. Interventions against West Nile virus, Rift Valley fever virus, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus: where are we?

    PubMed

    Kortekaas, Jeroen; Ergönül, Onder; Moormann, Rob J M

    2010-10-01

    ARBO-ZOONET is an international network financed by the European Commission's seventh framework program. The major goal of this initiative is capacity building for the control of emerging viral vector-borne zoonotic diseases, with a clear focus on West Nile virus, Rift Valley fever virus, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. To evaluate the status quo of control measures against these viruses, an ARBO-ZOONET meeting was held in Istanbul, Turkey, from 19 to 20 November 2009. The symposium consisted of three themes: (1) vaccines: new and existing ones; (2) antivirals: existing and new developments; and (3) antivector vaccines. In addition, a satellite workshop was held on epidemiology and diagnosis. The meeting brought together foremost international experts on the subjects from both within and without the ARBO-ZOONET consortium. This report highlights selected results from these presentations and major conclusions that emanated from the discussions held.

  7. Analysis of surveillance systems in place in European Mediterranean countries for West Nile virus (WNV) and Rift Valley fever (RVF).

    PubMed

    Cito, F; Narcisi, V; Danzetta, M L; Iannetti, S; Sabatino, D D; Bruno, R; Carvelli, A; Atzeni, M; Sauro, F; Calistri, P

    2013-11-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) represent an important group of viral agents responsible for vector-borne zoonotic diseases constituting an emerging sanitary threat for the Mediterranean Basin and the neighbouring countries. WNV infection is present in several Mediterranean countries, whereas RVF has never been introduced into Europe, but it is considered a major threat for North African countries. Being vector-borne diseases, they cannot be prevented only through an animal trade control policy. Several approaches are used for the surveillance of WNV and RVFV. With the aim of assessing the surveillance systems in place in Mediterranean countries, two disease-specific questionnaires (WNV, RVFV) have been prepared and submitted to Public Health and Veterinary Authorities of six EU countries. This study presents the information gathered through the questionnaires and describes some critical points in the prevention and surveillance of these diseases as emerged by the answers received.

  8. Seroepidemiological Study of West Nile Virus and Rift Valley Fever Virus in Some of Mammalian Species (Herbivores) in Northern Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Albayrak, Harun; Ozan, Emre

    2013-01-01

    Background West Nile virus (WNV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) are mosquito-borne viral diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the RVFV and WNV infections as serologically in different mammalian species (cattle, horse, goat, sheep and water buffalo) in the northern Turkey. Methods: Blood samples randomly collected from 70 each cattle, horse, sheep, goat and water buffalo were analyzed for the presence of antibodies to RVFV and WNV using an competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA) in northern Turkey. Results: None of the animals were positive for antibodies to RVFV. In contrast, WNV antibodies were found in two of 350 samples (0.57%). Conclusion: This may suggest that the RVFV disease is not present in northern Turkey.This is the first serological study on RVFV in Turkey. PMID:23785699

  9. Evaluation of the potential for gas pressurization and free liquid accumulation in a canister from the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hazelton, R.F.; Thornhill, C.K.; Ross, W.A.

    1991-04-01

    A full-scale canister from the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) was tested to determine the potential for gas generation (non-radiolytic only) and liquid accumulation. The canister was sealed and held at a temperature of about 500{degree}C for eight weeks. Gas samples obtained during the test were analyzed using mass spectroscopy to determine the composition of gases within the canister. At the end of the eight weeks the canister gases were evacuated through a desiccant and cold trap to capture any water that had been released by the glass during the test. Gas samples obtained during the test showed that most of the oxygen was consumed. The glass itself was not found to be a significant source for free water at the conditions of the test. The amount of water recovered from the canister was calculated to be about 0.7 g. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Comparison of proteins specified by Murray Valley encephalitis, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and St. Louis encephalitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Wright, P J; Warr, H M

    1986-10-01

    The relationships among proteins specified by Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE), West Nile (WN), Japanese encephalitis (JE) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses were examined by peptide mapping. [3H]methionine-labelled tryptic peptides of viral proteins were separated by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the separation profiles for a given protein specified by the different viruses were compared. Analyses of the non-structural protein NV5 (P98 or NS5) suggested that WN and SLE were the most closely related pair of viruses, and that JE was the virus most distant from the other three. Analyses of the structural proteins C and E failed to show the close relationship between WN and SLE indicated by the NV5 results, but did suggest that NV5 was the most conserved and E the least conserved of the three proteins.

  11. Rock-avalanche dynamics revealed by large-scale field mapping and seismic signals at a highly mobile avalanche in the West Salt Creek valley, western Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coe, Jeffrey A.; Baum, Rex L.; Allstadt, Kate; Kochevar, Bernard; Schmitt, Robert G.; Morgan, Matthew L.; White, Jonathan L.; Stratton, Benjamin T.; Hayashi, Timothy A.; Kean, Jason W.

    2016-01-01

    On 25 May 2014, a rain-on-snow–induced rock avalanche occurred in the West Salt Creek valley on the northern flank of Grand Mesa in western Colorado (United States). The avalanche mobilized from a preexisting rock slide in the Green River Formation and traveled 4.6 km down the confined valley, killing three people. The avalanche was rare for the contiguous United States because of its large size (54.5 Mm3) and high mobility (height/length = 0.14). To understand the avalanche failure sequence, mechanisms, and mobility, we conducted a forensic analysis using large-scale (1:1000) structural mapping and seismic data. We used high-resolution, unmanned aircraft system imagery as a base for field mapping, and analyzed seismic data from 22 broadband stations (distances < 656 km from the rock-slide source area) and one short-period network. We inverted broadband data to derive a time series of forces that the avalanche exerted on the earth and tracked these forces using curves in the avalanche path. Our results revealed that the rock avalanche was a cascade of landslide events, rather than a single massive failure. The sequence began with an early morning landslide/debris flow that started ∼10 h before the main avalanche. The main avalanche lasted ∼3.5 min and traveled at average velocities ranging from 15 to 36 m/s. For at least two hours after the avalanche ceased movement, a central, hummock-rich core continued to move slowly. Since 25 May 2014, numerous shallow landslides, rock slides, and rock falls have created new structures and modified avalanche topography. Mobility of the main avalanche and central core was likely enhanced by valley floor material that liquefied from undrained loading by the overriding avalanche. Although the base was likely at least partially liquefied, our mapping indicates that the overriding avalanche internally deformed predominantly by sliding along discrete shear surfaces in material that was nearly dry and had substantial frictional

  12. Evaluation of methods for delineating areas that contribute water to wells completed in valley-fill aquifers in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risser, Dennis W.; Madden, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    Valley-fill aquifers in Pennsylvania are the source of drinking water for many wells in the glaciated parts of the State and along major river valleys. These aquifers area subject to contamination because of their shallow water-table depth and highly transmissive sediments. The possibility for contamination of water-supply wells in valley-fill aquifers can be minimized by excluding activities that could contaminate areas that contribute water to supply wells. An area that contributes water to a well is identified in this report as either an area of diversion, time-of-travel area, or contributing area. The area of diversion is a projection to land surface of the valley-fill aquifer volume through which water is diverted to a well and the time-of travel area is that fraction of the area of diversion through which water moves to the well in a specified time. The contributing area, the largest of three areas, includes the area of diversion but also incorporates bedrock uplands and other area that contribute water. Methods for delineating areas of diversion and contributing areas in valley-fill aquifers, described and compared in order of increasing complexity, include fixed radius, uniform flow, analytical, semianalytical, and numerical modeling. Delineated areas are considered approximations because the hydraulic properties and boundary conditions of the real ground-water system are simplified even in the most complex numerical methods. Successful application of any of these methods depends on the investigator's understanding of the hydrologic system in and near the well field, and the limitations of the method. The hydrologic system includes not only the valley-fill aquifer but also the regional surface-water and ground-water flow systems within which the valley is situated. As shown by numerical flow simulations of a well field in the valley-fill aquifer along Marsh Creek Valley near Asaph, Pa., water from upland bedrock sources can provide nearly all the water

  13. Culex pipiens, an Experimental Efficient Vector of West Nile and Rift Valley Fever Viruses in the Maghreb Region

    PubMed Central

    Amraoui, Fadila; Krida, Ghazi; Bouattour, Ali; Rhim, Adel; Daaboub, Jabeur; Harrat, Zoubir; Boubidi, Said-Chawki; Tijane, Mhamed; Sarih, Mhammed; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2012-01-01

    West Nile fever (WNF) and Rift Valley fever (RVF) are emerging diseases causing epidemics outside their natural range of distribution. West Nile virus (WNV) circulates widely and harmlessly in the old world among birds as amplifying hosts, and horses and humans as accidental dead-end hosts. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) re-emerges periodically in Africa causing massive outbreaks. In the Maghreb, eco-climatic and entomologic conditions are favourable for WNV and RVFV emergence. Both viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes belonging to the Culex pipiens complex. We evaluated the ability of different populations of Cx. pipiens from North Africa to transmit WNV and the avirulent RVFV Clone 13 strain. Mosquitoes collected in Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia during the summer 2010 were experimentally infected with WNV and RVFV Clone 13 strain at titers of 107.8 and 108.5 plaque forming units/mL, respectively. Disseminated infection and transmission rates were estimated 14–21 days following the exposure to the infectious blood-meal. We show that 14 days after exposure to WNV, all mosquito st developed a high disseminated infection and were able to excrete infectious saliva. However, only 69.2% of mosquito strains developed a disseminated infection with RVFV Clone 13 strain, and among them, 77.8% were able to deliver virus through saliva. Thus, Cx. pipiens from the Maghreb are efficient experimental vectors to transmit WNV and to a lesser extent, RVFV Clone 13 strain. The epidemiologic importance of our findings should be considered in the light of other parameters related to mosquito ecology and biology. PMID:22693557

  14. Culex pipiens, an experimental efficient vector of West Nile and Rift Valley fever viruses in the Maghreb region.

    PubMed

    Amraoui, Fadila; Krida, Ghazi; Bouattour, Ali; Rhim, Adel; Daaboub, Jabeur; Harrat, Zoubir; Boubidi, Said-Chawki; Tijane, Mhamed; Sarih, Mhammed; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2012-01-01

    West Nile fever (WNF) and Rift Valley fever (RVF) are emerging diseases causing epidemics outside their natural range of distribution. West Nile virus (WNV) circulates widely and harmlessly in the old world among birds as amplifying hosts, and horses and humans as accidental dead-end hosts. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) re-emerges periodically in Africa causing massive outbreaks. In the Maghreb, eco-climatic and entomologic conditions are favourable for WNV and RVFV emergence. Both viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes belonging to the Culex pipiens complex. We evaluated the ability of different populations of Cx. pipiens from North Africa to transmit WNV and the avirulent RVFV Clone 13 strain. Mosquitoes collected in Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia during the summer 2010 were experimentally infected with WNV and RVFV Clone 13 strain at titers of 10(7.8) and 10(8.5) plaque forming units/mL, respectively. Disseminated infection and transmission rates were estimated 14-21 days following the exposure to the infectious blood-meal. We show that 14 days after exposure to WNV, all mosquito st developed a high disseminated infection and were able to excrete infectious saliva. However, only 69.2% of mosquito strains developed a disseminated infection with RVFV Clone 13 strain, and among them, 77.8% were able to deliver virus through saliva. Thus, Cx. pipiens from the Maghreb are efficient experimental vectors to transmit WNV and to a lesser extent, RVFV Clone 13 strain. The epidemiologic importance of our findings should be considered in the light of other parameters related to mosquito ecology and biology.

  15. Ground-water areas and well logs, central Sevier Valley, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, Richard A.

    1960-01-01

    Between September 1959 and June 1960 the United States Geological Survey and the Utah State Engineer, with financial assistance from Garfield, Millard, Piute, Sanpete, and Sevier Counties and from local water-users’ associations, cooperated in an investigation to determine the structural framework of the central Sevier Valley and to evaluate the valley’s ground-water potential. An important aspect of the study was the drilling of 22 test holes under private contract. These data and other data collected during the course of the larger ground-water investigation of which the test drilling was a part will be evaluated in a report on the geology and ground-water resources of the central Sevier Valley. The present report has been prepared to make available the logs of test holes and to describe in general terms the availability of ground water in the different areas of the valley.

  16. Investigation of Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources in the Sonoma Valley Area, California

    SciTech Connect

    Youngs, Leslie G.; Chapman, Rodger H.; Chase, Gordon W.; Bezore, Stephen P.; Majmundar, Hasu H.

    1983-01-01

    The Sonoma Valley area contains low-temperature geothermal resources (20 C {le} T {le} 90 C) having the potential for useful development. Sonoma Valley residents, local governments and institutions, private developers, and manufacturers may be able to utilize the geothermal resources as an alternate energy source. Historically, there have been at least six geothermal spring areas developed in the Sonoma Valley. Four of these (Boyes Hot Springs, Fetter's Hot Springs, Agua Caliente Springs, and the Sonoma State Hospital warm spring) lie on a linear trend extending northwestward from the City of Sonoma. Detailed geophysical surveys delineated a major fault trace along the east side of the Sonoma Valley in association with the historic geothermal areas. Other fault traces were also delineated revealing a general northwest-trending structural faulting fabric underlying the valley. Water wells located near the ''east side'' fault have relatively high boron concentrations. Geochemical evidence may suggest the ''east side'' fault presents a barrier to lateral fluid migration but is a conduit for ascending fluids. Fifteen of the twenty-nine geothermal wells or springs located from literature research or field surveys are located along or east of this major fault in a 10 km (6.2 miles) long, narrow zone. The highest recorded water temperature in the valley appears to be 62.7 C (145 F) at 137.2 meters (450 feet) in a well at Boyes Hot Springs. This is consistent with the geothermal reservoir temperature range of 52-77 C (126-171 F) indicated by geothermometry calculations performed on data from wells in the area. Interpretation of data indicates a low-temperature geothermal fluid upwelling or ''plume'', along the ''east side'' fault with subsequent migration into permeable aquifers predominantly within volcanic strata. It is quite likely other geothermal fluid ''plumes'' in association with faulting are present within the Sonoma Valley area. A 5.8 km{sup 2} geothermal zone

  17. Hydrogeology of the Helena Valley-fill aquifer system, west-central Montana. Water resources investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Briar, D.W.; Madison, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    The report, which presents the study results, describes the hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer system. Specific objectives were to: describe the geometry and the hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer system; define the potentiometric surface and the direction of ground-water flow; locate and quantify sources of ground-water recharge and discharge including surface- and ground-water interactions; and characterize the water quality in terms of susceptibility of the aquifer system to contamination and in terms of concentrations, distribution, and sources of major ions, trace elements, and organic compounds. The results of the study will be useful to the development of a comprehensive management program for the use and protection of the ground-water resources of the Helena Valley.

  18. 77 FR 56541 - Establishment of the Inwood Valley Viticultural Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... viticultural areas to allow vintners to better describe the origin of their wines and to allow consumers to better identify wines they may purchase. DATES: Effective Date: October 15, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... for the labeling of wine, distilled spirits, and malt beverages. The FAA Act provides that...

  19. 36 CFR 7.17 - Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Recreation Area. (a) Alcoholic beverages—(1) Possession. The possession or consumption of a bottle, can, or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage which has been opened, a seal broken, or the contents... authorized by the superintendent as to time and place. (2) Definition—Alcoholic beverages. Any...

  20. 36 CFR 7.17 - Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Recreation Area. (a) Alcoholic beverages—(1) Possession. The possession or consumption of a bottle, can, or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage which has been opened, a seal broken, or the contents... authorized by the superintendent as to time and place. (2) Definition—Alcoholic beverages. Any...

  1. 36 CFR 7.17 - Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Recreation Area. (a) Alcoholic beverages—(1) Possession. The possession or consumption of a bottle, can, or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage which has been opened, a seal broken, or the contents... authorized by the superintendent as to time and place. (2) Definition—Alcoholic beverages. Any...

  2. The epidemiology of onchocerciasis in the Tukuyu Valley, South West Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, E M; Kolstrup, N

    1986-03-01

    In the Tukuyu valley in Tanzania 21 villages were surveyed and 2,043 people were examined. In total village populations aged 1 year and over, the highest prevalence of 62.8% (49/78) was found near the Lufilyo River, corresponding to the highest transmission potential. Villages with higher endemicity were not found and there was no difference in blindness rates between villages with little or onchocerciasis and those with mesoendemic onchocerciasis.

  3. Geologic Map of the Warm Spring Canyon Area, Death Valley National Park, Inyo County, California, With a Discussion of the Regional Significance of the Stratigraphy and Structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wrucke, Chester T.; Stone, Paul; Stevens, Calvin H.

    2007-01-01

    Warm Spring Canyon is located in the southeastern part of the Panamint Range in east-central California, 54 km south of Death Valley National Park headquarters at Furnace Creek Ranch. For the relatively small size of the area mapped (57 km2), an unusual variety of Proterozoic and Phanerozoic rocks is present. The outcrop distribution of these rocks largely resulted from movement on the east-west-striking, south-directed Butte Valley Thrust Fault of Jurassic age. The upper plate of the thrust fault comprises a basement of Paleoproterozoic schist and gneiss overlain by a thick sequence of Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic rocks, the latter of which includes diamictite generally considered to be of glacial origin. The lower plate is composed of Devonian to Permian marine formations overlain by Jurassic volcanic and sedimentary rocks. Late Jurassic or Early Cretaceous plutons intrude rocks of the area, and one pluton intrudes the Butte Valley Thrust Fault. Low-angle detachment faults of presumed Tertiary age underlie large masses of Neoproterozoic dolomite in parts of the area. Movement on these faults predated emplacement of middle Miocene volcanic rocks in deep, east-striking paleovalleys. Excellent exposures of all the rocks and structural features in the area result from sparse vegetation in the dry desert climate and from deep erosion along Warm Spring Canyon and its tributaries.

  4. BIG SANDY, WEST ELLIOTTS CREEK, AND REED BRAKE ROADLESS AREAS, ALABAMA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, Sam H.; Armstrong, Michelle K.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral surveys done in the Big Sandy, West Elliotts Creek, and Reed Brake Roadless Areas, Alabama, indicate that the areas have little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. The three areas, however, have a probable potential for oil or gas. Probable coal resource potential exists in the Big Sandy and the West Elliotts Creek Roadless Areas. Clay and abundant sand resources occur in the roadless areas. Clayey sand has been used to stabilize roads and in road grade construction.

  5. Hydrogeology of Valley-Fill Aquifers and Adjacent Areas in Eastern Chemung County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heisig, Paul M.

    2015-10-19

    Water-resource potential is greatest within saturated sand and gravel in the Chemung River valley (nearly 1 mile wide), especially where induced infiltration of additional water from the Chemung River is possible. The second most favorable area is the Newtown Creek valley at the confluence of Newtown Creek with North Branch Newtown Creek east of Horseheads, N.Y. Extensive sand and gravel deposits within the Breesport, N.Y., area are largely unsaturated but may have greater saturation along the east side of Jackson Creek immediately north of Breesport. Till deposits confine sand and gravel along Newtown Creek at Erin, N.Y., and along much of the upper reach of North Branch Newtown Creek; this confining unit may limit recharge and potential well yield. The north-south oriented valleys of Baldwin and Wynkoop Creeks end at notched divides that imply input of glacial meltwater and limited sediment from outside of the present watersheds. These two valleys are relatively narrow but contain variably sorted sand and gravel, which, in places, may be capable of supplying modest-size community water systems.

  6. 33 CFR 334.610 - Key West Harbor, at U.S. Naval Base, Key West, Fla.; naval restricted areas and danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Base, Key West, Fla.; naval restricted areas and danger zone. 334.610 Section 334.610 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.610 Key West Harbor, at U.S. Naval Base, Key West, Fla.; naval restricted... Harry S. Truman Annex, beginning at a point on the shore at Latitude 24°32′45.3″ N., Longitude...

  7. Triggered surface slips in the Coachella Valley area associated with the 1992 Joshua Tree and Landers, California, Earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rymer, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    The Coachella Valley area was strongly shaken by the 1992 Joshua Tree (23 April) and Landers (28 June) earthquakes, and both events caused triggered slip on active faults within the area. Triggered slip associated with the Joshua Tree earthquake was on a newly recognized fault, the East Wide Canyon fault, near the southwestern edge of the Little San Bernardino Mountains. Slip associated with the Landers earthquake formed along the San Andreas fault in the southeastern Coachella Valley. Surface fractures formed along the East Wide Canyon fault in association with the Joshua Tree earthquake. The fractures extended discontinuously over a 1.5-km stretch of the fault, near its southern end. Sense of slip was consistently right-oblique, west side down, similar to the long-term style of faulting. Measured offset values were small, with right-lateral and vertical components of slip ranging from 1 to 6 mm and 1 to 4 mm, respectively. This is the first documented historic slip on the East Wide Canyon fault, which was first mapped only months before the Joshua Tree earthquake. Surface slip associated with the Joshua Tree earthquake most likely developed as triggered slip given its 5 km distance from the Joshua Tree epicenter and aftershocks. As revealed in a trench investigation, slip formed in an area with only a thin (<3 m thick) veneer of alluvium in contrast to earlier documented triggered slip events in this region, all in the deep basins of the Salton Trough. A paleoseismic trench study in an area of 1992 surface slip revealed evidence of two and possibly three surface faulting events on the East Wide Canyon fault during the late Quaternary, probably latest Pleistocene (first event) and mid- to late Holocene (second two events). About two months after the Joshua Tree earthquake, the Landers earthquake then triggered slip on many faults, including the San Andreas fault in the southeastern Coachella Valley. Surface fractures associated with this event formed discontinuous

  8. Geology and hydrology of the West Milton area, Saratoga County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Frederick K.; Pauszek, F.H.; Crippen, John R.

    1964-01-01

    This report describes the geology, ground-water conditions, streamflow characteristics, and quality of water in the West Milton area, Saratoga County, N.Y. The West Milton area is in the east-central part of New York in the hilly region that forms a transition zone between the Adirondack Mountains and the Hudson-Mohawk valley lowland. Bedrock underlying the area consists of crystalline rocks of Precambrian age and sandstone, dolomite, limestone, and shale formations of Cambrian and Ordovician age. The formations have been moderately folded and have been displaced as much as several hundred feet' along at least three northeast-trending normal faults. The bedrock is overlain in nearly all parts of the area by a layer of unconsolidated deposits which ranges in thickness from a few feet to more than 200 feet. The unconsolidated deposits are of Pleistocene age and consist of unstratified materials (till) laid down by glacial ice at stratified sediments deposited by glacial meltwaters. The topography of the bedrock surface differs greatly from the topography of the land surface. Although not evident in the present topography, at least two channels, cut in bedrock by preglacial streams, pass through the area. Ground-water supplies adequate to satisfy domestic requirements can be obtained from wells in any part of the area. Large ground-water supplies may be taken from coarse-grained stratified deposits comprising two aquifers in the valley of Kayaderosseras Creek. The Atomic Energy Commission has pumped as much as 1 mgd from a horizontal well drawing from the uppermost aquifer which is composed of flood-plain deposits. Part of the water yielded by this well during extended periods of pumping is induced flow from the creek. Three nearby vertical wells drilled by the Commission comprise a separate well field capable of yielding at least 2 mgd and possibly as much as 3 mgd from the deeper stratified deposits underlying the valley. A pumping test showed that at near the

  9. Large quaternary landslides in the central appalachian valley and ridge province near Petersburg, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Southworth C.

    1988-01-01

    Geological mapping and photointerpretation of side-looking airborne radar images and color-infrared aerial photographs reveal two large Quaternary landslides in the Valley and Ridge province of the central Appalachians near Petersburg, W. Va. The Elkhorn Mountain rock avalanche occurs on the thrust-faulted northwestern flank of the Elkhorn Mountain anticlinorium. A minimum of 7 ?? 106 m3 of quartzite colluvium was transported more than 3 km from a 91 m high escarpment of Silurian Tuscarora Quartzite. The extensively vegetated deposit may owe, in part, its transport and weathering to periglacial conditions during the Pleistocene. In contrast, the Gap Mountain rock block slide is a single allochthonous block that is 1.2 km long, 0.6 km wide, and at least 60 m thick. The 43 ?? 106 m3 block is composed of limestone of the Helderberg Group and the Oriskany Sanstone of Early Devonian age. Planar detachment probably occurred along a dissolution bedding plane near the Shriver Chert and the Oriskany Sandstone contact. Failure probably was initiated by downcutting of the South Branch Potomac River during the Pleistocene. Landslides of this magnitude suggest accelerated erosion during periglacial climates in the Pleistocene. The recognition of these large slope failures may provide evidence of paleoclimatic conditions and, thereby, increase our understanding of the geomorphologic development of the Valley and Ridge province. ?? 1988.

  10. Comparison of storm response of streams in small, unmined and valley-filled watersheds, 1999-2001, Ballard fork, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Messinger, Terence

    2003-01-01

    During storms when rainfall intensity exceeded about 1 inch per hour, peak unit runoff from the Unnamed Tributary (surface-mined and filled) Watershed exceeded peak unit runoff from the Spring Branch (unmined) Watershed in the Ballard Fork Watershed in southern West Virginia. During most storms, those with intensity less than about 1 inch per hour, peak unit (area-normalized) flows were greater from the Spring Branch Watershed than the Unnamed Tributary Watershed. One storm that produced less than an inch of rain before flow from the previous storm had receded caused peak unit flow from the Unnamed Tributary Watershed to exceed peak unit flow from the Spring Branch Watershed. Peak unit flow was usually similar in Spring Branch and Ballard Fork. Peak unit flows are expected to decrease with increasing watershed size in homogeneous watersheds; drainage area and proportion of the three watersheds covered by valley fills are 0.19 square mile (mi?) and 44 percent for the Unnamed Tributary Watershed, 0.53 mi? and 0 percent for the Spring Branch Watershed, and 2.12 mi? and 12 percent for the Ballard Fork Watershed. Following all storms with sufficient rainfall intensity, about 0.25 inches per hour, the storm hydrograph from the Unnamed Tributary Watershed showed a double peak, as a sharp initial rise was followed by a decrease in flow and then a delayed secondary peak of water that had apparently flowed through the valley fill. Hortonian (excess overland) flow may be important in the Unnamed Tributary Watershed during intense storms, and may cause the initial peak on the rising arm of storm hydrographs; the water composing the initial peaks may be conveyed by drainage structures on the mine. Ballard Fork and Spring Branch had hydrographs with single peaks, typical of elsewhere in West Virginia. During all storms with 1-hour rainfall greater than 0.75 inches or 24-hour rainfall greater than 1.75 inches during which all stream gages recorded a complete record, the Unnamed

  11. Hydrogeology and Ground-Water Flow in the Opequon Creek Watershed area, Virginia and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozar, Mark D.; Weary, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Due to increasing population and economic development in the northern Shenandoah Valley of Virginia and West Virginia, water availability has become a primary concern for water-resource managers in the region. To address these issues, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the West Virginia Department of Health and Human Services and the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, developed a numerical steady-state simulation of ground-water flow for the 1,013-square-kilometer Opequon Creek watershed area. The model was based on data aggregated for several recently completed and ongoing USGS hydrogeologic investigations conducted in Jefferson, Berkeley, and Morgan Counties in West Virginia and Clarke, Frederick, and Warren Counties in Virginia. A previous detailed hydrogeologic assessment of the watershed area of Hopewell Run (tributary to the Opequon Creek), which includes the USGS Leetown Science Center in Jefferson County, West Virginia, provided key understanding of ground-water flow processes in the aquifer. The ground-water flow model developed for the Opequon Creek watershed area is a steady-state, three-layer representation of ground-water flow in the region. The primary objective of the simulation was to develop water budgets for average and drought hydrologic conditions. The simulation results can provide water managers with preliminary estimates on which water-resource decisions may be based. Results of the ground-water flow simulation of the Opequon Creek watershed area indicate that hydrogeologic concepts developed for the Hopewell Run watershed area can be extrapolated to the larger watershed model. Sensitivity analyses conducted as part of the current modeling effort and geographic information system analyses of spring location and yield reveal that thrust and cross-strike faults and low-permeability bedding, which provide structural and lithologic controls, respectively, on ground-water flow, must be incorporated into the

  12. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Leetown area, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozar, Mark D.; McCoy, Kurt J.; Weary, David J.; Field, Malcolm S.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Schill, William Bane; Young, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s Leetown Science Center and the co-located U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture both depend on large volumes of cold clean ground water to support research operations at their facilities. Currently, ground-water demands are provided by three springs and two standby production wells used to augment supplies during periods of low spring flow. Future expansion of research operations at the Leetown Science Center is dependent on assessing the availability and quality of water to the facilities and in locating prospective sites for additional wells to augment existing water supplies. The hydrogeology of the Leetown area, West Virginia, is a structurally complex karst aquifer. Although the aquifer is a karst system, it is not typical of most highly cavernous karst systems, but is dominated by broad areas of fractured rock drained by a relatively small number of solution conduits. Characterization of the aquifer by use of fluorometric tracer tests, a common approach in most karst terranes, therefore only partly defines the hydrogeologic setting of the area. In order to fully assess the hydrogeology and water quality in the vicinity of Leetown, a multi-disciplinary approach that included both fractured rock and karst research components was needed. The U.S. Geological Survey developed this multi-disciplinary research effort to include geologic, hydrologic, geophysical, geographic, water-quality, and microbiological investigations in order to fully characterize the hydrogeology and water quality of the Leetown area, West Virginia. Detailed geologic and karst mapping provided the framework on which hydrologic investigations were based. Fracture trace and lineament analysis helped locate potential water-bearing fractures and guided installation of monitoring wells. Monitoring wells were drilled for borehole geophysical surveys, water-quality sampling, water-level measurements, and aquifer tests to

  13. Importance of migrants infected with Onchocerca volvulus in west African river valleys protected by 14 to 15 years of Simulium control.

    PubMed

    De Sole, G; Remme, J

    1991-06-01

    A study was done to determine the importance of human migration from non-controlled endemic onchocerciasis foci to the river valleys that have been protected for the past 14 to 15 years by the vector control operations of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa. The aim of the study was to assess the contribution of migrants to the prevalence and intensity of infection in villages from 5 major river valleys and their potential role in causing relapse of transmission once the vector is allowed to return. In Burkina Faso the migrant population varied from 0.0% to 18.1% of the village population, and averaged 4.9%. Migrants accounted only for 0.6% of the population in Ghanaian and Ivorian villages along the Black Volta river. The prevalence of infection was significantly higher in migrants (8.2%) than in non migrants (1.1%) in the surveyed villages in Burkina Faso, and 1.5% of migrants had infections with more than 16 microfilariae per snip as against 0.2% of non migrants. Nearly all infected migrants came from the south of the Côte d'Ivoire. The study shows that human migration has caused the importation of Onchocerca volvulus from non-controlled areas. However, the epidemiological importance of this phenomenon is limited because of the very small number of infected migrants per village while two-third of the infected migrants are believed to be infected with the less pathogenic forest strain of the parasite. Because migration patterns changes geographically and over time similar studies will be continued on a regular basis.

  14. Development and analysis of regional curves for streams in the non-urban valley and ridge physiographic province, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keaton, Jefferson N.; Messinger, Terence; Doheny, Edward J.

    2005-01-01

    Regression relations for bankfull stream characteristics based on drainage area (often called 'regional curves') are used in natural stream channel design to verify field determinations of bankfull discharge and stream channel characteristics. Bankfull stream characteristics were assessed for stream reaches at 41 streamflow-gaging stations in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province in Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia. Data collected included bankfull cross-sectional geometry, flood plain geometry, and longitudinal profile data. In addition, particle-size distributions of streambed material were determined and data on basin characteristics were compiled for each reach. Regional curves were developed for bankfull cross-sectional area, width, and discharge with R2 values of 0.95, 0.89, 0.87, and 0.91, respectively. Examination of the regional curves residuals indicates that there is more variability in bankfull cross-sectional area, width, and discharge for smaller streams than for larger streams. In contrast, there is more variability for bankfull mean depth for larger streams than for smaller streams. Geographic analysis of regional curve residuals indicated that there were no further subdivisions within the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province in the three-state study area for which individual sets of regional curves should be developed. In addition, two separate sets of regional curves were developed with data from the 41 sites to examine potential differences in the relations between the southern (n = 9) and central (n = 32) sections of the province. There were differences in slope and intercept between the two bankfull discharge test relations and a difference in intercept for the width test relations at the 95-percent confidence level. However, the results of this analysis were inconclusive and therefore one set of regional curves for the study area is presented in this report. The regional curves were compared to regression models developed from

  15. A Photogrammetric Approach to Measuring Temporal Change in Tree Kill Areas at Mammoth Mountain and Long Valley Caldera, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clor, L. E.; Barefoot, J. D.; Hurwitz, S.; Diefenbach, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    A zone of dead trees and bare ground near Horseshoe Lake on the southeast flank of Mammoth Mountain in California is attributed to high emissions of volcanic CO2 and has been characterized and studied since the 1990s. Measurements of diffuse CO2 emissions have been made since 1994, but tree kills occurred following a large earthquake swarm in 1989 and before these first measurements. In order to track vegetation changes over time, fifteen aerial images of the Horseshoe Lake tree kill from 1951 to 2014 were analyzed using photogrammetric techniques which allow us to quantify the extent of bare ground and provide an indirect analysis of tree mortality, possibly related to CO2 emissions. The aerial images were assigned a uniform spatial reference, then image pixels were classified into two main categories, trees or bare ground, and the aerial extent quantified using the GIS software ArcMap. Between 1951 and 1987, there was little change in area of bare ground or tree density near Horseshoe Lake. The tree kill area appeared in 1992 and expanded rapidly to about 0.20 km2 by 1998, which is similar to its present extent. In images from 2012 and onward, a large increase in bare ground was identified and correlated with a powerful windstorm that occurred in 2011. Overlaying CO2 flux maps on the GIS classified images shows that the area of diffuse emission generally correlates with the tree kill area. This method was applied to imagery of thermal tree kill areas within Long Valley Caldera as well. Tree kill near Shady Rest Park in Mammoth Lakes expanded incrementally to the east, southeast and west between 1993 and 2014 to its present extent of about 0.053 km2, but this area also includes significant tree thinning by the city. In Basalt Canyon, southeast of Shady Rest, tree kill area has slowly expanded since 1995 to its present extent of about 0.041 km2.

  16. Paleoenvironmental aspects of middle ordovician (Black River and Trenton) carbonates; Germany Valley, Pendleton County, West Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, B. D., III

    The McGraw/McGlone and Nealmont Limestones and the Dolly Ridge Formation in Germany Valley were deposited on a gentle carbonate slope. Five suites of microfacies were recognized: micrites, biomicrites, echinoderm bryozoan biosparites, biosparites (with biopelsparites and intrabiopelsparites), and pelsparites. The micrites were deposited in quiet water environments at all depths. Normal salinity and open circulation prevailed, and the substrate consistency varied from soupy to firm. Terrigenous influxes were partly responsible for low abundances of organisms. The biomicrites were patches of organisms inhabiting these mud substrata, and graded laterally into the micrites. Water movement occurred, but energy was low. The echinoderm bryozoan biosparites were deposited as localized, high energy, wave base sands. Water was shallow and salinity and circulation were open marine. The shifting sand produced an unstable substratum.

  17. Mortality rates among chemical workers in the Kanawha Valley of West Virginia: 1940-1999.

    PubMed

    Burns, Carol J; Jammer, B L; Bodnar, C M

    2006-01-01

    To expand a cohort of chemical workers in the Kanawha Valley, we conducted a study of 33,225 workers who were employed at three locations between 1940 and 1999. We observed no increase in overall cancer mortality. Higher risk estimates were observed for lymphosarcoma and reticulosarcoma among hourly employees who worked at the Institute or South Charleston locations. This finding was limited to men hired before 1960. We observed no new cases of angiosarcoma of the liver, a cause of death previously reported in association with vinyl chloride production at the South Charleston location. Specific risk factors for lymphosarcoma and reticulosarcoma have not been identified in previous targeted studies of this population and it is unlikely that additional cause-specific research will elucidate the etiology. Updates of the entire cohort will continue and can be used as a comparison population for chemical specific studies within these three plants.

  18. Ground-water conditions in the Grand County area, Utah, with emphasis on the Mill Creek-Spanish Valley area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchard, Paul J.

    1990-01-01

    The Grand County area includes all of Grand County, the Mill Creek and Pack Creek drainages in San Juan County, and the area between the Colorado and Green Rivers in San Juan County. The Grand County area includes about 3,980 square miles, and the Mill Creek-Spanish Valley area includes about 44 square miles. The three principal consolidated-rock aquifers in the Grand County area are the Entrada, Navajo, and Wingate aquifers in the Entrada Sandstone, the Navajo Sandstone, and the Wingate Sandstone, and the principal consolidated-rock aquifer in the Mill Creek-Spanish Valley area is the Glen Canyon aquifer in the Glen Canyon Group, comprised of the Navajo Sandstone, the Kayenta Formation, and the Wingate Sandstone.Recharge to the Entrada, Navajo, and Glen Canyon aquifers typically occurs where the formations containing the aquifers crop out or are overlain by unconsolidated sand deposits. Recharge is enhanced where the sand deposits are saturated at a depth of more than about 6 feet below the land surface, and the effects of evaporation begin to decrease rapidly with depth. Recharge to the Wingate aquifer typically occurs by downward movement of water from the Navajo aquifer through the Kayenta Formation, and primarily occurs where the Navajo Sandstone, Kayenta Formation, and the Wingate Sandstone are fractured.

  19. Descriptions and chemical analyses for selected wells in the Tehama-Colusa Canal Service Area, Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogelman, Ronald P.

    1975-01-01

    The Tehama-Colusa Canal Service Area is in the northwestern part of the Sacramento Valley, in parts of Yolo, Colusa, Glenn, and Tehama Counties. The area includes 450 square miles (1,160 square kilometres). The boundaries are: West, the eastern slopes of the Coast Ranges; north, Elder Creek; northeast, the Sacramento River and the Glenn-Colusa Canal; east and southeast, the Colusa Basin Drainage Canal; and south, Oat Creek. Between April and July 1974, 393 wells were selectively canvassed and between August and October 1974, water samples were collected for chemical analysis from 222 wells of the 393 wells canvassed. Field determinations of alkalinity, conductance, pH, and temperature were made on the site at the time of sampling. The samples were then field prepared for shipment and analysis for individual constituents at the Geological Survey Central Laboratory, Salt Lake City, Utah. Descriptive data for water wells are listed in table 1, chemical data in tables 2 and 3, and the location of these wells is shown on maps 1-28.

  20. Geology and geophysics of the southern Raft River Valley geothermal area, Idaho, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Paul L.; Mabey, Don R.; Zohdy, Adel A.R.; Hans, Ackerman; Hoover, Donald B.; Pierce, Kenneth L.; Oriel, Steven S.

    1976-01-01

    The Raft River valley, near the boundary of the Snake River plain with the Basin and Range province, is a north-trending late Cenozoic downwarp bounded by faults on the west, south, and east. Pleistocene alluvium and Miocene-Pliocene tuffaceous sediments, conglomerate, and felsic volcanic rocks aggregate 2 km in thickness. Large gravity, magnetic, and total field resistivity highs probably indicate a buried igneous mass that is too old to serve as a heat source. Differing seismic velocities relate to known or inferred structures and to a suspected shallow zone of warm water. Resistivity anomalies reflect differences of both composition and degree of alteration of Cenozoic rocks. Resistivity soundings show a 2 to 5 ohm·m unit with a thickness of 1 km beneath a large part of the valley, and the unit may indicate partly hot water and partly clayey sediments. Observed self-potential anomalies are believed to indicate zones where warm water rises toward the surface. Boiling wells at Bridge, Idaho are near the intersection of north-northeast normal faults which have moved as recently as the late (?) Pleistocene, and an east-northeast structure, probably a right-lateral fault. Deep circulation of ground water in this region of relatively high heat flow and upwelling along faults is the probable cause of the thermal anomaly.

  1. Hazard connected to tunnel construction in Mt Stena karstic area (Rosandra Valley, Classical Karst)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucchi, F.; Boschin, W.; Visintin, L.; Zini, L.

    2009-04-01

    Rosandra Valley -a unique geomorphological environment- is located in the western side of the Classical Karst plateau. This deep limestone gorge is crossed by a stream that is fed by a large basin located in Slovenia. Rosandra Valley is the only example of Classical Karst river valley with surface hydrography; the torrent digs a deep gully into the rock, rich in rapids, swirl holes, small waterfalls, enclosed meanders and basins; here, the first seepage phenomena occur, and part of the water feeds the underground aquifer. Rosandra Valley is theatre to complex structural situation; the NE slope culminates in the structure of Mt Stena, a limestone tectonic scale located between two faults and firmly rooted in the karst platform. Tectonics is quite important for the development of deep karst in this area; Mt Stena, in particular, hosts a comprehensive net of articulated and diversely shaped caves, basically organised on several levels, which stretches over a total of 9,000 metres, bearing testimony to ancient geological and hydrogeological origins. The deepest areas of the system reach a suspended aquifer that is probably sustained by an overthrust and placed about 100 meters above Rosandra torrent underground aquifer. During feasibility studies about Trieste-Divača high velocity railway link, interaction between project and karst features was examined; in fact the proximity of proposal project and Mt Stena karst system suggest to improve the knowledge related to karst and hydrogeological aspects of the massif. Compatibly with the project requirements, risk of voids intersection and water contamination were analyzed. In fact the Mt Stena suspended aquifer partially feeds Rosandra torrent which flows in a protected natural area. Karst features were represented in a 3D model in order to better understand the spatial relationship between railway project and karst system.

  2. Environmental assessment for the salvage/demolition of 200 West Area, 200 East Area, and 300 Area steam plants

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This environmental assessment has been prepared to assess potential environmental impacts associated with the US Department of Energy`s proposed action: the salvage/demolition of the 200 West Area, 200 East Area, and 300 Area Steam Plants and steam distribution piping. Impact information will be used by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office Manager, to determine if the proposed action is a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the proposed action is determined to be major and significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the proposed action is determined not to be major and significant, a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) will be issued and the action can proceed. The proposed action involves the salvage and demolition of the 200 West Area, 200 East Are, and 300 Area steam plants and their associated steam distribution piping, equipment, and ancillary facilities. Activities include the salvaging and recycling of all materials, wastes, and equipment where feasible, with waste minimization efforts utilized.

  3. Results of a shallow seismic-refraction survey in the Little Valley area near Hemet, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duell, L.F.

    1995-01-01

    Little Valley, a small locally named valley southeast of the city of Hemet in Riverside County, California, is being evaluated for development of a constructed wetland and infiltration area as part of a water-resources management program in the area. The valley is a granitic basin filled with unconsolidated material. In August 1993 and June and July 1994, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a seismic-refraction survey consisting of four lines northwest of the valley, eight lines in the valley, and six lines northeast of the valley. Two interpretations were made for the lines: a two-layer model yielded an estimate of the minimum depths to bedrock and a three-layer model yielded the most likely depths to bedrock. Results of the interpretation of the three-layer model indicate that the unsaturated unconsolidated surface layer ranges in thickness from 12 to 83 feet in the valley and 24 to 131 feet northeast of the valley. The mean compressional velocity for this layer was about 1,660 feet per second. A saturated middle layer was detected in some parts of the study area, but not in others--probably because of insufficient thickness in some places; however, in order to determine the "most likely" depths to bedrock, it was assumed that the layer was present throughout the valley. Depths to this layer were verified on three seismic lines using the water level from the only well in the valley. Data for additional verification were not available for wells near Little Valley. The bedrock slope from most of Little Valley is down toward the northeast. Bedrock profiles show that the bedrock surface is very uneven in the study area. The interpreted most likely depth to bedrock in the valley ranged from land surface (exposed) to a depth of 176 feet below land surface, and northeast of the valley it ranged from 118 to 331 feet below land surface. Bedrock depths were verified using lithologic logs from test holes drilled previously in the area. On the basis of a measured mean

  4. Long-term management of liquid high-level radioactive wastes stored at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, West Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-07-01

    Environmental implications of possible alternatives for long-term management of the liquid high-level radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks in West Valley, New York were assessed and compared. Four basic alternatives, as well as options within these alternatives, considered in the EIS: (1) onsite processing to a terminal waste form for shipment and disposal in a federa repository; (2) onsite conversion to a solid interim form for shipment to a federal waste facility for later processing to a terminal form and shipment and subsequent disposal in a federal repository; (3) mixing the liquid wastes with cement and other additives, pouring it back into the existing tanks, and leaving onsite; and (4) no action (continued storage of the wastes in liquid form in the underground tanks at West Valley). Mitigative measures for environmental impacts were be required.

  5. 75 FR 29310 - Designation for the Muncie, IN; Fremont, NE; Maryland; and West Lafayette, IN Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ...; Maryland; and West Lafayette, IN Areas AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration..., MD (410-841- 7/1/2010 6/30/2013 2750). Titus West Lafayette, IN (765-497- 7/1/2010 6/30/2013...

  6. The DEAD SEA VALLEY as a trap for Saharan dust transported by west winds, based on COSMO-ART high-resolution modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishcha, Pavel; Vogel, Bernhard; Bangert, Max; Schaettler, Ulrich; Starobinets, Boris; Alpert, Pinhas

    2015-04-01

    The Dead Sea is a unique place on the Earth which is located at approximately 400 m below sea level. It is surrounded by the Judean Mountains to the west and by the Moab Mountains to the east. The Dead Sea Valley is quite often affected by Saharan dust intrusions. It is also characterized by changeable meteorology, particularly by unsteady winds blowing along the valley. High-resolution modeling was used for studying Saharan dust transport over this region with complex topography and unsteady winds. It was the purpose of the current study to determine space - time variations of Saharan dust over the Dead Sea Valley using the COSMO-ART model with 3-km resolution. This was carried out for the extreme dust event observed on March 22, 2013, when PM10 measurements in the Dead Sea Valley showed surface dust concentration exceeding 6,000 µg m-3. An intensive low-pressure system, centered over the Eastern Mediterranean, created favorable conditions for dust transport by south-west winds from the Eastern Sahara into the Eastern Mediterranean and particularly into Israel and Jordan. In the middle of the dust event, when the low-pressure system shifted eastward, dust was transported by strong west winds towards the Dead Sea Valley, across the Judean Mountains. It is reasonable to suggest that the greater the height of the Judean Mountains - the lower the dust concentration on the downwind slope of the mountains, in the Dead Sea Valley. The high-resolution COSMO-ART model shows the opposite result: the greater the height of the Judean Mountains - the higher the dust concentration in the Dead Sea Valley. COSMO-ART shows that the height of the Judean Mountains leads to high dust concentration of over 15,000 µg m-3 in the Dead Sea Valley. We analyzed east-west cross-sections of dust concentration and topography at different latitudes across the Dead Sea Valley. Our analysis showed that, over the North of the Dead Sea Valley, where the height of the Judean Mountains is greater

  7. Modeling the distribution of the West Nile and Rift Valley Fever vector Culex pipiens in arid and semi-arid regions of the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Middle East North Africa (MENA) region is under continuous threat of the re-emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) and Rift Valley Fever virus (RVF), two pathogens transmitted by the vector species Culex pipiens. Predicting areas at high risk for disease transmission requires an accurate model of vector distribution, however, most Cx. pipiens distribution modeling has been confined to temperate, forested habitats. Modeling species distributions across a heterogeneous landscape structure requires a flexible modeling method to capture variation in mosquito response to predictors as well as occurrence data points taken from a sufficient range of habitat types. Methods We used presence-only data from Egypt and Lebanon to model the population distribution of Cx. pipiens across a portion of the MENA that also encompasses Jordan, Syria, and Israel. Models were created with a set of environmental predictors including bioclimatic data, human population density, hydrological data, and vegetation indices, and built using maximum entropy (Maxent) and boosted regression tree (BRT) methods. Models were created with and without the inclusion of human population density. Results Predictions of Maxent and BRT models were strongly correlated in habitats with high probability of occurrence (Pearson’s r = 0.774, r = 0.734), and more moderately correlated when predicting into regions that exceeded the range of the training data (r = 0.666,r = 0.558). All models agreed in predicting high probability of occupancy around major urban areas, along the banks of the Nile, the valleys of Israel, Lebanon, and Jordan, and southwestern Saudi Arabia. The most powerful predictors of Cx. pipiens habitat were human population density (60.6% Maxent models, 34.9% BRT models) and the seasonality of the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) (44.7% Maxent, 16.3% BRT). Maxent models tended to be dominated by a single predictor. Areas of high probability corresponded with sites of

  8. Alternatives for treatment, storage and disposal of Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Waste at West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.A.; Janke, D.S.

    1991-02-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project has generated and will continue to generate commercial Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Waste from both vitrification operations and decommissioning operations. This paper summarizes information on the quantity of wastes, and describes alternatives for interim storage, treatment, and disposal. Waste management systems comprised of treatment, storage, and disposal options are identified, and the first order economics associated with the systems are evaluated. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. A review of geoscience characteristics and disposal experience at the commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, J.L.

    1989-08-01

    The West Valley Commercial Low-Level Radioactive Waste disposal site is located about 48 km south of Buffalo, New York. Operation of the site began in 1961 by Nuclear Fuels Service and was terminated in 1975. The disposal trenches at the site are excavated about 5 m into glacial till that has a thickness of about 28 m. About 65,000 m{sup 3} of the waste containing approximately 710,000 Ci were disposed at the site during the operational period. Ground-water movement through the till is predominantly downward as indicated by measurements and numerical simulation of hydraulic head. Radionuclides do not appear to have migrated more than 3 m either laterally or vertically from the waste disposal trenches. Numerical simulations of {sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 14}C migration are able to reproduce the observed concentration in the till beneath selected trenches. Uncertainty remains with respect to the continuity and heterogeneity of the hydrostratigraphic units and the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity and effective porosity. More work is needed to better define the waste inventory and any long-term changes that might be expected. Erosion poses a potential threat to the long-term integrity of the disposal area. 56 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Immunological reactions of Rift Valley fever virus strains from East and West Africa.

    PubMed

    Tomori, O

    1979-03-01

    Three strains of Rift Valley fever virus, namely Nigerian (NIG), Smithburn's neurotropic (SNT), and Lunyo variant (LUN) were compared by complement fixation (CF), neutralisation (N), haemagglutination/haemagglutination-inhibition (HA/HI) and agar gel diffusion (AGD) tests. They showed reciprocal cross-reactivity in CF tests. In N tests, using immune sheep sera, there was reciprocal cross-neutralisation between the NIG and SNT strains, but not with the LUN strain, the antiserum of which neutralised both NIG and SNT antigens whereas the reverse was not the case. When hyperimmune mouse ascitic fluid was employed in N tests, there was cross-reactivity between the three strains. Both the NIG and SNT strains yielded haemagglutinins, but not the LUN strain. Furthermore, by the antibody absorption and AGD techniques, the NIG and SNT strains were found to be identical and distinct from the LUN variant strain. The techniques found most useful in distinguishing between the three strains were HA and AGD. Laboratory neuro-adaptation of the classical pantropic virus did not appear to affect its haemagglutination activity.

  11. Non-seasonal viral and bacterial episode of diarrhoea in the Jordan Valley, West of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Meqdam, M M; Youssef, M T; Rawashdeh, M O; Al-khdour, M S

    1997-06-01

    A non-seasonal diarrhoeal episode in the Jordan Valley occurred over a 2-month period, during which no traditional enteropathogens were detected by the health authority laboratories. A total of 17 diarrhoeal stool specimens from infants, young children and adults were randomly collected and delivered to our laboratories to investigate the presence of unusual aetiological agents. Stools were examined for parasites, ova, viruses and cultured for bacterial pathogens. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction was developed to investigate the involvement of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli in this episode. Recognised pathogenic organisms were detected in 8 out of 17 of the diarrhoeatic patients, one patient of whom had a mixed infection with two agents. Rotavirus, enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) were found to be associated with the diarrhoea. EIEC was the most common enteropathogen detected (4 out of 17) followed by rotavirus (3 out of 17). One of the EIEC isolates detected in one patient was associated with rotavirus. The clinical features of the diarrhoeatic patients were remarkably similar, regardless of aetiology. This study reveals the identity of pathogenic agents that are not detected by traditional methods employed by the health authority laboratories, which emphasise the urgent need for developing the current diagnostic techniques.

  12. Climatic response of Quaternary alluvial deposits in the upper Kali Gandaki valley (West Nepal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monecke, Katrin; Winsemann, Jutta; Hanisch, Jörg

    2001-02-01

    The terraces at the confluence of Kali Gandaki and Miristi Khola (West Nepal) consist of coarse-grained deposits which are considered to be Late Pleistocene to Holocene in age. The stacking pattern of lithofacies is characterised by an alternation of fluvial and debris flow deposits. These periodic changes in sedimentation processes are attributed to climatic variations. Deposits of extended, highly mobile, braided rivers most probably developed under glacial conditions and reflect high sediment supply and high water discharge rates. Deposits of small, only moderately braided river systems evolved during a warmer climate with comparatively low sediment supply and water discharge rates. The mobilisation and redeposition of morainic material by enormous debris flows predominately occurred at the beginning of a warm period and was triggered by earthquakes, glacier lake outburst floods or strong monsoonal rain.

  13. Geologic map of Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valleys and surrounding areas, northwest Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beard, L. Sue; Kennedy, Jeffrey; Truini, Margot; Felger, Tracey

    2011-01-01

    A 1:250,000-scale geologic map and report covering the Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento valleys in northwest Arizona is presented for the purpose of improving understanding of the geology and geohydrology of the basins beneath those valleys. The map was compiled from existing geologic mapping, augmented by digital photogeologic reconnaissance mapping. The most recent geologic map for the area, and the only digital one, is the 1:1,000,000-scale Geologic Map of Arizona. The larger scale map presented here includes significantly more detailed geology than the Geologic Map of Arizona in terms of accuracy of geologic unit contacts, number of faults, fault type, fault location, and details of Neogene and Quaternary deposits. Many sources were used to compile the geology; the accompanying geodatabase includes a source field in the polygon feature class that lists source references for polygon features. The citations for the source field are included in the reference section.

  14. Source rocks, thermal history and oil in the Carson Sink and Buena Vista Valley, west central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, C.E.

    1995-06-01

    Rock-Eval, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and thermal history reconstruction data from six wells suggest that Tertiary rocks in the Carson Sink and Buena Vista Valley areas are marginally mature to overmature with respect to hydrocarbon generation and have locally expelled oil. The lacustrine Tertiary calcareous mudstones and marls in these wells have a total organic carbon (TOC) range from 0.1 to 3 wt.-%, with modes at about 0.5 to 0.7, 1.5, and 2 to 3 wt-% TOC. However, in the Standard Amoco Carson Sink 1 well, some of these samples have up to 3 wt-% less TOC than reported by Hastings (1979) and these are thought to represent drill cutting samples that have been depleted in more TOC rich rock chips. Even if the TOC data are biased, these TOC-depleted samples are still oil-prone rocks, with hydrogen indices commonly above 400 mg hydrocarbon/g C, and some samples with TOC in the 2-3 wt.-% range. Analysis of an oil show at Kyle Hot Springs in Buena Vista Valley revealed a wax-rich, low sulfur oil probably from a carbonate-rich, hypersaline lacustrine source rock. This oil could be generated from strata similar to those analyzed above. Other Tertiary source rocks in the two valleys consist of lenses of humic coals that appear to be gas prone. Shows of biogenic(?) gas from shallow wells in Tertiary to Holocene lacustrine strata are common in the Carson Sink. Mesozoic rocks locally may have remaining hydrocarbon generation potential in the Stillwater Range which lie along the eastern margin of the Carson Sink. Published conodont alteration index data shows that the Paleozoic rocks are overmature. Reconstructed thermal histories of the Carson Sink and Buena Vista Valley areas, indicate petroleum is presently being generated. Mechanisms for petroleum generation are rapid burial (140 m/m.y.) in a high geothermal gradient (45 to 110{degrees}C/km), and hydrothermal and contact metamorphism.

  15. Geologic Map of the Death Valley Ground-water Model Area, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    J.B. Workman; C.M. Menges; W.R. Page; E.M. Taylor; E.B. Ekren; P.D. Rowley; G.L. Dixon; R.A. Thompson; L.A. Wright

    2003-04-21

    The purpose of this map is to provide the surface expression of the geology in the Death Valley ground-water model area to be incorporated initially into a 3-D geologic framework model and eventually into a transient ground-water flow model by the U.S. Geological Survey (D'Agnese, 2000; D'Agnese and Faunt, 1999; Faunt and others, 1999; and O'Brien and others, 1999). This work has been conducted in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy in order to assess regional ground water flow near the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the potential radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The map is centered on the NTS and its perimeter encircles the entire boundary of the numerical flow model area, covering a total area of 57,000 km2. The physiography, geology, and tectonics of the model area are extremely complex (Hunt and Mabey, 1966; Stewart, 1980; Jennings, 1994; Slate and others, 2000; Wright and others, 1999b). The northern and eastern part of the area includes typical Basin and Range topography consisting of north-trending block-faulted ranges and intervening valleys. The central part contains diverse ranges, plateaus, basins, and alluvial flats (for example, the NTS volcanic highlands and Amargosa Valley). The rugged ranges and deep basins of the Death Valley region in eastern California are characteristic of the topography of the southern and western parts of the map area. The map spans numerous tectonic subdivisions of the Great Basin. Deformation includes several generations of upper Paleozoic to Mesozoic thrust faulting that have been dismembered by extensive regional Tertiary to Quaternary normal and strike-slip faults. Much of this extensional and translational deformation is active today, with rates and amounts that vary from low to moderate in the central, eastern, and northern parts of the study area in southern Nevada, to very high in the southwestern and western parts in eastern California. For detailed discussion of the tectonic framework of the

  16. Reconnaissance of the water resources of the Lonesome Valley area, Yavapai County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metzger, Donald G.

    1957-01-01

    In accordance with a request from its cooperating agency, the Arizona State Land Department, the U.S. Geological Survey has made a brief reconnaissance of the water resources of the Lonesome Valley area, Yavapai County, Ariz., to determine the probable hydrologic effects of a proposed dam on Lynx Creek. The construction of this dam has been proposed by the Arizona Game and Fish Department, for recreational and fish-cultural purposes. Data on the geology of the area were furnished by Mrs. Medora M. Krieger, geologist, Geologic Division, U.S. Geological Survey, and the map was prepared by Floyd R. Twenter, geologist, Ground Water Branch.

  17. Geologic investigations in the Lake Valley area, Sierra County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neill, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    At the request of the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated the area of the historic Lake Valley mining district and townsite, Sierra County, New Mexico, for its potential for undiscovered mineral resources. The four chapters of this report describe the geology of the area, present the results of geophysical investigations carried out to aid in interpreting subsurface geology, describe the mining history and character of the region's ore deposits, and present geochemical data on potential for contamination from abandoned mine dumps in the mining district.

  18. Precipitation and runoff simulations of select perennial and ephemeral watersheds in the middle Carson River basin, Eagle, Dayton, and Churchill Valleys, west-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jeton, Anne E.; Maurer, Douglas K.

    2011-01-01

    The effect that land use may have on streamflow in the Carson River, and ultimately its impact on downstream users can be evaluated by simulating precipitation-runoff processes and estimating groundwater inflow in the middle Carson River in west-central Nevada. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, began a study in 2008 to evaluate groundwater flow in the Carson River basin extending from Eagle Valley to Churchill Valley, called the middle Carson River basin in this report. This report documents the development and calibration of 12 watershed models and presents model results and the estimated mean annual water budgets for the modeled watersheds. This part of the larger middle Carson River study will provide estimates of runoff tributary to the Carson River and the potential for groundwater inflow (defined here as that component of recharge derived from percolation of excess water from the soil zone to the groundwater reservoir). The model used for the study was the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, a physically based, distributed-parameter model designed to simulate precipitation and snowmelt runoff as well as snowpack accumulation and snowmelt processes. Models were developed for 2 perennial watersheds in Eagle Valley having gaged daily mean runoff, Ash Canyon Creek and Clear Creek, and for 10 ephemeral watersheds in the Dayton Valley and Churchill Valley hydrologic areas. Model calibration was constrained by daily mean runoff for the 2 perennial watersheds and for the 10 ephemeral watersheds by limited indirect runoff estimates and by mean annual runoff estimates derived from empirical methods. The models were further constrained by limited climate data adjusted for altitude differences using annual precipitation volumes estimated in a previous study. The calibration periods were water years 1980-2007 for Ash Canyon Creek, and water years 1991-2007 for Clear Creek. To

  19. Owens Valley Serious Area Plan for the 1987 24-Hour PM10; Final Approval of California Air Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is taking final action to approve a state implementation plan (SIP) revision submitted by the State of California to meet Clean Air Act equirements applicable to the Owens Valley PM10 nonattainment area.

  20. Preconceptual design study for solidifying high-level waste: Appendices A, B and C West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, O.F.

    1981-04-01

    This report presents a preconceptual design study for processing radioactive high-level liquid waste presently stored in underground tanks at Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC) near West Valley, New York, and for incorporating the radionculides in that waste into a solid. The high-level liquid waste accumulated from the operation of a chemical reprocessing plant by the Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. from 1966 to 1972. The high-level liquid waste consists of approximately 560,000 gallons of alkaline waste from Purex process operations and 12,000 gallons of acidic (nitric acid) waste from one campaign of processing thoria fuels by a modified Thorex process (during this campaign thorium was left in the waste). The alkaline waste contains approximately 30 million curies and the acidic waste contains approximately 2.5 million curies. The reference process described in this report is concerned only with chemically processing the high-level liquid waste to remove radionuclides from the alkaline supernate and converting the radionuclide-containing nonsalt components in the waste into a borosilicate glass.

  1. Hydrogeologic performance assessment analysis of the commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, M.P.; Smoot, J.L.; Kemner, M.L.; Cronin, W.E. )

    1991-06-01

    A hydrogeologic performance assessment of the commercial low-level waste site near West Valley, New York, was performed for two pathways: a shallow lateral pathway where trench water can potentially migrate laterally through fractured and weathered till to nearby streams and a deep vertical pathway where leachate can migrate downward through unweathered till and laterally offsite in a lacustrine unit. Along the shallow pathway, little physical site evidence is available to indicate what the degree of lateral migration can be. Past modeling showed that overflowing trench water would migrate laterally some distance before migrating downward into the unweathered till. If water did reach a nearby stream, calculations show that decay, adsorption, and stream dilution would reduce leachate concentration to acceptable levels. Within the deep pathway, tritium and {sup 14}C were the only radionuclides released in any significant concentrations. Predicted tritium levels are well below regulatory limits; however, predicted peak {sup 14}C concentrations, while meeting the 25 mrem/yr limit using the drinking-water-only exposure scenario, exceed the limit for the full garden scenario. Site information on {sup 14}C release rates and geochemical behavior has considerable uncertainty and would need to be more fully evaluated in a licensing situation. 58 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. Temporal distribution and spatial pattern of abundance of the Rift Valley fever and West Nile fever vectors in Barkedji, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Diallo, Diawo; Talla, Cheikh; Ba, Yamar; Dia, Ibrahima; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2011-12-01

    The temporal distribution and spatial pattern of abundance of mosquito vectors of Rift Valley fever (RVf) and West Nile fever (WNf) were studied during the 2005 and 2006 rainy seasons at Barkedji, Senegal. Mosquitoes were collected every two weeks with CDC light traps with dry ice at 79 sites including temporary ponds, barren, shrubby savannah, wooded savannah, steppes, and villages at different distances (between 0 and 600 m) from the nearest pond. The temporal distributions of these vectors varied between 2005 and 2006 and were positively correlated with rainfall for Aedes (Aedimorphus) vexans Patton, with rainfall after a lag time of one month for Culex (Culex) poicilipes (Theobald) and Culex (Culex) neavei Theobald. All the vectors had their highest abundances and parity rates between September and November. The highest vector abundances were observed in the barren and temporary ponds. The distance of trap location to the nearest ponds was negatively correlated to the abundance of the vectors. Taking into account the linear regression equations, it was predicted that mosquitoes would not disperse and be collected by the light trap, up to 1,500 m to the nearest ponds. The implications of these findings in the epidemiology and control of RVF and WNF at Barkedji are discussed.

  3. Earthquake precursory studies in Kangra valley of North West Himalayas, India, with special emphasis on radon emission.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arvind; Singh, Surinder; Mahajan, Sandeep; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh; Kalia, Rajeev; Dhar, Sunil

    2009-10-01

    The continuous soil gas radon monitoring is carried out at Palampur and the daily monitoring of radon concentration in water is carried out at Dharamshala region of Kangra valley of North West Himalayas, India, a seismic zone V, to study the correlation of radon anomalies in relation to seismic activities. In this study, radon monitoring in soil was carried out by using barasol probe manufactured by Algade France, whereas the radon content in water was recorded using RAD 7 radon monitoring system of Durridge Company USA. The effect of meteorological parameters viz. temperature, pressure, wind velocity, rainfall, and humidity on radon emission has been studied. The seasonal average value and standard deviation of radon in soil and water is calculated to find the radon anomaly to minimize the effect of meteorological parameters on radon emission. The radon anomalies observed in the region have been correlated with the seismic events of M>or=2 reported by Wadia Institute of Himalayas Geology Dehradoon and Indian Meteorological Department, New Delhi in NW Himalayas within 250km distance from the monitoring stations.

  4. The dangers of jimson weed and its abuse by teenagers in the Kanawha Valley of West Virginia.

    PubMed

    Dewitt, M S; Swain, R; Gibson, L B

    1997-01-01

    Jimson weed (Datura stramonium, a member of the Belladonna alkyloid family) is a plant growing naturally in West Virginia and has been used as a home remedy since colonial times. Due to its easy availability and strong anticholinergic properties, teens are using Jimson weed as a drug. Plant parts can be brewed as a tea or chewed, and seed pods, commonly known as "pods" or "thorn apples," can be eaten. Side effects from ingesting jimson weed include tachycardia, dry mouth, dilated pupils, blurred vision, hallucinations, confusion, combative behavior, and difficulty urinating. Severe toxicity has been associated with coma and seizures, although death is rare. Treatment consists of activated charcoal and gastric lavage. Esmolol or other beta-blocker may be indicated to reduce severe sinus tachycardia. Seizures, severe hypertension, severe hallucinations, and life-threatening arrhythmias are indicators for the use of the anticholinesterase inhibitor, Physostigmine. This article reviews the cases of nine teenagers who were treated in hospitals in the Kanawha Valley after ingesting jimson weed. We hope this article will help alert primary care physicians about the abuse of jimson weed and inform health officials about the need to educate teens about the dangers of this plant.

  5. Ground-water flow and transport modeling of the NRC-licensed waste disposal facility, West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Kool, J.B.; Wu, Y.S. )

    1991-10-01

    This report describes a simulation study of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport from disposal at the NRC licensed waste disposal facility in West Valley, New York. A transient, precipitation driven, flow model of the near-surface fractured till layer and underlying unweathered till was developed and calibrated against observed inflow data into a recently constructed interceptor trench for the period March--May 1990. The results suggest that lateral flow through the upper, fractured till layer may be more significant than indicated by previous, steady state flow modeling studies. A conclusive assessment of the actual magnitude of lateral flow through the fractured till could however not be made. A primary factor contributing to this uncertainty is the unknown contribution of vertical infiltration through the interceptor trench cap to the total trench inflow. The second part of the investigation involved simulation of the migration of Sr-90, Cs-137 and Pu-239 from the one of the fuel hull disposal pits. A first-order radionuclide leach rate with rate coefficient of 10{sup {minus}6}/day was assumed to describe radionuclide release into the disposal pit. The simulations indicated that for wastes buried below the fractured till zone, no significant migration would occur. However, under the assumed conditions, significant lateral migration could occur for radionuclides present in the upper, fractured till zone. 23 refs., 68 figs., 12 tabs.

  6. Scaled Vitrification System III (SVS III) Process Development and Laboratory Tests at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    V. Jain; S. M. Barnes; B. G. Bindi; R. A. Palmer

    2000-04-30

    At the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP),the Vitrification Facility (VF)is designed to convert the high-level radioactive waste (HLW)stored on the site to a stable glass for disposal at a Department of Energy (DOE)-specified federal repository. The Scaled Vitrification System III (SVS-III)verification tests were conducted between February 1995 and August 1995 as a supplemental means to support the vitrification process flowsheet, but at only one seventh the scale.During these tests,the process flowsheet was refined and optimized. The SVS-III test series was conducted with a focus on confirming the applicability of the Redox Forecasting Model, which was based on the Index of Feed Oxidation (IFO)developed during the Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS)and SVS-I tests. Additional goals were to investigate the prototypical feed preparation cycle and test the new target glass composition. Included in this report are the basis and current designs of the major components of the Scale Vitrification System and the results of the SVS-III tests.The major subsystems described are the feed preparation and delivery, melter, and off-gas treatment systems. In addition,the correlation between the melter's operation and its various parameters;which included feed rate,cold cap coverage,oxygen reduction (redox)state of the glass,melter power,plenum temperature,and airlift analysis;were developed.

  7. Ground-water hydrology of Ogden Valley and surrounding area, eastern Weber County, UT, and simulation of ground-water flow in the Valley-fill aquifer system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Avery, Charles

    1994-01-01

    The ground-water resources in Ogden Valley, eastern Weber County, Utah, were the subject of a study to provide a better understanding of the hydrologic system in the valley and to estimate the hydrologic effects of future ground-water development. The study area included the drainage basin of the Ogden River upstream from Pineview Reservoir dam and the drainage basin of Wheeler Creek. Ogden Valley and the surrounding area are underlain by rocks that range in age from Precambrian to Quaternary.The consolidated rocks that transmit and yield the most water in the area surrounding Ogden Valley are the Paleozoic carbonate rocks and the Wasatch Formation of Tertiary age. Much of the recharge to the consolidated rocks is from snowmelt that infiltrates the Wasatch Formation, which underlies a large part of the study area. Discharge from the consolidated rocks is by streams, evapotranspiration, springs, subsurface outflow, and pumping from wells. Water in the consolidated rocks is a calcium bicarbonate type and has a dissolved-solids concentration of less than 250 milligrams per liter.

  8. 33 CFR 334.1275 - West Arm Behm Canal, Ketchikan, Alaska, restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Alaska, restricted areas. 334.1275 Section 334.1275 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1275 West Arm Behm Canal, Ketchikan, Alaska, restricted areas. (a) The area—Area No. 1. The waters of Behm...

  9. Ground water in the Corvallis-Albany area, central Willamette Valley, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, Frank J.

    1974-01-01

    The Corvallis-Albany area is part of the alluvial plain that lies between the Cascade and Coast Ranges in the central Willamette Valley in northwestern Oregon. As used in this report, the Corvallis-Albany area consists of approximately 210 square miles and includes a part of the lower foothills of the Coast and Cascade Ranges. Volcanic and marine sedimentary units exposed in the foothills range in age from Eocene to Oligocene or Miocene. The volcanic rocks are primarily pillow lavas and basalt flows, which yield only small quantities of water generally adequate for domestic and stock use. Marine-deposited sandstone, siltstone, and shale of the older sedimentary units are fine grained, poorly permeable, and generally yield small volumes of water to wells. In the valley plain the older units are overlain by Pleistocene and Holocene alluvial deposits. The alluvial deposits (sand and gravel) of the valley plain contain the most productive aquifers in the area and are considered to be the only units feasible for large-scale development of ground-water supplies. Aquifers in the area are recharged principally by direct infiltration of precipitation. Most of the precipitation (about 38 in. per yr avg) occurs during late autumn and winter. Ground water is discharged naturally from the area by seepage and spring flow to streams, by evapotranspiration, by underflow, and artificially through wells. During 1971 the seasonal decline of water levels from winter to late summer averaged about 10 feet for the alluvial deposits. The seasonal change of storage in that year was estimated to be about 130,000 acre-feet. Of this volume, about 14,000 acre-feet was pumped from wells; the rest (about 116,000 acre-feet) was discharged through seeps and springs by evapotranspiration. The difference between pumpage and natural discharge indicates that a great quantity of additional water is available for development. The storage capacity of the alluvial aquifers in the area is estimated to be

  10. 77 FR 76451 - Designation for the West Sacramento, CA; Frankfort, IN; and Richmond, VA Areas.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... Administration Designation for the West Sacramento, CA; Frankfort, IN; and Richmond, VA Areas. AGENCY: Grain... Frankfort, IN(765) 258-3624........ 1/1/2013 12/31/2015 Virginia Richmond, VA(757) 494-2464............

  11. Water resources in the Wardensville Area, Hardy County, West Virginia, October 2003-May 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evaldi, Ronald D.; McCoy, Kurt J.

    2004-01-01

    Communities within the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province of West Virginia are concerned about the availability and sustainability of their water supplies. The water resources of the Wardensville area of West Virginia were investigated and data sources were reviewed that will be useful in similar resource assessments elsewhere in the region. Estimates of long-term average discharge of the Cacapon River, Waites Run, and Trout Run are 170, 21, and 78 cubic feet per second, respectively. Average flow from Wardensville Spring during the study was determined to be 0.265 cubic feet per second, and the apparent age of this water was about 20 years. Increases in springflow and drops in temperature of the water during significant winter runoff events suggest that Wardensville Spring may be under the influence of surface runoff at such times. About 80 total coliform colonies per 100 milliliters (mL) of water were found in the spring, but less than 1 colony per 100 mL of water was fecal coliform, and their source is unknown. A well completed during the study in the Marcellus Shale near the contact with the Oriskany Sandstone is capable of yielding 60 gallons per minute, and water produced from the well has an apparent age of 50 years. Iron and manganese concentrations in the well (1,680 and 114 micrograms per liter, respectively) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant levels. It is likely that a well drilled about 130 feet from Wardensville Spring is hydraulically connected to the spring because pumping at the time of well completion induced drawdown at the spring. About 20 total coliform colonies per 100 mL of water were found in that well, but fecal coliform counts were less than 1 colony per 100 mL of water. Transmissivity values of the aquifer as determined at two wells completed in the Marcellus Shale near the contact with the Oriskany Sandstone on opposite sides of Anderson Ridge are 200 and 400 feet squared per day.

  12. First floor corridor, looking west towards the lobby. The entrance ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    First floor corridor, looking west towards the lobby. The entrance to the display area (room 101) is located directly behind the camera - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  13. Mineral resources and mineral resource potential of the Saline Valley and Lower Saline Wilderness Study Areas, Inyo County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wrucke, C.T.; Marsh, S.P.; Raines, G.L.; Werschky, R.S.; Blakely, R.J.; Hoover, D.B.; McHugh, E.L.; Rumsey, C.M.; Gaps, R.S.; Causey, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the results of a mineral survey of the Saline Valley Wilderness Study Area and the Lower Saline Wilderness Study Area, California Desert Conservation Area, Inyo County, California. The Saline Valley Wilderness Study Area and the Lower Saline Wilderness Study Area were studied in 1981-83 using geologic, geochemical, remote sensing, and geophysical surveys and the examination of mines and prospects to evaluate mineral resources and the potential for mineral resources. The Saline Valley Wilderness Study Area has a high potential for the occurrence of gold resources in two areas. One area, largely outside the study area, is in the vicinity of the Crater mine in the Last Chance Range, and it has potential for the occurrence of gold in a disseminated deposit in an epithermal environment. The other area is in Marble Canyon in the western part of the study area, and it has high potential for the occurrence of gold placer deposits. Marble Canyon also has a moderate potential for gold in placer deposits downstream from the area of high potential. Seven areas, scattered from the Inyo Mountains to the Last Chance Range, have a low potential for the occurrence of gold in disseminated deposits, and one area that lies astride the border of Death Valley National Monument has a low potential for the occurrence of gold in vein deposits. The southern end of Eureka Valley has a low potential for the occurrence of lithium and uranium resources in buried sedimentary deposits for the occurrence of lithium and uranium resources in buried sedimentary deposits beneath the valley floor. Demonstrated resources of native sulfur exist at the Crater mine but no resource potential was identified nearby in adtacent parts of the study area. 3 figs. (ACR)

  14. Aeromagnetic map of the Death Valley ground-water model area, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    Ponce, D.A.; Blakely, R.J.

    2002-03-12

    This aeromagnetic map of the Death Valley ground-water model area was prepared from numerous separate aeromagnetic surveys that were gridded, merged, and described by Hildenbrand and Kucks (1988) and by McCafferty and Grauch (1997). These data are available in grid format from the EROS Data Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 57198, and from the National Geophysical Data Center, 325 Broadway, E/GC4, Boulder, Colo., 80303. Magnetic investigations of the Death Valley ground-water basin are part of an interagency effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Energy (Interagency Agreement DE-AI08-96NV11967) to help characterize the geology and hydrology of southwest Nevada and adjacent parts of California (Blakely and others, 2000b). The Death Valley ground-water model is located between lat 35 degrees 00' and 38 degrees 15' N., and long 115 degrees and 118 degrees W.

  15. Revised Hydrogeology for the Suprabasalt Aquifer System, 200-West Area and Vicinity, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Bruce A.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schalla, Ronald; Webber, William D.

    2002-05-14

    The primary objective of this study was to refine the conceptual groundwater flow model for the 200-West Area and vicinity. This is the second of two reports that combine to cover the 200 Area Plateau, an area that holds the largest inventory of radionuclide and chemical waste on the Hanford Site.

  16. A Study of the Fort Gay-Thompson School Attendance Area, Fort Gay, West Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comfort, Richard O.; And Others

    The School Community Council of the Fort Gay-Thompson area (West Virginia), organized in May 1971, requested a study in order to look at its past, assess present needs, and plan for the future. The study of the Fort Gay-Thompson School Attendance Area was designed to: (1) describe the area; (2) analyze the characteristics of the people living…

  17. Ground-water quality in the West Salt River Valley, Arizona, 1996-98: relations to hydrogeology, water use, and land use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edmonds, Robert J.; Gellenbeck, Dorinda J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed ground-water samples in the West Salt River Valley from 64 existing wells selected by a stratified-random procedure. Samples from an areally distributed group of 35 of these wells were used to characterize overall ground-water quality in the basin-fill aquifer. Analytes included the principal inorganic constituents, trace constituents, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. Additional analytes were tritium, radon, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. Analyses of replicate samples and blank samples provided evidence that the analyses of the ground-water samples were adequate for interpretation. The median concentration of dissolved solids in samples from the 35 wells was 560 milligrams per liter, which exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level for drinking water. Eleven of the 35 samples had a nitrate concentration (as nitrogen) that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level for drinking water of 10 milligrams per liter. Pesticides were detected in eight samples; concentrations were below the Maximum Contaminant Levels. Deethylatrazine was most commonly detected. The pesticides were detected in samples from wells in agricultural or urban areas that have been irrigated. Concentrations of all trace constituents, except arsenic, were less than the Maximum Contaminant Levels. The concentration of arsenic exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level of 50 micrograms per liter in two samples. Nine monitoring wells were constructed in an area near Buckeye to assess the effects of agricultural land use on shallow ground water. The median concentration of dissolved solids was 3,340 milligrams per liter in samples collected from these wells in August 1997. The nitrate concentration (as nitrogen) exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level (10 milligrams per liter) in samples from eight of the nine monitoring wells in August 1997 and again in

  18. Depth to water, 1991, in the Rathdrum Prairie, Idaho; Spokane River valley, Washington; Moscow-Lewiston-Grangeville area, Idaho; and selected intermontane valleys, east-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, Charles E.; Bassick, M.D.; Rogers, T.L.; Garcia, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    This map report illustrates digitally generated depth-to-water zones for the Rathdrum Prairie in Idaho; part of the Spokane River Valley in eastern Washington; and the intermontane valleys of the upper Big Wood, Big Lost, Pahsimeroi, Little Lost, and Lemhi Rivers and Birch Creek in Idaho. Depth to water is 400 to 500 feet below land surface in the northern part of Rathdrum Prairie, 100 to 200 feet below land surface at the Idaho-Washington State line, and 0 to 250 feet below land surface in the Spokane area. Depth to water in the intermontane valleys in east-central Idaho is least (usually less than 50 feet) near streams and increases toward valley margins where mountain-front alluvial fans have formed. Depths to water shown in the Moscow-Lewiston-Grangeville area in Idaho are limited to point data at individual wells because most of the water levels measured were not representative of levels in the uppermost aquifer but of levels in deeper aquifers.

  19. The Ohio River Valley CO2 Storage Project AEP Mountaineer Plant, West Virginia Numerical Simulation and Risk Assessment Report

    SciTech Connect

    Neeraj Gupta

    2008-03-31

    A series of numerical simulations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection were conducted as part of a program to assess the potential for geologic sequestration in deep geologic reservoirs (the Rose Run and Copper Ridge formations), at the American Electric Power (AEP) Mountaineer Power Plant outside of New Haven, West Virginia. The simulations were executed using the H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2}-NaCl operational mode of the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator (White and Oostrom, 2006). The objective of the Rose Run formation modeling was to predict CO{sub 2} injection rates using data from the core analysis conducted on the samples. A systematic screening procedure was applied to the Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} storage site utilizing the Features, Elements, and Processes (FEP) database for geological storage of CO{sub 2} (Savage et al., 2004). The objective of the screening was to identify potential risk categories for the long-term geological storage of CO{sub 2} at the Mountaineer Power Plant in New Haven, West Virginia. Over 130 FEPs in seven main classes were assessed for the project based on site characterization information gathered in a geological background study, testing in a deep well drilled on the site, and general site conditions. In evaluating the database, it was apparent that many of the items were not applicable to the Mountaineer site based its geologic framework and environmental setting. Nine FEPs were identified for further consideration for the site. These FEPs generally fell into categories related to variations in subsurface geology, well completion materials, and the behavior of CO{sub 2} in the subsurface. Results from the screening were used to provide guidance on injection system design, developing a monitoring program, performing reservoir simulations, and other risk assessment efforts. Initial work indicates that the significant FEPs may be accounted for by focusing the storage program on these potential issues. The

  20. Permeability of covers over low-level radioactive-waste burial trenches, West Valley, Cattaraugus County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prudic, David E.

    1980-01-01

    Among the facilities at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, near the hamlet of West Valley in the northern part of Cattaraugus County, N.Y., is a State-licensed burial ground for commercial low-level radioactive wastes. The 11-acre burial ground contains a series of trenches excavated in a silty-clay till of low permeability that contains scattered pods of silt, sand, and gravel. Gas pressure in the unsaturated parts of radioactive waste burial trenches responds to fluctuations in atmospheric pressure. Measurements of atmospheric pressure and the differential pressure between the trench gas and the atmosphere on several dates in 1977-78 were used to calculate hydraulic conductivity of the reworked silty-clay till that covers the trenches. Generally the hydraulic conductivity of covers over trenches that had a history of rapidly rising water levels are higher, at least seasonally, than covers over trenches in which the water level remained low. This supports the hypothesis that recharge occurs through the cover, presumably through fractures caused by desiccation and (or) subsidence. Hydraulic conductivities of the cover as calculated from gas- and air-pressure measurements at several trenches were 100 to 1,000 times greater than those calculated from the increase in water levels in the trenches. This difference suggests that the values obtained from the air- and gas-pressure measurements need to be adjusted and at present are not directly usable in ground-water flux calculations. The difference in magnitude of values may be caused by rapidly decreasing hydraulic conductivity during periods of recharge or by the clogging of fractures with sediment washed in by runoff. (USGS)

  1. Chemical evolution and periodic eruption of mafic lava flows in the west moat of Long Valley Caldera, California

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, T.A.; Woodburne, T.B.; Eichelberger, J.C.; Layer, P.W.

    1994-10-10

    Continuous core from research drill hole Inyo-4 through a thick 300 m thick sequence of mafic lava flows in the west moat of the Long Valley Caldera has provided an unusual opportunity to investigate the chemical evolution of this exceptionally complete record of postcaldera mafic magmatism. Lavas are mainly basalts and trachyandesites ranging from 48 to 58% SiO{sub 2} having a nearly fourfold range in MgO contents. The lavas fall into five distinct chemical groups with little or no compositional overlap. These groups correlate remarkably well with stratigraphic position, and they define a trend toward more evolved compositions with time. The groups appear to represent periodic eruptions from a continuously evolving magma body. Preliminary {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar dates indicate that these lavas erupted over a span of at least 0.264 m.y. between 0.415 Ma and 0.151 Ma. Except for the most evolved group, the chemical variation within a group was dominated by crystal fractionation. Except from the least evolved groups, the chemical contrasts between adjacent groups were dominated by assimilation. Warming the crustal environmental facilitated increasing assimilation. A zoned lava flow (more mafic upward) followed by a mafic flow in an otherwise progressively evolved sequence of flows provides evidence for eruption from a zoned magma reservoir. Deeper, more mafic portions of this zoned magma body were drawn up to shallower levels in the chamber during a period of high eruption rates. The heterogeneity of mafic clasts in the vent breccia dike beneath the 600-year-old South Inyo phreatic explosion crater indicates that these breccia clasts dropped > 300 m down the vent from the overlying lava sequence during waning stages of the phreatic activity, rather than forming by brecciation of an older feeder dike, as previously proposed. 39 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Some environments of Late Pennsylvanian coal deposition, upper Ohio Valley, eastern Ohio, northern West Virginia and western Pennsylvania, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, A.T.

    1998-12-31

    Diverse environments of accumulation are identified for coals and associated rocks in mines and outcrops in the upper Ohio River Valley. Some Kittanning coals are associated with thick fireclay or plastic underclay and locally, with thick deposits of evenly-laminated, dark bayfill sediments of marine or brackish origin. Freeport coals show some of the same characters. At that time, the region appears to have been one of marginally interdigitating marine and freshwater alluvial deposits with great irregularity of dimensions of prograding distributary delta lobes and intervening bays and estuaries. Conemaugh strata at mines near West Point and East Liverpool, and at roadcuts near Steubenville and Weirton are exceedingly variable locally above the Brush Creek limestone and marine shale sequences; below this they are less variable and contain commercial coals. The earliest of the red or variegated red/green shales and calcareous mudstones and other paleosols of the Conemaugh Formation first appear in this zone (Mahoning) and become predominant above the Brush Creek. Regional variation is demonstrated by comparing river bluff sections near Weirton with open-pit mine sections to the northwest. Oxidized mudstones of distal delta plains, delta plain coals and interlobate bayfill mudstones of these sections are penecontemporaneous. Lower Monongahela strata, including the important Pittsburgh coalbed, demonstrate a regional shift from lacustrine gray shales, limestones, commercial coals and alluvial sandstones westward and southward to calcareous shales, fewer sandstones and thin coals, to red/green oxidized calcareous to non-calcareous shales with occasional coaly zones. Channel-fills of various environmental origins are identified by plant and animal fossils associated with the several environments of deposition. In the classic Linton vertebrate site near Yellow Creek, sapropelic (canneloid) coal accumulation preceded the deposition of the thick Upper Freeport humic coal

  3. Serum Levels of Dioxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds in Women Living in a Highly Industrialized Area of West Virginia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historical releases of dioxin and dioxin-like constituents with subsequent impacts to environmental media in the Kanawha River Valley (KV) of West Virginia have been well documented. This study evaluated the impact of potentially high background dioxin exposure to body burdens i...

  4. Geologic Map of Oasis Valley Spring-Discharge Area and Vicinity, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fridrich, Christopher J.; Minor, Scott A.; Slate, Janet L.; Ryder, Phil L.

    2007-01-01

    This map report presents the geologic framework of an area in southern Nye County, Nevada, that extends from the southern limit of the Oasis Valley spring-discharge site, northeastward to the southwest margin of the Pahute Mesa testing area, on the Nevada Test Site. This map adds new surficial mapping and revises bedrock mapping previously published as USGS Open-File Report 99-533-B. The locations of major concealed structures were based on a combination of gravity and magnetic data. This report includes a geologic discussion explaining many of the interpretations that are presented graphically on the map and sections. Additional discussion of the geologic framework of the Oasis Valley area can be found in an interpretive geophysical report and in a geologic report (USGS Open-File Report 99-533-A that was a companion product to the previously published version of this map. The map presented here covers nine 7.5-minute quadrangles centered on the Thirsty Canyon SW quadrangle. It is a compilation of one previously published quadrangle map and eight new quadrangle maps, two of which were published separately during the course of the study. The new bedrock mapping was completed by S.A. Minor from 1991 to 1995, by C.J. Fridrich from 1992 to 1998, and by P.L. Ryder from 1997 to 1998. New surficial-deposits mapping was completed by J.L. Slate and M.E. Berry in 1998 and 1999. The new bedrock and surficial mapping is partly a revision of several unpublished reconnaissance maps completed by Orkild and Swadley in the 1960's, and of previously published maps by Maldonado and Hausback (1990), Lipman and others (1966); and Sargent and Orkild (1976). Additionally, mapping of the pre-Tertiary rocks of northern Bare Mountain was compiled from Monsen and others (1992) with only minor modification. The cross sections were drawn to a depth of about 5 km below land surface at the request of hydrologists studying the Death Valley ground-water system. Below a depth of about 1 kilometer

  5. Quality and sources of shallow ground water in areas of recent residential development in Salt Lake Valley, Salt Lake County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thiros, Susan A.

    2003-01-01

    Residential and commercial development of about 80 square miles that primarily replaced undeveloped and agricultural areas occurred in Salt Lake Valley, Utah, from 1963 to 1994. This study evaluates the occurrence and distribution of natural and anthropogenic compounds in shallow ground water underlying recently developed (post 1963) residential and commercial areas. Monitoring wells from 23 to 153 feet deep were installed at 30 sites. Water-quality data for the monitoring wells consist of analyses of field parameters, major ions, trace elements, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds.Dissolved-solids concentration ranged from 134 to 2,910 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in water from the 30 monitoring wells. Dissolved arsenic concentration in water from 12 wells exceeded the drinking-water maximum contaminant level of 10 micrograms per liter. Water from monitoring wells in the northwestern part of the valley generally contained higher arsenic concentrations than did water from other areas. Nitrate concentration in water sampled from 26 of the 30 monitoring wells (86.7 percent) was higher than a background level of 2 mg/L, indicating a possible human influence. Nitrate concentrations ranged from less than 0.05 to 13.3 mg/L.Fifteen of the 104 pesticides and pesticide degradation products analyzed for were detected in 1 or more water samples from the monitoring wells. No pesticides were detected at concentrations that exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards or guidelines for 2002. The high detection frequency of atrazine, a restricted-use pesticide, in residential areas on the west side of Salt Lake Valley may be the result of application in agricultural or industrial areas that have been converted to residential uses or application in areas upgradient from the residential areas that was then transported by ground water.Fifteen of the 86 volatile organic compounds analyzed for were detected in 1 or

  6. Effects of the 1997 flood on the transport and storage of sediment and mercury within the Carson River Valley, west-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.; Barr, R.; Grow, D.; Richardson, D.; Waltman, K.; Lechler, P.; Warwick, J.

    1999-05-01

    Intense, warm rains falling on a heavy snowpack in the Sierra Nevada at the end of December 1996 produced some of the largest floods on record in west-central Nevada. Within the Carson River basin, a peak discharge of 632 cm was recorded at the Fort Churchill gaging station on January 3, 1997, a flow exceeding the 100-yr event. Geomorphic impacts of the event, and the redistribution of mercury (Hg) released to the Carson River valley by Comstock mining operations during the mid- to late-1800s, were assessed by combining field data with the interpretation of aerial photographs. Geomorphic impacts included significant increases in channel width, measuring up to 280% of preflood conditions, and large-scale shifts in channel position, ranging from < 10 to 110 m. Both changes in channel width and position vary as a function of valley morphometry (width and slope) and differ from the long-term trends measured from 1965 to 1991. The 1997 flood also produced widespread overbank deposits that vary morphologically and sedimentologically according to distance from the channel and the nature of the vegetation on the valley floor. Within the overbank deposits, Hg is primarily associated with the fine-grained (< 63 {micro}m) sediment fraction, which makes up a larger percentage of the deposits immediately adjacent to the channel and at the extremities of overbank deposition. Mass balance calculations demonstrate that, along reaches with narrow valleys (< 450 m), approximately 10%--65% of the sediment eroded from the channel banks was stored in overbank deposits, whereas more than 90% of the sediment eroded along reaches with wider valleys was stored on the valley floor. Locally, however, storage exceeded 650% where meander cutoff was extensive. The above data indicate that the erosion, redeposition, and storage of sediment and sediment-bound Hg were greater along reaches characterized by low gradients and wide valley floors. Downstream trends in Hg concentration within the

  7. 5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES TO LEFT MIDDLE GROUND OF PICTURE. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  8. Ground water in the Harrisburg-Halsey area, southern Willamette Valley, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    The Harrisburg-Halsey area lies between the Cascade and Coast Ranges in the southern Willamette Valley in northwestern Oregon. The area consists of approximately 350 square miles (910 km2) and includes a part of the lower foothills of the Coast and Cascade Ranges. Volcanic and marine sedimentary units exposed in the foothills range in age from Eocene to Miocene. The volcanic rocks are primarily of dacitic and andesitic composition and yield only small quantities of water that are generally adequate only for domestic and stock use. The alluvial deposits (sand and gravel) of the valley plain contain the more productive aquifers in the area and yield most of the water that is pumped from wells in the area. Aquifers in the area are recharged principally by direct infiltration of precipitation. Most of the precipitation, which averages about 40 in. (1,020 mm) per year occurs during late autumn and winter. During 1974 the seasonal decline of water levels from winter to late summer averaged about 10 ft 13 m) for the alluvial deposits. The seasonal change of storage for 1974 was estimated to be about 170,000 acre-ft (210 hm3). Of this volume, about 14,300 acre-ft (17.6 hm3) was pumped from wells; the rest, about 156,000 acre-ft (190 hm3), was discharged naturally by seepage and spring flow to streams and by evapotranspiration. The difference between pumpage and natural discharge indicates that a large quantity of additional water is available for development. The storage capacity of the alluvial aquifers is estimated to be about 800,000 acre-ft (1,000 hm3) in the zone 10-100 ft (3-30 m} below land surface. Ground water from the alluvial deposits is chemically suitable for irrigation and other uses, as is most of the water obtained from perched-water bodies in the older sedimentary and volcanic rocks. However, the mineral concentration of water from the older sedimentary rocks, particularly from deeper producing zones beneath the valley plain, is greater than that of water

  9. Ground-water data in the Corvallis-Albany area, central Willamette Valley, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, F.J.; Johnson, N.A.

    1972-01-01

    THE CORVALLIS-ALBANY AREA IS PART OF THE ALLUVIAL PLAIN THAT LIES BETWEEN THE CASCADE AND COAST RANGES IN THE CENTRAL WILLAMETTE VALLEY IN NORTHWESTERN OREGON. THE ALLUVIAL DEPOSITS (SAND AND GRAVEL) OF THE VALLEY PLAIN CONTAIN THE MOST PRODUCTIVE AQUIFERS IN THE AREA AND ARE CONSIDERED TO BE THE ONLY UNITS FEASIBLE FOR LARGE-SCALE DEVELOPMENT OF GROUNDWATER SUPPLIES. DURING 1971 THE SEASONAL DECLINE OF WATER LEVELS FROM WINTER TO LATE SUMMER AVERAGED ABOUT 10 FEET FOR THE ALLUVIAL DEPOSITS. THE SEASONAL CHANGE OF STORAGE WAS ESTIMATED TO BE ABOUT 130,000 ACRE-FEET. OF THIS VOLUME, ABOUT 14,000 ACRE-FEET WAS PUMPED FROM WELLS; THE REST WAS DISCHARGED THROUGH SEEPS AND SPRINGS BY EVAPOTRANSPIRATION. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PUMPAGE AND NATURAL DISCHARGE INDICATES THAT A GREAT QUANTITY OF ADDITIONAL WATER IS AVAILABLE FOR DEVELOPMENT. THE STORAGE CAPACITY OF THE ALLUVIAL AQUIFERS IS ESTIMATED TO BE ABOUT 750,000 ACRE-FEET BETWEEN DEPTHS OF 10 AND 100 FEET. WATER FROM THE ALLUVIAL DEPOSITS IS CHEMICALLY SUITABLE FOR ALL USES, AS IS MOST OF THE WATER FROM PERCHED-WATER BODIES IN THE OLDER SEDIMENTARY AND VOLCANIC ROCKS.

  10. Geology and ore deposits of the Monument Valley area, Apache and Navajo counties, Arizona: Part II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witkind, I.J.; Thaden, R.E.

    1958-01-01

    In 1951 and 1952, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a program of uranium investigations and geologic mapping in the Monument Valley area, Apache and Navajo Counties, Ariz. About 700 square miles were mapped on the Navajo Indian Reservation. A resource appraisal of the area was an inherent part of the program, and is detailed in this report. Production of vanadium and uranium is from two areas, the Monument No. 1 mine area in Navajo County, and the Monument No. 2 mine area in Apache County. In the period 1942-53 about 200,300 tons of ore was produced from these two areas. This ore yielded about 1,700,000 pounds of U3O8 and about 6,500,000 pounds of V2O5. The grade ranged from 0.15 percent U3O8 to 0.60 percent U3O8, and from 0.38 percent V2O5 to 3.02 percent V2O5. The vanadium-uranium ratio is about 4:1. The ore deposits are composed principally of the hydrous calcium-uranium vanadate tyuyamunite in basal channel sediments of the Shinarump member off the Chinle formation. Four types of ore bodies are present: (1) rods, (2) tabular ore bodies, (3) corvusite-type ore bodies, and (4) rolls. The reserves of uranium- and vanadium-bearing material are classed as measured, indicated, inferred, and potential. The reserves are further divided into three grade classes for material 1 foot or more thick: (1) 0.10 percent U3O8 and 1.00 percent V2O5 and above; (2) 0.05 percent U3O8 and 0.50 percent V2O5 and less than 0.10 percent U3O8 and 1.00 percent V2O5; and (3) 0.01 percent U3O8 and 0.10 percent V2O5 and less than 0.05 percent U3O8 and 0.05 percent V2O5. Measured reserves as of June 1953, in the Monument Valley area, Arizona, (all in the Monument No. 2 mine) total about 36,000 tons. Indicated reserves in the first grade class amount to about 62,000 tons. In this same grade class inferred reserves total about 3,000,000 tons. In the second grade class indicated and inferred reserves amount to about 2,000,000 tons. Inferred reserves in the third grade class total about 345

  11. Long-term test results from a West Valley actinide-doped reference glass

    SciTech Connect

    Fortner, J.A.; Gerding, T.J.; Bates, J.K.

    1995-07-01

    Results from drip tests designed to simulate unsaturated conditions in the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository are reported for an actinide-doped glass (reference glass ATM-10) used as a model waste form. These tests have been ongoing for nearly 7 years, with data collected on solution composition (including transuranics), colloid formation and disposition, glass corrosion layers, and solid secondary phases. This test is unique because of its long elapsed time, high content of thorium and transuranics, use of actual groundwater from the proposed site area, use of contact between the glass and sensitized stainless steel in the test, and the variety of analytical procedures applied to the components. Some tests have been terminated, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM) were used to directly measure glass corrosion and identify secondary phases. Other tests remain ongoing, with periodic sampling of the water that had contacted the glass. The importance of integrated testing has been demonstrated, as complex interactions between the glass, the groundwater, and the sensitized stainless steel have been observed. Secondary phases include smectite clay, iron silicates, and brockite. Actinides, except neptunium, concentrate into stable secondary phases. The release of actinides is then controlled by the behavior of these phases.

  12. A Hydrostratigraphic Model of the Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley Area, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    S. L. Drellack, Jr.; L. B. Prothro; J. L. Gonzales

    2001-12-01

    A 3-D hydrostratigraphic framework model has been built for the use of hydrologic modelers who are tasked with developing a model to determine how contaminants are transported by groundwater flow in an area of complex geology. The area of interest includes Pahute Mesa, a former nuclear testing area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and Oasis Valley, a groundwater discharge area down-gradient from contaminant source areas on Pahute Mesa. To build the framework model, the NTS hydrogeologic framework was integrated with an extensive collection of drill-hole data (stratigraphic, lithologic, and alteration data); a structural model; and several recent geophysical, geological, and hydrological studies to formulate a hydrostratigraphic system. The authors organized the Tertiary volcanic units in the study area into 40 hydrostratigraphic units that include 16 aquifers, 13 confining units, and 11 composite units. The underlying pre-Tertiary rocks were divided into six hydrostratigraphic units, including two aquifers and four confining units. The model depicts the thickness, extent, and geometric relationships of these hydrostratigraphic units (''layers'' in the model) along with all the major structural features that control them, including calderas and faults. The complexity of the model area and the non-uniqueness of some of the interpretations incorporated into the base model made it necessary to address alternative interpretations for some of the major features in the model. Six of these alternatives were developed so they could be modeled in the same fashion as the base model.

  13. Isostatic gravity map of the Death Valley ground-water model area, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    Ponce, D.A.; Blakely, R.J.; Morin, R.L.; Mankinen, E.A.

    2002-03-12

    Gravity investigations of the Death Valley ground-water model area are part of an interagency effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Energy (Interagency agreement DE-AI08-96NV11967) to help characterize the geology and hydrology of southwestern Nevada and parts of California. The Death Valley ground-water model is located between lat 35 degrees 00' and 38 degrees 15' N., and long 115 degrees and 118 degrees W. An isostatic gravity map of the Death Valley ground-water model was prepared from over 40,000 gravity stations, most of which are publicly available on a CD-ROM of gravity data of Nevada (Ponce, 1997). The map also includes gravity data recently collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (Mankinen and others, 1998; Morin and Blakely, 1999). A subset of these gravity data in the Nevada Test Site and vicinity were described in detail by Harris and others (1989) who included information on gravity meters used, dates of collection, sources, descriptions of base stations, plots of data, and digital and paper lists of principal facts. For display purposes only, gravity data within Yucca Flat were thinned by a factor of 10. The digital gravity data set was gridded at an interval of 400 m using a computer program (Webring, 1981) based on a minimum curvature algorithm by Briggs (1974). The resulting grid was then interpolated to a 200-m grid to minimize pixel size, and then it was color contoured.

  14. Floristic study of Ghasemloo (Shohada) Valley Forest reserve and adjacent area.

    PubMed

    Malekmohammadi, L; Mahmoudzadeh, A; Hassanzadeh, A

    2007-05-15

    In this survey flora of protected region of Ghasemloo valley Forest reserve and adjacent areas has been studied. The study area includes about 577 ha and is located at south of Urmia. The method which used for plant collection is the same as regional floristic studies. Collected plants were recognized and determined as families, genera and species by using of indispensable references. Alphabetical list of taxa in this region was provided on the base of families, genera and species. The life form of plant species was determined by using of Raunckier's method and chorotype of plant species was determined by indispensable references. In this research 50 family, 165 genera and 204 species were identified. The largest plant family is Compositae with 21 genera and 26 species and the largest genera is Astragalus from Papilionaceae family with 6 species. The main biological forms respectively are: Therophytes and hemichryptophytes. The most extended chorotype with 61.28% is related to Irano-Turanian.

  15. 75 FR 42601 - Establishment of the Sierra Pelona Valley Viticultural Area (2010R-004P)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... Valley. The petition notes that soils on alluvial fans and terraces, like those in the proposed Sierra... vineyards. ] The petition states that the boundary encompasses the alluvial valley fill and the...

  16. [Frequency of consanguineous unions in the Tlemcen area (West Algeria)].

    PubMed

    Zaoui, Salah; Biémont, Christian

    2002-01-01

    In order to describe consanguineous unions and their effects in a sample of the Algerian population, we interviewed 3,983 couples in a hospital and from urban and rural areas near Tlemcen. We observed that unions between cousins represented 34.0% of the marriages. The frequency of unions between relatives was lower in the urban (30.6%) than in the rural areas (40.5%). This difference can be explained by changing custom and family relationships in urban areas, and is evidenced by social and anthropologic factors and the attitude towards consanguineous unions.

  17. INTERIOR VIEW OF MAGNESIUM TREATMENT AREA, LOOKING WEST, WITH 10TON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF MAGNESIUM TREATMENT AREA, LOOKING WEST, WITH 10-TON LADLE POURING MOLTEN IRON INTO 20-TON LADLE. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Melting & Treatment Areas, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  18. INTERIOR VIEW OF MAGNESIUM TREATMENT AREA, LOOKING WEST, WITH 10TON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF MAGNESIUM TREATMENT AREA, LOOKING WEST, WITH 10-TON LADLE POURING MOLTEN IRON INTO 20-TON LADLE - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Melting & Treatment Areas, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  19. Environmental assessment for the treatment of Class A low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste generated by the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently evaluating low-level radioactive waste management alternatives at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) located on the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC) near West Valley, New York. The WVDP`s mission is to vitrify high-level radioactive waste resulting from commercial fuel reprocessing operations that took place at the WNYNSC from 1966 to 1972. During the process of high-level waste vitrification, low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste (MILLW) will result and must be properly managed. It is estimated that the WVDP`s LLW storage facilities will be filled to capacity in 1996. In order to provide sufficient safe storage of LLW until disposal options become available and partially fulfill requirements under the Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA), the DOE is proposing to use U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission-licensed and permitted commercial facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Clive, Utah; and Houston, Texas to treat (volume-reduce) a limited amount of Class A LLW and MLLW generated from the WVDP. Alternatives for ultimate disposal of the West Valley LLW are currently being evaluated in an environmental impact statement. This proposed action is for a limited quantity of waste, over a limited period of time, and for treatment only; this proposal does not include disposal. The proposed action consists of sorting, repacking, and loading waste at the WVDP; transporting the waste for commercial treatment; and returning the residual waste to the WVDP for interim storage. For the purposes of this assessment, environmental impacts were quantified for a five-year operating period (1996 - 2001). Alternatives to the proposed action include no action, construction of additional on-site storage facilities, construction of a treatment facility at the WVDP comparable to commercial treatment, and off-site disposal at a commercial or DOE facility.

  20. Touristic infrastructure of municipalities in the border section of Bug valley's Dołhobyczów-Włodawa in the context of existing protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kałamucka, Wioletta; Kałamucki, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    This article presents results of research concerning tourist infrastructure in some districts located in the Bug river valley, in the context of protected areas. The territory examined includes 9 rural districts and 2 towns in the immediate neighborhood of the river. These administrative units are characterized by great natural value. Their total area is 687,7 km2 that makes 6,7% of the whole Lublin voivodship. On the other hand, the share of protected areas (without Natura 2000) is twice as high - 11,1%. Protected areas makes 37,6% of the territory under study. In some units, share of protected areas is very high: Dubienka - 72%, Horodło - 69,5%. In 2009 in the region examined there were 48 objects of collective accommodation - 16,8% of total number in the voivodship. 83,6% of all objects were situated in Włodawa. Characteristic feature of accommodation is seasonality. There are only 7 objects that functions the whole year and year-round lodging places (280) makes barely 9,3% of the totality. Comparing tourist management with presence of areas of the highest natural values, one can see strong correlation between these two indexes only in rural unit - Włodawa, located within the borders of Biosphere Reserves "Polesie Zachodnie" (West Polesie) In case of other units such a interdependance does not exist. On the contrary, there is opposite relation. In Dołhobyczów, Mircze, Horodło, where apart from areas of Natura 2000, in the Bug river valley landscapes protected areas and landscapes parks were created, tourist infrastructure is insignificant or even does not exist. The existence of large protected areas and natural value make it possible to develop various forms of environmentally friendly tourism - tourism qualified, especially fishing and canoeing, hiking, biking, nature education tourism. Tourist service centers should be located outside the valley. Due to the high natural values, caution is advisable to adapt the area for tourism. Such decisions should

  1. Shallow ground-water quality beneath rice areas in the Sacramento Valley, California, 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Barbara J.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey installed and sampled 28 wells in rice areas in the Sacramento Valley as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The purpose of the study was to assess the shallow ground-water quality and to determine whether any effects on water quality could be related to human activities and particularly rice agriculture. The wells installed and sampled were between 8.8 and 15.2 meters deep, and water levels were between 0.4 and 8.0 meters below land surface. Ground-water samples were analyzed for 6 field measurements, 29 inorganic constituents, 6 nutrient constituents, dissolved organic carbon, 86 pesticides, tritium (hydrogen- 3), deuterium (hydrogen-2), and oxygen-18. At least one health-related state or federal drinking-water standard (maximum contaminant or long-term health advisory level) was exceeded in 25 percent of the wells for barium, boron, cadmium, molybdenum, or sulfate. At least one state or federal secondary maximum contaminant level was exceeded in 79 percent of the wells for chloride, iron, manganese, specific conductance, or dissolved solids. Nitrate and nitrite were detected at concentrations below state and federal 2000 drinking-water standards; three wells had nitrate concentrations greater than 3 milligrams per liter, a level that may indicate impact from human activities. Ground-water redox conditions were anoxic in 26 out of 28 wells sampled (93 percent). Eleven pesticides and one pesticide degradation product were detected in ground-water samples. Four of the detected pesticides are or have been used on rice crops in the Sacramento Valley (bentazon, carbofuran, molinate, and thiobencarb). Pesticides were detected in 89 percent of the wells sampled, and rice pesticides were detected in 82 percent of the wells sampled. The most frequently detected pesticide was the rice herbicide bentazon, detected in 20 out of 28 wells (71 percent); the other pesticides detected have been used for rice, agricultural

  2. Geology and economic potential for chromite in the Zhob Valley ultramafic rock complex, Hindubagh, Quetta division, West Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rossman, D.L.; Ahmad, Zaki; Rahman, Hamidur

    1971-01-01

    The ultramafic rocks making up the Zhob Valley igneous complex have yielded small amounts of metallurgical-grade chromite since the early part of the century. From 1968-1970 a cooperative study undertaken by the Geological Survey of Pakistan and the U. S. Geological Survey, under the auspices of the Government of Pakistan and the Agency for International Development, evaluated the chromite potential of the Zhob Valley area and provided data for effective exploration. The Jung Tor Ghar ultramafic rock mass, covering an area of about 45 square miles, is a thrust-fault block completely surrounded and underlain (?) by sedimentary rocks as young as Late Cretaceous in age. The igneous rocks were thrust from the northwest along an east-trending, north-dipping fault in Late Cretaceous or Paleocene time and were peneplaned, dissected, and deeply laterized by mid-Eocene time. The ultramafic rocks consist of interlayered harzburgite and dunite and a cross-cutting dunite here called transgressive dunite. Layered structure passes without discernible deviation from the interlayered harzburgite-dunite through the transgressive dunite. The lowest rocks in the mass, composed mainly of transgressive dunite, grade upward into the interlayered rock about 3,000 feet above the fault block base. The upper transgressive dunites tend to form interconnecting linear networks and probably a few pipe-like structures. The transgressive dunite is thought to have formed by action of water derived from the underlying sedimentary rocks; the water heated by the hot ultramafic rock (at the time of emplacement) altered the pyroxene to olivine and talc, and, with lowering temperature, to serpentine. Other interpretations are possible. Virtually all the chromite in the Jung Tor Ghar lies in or immediately above the masses of transgressive dunite. This fact provides a key to chromite exploration: The most favorable zone for prospecting lies in the vicinity of the upper contacts of the transgressive

  3. Tectonic map of the Death Valley ground-water model area, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    J.B. Workman; C.M. Menges; W.R. Page; E.B. Ekren; P.D. Rowley; G.L. Dixon

    2002-10-17

    The purpose of this map is to provide tectonic interpretations in the Death Valley ground-water model area to be incorporated into a transient ground-water flow model by the U.S. Geological Survey (D'Agnese, 2000; D'Agnese and Faunt, 1999; Faunt and others, 1999; and O'Brien and others, 1999). This work has been conducted in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy in order to assess regional ground-water flow near the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the potential radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The map is centered on the NTS and its perimeter encircles the entire boundary of the numerical flow model area, covering a total area of 57,000 square kilometers. This tectonic map is a derivative map of the geologic map of the Death Valley ground-water model, Nevada and California (Workman and others, 2002). Structures portrayed on the tectonic map were selected from the geologic map based upon several criteria including amount of offset on faults, regional significance of structures, fault juxtaposition of rocks with significantly different hydrologic properties, and the hydrologic properties of the structures themselves. Inferred buried structures in the basins were included on the map (blue and light blue dotted lines) based on interpretation of geophysical data (Ponce and others, 2001; Ponce and Blakely, 2001; Blakely and Ponce, 2001). In addition, various regional trends of fault zones have been delineated which are composed of multiple smaller scale features. In some cases, these structures are deeply buried and their location is based primarily on geophysical evidence. In all cases, these zones (shown as broad red and blue stippled bands on the map) are significant structures in the region. Finally, surface exposures of Precambrian crystalline rocks and igneous intrusions of various ages are highlighted (red and blue patterns) on the map; these rocks generally act as barriers to groundwater flow unless significantly fractured.

  4. New frontiers in old producing areas: Two west Texas examples

    SciTech Connect

    Erdlac, R.J. Jr.; Reeves, J.J.; Swift, D.B.

    1996-12-31

    Identification of hydrocarbons in neglected areas is linked to (1) acceptance of geological models suggesting hydrocarbon presence, and (2) the willingness to apply geophysical techniques necessary to explore these areas. This is especially true in areas not previously believed to have hydrocarbon potential. Basic reprocessing procedures, detailed velocity and statics analyses, and direct involvement of an interpreter as processor can result in significant data quality improvement. Interactive reprocessing of 1970-72 seismic data along the Diablo Platform-Delaware Basin margin shows structural and stratigraphic plays not previously demonstrated. These include reverse and thrust faults, footwall anticline development, clastic pinchout trends, and carbonate debris flows. Lack of interest in this area is attributed to poor seismic quality and no good geologic model to support hydrocarbons locally. Seismic data from 1982 in the Palo Duro Basin displays interbasement reflections of potential sedimentary nature in addition to tectonic activity not reflected in the Paleozoic section. These reflections are below volcanic flows encountered at the Paleozoic-Precambrian interface. Reprocessing, with special attention to velocity analysis, would enhance these reflections which locally suggest onlap, erosional, and channel-like geometries. The deep basin-like character of the Precambrian is supported by a large low density gravity anomaly. The potential of sedimentary Precambrian rock is unknown, however petroleum production has been established from Precambrian strata in other parts of the world, a concept not totally unreasonable for the Palo Duro Basin.

  5. New frontiers in old producing areas: Two west Texas examples

    SciTech Connect

    Erdlac, R.J., Jr.; Reeves, J.J.; Swift, D.B. )

    1996-01-01

    Identification of hydrocarbons in neglected areas is linked to (1) acceptance of geological models suggesting hydrocarbon presence, and (2) the willingness to apply geophysical techniques necessary to explore these areas. This is especially true in areas not previously believed to have hydrocarbon potential. Basic reprocessing procedures, detailed velocity and statics analyses, and direct involvement of an interpreter as processor can result in significant data quality improvement. Interactive reprocessing of 1970-72 seismic data along the Diablo Platform-Delaware Basin margin shows structural and stratigraphic plays not previously demonstrated. These include reverse and thrust faults, footwall anticline development, clastic pinchout trends, and carbonate debris flows. Lack of interest in this area is attributed to poor seismic quality and no good geologic model to support hydrocarbons locally. Seismic data from 1982 in the Palo Duro Basin displays interbasement reflections of potential sedimentary nature in addition to tectonic activity not reflected in the Paleozoic section. These reflections are below volcanic flows encountered at the Paleozoic-Precambrian interface. Reprocessing, with special attention to velocity analysis, would enhance these reflections which locally suggest onlap, erosional, and channel-like geometries. The deep basin-like character of the Precambrian is supported by a large low density gravity anomaly. The potential of sedimentary Precambrian rock is unknown, however petroleum production has been established from Precambrian strata in other parts of the world, a concept not totally unreasonable for the Palo Duro Basin.

  6. Process interpretation of laminated lacustrine sediments from the valley of the river Alf, Quaternary West Eifel Volcanic Field, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, Luise; Pirrung, Michael; Zolitschka, Bernd; Büchel, Georg

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution annually laminated sediment archives from lakes Holzmaar and Meerfelder Maar located in the Quaternary West Eifel Volcanic Field are in the focus of many investigations (e.g. Brauer et al. 2001, Zolitschka 1991). These publications are related to predominantly biogenic varves covering the last ca. 14 ka years, i.e. the Lateglacial and the Holocene. In our study, laminated sediments consisting of clay-silt couplets are presented from paleolake Alf. This paleolake formed in a valley dammed by volcanic products, and covers the Pleniglacial between 31 and 24 ka BP (Pirrung et al. 2007). The focus of our study is the characterization of the structure of clay-silt couplets and the determination of their origin. The applied granulometry revealed mean grain sizes of 10 μm for the light laminae (colors refer to core scan photo) and 14 μm for the dark laminae (both middle silt). X-ray diffraction confirms identical mineral phases for light and dark laminae, with light laminae being clay-enriched containing a higher amount of sericite and chlorite while dark laminae are enriched in quartz. X-ray fluorescence and detrital microfacies analysis on thin sections indicate that calcite dominates in the dark laminae. Microscopically, three different types of silt layers are present. Type I are laminae with homogeneous sublayers, Type II are graded laminae and Type III are laminae with graded sublayers. Processes causing the formation of these silt lamination types can be attributed to repeatedly occurring snow melting, permafrost thawing or rain events linked with sediment delivery from the catchment into the lake. The amount of precipitation and melt water, sediment discharge and density stratification lead to gravity suspension fall out, partial erosion of previously deposited unconsolidated sediments and resuspension in the lake. Brauer, A., et al. (2001). Lateglacial varve chronology and biostratigraphy of lakes Holzmaar and Meerfelder Maar, Germany. Boreas 30

  7. Uranium in Holocene valley-fill sediments, and uranium, radon, and helium in waters, Lake Tahoe-Carson Range area, Nevada and California, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otton, J.K.; Zielinski, R.A.; Been, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Uraniferous Holocene sediments occur in the Carson Range of Nevada and California, U.S.A., between Lake Tahoe and Carson Valley. The hosts for the uranium include peat and interbedded organic-rich sand, silt, and mud that underly valley floors, fens, and marshes along stream valleys between the crest of the range and the edge of Lake Tahoe. The known uranium accumulations extend along the Carson Range from the area just southeast of South Lake Tahoe northward to the area just east of Carson City; however, they almost certainly continue beyond the study area to the north, west, and south. Due to the young age of the accumulations, uranium in them is in gross disequilibrium with its highly radioactive daughter products. These accumulations have thus escaped discovery with radiation detection equipment in the past. The uranium content of these sediments approaches 0.6 percent; however, the average is in the range of 300-500 ppm. Waters associated with these sediments locally contain as much as 177 ppb uranium. Modest levels of helium and radon also occur in these waters. Uraniferous waters are clearly entering the private and public water supply systems in some parts of the study area; however, it is not known how much uranium is reaching users of these water supplies. Many of the waters sampled in the study area exceed the published health effects guidance level of the Environmental Protection Agency. Regulatory standards for uranium in waters have not been published, however. Much uranium is stored in the sediments along these stream valleys. Estimates for a marsh and a fen along one drainage are 24,000 and 15,000 kg, respectively. The potential effects of man-induced environmental changes on the uranium are uncertain. Laboratory studies of uraniferous sediment rich in organic matter may allow us to evaluate the potential of liberating uranium from such sediments and creating transient increases in the level of uranium moving in water in the natural environment

  8. Phenotypic Variation among Culex pipiens Complex (Diptera: Culicidae) Populations from the Sacramento Valley, California: Horizontal and Vertical Transmission of West Nile Virus, Diapause Potential, Autogeny, and Host Selection

    PubMed Central

    Nelms, Brittany M.; Kothera, Linda; Thiemann, Tara; Macedo, Paula A.; Savage, Harry M.; Reisen, William K.

    2013-01-01

    The vector competence and bionomics of Culex pipiens form pipiens L. and Cx. pipiens f. molestus Forskäl were evaluated for populations from the Sacramento Valley. Both f. pipiens and f. molestus females became infected, produced disseminated infections, and were able to transmit West Nile virus. Form molestus females also transmitted West Nile virus vertically to egg rafts and F1 progeny, whereas f. pipiens females only transmitted to egg rafts. Culex pipiens complex from urban Sacramento blood-fed on seven different avian species and two mammalian species. Structure analysis of blood-fed mosquitoes identified K = 4 genetic clusters: f. molestus, f. pipiens, a group of genetically similar hybrids (Cluster X), and admixed individuals. When females were exposed as larvae to midwinter conditions in bioenvironmental chambers, 85% (N = 79) of aboveground Cx. pipiens complex females and 100% (N = 34) of underground f. molestus females did not enter reproductive diapause. PMID:24043690

  9. Phenotypic variation among Culex pipiens complex (Diptera: Culicidae) populations from the Sacramento Valley, California: horizontal and vertical transmission of West Nile virus, diapause potential, autogeny, and host selection.

    PubMed

    Nelms, Brittany M; Kothera, Linda; Thiemann, Tara; Macedo, Paula A; Savage, Harry M; Reisen, William K

    2013-12-01

    The vector competence and bionomics of Culex pipiens form pipiens L. and Cx. pipiens f. molestus Forskäl were evaluated for populations from the Sacramento Valley. Both f. pipiens and f. molestus females became infected, produced disseminated infections, and were able to transmit West Nile virus. Form molestus females also transmitted West Nile virus vertically to egg rafts and F1 progeny, whereas f. pipiens females only transmitted to egg rafts. Culex pipiens complex from urban Sacramento blood-fed on seven different avian species and two mammalian species. Structure analysis of blood-fed mosquitoes identified K = 4 genetic clusters: f. molestus, f. pipiens, a group of genetically similar hybrids (Cluster X), and admixed individuals. When females were exposed as larvae to midwinter conditions in bioenvironmental chambers, 85% (N = 79) of aboveground Cx. pipiens complex females and 100% (N = 34) of underground f. molestus females did not enter reproductive diapause.

  10. Quality of ground water in agricultural areas of the San Luis Valley, south-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edelmann, Patrick; Buckles, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    The quality of ground water in the principal agricultural areas of the San Luis Valley, south-central Colorado was evaluated using chemical analyses of water collected from 57 wells completed in the unconfined aquifer and from 25 wells completed in the confined aquifer. Ground water in both aquifers generally contains dissolved-solids concentrations of less than 500 milligrams per liter. In most areas, calcium is the principal cation in the ground water. Nitrite plus nitrate concentrations expressed as nitrogen, are generally less than 1 milligram per liter. However, the quality of ground water in certain areas may pose health and agricultural hazards. Water in the unconfined aquifer near Center contains high nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations. The highest measured concentration in this area was 33 milligrams per liter. Water containing more than 1 milligram per liter of nitrite as nitrogen, or 10 milligrams per liter nitrate, as nitrogen, poses a potential health hazard for infants and should not be used for drinking. In addition, dissolved-solids concentration in the ground water in some areas is greater than 500 milligrams per liter and, if used for irrigation may reduce crop yields. (USGS)

  11. Topsoil investigation on two different urban areas in West Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Adrienn; Bidló, András

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metal contents of urban soils in two different urban areas have been investigated in Sopron town (169.01 km2) and in Szombathely town 97.50 km2) in Hungary. In a standard network 208 samples have been collected Sopron from 0 to 10 and from 10 to 20 cm depth. 164 samples have been taken on 88 points in the area of Szombathely. We analysed all of the soil samples with ICP equipment applying Lakanen-Erviö method (Ammonium Acetate - EDTA (pH 4.65)) and we focused on Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn during the evaluation. The soils of suburb are determined largely by the bedrock, but in the downtown the soil pH was alkaline in soils of Sopron. Therefore, the toxic elements are still accumulated in the topsoil. The lead content was very high (suggested pollution limit >25 mg Pb/kg) in both layers on the whole area of the town. Urban soils with high copper content (among 611 mg and 1221 mg Cu/kg) have been collected from garden and viticulture areas. According to our measurements we found the highest average values in the soils of parks. The pH of urban topsoils of Szombathely was mostly neutral and it was lower in soil of agricultural areas on the suburb, where the artificial fertiliser is still used. The Pb content was high (more than 25 mg Pb/kg) in case of 13 samples next to traffic roads of the town. The Co, Cu and Ni results were below the suggested Hungarian background limits. The Zn values were above the suggested Hungarian pollution (20 mg Zn/kg) and interventional limits (>40 mg Zn/kg) in most cases. According to the results we found the highest average values of heavy metals in the soil of traffic areas or next to the Gyöngyös creek, which could be originated from traffic contamination, binding in the soil of urban green spaces, thus possibly affects human health. The research is supported by the "Agroclimate-2" (VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034) joint EU-national research project. Keywords: anthropogenic effects, heavy metal content, lead pollution, polluted urban soils

  12. West Valley feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Pirro, J.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the results of a technical assessment of decontamination alternative prepared for the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). The purpose of the assessment is to determine the recommended method for decontamination of cell surfaces and decontamination and removal of fuel reprocessing cell equipment to permit manual entry into the cells for the installation of waste solidification equipment. The primary cells of interest are the PMC, GPC, and CPC because they offer the largest usable volume for the solidification program. The secondary cells include XC-1, XC-2, XC-3 and the PPC which may be needed to support the solidification program. Five decontamination assessments were evaluated (A-E). The assessments included the estimated cost, occupational exposure, duration, manpower, waste volume generated, and final cell radiation levels achieved with the alternative decontamination methods. The methods varied from thorough destructive decontamination to equipment removal without decontamination followed by cell wall and floor decontamination. The recommended method for the primary cells is to utilize the remote manipulators and cranes to the maximum extent possible to decontaminate equipment and cell surfaces remotely, and to remove the equipment for temporary on-site storage. The recommended method for secondary cell decontamination is to remotely decontaminate the cells to the maximum extent possible prior to manned entry for contact-removal of the fuel reprocessing equipment (Assessment D). Assessment A is expected to cost $8,713,500 in 1980 dollars (including a 25% contingency) and will result in an occupational exposure of 180.3 manRem. Assessment D is expected to cost $11,039,800 and will result in an occupational exposure of 259 manRems.

  13. Spirit's West Valley Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA'S Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured this westward view from atop a low plateau where Sprit spent the closing months of 2007.

    After several months near the base of the plateau called 'Home Plate' in the inner basin of the Columbia Hills range inside Gusev Crater, Spirit climbed onto the eastern edge of the plateau during the rover's 1,306th Martian day, or sol, (Sept. 5, 2007). It examined rocks and soils at several locations on the southern half of Home Plate during September and October. It was perched near the western edge of Home Plate when it used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to take the images used in this view on sols 1,366 through 1,369 (Nov. 6 through Nov. 9, 2007). With its daily solar-energy supply shrinking as Martian summer turned to fall, Spirit then drove to the northern edge of Home Plate for a favorable winter haven. The rover reached that northward-tilting site in December, in time for the fourth Earth-year anniversary of its landing on Mars. Spirit reached Mars on Jan. 4, 2004, Universal Time (Jan. 3, 2004, Pacific Standard Time). It landed at a site at about the center of the horizon in this image.

    This panorama covers a scene spanning left to right from southwest to northeast. The western edge of Home Plate is in the foreground, generally lighter in tone than the more distant parts of the scene. A rock-dotted hill in the middle distance across the left third of the image is 'Tsiolkovski Ridge,' about 30 meters or 100 feet from the edge of Home Plate and about that same distance across. A bump on the horizon above the left edge of Tsiolkovski Ridge is 'Grissom Hill,' about 8 kilometers or 5 miles away. At right, the highest point of the horizon is 'Husband Hill,' to the north and about 800 meters or half a mile away.

    This view combines separate images taken through Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers to produce an approximately true-color panorama.

  14. Age of authigenic K-feldspar in Lower Paleozoic and uppermost Precambrian rocks of the Mississippi Valley area

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, R.L.; Liu, J. . Dept. of Geology); Deino, A. . Geochronology Center); Kyser, T.K. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Published K-Ar dates of authigenic K-feldspar in Cambrian and Ordovician rocks of the Mississippi Valley area range from 448 to 375 Ma (Late Ordovician to Middle Devonian), suggesting a lengthy episode of K-feldspar authigenesis. Here the authors report an age span of [approximately]464--400 Ma (Middle Ordovician to Early Devonian) for authigenic K-feldspar of two samples from the alteration profile widely developed over Precambrian rocks at the unconformity with Cambrian deposits. This dating was done on 42 to 48 mesh grains of K-feldspar by the laser incremental-heating [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar method. One sample, from west-central Wisconsin, is from an 8-mm-thick vein formed along a fracture in kaolinitic altered granite. Three grains nearest the fracture yielded plateau ages with a range of [approximately]9 Ma and an average of 430 Ma. Three grains distant from the fracture yielded a similar range of 10 Ma but with an average age of 397 Ma. Thus the grains grew over an extended period from at least [approximately]430 to 400 Ma. A K-Ar date of 411 Ma was obtained from a sample representing the entire thickness of the vein. The other sample, from the St. Francois Mts. of Missouri, is of diabase replaced by K-feldspar. Three grains yielded plateau ages ranging from [approximately]444 to 464 Ma. Oxygen-isotope values of authigenic K-feldspar from lower Paleozoic and uppermost Precambrian rocks range from +19.8 to +22.2[per thousand] and average 21.4[per thousand] (n = 11). These values are compatible with formation of the K-feldspar from similar fluids and comparable temperatures.

  15. Age of K-feldspar authigenesis in Lower Paleozoic and uppermost Precambrian rocks of the Mississippi Valley area

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, R.L.; Liu, J. . Dept. of Geology); Deino, A. . Geochronology Center); Kyser, T.K. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Published K-Ar dates (n = 12) of authigenic K-feldspar in Cambrian and Ordovician rocks of the Mississippi Valley area range from 448 to 375 Ma (Late Ordovician to Middle Devonian), suggesting a lengthy episode of K-feldspar authigenesis. Here the authors report an age span of 465--400 Ma (Middle Ordovician to Early Devonian) for authigenic K-feldspar of two samples from the alteration profile widely developed over Precambrian rocks at the unconformity with Cambrian deposits. This dating was done on 42 to 48 mesh grains of K-feldspar by the laser incremental-heating Ar-40/Ar-39 method. One sample, from west-central Wisconsin, is from a vein formed along a fracture in kaolinitic altered granite. Three grains nearest the fracture yielded plateau ages with a range of 9 Ma and an average of 430 Ma. Three grains distant from the fracture yielded a similar range of 10 Ma but with an average age of 397 Ma. Thus the grains grew over an extended period from at least 430 to 400 Ma. The other sample, from the St. Francois Mts. of Missouri, is of diabase replaced by K-feldspar. Three grains yielded plateau ages ranging over 20 Ma and apparently recording an extended history of K-feldspar growth. The average age of these grains is 454 Ma, compared to a K-Ar date of 444 [+-] 9 Ma obtained from a split of the same sample. The period(s) of K-feldspar authigenesis does not support its linkage with orogenic activity. Oxygen-isotope values of authigenic K-feldspar from lower Paleozoic and uppermost Precambrian rocks range from +19.8 to +23.0 [per thousand] and average 21.4 [per thousand] (N = 11). These values are compatible with formation of the K-feldspar from similar fluids and comparable temperatures.

  16. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Nutmeg Valley area, Wolcott and Waterbury, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullaney, J.R.; Mondazzi, R.A.; Stone, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrogeologic investigations in an industrial area in Wolcott and Waterbury, Connecticut, have provided information on the geology, ground-water flow, and water quality of the area. Ground-water contamination by volatile organic compounds was discovered in the 1980?s in the Nutmeg Valley area, where approximately 43 industries and 25 residences use ground water for industrial and domestic supply. Unconsolidated surficial deposits, including glacial stratified deposits and till, are more than 85 feet thick and are interconnected with the underlying bedrock. The horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the stratified deposits ranges from 0.8 to 21 feet per day. Water in the surficial aquifer generally flows toward discharge points along Old Tannery Brook and the Mad River. Water in the bedrock aquifer flows through low-angle unroofing joints, high-angle fractures, and foliation-parallel fractures. Most high-angle water-bearing fractures strike north with an easterly dip. Most of the water pumped from bedrock wells in the study area comes from shallow fractures that are probably in hydraulic connection with the surficial aquifer. Short-circuit flow between fracture zones in wells is a likely pathway for contaminant transport. During periods of low streamflow, only a small amount of ground water discharges directly to Old Tannery Brook or to the Mad River. The amount of discharge is on the same order of magnitude as the estimated ground-water withdrawals. In northern parts of the valley bottom within the study area, downward vertical hydraulic gradients were present between wells in the surficial and bedrock aquifers. In southern parts of the valley, however, vertical gradients were upward from the bedrock to the surficial aquifer. Vertical gradients can change seasonally in response to different amounts of ground-water recharge and to stresses caused by ground-water withdrawals, which can in turn facilitate the spread of contamination. Vapor-diffusion samplers were

  17. Water resources of the Cumberland area, Maryland-West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, R. R.; LeFever, F. F.; Martin, R. O. R.; Otton, E. G.

    1950-01-01

    The report was prepared in response to a request from the United States Department of Commerce, which desired an appraisal of the water resources of the Cumberland atra in order to evaluate the effect of the availability of water on the economic development of the area. Accordingly, the purpose of this report is to summarize the available water information and to describe the hydrologic factors that affect the availability of water.

  18. Simulative models for the analysis of ground-water flow in Vekol Valley, the Waterman Wash area, and the Bosque area, Maricopa and Pina counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matlock, D.T.

    1981-01-01

    Simulative ground-water flow models for Vekol Valley, the Waterman Wash area, and the Bosque area were developed for use in evaluating alternatives for developing a ground-water supply for the Ak-Chin Indian Community. The hydraulic properties of the basin-fill deposits used in the models were estimated primarily from aquifer tests made by the U.S. Geological Survey. Annual recharge to Vekol Valley and the Waterman Wash area is negligible in comparison to the quantity of water in storage and the quantity proposed to be pumped. The models are based on a three-dimensional, block-centered, finite-difference scheme. The Vekol Valley model was calibrated for steady-state onditions, and the Waterman Wash area model was calibrated for steady-state and transient conditions. The sensitivity of calibrated heads to changes in transmissivity was also investigated. An uncalibrated storage-depletion model was developed for the Bosque area. Simulated water levels for steady-state conditions average within 5 feet of measured values for Vekoi Valley and within 6 feet for the Waterman Wash area. Simulated water levels for transient conditions in the Waterman Wash area average within 8 feet of measured values for 15 years of analysis and within 15 feet for 24 years. Water-level declines simulated by the Waterman Wash area model average within 17 feet of those measured during the 24-year period, 1951-75.

  19. Recharge to the Eagle Valley ground-water basin by streamflow in Vicee Canyon, west-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maurer, D.K.; Fischer, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Recharge to groundwater could be increased by adding imported water to natural surface water flow in Vicee Canyon, in Eagle Valley, Nevada, where municipal pumping has caused as much as 50 ft of water level decline since 1972. Measurements of infiltration rates, percolation rates, and hydraulic conductivity indicate that the area could be conducive to artificial recharge from infiltration of augmented streamflow. Runoff creates natural infiltration beds on the floor of Vicee Canyon, but baseflow causes channelization and armoring of the stream channel, reducing infiltration rates from about 4 inches to 1 inch/hour. A water balance of the streamflow in Vicee Canyon indicates that 60 to 70% becomes recharge, and the remainder is lost to evaporation from a nearby gravel pit and evapotranspiration on the canyon floor. Estimates of recharge from measurements in the unsaturated and saturated zones account for about 45% of the total streamflow. Application of a groundwater flow model indicates that at present pumping rates, water levels below Vicee Canyon and at a nearby municipal well may rise about 15-30 ft after 5 years as a result of about 1 cu ft/sec of augmented streamflow infiltration. (USGS)

  20. Hydrogeologic and geochemical characterization of groundwater resources in Deep Creek Valley and adjacent areas, Juab and Tooele Counties, Utah, and Elko and White Pine Counties, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, Philip M.; Masbruch, Melissa D.

    2015-09-18

    Water-level altitude contours and groundwater ages indicate the potential for a long flow path from southwest to northeast between northern Spring and Deep Creek Valleys through Tippett Valley. Although information gathered during this study is insufficient to conclude whether or not groundwater travels along this interbasin flow path, dissolved sulfate and chloride data indicate that a small fraction of the lower altitude, northern Deep Creek Valley discharge may be sourced from these areas. Despite the uncertainty due to limited data collection points, a hydraulic connection between northern Spring Valley, Tippett Valley, and Deep Creek Valley appears likely, and potential regional effects resulting from future groundwater withdrawals in northern Spring Valley warrant ongoing monitoring of groundwater levels across this area.

  1. Geophysical review of Trans-Pecos area of west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Addy, S.K.; DeJong, H.W.; Whitney, G.W.; Worthington, R.E.

    1985-02-01

    The Trans-Pecos has intrigued and baffled the oil industry, and all exploratory efforts so far have remained fruitless. Our geophysical findings along with other geologic information allow us to analyze the overall hydrocarbon potential for this area. Gravity and magnetic data were helpful in regional mapping but were unreliable for localized information owing to numerous extrusive and intrusive rocks. Seismic mapping shows many undrilled structures. However, the success ratio for the structures already drilled is disappointing (e.g., on the Diablo platform, out of 22 structural leads, 11 have been drilled and all were dry, and in the Marfa basin 17 out of 41 leads were drilled without success). Results were similar in Salt-Flat graben. Many of these wells had good hydrocarbon shows and almost all yielded fresh water. Tectonically the area has undergone several periods of orogeny, the result of the latest being numerous Basin and Range faults. The area is still seismically active and shows appreciable geodetic movement. It is suggested that the traps were destroyed with subsequent leakage of hydrocarbon and repeated induction of fresh water. Trap destruction is apparently beyond the scope of seismic detection. The Chihuahua trough (US), in spite of many discouraging facts, such as high heat flow, thermal waters, etc, shows some promise because seismic data reveal large thrust anticlines in the lower Paleozoic rocks (approximately 15,000 ft) that are yet to be adequately tested. Other small undamaged stratigraphic traps (reefs, truncations, pinch-outs, etc) are possibly present and could be targets for future exploration.

  2. Forest area and distribution in the Mississippi alluvial valley: Implications for breeding bird conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Loesch, C.R.

    1999-01-01

    Knowing the current forest distribution and patch size characteristics is integral to the development of geographically defined, habitat-based conservation objectives for breeding birds. Towards this end, we classified 2.6 million ha of forest cover within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley using 1992 thematic mapper satellite imagery. Although historically this area, from southern Illinois to southern Louisiana, was dominated by forested wetlands, forest cover remains on less than 25% of the floodplain. Remaining forest cover is comprised of > 38,000 discrete forest patches > 2 ha. Mean patch area (64.1?5.2 ha; 0 ?SE) was highly skewed towards small fragment size. Larger patches had a higher proportion of more hydric forest cover classes than did smaller patches which had a higher proportion of less hydric forest cover classes. Public lands accounted for 16% of remaining forested wetlands. Fewer than 100 forest patches exceeded our hypothesized habitat objective (4000 ha minimum contiguous forest area) intended to support self-sustaining populations of forest breeding birds. To increase the number of forest patches exceeding 4000 ha contiguous area, and thereby increase the likelihood of successful forest bird conservation, we recommend afforestation adjoining existing forest fragments ?1012 ha and focused within designated Forest Bird Conservation Regions.

  3. 33 CFR 334.620 - Straits of Florida and Florida Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational training area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... explosives. In general, these explosives will be of an air-burst type, above 1,500 feet. (iii) A circular... strafing target areas, Naval Air Station, Key West, Fla. 334.620 Section 334.620 Navigation and Navigable... area, aerial gunnery range, and bombing and strafing target areas, Naval Air Station, Key West, Fla....

  4. 33 CFR 334.620 - Straits of Florida and Florida Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational training area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... explosives. In general, these explosives will be of an air-burst type, above 1,500 feet. (iii) A circular... strafing target areas, Naval Air Station, Key West, Fla. 334.620 Section 334.620 Navigation and Navigable... area, aerial gunnery range, and bombing and strafing target areas, Naval Air Station, Key West, Fla....

  5. 33 CFR 334.620 - Straits of Florida and Florida Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational training area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... explosives. In general, these explosives will be of an air-burst type, above 1,500 feet. (iii) A circular... strafing target areas, Naval Air Station, Key West, Fla. 334.620 Section 334.620 Navigation and Navigable... area, aerial gunnery range, and bombing and strafing target areas, Naval Air Station, Key West, Fla....

  6. 33 CFR 334.620 - Straits of Florida and Florida Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational training area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... explosives. In general, these explosives will be of an air-burst type, above 1,500 feet. (iii) A circular... strafing target areas, Naval Air Station, Key West, Fla. 334.620 Section 334.620 Navigation and Navigable... area, aerial gunnery range, and bombing and strafing target areas, Naval Air Station, Key West, Fla....

  7. 33 CFR 334.620 - Straits of Florida and Florida Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational training area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... a circle with a radius of 92 miles centered at latitude 24°35′00″, longitude 81°41′15″ to latitude... areas. (i) A circular area immediately west of Marquesas Keys with a radius of two nautical miles having... rocket exercises. (ii) A circular area located directly west of Marquesas Keys with a radius of...

  8. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a)...

  9. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a)...

  10. Map showing depth to pre-Cenozoic basement in the Death Valley ground-water model area, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    Blakely, R.J.; Ponce, D.A.

    2002-03-12

    This map shows the depth to pre-Cenozoic basement in the Death Valley ground-water model area. It was prepared utilizing gravity (Ponce and others, 2001), geologic (Jennings and others, 1977; Stewart and Carlson, 1978), and drill-hole information. Geophysical investigations of the Death Valley ground-water model area are part of an interagency effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Energy (Interagency Agreement DE-AI08-96NV11967) to help characterize the geology and hydrology of southwestern Nevada and parts of California. The Death Valley ground-water model is located between lat 35 degrees 00' and 38 degrees 15' N., and long 115 degrees and 118 degrees W.

  11. Subsurface-controlled geological maps for the Y-12 plant and adjacent areas of Bear Creek Valley

    SciTech Connect

    King, H.L.; Haase, C.S.

    1987-04-01

    Bear Creek Valley in the vicinity of the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant is underlain by Middle to Late Cambrian strata of the Conasauga Group. The group consists of interbedded limestones, shales, mudstones, and siltstones, and it can be divided into six discrete formations. Bear Creek Valley is bordered on the north by Pine Ridge, which is underlain by sandstones, siltstones, and shales of the Rome Formation, and on the south by Chestnut Ridge, which is underlain by dolostones of the Knox Group. Subsurface-controlled geological maps illustrating stratigraphic data and formational contacts for the formations within the Conasauga Group have been prepared for the Y-12 Plant vicinity and selected areas in Bear Creek Valley westward from the plant. The maps are consistent with all available surface and subsurface data for areas where sufficient data exist to make map construction feasible. 13 refs.

  12. Scenario earthquake hazards for the Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area, east-central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Rui; Branum, David M.; Wills, Chris J.; Hill, David P.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) multi-hazards project in the Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area, the California Geological Survey (CGS) developed several earthquake scenarios and evaluated potential seismic hazards, including ground shaking, surface fault rupture, liquefaction, and landslide hazards associated with these earthquake scenarios. The results of these analyses can be useful in estimating the extent of potential damage and economic losses because of potential earthquakes and in preparing emergency response plans. The Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area has numerous active faults. Five of these faults or fault zones are considered capable of producing magnitude ≥6.7 earthquakes according to the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 2 (UCERF 2) developed by the 2007 Working Group of California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP) and the USGS National Seismic Hazard Mapping (NSHM) Program. These five faults are the Fish Slough, Hartley Springs, Hilton Creek, Mono Lake, and Round Valley Faults. CGS developed earthquake scenarios for these five faults in the study area and for the White Mountains Fault to the east of the study area. Earthquake scenarios are intended to depict the potential consequences of significant earthquakes. They are not necessarily the largest or most damaging earthquakes possible. Earthquake scenarios are both large enough and likely enough that emergency planners should consider them in regional emergency response plans. Earthquake scenarios presented here are based on fault geometry and activity data developed by the WGCEP, and are consistent with the 2008 Update of the United States National Seismic Hazard Maps (NSHM).For the Hilton Creek Fault, two alternative scenarios were developed in addition to the NSHM scenario to account for different opinions in how far north the fault extends into the Long Valley Caldera. For each scenario, ground motions were calculated using the current standard practice

  13. Projected Allied Health and Nursing Training Needs for a Seven-County Area in West Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram, Charles L.; And Others

    This report describes a project that developed and field tested a model for projecting state-wide manpower needs in the allied health and nursing occupations in West Virginia and presents projections made for sixteen allied health and nursing occupations in the Charleston area. The content of the report is presented in three sections. The first…

  14. West all, showing truck entrance in former darkroom area, worker’s ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West all, showing truck entrance in former darkroom area, worker’s break room at upper left, top of stairs, work bench at far right - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  15. EAST/WEST TRUCK BAY AREA OF TRANSFER BASIN CORRIDOR OF FUEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST/WEST TRUCK BAY AREA OF TRANSFER BASIN CORRIDOR OF FUEL STORAGE BUILDING (CPP-603). PHOTO TAKEN LOOKING NORTHWEST. INL PHOTO NUMBER HD-54-19-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 8/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. Why the Sacramento Delta area differs from other parts of the great valley: Numerical modeling of thermal structure and thermal subsidence of forearc basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, V. O.; Parsons, T.; Simpson, R. W.; Timoshkina, E. P.; Williams, C.

    2007-01-01

    Data on present-day heat flow, subsidence history, and paleotemperature for the Sacramento Delta region, California, have been employed to constrain a numerical model of tectonic subsidence and thermal evolution of forearc basins. The model assumes an oceanic basement with an initial thermal profile dependent on its age subjected to refrigeration caused by a subducting slab. Subsidence in the Sacramento Delta region appears to be close to that expected for a forearc basin underlain by normal oceanic lithosphere of age 150 Ma, demonstrating that effects from both the initial thermal profile and the subduction process are necessary and sufficient. Subsidence at the eastern and northern borders of the Sacramento Valley is considerably less, approximating subsidence expected from the dynamics of the subduction zone alone. These results, together with other geophysical data, show that Sacramento Delta lithosphere, being thinner and having undergone deeper subsidence, must differ from lithosphere of the transitional type under other parts of the Sacramento Valley. Thermal modeling allows evaluation of the rheological properties of the lithosphere. Strength diagrams based on our thermal model show that, even under relatively slow deformation (10-17 s-1), the upper part of the delta crystalline crust (down to 20-22 km) can fail in brittle fashion, which is in agreement with deeper earthquake occurrence. Hypocentral depths of earthquakes under the Sacramento Delta region extend to nearly 20 km, whereas, in the Coast Ranges to the west, depths are typically less than 12-15 km. The greater width of the seismogenic zone in this area raises the possibility that, for fault segments of comparable length, earthquakes of somewhat greater magnitude might occur than in the Coast Ranges to the west.

  17. Why the sacramento delta area differs from other parts of the great valley: numerical modeling of thermal structure and thermal subsidence of forearc basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mikhailov, V.O.; Parsons, T.; Simpson, R.W.; Timoshkina, E.P.; Williams, C.

    2007-01-01

    Data on present-day heat flow, subsidence history, and paleotemperature for the Sacramento Delta region, California, have been employed to constrain a numerical model of tectonic subsidence and thermal evolution of forearc basins. The model assumes an oceanic basement with an initial thermal profile dependent on its age subjected to refrigeration caused by a subducting slab. Subsidence in the Sacramento Delta region appears to be close to that expected for a forearc basin underlain by normal oceanic lithosphere of age 150 Ma, demonstrating that effects from both the initial thermal profile and the subduction process are necessary and sufficient. Subsidence at the eastern and northern borders of the Sacramento Valley is considerably less, approximating subsidence expected from the dynamics of the subduction zone alone. These results, together with other geophysical data, show that Sacramento Delta lithosphere, being thinner and having undergone deeper subsidence, must differ from lithosphere of the transitional type under other parts of the Sacramento Valley. Thermal modeling allows evaluation of the rheological properties of the lithosphere. Strength diagrams based on our thermal model show that, even under relatively slow deformation (10−17 s−1), the upper part of the delta crystalline crust (down to 20–22 km) can fail in brittle fashion, which is in agreement with deeper earthquake occurrence. Hypocentral depths of earthquakes under the Sacramento Delta region extend to nearly 20 km, whereas, in the Coast Ranges to the west, depths are typically less than 12–15 km. The greater width of the seismogenic zone in this area raises the possibility that, for fault segments of comparable length, earthquakes of somewhat greater magnitude might occur than in the Coast Ranges to the west.

  18. Map showing depth to pre-Cenozoic basement in the Death Valley ground-water model area, Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blakely, R.J.; Ponce, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    A depth to basement map of the Death Valley groundwater model area was prepared using over 40,0000 gravity stations as part of an interagency effort by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Department of Energy to help characterize the geology and hydrology of southwest Nevada and parts of California.

  19. 76 FR 81929 - San Fernando Valley Area 2; Notice of Proposed Administrative Order on Consent Re: 4057 and 4059...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY San Fernando Valley Area 2; Notice of Proposed Administrative Order on Consent Re: 4057 and 4059 Goodwin Avenue, Los Angeles, CA AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice; request...

  20. 76 FR 72405 - San Fernando Valley Area 2 Superfund Site; Notice of Proposed Prospective Purchaser Agreement Re...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... [Federal Register Volume 76, Number 226 (Wednesday, November 23, 2011)] [Notices] [Page 72405] [FR Doc No: 2011-30252] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9496-1] San Fernando Valley Area 2 Superfund Site; Notice of Proposed Prospective Purchaser Agreement Re: 4057 and 4059 Goodwin Avenue, Los...

  1. Differences and Commonalities: Farmer Stratifications in the San Luis Valley Research/Extension Project Area. ARE Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Jerry B.

    A research project in the San Luis Valley of Colorado sought to isolate a few unique farm types that could become target groups for the design and implementation of agricultural research and extension programs. Questionnaires were completed by 44 of 65 farmers in one watershed area of Conejos County. Analysis revealed a complex pattern of…

  2. Potential effects of surface coal mining on the hydrology of the West Otter Area, Ashland and Birney-Broadus coal fields, southeastern Montana

    SciTech Connect

    McClymonds, N.E.

    1984-01-01

    The West Otter study area of the Ashland and Birney-Broadus coal fuelds extends from 2.5 to 14 miles south-southeast of Ashland, Montana. The area contains large reserves of Federal coal that have been identified for potential lease sale. A hydrologic study has been conducted in the area to describe existing hydrologic systems and to assess potential effects of surface coal mining on local water resources. Hydrologic data collected from private, observation wells, test holes, and springs indicate that shallow aquifers exist primarily within the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene age) and within valley alluvium (Pleistocene and Holocene age). Sandstone beds are the principal aquifers that are used in the area, with the Knobloch coal bed in the Tongue River Member being a secondary source of supply. The primary use of ground water is for domestic supply and livestock watering. Surface-water resources consist principally of perennial flow in Otter Creek and intermittent flow in eight small basins sloping from the Tongue River-Otter Creek divide eastward to the Otter Creek valley. Mining of the Knobloch coal bed would remove three existing private wells and lessen the yield of two other wells; all five wells are used for watering livestock. After mining, water in the alluvium of Otter Creek might show long-term degradation in water quality as a result of waters leaching the soluble salts from the spoils material used to backfill the mine pits. 35 refs., 15 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Uranium hydrogeochemical survey of well waters from an area around Pie Town, Catron County, West-Central New Mexico, including concentrations of twenty-three additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, T.L.; George, W.E.; Hensley, W.K.; Thomas, G.J.; Langhorst, A.L.

    1980-10-01

    As part of the Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) conducted a detailed hydrogeochemical survey of well waters in a 4250-km/sup 2/ area near Pie Town in west-central New Mexico. A total of 300 well samples was collected and analyzed for uranium and 23 other elements. The results of these analyses and carbonate and bicarbonate ion concentrations are presented in the Appendixes of this report. Uranium concentrations range from below the detection limit of 0.02 parts per billion (ppB) to 293.18 ppB and average 8.71 ppB. Samples containing high levels of uranium were collected from the Largo Creek valley west of Quemado, from a small area about 6 km east of Quemado, from a small area surrounding Pie Town, and from scattered locations in the area surrounding Adams Diggings north of Pie Town. Most of the samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from wells associated with the volcanic sedimentary facies of the Datil formation. This formation is a likely source of mobile uranium that may be precipitating in the underlying Baca formation, a known uranium host unit. Bicarbonate ion concentration, while proportional to uranium concentration in some cases, is not a strong controlling factor in the uranium concentrations in samples from this area.

  4. New Insights into West Antarctic Ice Sheet History Based on Ground Penetrating Radar Linking Stratigraphy With Surface-Exposure Dated Geomorphology in Lower Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, M. L.; Arcone, S.; Ackert, R.

    2002-05-01

    A most extensive record of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) during the last glacial cycle is found in lower Taylor Valley. We gained new insights into the drift stratigraphy using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and surface-exposure dating in selected locations there. Evidence for the following two hypotheses will be presented. The WAIS achieved Last Glacial Maximum size between the LGM and the penultimate glaciation based on the exposure ages of boulders mantling moraines that GPR indicates are stratigraphically older than late Wisconsin drift. The drift record is on Hjorth Hill. Exposure ages range between 29 and 85 kya. The Taylor lobe of the WAIS dammed a valley-wide glacial lake, Glacial Lake Washburn between 21,200 and 8,340 14C yr BP. How and when the Taylor Lobe disintegrated are debated. We collected GPR profiles at both 100 and 400 MHz on transverse ridges that could date the recession of the Taylor Lobe. We calibrated GPR to sediment stratigraphy, primarily using 10 drill holes in eastern Taylor Valley. Ridge GPR consistently shows multiple superposed sediment packets each with internal sub-parallel reflections that resemble the stratification of migrating current ripples. We interpret the reflectors as foreset (megaripple) bedding. We think that the scalloped-shaped surfaces represent erosion indicative of a shift in current regime. Cross profiles show the festoon-shaped packets of cross-bedded units that characterize undulatory to lunate ripples. We interpret the ridges as form-discordant composite mega- and giant-current ripples. The boulders on the ripples are glacial erratics and attest to the close presence of glacial ice. The environment of deposition, ice-contact supraglacial, was characterized by high meltwater outflow from streams running off the glacier. Therefore, ridge chronology directly dates recession of the Taylor Valley lobe to about 17,000 - 13,000 14C yrs BP. Climate warming was involved in ice disintegration.

  5. Limited gene flow among brown bear populations in far Northern Europe? Genetic analysis of the east-west border population in the Pasvik Valley.

    PubMed

    Schregel, Julia; Kopatz, Alexander; Hagen, Snorre B; Brøseth, Henrik; Smith, Martin E; Wikan, Steinar; Wartiainen, Ingvild; Aspholm, Paul E; Aspi, Jouni; Swenson, Jon E; Makarova, Olga; Polikarpova, Natalia; Schneider, Michael; Knappskog, Per M; Ruokonen, Minna; Kojola, Ilpo; Tirronen, Konstantin F; Danilov, Pjotr I; Eiken, Hans Geir

    2012-07-01

    Noninvasively collected genetic data can be used to analyse large-scale connectivity patterns among populations of large predators without disturbing them, which may contribute to unravel the species' roles in natural ecosystems and their requirements for long-term survival. The demographic history of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Northern Europe indicates several extinction and recolonization events, but little is known about present gene flow between populations of the east and west. We used 12 validated microsatellite markers to analyse 1580 hair and faecal samples collected during six consecutive years (2005-2010) in the Pasvik Valley at 70°N on the border of Norway, Finland and Russia. Our results showed an overall high correlation between the annual estimates of population size (N(c) ), density (D), effective size (N(e) ) and N(e) /N(c) ratio. Furthermore, we observed a genetic heterogeneity of ∼0.8 and high N(e) /N(c) ratios of ∼0.6, which suggests gene flow from the east. Thus, we expanded the population genetic study to include Karelia (Russia, Finland), Västerbotten (Sweden) and Troms (Norway) (477 individuals in total) and detected four distinct genetic clusters with low migration rates among the regions. More specifically, we found that differentiation was relatively low from the Pasvik Valley towards the south and east, whereas, in contrast, moderately high pairwise F(ST) values (0.91-0.12) were detected between the east and the west. Our results indicate ongoing limits to gene flow towards the west, and the existence of barriers to migration between eastern and western brown bear populations in Northern Europe.

  6. The diagenesis of continental (Karoo-Tertiary?) siliciclastics from an East African rift valley (Rukwa-Tukuyu area), Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dypvik, Henning; Nesteby, Helge

    1992-07-01

    The diagenetic history of the Karoo and Jurassic/Tertiary beds of East African rift valleys is related to the tectonic activity and sedimentary evolution of the rift valley area. In the Karoo beds early diagenetic calcite and hematite formation are succeeded by mechanical compaction and minor quartz, kaolinite and calcite precipitation. Renewed tectonic activity (possible half-graben formation) and exposure of the Karoo beds in Jurassic/Tertiary time resulted in alluvial fan deposition (the Red Sandstone Group) and associated fresh-water flushing, caliche formation and hematite precipitation. Late diagenetic precipitation of potash feldspar and feldspar leaching were the final controls on the porosity and permeability development of the sediments.

  7. High-resolution area-wide sea-floor mapping: The paleo Elbe valley (S North Sea) revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papenmeier, Svenja; Hass, H. Christian

    2014-05-01

    The North Sea Basin is shaped by multiple glacial advances and retreats that left complex sequences of glacio-fluvial and sub-glacial deposits, cut by sub-glacial tunnel valleys. Today, the submerged valley of the Elbe forms one of the most prominent structures of the southern North Sea. Flanked by huge moraine deposits of older glacials, the valley developed to its present form during the Weichselian sea-level lowstand (-130 m below present). Melt waters that discharged in north-westerly directions along the Scandinavian Ice Sheet fed the paleo Elbe at that time. During the Holocene the valley drowned in the rising sea. Here we present an area-wide high-resolution map of the seafloor and high-resolution shallow seismic data covering 1,600 km2 of the paleo Elbe valley (PEV) including its eastern levee. The data allow to shed new light on the PEV development including the historical process of sedimentary infill with the successive Holocene sea level rise in detail. Shallow seismic data with transect distances of 400 m and several cross sections allow 3-D visualization. The eastern flank of the valley is characterized by a relatively steep slope with one or more terraces. At its levee a significant sediment change is present on the modern sea floor, representing moraine and marine deposits. High resolution sidescan sonar data of this area show a much higher heterogeneity and complexity in sediment and habitat distribution as assumed before. Holocene marine sediments form a patchy and thin drape east of the valley floor. The western slip-off slope of the valley slope is much smoother than the eastern undercut slope. As yet, significant sedimentological changes at the present seafloor are not known for the western side of the PEV. Shallow seismic data show the base of the PEV. There are conspicuous internal seismic reflectors above the base, inclined in northeastern direction. They indicate a sedimentary infill of the valley from the southwest when the southern part

  8. InSAR deformation time series for an agricultural area in the San Luis Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, J. A.; Knight, R.; Zebker, H. A.; Schreüder, W. A.; Shanker, P.; Lauknes, T. R.

    2009-05-01

    The San Luis Valley (SLV) is an 8000 km2 region in southern Colorado that is home to a thriving agricultural economy. This valley is currently in a period of extreme drought, with county and state regulators struggling to develop appropriate management policies for both the surface water and the ground water. In 1998 the state of Colorado commissioned the Rio Grande Decision Support System to refine the hydogeologic characterization of the system, including the development of a MODFLOW finite difference model of groundwater flow. The main challenge in the SLV is acquiring sufficient data to characterize the spatially heterogeneous, time-varying behavior of the groundwater system. Here we apply the small baseline subset analysis (SBAS) interferometric radar (InSAR) technique to provide such data. InSAR techniques yield the deformation of Earth's surface at fine spatial resolution occurring between two satellite overflights, and SBAS permits solution for a time series of deformation maps. The measured deformation can be related to changes in the water table in underlying confined aquifers. The ability to map these changes, over time, in the SLV will provide critical information about the groundwater system. Historically, InSAR measurements have been difficult to make in agricultural areas. The change in cm-scale crop structure with time leads to signal decorrelation and the loss of useful information about surface deformation. The recently-developed SBAS method allows stable deformation estimates at certain ground points in an otherwise decorrelated time series of data. We applied this approach to data collected by the European Space Agency's ERS-1 and ERS-2 satellites over the western SLV from track 98 frame 2853 for the years 1992-2001. We used the Generic SAR (GSAR) SBAS software developed by Norut to produce time series deformation measurements for many positions across the entire SLV. We find that the 2000 km2 area captured in track 98 frame 2853 shows very high

  9. Saline Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Figure 2

    These images of the Saline Valley area, California, were acquired March 30, 2000 and cover a full ASTER scene (60 by 60 km). Each image displays data from a different spectral region, and illustrates the complementary nature of surface compositional information available as a function of wavelength. This image displays visible and near infrared bands 3, 2, and 1 in red, green, and blue (RGB). Vegetation appears red, snow and dry salt lakes are white, and exposed rocks are brown, gray, yellow and blue. Rock colors mainly reflect the presence of iron minerals, and variations in albedo. Figure 1 displays short wavelength infrared bands 4, 6, and 8 as RGB. In this wavelength region, clay, carbonate, and sulfate minerals have diagnostic absorption features, resulting in distinct colors on the image. For example, limestones are yellow-green, and purple areas are kaolinite-rich. Figure 2 displays thermal infrared bands 13, 12 and 10 as RGB. In this wavelength region, variations in quartz content appear as more or less red; carbonate rocks are green, and mafic volcanic rocks are purple. The image is located at 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  10. Operational guidelines (version 1.0) for geological fieldwork in areas endemic for Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Frederick S.; Bultman, Mark W.; Pappagianis, Demosthenes

    2000-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever) is a disease caused by the inhalation of the arthroconidia (spores) of Coccidioides immitis, a fungus that lives in the soils of southwestern United States. Although large numbers of people are exposed to the arthroconidia and are consequently infected, very few individuals contract the more serious forms of the disease. Earth scientists working in field areas where Coccidioides immitis is endemic have an increased risk of becoming infected. Because field operations often disturb the upper surface of the ground, they may inhale large numbers of arthroconidia. This also increases their risk of developing more severe forms of the disease. Any other occupations or activities that create dusty conditions in endemic areas also have increased risk of infection. Risk management strategies can lower the incidence of infection and also reduce the numbers of arthroconidia inhaled thereby decreasing the chances of developing more serious disease. Dust control, by utilizing dust masks, and dust prevention, by limiting ground disturbing activities, are the primary weapons against infection. However, infection risk can also be lowered by conducting fields studies in the winter months; avoiding sites favorable for Coccidioides immitis growth; seeking prompt medical treatment if flu-like or respiratory illness occur during, or within a few weeks following, fieldwork; getting a coccidioidin skin test to determine susceptibility to the disease; and by educating all members of the field party about the possibilities and consequences of infection.

  11. Foraminifera and paleoenvironments in the Etchegoin and lower San Joaquin Formations, west-central San Joaquin valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Lagoe, M.B.; Tenison, J.A.; Buehring, R. )

    1991-02-01

    The Etchegoin and San Joaquin formations preserve a rich stratigraphic record of paleoenvironments, deposition, and tectonics during the late Miocene-Pliocene development of the San Joaquin basin. The distribution of foraminifera within these formations can help constrain this record, which includes final filling of the basin, facies responses to sea level changes, and active movement on the San Andreas fault system. The distribution of foraminifera in core samples is analyzed from seven wells along the west-central San joaquin basin - four from Buena Vista oil field, one from western Elk Hills oil field, and two from an area just south of South Belridge oil field. A model of modern, shallow- to marginal-marine foraminiferal biofacies is used to interpret the Etchegoin-San Joaquin faunal distributions. This modern model distinguishes marsh, tidal channel, intertidal, lagoonal, littoral, and shallow sublittoral environments. Ongoing work calibrating this foraminiferal record to the lithologic and macrofossil records in addition to interpreted depositional systems within these formations will further define relationships between paleoenvironments, relative sea level, and tectonics.

  12. Interpretive geologic cross sections for the Death Valley regional flow system and surrounding areas, Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweetkind, D.S.; Dickerson, R.P.; Blakely, R.J.; Denning, P.D.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents a network of 28 geologic cross sections that portray subsurface geologic relations within the Death Valley regional ground-water system, a ground-water basin that encompasses a 3? x 3? area (approximately 70,000 km2) in southern Nevada and eastern California. The cross sections transect that part of the southern Great Basin that includes Death Valley, the Nevada Test Site, and the potential high-level nuclear waste underground repository at Yucca Mountain. The specific geometric relationships portrayed on the cross sections are discussed in the context of four general sub-regions that have stratigraphic similarities and general consistency of structural style: (1) the Nevada Test Site vicinity; (2) the Spring Mountains, Pahrump Valley and Amargosa Desert region; (3) the Death Valley region; and (4) the area east of the Nevada Test Site. The subsurface geologic interpretations portrayed on the cross sections are based on an integration of existing geologic maps, measured stratigraphic sections, published cross sections, well data, and geophysical data and interpretations. The estimated top of pre-Cenozoic rocks in the cross sections is based on inversion of gravity data, but the deeper parts of the sections are based on geologic conceptual models and are more speculative. The region transected by the cross sections includes part of the southern Basin and Range Province, the northwest-trending Walker Lane belt, the Death Valley region, and the northern Mojave Desert. The region is structurally complex, where a locally thick Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary section unconformably overlies previously deformed Proterozoic through Paleozoic rocks. All of these rocks have been deformed by complex Neogene ex-tensional normal and strike-slip faults. These cross sections form a three-dimensional network that portrays the interpreted stratigraphic and structural relations in the region; the sections form part of the geologic framework that will be

  13. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The..., Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  14. [Demography and spectrum analysis of Juglans cathayensis populations at different altitudes in the west Tianshan valley in Xinjiang, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Jiao, Zi-wei; Shang, Tian-cui; Yang, Yun-fei

    2015-04-01

    Juglans cathayensis is an endangered plant species and listed as a class II protected species of the national government of China. In order to grasp the current state of J. cathayensis populations and predict the population dynamics in the future, a large-sample investigation was conducted in the sample plots along different altitude gradients in four valleys in J. cathayensis conservation area. According to the diameter at breast height (DBH) class of the trees, the age class structures of the populations were analyzed, and static life tables for J. cathayensis populations in different habitats along the altitude gradient was constructed by smoothing out technique, and comparative fluctuations cycles of the populations in different habitats were carried out by spectral analysis. The results showed that DBH decreased gradually with the increasing altitude. The population was composed of 19 age classes in the low-altitude habitat (1241 - 1380 m) with the maximum DBH of 91.7 cm, 18 age classes in the middle-altitude habitat (1381 - 1490 m) with the maximum DBH of 82.8 cm, and 13 age classes in the high-altitude habitat (1491 - 1670 m) with the maximum DBH of 58.9 cm. Life expectancies of J. cathayensis populations were fluctuant for the same age class at different altitudes and for different age classes at the same altitude. In the three altitude-different habitats, the survival curves of the populations trended toward Deevey- II type and the age structures of the populations were expanding. The curves of mortality showed three peaks, and the mortality rates of 9 age classes at 1241 - 1380 m and 1491 - 1670 m above sea levels were the highest, being 55.9% and 89.8%, respectively, and the mortality rate of 12 age classes at 1381 - 1490 m above sea level was the highest (79.4%). The population dynamics was significantly affected by the fundamental wave of biological characteristic throughout the life cycle of J. cathayensis population, and small cycles of multi

  15. Wellfield strategy and recommendations for the 200 West Area carbon tetrachloride expedited response action

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-04-01

    On December 20, 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) requested the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Field Office (RL) to proceed with the detailed planning, including nonintrusive field work, required to implement an Expedited Response Action (ERA) for removing carbon tetrachloride contamination in the unsaturated soils in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The request was based on concerns that the carbon tetrachloride residing in the soils was continuing to spread to the groundwater and, if left unchecked, would significantly increase the area of groundwater contamination. The purpose of this ERA is to minimize carbon tetrachloride migration within the unsaturated zone beneath and,away from the carbon tetrachloride disposal sites in the 200 West Area.

  16. Constraining chemical geothermometry with reactive transport models: An example study of the Dixie Valley geothermal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanner, C.; Peiffer, L.; Spycher, N.; Sonnenthal, E. L.; Iovenitti, J. L.; Kennedy, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, 1D and 2D reactive transport simulations of the Dixie Valley geothermal area (Nevada, USA) were performed using Toughreact [1] to evaluate the fluid flow pathways and rates of equilibration of hydrothermal fluids. Modeling studies were combined with new multicomponent geothermometry, which is being used to estimate the temperature of geothermal reservoirs based on chemical analysis of geothermal springs. The concept is based on the assumption of chemical equilibrium between the thermal fluid and minerals of the reservoir rock [2]. If re-equilibration occurs between the reservoir at depth and the surface, then the 'deep' chemical signature of the fluid is lost and the obtained reservoir temperature is underestimated. The simulations were run for a vertical cross-section that has been structurally and geologically characterized. Model calibration was performed using available site information such as chemical analysis of geothermal springs, isotherms inferred from geothermal wells and results of a previous flow simulation study [3]. Model runs included the simulation of typical near-surface processes such as dilution, mixing and salt leaching occurring at the Dixie Valley geothermal area. Each reactive transport model produced 'synthetic' waters that were processed using the multicomponent chemical geothermometer code GeoT [4]. This code computes the saturation indices of reservoir minerals as a function of the temperature. Reservoir temperature is inferred when mineral saturation indices all cluster around zero. GeoT results were also compared with classical solute geothermometers (silica, Na-K-(Ca), K-Mg) [5]. Simulation results reveal that a minimum vertical fluid velocity on the order of a meter per day is needed to preserve the geochemical signature of a geothermal reservoir and to predict its temperature. The simulations also show that deep geochemical signatures are well preserved if fracture surfaces are partially coated by secondary minerals

  17. Application of the Evacuated Canister System for Removing Residual Molten Glass From the West Valley Demonstration Project High-Level Waste Melter

    SciTech Connect

    May, Joseph J.; Dombrowski, David J.; Valenti, Paul J.; Houston, Helene M.

    2003-02-27

    The principal mission of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is to meet a series of objectives defined in the West Valley Demonstration Project Act (Public Law 96-368). Chief among these is the objective to solidify liquid high-level waste (HLW) at the WVDP site into a form suitable for disposal in a federal geologic repository. In 1982, the Secretary of Energy formally selected vitrification as the technology to be used to solidify HLW at the WVDP. One of the first steps in meeting the HLW solidification objective involved designing, constructing and operating the Vitrification (Vit) Facility, the WVDP facility that houses the systems and subsystems used to process HLW into stainless steel canisters of borosilicate waste-glass that satisfy waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for disposal in a federal geologic repository. HLW processing and canister production began in 1996. The final step in meeting the HLW solidification objective involved ending Vit system operations and shut ting down the Vit Facility. This was accomplished by conducting a discrete series of activities to remove as much residual material as practical from the primary process vessels, components, and associated piping used in HLW canister production before declaring a formal end to Vit system operations. Flushing was the primary method used to remove residual radioactive material from the vitrification system. The inventory of radioactivity contained within the entire primary processing system diminished by conducting the flushing activities. At the completion of flushing activities, the composition of residual molten material remaining in the melter (the primary system component used in glass production) consisted of a small quantity of radioactive material and large quantities of glass former materials needed to produce borosilicate waste-glass. A special system developed during the pre-operational and testing phase of Vit Facility operation, the Evacuated Canister System (ECS), was

  18. Interpretive geologic cross sections for the Death Valley regional flow system and surrounding areas, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    D.S. Sweetkind; R.P. Dickerson; R.J. Blakely; P.D. Denning

    2001-11-09

    This report presents a network of 28 geologic cross sections that portray subsurface geologic relations within the Death Valley regional ground-water system, a ground-water basin that encompasses a 3 degree x 3 degree area (approximately 70,000 square kilometers) in southern Nevada and eastern California. The cross sections transect that part of the southern Great Basin that includes Death Valley, the Nevada Test Site, and the potential high-level nuclear waste underground repository at Yucca Mountain. The specific geometric relationships portrayed on the cross sections are discussed in the context of four general sub-regions that have stratigraphic similarities and general consistency of structural style: (1) the Nevada Test Site vicinity; (2) the Spring Mountains, Pahrump Valley and Amargosa Desert region; (3) the Death Valley region; and (4) the area east of the Nevada Test Site. The subsurface geologic interpretations portrayed on the cross sections are based on an integration of existing geologic maps, measured stratigraphic sections, published cross sections, well data, and geophysical data and interpretations. The estimated top of pre-Cenozoic rocks in the cross sections is based on inversion of gravity data, but the deeper parts of the sections are based on geologic conceptual models and are more speculative.

  19. Architecture of Late Ordovician glacial valleys in the Tassili N'Ajjer area (Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deschamps, Rémy; Eschard, Rémi; Roussé, Stéphane

    2013-05-01

    The architecture of three Late Ordovician glacial valleys was studied in detail in the Tassili N'Ajjer (SE Algeria) outcrops. The valleys are oriented south-north, 2 to 5 km wide, and up to 250 m deep. The valley-fills revealed a very complex sedimentary architecture with significant lateral facies changes. Several glacial cycles induced the formation of Glacial Erosion Surfaces (GES) at the base and within the glacial valleys. The first type of GES shows a sharp and steep-angled contact without striations or associated syn-sedimentary deformation, suggesting that subglacial meltwater was the dominant erosive agent. A second type associated with the deformation of pre-glacial and syn-glacial sediment, suggests that ice was in contact with the valley floor. Four facies associations are proposed: FA1: subglacial tillite; FA2: Sub-to pro-glacial ice contact fans; FA3: Proglacial sub-aqueous gravity flows; and FA4: outwash fans. The stratigraphic architecture of three of the main valleys reveals a complex polyphase infill. At least two main cycles of ice-sheet advance and retreat can be interpreted from the sedimentary succession of each valley. Minor glacial cycles by ice oscillations also occur locally. GES morphology and the facies sequence suggest that the Iherir valleys were initiated by meltwater erosion in subglacial channels, whereas the Dider and Ouarsissen valleys were part of a large ice stream pathway. Above the valley-fill and the interfluves, a sand-rich unit of stacked lobes and channels is interpreted as submarine outwash fans deposited during final ice retreat. A glacial sequence found between two GES comprises fluvio-glacial or ice-contact fan deposits, fluvio-glacial eskers and tills. These sediments were deposited subglacially or at the glacier front during the ice maximum phase and/or the early ice retreat phase. During the ice retreat, interbedded subaqueous gravity flow deposits and diamictites filled the glacially cut topography as the sea

  20. Potential hazards from floodflows and debris movement in the Furnace Creek area, Death Valley National Monument, California-Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crippen, John R.

    1979-01-01

    Death Valley is known as the driest and hottest region in the United States. Despite the aridity of the valley itself, however , very heavy rainfall sometimes occurs in the nearby mountains. Such violent rainstorms are likely to be of relatively short duration and to occur over rather small areas; nevertheless, they sometimes produce large floodflows that in turn cause severe erosion and flows of debris. The debris-laden flows may be hazardous to life and property. Given sufficient knowledge of the hydrologic and hydraulic environment, the degree of hazard can be estimated. Potential hazards are defined for areas in the vicinity of the Furnace Creek fan and the Park Service residential area. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Potential fluoride contamination in the drinking water of Naranji area, NorthWest Frontier Province, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mohammad Tahir; Danishwar, Shuhab

    2003-12-01

    The drinking water of Naranji village and surrounding areas of the NorthWest Frontier Province (NWFP), Pakistan, was analyzed for its fluoride content. The fluoride content of water samples from the springs in the Naranji village goes up to 13.52 mg kg(-1), which exceeds the permissible limit (1.5 mg kg(-1)) set by the World Health Organization (WHO). This study explores the source of fluoride contamination and attributes it to the alkaline rocks of the Ambela granitic complex and the Koga complex. The low-lying areas towards the south have a fluoride content within the permissible limit. The Naranji area therefore needs urgent remedial measures.

  2. ENDOMETRIOSIS IN A COHORT OF WOMEN LIVING IN THE KANAWHA RIVER VALLEY IN WEST VIRGINIA: BLOOD LEVELS OF NON-DIOXIN-LIKE PCBs AND RELATIONSHIP WITH BMI AND AGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Industrial activities, specifically from petroleum and chemical manufacturing facilities, in the Kanawha River Valley (KRV) of West Virginia have resulted in releases of dioxin and dioxin-like chemicals (DLCs). I Most of the dioxin found in this region has resulted from the produ...

  3. Longitudinal load and cascading failure risk assessment (CASE): Tennessee Valley Authority`s 161-kV Lowndes-West Point transmission line. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ostendorp, M.

    1998-03-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI) Cascading Failure Risk Assessment (CASE) methodology was used to determine extreme event, unbalanced loads on Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) 161-kV, single circuit, Lowndes-West Point transmission line and to identify the cascading potential of the line under five different loading conditions. More specifically, TVA wanted to evaluate the cascading potential of the Type HS-1G and BHS-1G tangent structures which comprise the majority of the line. While other cascading assessment methods primarily focus on the magnitude of the unbalanced loads acting on the first structure from the initiating event, EPRI`s CASE method incorporates the dynamic response and damping characteristics of the transmission line to determine the unbalanced longitudinal loads at any structure away from the initiating failure event. The CASE application constituted an investigation into the nature of the extreme loads that are expected to occur on the 161-kV Lowndes-West Point transmission line during a cascading failure and the corresponding dynamic response. The goals of the investigation were: to quantify unbalanced longitudinal loads acting on structures adjacent to the broken insulator, shield wire, or conductor failure as well as down-line structures; to assess the cascading potential of the Lowndes-West Point transmission line by considering the energy dissipation at successive spans and supports. The results of the CASE method indicate that the lack of longitudinal strength of the Type HS-1G and BHS-1G steel pole H-frame coupled with the dynamic characteristics of the Lowndes-West Point line was likely to result in a cascading failure for the more severe initiating event and load case combinations.

  4. Estimation of the recharge area contributing water to a pumped well in a glacial-drift, river-valley aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrissey, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The highly permeable, unconfined, glacial drift aquifers that occupy most New England river valleys constitute the principal source of drinking water for many communities that obtain part or all of their public water supply from groundwater. Analytical , two-dimensional numerical and three-dimensional numerical models were used to delineate contributing areas of groundwater pollution. These methods of analysis were compared by applying them to hypothetical aquifer having the dimensions and geometry of a typical glacial drift, river valley aquifer. In the model analyses, factors that control the size and shape of a contributing area were varied over ranges of values common to glacial drift aquifers in New England. These controlling factors include the rate of well discharge, rate of recharge to the aquifer from precipitation and from adjacent till and bedrock uplands, distance of a pumping well from a stream or other potential source of induced recharge, degree of hydraulic connection of the aquifer with a stream, horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer, ratio of horizontal to vertical hydraulic conductivity, and degree of well penetration. Numerical models of valley aquifers are deemed best suited to determine the approximate contributing area of a well because of their capability to simulate more accurately the variable geohydrologic conditions typical of glacial drift valley aquifers. On the basis of results obtained with the two-dimensional numerical model, for which a wide range of hydrologic conditions were simulated, the contributing area in a typical glacial drift, river valley setting for a well pumped at a rate of 1.0 million gal/day--a common pumping rate--can be expected to range from about 0.9 to 1.8 sq mi. Model analysis also shows that the contributing area of pumped wells may be expected to extend to the opposite side of the river and to include significant areas of till uplands adjacent to the aquifer on both sides of the valley

  5. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 216-S-26 Crib, 200 West Area

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, J.W.; Evelo, S.D.; Alexander, D.J.

    1993-11-01

    This report assesses the impact of wastewater discharged to the 216-S-26 Crib on groundwater quality. The 216-S-26 Crib, located in the southern 200 West Area, has been in use since 1984 to dispose of liquid effluents from the 222-S Laboratory Complex. The 222-S Laboratory Complex effluent stream includes wastewater from four sources: the 222-S Laboratory, the 219-S Waste Storage Facility, the 222-SA Chemical Standards Laboratory, and the 291-S Exhaust Fan Control House and Stack. Based on assessment of groundwater chemistry and flow data, contaminant transport predictions, and groundwater chemistry data, the 216-S-26 Crib has minimal influence on groundwater contamination in the southern 200 West Area.

  6. Availability of ground water for large-scale use in the Malad Valley-Bear River areas of southeastern Idaho: an initial assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham, W.L.; Harder, A.H.; Dion, N.P.

    1969-01-01

    Five areas within the Bear River drainage of southeastern Idaho offer potential for further development of ground water--the valley north of Bear Lake, north of Soda Springs, Gem Valley, Cache Valley in Idaho, and Malad Valley in Idaho. Saturated deposits north of Bear Lake are too fine-textured to yield large quantities to wells; the areas north of Soda Springs and in Gem Valley would provide large yields, but at the expense of current beneficial discharge. Northern Cache Valley has small areas of high yield in the northwestern part, but total annual yield would be only about 20,000 acre-feet and seasonal water-level fluctuation would be large. Malad Valley contains a large aquifer system within valley fill underlying about 75 square miles. The aquifer system is several hundred feet thick, and contains about 1.8 million acre-feet of water in storage in the top 300 feet of saturated thickness. Average annual recharge to the valley-fill aquifer is about 64,000 acre-feet. Lowering of the water level 100 feet uniformly over the valley area would theoretically yield about 300,000 acre-feet from storage and salvage a present-day large nonbeneficial discharge. Sufficient water to irrigate all lands in a planned project near Samaria could be pumped with a maximum 200-foot pumping lift and then delivered by gravity flow. Such pumping would cause water-level lowering of a few feet to a few tens of feet in present artesian areas, and would cause many present-day artesian wells to cease flowing at land surface. Chemical-quality problems in Malad Valley seem not to be sufficient to prohibit development and use of the ground-water resource.

  7. Potential radiological impact of tornadoes on the safety of Nuclear Fuel Services' West Valley Fuel Reprocessing Plant. 2. Reentrainment and discharge of radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W Jr

    1981-07-01

    This report describes results of a parametric study of quantities of radioactive materials that might be discharged by a tornado-generated depressurization on contaminated process cells within the presently inoperative Nuclear Fuel Services' (NFS) fuel reprocessing facility near West Valley, New York. The study involved the following tasks: determining approximate quantities of radioactive materials in the cells and characterizing particle-size distribution; estimating the degree of mass reentrainment from particle-size distribution and from air speed data presented in Part 1; and estimating the quantities of radioactive material (source term) released from the cells to the atmosphere. The study has shown that improperly sealed manipulator ports in the Process Mechanical Cell (PMC) present the most likely pathway for release of substantial quantities of radioactive material in the atmosphere under tornado accident conditions at the facility.

  8. Installation of water and gas-sampling wells in low-level radioactive-waste burial trenches, West Valley, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prudic, David E.

    1978-01-01

    A low-level radioactive-waste burial site, West Valley, N.Y., operated from 1963 to 1975, contains 12 refuse-filled trenches about 20 feet deep in till. Twenty-eight wells, 1.25 inch in diameter, were driven to selected depths in 11 of the 12 trenches to obtain gas and water samples for chemical and radiochemical analysis, water-level measurements for evaluation of trench-cover permeability. Gas from unsaturated refuse above the trench water level was detected in nearly all wells. Rapid water-level response in most wells to pumping of water from trench sumps 20 to 275 feet distant showed the refuse to be highly permeable. Described in detail are the methods and equipment used to (1) install the wells, (2) collect gas and water samples, and (3) monitor radiation and methane concentrations while driving wells into trenches. A record of each well driven into the burial trenches is included. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. FY94 site characterization and multilevel well installation at a west Bear Creek Valley research site on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Moline, G.R.; Schreiber, M.E.

    1996-03-01

    The goals of this project are to collect data that will assist in determining what constitutes a representative groundwater sample in fractured shale typical of much of the geology underlying the ORR waste disposal sites, and to determine how monitoring-well construction and sampling methods impact the representativeness of the sample. This report details the FY94 field activities at a research site in west Bear Creek Valley on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). These activities funded by the Energy Systems Groundwater Program Office through the Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrologic and Geologic Studies (ORRHAGS) task, focus on developing appropriate sampling protocols for the type of fractured media that underlies many of the ORR waste disposal sites. Currently accepted protocols were developed for porous media and are likely to result in nonrepresentative samples in fractured systems.

  10. Phytosociological study of a small desert area in Rock Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    El-Ghonemy, A.A.; Wallace, A.; Romney, E.M.; Valentine, W.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain more understanding of the compositional structure of vegetation in the US/IBP Desert Biome validation site located in Rock Valley, Nevada. The vegetation data collected from 85 stands, randomly distributed to cover all physiographic variations in the study site, permitted categorization of the vegetation units either by coordinates or by class membership. The vegetational groupings so identified were then used for constructing a more reliable vegetation map for the Rock Valley validation site.

  11. The development of release criteria for the West Valley Demonstration Project and Western New York Nuclear Service Center after decontamination and decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Szalinki, S.; Gramling, J.; Vlad, P.

    1994-12-31

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is located at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC), 40 miles south of Buffalo, New York. The WNYNSC processed over 600 metric tons of irradiated fuel between 1966 and 1972, which also produced more than two million litres of high level wastes stored in sub-surface tanks. In 1980, Congress passed the West Valley Demonstration Project Act authorizing the Department of Energy to conduct a high level waste management project on the WNYNSC site. The two million litres of liquid wastes are to be processes and solidified by vitrification, then transported to a federal repository for storage. This paper demonstrates the approach taken in determining release criteria for the WVDP and the WNYNSC, after decontamination and decommissioning. The criteria development is unique because the WNYNSC is home to the only commercially licensed irradiated fuel reprocessing facility ever to operate within the United States. This process is more complex because the Department of Energy and the State of New York both have defined roles in the site decommissioning, through the 1980 Act and the Operating License. To complete this project, the Act requires the DOE to decontaminate and decommission facilities used for the WVDP to criteria prescribed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The DOE is evaluating a range of alternatives for project completion and identifying the release criteria that could be applied to each alternative. To terminate the operating license, New York State must also meet prescribed criteria set forth by the NRC. Since the NRC currently has no generic release criteria, the development and approval of site-specific criteria has been handled on a case-by-case basis. With respect to the WVDP, it is important to assure that the standards developed are applicable to the decommissioning responsibilities of the DOE and New York State, and that both parties are subject to manageable and realistic criteria.

  12. Quantitative studies on the transmission of Onchocerca volvulus by Simulium damnosum s.l. in the Tukuyu Valley, South West Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, E M; Maegga, B T

    1985-12-01

    A survey of the Simulium breeding and the transmission of Onchocerca volvulus was carried out in and around the Tukuyu valley, S.W. Tanzania, S. damnosum s.l. was found breeding in the midstretches of the main rivers in the valley and their bigger tributaries, and also in the boundary river to Malawi and the most northerly of the three rivers draining the Livingstone Mts. to Lake Nyasa (L. Malawi). A total of 19,500 S. damnosum s.l. females was caught and 13,200 dissected. The annual biting rate varied between 2,000 and 23,800. 7.6% of all the flies were infected with O. volvulus and 1.5% carried infective larvae in the head capsule, on average 2.7 per fly. The transmission was mainly in the dry season and the annual transmission potential varied between 0 and 1,120. The entomological data showed many similarities to those from the Mahenge Mts., Tanzania, and correlation of places with comparable transmission potentials suggests a similarity in the relationship parasite-human host between the West African rain forest and the two Tanzanian foci.

  13. The geology and hydrogeology of Bear Creek Valley Waste Disposal Areas A and B

    SciTech Connect

    1984-05-01

    A study was undertaken of the Oil Landfarm and Burial Grounds A and B, which are three disposal sites within the Bear Creek Waste Disposal Area. The area is located west of the Y-12 plant, about 3 miles southwest of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of this interim report is to present data collected at the Burial Grounds A and B, and to provide the results of hydrogeologic analyses. The Oil Landfarm geologic and hydrogeologic data and analyses have been submitted in a January 1984 interim report. The overall objectives of the study were to characterize the types and extent of wastes present and to define the occurrence and movement of ground water beneath the sites. The intention of this work is to provide criteria on which a design for containing the waste can be developed. Specific activities performed by Bechtel included: drilling for subsurface geologic data; installing monitoring wells; measuring permeability and ground-water flow directions; and collecting soil, sediment, surface- and ground-water, and liquid-waste samples for chemical analysis. Results are presented on the geology and ground waters.

  14. The evolution of the Shiwanghe River valley in response to the Yellow River incision in the Hukou area, Shaanxi, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Wei-Li; Zhang, Jia-Fu; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Guo, Yu-Jie; Zhuang, Mao-Guo; Fu, Xiao; Zhou, Li-Ping

    2014-06-01

    Tributary response to mainstream incision is an important landscape evolution process. The objective of this study is to examine tributary valley evolution in response to mainstream incision. The Shiwanghe River, a tributary of the Yellow River in the Hukou area, was chosen for a case study. The terraces and knickpoints of the Shiwanghe River were investigated and correlated to those of the mainstream. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) was applied to date fluvial terraces. Longitudinal profiles of river and terraces were used to analyze valley evolution. The terrace sequence of the Shiwanghe River near their confluence is almost identical to the Yellow River terraces at the Hukou area. This suggests that terrace formations of the tributary and the mainstream are synchronous, and influenced by similar factors. But the formation age of the same tributary terrace varies from downstream to the upper reaches of the river valley. For such terraces, their formation should be controlled by knickpoint migration. A sudden drop in base-level caused by the Yellow River incision would trigger the formation of a knickpoint in the tributary. A new terrace would be formed as the knickpoint propagated upstream throughout the tributary valley. Due to the different erodibility of bedrock, a set of interbedded sandstone and shale, the major knickpoint would disassemble into a cluster of small ones during its propagation. The age of terrace formation with various valley segments depends on knickpoint migration rate and distance from the confluence. Vertical incision of the Yellow River results in knickpoint recession of its tributaries. The migration rate of knickpoints was affected by climate, lithologic variation, and, to some extent, structural control.

  15. Small area estimation (SAE) model: Case study of poverty in West Java Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhartini, Titin; Sadik, Kusman; Indahwati

    2016-02-01

    This paper showed the comparative of direct estimation and indirect/Small Area Estimation (SAE) model. Model selection included resolve multicollinearity problem in auxiliary variable, such as choosing only variable non-multicollinearity and implemented principal component (PC). Concern parameters in this paper were the proportion of agricultural venture poor households and agricultural poor households area level in West Java Province. The approach for estimating these parameters could be performed based on direct estimation and SAE. The problem of direct estimation, three area even zero and could not be conducted by directly estimation, because small sample size. The proportion of agricultural venture poor households showed 19.22% and agricultural poor households showed 46.79%. The best model from agricultural venture poor households by choosing only variable non-multicollinearity and the best model from agricultural poor households by implemented PC. The best estimator showed SAE better then direct estimation both of the proportion of agricultural venture poor households and agricultural poor households area level in West Java Province. The solution overcame small sample size and obtained estimation for small area was implemented small area estimation method for evidence higher accuracy and better precision improved direct estimator.

  16. Surficial Geologic Map of the Death Valley Junction 30' x 60' Quadrangle, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slate, Janet L.; Berry, Margaret E.; Menges, Christopher M.

    2009-01-01

    This surficial geologic map of the Death Valley Junction 30' x 60' quadrangle was compiled digitally at 1:100,000 scale. The map area covers the central part of Death Valley and adjacent mountain ranges - the Panamint Range on the west and the Funeral Mountains on the east - as well as areas east of Death Valley including some of the Amargosa Desert, the Spring Mountains and Pahrump Valley. Shaded relief delineates the topography and appears as gray tones in the mountain ranges where the bedrock is undifferentiated and depicted as a single unit.

  17. Down in the Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Linda Graef

    1999-01-01

    Describes the partnerships formed by West Valley Mission Community College District (California) with its surrounding Silicon Valley business community in an effort to benefit workforce development. Asserts that community colleges are uniquely positioned to provide a lifelong education that will yield a skilled workforce to meet the needs of…

  18. Clinical, virological and serological response of the West African dwarf sheep to experimental infection with different strains of Rift Valley fever virus.

    PubMed

    Tomori, O

    1979-03-01

    West African dwarf sheep were inoculated with three different strains of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Using infective mouse serum as the source of virus classical RVFV disease characterised by sudden onset, a sharp but transient febrile response, viraemia, abortions and the development of specific RVFV antibodies in surviving animals was observed. The severity of clinical response was, however, dependent on the strain of virus used, with animals inoculated with Smithburn's neuroadapted strain showing a milder response than those inoculated with either the Nigerian or Lunyo strain. The inoculation of sheep with RVFV infective mouse brain material of the three different strains resulted in a mild febrile response with low level viraemia. Immune sera from sheep inoculated with both the Nigerian and Smithburn's neurotropic strains did not neutralise the Lunyo virus strain in a mouse intracerebral neutralisation test; the reverse, however, was not the case. The findings indicate that the West African dwarf sheep is highly susceptible to RVFV infection and that previous reports of only a mild clinical response following inoculation with the Nigerian strain were due to infective mouse brain rather than infective mouse serum.

  19. Bear Creek Valley characterization area mixed wastes passive in situ treatment technology demonstration project - status report

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, D.; Leavitt, M.; Moss, D.

    1997-03-01

    Historical waste disposal activities within the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Characterization Area (CA), at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, have contaminated groundwater and surface water above human health risk levels and impacted the ecology of Bear Creek. Contaminates include nitrate, radioisotopes, metals, volatile organic chemicals (VOCS), and common ions. This paper provides a status report on a technology demonstration project that is investigating the feasibility of using passive in situ treatment systems to remove these contaminants. Although this technology may be applicable to many locations at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the project focuses on collecting the information needed to take CERCLA removal actions in 1998 at the S-3 Disposal Ponds site. Phase 1 has been completed and included site characterization, laboratory screening of treatment media (sorbents; and iron), and limited field testing of biological treatment systems. Batch tests using different Y-12 Plant waters were conducted to evaluate the removal efficiencies of most of the media. Phase 1 results suggest that the most promising treatment media are Dowex 21 k resin, peat moss, zero-valent iron, and iron oxides. Phase 2 will include in-field column testing of these media to assess loading rates, and concerns with clogging, by-products, and long-term treatment efficiency and media stability. Continued testing of wetlands and algal mats (MATs) will be conducted to determine if they can be used for in-stream polishing of surface water. Hydraulic testing of a shallow trench and horizontal well will also be completed during Phase 2. 4 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. The Impact of West Virginia State College on the Kanawha Valley: A Case Study of the Benefits of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturm, Pamela S.

    This report examined the impact of a four-year public college, West Virginia State College, on the local community and graduates. It discusses the economic benefits of a college degree in regard to the individual graduate and the society as a whole, noting that college graduates have significantly higher lifetime earnings than individuals with…

  1. Geohydrology of the valley-fill aquifer in the Jamestown area, Chautauqua County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, H.R.; Stelz, W.G.; Belli, J.L.; Allen, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    This report is the sixth in a series of 11 map sets depicting geohydrologic conditions in selected aquifers in upstate New York. Geohydrologic data are compiled on six maps at 1:24,000 scale. Together, the maps provide a comprehensive overview of a major valley-fill aquifer in southeastern Chautauqua County. The maps include surficial geology, geologic sections, water-infiltration potential of soil zone, aquifer thickness, potentiometric-surface elevations and land use. The valley-fill deposits consist of alluvial silt and sand, glacial-outwash (sand and gravel), ice-contact sand and gravel, till, and lacustrine silt and clay. The sand and gravel beds have relatively high permeabilities whereas the till, silt and clay deposits have relatively low permeabilities. Water-table conditions prevail in u nconfined sand and gravel beds along the valley margin. Artesian conditions prevail in confined sand and gravel buried under silt and clay in the middle of the valley. Recharge occurs mainly along the margin of the valley, where the land surface is highly permeable and runoff from the hillsides is concentrated. The use of land overlying the aquifer is predominantly agricultural and residential with lesser amounts of commercial and industrial uses. (USGS)

  2. Selection of area and specific site for drilling a horizontal well in Calhoun County, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, T.K.; Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses the data collection and analysis procedures used to establish criteria for geologic and engineering studies conducted by BDM to select a general area for more detailed study and a specific site for the drilling of a cooperative well with an industry partner, the Consolidated Natural Gas Development Company (CNGD). The results of detailed geologic studies are presented for two areas in Calhoun County, West Virginia, and one area along the Logan-Boone County line in West Virginia. The effects of Appalachian Basin tectonics and the Rome Trough Rift system were identified on seismic lines made available by (CNGD). These helped to identify and define the trapping mechanisms which had been effective in each area. Engineering analyses of past production histories provided data to support selection of target areas and then to select a specific site that met the project requirements for production, reservoir pressure, and risk. A final site was selected in Lee District at the southwestern margin of the Sand Ridge gas field based on the combination of a geologic trapping mechanism and reservoir pressures which were projected as 580 psi with a stress ratio of 0.53.

  3. Identification of dust storm source areas in West Asia using multiple environmental datasets.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hui; Amiraslani, Farshad; Liu, Jian; Zhou, Na

    2015-01-01

    Sand and Dust storms are common phenomena in arid and semi-arid areas. West Asia Region, especially Tigris-Euphrates alluvial plain, has been recognized as one of the most important dust source areas in the world. In this paper, a method is applied to extract SDS (Sand and Dust Storms) sources in West Asia region using thematic maps, climate and geography, HYSPLIT model and satellite images. Out of 50 dust storms happened during 2000-2013 and collected in form of MODIS images, 27 events were incorporated as demonstrations of the simulated trajectories by HYSPLIT model. Besides, a dataset of the newly released Landsat images was used as base-map for the interpretation of SDS source regions. As a result, six main clusters were recognized as dust source areas. Of which, 3 clusters situated in Tigris-Euphrates plain were identified as severe SDS sources (including 70% dust storms in this research). Another cluster in Sistan plain is also a potential source area. This approach also confirmed six main paths causing dust storms. These paths are driven by the climate system including Siberian and Polar anticyclones, monsoon from Indian Subcontinent and depression from north of Africa. The identification of SDS source areas and paths will improve our understandings on the mechanisms and impacts of dust storms on socio-economy and environment of the region.

  4. Estimation of the recharge area contributing water to a pumped well in a glacial-drift, river-valley aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrissey, Daniel J.

    1989-01-01

    The highly permeable, unconfined, glacial-drift aquifers that occupy most New England river valleys constitute the principal source of drinking water for many of the communities that obtain part or all of their public water supply from ground water. Recent events have shown that these aquifers are highly susceptible to contamination that results from a number of sources, such as seepage from wastewater lagoons, leaking petroleum-product storage tanks, and road salting. To protect the quality of water pumped from supply wells in these aquifers, it is necessary to ensure that potentially harmful contaminants do not enter the ground in the area that contributes water to the well. A high degree of protection can be achieved through the application of appropriate land-use controls within the contributing area. However, the contributing areas for most supply wells are not known. This report describes the factors that affect the size and shape of contributing areas to public supply wells and evaluates several methods that may be used to delineate contributing areas of wells in glacial-drift, river-valley aquifers. Analytical, two-dimensional numerical, and three-dimensional numerical models were used to delineate contributing areas. These methods of analysis were compared by applying them to a hypothetical aquifer having the dimensions and geometry of a typical glacial-drift, river-valley aquifer. In the model analyses, factors that control the size and shape of a contributing area were varied over ranges of values common to glacial-drift aquifers in New England. The controlling factors include the rate of well discharge, rate of recharge to the aquifer from precipitation and from adjacent till and bedrock uplands, distance of a pumping well from a stream or other potential source of induced recharge, degree of hydraulic connection of the aquifer with a stream, horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer, ratio of horizontal to vertical hydraulic conductivity, and

  5. Evidence for precipitation on Mars from dendritic valleys in the Valles Marineris area.

    PubMed

    Mangold, Nicolas; Quantin, Cathy; Ansan, Véronique; Delacourt, Christophe; Allemand, Pascal

    2004-07-02

    Dendritic valleys on the plateau and canyons of the Valles Marineris region were identified from Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) images taken by Mars Odyssey. The geomorphic characteristics of these valleys, especially their high degree of branching, favor formation by atmospheric precipitation. The presence of inner channels and the maturity of the branched networks indicate sustained fluid flows over geologically long periods of time. These fluvial landforms occur within the Late Hesperian units (about 2.9 to 3.4 billion years old), when Mars was thought to have been cold. Our results suggest a period of warmer conditions conducive to hydrological activity.

  6. Mineral resources of the Cranberry Wilderness Study Area, Webster and Pocahontas Counties, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Meissner, C.R. Jr.; Windolph, J.F. Jr.; Mory, P.C.; Harrison, D.K.; Cameron, C.C.; Grosz, A.E.; Perry, W.J. Jr.; Lesure, F.G.

    1981-01-01

    The Cranberry Wilderness Study Area comprises 14,702 ha in the Monongahela National Forest, Webster and Pocahontas Counties, east-central West Virginia. The area is in the Yew Mountains of the Appalachian Plateaus and is at the eastern edge of the central Appalachian coal fields. Cranberry Glades, a peatland of botanical interest, lies at the southern end of the study area. All surface rights in the area are held by the US Forest Service; nearly 90% of the mineral rights are privately owned or subordinate to the surface rights. Bituminous coal of coking quality is the most economically important mineral resource in the Cranberry Wilderness Study Area. Estimated resources in beds 35 cm thick or more are about 100 million metric tons in nine coal beds. Most measured-indicated coal, 70 cm thick or more (reserve base), is in a 7-km-wide east-west trending belt extending across the center of the study area. The estimated reserve base is 34,179 thousand metric tons. Estimated reserves in seven of the coal beds total 16,830 thousand metric tons and are recoverable by underground mining methods. Other mineral resources, all of which have a low potential for development in the study area, include peat, shale, and clay suitable for building brick and lightweight aggregate, sandstone for low-quality glass sand, and sandstone suitable for construction material. Evidence derived from drilling indicates little possibility for oil and gas in the study area. No evidence of economic metallic deposits was found during this investigation.

  7. Oil and gas resources of the Cheat Mountain Further Planning Area (Rare II), Randolph County, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Weed, E.G.A.

    1981-01-01

    This map presents an analysis of the oil and gas resources of the Cheat Mountain Further Planning Area in the Monomgahela National Forest, Randolph County, West Virgina. 28 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  8. Paleogene volcanic rocks of the Matanuska Valley area and the displacement history of the Castle Mountain fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silberman, M. L.; Grantz, A.

    Primitive strontium-isotopic composition and overall bimodal distribution of silica in upper Paleocene and Eocene subalkalic tholeiitic to calc-alkaline basalt and low-potassium rhyolite of the Matanuska Valley and southern Talkeetna Mountains suggest that these rocks were derived from the mantle with little contamination by continental crust. The volcanic rocks consist of rhyolite tuff and ash flows, as well as basalt flows and dikes, in the nonmarine Arkose Ridge Formation of the southwestern Talkeetna Mountains; of subaerial basalt and andesite flows, tuff, and mafic intrusions in the southeastern Talkeetna Mountains; and of felsic and mafic dikes, sills, and small plutons in the Matanuska Valley. The generalized geology of the area in which the volcanic rocks occur and the localities sampled for potassium-argon-age determinations and for chemical and strontinum-isotopic analysis are shown. The analytical results are listed.

  9. Correlation of Hemingfordian and Barstovian land mammal assemblages, lower part of Caliente Formation, Cuyama Valley area, California

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, T.S.; Lander, E.B.

    1988-03-01

    Reevaluation of faunas from the Caliente Formation allows the following correlations with similar ones elsewhere in California and in Nebraska. Padrones Spring local fauna (CIT 312: Ticholeptus smithi, Merychippus carrizoensis; 16.5-14.6 Ma) = Red Division Quarry LF (Barstow Formation 16.5-16.3 Ma), unnamed middle Hemingfordian local fauna (Red Valley Member, Box Butte Formation). Hidden Treasure Spring local fauna (UCMP V-5674, -5676: M. carrizoensis, Ticholeptus zygomaticus.; M. cf. M. seversus) . = lower Yermo local fauna (Barstow Formation). West Dry Canyon LF (lower) (last occurrence, M. carrizoensis; UCMP V-6766: first occurrence, medium-size Brachycrus laticeps) = unnamed local fauna (lower part, Unit 3, Punchbowl Formation), upper Yermo local fauna, Ginn Quarry local fauna (Hemingford Group). West Dry Canyon local fauna (upper) (last occurrence, medium-size B laticeps) = lower Green Hills local fauna (resistant breccia member, Barstow formation, upper Steepside Quarry), early late Hemingfordian, lower Sheep Creek local fauna (lower member, Sheep Creek Formation, Greenside, Long Quarries). Lower Dome Spring local fauna (UCMP V-5670, -5824, -6768: small B. laticeps) = early (pre-type) Barstovian upper Green Hills local fauna, (Camp, Green Hills, Oreodont Quarries; 16.3-15.0), lowest Snake Creek local fauna (lower member, Olcott Formation, Trojan Quarry; 16.7-15.1 Ma).

  10. 14. VIEW OF AREA TO BE INUNDATED FOR EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF AREA TO BE INUNDATED FOR EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM OBSERVATORY HILL AT NORTH END OF WEST DAM. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  11. Electromagnetic surveys to detect clay-rich sediment in the Rio Grande inner valley, Albuquerque area, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartolino, James R.; Sterling, Joseph M.

    2000-01-01

    Information on the presence of clay-rich layers in the inner-valley alluvium is essential for quantifying the amount of water transmitted between the Rio Grande and the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. This report describes a study that used electromagnetic surveys to provide this information. In the first phase of the study, electromagnetic soundings were made using time-domain and frequency-domain electro- magnetic methods. On the basis of these initial results, the time- domain method was judged ineffective because of cultural noise in the study area, so subsequent surveys were made using the frequency-domain method. For the second phase of the study, 31 frequency-domain electromagnetic surveys were conducted along the inner valley and parallel to the Rio Grande in the Albuquerque area in the spring and summer of 1997 to determine the presence of hydrologically significant clay-rich layers buried in the inner-valley alluvium. For this report, the 31 survey sections were combined into 10 composite sections for ease of interpretation. Terrain-conductivity data from the surveys were modeled using interpretation software to produce geoelectric cross sections along the survey lines. This modeling used lithologic logs from two wells installed near the survey lines: the Bosque South and Rio Bravo 5 wells. Because of cultural interference, location of the wells and soundings, complex stratigraphy, and difficulty interpreting lithology, such interpretation was inconclusive. Instead, a decision process based on modeling results was developed using vertical and horizontal dipole 40-meter intercoil spacing terrain-conductivity values. Values larger than or equal to 20 millisiemens per meter were interpreted to contain a hydrologically significant thickness of clay-rich sediment. Thus, clay-rich sediment was interpreted to underlie seven segments of the 10 composited survey lines, totaling at least 2,660 meters of the Rio Grande inner valley. The longest of these clay

  12. 75 FR 70024 - Notice of Expansion of the Lisbon Valley Known Potash Leasing Area, Utah

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... extract deep potash deposits using dissolution. Based on this new technology, the BLM approved new mineral... available drilling information to determine that the Lisbon Valley KPLA should be expanded to include deep... the following Web site: http://www.blm.gov/ut/st/en/prog/more/Land_Records.html . The lands...

  13. 75 FR 9827 - Proposed Expansion of the Santa Maria Valley Viticultural Area (2008R-287P)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... cooling wind and fog encounter little resistance in any direction until they meet the Sierra Madre... asserts that the cooling wind and fog encounter resistance. The petition includes a map that shows the... fog in an east-southeast direction, into the valley. T.D. ATF- 89 states that ``* * * the...

  14. Hydrology of area 4, Eastern Coal Province, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roth, Donald K.; Engelke, Morris J.; ,

    1981-01-01

    Area 4 (one of the 24 hydrologic areas defining the Eastern Coal Province) is located at the northern end of the Eastern Coal Province in eastern Ohio, northern West Virginia, and western Pennsylvania. It is part of the upper Ohio River basin, which includes the Beaver, Mahoning, and Shenango Rivers. The area is underlain by rocks of the Pottsville, Allegheny, Conemaugh, Monongahela Groups (or Formations) and Dunkard Group. Area 4 has a temperate climate with an annual average rainfall of 38 to 42 inches, most of its area is covered by forest. The soils have a high erosion potential where the vegetation cover is removed. In response to Public Law 95-87, 132 sites were added to the existing surface-water data-collection network in area 4. At these added sites, collected data includes discharge, water quality, sediment, and biology. The data are available from computer storage through the National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX) or the published annual Water Resources Data reports for Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. Hydrologic problems related to mining are: (1) Erosion and increased sedimentation, and (2) degradation of water quality. Erosion and sedimentation are associated chiefly with surface mining. Sediment yields increase drastically when vegetation is removed from the highly erosive soils. Degradation of water quality can be caused by acid-mine drainage from underground and surface mining. More than half the acid-mine drainage effluent in area 4 comes from underground mines. The rest seeps from abandoned surface mines. Usually in reclaimed surface mines the overburden is replaced in such a short time after the coal is taken out that oxidation of acid-forming minerals, commonly pyrite or marcasite, is not complete or is neutralized by the buffering action of calcareous minerals in the soils. (USGS)

  15. Trace element mobility and transfer to vegetation within the Ethiopian Rift Valley lake areas.

    PubMed

    Kassaye, Yetneberk A; Skipperud, Lindis; Meland, Sondre; Dadebo, Elias; Einset, John; Salbu, Brit

    2012-10-26

    To evaluate critical trace element loads in native vegetation and calculate soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs), 11 trace elements (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Pb and Mn) have been determined in leaves of 9 taxonomically verified naturally growing terrestrial plant species as well as in soil samples collected around 3 Ethiopian Rift Valley lakes (Koka, Ziway and Awassa). The Cr concentration in leaves of all the plant species was higher than the "normal" range, with the highest level (8.4 mg per kg dw) being observed in Acacia tortilis from the Lake Koka area. Caper species (Capparis fascicularis) and Ethiopian dogstooth grass (Cynodon aethiopicus) from Koka also contained exceptionally high levels of Cd (1 mg per kg dw) and Mo (32.8 mg per kg dw), respectively. Pb, As and Cu concentrations were low in the plant leaves from all sites. The low Cu level in important fodder plant species (Cynodon aethiopicus, Acacia tortilis and Opuntia ficus-indicus) implies potential deficiency in grazing and browsing animals. Compared to the Canadian environmental quality guideline and maximum allowable concentration in agricultural soils, the total soil trace element concentrations at the studied sites are safe for agricultural crop production. Enrichment factor was high for Zn in soils around Lakes Ziway and Awassa, resulting in moderate to high transfer of Zn to the studied plants. A six step sequential extraction procedure on the soils revealed a relatively high mobility of Cd, Se and Mn. Strong association of most trace elements with the redox sensitive fraction and mineral lattice was also confirmed by partial redundancy analysis. TF (mg per kg dw plants/mg per kg dw soil) values based on the total (TF(total)) and mobile fractions (TF(mobile)) of soil trace element concentrations varied widely among elements and plant species, with the averaged TF(total) and TF(mobile) values ranging from 0.01-2 and 1-60, respectively. Considering the mobile fraction in soils should

  16. A GIS-based methodology to delineate potential areas for groundwater development: a case study from Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Vishnu P.; Shrestha, Sangam; Kazama, Futaba

    2013-06-01

    For an effective planning of activities aimed at recovering aquifer depletion and maintaining health of groundwater ecosystem, estimates of spatial distribution in groundwater storage volume would be useful. The estimated volume, if analyzed together with other hydrogeologic characteristics, may help delineate potential areas for groundwater development. This study proposes a GIS-based ARC model to delineate potential areas for groundwater development; where `A' stands for groundwater availability, `R' for groundwater release potential of soil matrix, and `C' for cost for groundwater development. The model is illustrated with a case of the Kathmandu Valley in Central Nepal, where active discussions are going on to develop and implement groundwater management strategies. The study results show that shallow aquifers have high groundwater storage potential (compared to the deep) and favorable areas for groundwater development are concentrated at some particular areas in shallow and deep aquifers. The distribution of groundwater storage and potential areas for groundwater development are then mapped using GIS.

  17. Historical tank content estimate for the northwest quadrant ofthe Hanford 200 west area

    SciTech Connect

    Brevick, C.H.; Stroup, J.L.; Funk, J.W., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-06

    The Historical Tank Content Estimate for the Quadrant provides historical information on a tank-by-tank basis of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the underground single-shell tanks for the Hanford 200 West Area. This report summarized historical information such as waste history, level history, temperature history, riser configuration, tank integrity, and inventory estimates on a tank-by-tank basis. Tank farm aerial photographs and interior tank montages are also provided for each tank. A description of the development of data for the document of the inventory estimates provided by Los Alamos National Labo1368ratory are also given in this report.

  18. Archaeological survey of the 200 East and 200 West Areas, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Chatters, J.C.; Cadoret, N.A.

    1990-03-01

    Responding to a heavy demand for cultural resource reviews of excavation sites, the Westinghouse Hanford Company contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory to conduct a comprehensive archaeological resource review for the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site, Washington. This was accomplished through literature and records review and an intensive pedestrian survey of all undisturbed portions of the 200 East Area and a stratified random sample of the 200 West Area. The survey, followed the Secretary of the Interior's guidelines for the identification of historic properties. The result of the survey is a model of cultural resource distributions that has been used to create cultural resource zones with differing degrees of sensitivity. 11 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Prevalence of primary headache disorders in school-going children in Kashmir Valley (North-west India)

    PubMed Central

    Malik, A. Hameed; Shah, Parvaiz A.; Yaseen, Yawar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A prospective prevalence study of primary headache disorders in school going children (8–18 years) in Srinagar district of Kashmir valley was conducted. Materials and Methods: The study population comprised of a randomized sample of 5000 school going children in the age group of 8–18 years from various educational institutions of Srinagar city. A self-administered pretested questionnaire was filled by the participants and the diagnosis established by following the International Headache Society criteria (IHS) 2004. Results: The overall prevalence of primary headache disorders was found to be 664/1000. The prevalence of tension-type headache and migraine was found to be 50.99% and 26.98%, respectively. The prevalence revealed an upward trend with increasing age with preponderance for female sex. PMID:23024557

  20. Ground-water hydrology and subsurface migration of radioisotopes at a low-level solid radioactive-waste disposal site, West Valley, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prudic, David E.; Randall, Allan D.

    1977-01-01

    Burial trenches for disposal of solid radioactive waste at West Valley, N.Y., are excavated in till that has very low hydraulic conductivity (about 5 x 10 to the minus 8th power centimeters per second). Fractures and root tubes with chemically oxidized and (or) reduced soil in their walls extend to 3 to 4.5 meters below natural land surface. Preliminary simulations of pressure heads with a digital model suggest that hydraulic conductivity is an order of magnitude greater in the fractured till near land surface than at greater depth. Hydraulic gradients are predominantly downward, even beneath small valleys. The upper part of a body of underlying lacustrine silt is unsaturated; in the lower, saturated part, slow lateral flow may occur. In the older trenches, water began to build up in 1971, overflowed briefly in 1975, and was pumped out in 1975-76. Water levels rose abruptly during major rainstorms in mid-1975, indicating rapid infiltration through cracks in the cover material. The new trenches have maintained low, stable water levels, perhaps because of thicker, more compact cover and less waste settlement; pressure heads near these trenches are low, locally approaching zero, perhaps because of slight infiltration and limited near-surface storage. Peak tritium concentrations in test-hole cores (generally 0.00001 to 0.001 microcuries per milliliter) were found within 3 meters of land surface and are attributed to surface contamination. Concentrations declined rapidly with depth within the fractured till; secondary peaks found at about 9 meters in three holes are attributed to lateral migration from trenches. Other radioisotopes were detected only near land surface. Samples from the walls of shallow fractures revealed no accumulation of radioisotopes. (Woodard-USGS)