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  1. Associations between area-level unemployment, body mass index, and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in an urban area.

    PubMed

    Naimi, Ashley Isaac; Paquet, Catherine; Gauvin, Lise; Daniel, Mark

    2009-12-01

    Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) has been linked to "neighbourhood" socioeconomic status (nSES), often operationalized as a composite index of aggregate income, occupation and education within predefined administrative boundaries. The role of specific, non-composite socioeconomic markers has not been clearly explained. It is also unclear whether the relationship between nSES and CVD varies according to sex. We sought to determine whether area-level unemployment (ALU) was associated with CVD risk, and whether this association differed by sex. 342 individuals from the Montreal Neighbourhood Survey of Lifestyle and Health provided self-reported behavioural and socioeconomic information. A nurse collected biochemical and anthropometric data. ALU, a weighted average of the proportion of persons 15-years and older available for but without work, was measured using a Geographic Information System for a 250 m buffer centred on individual residence. Generalized Estimating Equations were used to estimate the associations between ALU, body mass index (BMI) and a cumulative score for total cardiometabolic risk (TCR). After confounder adjustments, the mean 4(th) minus 1(st) quartile difference in BMI was 3.19 kg/m(2) (95% CI: 2.39, 3.99), while the prevalence ratio for the 4(th) relative to 1(st) quartile for TCR was 2.20 (95 % CI: 1.53, 3.17). Sex interacted with ALU; women relative to men had greater mean 3.97 kg/m(2) (95% CI: 2.08, 5.85) BMI and greater mean TCR 1.51 (95% CI: 0.78, 2.90), contrasted at mean ALU. Area-level unemployment is associated with greater CVD risk, and this association is stronger for women.

  2. Associations between Area-Level Unemployment, Body Mass Index, and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in an Urban Area

    PubMed Central

    Naimi, Ashley Isaac; Paquet, Catherine; Gauvin, Lise; Daniel, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) has been linked to “neighbourhood” socioeconomic status (nSES), often operationalized as a composite index of aggregate income, occupation and education within predefined administrative boundaries. The role of specific, non-composite socioeconomic markers has not been clearly explained. It is also unclear whether the relationship between nSES and CVD varies according to sex. We sought to determine whether area-level unemployment (ALU) was associated with CVD risk, and whether this association differed by sex. Methods: 342 individuals from the Montreal Neighbourhood Survey of Lifestyle and Health provided self-reported behavioural and socioeconomic information. A nurse collected biochemical and anthropometric data. ALU, a weighted average of the proportion of persons 15-years and older available for but without work, was measured using a Geographic Information System for a 250 m buffer centred on individual residence. Generalized Estimating Equations were used to estimate the associations between ALU, body mass index (BMI) and a cumulative score for total cardiometabolic risk (TCR). Results: After confounder adjustments, the mean 4th minus 1st quartile difference in BMI was 3.19 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.39, 3.99), while the prevalence ratio for the 4th relative to 1st quartile for TCR was 2.20 (95 % CI: 1.53, 3.17). Sex interacted with ALU; women relative to men had greater mean 3.97 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.08, 5.85) BMI and greater mean TCR 1.51 (95% CI: 0.78, 2.90), contrasted at mean ALU. Conclusions: Area-level unemployment is associated with greater CVD risk, and this association is stronger for women. PMID:20049247

  3. Individual- and Area-level Unemployment Influence Smoking Cessation Among African Americans Participating in a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kendzor, Darla E.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M.; Cao, Yumei; Ji, Lingyun; Costello, Tracy J.; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Businelle, Michael S.; Li, Yisheng; Castro, Yessenia; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

    2012-01-01

    African Americans suffer disproportionately from the adverse health consequences of smoking, and also report substantially lower socioeconomic status than Whites and other racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. Although socioeconomic disadvantage is known to have a negative influence on smoking cessation rates and overall health, little is known about the influence of socioeconomic status on smoking cessation specifically among African Americans. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to characterize the impact of several individual- and area-level indicators of socioeconomic status on smoking cessation among African Americans. Data were collected as part of a smoking cessation intervention study for African American smokers (N = 379) recruited from the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area, who participated in the study between 2005 and 2007. The separate and combined influences of individual-level (insurance status, unemployment, education, and income) and area-level (neighborhood unemployment, education, income, and poverty) indicators of socioeconomic status on continuous smoking abstinence were examined across time intervals using continuation ratio logit modeling. Individual-level analyses indicated that unemployment was significantly associated with reduced odds of smoking abstinence, while higher income was associated with greater odds of abstinence. However, only unemployment remained a significant predictor of abstinence when unemployment and income were included in the model together. Area-level analyses indicated that greater neighborhood unemployment and poverty were associated with reduced odds of smoking abstinence, while greater neighborhood education was associated with higher odds of abstinence. However, only neighborhood unemployment remained significantly associated with abstinence status when individual-level income and unemployment were included in the model. Overall, findings suggest that individual- and area-level unemployment have a negative

  4. Area-level unemployment and perceived job insecurity: evidence from a longitudinal survey conducted in the Australian working-age population.

    PubMed

    Milner, Allison; Kavanagh, Anne; Krnjacki, Lauren; Bentley, Rebecca; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2014-03-01

    RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE: Job insecurity, the subjective individual anticipation of involuntary job loss, negatively affects employees' health and their engagement. Although the relationship between job insecurity and health has been extensively studied, job insecurity as an 'exposure' has received far less attention, with little known about the upstream determinants of job insecurity in particular. This research sought to identify the relationship between self-rated job insecurity and area-level unemployment using a longitudinal, nationally representative study of Australian households. Mixed-effect multi-level regression models were used to assess the relationship between area-based unemployment rates and self-reported job insecurity using data from a longitudinal, nationally representative survey running since 2001. Interaction terms were included to test the hypotheses that the relationship between area-level unemployment and job insecurity differed between occupational skill-level groups and by employment arrangement. Marginal effects were computed to visually depict differences in job insecurity across areas with different levels of unemployment. Results indicated that areas with the lowest unemployment rates had significantly lower job insecurity (predicted value 2.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.71-2.78, P < 0.001) than areas with higher unemployment (predicted value 2.81; 95% CI 2.79-2.84, P < 0.001). There was a stronger relationship between area-level unemployment and job insecurity among precariously and fixed-term employed workers than permanent workers. These findings demonstrate the independent influences of prevailing economic conditions, individual- and job-level factors on job insecurity. Persons working on a casual basis or on a fixed-term contract in areas with higher levels of unemployment are more susceptible to feelings of job insecurity than those working permanently.

  5. Youth Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockefeller Foundation, New York, NY.

    In the introduction to this conference report, the problem of youth unemployment is reviewed and youth unemployment rates for 1976 are analyzed. Lester C. Thurow's study is presented as a discussion of the problem of youth unemployment. He examined the impact of economic growth, looked at the significance of the effect of unemployment on youth,…

  6. Youth Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockefeller Foundation, New York, NY.

    In the introduction to this conference report, the problem of youth unemployment is reviewed and youth unemployment rates for 1976 are analyzed. Lester C. Thurow's study is presented as a discussion of the problem of youth unemployment. He examined the impact of economic growth, looked at the significance of the effect of unemployment on youth,…

  7. The Dynamics of Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgen, William A.; Amundson, Norman E.

    1987-01-01

    Investigated people's experiences of unemployment. Interviewed people unemployed for at least three months. Examined data for patterns of response, comparing patterns found with those suggested in model developed by Amundson and Borgen (1982). Three distinct patterns in experience of unemployment emerged: Amundson and Borgen's roller-coaster…

  8. The Dynamics of Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgen, William A.; Amundson, Norman E.

    1987-01-01

    Investigated people's experiences of unemployment. Interviewed people unemployed for at least three months. Examined data for patterns of response, comparing patterns found with those suggested in model developed by Amundson and Borgen (1982). Three distinct patterns in experience of unemployment emerged: Amundson and Borgen's roller-coaster…

  9. Unemployment Insurance Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Daniel C.

    1979-01-01

    An insurance management system has the goal of minimizing unemployment insurance costs. Components of a model system should include general administration, claims management, and appeals process. (Author)

  10. The Problem of Youth Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folk, Hugh

    An analysis of existing data on youth unemployment was used to (1) review the reasons for high and rising youth unemployment, (2) account for high youth unemployment in 1966, and (3) measure the importance of the various causes of rising youth unemployment. Summary findings included--(1) Relatively high rates of youth unemployment are to be…

  11. Unemployed Youth: The Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodland, M. C.

    1979-01-01

    Never has youth been better educated or more qualified to enter the job market, yet never has youth known such lack of employment. Ramifications of effects of unemployment on youth make unemployment a great values issue of today. Implications presented indicate Canada may be on the verge of social crisis. (Author/BEF)

  12. AUTOMATION AND UNEMPLOYMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCHMIDT, EMERSON P.; STEWART, CHARLES T.

    HIGH UNEMPLOYMENT RESULTS IN ECONOMIC LOSSES TO THE ECONOMY AND IMPOSES SUFFERING ON MILLIONS OF INDIVIDUALS AND FAMILIES. OF THE MANY TYPES, LONG-TERM STRUCTURAL UNEMPLOYMENT AFFECTS MORE THAN ONE MILLION WORKERS AND IS MOST INTRACTABLE TO TREATMENT AND DISTURBING IN TERMS OF HUMAN HARDSHIP. MOST OF THE WORKERS CLASSIFIED AS STRUCTURALLY…

  13. Personality change following unemployment.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Christopher J; Wood, Alex M; Daly, Michael; Sedikides, Constantine

    2015-07-01

    Unemployment has a strongly negative influence on well-being, but it is unclear whether it also alters basic personality traits. Whether personality changes arise through natural maturation processes or contextual/environmental factors is still a matter of debate. Unemployment, a relatively unexpected and commonly occurring life event, may shed light on the relevance of context for personality change. We examined, using a latent change model, the influence of unemployment on the five-factor model of personality in a sample of 6,769 German adults, who completed personality measures at 2 time points 4 years apart. All participants were employed at the first time point, and a subset became unemployed over the course of the study. By the second time point, participants had either remained in employment, been unemployed from 1 to 4 years, or had experienced some unemployment but become reemployed. Compared with those who had remained in employment, unemployed men and women experienced significant patterns of change in their mean levels of agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness, whereas reemployed individuals experienced limited change. The results indicate that unemployment has wider psychological implications than previously thought. In addition, the results are consistent with the view that personality changes as a function of contextual and environmental factors. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Employment and Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simler, N. J.

    Three sections of information are presented in this report on employment and unemployment. Section 1 discusses how the concepts of employment, unemployment, and the labor force are defined and measured. Included in the discussion is an explanation of the current population survey. Section 2 examines the principal trends and cyclical movements of…

  15. Unemployment: Toward a Social Work Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briar, Katharine Hooper

    1983-01-01

    Describes the dimensions of unemployment and the toll it takes on the unemployed. Discusses the various assumptions about unemployment and the need to develop more social policies related to unemployment, and to improve social work services to the unemployed. (JAC)

  16. Unemployment: Toward a Social Work Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briar, Katharine Hooper

    1983-01-01

    Describes the dimensions of unemployment and the toll it takes on the unemployed. Discusses the various assumptions about unemployment and the need to develop more social policies related to unemployment, and to improve social work services to the unemployed. (JAC)

  17. [Cancer and unemployment].

    PubMed

    Lastra-del-Prado, R; Rodríguez-García, Juan; Muñoz Cifuentes, P; Gimeno Feliú, L A

    2016-03-01

    The lack of work is a increasingly dramatic situation in the times we are living. Daily experience of clinicians provides us with important clues that remind us of the existence of a direct relationship between prolonged unemployment and predisposition to serious health problems, in particular to suffering certain types of cancer. This paper aims to review the major epidemiological studies that have dealt the relationship between cancer and unemployment. Several hypotheses may be formulated with the results of this review arising from the possible etiological relationship between unemployment and development (or poor prognosis) of neoplastic processes. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Inequality, Unemployment and Contemporary Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Amartya

    1997-01-01

    Unemployment has social costs such as psychological harm, social exclusion, family breakdown, and loss of political voice. It can exacerbate inequality and technological conservatism. Reducing unemployment would contribute to solving many of Europe's social ills. (SK)

  19. The Notion of Technological Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standing, Guy

    1984-01-01

    Rapid technological change is widely regarded as a primary cause of unemployment, especially in depressions. This article summarizes the diverse interpretations given to the notion of technological unemployment, critically examining the assumptions underlying those views. (Author/SSH)

  20. Maintaining Wellbeing during Unemployment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoare, P. Nancey; Machin, M. Anthony

    2006-01-01

    A survey of 371 unemployed people in South East Queensland explored whether deprivation of the latent benefits of employment was able to predict psychological distress after controlling for other key correlates. A standard multiple regression found that the latent benefits (time structure, social contact, collective purpose, enforced activity, and…

  1. Retraining the Unemployed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Gerald G., Ed.

    Case histories evaluate the effectiveness of recent and current retraining programs for unemployed workers under Federal, state, municipal, and union-management auspices, judging them by their success in placing workers in useful employment in distressed economic areas. Data on various aspects of retraining programs under a wide variety of…

  2. Education, Unemployment and Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumberger, Russell W.

    The United States is faced with two serious economic problems: declining productivity growth and rising unemployment. These problems have become severe in the last decade. Both problems are caused by a number of factors, but experts fail to agree on which factors have most contributed to the problems. This paper examines the relationship between…

  3. Unemployment: The Living Death?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winegardner, Donna; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Surveyed 300 unemployed persons to examine stress and adjustment patterns associated with job loss. Results indicated participants generally experienced the five stages (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) faced by the dying. Loss of income and loss of self-image were rated the most stressful factors. (JAC)

  4. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Badsberg, Jens Henrik; Osler, Merete

    2014-05-01

    Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast cancer. This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio-demography and co-morbid conditions. Multivariable analyses were performed by Cox's proportional hazard models. Two years after treatment, 81% of patients were still part of the work force, 10% of which were unemployed. Increasing duration of unemployment before breast cancer was associated with an adjusted HR = 4.37 (95% CI: 3.90-4.90) for unemployment after breast cancer. Other risk factors for unemployment included low socioeconomic status and demography, while adjuvant therapy did not increase the risk of unemployment. Duration of unemployment before breast cancer was the most important determinant of unemployment after breast cancer treatment. This allows identification of a particularly vulnerable group of patients in need of rehabilitation.

  5. [Psychiatric interventions for the unemployed].

    PubMed

    Reissner, V; Scherbaum, N; Wiltfang, J; Kis, B; Meiler, B; Lieb, B; Mikoteit, T; Ehren, G; Hebebrand, J

    2016-01-01

    Unemployment is related to a higher risk for psychological distress and mental disorders, which cause individual suffering and socioeconomic costs for society in general. This selective review surveys the relationship between unemployment and psychological well-being and mental disorders. The most important programs for the improvement of the mental health of the unemployed are summarized: 1. Interventions for the unemployed with the aim of improving coping strategies reduce the risk of developing depressive symptoms. 2. The SUPPORT liaison outpatient unit collaborates closely with the unemployment agency and offers a low-threshold screening for mental disorders for unemployed subjects as well as counseling for those in need of treatment. 3. A group training based on cognitive behavioral therapy improves the psychological well-being of unemployed participants. 4. Supported employment is an effective means of placing severely mentally ill patients in a work-place accompanied by an extensive professional support.

  6. Area-Level Socioeconomic Characteristics, Prevalence and Trajectories of Cardiometabolic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Anh D.; Paquet, Catherine; Howard, Natasha J.; Coffee, Neil T.; Taylor, Anne W.; Adams, Robert J.; Daniel, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between area-level socioeconomic position (SEP) and the prevalence and trajectories of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the count of its constituents (i.e., disturbed glucose and insulin metabolism, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension). A cohort of 4,056 men and women aged 18+ living in Adelaide, Australia was established in 2000–2003. MetS was ascertained at baseline, four and eight years via clinical examinations. Baseline area-level median household income, percentage of residents with a high school education, and unemployment rate were derived from the 2001 population Census. Three-level random-intercepts logistic and Poisson regression models were performed to estimate the standardized odds ratio (SOR), prevalence risk ratio (SRR), ratio of SORs/SRRs, and (95% confidence interval (CI)). Interaction between area- and individual-level SEP variables was also tested. The odds of having MetS and the count of its constituents increased over time. This increase did not vary according to baseline area-level SEP (ratios of SORs/SRRs ≈ 1; p ≥ 0.42). However, at baseline, after adjustment for individual SEP and health behaviours, median household income (inversely) and unemployment rate (positively) were significantly associated with MetS prevalence (SOR (95%CI) = 0.76 (0.63–0.90), and 1.48 (1.26–1.74), respectively), and the count of its constituents (SRR (95%CI) = 0.96 (0.93–0.99), and 1.06 (1.04–1.09), respectively). The inverse association with area-level education was statistically significant only in participants with less than post high school education (SOR (95%CI) = 0.58 (0.45–0.73), and SRR (95%CI) = 0.91 (0.88–0.94)). Area-level SEP does not predict an elevated trajectory to developing MetS or an elevated count of its constituents. However, at baseline, area-level SEP was inversely associated with prevalence of MetS and the count of its constituents, with the association of area-level education

  7. Area-level socioeconomic characteristics, prevalence and trajectories of cardiometabolic risk.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Anh D; Paquet, Catherine; Howard, Natasha J; Coffee, Neil T; Taylor, Anne W; Adams, Robert J; Daniel, Mark

    2014-01-08

    This study examines the relationships between area-level socioeconomic position (SEP) and the prevalence and trajectories of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the count of its constituents (i.e., disturbed glucose and insulin metabolism, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension). A cohort of 4,056 men and women aged 18+ living in Adelaide, Australia was established in 2000-2003. MetS was ascertained at baseline, four and eight years via clinical examinations. Baseline area-level median household income, percentage of residents with a high school education, and unemployment rate were derived from the 2001 population Census. Three-level random-intercepts logistic and Poisson regression models were performed to estimate the standardized odds ratio (SOR), prevalence risk ratio (SRR), ratio of SORs/SRRs, and (95% confidence interval (CI)). Interaction between area- and individual-level SEP variables was also tested. The odds of having MetS and the count of its constituents increased over time. This increase did not vary according to baseline area-level SEP (ratios of SORs/SRRs ≈ 1; p ≥ 0.42). However, at baseline, after adjustment for individual SEP and health behaviours, median household income (inversely) and unemployment rate (positively) were significantly associated with MetS prevalence (SOR (95%CI) = 0.76 (0.63-0.90), and 1.48 (1.26-1.74), respectively), and the count of its constituents (SRR (95%CI) = 0.96 (0.93-0.99), and 1.06 (1.04-1.09), respectively). The inverse association with area-level education was statistically significant only in participants with less than post high school education (SOR (95%CI) = 0.58 (0.45-0.73), and SRR (95%CI) = 0.91 (0.88-0.94)). Area-level SEP does not predict an elevated trajectory to developing MetS or an elevated count of its constituents. However, at baseline, area-level SEP was inversely associated with prevalence of MetS and the count of its constituents, with the association of area-level education being

  8. Unemployment, underweight, and obesity: Findings from Understanding Society (UKHLS).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Amanda; Kumari, Meena

    2017-04-01

    Elevated morbidity and mortality among jobseekers may be partly explained by adiposity, but previous studies of unemployment and body mass index (BMI), which have usually modelled associations as linear, have produced inconsistent results. However, both underweight and obesity are associated with mortality, and both weight loss and weight gain associated with a stressful environment. If unemployment is associated with both underweight and obesity for different subgroups, these associations may previously have masked each other, whilst affecting health through divergent pathways. We investigated whether there is a previously overlooked U-shaped association of unemployment and BMI, which could help explain jobseekers' elevated morbidity and mortality, and identify groups vulnerable to underweight and obesity during unemployment. We used multinomial models to simultaneously investigate associations of unemployment with BMI-defined underweight, overweight, and obesity in 10,737 working-age UK adults from Understanding Society (UKHLS) in 2010-12. Moderating impacts of unemployment duration, demographic factors and smoking were explored. Current jobseekers were more likely to be underweight (Odds ratio (OR): 4.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.12-7.73) and less likely to be overweight (OR: 0.71, CI: 0.55, 0.92) adjusted for gender, age, education, health, smoking and physical activity, while unemployed non-smokers had increased odds of obesity (OR: 1.52, CI: 1.06-2.18). Underweight and overweight associations were more apparent for longer-term jobseekers, men, and jobseekers from lower-income households. We conclude that unemployment is associated with underweight and, in nonsmokers, obesity. Results show the unemployment-adiposity relationship cannot be properly studied assuming unidirectionality of effects, and suggest unemployment may affect health of different groups via divergent adiposity-mediated pathways. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc

  9. Chemist Unemployment Continues to Rise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Describes an American Chemical Society job status survey. Of the 3 percent of the members unemployed as of March 1, 1972, the highest rates of unemployment are among younger, industrial, research, development, and government funded chemists located on the two coasts. (TS)

  10. Youth Unemployment and National Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Franklin A.

    This 1983 speech by the president of the Ford Foundation addresses the problem of youth unemployment and examines the case for adoption of a system of "National Service." The widening effects of structural unemployment are cited; and economic, demographic, and technological reasons for this phenomenon are outlined. National Service is…

  11. Structural Unemployment: Theory and Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penz, G. Peter

    The purpose of this monograph is to present a theoretical framework useful for measuring structural unemployment. Developed on the basis of a literature review, this framework was applied to Canadian data. The approach which explains structural unemployment in terms of the causes of labor displacement is inadequate because it ignores impediments…

  12. Family Problems and Youth Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Goede, Martijn; Spruijt, Ed; Maas, Cora; Duindam, Vincent

    2000-01-01

    Examines how family and personal characteristics relate to the employment situation of adolescents (N=995) in Denmark. Results show that parental divorce, parental unemployment (only for males), low parental affective involvement, and adolescent relationship problems were related to youth unemployment, but educational career and work commitment…

  13. Effect of unemployment on cardiovascular risk factors and mental health.

    PubMed

    Zagożdżon, P; Parszuto, J; Wrotkowska, M; Dydjow-Bendek, D

    2014-09-01

    Following the economic changes in Poland, increasing health discrepancies were observed during a period of 20 years, which may be partly attributable to the consequences of unemployment. To assess the association between unemployment, major cardiovascular risk factors and mental health. A cross-sectional study in which data were collected between 2009 and 2010 during preventive health examinations by an occupational medicine service in Gdansk, Poland. Data on blood pressure, resting heart rate, information about smoking habits, body mass index and history of use of mental health services were collected during these assessments. Multiple logistic regression was used during data analysis to adjust for age, gender, education and length of employment. Study participants comprised 3052 unemployed and 2059 employed individuals. After adjustment for age, gender, education and number of previous employments, the odds ratio (OR) for hypertension in relation to unemployment was 1.02 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.84-1.23]. There was a statistically significant negative association between being overweight and unemployment (OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.66-0.99). Smoking was positively associated with unemployment after adjustment for age and sex (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.25-1.67). There was a positive relationship between mental ill-health and unemployment among study participants (OR = 2.05, 95% CI: 0.91-4.65), but this was not statistically significant. The patterns of major cardiovascular risk factors differed between unemployed and employed individuals in Poland. Our observations suggest employment status is a predictor of specific disease risk profiles; consequently, specific preventive measures are needed in unemployed individuals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Sleep Behavior and Unemployment Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Antillón, Marina; Mullahy, John

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has reported that habitually short sleep duration is a risk factor for declining health, including increased risk of obesity, diabetes and coronary heart disease. In this study we investigate whether macroeconomic conditions are associated with variation in mean sleep time in the United States, and if so, whether the effect is procyclical or countercyclical. We merge state unemployment rates from 2003 through 2012 with the American Time Use Survey, a nationally representative sample of adults with 24 hour time diaries. We find that higher aggregate unemployment is associated with longer mean sleep duration, with each additional point of state unemployment associated with an additional average 0.83 minutes of sleep (p<0.001), after adjusting for a secular trend of increasing sleep over the time period. Despite a national poll in 2009 that found one-third of Americans reporting losing sleep over the economy, we do not find that higher state unemployment is associated with more sleeplessness. Instead, we find that higher state unemployment is associated with less frequent time use described as “sleeplessness” (marginal effect = 0.05 at 4% unemployment and 0.034 at 14% unemployment, p<0.001), after controlling for a secular trend. PMID:24958451

  15. Sleep behavior and unemployment conditions.

    PubMed

    Antillón, Marina; Lauderdale, Diane S; Mullahy, John

    2014-07-01

    Recent research has reported that habitually short sleep duration is a risk factor for declining health, including increased risk of obesity, diabetes and coronary heart disease. In this study we investigate whether macroeconomic conditions are associated with variation in mean sleep time in the United States, and if so, whether the effect is procyclical or countercyclical. We merge state unemployment rates from 2003 through 2012 with the American Time Use Survey, a nationally representative sample of adults with 24h time diaries. We find that higher aggregate unemployment is associated with longer mean sleep duration, with each additional point of state unemployment associated with an additional average 0.83 min of sleep (p<0.001), after adjusting for a secular trend of increasing sleep over the time period. Despite a national poll in 2009 that found one-third of Americans reporting losing sleep over the economy, we do not find that higher state unemployment is associated with more sleeplessness. Instead, we find that higher state unemployment is associated with less frequent time use described as "sleeplessness" (marginal effect=0.05 at 4% unemployment and 0.034 at 14% unemployment, p<0.001), after controlling for a secular trend. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The individual experience of unemployment.

    PubMed

    Wanberg, Connie R

    2012-01-01

    This review describes advances over the past decade in what is known about the individual experience of unemployment, predictors of reemployment, and interventions to speed employment. Research on the impact of unemployment has increased in sophistication, strengthening the causal conclusion that unemployment leads to declines in psychological and physical health and an increased incidence of suicide. This work has elucidated the risk factors and mechanisms associated with experiencing poor psychological health during unemployment; less so for physical health and suicide. Psychologists have begun to contribute to the study of factors associated with reemployment speed and quality. The past decade has especially illuminated the role of social networks and job search intensity in facilitating reemployment. Evidence suggests some individuals, especially members of minority groups, may face discrimination during their job search. Although more work in this arena is needed, several intervention-based programs have been shown to help individuals get back to work sooner.

  17. The Notion of Voluntary Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standing, Guy

    1981-01-01

    Considers the distinction between voluntary and involuntary unemployment by analyzing six behavioral characteristics attributed to groups of workers suspected of indulging in the former, and the labor market mechanisms supposedly encouraging them. (Author/CT)

  18. The Notion of Voluntary Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standing, Guy

    1981-01-01

    Considers the distinction between voluntary and involuntary unemployment by analyzing six behavioral characteristics attributed to groups of workers suspected of indulging in the former, and the labor market mechanisms supposedly encouraging them. (Author/CT)

  19. Frequently Asked Questions Regarding Unemployment Compensation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukaszewski, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    In the second of a two-part article, the following questions are addressed: How does the unemployment compensation system work? Which employers are affected by laws on unemployment compensation? Which employees fall under federal and state laws? and How much does a covered employer pay in unemployment taxes? Ways to minimize unemployment claims…

  20. Work, Jobs and Unemployment. Item 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warr, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Unemployment can be studied in regard to its relationship to the psychological health of unemployed persons. Although the relationship is generally perceived as negative, some people suffer fewer negative consequences of unemployment than others. Potentially negative aspects of unemployment include reduced income, life restrictions, fewer goals,…

  1. 48 CFR 970.2270 - Unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Unemployment compensation... Unemployment compensation. (a) Each state has its own unemployment compensation system to provide payments to... unemployment compensation benefits through a payroll tax on employers. Most DOE contractors are subject to...

  2. 48 CFR 970.2270 - Unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unemployment compensation... Unemployment compensation. (a) Each state has its own unemployment compensation system to provide payments to... unemployment compensation benefits through a payroll tax on employers. Most DOE contractors are subject to...

  3. 48 CFR 970.2270 - Unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Unemployment compensation... Unemployment compensation. (a) Each state has its own unemployment compensation system to provide payments to... unemployment compensation benefits through a payroll tax on employers. Most DOE contractors are subject to...

  4. 48 CFR 970.2270 - Unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Unemployment compensation... Unemployment compensation. (a) Each state has its own unemployment compensation system to provide payments to... unemployment compensation benefits through a payroll tax on employers. Most DOE contractors are subject to...

  5. 48 CFR 970.2270 - Unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Unemployment compensation... Unemployment compensation. (a) Each state has its own unemployment compensation system to provide payments to... unemployment compensation benefits through a payroll tax on employers. Most DOE contractors are subject to...

  6. Nurse practitioner employment, unemployment, reemployment.

    PubMed

    Roos, P D

    1979-01-01

    An estimate for nurse practitioner unemployment is attempted, based on responses of 260 graduates of a single program and published data. Reasons for not working are examined. The activity of NPs is compared to registered nurses. Job changers are compared to those who remained in the same job since graduation. Some of the reasons for unemployment and nonparticipation in the labor force are examined. Suggestive evidence on job changing is reviewed. Finally, policy implications are discussed.

  7. Solving Long-Term Unemployment in Dublin: The Lessons from Policy Innovation. Policy Paper No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Eithne; Ingolsby, Brid; Daly, Fiona

    This report identifies what policies can be effective in eliminating hard-core unemployment in Dublin and preventing its re-emergence in a new generation. An executive summary precedes the main body of the report. Chapter 1 describes the background of economic boom against which the persistence of long-term unemployment appears paradoxical;…

  8. Unemployment in Families: The Case of Housework

    PubMed Central

    Gough, Margaret; Killewald, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Unemployment has consequences for individuals, but its impacts also reverberate through families. This paper examines how families adapt to unemployment in one area of life—time in housework. Using 74,881 observations from 10,390 couples in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we estimate fixed effects models and find that individuals spend between 3 and 7 hours more per week in housework when unemployed than when employed, with corresponding decreases of 1 to 2 hours per week in the housework hours of unemployed individuals' spouses. We are the first to show that unemployment is associated both with a reallocation of housework to the unemployed spouse and an increase in the family's total household production time. The results also provide evidence for gender differences in adjustments to the division of labor during unemployment, with wives' unemployment associated with an increase in housework hours that is double the increase for unemployed husbands. PMID:22058572

  9. Immigration and unemployment in Australia.

    PubMed

    Tsokhas, K

    1994-01-01

    "This article is presented in two parts. The first contains a discussion of Australia's migration programme, its different categories and changes in intakes. It also deals with the contribution made by immigration to the size of the labour force.... The second part deals with the effect of immigration on the unemployment rate and concludes that its effect is negligible or, at best, slightly positive.... Against this background the paper discusses factors contributing to the employment and unemployment experience of migrants, for whom English language proficiency and the possession of recognized skills and qualifications are important in determining employability." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) excerpt

  10. The Great Recession, unemployment and suicide

    PubMed Central

    Norström, Thor; Grönqvist, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Background How have suicide rates responded to the marked increase in unemployment spurred by the Great Recession? Our paper puts this issue into a wider perspective by assessing (1) whether the unemployment-suicide link is modified by the degree of unemployment protection, and (2) whether the effect on suicide of the present crisis differs from the effects of previous economic downturns. Methods We analysed the unemployment-suicide link using time-series data for 30 countries spanning the period 1960–2012. Separate fixed-effects models were estimated for each of five welfare state regimes with different levels of unemployment protection (Eastern, Southern, Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian and Scandinavian). We included an interaction term to capture the possible excess effect of unemployment during the Great Recession. Results The largest unemployment increases occurred in the welfare state regimes with the least generous unemployment protection. The unemployment effect on male suicides was statistically significant in all welfare regimes, except the Scandinavian one. The effect on female suicides was significant only in the eastern European country group. There was a significant gradient in the effects, being stronger the less generous the unemployment protection. The interaction term capturing the possible excess effect of unemployment during the financial crisis was not significant. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the more generous the unemployment protection the weaker the detrimental impact on suicide of the increasing unemployment during the Great Recession. PMID:25339416

  11. Unemployment and Depression Among Emerging Adults in 12 States, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The high rate of unemployment among emerging adults (aged 18 to 25 years) is a public health concern. The risk of depression is higher among the unemployed than among the employed, but little is known about the relationship between unemployment and mental health among emerging adults. This secondary data analysis assessed the relationship between unemployment and depression among emerging adults. Methods Data from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were analyzed. Responses to the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 provided data about the prevalence of depression. Bivariate relationships were assessed using χ2 tests, and multivariable adjusted odds ratios were calculated with logistic regressions. Sociodemographic variables were sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, and education. In addition, logistic regression models adjusted for health insurance status, disability, smoking, and body mass index. The analyses were completed using SAS 9.3 survey procedures to account for the complex sampling design. Results Almost 12% of emerging adults were depressed (PHQ-8 ≥10) and about 23% were unemployed. Significantly more unemployed than employed emerging adults were classified with depression. In the final model, the odds of depression were about 3 times higher for unemployed than employed emerging adults. Conclusion The relationship between unemployment and depression is significant among emerging adults. With high rates of unemployment for this age group, this population may benefit from employment- and mental-health–focused interventions. PMID:25789499

  12. Unemployment and depression among emerging adults in 12 states, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2010.

    PubMed

    McGee, Robin E; Thompson, Nancy J

    2015-03-19

    The high rate of unemployment among emerging adults (aged 18 to 25 years) is a public health concern. The risk of depression is higher among the unemployed than among the employed, but little is known about the relationship between unemployment and mental health among emerging adults. This secondary data analysis assessed the relationship between unemployment and depression among emerging adults. Data from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were analyzed. Responses to the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 provided data about the prevalence of depression. Bivariate relationships were assessed using χ(2) tests, and multivariable adjusted odds ratios were calculated with logistic regressions. Sociodemographic variables were sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, and education. In addition, logistic regression models adjusted for health insurance status, disability, smoking, and body mass index. The analyses were completed using SAS 9.3 survey procedures to account for the complex sampling design. Almost 12% of emerging adults were depressed (PHQ-8 ≥10) and about 23% were unemployed. Significantly more unemployed than employed emerging adults were classified with depression. In the final model, the odds of depression were about 3 times higher for unemployed than employed emerging adults. The relationship between unemployment and depression is significant among emerging adults. With high rates of unemployment for this age group, this population may benefit from employment- and mental-health-focused interventions.

  13. Gaining Access to Unemployment Insurance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Beverly

    2008-01-01

    Using contingent faculty gives colleges and universities scheduling flexibility, and the lack of obligation to offer benefits to contingents saves them much money. In this article, the author contends that, in return for this shirking of responsibility, institutions of higher education should provide the merest unemployment insurance benefit to…

  14. Sectoral shifts and aggregate unemployment

    SciTech Connect

    Loungani, P.

    1986-01-01

    Some recent research has taken the view that sectoral or industry-specific shocks significantly affect aggregate unemployment by increasing the amount of inter-industry labor reallocation required. The empirical evidence for this view rests on the finding that during the 1950s - and again during the 1970s - there was a positive correlation between aggregate unemployment and the dispersion of employment growth rates. This thesis demonstrates that this correlation arises largely because oil price shocks affect both unemployment and the dispersion of employment growth. Once the dispersion due to oil shocks is accounted for, the residual dispersion in employment has very low explanatory power for unemployment. Since the dispersion index does not measure pure sectoral shifts, an alternate measure of dispersion is developed that serves as a better proxy for the amount of inter-industry labor reallocation required each period. Estimates using this measure suggest that, during the 1950s, temporary increases in the relative price of oil were responsible for generating the observed correlation. On the other hand, sectoral shifts were important during the 1970s; in particular, the 1973 oil price increase has had significant reallocative effects on the economy. This contention is subjected to further tests by looking at the time-series behavior of employment in durable-goods industries and also by following the inter-industry movements of workers over time through the use of panel data.

  15. Global Unemployment: Challenge to Futurists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Bertram; Singh, Kusum

    Creative actions toward preventing global unemployment seek to (1) uncover the painful realities of joblessness, (2) design better models for fruitful discourse and action, (3) climb the "commanding policy heights" of moral vision, (4) move from autocratic to democratic corporatism, (5) uncover the kind of information that may hold power…

  16. Global Unemployment: Challenge to Futurists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Bertram; Singh, Kusum

    Creative actions toward preventing global unemployment seek to (1) uncover the painful realities of joblessness, (2) design better models for fruitful discourse and action, (3) climb the "commanding policy heights" of moral vision, (4) move from autocratic to democratic corporatism, (5) uncover the kind of information that may hold power…

  17. Who Should Receive Unemployment Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manicone, Nicolas M.

    2008-01-01

    A case that the Indiana Supreme Court recently ruled on dealt with the question of whether a professor whose fixed-term contract expires becomes unemployed on a voluntary or involuntary basis. Indiana State University appointed William LaFief as an assistant professor of marketing for the 2004-2005 calendar year. After reappointing him for…

  18. Training while Unemployed. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources Development Canada, 2003

    2003-01-01

    The recent publication of "Knowledge Matters: Skills and Learning for Canadians" highlights the importance of human capital as a means of improving the economic well-being of Canadians. This monitoring report looks at a subset of the issues in the document with a focus on the participation in training while unemployed. The report looks…

  19. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  20. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  1. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  2. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  3. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period. ...

  4. Employer's Complete Guide to Unemployment Compensation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Matthew E.

    This publication is a guide for employers who need specific information on unemployment compensation. Major topics discussed are an overview of the workings of the unemployment insurance system, the unemployment compensation amendments of 1976, receipt of claim notice, an employer's reaction to claims, student workers, faculty claims for summer…

  5. The Match Quality Gains from Unemployment Insurance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centeno, Mario

    2004-01-01

    The benefits of unemployment insurance (UI) by measuring its effect in match quality are assessed. The relationship between post-unemployment job tenure and measures of the state level UI generosity and the unemployment rate at the time of the job is analyzed, using NLSY data.

  6. 20 CFR 617.58 - Unemployment insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Unemployment insurance. 617.58 Section 617.58 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE... Unemployment insurance. Unemployment insurance payable to an adversely affected worker shall not be denied...

  7. 20 CFR 617.58 - Unemployment insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Unemployment insurance. 617.58 Section 617.58 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE... Unemployment insurance. Unemployment insurance payable to an adversely affected worker shall not be denied...

  8. 20 CFR 617.58 - Unemployment insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Unemployment insurance. 617.58 Section 617.58 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE... Unemployment insurance. Unemployment insurance payable to an adversely affected worker shall not be denied...

  9. 20 CFR 617.58 - Unemployment insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Unemployment insurance. 617.58 Section 617.58 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE... Unemployment insurance. Unemployment insurance payable to an adversely affected worker shall not be denied...

  10. 20 CFR 617.58 - Unemployment insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unemployment insurance. 617.58 Section 617.58 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE... Unemployment insurance. Unemployment insurance payable to an adversely affected worker shall not be denied or...

  11. Moral consequences of becoming unemployed

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Abigail; Miller, Luis; Ubeda, Paloma

    2016-01-01

    We test the conjecture that becoming unemployed erodes the extent to which a person acknowledges earned entitlement. We use behavioral experiments to generate incentive-compatible measures of individuals’ tendencies to acknowledge earned entitlement and incorporate these experiments in a two-stage study. In the first stage, participants’ acknowledgment of earned entitlement was measured by engaging them in the behavioral experiments, and their individual employment status and other relevant socioeconomic characteristics were recorded. In the second stage, a year later, the process was repeated using the same instruments. The combination of the experimentally generated data and the longitudinal design allows us to investigate our conjecture using a difference-in-difference approach, while ruling out the pure self-interest confound. We report evidence consistent with a large, negative effect of becoming unemployed on the acknowledgment of earned entitlement. PMID:27071100

  12. Veteran Unemployment of Transitioning Marines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    Marine and the average Marine UCX recipient are young, white, high quality, male, with no children . Those more likely to collect are lower quality...nonwhite, married, female, with children . Marines and nonveterans who are more likely to collect unemployment are both nonwhite and less educated [1...least a high school diploma graduate, considered a Tier 1 education), man with no children who separated at his EAS (see above). At separation, 62

  13. Social media fingerprints of unemployment.

    PubMed

    Llorente, Alejandro; Garcia-Herranz, Manuel; Cebrian, Manuel; Moro, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Recent widespread adoption of electronic and pervasive technologies has enabled the study of human behavior at an unprecedented level, uncovering universal patterns underlying human activity, mobility, and interpersonal communication. In the present work, we investigate whether deviations from these universal patterns may reveal information about the socio-economical status of geographical regions. We quantify the extent to which deviations in diurnal rhythm, mobility patterns, and communication styles across regions relate to their unemployment incidence. For this we examine a country-scale publicly articulated social media dataset, where we quantify individual behavioral features from over 19 million geo-located messages distributed among more than 340 different Spanish economic regions, inferred by computing communities of cohesive mobility fluxes. We find that regions exhibiting more diverse mobility fluxes, earlier diurnal rhythms, and more correct grammatical styles display lower unemployment rates. As a result, we provide a simple model able to produce accurate, easily interpretable reconstruction of regional unemployment incidence from their social-media digital fingerprints alone. Our results show that cost-effective economical indicators can be built based on publicly-available social media datasets.

  14. Social Media Fingerprints of Unemployment

    PubMed Central

    Llorente, Alejandro; Garcia-Herranz, Manuel; Cebrian, Manuel; Moro, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Recent widespread adoption of electronic and pervasive technologies has enabled the study of human behavior at an unprecedented level, uncovering universal patterns underlying human activity, mobility, and interpersonal communication. In the present work, we investigate whether deviations from these universal patterns may reveal information about the socio-economical status of geographical regions. We quantify the extent to which deviations in diurnal rhythm, mobility patterns, and communication styles across regions relate to their unemployment incidence. For this we examine a country-scale publicly articulated social media dataset, where we quantify individual behavioral features from over 19 million geo-located messages distributed among more than 340 different Spanish economic regions, inferred by computing communities of cohesive mobility fluxes. We find that regions exhibiting more diverse mobility fluxes, earlier diurnal rhythms, and more correct grammatical styles display lower unemployment rates. As a result, we provide a simple model able to produce accurate, easily interpretable reconstruction of regional unemployment incidence from their social-media digital fingerprints alone. Our results show that cost-effective economical indicators can be built based on publicly-available social media datasets. PMID:26020628

  15. Health Effects of Unemployment in Europe During the Great Recession: The Impact of Unemployment Generosity.

    PubMed

    Tøge, Anne G

    2016-10-01

    Social and economic security could be particularly important for health among the unemployed. Nevertheless, knowledge is still lacking as to whether and how different policy contexts affect health when people move into unemployment. This article investigates whether and to what degree the unemployment generosity explains why individual health effects of unemployment vary across Europe. The 2008-2011 longitudinal panel of the European Union statistics on income and living conditions (EU-SILC) and fixed-effects models are used to estimate the individual effects of unemployment on self-rated health (SRH). Social spending on unemployment is used as a proxy for unemployment generosity. The results show that unemployment generosity is associated with reduced negative effects of unemployment on SRH. For every increase in adjusted purchasing power standard spending, the negative effect of unemployment on SRH is reduced by 0.003 (SE = 0.001) and the change in SRH is improved by 0.002 (SE = 0.001) for each year following the transition, after controlling for time-variant confounders at the individual level and unemployment rate at the macro level. The association between spending on unemployment and cross-national differences in individual health changes that occur as people enter unemployment provides a robust indication of the mitigating health effects of unemployment generosity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. The Great Recession, unemployment and suicide.

    PubMed

    Norström, Thor; Grönqvist, Hans

    2015-02-01

    How have suicide rates responded to the marked increase in unemployment spurred by the Great Recession? Our paper puts this issue into a wider perspective by assessing (1) whether the unemployment-suicide link is modified by the degree of unemployment protection, and (2) whether the effect on suicide of the present crisis differs from the effects of previous economic downturns. We analysed the unemployment-suicide link using time-series data for 30 countries spanning the period 1960-2012. Separate fixed-effects models were estimated for each of five welfare state regimes with different levels of unemployment protection (Eastern, Southern, Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian and Scandinavian). We included an interaction term to capture the possible excess effect of unemployment during the Great Recession. The largest unemployment increases occurred in the welfare state regimes with the least generous unemployment protection. The unemployment effect on male suicides was statistically significant in all welfare regimes, except the Scandinavian one. The effect on female suicides was significant only in the eastern European country group. There was a significant gradient in the effects, being stronger the less generous the unemployment protection. The interaction term capturing the possible excess effect of unemployment during the financial crisis was not significant. Our findings suggest that the more generous the unemployment protection the weaker the detrimental impact on suicide of the increasing unemployment during the Great Recession. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Elevated inflammatory biomarkers during unemployment: modification by age and country in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Amanda; McMunn, Anne; Bartley, Mel; Kumari, Meena

    2015-01-01

    Background There is raised risk of mortality following unemployment, and reviews have consistently found worse psychological health among the unemployed. Inflammation is increasingly implicated as a mediating factor relating stress to physical disease and is strongly linked to depression. Inflammation may, therefore, be implicated in processes associated with excess mortality and morbidity during unemployment. This study examined associations of unemployment with inflammatory markers among working-age men and women from England and Scotland. Methods Cross-sectional analyses using data from the Health Survey for England and the Scottish Health Survey collected between 1998 and 2010. Systemic inflammation was indexed by serum concentrations of C reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen, and compared between participants currently employed/self-employed, currently unemployed and other groups. Results CRP, fibrinogen and odds of CRP >3 mg/L were all significantly raised for the unemployed, as compared to the employed participants (eg, OR for CRP >3 mg/L=1.43, CI 1.15 to 1.78 N=23 025), following adjustment for age, gender, occupational social class, housing tenure, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, long-term illness and depressive/anxiety symptoms. Strengths of associations varied considerably by both age and country/region, with effects mainly driven by participants aged ≥48 and participants from Scotland, which had comparatively high unemployment during this time. Conclusions Current unemployment is associated with elevated inflammatory markers using data from two large-scale, nationally representative UK studies. Effect modification by age suggests inflammation may be particularly involved in processes leading to ill-health among the older unemployed. Country/regional effects may suggest the relationship of unemployment with inflammation is strongly influenced by contextual factors, and/or reflect life course accumulation processes. PMID:25700535

  18. Elevated inflammatory biomarkers during unemployment: modification by age and country in the UK.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Amanda; McMunn, Anne; Bartley, Mel; Kumari, Meena

    2015-07-01

    There is raised risk of mortality following unemployment, and reviews have consistently found worse psychological health among the unemployed. Inflammation is increasingly implicated as a mediating factor relating stress to physical disease and is strongly linked to depression. Inflammation may, therefore, be implicated in processes associated with excess mortality and morbidity during unemployment. This study examined associations of unemployment with inflammatory markers among working-age men and women from England and Scotland. Cross-sectional analyses using data from the Health Survey for England and the Scottish Health Survey collected between 1998 and 2010. Systemic inflammation was indexed by serum concentrations of C reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen, and compared between participants currently employed/self-employed, currently unemployed and other groups. CRP, fibrinogen and odds of CRP >3 mg/L were all significantly raised for the unemployed, as compared to the employed participants (eg, OR for CRP >3 mg/L=1.43, CI 1.15 to 1.78 N=23 025), following adjustment for age, gender, occupational social class, housing tenure, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, long-term illness and depressive/anxiety symptoms. Strengths of associations varied considerably by both age and country/region, with effects mainly driven by participants aged ≥48 and participants from Scotland, which had comparatively high unemployment during this time. Current unemployment is associated with elevated inflammatory markers using data from two large-scale, nationally representative UK studies. Effect modification by age suggests inflammation may be particularly involved in processes leading to ill-health among the older unemployed. Country/regional effects may suggest the relationship of unemployment with inflammation is strongly influenced by contextual factors, and/or reflect life course accumulation processes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  19. Unemployment - United States, 2006 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Athar, Heba M; Chang, Man-Huei; Hahn, Robert A; Walker, Eric; Yoon, Paula

    2013-11-22

    The association between unemployment and poor physical and mental health is well established. Unemployed persons tend to have higher annual illness rates, lack health insurance and access to health care, and have an increased risk for death. Several studies indicate that employment status influences a person's health; however, poor health also affects a person's ability to obtain and retain employment. Poor health predisposes persons to a more uncertain position in the labor market and increases the risk for unemployment.

  20. The macroeconomics of demographic unemployment.

    PubMed

    Carlberg, M

    1990-02-01

    "What are the macroeconomic consequences of an increase in labour supply? In the short run, unemployment occurs, due to both lack of aggregate demand and capital shortage. Demand-side policy and money wage restraint prove to be ineffective in this situation, owing to capital shortage. On the other hand, a reduction in working hours without wage compensation as well as a policy mix of both demand-side policy and investment policy turn out to be effective. The reduction in working hours lowers individual income and raises individual leisure, as compared to the policy mix." (SUMMARY IN GER)

  1. Health effects of unemployment benefit program generosity.

    PubMed

    Cylus, Jonathan; Glymour, M Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2015-02-01

    We assessed the impact of unemployment benefit programs on the health of the unemployed. We linked US state law data on maximum allowable unemployment benefit levels between 1985 and 2008 to individual self-rated health for heads of households in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and implemented state and year fixed-effect models. Unemployment was associated with increased risk of reporting poor health among men in both linear probability (b=0.0794; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.0623, 0.0965) and logistic models (odds ratio=2.777; 95% CI=2.294, 3.362), but this effect is lower when the generosity of state unemployment benefits is high (b for interaction between unemployment and benefits=-0.124; 95% CI=-0.197, -0.0523). A 63% increase in benefits completely offsets the impact of unemployment on self-reported health. Results suggest that unemployment benefits may significantly alleviate the adverse health effects of unemployment among men.

  2. Health Effects of Unemployment Benefit Program Generosity

    PubMed Central

    Glymour, M. Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the impact of unemployment benefit programs on the health of the unemployed. Methods. We linked US state law data on maximum allowable unemployment benefit levels between 1985 and 2008 to individual self-rated health for heads of households in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and implemented state and year fixed-effect models. Results. Unemployment was associated with increased risk of reporting poor health among men in both linear probability (b = 0.0794; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.0623, 0.0965) and logistic models (odds ratio = 2.777; 95% CI = 2.294, 3.362), but this effect is lower when the generosity of state unemployment benefits is high (b for interaction between unemployment and benefits = −0.124; 95% CI = −0.197, −0.0523). A 63% increase in benefits completely offsets the impact of unemployment on self-reported health. Conclusions. Results suggest that unemployment benefits may significantly alleviate the adverse health effects of unemployment among men. PMID:25521897

  3. Youth Unemployment and Employment Policy: A Global Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Higgins, Niall

    This book looks at the issue of youth unemployment and examines policy responses. Part I considers the youth unemployment problem. Chapter 1 is an overview, covering size of the problem and the close relationship between youth and adult unemployment. Chapter 2 examines youth unemployment characteristics and distribution of unemployment across…

  4. Youth Unemployment and Employment Policy: A Global Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Higgins, Niall

    This book looks at the issue of youth unemployment and examines policy responses. Part I considers the youth unemployment problem. Chapter 1 is an overview, covering size of the problem and the close relationship between youth and adult unemployment. Chapter 2 examines youth unemployment characteristics and distribution of unemployment across…

  5. Unemployment Benefits and Parental Resources: What Helps the Young Unemployed with Labour Market Integration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Marita

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the question of how different resources affect the labour market integration of the young unemployed. Previous research has often focused on the effects of unemployment compensation benefits on labour market outcomes. However, for young unemployed people additional parental resources may be even more important. The article…

  6. Unemployment Benefits and Parental Resources: What Helps the Young Unemployed with Labour Market Integration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Marita

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the question of how different resources affect the labour market integration of the young unemployed. Previous research has often focused on the effects of unemployment compensation benefits on labour market outcomes. However, for young unemployed people additional parental resources may be even more important. The article…

  7. Sleep Duration and Area-Level Deprivation in Twins

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Horn, Erin; Duncan, Glen E.; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Turkheimer, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether area-level deprivation as indicated by the Singh Index predicts shorter sleep duration and modifies its underlying genetic and environmental contributions. Methods: Participants were 4,218 adult twin pairs (2,377 monozygotic and 1,841 dizygotic) from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration. The Singh Index was determined by linking geocoding addresses to 17 indicators at the census-tract level using data from Census of Washington State and Census Tract Cartographic Boundary Files from 2000 and 2010. Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate genetic decomposition and quantitative genetic interaction models that assessed A (additive genetics), C (common environment), and E (unique environment) main effects of the Singh Index on sleep duration and allowed the magnitude of residual ACE variance components in sleep duration to vary with the Index. Results: The sample had a mean age of 38.2 y (standard deviation [SD] = 18), and was predominantly female (62%) and Caucasian (91%). Mean sleep duration was 7.38 h (SD = 1.20) and the mean Singh Index score was 0.00 (SD = 0.89). The heritability of sleep duration was 39% and the Singh Index was 12%. The uncontrolled phenotypic regression of sleep duration on the Singh Index showed a significant negative relationship between area-level deprivation and sleep length (b = −0.080, P < 0.001). Every 1 SD in Singh Index was associated with a ∼4.5 min change in sleep duration. For the quasi-causal bivariate model, there was a significant main effect of E (b0E = −0.063; standard error [SE] = 0.30; P < 0.05). Residual variance components unique to sleep duration were significant for both A (b0Au = 0.734; SE = 0.020; P < 0.001) and E (b0Eu = 0.934; SE = 0.013; P < 0.001). Conclusions: Area-level deprivation has a quasi-causal association with sleep duration, with greater deprivation being related to

  8. Michigan Puts the Unemployed to WORC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Brigid Sullivan

    1978-01-01

    In an attempt to alleviate problems stemming from high youth unemployment and dwindling operation and maintenance funds for public lands, the Michigan legislature instituted the Work Opportunity Resources Corps (WORC), a successful project that put the unemployed to work doing construction, clean up, and rehabilitation work for public parks and…

  9. HIGHER EDUCATION AND UNEMPLOYMENT--SOME PARADOXES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EVANS, ROBERT C.

    TWO ECONOMIC FACTORS MOTIVATE YOUNG PEOPLE TO CONTINUE THEIR EDUCATION--INCREASE IN EMPLOYMENT AND INCOME PROSPECTS, AND THREAT OF UNEMPLOYMENT. BECAUSE THE AVERAGE EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF THE WORK FORCE HAS INCREASED, HIGHER EDUCATION SERVES AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO UNEMPLOYMENT. IN A STUDY OF THE VALUE OF A COLLEGE EDUCATION, MILLER AND GLICK ESTIMATED…

  10. Elusive Effects of Unemployment on Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockerman, Petri; Ilmakunnas, Pekka

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the connection between unemployment and subjective well-being in Finland using cross-sections for the years 1990, 1996 and 2000 from World Values Surveys. Interestingly, an unprecedented increase in the national unemployment rate (from 3 to 17%) did not produce a drop in the mean level of subjective well-being. Personally…

  11. Youth Unemployment. The Causes and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report examines the causes and consequences of youth unemployment in Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) member countries. Summarized first is the youth unemployment situation since the 1974/1975 recession. In a section on recent developments in youth labor markets a series of tables and graphs provide data on youth…

  12. Unemployment Insurance and the Older American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamermesh, Daniel S.

    This monograph reports on an inquiry into the likely distributional effects of recent reductions in the payment of unemployment insurance to recipients of pension and social security benefits and its potential effects on labor market and consumption behavior of older people. An introductory chapter provides facts about unemployment insurance and…

  13. Unemployment and Household Division of Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamir, Boas

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the relationship between unemployment of men and women and the division of labor in their households and how the psychological well-being of unemployed individuals related to the division of labor in their families. Changes in the employment status of men and women had only limited effects on household division of labor. (Author/ABL)

  14. Aggregate Unemployment Decreases Individual Returns to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammermueller, Andreas; Kuckulenz, Anja; Zwick, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Aggregate unemployment may affect individual returns to education through qualification-specific responses in participation and wage bargaining. This paper shows that an increase in regional unemployment by 1% decreases returns to education by 0.005 percentage points. This implies that higher skilled employees are better sheltered from labour…

  15. "Learning to Do" during High Unemployment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee-Weise, Michelle; Horn, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Even as the economy appears to have turned a corner, high unemployment persists. Strangely, as millions nationwide struggle to find work, there are millions of jobs that remain unfilled. High unemployment rates may therefore have less to do than commonly assumed with an economy that is not healthy enough to produce jobs or employers who are…

  16. "Learning to Do" during High Unemployment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee-Weise, Michelle; Horn, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Even as the economy appears to have turned a corner, high unemployment persists. Strangely, as millions nationwide struggle to find work, there are millions of jobs that remain unfilled. High unemployment rates may therefore have less to do than commonly assumed with an economy that is not healthy enough to produce jobs or employers who are…

  17. The Gendered Consequences of Unemployment Insurance Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooi-Reci, Irma; Mills, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether a series of unemployment insurance benefit reforms that took place over a 20-year period in the Netherlands had a gendered effect on the duration of unemployment and labor market outcomes. Using longitudinal data from the Dutch Labor Supply Panel (OSA) over the period 1980-2000, and adopting a quasi-experimental design,…

  18. Unemployment Impairs Mental Health: Meta-Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Karsten I.; Moser, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    The effect of unemployment on mental health was examined with meta-analytic methods across 237 cross-sectional and 87 longitudinal studies. The average overall effect size was d = 0.51 with unemployed persons showing more distress than employed persons. A significant difference was found for several indicator variables of mental health (mixed…

  19. Unemployment in Families: The Case of Housework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Margaret; Killewald, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Unemployment has consequences for individuals, but its impacts also reverberate through families. This paper examines how families adapt to unemployment in one area of life--time in housework. Using 74,881 observations from 10,390 couples in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we estimate fixed effects models and find that individuals spend…

  20. Aggregate Unemployment Decreases Individual Returns to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammermueller, Andreas; Kuckulenz, Anja; Zwick, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Aggregate unemployment may affect individual returns to education through qualification-specific responses in participation and wage bargaining. This paper shows that an increase in regional unemployment by 1% decreases returns to education by 0.005 percentage points. This implies that higher skilled employees are better sheltered from labour…

  1. An International Review of Unemployment Insurance Schemes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaustein, Saul J.; Craig, Isabel

    Fifteenth in a series designed to provide a broad review of unemployment insurance and related issues, this study describes existing unemployment insurance programs, as they applied in 1975, in 22 selected countries, with particular emphasis on programs in the industrialized nations of Western Europe, North America, and Japan, as well as on those…

  2. Unemployment Impairs Mental Health: Meta-Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Karsten I.; Moser, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    The effect of unemployment on mental health was examined with meta-analytic methods across 237 cross-sectional and 87 longitudinal studies. The average overall effect size was d = 0.51 with unemployed persons showing more distress than employed persons. A significant difference was found for several indicator variables of mental health (mixed…

  3. The Gendered Consequences of Unemployment Insurance Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooi-Reci, Irma; Mills, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether a series of unemployment insurance benefit reforms that took place over a 20-year period in the Netherlands had a gendered effect on the duration of unemployment and labor market outcomes. Using longitudinal data from the Dutch Labor Supply Panel (OSA) over the period 1980-2000, and adopting a quasi-experimental design,…

  4. Unemployment in Families: The Case of Housework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Margaret; Killewald, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Unemployment has consequences for individuals, but its impacts also reverberate through families. This paper examines how families adapt to unemployment in one area of life--time in housework. Using 74,881 observations from 10,390 couples in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we estimate fixed effects models and find that individuals spend…

  5. Constructing area-level indicators of successful ageing in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Tsai, Chiung-Yi; Chang, Ming-Cheng; Luh, Dih-Ling

    2010-01-01

    We constructed area-level indicators of successful ageing in Taiwan. Area-level successful ageing was defined as follows: the living environment in a community/city is beneficial for physical, psychological and social health, and the people living in the area are well informed about the issues that pertain to maintaining health and behave in ways that promote their health. A modified Delphi method and analytical hierarchy process were used, with eight experts completing three successive rounds of questionnaires to determine the appropriate dimensions and indicators. In total, 65 indicators of area-level successful ageing were suggested. The weights of the six dimensions of the area indicators were determined as follows: health status (0.273), health lifestyle (0.182), social participation (0.166), health-care resources and utilisation (0.164), social environment (0.113) and natural environment (0.102). Nationwide survey data and government statistics were used to describe the profiles of 23 cities and counties in Taiwan with respect to successful ageing. Degree of ageing and geographic location were not related significantly to the total successful ageing scores of the cities/counties. However, urbanisation was correlated negatively to the total score (Spearman's rho = -0.43), the dimensions health status (rho = -0.54), health lifestyle (rho = -0.52), and natural environment (rho = -0.43), and degree of ageing was related moderately and negatively to health lifestyle (rho = -0.39). There were significant differences in health lifestyle and natural environment according to geographic location. These area indicators will be helpful to local governments for monitoring and improving successful ageing within their communities.

  6. Area-level variations in cancer care and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Keating, Nancy L; Landrum, Mary Beth; Lamont, Elizabeth B; Bozeman, Samuel R; McNeil, Barbara J

    2012-05-01

    : Substantial regional variations in health-care spending exist across the United States; yet, care and outcomes are not better in higher-spending areas. Most studies have focused on care in fee-for-service Medicare; whether spillover effects exist in settings without financial incentives for more care is unknown. : We studied care for cancer patients in fee-for-service Medicare and the Veterans Health Administration (VA) to understand whether processes and outcomes of care vary with area-level Medicare spending. : An observational study using logistic regression to assess care by area-level measures of Medicare spending. : Patients with lung, colorectal, or prostate cancers diagnosed during 2001-2004 in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) areas or the VA. The SEER cohort included fee-for-service Medicare patients aged older than 65 years. : Recommended and preference-sensitive cancer care and mortality. : In fee-for-service Medicare, higher-spending areas had higher rates of recommended care (curative surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer and chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer) and preference-sensitive care (chemotherapy for stage IV lung and colon cancer and primary treatment of local/regional prostate cancer) and had lower lung cancer mortality. In the VA, we observed minimal variation in care by area-level Medicare spending. : Our findings suggest that intensity of care for Medicare beneficiaries is not driving variations in VA care, despite some overlap in physician networks. Although the Dartmouth Atlas work has been of unprecedented importance in demonstrating variations in Medicare spending, new measures may be needed to better understand variations in other populations.

  7. Adolescent conscientiousness predicts lower lifetime unemployment.

    PubMed

    Egan, Mark; Daly, Michael; Delaney, Liam; Boyce, Christopher J; Wood, Alex M

    2017-04-01

    Existing research on Big Five personality and unemployment has relied on personality measures elicited after the respondents had already spent years in the labor market, an experience that could change personality. We clarify the direction of influence by using the British Cohort Study (N = 4,206) to examine whether conscientiousness and other Big Five personality traits at age 16-17 predict unemployment over age 16-42. Our hypothesis that higher conscientiousness in adolescence would predict lower unemployment was supported. In analyses controlling for intelligence, gender, and parental socioeconomic status, the less conscientious (-1 SD) had a predicted probability of unemployment twice as high (3.4% vs. 1.7%) as the highly conscientious (+1 SD), an effect size comparable to intelligence. Mediation analysis revealed that academic motivation and educational attainment explained only 8.9% of this association. Fostering conscientiousness in early life may be an effective way to reduce unemployment throughout adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Sleep Duration and Area-Level Deprivation in Twins.

    PubMed

    Watson, Nathaniel F; Horn, Erin; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V; Turkheimer, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether area-level deprivation as indicated by the Singh Index predicts shorter sleep duration and modifies its underlying genetic and environmental contributions. Participants were 4,218 adult twin pairs (2,377 monozygotic and 1,841 dizygotic) from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration. The Singh Index was determined by linking geocoding addresses to 17 indicators at the census-tract level using data from Census of Washington State and Census Tract Cartographic Boundary Files from 2000 and 2010. Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate genetic decomposition and quantitative genetic interaction models that assessed A (additive genetics), C (common environment), and E (unique environment) main effects of the Singh Index on sleep duration and allowed the magnitude of residual ACE variance components in sleep duration to vary with the Index. The sample had a mean age of 38.2 y (standard deviation [SD] = 18), and was predominantly female (62%) and Caucasian (91%). Mean sleep duration was 7.38 h (SD = 1.20) and the mean Singh Index score was 0.00 (SD = 0.89). The heritability of sleep duration was 39% and the Singh Index was 12%. The uncontrolled phenotypic regression of sleep duration on the Singh Index showed a significant negative relationship between area-level deprivation and sleep length (b = -0.080, P < 0.001). Every 1 SD in Singh Index was associated with a ∼4.5 min change in sleep duration. For the quasi-causal bivariate model, there was a significant main effect of E (b(0E) = -0.063; standard error [SE] = 0.30; P < 0.05). Residual variance components unique to sleep duration were significant for both A (b(0Au) = 0.734; SE = 0.020; P < 0.001) and E (b(0Eu) = 0.934; SE = 0.013; P < 0.001). Area-level deprivation has a quasi-causal association with sleep duration, with greater deprivation being related to shorter sleep. As area-level deprivation

  9. Social capital, friendship networks, and youth unemployment.

    PubMed

    Hällsten, Martin; Edling, Christofer; Rydgren, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Youth unemployment is a contemporary social problem in many societies. Youths often have limited access to information about jobs and limited social influence, yet little is known about the relationship between social capital and unemployment risk among youth. We study the effect of social capital on unemployment risk in a sample of 19 year olds of Swedish, Iranian, and Yugoslavian origin living in Sweden (N = 1590). We distinguish between two dimensions of social capital: occupational contact networks and friendship networks. First, ego's unemployment is found to be strongly associated with friends' unemployment among individuals of Yugoslavian origins and individuals of Swedish origin, but not Iranian origin. Second, occupational contact networks reduce unemployment risks for all groups, but especially so for Iranians. The effect sizes of the two dimensions are similar and substantial: going from low to high values on these measures is associated with a difference of some 60-70 percent relative difference in unemployment risk. The findings are robust to a number of different model specifications, including a rich set of social origin controls, personality traits, educational performance, friends' characteristics, and friendship network characteristics, as well as controls for geographical employment patterns. A sensitivity simulation shows that homogeneity bias need to be very strong to explain away the effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Achilles' Heel: Developing Provision for Unemployed Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville, Colin

    1994-01-01

    Research shows that unemployed working class men are least likely to participate in education and training. Recruitment strategies should address their need to work, encourage collective action, and offer learning opportunities in familiar environments. (SK)

  11. 38 CFR 4.18 - Unemployability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... employment. With amputations, sequelae of fractures and other residuals of traumatism shown to be of static... to the static disability. Where unemployability for pension previously has been established on...

  12. 38 CFR 4.18 - Unemployability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... employment. With amputations, sequelae of fractures and other residuals of traumatism shown to be of static... to the static disability. Where unemployability for pension previously has been established on...

  13. 38 CFR 4.18 - Unemployability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... employment. With amputations, sequelae of fractures and other residuals of traumatism shown to be of static... to the static disability. Where unemployability for pension previously has been established on...

  14. 38 CFR 4.18 - Unemployability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... employment. With amputations, sequelae of fractures and other residuals of traumatism shown to be of static... to the static disability. Where unemployability for pension previously has been established on...

  15. 38 CFR 4.18 - Unemployability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... employment. With amputations, sequelae of fractures and other residuals of traumatism shown to be of static... to the static disability. Where unemployability for pension previously has been established on...

  16. Unemployment among Black Youths, Demographics, and Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvin, Allen D.

    1981-01-01

    Erroneous conclusions relating to the interrelationship among unemployment rates, demographics, and crime rates of Black youths are discussed. A reexamination of the data shows that crime by Black youths bears a close relationship with prevailing economic conditions. (Author/RC)

  17. Literacy, CETA, and Unemployment: Coming Up Empty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Gerald; Coppel, Lynn

    1982-01-01

    Analyzes low literacy levels among Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) applicants in New Brunswick, New Jersey. Discusses how cutbacks in CETA funding will adversely affect attempts to decrease illiteracy among unemployed, low-income, urban adults. (GC)

  18. Unemployment among Black Youths, Demographics, and Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvin, Allen D.

    1981-01-01

    Erroneous conclusions relating to the interrelationship among unemployment rates, demographics, and crime rates of Black youths are discussed. A reexamination of the data shows that crime by Black youths bears a close relationship with prevailing economic conditions. (Author/RC)

  19. How do area-level socioeconomic status and gender norms affect partner violence against women? Evidence from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Seema; Heise, Lori

    2016-11-01

    To explore how area-level socioeconomic status and gender-related norms influence partner violence against women in Tanzania. We analysed data from the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey and used multilevel logistic regression to estimate individual and community-level effects on women's risk of current partner violence. Prevalence of current partner violence was 36.1 %; however, variation in prevalence exists across communities. Twenty-nine percent of the variation in the logodds of partner violence is due to community-level influences. When adjusting for individual-level characteristics, this variation falls to 10 % and falls further to 8 % when adjusting for additional community-level factors. Higher levels of women's acceptance towards wife beating, male unemployment, and years of schooling among men were associated with higher risk of partner violence; however, higher levels of women in paid work were associated with lower risk. Area-level poverty and inequitable gender norms were associated with higher risk of partner violence. Empowerment strategies along with addressing social attitudes are likely to achieve reductions in rates of partner violence against women in Tanzania and in other similar low-income country settings.

  20. Entrepreneurship Education and Graduates Unemployment in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emunemu, B. O.; Kasali, O. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated entrepreneurship and graduates' unemployment in Nigeria.The problem of unemployment in Nigeria has become endemic. There have been reported cases of under-employment, seasonal, casual and full blown unemployment. Previous studies on unemployment and factors influencing it in Nigeria identify poor educational standards,…

  1. 20 CFR 625.8 - Applications for Disaster Unemployment Assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applications for Disaster Unemployment... LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.8 Applications for Disaster Unemployment Assistance. (a... unemployment shall be filed with respect to the individual's applicable State at the times and in the manner...

  2. 20 CFR 625.8 - Applications for Disaster Unemployment Assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applications for Disaster Unemployment... LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.8 Applications for Disaster Unemployment Assistance. (a... unemployment shall be filed with respect to the individual's applicable State at the times and in the manner...

  3. 20 CFR 325.4 - Claim for unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claim for unemployment benefits. 325.4 Section 325.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.4 Claim for unemployment benefits....

  4. 20 CFR 325.4 - Claim for unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Claim for unemployment benefits. 325.4 Section 325.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.4 Claim for unemployment benefits....

  5. 20 CFR 625.8 - Applications for Disaster Unemployment Assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applications for Disaster Unemployment... LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.8 Applications for Disaster Unemployment Assistance. (a... unemployment shall be filed with respect to the individual's applicable State at the times and in the manner...

  6. 20 CFR 325.4 - Claim for unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Claim for unemployment benefits. 325.4 Section 325.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.4 Claim for unemployment benefits....

  7. 20 CFR 325.4 - Claim for unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Claim for unemployment benefits. 325.4 Section 325.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.4 Claim for unemployment benefits....

  8. Entrepreneurship Education and Graduates Unemployment in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emunemu, B. O.; Kasali, O. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated entrepreneurship and graduates' unemployment in Nigeria.The problem of unemployment in Nigeria has become endemic. There have been reported cases of under-employment, seasonal, casual and full blown unemployment. Previous studies on unemployment and factors influencing it in Nigeria identify poor educational standards,…

  9. 20 CFR 325.4 - Claim for unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Claim for unemployment benefits. 325.4 Section 325.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.4 Claim for unemployment benefits....

  10. 20 CFR 625.8 - Applications for Disaster Unemployment Assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applications for Disaster Unemployment... LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.8 Applications for Disaster Unemployment Assistance. (a... unemployment shall be filed with respect to the individual's applicable State at the times and in the manner...

  11. 20 CFR 625.8 - Applications for Disaster Unemployment Assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applications for Disaster Unemployment... LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.8 Applications for Disaster Unemployment Assistance. (a... unemployment shall be filed with respect to the individual's applicable State at the times and in the manner as...

  12. Understanding and Responding to Persistently High Unemployment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    benefits of training programs depend on the skills unemployed workers already have and their work experience. Unemployed high school dropouts might...workers. Overall unem- ployment rates are highest for the young, especially teen - agers (23.2 percent in January 2012, as compared with an overall...targets high school dropouts between the ages of 16 and 18 who are not heavily involved with the justice system and who are drug-free. The program

  13. Suicide, unemployment, and economic recession in Spain.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-García, Celso; Sáiz, Pilar A; Burón, Patricia; Sánchez-Lasheras, Fernando; Jiménez-Treviño, Luis; Fernández-Artamendi, Sergio; Al-Halabí, Susana; Corcoran, Paul; García-Portilla, M Paz; Bobes, Julio

    The aim of the present work is to determine the association between unemployment and suicide, and to investigate whether this association is affected by changes in the economic cycle or other variables such as age and sex. A time-trend analysis was conducted to study changes in the number of suicides between 1999 and 2013 in Spain. Pearson's correlation coefficients and regression models were used to find the association between unemployment and suicide. A significant positive association was found between unemployment and suicide in the pre-crisis period in men. In that period (1999-2007), each 1% annual increase in unemployment was associated with a 6.90% increase in the annual variation of suicide in the total population, and with a 9.04% increase in the annual variation of suicide in working age men. The correlation between unemployment and suicide is significant in periods of economic stability, but has weakened during the recent financial crisis. Unemployment and suicide have a complex relationship modulated by age, sex and economic cycle. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. The correlates of psychological health among the Turkish unemployed: psychological burden of financial help during unemployment.

    PubMed

    Bilgiç, Reyhan; Yılmaz, Nilgün

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the major determinants of psychological health during unemployment. With this in mind, 438 (17% female and 83% male) unemployed individuals were contacted through Turkey's State Employment Office. It was expected that the relationship between duration of unemployment and psychological wellbeing would be nonlinear. Additionally it was hypothesized that perceived social support would moderate the relationship between length of unemployment and psychological health. Further, we suggested that self-esteem would be related to psychological health and moderate the relationship between length of unemployment and psychological health. The results supported the curvilinearity hypothesis of the relationship between unemployment duration and psychological health as measured by General Health Questionnaire. However, social support was not found to moderate the relationship between unemployment duration and psychological health. The hypothesis that self-esteem would moderate the relationship between length of unemployment and psychological distress was not supported, although self-esteem was a strong negative determinant of psychological distress during unemployment. Regression analysis showed that the best predictors of psychological health were self-esteem, perceived social support and perceived adequacy of financial aid received from relatives. Interestingly, perceived adequacy of the financial aid was negatively related to psychological health. This result was contradictory with the previous literature pointing out that financial aid reduces the effects of poverty due to unemployment. The findings of this study are important since the relationship between unemployment duration and psychological health was nonlinear, indicating that relevant services should be especially careful to intervene to increase social support and self-esteem during these critical times. The other results and limitations are discussed.

  15. Unemployment and smoking: does psychosocial stress matter?

    PubMed Central

    De Vogli, R; Santinello, M

    2005-01-01

    Aim: Research indicates that cigarette smoking is strongly associated with unemployment. However, little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms explaining this relationship. The aim of this study is to examine the role of psychosocial factors as potential mediators between unemployment and smoking. Participants: 4002 non-institutionalised, civilian adults living in the Veneto region of Italy. Design: The study was based on a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI). Linear by linear association tests were used to examine bivariate associations between unemployment, psychosocial factors, and smoking. Logistic regression models were developed to analyse the relationship between unemployment and smoking when adjusting for psychological factors. Results: The odds of smoking among the unemployed was 2.78 times (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.68 to 4.62) greater than that of higher managers and professionals controlling for demographic factors. The relationship between unemployment and smoking weakened (odds ratio 2.41, 95% CI 1.43 to 4.05) when psychosocial factors were entered into the analysis. The odds of the inability to control important things in life was 1.39 times (95% CI 1.11 to 1.75) greater, and the odds of emotional isolation was 1.45 times (95% CI 1.06 to 1.99) greater, among smokers compared to non-smokers controlling, for all other factors. Conclusions: Given that the data were cross sectional, firm conclusions cannot be drawn regarding the causal pathway connecting unemployment and smoking. However, this study suggests that psychosocial factors such as the inability to control and emotional isolation may be plausible mediators for the relationship. PMID:16319362

  16. [Unemployment and Addiction: The SUNRISE Project].

    PubMed

    Scherbaum, N; Specka, M; Kaspar, C; Mikoteit, T; Lieb, B

    2016-06-14

    Objectives: In the SUNRISE-project, the unemployment benefit office refers long-term unemployed clients (25-49 years old) to medical and psychological specialists of an addiction clinic, if substance-related problems are suspected as an obstacle for job placement. The present study aims at characterizing these clients with respect to educational qualifications, vocational training, diagnosed addictive disorders, and other mental disorders. Of special interest is the temporal sequence of unemployment and addictive disorders. Method: Officials referred clients to medical examination if substance abuse was suspected. The examination was based on Europ-ASI, diagnosis of mental disorders based on SCID-I and SCID-II. Results: In 87 out of the first 100 examined persons, an addictive disorder was diagnosed, most frequently alcohol-related disorders, and often multiple addictive disorders. These 87 clients were on average 40 years old (SD 8.5), and mostly male (73 out of 87 clients). About one-third had very low school qualification, and 55.2% had not completed vocational training. An additional psychiatric diagnosis was made in 51.7%. Addictive disorders had commenced during adolescence or early adulthood in most cases. The longest duration of continuous employment was 3 years (median). In only a few cases (7.4%), the current period of unemployment had started before regular substance use. Conclusion: Many long-term unemployed clients examined here showed deficits in schooling and vocational training, early onset of regular substance use, and additional mental disorders. In most cases, the addictive disorder did not emerge as a consequence of unemployment, but had existed before. Programs combining the efforts of unemployment benefit offices and the healthcare system are needed for these clients to help them gain access to the regular job market. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Coping with unemployment: the impact of unemployment on mental health, personality, and social interaction skills.

    PubMed

    Pelzer, B; Schaffrath, S; Vernaleken, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    Unemployment is known to be associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. However, there is ambiguity about the direction of this association. Different to large surveys, the present pilot-study focuses on a detailed characterization of unemployed and strictly matched employed subjects. Besides depressive symptoms and personality factors, their level of social and communicative skills was determined by an experimental behavioral paradigm. Ninety-two subjects were screened; 62 showed relevant exclusion criteria or failed the matching procedure. Finally, 30 subjects (15 employed, 15 unemployed) participated. The experimental group-paradigm consisted of a complex standardized challenge situation, which demands communicative and social skills for a successful solution. This was followed by an individualized video-based behavioral analysis. Expectedly, unemployed subjects showed more depressive symptoms than employed subjects but did not show higher levels of susceptible personality traits. There were no differences between employed and unemployed subjects in social and communicative competencies; these skills however correlated positively with the level of depression. Unemployment is an important stressor, affecting mental health. The absence of susceptible traits and skills deficits suggests that depressive syndromes are rather resulting than cause of unemployment. Social skills do not prevent depressive reactions during unemployment.

  18. [A sickness called unemployment: a long-term unemployment. Association of Community Development (ACD)].

    PubMed

    del Llano Señarís, J; Aracil Rodríguez, E; del Llano Señarís, M; González Pérez, J L; Fernández Sánchez, F; Román Crespo, B; Esquivias Tallada, M

    1996-01-01

    The general objective of this investigation is to know the possible consequences of long-term unemployment on the family and social environment, as well as the mechanisms which lead to the appearance of health problems among long-term unemployed people. The subjects of this study were long-term unemployed people of 35 to 55 years of age of the municipal term of Madrid, with families depending on them. This is a qualitative-intensive investigation, with special emphasis on the individual, social, sanitary and economical aspects. The instrument of common measurement was the combination of the discussion group integrated by five people, during approximately 120 minutes, with focused and individual interviews (48) over a semistructured script, during approximately 60 minutes, using recording instruments (audio tape). During the development of the discussion group a worsening of the psychological health and family situation was observed as a consequence of remaining unemployed. In the more thorough interviews we could detect clear differences according to the impact of unemployment on health depending on the low socioeconomical area, women and older unemployed people. The effects of unemployment on health cannot be isolated from other underlying bad social and economical conditions, that is to say, from social, economical, educative inequalities, etc., previous to the unemployment situation.

  19. Individual Joblessness, Contextual Unemployment, and Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Tapia Granados, José A.; House, James S.; Ionides, Edward L.; Burgard, Sarah; Schoeni, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal studies at the level of individuals find that employees who lose their jobs are at increased risk of death. However, analyses of aggregate data find that as unemployment rates increase during recessions, population mortality actually declines. We addressed this paradox by using data from the US Department of Labor and annual survey data (1979–1997) from a nationally representative longitudinal study of individuals—the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Using proportional hazards (Cox) regression, we analyzed how the hazard of death depended on 1) individual joblessness and 2) state unemployment rates, as indicators of contextual economic conditions. We found that 1) compared with the employed, for the unemployed the hazard of death was increased by an amount equivalent to 10 extra years of age, and 2) each percentage-point increase in the state unemployment rate reduced the mortality hazard in all individuals by an amount equivalent to a reduction of 1 year of age. Our results provide evidence that 1) joblessness strongly and significantly raises the risk of death among those suffering it, and 2) periods of higher unemployment rates, that is, recessions, are associated with a moderate but significant reduction in the risk of death among the entire population. PMID:24993734

  20. Individual joblessness, contextual unemployment, and mortality risk.

    PubMed

    Tapia Granados, José A; House, James S; Ionides, Edward L; Burgard, Sarah; Schoeni, Robert S

    2014-08-01

    Longitudinal studies at the level of individuals find that employees who lose their jobs are at increased risk of death. However, analyses of aggregate data find that as unemployment rates increase during recessions, population mortality actually declines. We addressed this paradox by using data from the US Department of Labor and annual survey data (1979-1997) from a nationally representative longitudinal study of individuals-the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Using proportional hazards (Cox) regression, we analyzed how the hazard of death depended on 1) individual joblessness and 2) state unemployment rates, as indicators of contextual economic conditions. We found that 1) compared with the employed, for the unemployed the hazard of death was increased by an amount equivalent to 10 extra years of age, and 2) each percentage-point increase in the state unemployment rate reduced the mortality hazard in all individuals by an amount equivalent to a reduction of 1 year of age. Our results provide evidence that 1) joblessness strongly and significantly raises the risk of death among those suffering it, and 2) periods of higher unemployment rates, that is, recessions, are associated with a moderate but significant reduction in the risk of death among the entire population.

  1. Efficiency wages, unemployment and international factor movements.

    PubMed

    Basu, B

    1998-09-01

    "This paper examines the implications of unemployment resulting from efficiency wages for international factor movements in a standard Heckscher-Ohlin model where the relative size of the endowments of skilled and unskilled workers and the efficiency wage induced unemployment level in the unskilled labour market are simultaneously determined given the population, supply of capital and its distribution in the economy.... It is shown that the optimum labour inflow in the market with domestic distortion and the optimum capital inflow are always positive because they reduce the severity of distortion by raising employment and income for the residents. The income and employment of foreigners also increase. Under this situation the optimum labour or capital outflow on the other hand is always zero. These conclusions directly contradict the result obtained for international factor movements in the presence of exogenously determined unemployment."

  2. Great expectations: Past wages and unemployment durations☆

    PubMed Central

    Böheim, Renè; Horvath, Gerard Thomas; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    Decomposing wages into worker and firm wage components, we find that firm-fixed components are sizeable parts of workers' wages. If workers can only imperfectly observe the extent of firm-fixed components in their wages, they might be misled about the overall wage distribution. Such misperceptions may lead to unjustified high reservation wages, resulting in overly long unemployment durations. We examine the influence of previous wages on unemployment durations for workers after exogenous lay-offs and, using Austrian administrative data, we find that younger workers are, in fact, unemployed longer if they profited from high firm-fixed components in the past. We interpret our findings as evidence for overconfidence generated by imperfectly observed productivity. PMID:22211003

  3. [Measurement of unemployment-related psychological stress: Validation of the Unemployment Stress (USS)].

    PubMed

    Szabóné Kapuvári, Virág; Martos, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays the theme of unemployment and the given answers of it are up to date questions in psychology. In spite of this fact, the psychological methods measuring this phenomenon are often missing. That is why the Unemployment Stress Scale (USS) is presented in this article. The aim of our study is to develop a scale called USS and test it's validity and reliability. There were 287 adult unemployed persons asked in this study. Besides the USS we used the Beck Depression Scale, the Spielberger Anxiety Scale (TRAIT), the Sense of Coherence Scale (Hungarian version) and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale. According to our results, USS has showed an excellent criterion and construct validity. A useful scale has been formed according to test-retest results. (Cronbach-alfa: 0.88 and 0.86 according to the samples). Moreover our scale has a strong correlation with the Spielberger Anxiety Scale (TRAIT) and the Beck Depression Scale. These chracteristics of the new scale proved that we fond a factor, independent from the self esteem and the sense of coherence, which represents the stress level in the situation of unemployment. This scale is a professional construction to measure stress contributed to unemployment. The USS can be a useful scale in clinical practice because after measuring with this scale we can protect the personality of the unemployed by representing the actual unemployment stress level. That is why professionals can help earlier in a crisis like this.

  4. Fighting fate: a seventy percent unemployment rate.

    PubMed

    Girma, Haben

    2014-01-01

    When children with disabilities imagine joining the adult world of work, the joys of choosing a future career path are marred by the high unemployment rates. As I maneuvered through the world of work as a young adult, my optimism remained slightly dampened by an acute awareness that 70% of blind Americans are unemployed. In my experience, the ultimate strategy for success in securing meaningful employment involved a combination of an honest assessment of one's skills and limits, and stubbornly searching for that niche position.

  5. The Health Effects of US Unemployment Insurance Policy: Does Income from Unemployment Benefits Prevent Cardiovascular Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Stefan; Glymour, Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous studies suggest that unemployment predicts increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but whether unemployment insurance programs mitigate this risk has not been assessed. Exploiting US state variations in unemployment insurance benefit programs, we tested the hypothesis that more generous benefits reduce CVD risk. Methods Cohort data came from 16,108 participants in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) aged 50–65 at baseline interviewed from 1992 to 2010. Data on first and recurrent CVD diagnosis assessed through biennial interviews were linked to the generosity of unemployment benefit programmes in each state and year. Using state fixed-effect models, we assessed whether state changes in the generosity of unemployment benefits predicted CVD risk. Results States with higher unemployment benefits had lower incidence of CVD, so that a 1% increase in benefits was associated with 18% lower odds of CVD (OR:0.82, 95%-CI:0.71–0.94). This association remained after introducing US census regional division fixed effects, but disappeared after introducing state fixed effects (OR:1.02, 95%-CI:0.79–1.31).This was consistent with the fact that unemployment was not associated with CVD risk in state-fixed effect models. Conclusion Although states with more generous unemployment benefits had lower CVD incidence, this appeared to be due to confounding by state-level characteristics. Possible explanations are the lack of short-term effects of unemployment on CVD risk. Future studies should assess whether benefits at earlier stages of the life-course influence long-term risk of CVD. PMID:25025281

  6. The health effects of US unemployment insurance policy: does income from unemployment benefits prevent cardiovascular disease?

    PubMed

    Walter, Stefan; Glymour, Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that unemployment predicts increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but whether unemployment insurance programs mitigate this risk has not been assessed. Exploiting US state variations in unemployment insurance benefit programs, we tested the hypothesis that more generous benefits reduce CVD risk. Cohort data came from 16,108 participants in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) aged 50-65 at baseline interviewed from 1992 to 2010. Data on first and recurrent CVD diagnosis assessed through biennial interviews were linked to the generosity of unemployment benefit programmes in each state and year. Using state fixed-effect models, we assessed whether state changes in the generosity of unemployment benefits predicted CVD risk. States with higher unemployment benefits had lower incidence of CVD, so that a 1% increase in benefits was associated with 18% lower odds of CVD (OR:0.82, 95%-CI:0.71-0.94). This association remained after introducing US census regional division fixed effects, but disappeared after introducing state fixed effects (OR:1.02, 95%-CI:0.79-1.31).This was consistent with the fact that unemployment was not associated with CVD risk in state-fixed effect models. Although states with more generous unemployment benefits had lower CVD incidence, this appeared to be due to confounding by state-level characteristics. Possible explanations are the lack of short-term effects of unemployment on CVD risk. Future studies should assess whether benefits at earlier stages of the life-course influence long-term risk of CVD.

  7. Maintaining Perceived Control with Unemployment Facilitates Future Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Infurna, Frank J; Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Schupp, Jürgen; Wagner, Gert G; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2016-04-01

    Unemployment is a major challenge to individuals' development. An important personal resource to ameliorate the negative impact of unemployment may be perceived control, a general-purpose belief system. Little is known, however, about how perceived control itself changes with the experience of unemployment and what the antecedents, correlates, and consequences of such change in perceived control are in different ages. We use data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (N = 413 who experienced unemployment and N = 413 case-matched controls; time period of data collection: 1994 - 1996) to examine whether perceived control changes with unemployment, explore the role of socio-demographic, psychosocial and health factors in moderating such change, and investigate whether levels of perceived control prior to unemployment and unemployment-related change in perceived control predict unemployment-related outcomes up to five years following. Results indicated that, on average, perceived control remained relatively stable with unemployment, and that younger and older workers did not differ in this regard. However, there were sizeable individual differences in change in perceived control, with women and those with fewer years of education experiencing greater unemployment-related declines in perceived control. Lower levels of perceived control prior to unemployment and steeper unemployment-related decrements in perceived control were each associated with a higher risk of remaining unemployed in the 12 months immediately following unemployment. Steeper unemployment-related declines in perceived control also predicted lower life satisfaction up to five years following. We discuss possible pathways by which perceived control may facilitate adjustment to unemployment, consider the role of perceived control for better understanding the dynamics of unemployment, and suggest routes for further more process-oriented inquiry.

  8. Maintaining Perceived Control with Unemployment Facilitates Future Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Infurna, Frank J.; Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Schupp, Jürgen; Wagner, Gert G.; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    Unemployment is a major challenge to individuals' development. An important personal resource to ameliorate the negative impact of unemployment may be perceived control, a general-purpose belief system. Little is known, however, about how perceived control itself changes with the experience of unemployment and what the antecedents, correlates, and consequences of such change in perceived control are in different ages. We use data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (N = 413 who experienced unemployment and N = 413 case-matched controls; time period of data collection: 1994 – 1996) to examine whether perceived control changes with unemployment, explore the role of socio-demographic, psychosocial and health factors in moderating such change, and investigate whether levels of perceived control prior to unemployment and unemployment-related change in perceived control predict unemployment-related outcomes up to five years following. Results indicated that, on average, perceived control remained relatively stable with unemployment, and that younger and older workers did not differ in this regard. However, there were sizeable individual differences in change in perceived control, with women and those with fewer years of education experiencing greater unemployment-related declines in perceived control. Lower levels of perceived control prior to unemployment and steeper unemployment-related decrements in perceived control were each associated with a higher risk of remaining unemployed in the 12 months immediately following unemployment. Steeper unemployment-related declines in perceived control also predicted lower life satisfaction up to five years following. We discuss possible pathways by which perceived control may facilitate adjustment to unemployment, consider the role of perceived control for better understanding the dynamics of unemployment, and suggest routes for further more process-oriented inquiry. PMID:26924845

  9. A Case Study and Balance Sheet Approach to Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesketh, Beryl; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes positive and negative aspects of employment and unemployment in a balance sheet framework. Discusses the value of the balance sheet approach in understanding individual differences in reactions to unemployment. (Author/KS)

  10. Misery Loves Company? A Meta-Regression Examining Aggregate Unemployment Rates and the Unemployment-Mortality Association

    PubMed Central

    Roelfs, David J.; Shor, Eran; Blank, Aharon; Schwartz, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Individual-level unemployment has been consistently linked to poor health and higher mortality, but some scholars have suggested that the negative effect of job loss may be lower during times and in places where aggregate unemployment rates are high. We review three logics associated with this moderation hypothesis: health selection, social isolation, and unemployment stigma. We then test whether aggregate unemployment rates moderate the individual-level association between unemployment and all-cause mortality. METHODS We use 6 meta-regression models (each utilizing a different measure of the aggregate unemployment rate) based on 62 relative all-cause mortality risk estimates from 36 studies (from 15 nations). RESULTS We find that the magnitude of the individual-level unemployment-mortality association is approximately the same during periods of high and low aggregate-level unemployment. Model coefficients (exponentiated) were 1.01 for the crude unemployment rate (p = 0.27), 0.94 for the change in unemployment rate from the previous year (p = 0.46), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the 5-year running average (p = 0.87), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the 10-year running average (p = 0.73), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the overall average (measured as a continuous variable; p = 0.61), and showed no variation across unemployment levels when the deviation of the unemployment rate from the overall average was measured categorically. Heterogeneity between studies was significant (p < .001), supporting the use of the random effects model. CONCLUSIONS We found no strong evidence to suggest that unemployment experiences change when macro-economic conditions change. Efforts to ameliorate the negative social and economic consequences of unemployment should continue to focus on the individual and should be maintained regardless of periodic changes in macro-economic conditions. PMID:25795225

  11. Misery loves company? A meta-regression examining aggregate unemployment rates and the unemployment-mortality association.

    PubMed

    Roelfs, David J; Shor, Eran; Blank, Aharon; Schwartz, Joseph E

    2015-05-01

    Individual-level unemployment has been consistently linked to poor health and higher mortality, but some scholars have suggested that the negative effect of job loss may be lower during times and in places where aggregate unemployment rates are high. We review three logics associated with this moderation hypothesis: health selection, social isolation, and unemployment stigma. We then test whether aggregate unemployment rates moderate the individual-level association between unemployment and all-cause mortality. We use six meta-regression models (each using a different measure of the aggregate unemployment rate) based on 62 relative all-cause mortality risk estimates from 36 studies (from 15 nations). We find that the magnitude of the individual-level unemployment-mortality association is approximately the same during periods of high and low aggregate-level unemployment. Model coefficients (exponentiated) were 1.01 for the crude unemployment rate (P = .27), 0.94 for the change in unemployment rate from the previous year (P = .46), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the 5-year running average (P = .87), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the 10-year running average (P = .73), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the overall average (measured as a continuous variable; P = .61), and showed no variation across unemployment levels when the deviation of the unemployment rate from the overall average was measured categorically. Heterogeneity between studies was significant (P < .001), supporting the use of the random effects model. We found no strong evidence to suggest that unemployment experiences change when macroeconomic conditions change. Efforts to ameliorate the negative social and economic consequences of unemployment should continue to focus on the individual and should be maintained regardless of periodic changes in macroeconomic conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Understanding Unemployment. "Understanding Economics" Series No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Geoffrey

    Devised for secondary school students, the booklet explains current employment trends, policies, and issues of Canada's labor market. The book is divided into three parts. Part I discusses the labor force in terms of supply and demand, the working age population, the labor force participation rate, total employment, unemployment, and seasonal…

  13. Black Youth Unemployment: Issues and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaights, Ernest; Dixon, Harold E.

    1986-01-01

    Examines participation and nonparticipation of Black youths in the labor force from a social and psychological perspective. Includes a discussion of the impact of minimum wage, cultural differences, job training programs, and discrimination at the workplace on Black youth unemployment. The problem requires racial and institutional cooperation.…

  14. The Relocation of the Hard Core Unemployed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Jack L.; Abrams, Harvey A.

    The purpose of the Minneapolis Rehabilitation Center project (July 1966 to June 1967) was to prepare a sample of 80 unemployed residents of small communities in northern Minnesota to live and work in the metropolitan Minneapolis-St. Paul area. Heads of households were provided intensive, comprehensive evaluation and treatment services to deal with…

  15. The Scenario of an Unemployed Auto Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilanian, Seta M.

    This case study examined the effects of unemployment upon an unskilled 31-year-old male client who had been laid off his job as an assembly line automobile worker after 13 years. Instead of searching for employment the client was sleeping late, watching television, and spending time at a local tavern. The general hypothesis tested was that the…

  16. Unemployment Is Down this Year for Chemists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Reports survey findings on the current status of employment and salaries of members of the American Chemical Society. The 1987 survey indicated that unemployment among chemists is about a third lower than it was last year, but that there was little change in the median salary. (ML)

  17. Unemployment Is Down this Year for Chemists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Reports survey findings on the current status of employment and salaries of members of the American Chemical Society. The 1987 survey indicated that unemployment among chemists is about a third lower than it was last year, but that there was little change in the median salary. (ML)

  18. Unemployment and the Expansion of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessaring, Manfred

    1982-01-01

    Examines the question of whether or not training can reduce the risk of unemployment. Also considers whether an expanded educational system can improve the employment market and accelerate economic growth. (Availability: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 5, rue du Commerce, L-2985, Luxembourg.) (SK)

  19. Employment and Unemployment: A Report on 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Diane N.; Bednarzik, Robert W.

    1981-01-01

    At the onset of 1980, the nation entered a recession with employment falling until the fourth quarter. Unemployment rose faster than at any time since the 1974-75 recession, peaked at midyear, and was well above prerecession levels at the end of the year. (LRA)

  20. Black Youth Unemployment: A Continuing Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piovia, Esther

    1977-01-01

    If the current trend continues, unemployment rates for black teenagers will continue to go up while officialdom deplores the "critical" situation. Only by guaranteeing minority youth the right to education and job training and by monitoring discrimination will we enable black youth to make the contributions to society of which they are capable.…

  1. Assisted Job Search for the Insured Unemployed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, David W.

    This study, an interim assessment, has attempted to understand the role of the Federal-State public employment service as a job search intermediary for insured unemployed workers. The conceptual role, the actual role, and claimant responsiveness to role change have been studied of three selected local offices in providing job search services to…

  2. New Definitions for Employment and Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Robert L.

    1967-01-01

    Improvements in methods for measuring employment and unemployment that went into effect in January 1967, new definitions, and comparisons of data collected by the Current Population Survey (CPS) and the new Monthly Labor Survey (MLS) are presented. The improvements are in line with the recommendations of the Gordon Committee in its 1962 report.…

  3. Youth Unemployment Outline of a Psychosocial Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamm, Margrit

    2006-01-01

    This analysis of education policy constitutes an attempt to outline the problem of youth unemployment. Building on a recognition that structural change in the "society of labourers" has also affected the social entity "young people", it shows the problems inherent in our concept of linear transitions to working life and the…

  4. Nonmonetary Eligibility in State Unemployment Insurance Programs: Law and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, Walter; And Others

    A study examined the various laws and practices in six states regarding nonmonetary eligibility for state unemployment insurance programs and assessed the effects of these laws and policies on the states' ability to identify and reject unemployment insurance claimants who fail to meet the requirements. Eligibility for unemployment insurance in all…

  5. Unemployment Insurance Fund Insolvency and Debt in Michigan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaustein, Saul J.

    Without changes in Michigan's unemployment insurance law, the state's unemployment insurance debt will probably reach $3.8 billion by the end of 1985. Currently, Michigan's employers pay unemployment insurance tax rates that vary from 1 to 9 percent, depending upon the amount of benefits charged against their accounts. Beginning with the federal…

  6. Types of structural unemployment in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Hart, P E

    1990-01-01

    The author assesses the importance of each classification of "structural unemployment, namely technological, mismatch of skills, geographical mismatch, demographic shifts, institutional rigidities, 'unemployability', and capital-restructuring unemployment." in the United Kingdom. He also reviews recent evidence on regional wage differential adjustments and their impact on the disequilibrium within the British labor market.

  7. 45 CFR 233.100 - Dependent children of unemployed parents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Dependent children of unemployed parents. 233.100... unemployed parents. (a) Requirements for State Plans. If a State wishes to provide AFDC for children of unemployed parents, the State plan under title IV-A of the Social Security Act must: (1) Include a...

  8. Gender Relations, Family Relations and Long-Term Youth Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Richard; Hutson, Susan

    The relationship between long-term youth unemployment and family relationships and that between youth unemployment and courtship and marriage patterns were examined in a study conducted in two towns in South Wales. Thirty-seven young men and 26 young women between the ages of 18 and 25 who had been unemployed for 6 months or longer were…

  9. 26 CFR 1.85-1 - Unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Unemployment compensation. 1.85-1 Section 1.85-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.85-1 Unemployment compensation... unemployment compensation (as defined in paragraph (b)(1) of this section) paid in taxable years...

  10. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  11. 20 CFR 606.42 - High unemployment delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false High unemployment delay. 606.42 Section 606... THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Relief from Interest Payment § 606.42 High unemployment delay. (a) Applicability. Paragraph (9) of section 1202 (b)...

  12. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  13. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  14. 20 CFR 606.42 - High unemployment delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false High unemployment delay. 606.42 Section 606... THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Relief from Interest Payment § 606.42 High unemployment delay. (a) Applicability. Paragraph (9) of section 1202 (b)...

  15. 20 CFR 606.42 - High unemployment delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false High unemployment delay. 606.42 Section 606... THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Relief from Interest Payment § 606.42 High unemployment delay. (a) Applicability. Paragraph (9) of section 1202 (b)...

  16. 45 CFR 302.65 - Withholding of unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Withholding of unemployment compensation. 302.65... HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.65 Withholding of unemployment compensation. The State plan... State agency charged with the administration of the State unemployment compensation laws in...

  17. 26 CFR 1.85-1 - Unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Unemployment compensation. 1.85-1 Section 1.85-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.85-1 Unemployment compensation... unemployment compensation (as defined in paragraph (b)(1) of this section) paid in taxable years...

  18. 45 CFR 302.65 - Withholding of unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Withholding of unemployment compensation. 302.65... HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.65 Withholding of unemployment compensation. The State plan... State agency charged with the administration of the State unemployment compensation laws in...

  19. 20 CFR 606.42 - High unemployment delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false High unemployment delay. 606.42 Section 606... THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Relief from Interest Payment § 606.42 High unemployment delay. (a) Applicability. Paragraph (9) of section 1202 (b)...

  20. 26 CFR 1.85-1 - Unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Unemployment compensation. 1.85-1 Section 1.85-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.85-1 Unemployment compensation... unemployment compensation (as defined in paragraph (b)(1) of this section) paid in taxable years...

  1. 26 CFR 1.85-1 - Unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Unemployment compensation. 1.85-1 Section 1.85-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.85-1 Unemployment compensation... unemployment compensation (as defined in paragraph (b)(1) of this section) paid in taxable years...

  2. A Critical Perspective of Contemporary Unemployment Policy and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blustein, David L.; Medvide, Mary Beth; Wan, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the challenges of unemployment via the lens of critical psychology. The conventional discourse on unemployment is critiqued, revealing ways in which conventional policies and practices serve to further marginalize the lives of the unemployed and impede the development of ethical, effective, and empathic individual…

  3. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  4. A Critical Perspective of Contemporary Unemployment Policy and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blustein, David L.; Medvide, Mary Beth; Wan, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the challenges of unemployment via the lens of critical psychology. The conventional discourse on unemployment is critiqued, revealing ways in which conventional policies and practices serve to further marginalize the lives of the unemployed and impede the development of ethical, effective, and empathic individual…

  5. 26 CFR 1.85-1 - Unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unemployment compensation. 1.85-1 Section 1.85-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.85-1 Unemployment compensation... unemployment compensation (as defined in paragraph (b)(1) of this section) paid in taxable years beginning...

  6. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the waiting...

  7. 20 CFR 606.42 - High unemployment delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High unemployment delay. 606.42 Section 606... THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Relief from Interest Payment § 606.42 High unemployment delay. (a) Applicability. Paragraph (9) of section 1202 (b) of...

  8. 44 CFR 206.141 - Disaster unemployment assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disaster unemployment assistance. 206.141 Section 206.141 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... § 206.141 Disaster unemployment assistance. The authority to implement the disaster unemployment...

  9. Social Support and Self-Esteem in Unemployed University Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lackovic-Grgin, Katica; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the relationships between length of unemployment time, self-esteem and general life satisfaction of university graduates (n=98). Also examined the function of social support during the period of unemployment. Results indicated length of unemployment, contrary to previous findings, was not related to self-esteem and general life…

  10. 20 CFR 325.2 - Procedure for registering for unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Procedure for registering for unemployment... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.2 Procedure for registering for unemployment benefits. (a) Registering as unemployed. To claim unemployment benefits for any...

  11. 20 CFR 625.5 - Unemployment caused by a major disaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Unemployment caused by a major disaster. 625... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.5 Unemployment caused by a major disaster. (a) Unemployed worker. The unemployment of an unemployed worker is caused by a major disaster if— (1) The individual has...

  12. 20 CFR 325.2 - Procedure for registering for unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Procedure for registering for unemployment... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.2 Procedure for registering for unemployment benefits. (a) Registering as unemployed. To claim unemployment benefits for any...

  13. 20 CFR 325.2 - Procedure for registering for unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Procedure for registering for unemployment... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.2 Procedure for registering for unemployment benefits. (a) Registering as unemployed. To claim unemployment benefits for any...

  14. 20 CFR 625.5 - Unemployment caused by a major disaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Unemployment caused by a major disaster. 625... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.5 Unemployment caused by a major disaster. (a) Unemployed worker. The unemployment of an unemployed worker is caused by a major disaster if— (1) The individual has...

  15. 20 CFR 625.5 - Unemployment caused by a major disaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Unemployment caused by a major disaster. 625... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.5 Unemployment caused by a major disaster. (a) Unemployed worker. The unemployment of an unemployed worker is caused by a major disaster if— (1) The individual has...

  16. 20 CFR 625.5 - Unemployment caused by a major disaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Unemployment caused by a major disaster. 625... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.5 Unemployment caused by a major disaster. (a) Unemployed worker. The unemployment of an unemployed worker is caused by a major disaster if— (1) The individual has...

  17. 20 CFR 325.2 - Procedure for registering for unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Procedure for registering for unemployment... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.2 Procedure for registering for unemployment benefits. (a) Registering as unemployed. To claim unemployment benefits for any...

  18. 20 CFR 625.5 - Unemployment caused by a major disaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unemployment caused by a major disaster. 625... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.5 Unemployment caused by a major disaster. (a) Unemployed worker. The unemployment of an unemployed worker is caused by a major disaster if— (1) The individual has a...

  19. 20 CFR 325.2 - Procedure for registering for unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure for registering for unemployment... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.2 Procedure for registering for unemployment benefits. (a) Registering as unemployed. To claim unemployment benefits for any day...

  20. Try! A Survival Guide to Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okulicz, Karen

    This book is a practical survival guide to unemployment that offers a thoughtful, step-by-step process for getting organized and getting the work one needs for a satisfying, productive, and happy life. It does not teach the reader how to set up a resume or how to interview. It does teach how to find out what the reader wants to do, what he or she…

  1. Fixed Wages, Layoffs, Unemployment Compensation, and Welfare.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-01

    feasibility and optimality of alternative employment contracts. For the case where layoffs are prohibited, they demonstrate that both the fixed wage--constant...society’s point of view. In the case with layoffs , they show that the competitive mechanism leads to a less than optimal number of layoffs , and...demonstrate that unemployment insurance with less than complete experience rating lowers the cost of layoffs to the firm and encourages labor mobility. In the

  2. Why Is Veteran Unemployment So High?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    public service of the RAND Corporation. CHILDREN AND FAMILIES EDUCATION AND THE ARTS ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT HEALTH AND HEALTH CARE INFRASTRUCTURE AND...BOSTON, MA CAMBRIDGE, UK • BRUSSELS, BE www.rand.org The research described in this report was prepared for the Office of the Secretary of...up only about 15 percent of active component service members today. It also fails to put veteran unemployment rates into perspective by comparing

  3. The nature of unemployment morbidity. 2. Description

    PubMed Central

    Beale, Norman; Nethercott, Susan

    1988-01-01

    A longitudinal, controlled study on job loss and health using general practice records has concluded that unemployment morbidity among men made redundant can be identified as an increase in those episodes of illness which are associated with many consultations. The possibility that these episodes represent chronic ill health has been tested using the same data base. If chronic illnesses are defined as those requiring active management after one year, their incidence among unemployed men was over six times that among controls (P<0.001). Cardiovascular disorders were frequently detected in the unemployed men and several of the other chronic complaints they suffered may also have had a psychosomatic aetiology related to stress. The consequent workload in terms of consultations, investigations, referrals, outpatient attendances and drug therapy increased significantly after job loss. More frequent, short-lived illnesses showed continuing downward trends in study and control men. The results suggest that unskilled men face a serious health hazard if made redundant. Investigating and treating their chronic disabilities leads to an increased medical workload and must further burden the health service. PMID:3210181

  4. Low heart rate variability in unemployed men: The possible mediating effects of life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Jandackova, V K; Jackowska, M

    2015-01-01

    Unemployment has consistently been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and premature mortality, and impaired autonomic modulation of the heart might be one mechanism partly explaining this. This study examined whether the possible effect of unemployment on cardiac autonomic modulation is in part mediated by lower psychological well-being. The sample comprised of 15 job-seeking men aged 30-49 years matched with 15 employed men on age, type of job, smoking habits, alcohol intake, frequency of physical activity, and body mass index. Heart rate variability (HRV) during a modified orthostatic test was the measure of cardiac autonomic modulation, and life satisfaction was the measure of psychological well-being. Unemployed men had significantly lower overall HRV (p = .040) than controls. This association was partially mediated through lower general life satisfaction, and in particular, by low financial satisfaction, independently of demographic and/or behavioral factors that influence HRV. These findings suggest that seeking a job is a potential stressor that may reduce overall HRV and contribute towards disturbance of cardiac autonomic modulation in men. Financial difficulties could be one mechanism through which the effects of unemployment are translated into impaired autonomic modulation.

  5. Does Unemployment Lead to Greater Alcohol Consumption?

    PubMed Central

    Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Using panel data from Waves 1 and 2 of the NESARC, we estimate gender-specific effects of changes in employment status on overall alcohol consumption, binge drinking episodes, and a diagnosis of alcohol abuse and/or dependence. We employ various fixed-effects models to address potential bias from unobserved and time-invariant individual heterogeneity. All results show a positive and significant effect of unemployment on drinking behaviors and the findings are robust to numerous sensitivity tests. Perhaps macroeconomic policy decisions intended to stimulate the economy during economic downturns should also consider the avoided personal costs and externalities associated with alcohol misuse. PMID:23543880

  6. Does Unemployment Lead to Greater Alcohol Consumption?

    PubMed

    Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T

    2013-04-01

    Using panel data from Waves 1 and 2 of the NESARC, we estimate gender-specific effects of changes in employment status on overall alcohol consumption, binge drinking episodes, and a diagnosis of alcohol abuse and/or dependence. We employ various fixed-effects models to address potential bias from unobserved and time-invariant individual heterogeneity. All results show a positive and significant effect of unemployment on drinking behaviors and the findings are robust to numerous sensitivity tests. Perhaps macroeconomic policy decisions intended to stimulate the economy during economic downturns should also consider the avoided personal costs and externalities associated with alcohol misuse.

  7. Illegal aliens, unemployment and immigration policy.

    PubMed

    Djajic, S

    1987-02-01

    "This paper develops a simple two-country model of illegal immigration in an attempt to examine the interaction among variables such as the stock of migrant labor, the unemployment rates of the two economies, and the rate of spending by the host country on the enforcement of its immigration restrictions. The focus of the analysis is on the dynamics of immigration policy and on its role in determining the nature of the mechanism by which disturbances to the labor market of one country are transmitted to that of the other in the short run and in the long run."

  8. Promoting Jobfinding Success for the Unemployed. Studies in Employment and Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Harold L.; Belitsky, A. Harvey

    This brief summary of a much larger empirical study presented in the authors' book, "The Job Hunt: Job-Seeking Behavior of Unemployed Workers in a Local Economy," is presented to call wider attention to some of the more unique and critical aspects of the larger report. The original study, conducted in Erie, Pennsylvania in 1964, involved a sample…

  9. Distress and unemployment: the related economic and noneconomic factors in a sample of unemployed adults.

    PubMed

    Frasquilho, Diana; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Marques, Adilson; Gaspar, Tânia; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel

    2016-09-01

    To examine the associations between economic and noneconomic factors and psychological distress in a group of 748 unemployed adults during economic recession. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were used to test the associations between distress and the deprivation of income and latent benefits of employment (time structure, activity, status, collective purpose and social contact). The participants' mean of distress was higher than the national population mean, and 46.5% of the participants scored above that. All economic and noneconomic factors emerged as strong predictors of distress; particularly financial deprivation (OR 1.06; CI 95 % 1.04-1.09) and lack of structured time (OR 1.07; CI 95 % 1.05-1.09). Women (OR 1.40; CI 95 % 1.04-1.86) and people with lower education levels (OR 0.45; CI 95 % 0.34-0.61) were more affected. The unemployed individuals score high on distress, especially those facing financial strain and lack of structured time, and women and individuals with lower education in particular. Given the recessionary context and high unemployment rates, these insights raise awareness for policies and actions targeting the needs of unemployed people.

  10. Unemployment as a source of mental distress to individuals and their family: Unemployed parents' perceptions during the economic recession.

    PubMed

    Frasquilho, Diana; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Santos, Teresa; Gaspar, Tânia; Caldas de Almeida, J M

    2016-08-01

    Due to the economic recession, several people in Europe became unemployed. This situation may risk their mental health. This study explored parents' perceptions about their unemployment's effects in daily life during the recession. A total of 59 unemployed parents (40.7% fathers and 59.3% mothers), ageing 44.4 years (±6.2), answer a question on how the unemployment affected their family lives. Thematic analysis was used to analyse data. The findings suggest that unemployment is a source of adult and youth mental distress and of economic hardship and changes in family relations. Support to unemployed individuals and their families could benefit from these insights when granting the needed financial and socioemotional assistance. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. 20 CFR 325.3 - Application for unemployment benefits and employment service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application for unemployment benefits and... RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.3 Application for unemployment benefits and employment service. (a) Requirement. An unemployed employee who wishes to...

  12. 20 CFR 325.3 - Application for unemployment benefits and employment service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Application for unemployment benefits and... RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.3 Application for unemployment benefits and employment service. (a) Requirement. An unemployed employee who wishes to...

  13. 20 CFR 325.3 - Application for unemployment benefits and employment service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application for unemployment benefits and... RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.3 Application for unemployment benefits and employment service. (a) Requirement. An unemployed employee who wishes to...

  14. 20 CFR 325.3 - Application for unemployment benefits and employment service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Application for unemployment benefits and... RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.3 Application for unemployment benefits and employment service. (a) Requirement. An unemployed employee who wishes to...

  15. 20 CFR 325.3 - Application for unemployment benefits and employment service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for unemployment benefits and... RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.3 Application for unemployment benefits and employment service. (a) Requirement. An unemployed employee who wishes to claim...

  16. The Link between Unemployment and Returns to Education: Evidence from 14 European Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Bernhard A.

    2002-01-01

    Estimates for 14 European countries used three models introducing unemployment, youth unemployment, and unemployment benefits respectively. Differences in unemployment probabilities at different educational levels and youth unemployment both appear to be important for a better understanding of the incentive structure behind educational decisions.…

  17. Suicide and unemployment in Italy, 1982-1994.

    PubMed

    Preti, A; Miotto, P

    1999-11-01

    To investigate whether either the condition of being unemployed, or changes in unemployment rates are associated with suicide risk. Administrative data for suicide according to occupational status have been analysed considering three employment categories: employed, seeking new job (unemployed), seeking first job (never employed). Comparison of suicide rates by economic position and correlation between suicide and unemployment rates have been made. 20,457 deaths by suicide registered in Italy among economically active people from 1982 to 1994. Change over time in suicide rates by economic position; coefficient of aggravation according to occupational status. Suicide rates among the unemployed are clearly and constantly higher than those among the employed: up to three times higher among men, and twice as high among women. Among the unemployed a clear and significant rise in suicide rates in both sexes took place over the study period; suicide rates among the employed showed a less marked increase. The rise in suicide rates was accompanied by a concurrent rise in unemployment rate percentage. Men seem to be affected most by this change in unemployment rate percentage; women are subject to less evident influences and variations. Different suicidal behaviour trends among unemployed compared with employed people indicate that unemployment (and above all the prospect of not having access to a working role) acts as a contributing factor for suicide. Unemployment, even if symptomatic of a mental disorder, should therefore always be taken into consideration as a risk factor for suicide: the potentially lethal consequences of its negative influence on both self esteem and the ability to use supportive networks in a efficient way is an element to which great attention should be paid.

  18. Suicide and unemployment in Italy, 1982-1994

    PubMed Central

    Preti, A.; Miotto, P.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether either the condition of being unemployed, or changes in unemployment rates are associated with suicide risk. DESIGN: Administrative data for suicide according to occupational status have been analysed considering three employment categories: employed, seeking new job (unemployed), seeking first job (never employed). Comparison of suicide rates by economic position and correlation between suicide and unemployment rates have been made. SUBJECTS AND SETTINGS: 20,457 deaths by suicide registered in Italy among economically active people from 1982 to 1994. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Change over time in suicide rates by economic position; coefficient of aggravation according to occupational status. RESULTS: Suicide rates among the unemployed are clearly and constantly higher than those among the employed: up to three times higher among men, and twice as high among women. Among the unemployed a clear and significant rise in suicide rates in both sexes took place over the study period; suicide rates among the employed showed a less marked increase. The rise in suicide rates was accompanied by a concurrent rise in unemployment rate percentage. Men seem to be affected most by this change in unemployment rate percentage; women are subject to less evident influences and variations. CONCLUSION: Different suicidal behaviour trends among unemployed compared with employed people indicate that unemployment (and above all the prospect of not having access to a working role) acts as a contributing factor for suicide. Unemployment, even if symptomatic of a mental disorder, should therefore always be taken into consideration as a risk factor for suicide: the potentially lethal consequences of its negative influence on both self esteem and the ability to use supportive networks in a efficient way is an element to which great attention should be paid.   PMID:10656098

  19. Indicators of Youth Unemployment and Education in Industrialized Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mushkin, Selma J.; Jung, Ann M.

    This is a compilation of data on youth employment, educational services, and incentives which impact on unemployment of youth and generate social costs beyond the costs of unemployment benefits and waste in education. Each of the report's seven sections presents statistical information that can be used to evaluate current practices in…

  20. Youth Unemployment--Time to Do Something About It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    Presented in this summary document are 17 charts and statements concerning youth unemployment. Topics covered include: (1) the ratio of teenage to adult unemployment rates, (2) the population explosion, (3) effects of staying in school, (4) state minimum wage patterns, and (5) the effects of a differential on family income. A recommended course of…

  1. Counseling and Life-Coping Workshops for Unemployed Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA.

    This document consists of the final report and booklet developed by a project that provided individual counseling and life-coping skills workshops to recently unemployed workers lacking basic educational skills. The final report describes how individuals recruited at Philadelphia unemployment offices attended group workshop sessions where they…

  2. Unemployment Duration and Employability in Remote Rural Labour Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Colin; McCracken, Martin; McQuaid, Ronald W.

    2003-01-01

    Surveys of 190 unemployed job seekers and interviews with 17 employers in the remote northern Highlands of Scotland found that the employability of many job seekers, particularly the long-term unemployed, was limited by significant gaps in their skills and work experience, their lack of connection to informal social networks used in job seeking,…

  3. Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion: Incentive Effects on Job-Finding Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filges, Trine; Geerdsen, Lars Pico; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12 studies for final analysis and interpretation.…

  4. The Long-Term Effects of Youth Unemployment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mroz, Thomas A.; Savage, Timothy H.

    2006-01-01

    Using NLSY data, we examine the long-term effects of youth unemployment on later labor market outcomes. Involuntary unemployment may yield suboptimal investments in human capital in the short run. A theoretical model of dynamic human capital investment predicts a rational "catch-up" response. Using semiparametric techniques to control for the…

  5. Unemployment Compensation and Older Workers. Upjohn Institute Staff Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Christopher J.; Wandner, Stephen A.

    Unemployment compensation in the United States is provided through a federal-state system of unemployment insurance (UI). UI provides temporary partial wage replacement to active job seekers who are involuntarily out of work. For older workers, UI is an important source of income security and a potential influence on work incentives. For example,…

  6. Unemployment Insurance. Maintaining the Foundation of Economic Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perspective: Essays and Reviews of Issues in Employment Security and Employment and Training Programs, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This issue of an annual journal contains 18 essays on unemployment insurance (UI) and employment and training programs. Part 1, "Historical Perspective," contains the following papers: "Reflections on Wisconsin and Unemployment Insurance" (Wilbur J. Cohen); "Outstanding Ideas Form UI's Foundation" (Richard Wagner); "One State's Experience: 1939"…

  7. The Unemployment-Inflation Dilemma: A Manpower Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Charles C.; And Others

    Unemployment and inflation pose a trade-off problem with one being employed at the expense of the other, seriously hampering efforts to deal effectively with poverty, crime, pollution, and other domestic problems. When unemployment is high, real income is relatively low so the nation feels that it cannot afford measures to solve these questions.…

  8. Supporting Unemployed, Middle-Aged Men: A Psychoeducational Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, Charlotte M.; Shillingford, M. Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive group counseling approach to support unemployed, middle-aged men. An inclusive group curriculum designed to provide support and address potential mental health issues related to unemployment is introduced. The focus of the group is divided into 6 major areas that research has shown to have a significant impact…

  9. Implications for Counseling the Unemployed in a Recessionary Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shifron, Rachel; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Addresses the implications of recessionary unemployment for the field of counseling, including family counseling, group counseling, and career education. Counseling should focus on maintaining the person's physical and psychological wellness, and teaching coping behavior to prevent temporary unemployment from becoming permanent. (JAC)

  10. Unemployment Compensation and Older Workers. Upjohn Institute Staff Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Christopher J.; Wandner, Stephen A.

    Unemployment compensation in the United States is provided through a federal-state system of unemployment insurance (UI). UI provides temporary partial wage replacement to active job seekers who are involuntarily out of work. For older workers, UI is an important source of income security and a potential influence on work incentives. For example,…

  11. The Effect of Unemployment Insurance on Seasonal Fluctuations in Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpin, Terrence C.

    1979-01-01

    Examines state differences in seasonal variations in employment to see if these differences are linked to state differences in experience-rating strength (balance between unemployment insurance taxes and expected benefit payments). Results suggest that experience-rated unemployment insurance taxes are effective in stablizing employment. (MF)

  12. Rural Underdevelopment: Unemployment and Underemployment in South Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, Thomas L.

    Prepared to provide background for groups concerned with rural development in South Dakota, this paper addresses the nature, extent, and causes of South Dakota's unemployment and underemployment problems. Findings indicate that while South Dakota's unemployment rate (5.4% in 1983) has traditionally been lower and less volatile than the national…

  13. OAK GLEN, A TRAINING CAMP FOR UNEMPLOYED YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHAPMAN, JANE R.

    A TRAINING CAMP FOR UNEMPLOYED YOUTH NEAR RIVERSIDE, CALIFORNIA IS DESCRIBED IN THIS SUMMARY OF A DETAILED REPORT, "AN EVALUATION OF THE CONCEPT OF TRAINEE CAMPS FOR UNEMPLOYED YOUTH," PREPARED BY THE STANFORD RESEARCH INSTITUTE (SRI). YOUTH BETWEEN 16 AND 21 YEARS OF AGE, NOT IN SCHOOL, AND WITH LITTLE CHANCE OF EMPLOYMENT BECAUSE OF…

  14. The Psychological Effects of Unemployment on a Group of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Jim; Davies, Carol

    1984-01-01

    Three groups of 50 adolescents each (those employed since school, those involved in Youth Opportunities Programs YOP!, and those unemployed since school) were administered the Goldberg General Health Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Depression Scale, and two self-esteem inventories. The unemployed youth had lower self-esteem, more psychosomatic…

  15. The Effect of Unemployment Insurance on Seasonal Fluctuations in Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpin, Terrence C.

    1979-01-01

    Examines state differences in seasonal variations in employment to see if these differences are linked to state differences in experience-rating strength (balance between unemployment insurance taxes and expected benefit payments). Results suggest that experience-rated unemployment insurance taxes are effective in stablizing employment. (MF)

  16. Golden Parachutes: Changing the Experience of Unemployment for Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Anya M.; Jackson, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effect of career transition support and three other situational variables--financial reserves, social inclusion, and a partner--on the psychological strain of unemployed managers. We extended the theories of unemployment by investigating the mechanisms by which these four situational variables affect psychological strain. After…

  17. Supporting Unemployed, Middle-Aged Men: A Psychoeducational Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, Charlotte M.; Shillingford, M. Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive group counseling approach to support unemployed, middle-aged men. An inclusive group curriculum designed to provide support and address potential mental health issues related to unemployment is introduced. The focus of the group is divided into 6 major areas that research has shown to have a significant impact…

  18. African American Youth Unemployment: Current Trends and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Herbert M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines African American employment trends compared with increases or decreases in economic growth and Federal welfare spending during the 1970s and 1980s, focusing primarily on unemployment and labor force participation rates among African American youth. Studies the impact of structural unemployment, racial discrimination, and immigration on…

  19. A Study of Factors that Influence Unemployed Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviram, Arie

    2006-01-01

    The following research analyzes, through a field study, several relevant personality traits, or variables, that may be used to help the unemployed by directing them to entrepreneurship. Three sample groups (unemployed, employed, and entrepreneurs) were compared using several intrinsically motivating variables: knowledge, inclination to…

  20. African American Youth Unemployment: Current Trends and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Herbert M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines African American employment trends compared with increases or decreases in economic growth and Federal welfare spending during the 1970s and 1980s, focusing primarily on unemployment and labor force participation rates among African American youth. Studies the impact of structural unemployment, racial discrimination, and immigration on…

  1. Youth Unemployment in Rural Areas. Work and Opportunity Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartmel, Fred; Furlong, Andy

    This study investigated factors leading to employment and unemployment for young people living in urban and rural areas in Scotland. Surveys and interviews were conducted with 817 youths, 40 rural employers, and 25 professionals from across Scotland. Findings include: (1) long-term youth unemployment was less common in rural than in urban areas,…

  2. High Graduate Unemployment Rate and Taiwanese Undergraduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chih-Chun

    2011-01-01

    An expansion in higher education in combination with the recent global economic recession has resulted in a high college graduate unemployment rate in Taiwan. This study investigates how the high unemployment rate and financial constraints caused by economic cutbacks have shaped undergraduates' class choices, job needs, and future income…

  3. Graduate Unemployment in South Africa: Social Inequality Reproduced

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldry, Kim

    2016-01-01

    In this study, I examine the influence of demographic and educational characteristics of South African graduates on their employment/unemployment status. A sample of 1175 respondents who graduated between 2006 and 2012 completed an online survey. Using binary logistic regression, the strongest determinants of unemployment were the graduates' race,…

  4. Employment and Unemployment in 1976. Special Labor Force Report 199.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarzik, Robert W.; St. Marie, Stephen M.

    Changes in employment and unemployment in 1976, presented through the use of statistical data in tabular and chart forms, is the focus of this report. Protection for the unemployed, labor force trends, and persons of Spanish origin are also discussed under separate minor headings. Under the section on employment, the following subsections are…

  5. The Long-Term Effects of Youth Unemployment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mroz, Thomas A.; Savage, Timothy H.

    2006-01-01

    Using NLSY data, we examine the long-term effects of youth unemployment on later labor market outcomes. Involuntary unemployment may yield suboptimal investments in human capital in the short run. A theoretical model of dynamic human capital investment predicts a rational "catch-up" response. Using semiparametric techniques to control for the…

  6. 44 CFR 206.141 - Disaster unemployment assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disaster unemployment assistance. 206.141 Section 206.141 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... § 206.141 Disaster unemployment assistance. The authority to implement the disaster...

  7. 44 CFR 206.141 - Disaster unemployment assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Disaster unemployment assistance. 206.141 Section 206.141 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... § 206.141 Disaster unemployment assistance. The authority to implement the disaster...

  8. 44 CFR 206.141 - Disaster unemployment assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disaster unemployment assistance. 206.141 Section 206.141 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... § 206.141 Disaster unemployment assistance. The authority to implement the disaster...

  9. 44 CFR 206.141 - Disaster unemployment assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disaster unemployment assistance. 206.141 Section 206.141 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... § 206.141 Disaster unemployment assistance. The authority to implement the disaster...

  10. Golden Parachutes: Changing the Experience of Unemployment for Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Anya M.; Jackson, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effect of career transition support and three other situational variables--financial reserves, social inclusion, and a partner--on the psychological strain of unemployed managers. We extended the theories of unemployment by investigating the mechanisms by which these four situational variables affect psychological strain. After…

  11. Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion: Incentive Effects on Job-Finding Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filges, Trine; Geerdsen, Lars Pico; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12 studies for final analysis and interpretation.…

  12. Graduate Unemployment in South Africa: Social Inequality Reproduced

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldry, Kim

    2016-01-01

    In this study, I examine the influence of demographic and educational characteristics of South African graduates on their employment/unemployment status. A sample of 1175 respondents who graduated between 2006 and 2012 completed an online survey. Using binary logistic regression, the strongest determinants of unemployment were the graduates' race,…

  13. Black Youth and the Labor Market: The Unemployment Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gail E.

    This paper examines the current problem of black youth unemployment from a theoretical perspective. Traditional sociological and economic theories applicable to the problems of unemployment and occupational and status achievement are initially reviewed along with empirical studies that have examined some of the major propositions of these…

  14. A Government Policy To Induce Efficient Retraining During Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Velma Montoya

    The government's role in retraining unemployed workers during nonrecession periods should be to subsidize retraining as they subsidize job search by way of the unemployment compensation system. The retraining subsidy should be about the same order of magnitude as the job search subsidy and should be administered by the public employment service…

  15. The Unemployment-Inflation Dilemma: A Manpower Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Charles C.; And Others

    Unemployment and inflation pose a trade-off problem with one being employed at the expense of the other, seriously hampering efforts to deal effectively with poverty, crime, pollution, and other domestic problems. When unemployment is high, real income is relatively low so the nation feels that it cannot afford measures to solve these questions.…

  16. Unemployment Insurance. Maintaining the Foundation of Economic Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perspective: Essays and Reviews of Issues in Employment Security and Employment and Training Programs, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This issue of an annual journal contains 18 essays on unemployment insurance (UI) and employment and training programs. Part 1, "Historical Perspective," contains the following papers: "Reflections on Wisconsin and Unemployment Insurance" (Wilbur J. Cohen); "Outstanding Ideas Form UI's Foundation" (Richard Wagner); "One State's Experience: 1939"…

  17. Hard-Core Unemployment: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Colin, Comp.; Menon, Anila Bhatt, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography contains references to various films, articles, and books on the subject of hard-core unemployment, and is divided into the following sections: (1) The Sociology of the Hard-Core Milieu, (2) Training Programs, (3) Business and the Hard-Core, (4) Citations of Miscellaneous References on Hard-Core Unemployment, (5)…

  18. 75 FR 22630 - Vital Signs Minnesota, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Paid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration Vital Signs Minnesota, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment... separate unemployment insurance (UI) tax account under the name Biomedical Dynamics Corporation... unemployment insurance (UI) wages are paid through Biomedical Dynamics Corporation, including on-site...

  19. 75 FR 52981 - Bluescope Buildings North America, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Reported Through Butler Manufacturing Company, Laurinburg, NC; Amended...Scope Buildings North America had their wages reported through a separate unemployment insurance (UI... America, including workers whose unemployment insurance (UI) wages are reported through Butler...

  20. 77 FR 57595 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Unemployment Compensation for Ex-Servicemembers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for Unemployment... written comments to Scott Gibbons, Office of Unemployment Insurance, Employment and Training... accordance with the same terms and conditions of the paying state's unemployment insurance law which apply to...

  1. Unemployment alters the set point for life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Richard E; Clark, Andrew E; Georgellis, Yannis; Diener, Ed

    2004-01-01

    According to set-point theories of subjective well-being, people react to events but then return to baseline levels of happiness and satisfaction over time. We tested this idea by examining reaction and adaptation to unemployment in a 15-year longitudinal study of more than 24,000 individuals living in Germany. In accordance with set-point theories, individuals reacted strongly to unemployment and then shifted back toward their baseline levels of life satisfaction. However, on average, individuals did not completely return to their former levels of satisfaction, even after they became reemployed. Furthermore, contrary to expectations from adaptation theories, people who had experienced unemployment in the past did not react any less negatively to a new bout of unemployment than did people who had not been previously unemployed. These results suggest that although life satisfaction is moderately stable over time, life events can have a strong influence on long-term levels of subjective well-being.

  2. Social support and self-esteem in unemployed university graduates.

    PubMed

    Lacković-Grgin, K; Deković, M; Milosavljević, B; Cvek-Sorić, I; Opacić, G

    1996-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the length of time of unemployment and the self-esteem and general life satisfaction of university graduates. The second aim was to examine the function of social support during the period of unemployment. The sample consisted of 98 unemployed university graduates (67 females and 31 males). The measure of self-esteem consisted of the adapted Rosenberg scale. The instruments for assessment of general life satisfaction and social support were developed by the authors of this study. Results showed that length of unemployment, contrary to previous findings, was not related to self-esteem and general life satisfaction. Social support of the parents and the partner was associated with higher self-esteem of unemployed university graduates.

  3. [Unemployment, suicide- and homicide-rates in the EU countries].

    PubMed

    Ritter, Kristina; Stompe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    While the link between the unemployment and the national suicide rates is confirmed by various studies, there are few investigations on the impact of unemployment on homicide rates. In particular, it is not known whether suicide and homicide are associated with the same socio-economic factors. Using linear regression method, the influence of unemployment rates, per capita incomes and annual alcohol consumption on suicide and homicide rates was examined in the 27 EU states. We found a positive correlation between suicide and homicide rates. Unemployment among men is a strong predictor not only for suicide- but also for homicide rates. Suicide rates in men are also affected by the annual alcohol consumption. The suicide rates in women, however, correlate neither with socio-economic variables nor with alcohol consumption. Unemployment seems to have a stronger impact on the male than on the female identity. Since the former is still highly dependent on predetermined social roles.

  4. Unemployment and household food hardship in the economic recession.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Kim, Youngmi; Birkenmaier, Julie

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined the association between unemployment and household food insecurity during the 2007-2009 economic recession in the USA. Longitudinal survey of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP; 2008-2011). Food insecurity was measured by five questions excerpted from an eighteen-item Food Security Scale. Unemployment was measured by a dichotomous indicator, the number of job losses and the total duration of all episodes in the observation period. As nationally representative data, the SIPP interviewed respondents in multiple waves with a time interval of four months. The study created two analytic samples including working-age household heads employed at the beginning of the observation period. The size of the two samples was 14,417 and 13,080. Unemployment was positively associated with food insecurity (OR=1.55; 95% CI 1.32, 1.83; P<0.001). Similar results were obtained when the analysis controlled for food insecurity status measured before unemployment (OR=1.54; 95% CI 1.27, 1.88; P<0.001). For households with the same duration of unemployment, one more episode of unemployment increased the odds of food insecurity by 8% (OR=1.08; 95% CI 1.00, 1.18; P<0.001). More in-depth understanding of the relationship between unemployment and food insecurity is useful to better identify and serve the at-risk population. Connecting unemployment assistance closely to nutrition assistance could lower the prevalence of food insecurity among unemployed households. Public policy should better account for both episodes and duration of unemployment to reduce food insecurity.

  5. Short- and long-term effects of unemployment on fertility

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Janet; Schwandt, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Scholars have been examining the relationship between fertility and unemployment for more than a century. Most studies find that fertility falls with unemployment in the short run, but it is not known whether these negative effects persist, because women simply may postpone childbearing to better economic times. Using more than 140 million US birth records for the period 1975–2010, we analyze both the short- and long-run effects of unemployment on fertility. We follow fixed cohorts of US-born women defined by their own state and year of birth, and relate their fertility to the unemployment rate experienced by each cohort at different ages. We focus on conceptions that result in a live birth. We find that women in their early 20s are most affected by high unemployment rates in the short run and that the negative effects on fertility grow over time. A one percentage point increase in the average unemployment rate experienced between the ages of 20 and 24 reduces the short-run fertility of women in this age range by six conceptions per 1,000 women. When we follow these women to age 40, we find that a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate experienced at ages 20–24 leads to an overall loss of 14.2 conceptions. This long-run effect is driven largely by women who remain childless and thus do not have either first births or higher-order births. PMID:25267622

  6. Short- and long-term effects of unemployment on fertility.

    PubMed

    Currie, Janet; Schwandt, Hannes

    2014-10-14

    Scholars have been examining the relationship between fertility and unemployment for more than a century. Most studies find that fertility falls with unemployment in the short run, but it is not known whether these negative effects persist, because women simply may postpone childbearing to better economic times. Using more than 140 million US birth records for the period 1975-2010, we analyze both the short- and long-run effects of unemployment on fertility. We follow fixed cohorts of US-born women defined by their own state and year of birth, and relate their fertility to the unemployment rate experienced by each cohort at different ages. We focus on conceptions that result in a live birth. We find that women in their early 20s are most affected by high unemployment rates in the short run and that the negative effects on fertility grow over time. A one percentage point increase in the average unemployment rate experienced between the ages of 20 and 24 reduces the short-run fertility of women in this age range by six conceptions per 1,000 women. When we follow these women to age 40, we find that a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate experienced at ages 20-24 leads to an overall loss of 14.2 conceptions. This long-run effect is driven largely by women who remain childless and thus do not have either first births or higher-order births.

  7. Childhood Self-Control and Unemployment Throughout the Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Liam; Egan, Mark; Baumeister, Roy F.

    2015-01-01

    The capacity for self-control may underlie successful labor-force entry and job retention, particularly in times of economic uncertainty. Analyzing unemployment data from two nationally representative British cohorts (N = 16,780), we found that low self-control in childhood was associated with the emergence and persistence of unemployment across four decades. On average, a 1-SD increase in self-control was associated with a reduction in the probability of unemployment of 1.4 percentage points after adjustment for intelligence, social class, and gender. From labor-market entry to middle age, individuals with low self-control experienced 1.6 times as many months of unemployment as those with high self-control. Analysis of monthly unemployment data before and during the 1980s recession showed that individuals with low self-control experienced the greatest increases in unemployment during the recession. Our results underscore the critical role of self-control in shaping life-span trajectories of occupational success and in affecting how macroeconomic conditions affect unemployment levels in the population. PMID:25870404

  8. Unemployment and mental health scarring during the life course.

    PubMed

    Strandh, Mattias; Winefield, Anthony; Nilsson, Karina; Hammarström, Anne

    2014-06-01

    There has been little research on the long-term relationship between unemployment experiences and mental health over the life course. This article investigates the relationship between youth unemployment as well as that of unemployment experiences during later periods and mental health at ages 16, 21, 30 and 42 years. The study makes use of the 'Northern Swedish Cohort' (NSC), a 27-year prospective cohort study. The cohort, investigated at ages 16, 18, 21, 30 and 42 years, consisted of all graduates from compulsory school in an industrial town in Sweden. Of the original 1083 participants, 94.3% of those still alive were still participating at the 27-year follow up. Mental health, measured through a three-item index of nervous symptoms, depressive symptoms and sleeping problems, was analysed using a repeated measures linear mixed models approach using ages 16, 21, 30 and 43 years. Unemployment exposure was measured as exposure to at least a 6-month spell during three periods; 18-21, 21-30 and 30-42 years. Youth unemployment was shown to be significantly connected with poorer mental health at all three target ages, 21, 30 and 42 years. Later singular unemployment experiences did not appear to have the same long-term negative effects. There was however an accumulation in poorer mental health among respondents with unemployment experiences during two, and even more so three, of the periods. There are long-term mental health scarring effects of exposure to youth unemployment and multiple exposure to unemployment during the life course. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  9. Unemployment and widespread influenza in America, 1999–2010

    PubMed Central

    Cornwell, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Cornwell B. (2012) Unemployment and widespread influenza in America, 1999–2010. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(1), 63–70. Background  Research shows that unemployment reduces access to health care and vaccines and increases financial difficulty, family conflict, and other sources of stress that are known to suppress immune function. In addition, seasonal unemployment rates parallel seasonal influenza activity. Following a theory that argues that macroeconomic conditions affect population health, this paper examines whether there is an association between monthly unemployment rates and influenza activity. Methods  Data from influenza activity surveillance reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are combined with information from the Bureau of Labor Statistics on state‐level unemployment rates in the U.S. for the flu seasons between 1999 and 2010. Pooled time‐series cross‐section logistic regression analyses are conducted to examine the effect of the unemployment rate on the likelihood of widespread and/or regional influenza activity in the 48 contiguous states throughout this period. A total of 3712 state‐month observations are examined. Results  Net of other factors included in the multivariate regression analysis, a one‐percentage‐point increment in the unemployment rate is associated with between a 7·1% and 37·0% increment in the odds of widespread influenza (Odds ratio = 1·21). Likewise, a one‐percentage‐point increment in the unemployment rate is associated with between a 17·1% and 44·7% increment in the odds of at least regional influenza (Odds ratio = 1·30). Results hold regardless of whether time‐varying state‐level characteristics are included. Conclusions  Higher state‐level unemployment increases the likelihood of regional and widespread influenza activity. PMID:21718460

  10. Report B: 1986 projected population, labor force and unemployment - Delaware

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    Report B, the results of the Population, Labor Force and Unemployment Projections Model, contain current socio-economic indicators. For each geographic area, there is one page of summary/background information followed by three tables. These tables contain the population projections, the labor force projections, and the unemployment projections, respectively. These tables are composed of data for the following racial groups: total population, whites, blacks, and other races. Those who call themselves Hispanics may be covered in any of the last three racial groups. For those geographic areas which have provided more than one labor force and/or unemployment control total, the last two tables will appear more than once.

  11. The Effect of Unemployment on Household Composition and Doubling Up

    PubMed Central

    Wiemers, Emily E.

    2015-01-01

    “Doubling up” (sharing living arrangements) with family and friends is one way in which individuals and families can cope with job loss, but relatively little research has examined the extent to which people use coresidence to weather a spell of unemployment. This project uses data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) to provide evidence on the relationship between household composition and unemployment across working ages, focusing on differences in behavior by educational attainment. Using the SIPP panels, I find that individuals who become unemployed are three times more likely to move in with other people. Moving into shared living arrangements in response to unemployment is not evenly spread across the distribution of educational attainment: it is most prevalent among individuals with the less than a high school diploma and those with at least some college. PMID:25421522

  12. [Informal employment, unemployment and underemployment: a matter of public health].

    PubMed

    García-Ubaque, Juan C; Riaño-Casallas, Martha I; Benavides-Piracón, John A

    2012-06-01

    Unemployment and underemployment are problems that have been studied from the economy and politics points of view. Although public health has taken an approach to this problem, it has been mainly disciplinary, since it has focused on the health effects of the unemployed and underemployed but it has failed to propose alternatives from the public policy to solve this problem. The purpose of this essay is to examine the unemployment as an economic, social and health problem of the population. According to records of diagnosis, we review this situation (which requires different strategies at various levels) including different groups involved and their organizations, the State, companies, trade unions and employers unions, not just people unemployed and underemployed.

  13. Unemployment: Hard-Core or Hard-Shell?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauer, Robert H.

    1972-01-01

    The term hard-core'' makes the unemployed culpable; the term hard shell'' shifts the burden to the employer, and the evidence from the suburban plant indicates that a substantial part of the problem must lie there. (DM)

  14. Factors Affecting Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy in the Unemployed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddy, Luther M., III

    2013-01-01

    Unemployment is, and will likely continue to be, a problem in industrialized nations. Numerous studies have concluded unemployment negatively impacts self-esteem and self-efficacy. Additional studies have shown that unemployed individuals with lower self-esteem and self-efficacy tend to remain unemployed longer than individuals with higher…

  15. A SHARPER LOOK AT UNEMPLOYMENT IN U.S. CITIES AND SLUMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    UNEMPLOYMENT DATA FOR 1965 TO 1966 FOR THE 20 LARGEST UNITED STATES METROPOLITAN AREAS SHOWED WHO THE PEOPLE ARE WHO ARE OUT OF WORK, WHERE THEY ARE, AND WHY THEY ARE UNEMPLOYED. SOME OF THE FINDINGS WERE--(1) A THIRD OF THOSE UNEMPLOYED, ABOUT ONE MILLION PEOPLE, LIVED IN THESE METROPOLITAN AREAS, (2) THE UNEMPLOYMENT RATE IN 10 OF THE AREAS WAS…

  16. Factors Affecting Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy in the Unemployed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddy, Luther M., III

    2013-01-01

    Unemployment is, and will likely continue to be, a problem in industrialized nations. Numerous studies have concluded unemployment negatively impacts self-esteem and self-efficacy. Additional studies have shown that unemployed individuals with lower self-esteem and self-efficacy tend to remain unemployed longer than individuals with higher…

  17. 24 CFR 597.102 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., unemployment and general distress. 597.102 Section 597.102 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating..., unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Pervasive poverty shall be demonstrated by the... component areas of an affluent character. (b) Unemployment. Unemployment shall be demonstrated by: (1)...

  18. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(17)-1 - Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts. 1.501(c... Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts. (a) Requirements for qualification. (1) A supplemental unemployment... the purpose of providing supplemental unemployment compensation benefits (as defined in section...

  19. 20 CFR 601.2 - Approval of State unemployment compensation laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Approval of State unemployment compensation... unemployment compensation laws. States may at their option submit their unemployment compensation laws for... Employment and Training Administration (ETA), one copy of the State unemployment compensation law...

  20. 24 CFR 597.102 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., unemployment and general distress. 597.102 Section 597.102 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating..., unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Pervasive poverty shall be demonstrated by the... component areas of an affluent character. (b) Unemployment. Unemployment shall be demonstrated by: (1)...

  1. 20 CFR 601.2 - Approval of State unemployment compensation laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Approval of State unemployment compensation... unemployment compensation laws. States may at their option submit their unemployment compensation laws for... Employment and Training Administration (ETA), one copy of the State unemployment compensation law...

  2. 20 CFR 323.2 - Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... unemployment or sickness insurance. 323.2 Section 323.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT NONGOVERNMENTAL PLANS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT OR SICKNESS INSURANCE § 323.2 Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance....

  3. Are There Geographical Variations in the Psychological Cost of Unemployment in South Africa?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powdthavee, Nattavudh

    2007-01-01

    Are certain groups of unemployed individuals hurt less by unemployment than others? This paper is an attempt to test the hypothesis that non-pecuniary costs of unemployment may vary between societies with different unemployment rates. Using cross-sectional data from the SALDRU93 survey, I show that households' perceptions of life satisfaction are…

  4. 20 CFR 601.2 - Approval of State unemployment compensation laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Approval of State unemployment compensation... unemployment compensation laws. States may at their option submit their unemployment compensation laws for... Employment and Training Administration (ETA), one copy of the State unemployment compensation law...

  5. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(17)-1 - Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts. 1.501(c... Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts. (a) Requirements for qualification. (1) A supplemental unemployment... the purpose of providing supplemental unemployment compensation benefits (as defined in section...

  6. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(17)-1 - Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts. 1.501(c... Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts. (a) Requirements for qualification. (1) A supplemental unemployment... the purpose of providing supplemental unemployment compensation benefits (as defined in section...

  7. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(17)-1 - Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts. 1.501... Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts. (a) Requirements for qualification. (1) A supplemental unemployment... the purpose of providing supplemental unemployment compensation benefits (as defined in section...

  8. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(17)-1 - Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts. 1.501... Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts. (a) Requirements for qualification. (1) A supplemental unemployment... the purpose of providing supplemental unemployment compensation benefits (as defined in section...

  9. 20 CFR 601.2 - Approval of State unemployment compensation laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Approval of State unemployment compensation... unemployment compensation laws. States may at their option submit their unemployment compensation laws for... Employment and Training Administration (ETA), one copy of the State unemployment compensation law...

  10. Transitions to Long-Term Unemployment Risk among Young People: Evidence from Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Elish; McGuinness, Seamus; O'Connell, Philip J.

    2012-01-01

    Many young people have short spells of unemployment during their transition from school to work; however, some often get trapped in unemployment and risk becoming long-term unemployed. Much research has been undertaken on the factors that influence unemployment risk for young people during their school-to-work transition. However, very little is…

  11. Are There Geographical Variations in the Psychological Cost of Unemployment in South Africa?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powdthavee, Nattavudh

    2007-01-01

    Are certain groups of unemployed individuals hurt less by unemployment than others? This paper is an attempt to test the hypothesis that non-pecuniary costs of unemployment may vary between societies with different unemployment rates. Using cross-sectional data from the SALDRU93 survey, I show that households' perceptions of life satisfaction are…

  12. 76 FR 68790 - Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2011 Under the Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2011 Under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act AGENCY... annual certifications under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act, 26 U.S.C. 3301 et seq., thereby enabling employers who make contributions to state unemployment funds to obtain certain credits against their...

  13. 20 CFR 323.2 - Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... unemployment or sickness insurance. 323.2 Section 323.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT NONGOVERNMENTAL PLANS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT OR SICKNESS INSURANCE § 323.2 Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance. A...

  14. Transitions to Long-Term Unemployment Risk among Young People: Evidence from Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Elish; McGuinness, Seamus; O'Connell, Philip J.

    2012-01-01

    Many young people have short spells of unemployment during their transition from school to work; however, some often get trapped in unemployment and risk becoming long-term unemployed. Much research has been undertaken on the factors that influence unemployment risk for young people during their school-to-work transition. However, very little is…

  15. 75 FR 68001 - Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2010 under the Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2010 under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act AGENCY... annual certifications under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act, 26 U.S.C. 3301 et seq., thereby enabling employers who make contributions to state unemployment funds to obtain certain credits against their...

  16. Outdoor NOx and stroke mortality: adjusting for small area level smoking prevalence using a Bayesian approach.

    PubMed

    Maheswaran, Ravi; Haining, Robert P; Pearson, Tim; Law, Jane; Brindley, Paul; Best, Nicola G

    2006-10-01

    There is increasing evidence, mainly from daily time series studies, linking air pollution and stroke. Small area level geographical correlation studies offer another means of examining the air pollution-stroke association. Populations within small areas may be more homogeneous than those within larger areal units, and census-based socioeconomic information may be available to adjust for confounding effects. Data on smoking from health surveys may be incorporated in spatial analyses to adjust for potential confounding effects but may be sparse at the small area level. Smoothing, using data from neighbouring areas, may be used to increase the precision of smoking prevalence estimates for small areas. We examined the effect of modelled outdoor NOx levels on stroke mortality using a Bayesian hierarchical spatial model to incorporate random effects, in order to allow for unmeasured confounders and to acknowledge sampling error in the estimation of smoking prevalence. We observed an association between NOx and stroke mortality after taking into account random effects at the small area level. We found no association between smoking prevalence and stroke mortality at the small area level after modelling took into account imprecision in estimating smoking prevalence. The approach we used to incorporate smoking as a covariate in a single large model is conceptually sound, though it made little difference to the substantive results.

  17. High local unemployment rates limit work after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nau, Michael; Shrider, Emily A; Tobias, Joseph D; Hayes, Don; Tumin, Dmitry

    2016-10-01

    Most lung transplant (LTx) recipients recover sufficient functional status to resume working, yet unemployment is common after LTx. Weak local labor markets may limit employment opportunities for LTx recipients. United Network for Organ Sharing data on first-time LTx recipients 18-60 years old who underwent transplant between 2010 and 2014 were linked to American Community Survey data on unemployment rates at the ZIP Code level. Multivariable competing-risks regression modeled the influence of dichotomous (≥8%) and continuous local unemployment rates on employment after LTx, accounting for the competing risk of mortality. For comparison, analyses were duplicated in a cohort of heart transplant (HTx) recipients who underwent transplant during the same period. The analysis included 3,897 LTx and 5,577 HTx recipients. Work after LTx was reported by 300 (16.3%) residents of low-unemployment areas and 244 (11.9%) residents of high-unemployment areas (p < 0.001). Multivariable analysis of 3,626 LTx recipients with complete covariate data found that high local unemployment rates limited employment after LTx (sub-hazard ratio = 0.605; 95% confidence interval = 0.477, 0.768; p < 0.001), conditional on not working before transplant. Employment after HTx was higher compared with employment after LTx, and not associated with local unemployment rates in multivariable analyses. LTx recipients of working age exhibit exceptionally low employment rates. High local unemployment rates exacerbate low work participation after LTx, and may discourage job search in this population. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Parents' unemployment, selected life conditions, adolescents' wellbeing and perceived health].

    PubMed

    Supranowicz, Piotr

    2005-01-01

    Unemployment in Poland is one of the most negative outcomes of the economical transformations taking place in the last decade of the XX and first years of the XXI century. Therefore, the study on an influence of parents' unemployment upon adolescents' life conditions and health was undertaken in Health Promotion and Postgraduate Training Department of the National Institute of Hygiene. The data were collected from randomly selected sample of 783 students aged 14-15 years attending to ten private and public secondary schools (gymnasiums) in Warsaw. A part of the questionnaire elaborated in Health Promotion and Postgraduate Department covered information about negative life events, which had occurred in the previous year, also about a loss of the job by father or mother. The self-assessment of health, and physical and psychical wellbeing measured the perceived health. The study showed that significantly higher percentage of the students, whose father or mother had lost a job in the previous year, noticed also occurrence of father and mother health disorders, lack of support from father and mother, frequent quarrels between parents, too much of home duties, worsening a housing conditions, lack of possibilities to travel away on vacation and lack of own money. The differences were higher, if both the parents were unemployed. Moreover, the children of unemployed parents significantly lower assessed their health, and physical and psychical wellbeing. It is necessary to help immediately the students, whose parents are unemployed, with financial and psychological support in frame of the programmes of unemployment overcoming.

  19. Unemployment Rate, Smoking in China: Are They Related?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing; Shen, Jay J.; Cochran, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies on the relationship between unemployment rate and smoking have yielded mixed results. The issue in China has not been studied. This study aims to examine the influence of unemployment rate on smoking in China. Methods: Logit model and two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimation were used to estimate the effects. Estimations were done for 4585 individual over 45 using data from China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study conducted in Zhejiang and Gansu provinces in 2008 and 2012. Results: A percent increase in the unemployment rate resulted in the increase in the likelihood of smoking by a combined 9.1 percent for those who smoked including a 2.9% increase for those who smoked 1–10 cigarettes per day; a 2.8% increase for those who smoked 11–20 cigarettes per day; and a 3.4% increase for those who smoked 20 cigarettes or more per day. The effects were stronger for those who were employed. Non-drinkers were more likely to engage in smoking with increased unemployment rate. 2SLS estimation revealed the same association. Conclusions: The unemployment rate was positively associated with smoking behavior. Smoking control and intervention strategies should focus on both the individual′s characteristics and the physical environment in which unemployment rate tend to rise. PMID:26761019

  20. Unemployment Rate, Smoking in China: Are They Related?

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Shen, Jay J; Cochran, Chris

    2016-01-08

    Studies on the relationship between unemployment rate and smoking have yielded mixed results. The issue in China has not been studied. This study aims to examine the influence of unemployment rate on smoking in China. Logit model and two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimation were used to estimate the effects. Estimations were done for 4585 individual over 45 using data from China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study conducted in Zhejiang and Gansu provinces in 2008 and 2012. A percent increase in the unemployment rate resulted in the increase in the likelihood of smoking by a combined 9.1 percent for those who smoked including a 2.9% increase for those who smoked 1-10 cigarettes per day; a 2.8% increase for those who smoked 11-20 cigarettes per day; and a 3.4% increase for those who smoked 20 cigarettes or more per day. The effects were stronger for those who were employed. Non-drinkers were more likely to engage in smoking with increased unemployment rate. 2SLS estimation revealed the same association. The unemployment rate was positively associated with smoking behavior. Smoking control and intervention strategies should focus on both the individual's characteristics and the physical environment in which unemployment rate tend to rise.

  1. Gender differences in the effect of unemployment on psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Ensminger, M E; Celentano, D D

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we examine whether unemployment has a differential impact on the expression of psychological distress among men and women. Based on the traditional centrality of the work role to men and the family role to women, we defined several key domains that might affect unemployed men and women differentially: family circumstances, concerns and worries about children and family; coping responses; social support and social integration; and the centrality of the work role. While the study population either were or hoped to be in the labor force and had dependent children, they varied in their marital status and whether they were the custodial parent. Using data collected in Baltimore from those who had been unemployed but had returned to work, those who had remained continuously unemployed for a year, and those who had been continuously employed, we compared the patterns of men's and women's reactions to unemployment. The important differences in psychological symptoms in this population were related to employment status, problems with parenting, financial difficulties, perceived lack of social support, hostility, and feelings about unemployment. By and large, the patterns of these relationships were similar for men and women. These findings suggest that when gender differences in psychological distress are found they may be due to differences in role configurations of men and women rather than intrinsic gender differences.

  2. A picture for the coupling of unemployment and inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safdari, H.; Hosseiny, A.; Vasheghani Farahani, S.; Jafari, G. R.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this article is to illustrate the scaling features of two well heard characters in the media; unemployment and inflation. We carry out a scaling analysis on the coupling between unemployment and inflation. This work is based on the wavelet analysis as well as the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Through our analysis we state that while unemployment is time scale invariant, inflation is bi-scale. We show that inflation possess a five year time scale where it experiences different behaviours before and after this scale period. This behaviour of inflation provides basis for the coupling to inherit the stated time interval. Although inflation is bi-scale, it is unemployment that shows a strong multifractality feature. Owing to the cross wavelet analysis we provide a picture that illustrates the dynamics of coupling between unemployment and inflation regarding intensity, direction, and scale. The fact of the matter is that the coupling between inflation and unemployment is not equal in one way compared to the opposite. Regarding the scaling; coupling exhibits different features in various scales. In a sense that although in one scale its correlation behaves in a positive/negative manner, at the same time it can be negative/positive for another scale.

  3. Between unemployment and employment: experience of unemployed long-term pain sufferers.

    PubMed

    Glavare, Maria; Löfgren, Monika; Schult, Marie-Louise

    2012-01-01

    This study explored and analysed how patients experienced possibilities for, and barriers to, work return after participation in a multi-professional pain-rehabilitation program followed by a coached work-training program (CWT). Eleven informants (8 women/3 men) with long-term musculoskeletal pain who had participated in the CWT program for 4-21 months (mean=11) comprised the study. A qualitative emergent design was used. Data collected with interviews were analysed using the constant comparison method of grounded theory. Triangulation in researchers were used. The analyses of the interviews resulted in the development of a three-category theoretical model, which was named "a way back to work". The main category "Experience of a way back to work" consisted of the informants' experience during the process between unemployment and employment. The category "Support" describes the help the informants received from various actors, and the category "Negative response" describes negative responses from the actors involved, which was an important barrier in the process between unemployment and employment. Professional individualised support, participants feeling involved in their rehabilitation process, coaching at real workplaces and multi-professional team including health care personnel, were valuable during the process towards work.

  4. Inequalities in US Life Expectancy by Area Unemployment Level, 1990–2010

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gopal K.; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between unemployment and life expectancy in the United States during 1990–2010. Census-based unemployment rates were linked to US county-level mortality data. Life expectancies were calculated by age, sex, race, and unemployment level during 1990–2010. Differences in life expectancy were decomposed by age and cause of death. Life expectancy was consistently lower in areas with higher unemployment rates. In 2006–2010, those in areas with high unemployment rates (≥9%) had a life expectancy of 76.9 years, compared with 80.7 years for those in areas with low unemployment rates (<3%). The association between unemployment and life expectancy was stronger for men than for women. Life expectancy ranged from 69.9 years among black men in high unemployment areas to 90.0 years among Asian/Pacific Islander women in low unemployment areas. Disparities persisted over time. In 1990–1992, life expectancy was 4.7 years shorter in high unemployment than in low unemployment areas. In 2006–2010, the life expectancy difference between the lowest and highest unemployment areas decreased to 3.8 years. Heart disease, cancer, homicide, unintentional injuries, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and liver cirrhosis contributed most to the lower life expectancy in high unemployment areas. High unemployment areas recorded larger gains in life expectancy than low unemployment areas, contributing to the narrowing gap during 1990–2010. PMID:27073716

  5. Inequalities in US Life Expectancy by Area Unemployment Level, 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gopal K; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between unemployment and life expectancy in the United States during 1990-2010. Census-based unemployment rates were linked to US county-level mortality data. Life expectancies were calculated by age, sex, race, and unemployment level during 1990-2010. Differences in life expectancy were decomposed by age and cause of death. Life expectancy was consistently lower in areas with higher unemployment rates. In 2006-2010, those in areas with high unemployment rates (≥9%) had a life expectancy of 76.9 years, compared with 80.7 years for those in areas with low unemployment rates (<3%). The association between unemployment and life expectancy was stronger for men than for women. Life expectancy ranged from 69.9 years among black men in high unemployment areas to 90.0 years among Asian/Pacific Islander women in low unemployment areas. Disparities persisted over time. In 1990-1992, life expectancy was 4.7 years shorter in high unemployment than in low unemployment areas. In 2006-2010, the life expectancy difference between the lowest and highest unemployment areas decreased to 3.8 years. Heart disease, cancer, homicide, unintentional injuries, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and liver cirrhosis contributed most to the lower life expectancy in high unemployment areas. High unemployment areas recorded larger gains in life expectancy than low unemployment areas, contributing to the narrowing gap during 1990-2010.

  6. Attenuating the Negative Impact of Unemployment: The Interactive Effects of Perceived Emotional Intelligence and Well-Being on Suicide Risk.

    PubMed

    Extremera, Natalio; Rey, Lourdes

    A growing body of research has demonstrated that deficits in well-being may be related to increased suicide risk, but there is only a limited number of studies that have focused on specific protective factors that can serve as a buffer against suicidal ideation and behaviours. Given that unemployment may be a factor leading to increased risk for suicide, this study assessed whether perceived EI might be a potential moderator in the relationship between life satisfaction/happiness and suicidal behaviours in a relatively large sample of unemployed individuals. Participants were 1125 unemployed (506 men and 619 women) who completed satisfaction with life and happiness questionnaires, the Suicidal Behaviours Questionnaire and the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Test. Consistent with the interaction hypothesis, lower scores in life satisfaction and happiness were associated with higher levels of current suicidal behaviours, and perceived EI scores moderated these relationships. Interventions targeting well-being via the promotion of emotional abilities may be useful in the prevention of suicidal ideation in the unemployed. The implications for these findings for research and practice are discussed.

  7. Attenuating the Negative Impact of Unemployment: The Interactive Effects of Perceived Emotional Intelligence and Well-Being on Suicide Risk

    PubMed Central

    Extremera, Natalio; Rey, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of research has demonstrated that deficits in well-being may be related to increased suicide risk, but there is only a limited number of studies that have focused on specific protective factors that can serve as a buffer against suicidal ideation and behaviours. Given that unemployment may be a factor leading to increased risk for suicide, this study assessed whether perceived EI might be a potential moderator in the relationship between life satisfaction/happiness and suicidal behaviours in a relatively large sample of unemployed individuals. Participants were 1125 unemployed (506 men and 619 women) who completed satisfaction with life and happiness questionnaires, the Suicidal Behaviours Questionnaire and the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Test. Consistent with the interaction hypothesis, lower scores in life satisfaction and happiness were associated with higher levels of current suicidal behaviours, and perceived EI scores moderated these relationships. Interventions targeting well-being via the promotion of emotional abilities may be useful in the prevention of suicidal ideation in the unemployed. The implications for these findings for research and practice are discussed. PMID:27685996

  8. Unemployment in the Defense Industry: An Analysis of the Unemployed Worker's Job Search Strategy and the Manpower Policies of the Firm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, James Hickman, Jr.

    The unemployment problem in the defense industry has often had the attention of Federal policy makers over the past several years. Analyzing this problem was accomplished by first examining the job search behavior of skilled unemployed defense workers. This search strategy differs among the unemployed workers and depends on personal…

  9. Out of Unemployment? A Comparative Analysis of the Risks and Opportunities Longer-Term Unemployed Immigrant Youth Face when Entering the Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmberg-Heimonen, Ira; Julkunen, Ilse

    2006-01-01

    Because of high unemployment rates among youth in Europe, comparative research has focused on identification of those risks and opportunities associated with the integration process from unemployment to work. The integration process of immigrant youth, however, received much less attention, despite their initially higher risk of unemployment than…

  10. The New Jersey Unemployment Insurance Reemployment Demonstration Project: Six-Year Follow-up and Summary Report. Revised Edition. Unemployment Insurance Occasional Paper 96-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, Walter; Haimson, Joshua

    The New Jersey Unemployment Insurance Reemployment Demonstration Project was undertaken to examine the feasibility of using the unemployment insurance (UI) system to identify displaced workers early in their unemployment spells and then accelerating their return to work by providing them with alternative, early intervention services. Three…

  11. Do Alternative Base Periods Increase Unemployment Insurance Receipt among Low-Educated Unemployed Workers? National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #12-19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould-Werth, Alix; Shaefer, H. Luke

    2012-01-01

    Unemployment Insurance (UI) is the major social insurance program that protects against lost earnings resulting from involuntary unemployment. Existing literature finds that low-earning unemployed workers experience difficulty accessing UI benefits. The most prominent policy reform designed to increase rates of monetary eligibility, and thus UI…

  12. Out of Unemployment? A Comparative Analysis of the Risks and Opportunities Longer-Term Unemployed Immigrant Youth Face when Entering the Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmberg-Heimonen, Ira; Julkunen, Ilse

    2006-01-01

    Because of high unemployment rates among youth in Europe, comparative research has focused on identification of those risks and opportunities associated with the integration process from unemployment to work. The integration process of immigrant youth, however, received much less attention, despite their initially higher risk of unemployment than…

  13. Individual and area-level socioeconomic associations with fast food purchasing.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Lukar E; Bentley, Rebecca J; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2011-10-01

    It has been suggested that those with lower socioeconomic characteristics would be more likely to seek energy-dense food options such as fast food because of cheaper prices; however, to date the evidence has been inconsistent. This study examines both individual- and area-level socioeconomic characteristics and their independent associations with chain-brand fast food purchasing. Data from the 2003 Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments Study (VicLANES); a multilevel study of 2,547 adults from 49 small-areas in Melbourne, Australia, were used. Multilevel multinomial models adjusted for confounders were used to assess associations between individual socioeconomic position (education, occupation and income) and area socioeconomic characteristics in relation to fast food purchasing from five major fast food chains with outcome categories: never, at least monthly and at least weekly. The study finally assessed whether any potential area-level associations were mediated by fast food access. Increased fast food purchasing was independently associated with lower education, being a blue-collar employee and decreased household income. Results for area-level disadvantage were marginally insignificant after adjustment for individual-level characteristics, although they were suggestive that living in an area with greater levels of disadvantage increased an individual's odds of more frequent fast food purchasing. This effect was further attenuated when measures of fast food restaurant access were included in the models. Independent effects of lower individual-level socioeconomic characteristics and more frequent fast food purchasing for home consumption are demonstrated. Although evidence was suggestive of an independent association with area-level disadvantage this did not reach statistical significance.

  14. Duration on unemployment: geographic mobility and selectivity bias.

    PubMed

    Goss, E P; Paul, C; Wilhite, A

    1994-01-01

    Modeling the factors affecting the duration of unemployment was found to be influenced by the inclusion of migration factors. Traditional models which did not control for migration factors were found to underestimate movers' probability of finding an acceptable job. The empirical test of the theory, based on the analysis of data on US household heads unemployed in 1982 and employed in 1982 and 1983, found that the cumulative probability of reemployment in the traditional model was .422 and in the migration selectivity model was .624 after 30 weeks of searching. In addition, controlling for selectivity eliminated the significance of the relationship between race and job search duration in the model. The relationship between search duration and the county unemployment rate in 1982 became statistically significant, and the relationship between search duration and 1980 population per square mile in the 1982 county of residence became statistically insignificant. The finding that non-Whites have a longer duration of unemployment can better be understood as non-Whites' lower geographic mobility and lack of greater job contacts. The statistical significance of a high unemployment rate in the home labor market reducing the probability of finding employment was more in keeping with expectations. The findings assumed that the duration of employment accurately reflected the length of job search. The sample was redrawn to exclude discouraged workers and the analysis was repeated. The findings were similar to the full sample, with the coefficient for migration variable being negative and statistically significant and the coefficient for alpha remaining positive and statistically significant. Race in the selectivity model remained statistically insignificant. The findings supported the Schwartz model hypothesizing that the expansion of the radius of the search would reduce the duration of unemployment. The exclusion of the migration factor misspecified the equation for

  15. The Great Recession and America's Geography of Unemployment.

    PubMed

    Thiede, Brian C; Monnat, Shannon M

    2016-01-01

    The Great Recession of 2007-2009 was the most severe and lengthy economic crisis in the U.S. since the Great Depression. The impacts on the population were multi-dimensional, but operated largely through local labor markets. To examine differences in recession-related changes in county unemployment rates and assess how population and place characteristics shaped these patterns. We calculate and decompose Theil Indexes to describe recession-related changes in the distribution of unemployment rates between counties and states. We use exploratory spatial statistics to identify geographic clusters of counties that experienced similar changes in unemployment. We use spatial regression to evaluate associations between county-level recession impacts on unemployment and demographic composition, industrial structure, and state context. The recession was associated with increased inequality between county labor markets within states, but declining between-state differences. Counties that experienced disproportionate recession-related increases in unemployment were spatially clustered and characterized by large shares of historically disadvantaged racial and ethnic minority populations, low educational attainment, and heavy reliance on pro-cyclical industries. Associations between these sources of vulnerability were partially explained by unobserved state-level factors. The local consequences of macroeconomic trends are associated with county population characteristics, as well as the structural contexts and policy environments in which they are embedded. The recession placed upward pressure on within-state inequality between local labor market conditions. To present new estimates of the recession's impact on local labor markets, quantify how heterogeneous impacts affected the distribution of unemployment prevalence, and identify county characteristics associated with disproportionately large recession-related increases in unemployment.

  16. The Great Recession and America’s Geography of Unemployment

    PubMed Central

    Thiede, Brian C.; Monnat, Shannon M.

    2017-01-01

    Background The Great Recession of 2007–2009 was the most severe and lengthy economic crisis in the U.S. since the Great Depression. The impacts on the population were multi-dimensional, but operated largely through local labor markets. Objective To examine differences in recession-related changes in county unemployment rates and assess how population and place characteristics shaped these patterns. Methods We calculate and decompose Theil Indexes to describe recession-related changes in the distribution of unemployment rates between counties and states. We use exploratory spatial statistics to identify geographic clusters of counties that experienced similar changes in unemployment. We use spatial regression to evaluate associations between county-level recession impacts on unemployment and demographic composition, industrial structure, and state context. Results The recession was associated with increased inequality between county labor markets within states, but declining between-state differences. Counties that experienced disproportionate recession-related increases in unemployment were spatially clustered and characterized by large shares of historically disadvantaged racial and ethnic minority populations, low educational attainment, and heavy reliance on pro-cyclical industries. Associations between these sources of vulnerability were partially explained by unobserved state-level factors. Conclusions The local consequences of macroeconomic trends are associated with county population characteristics, as well as the structural contexts and policy environments in which they are embedded. The recession placed upward pressure on within-state inequality between local labor market conditions. Contribution To present new estimates of the recession’s impact on local labor markets, quantify how heterogeneous impacts affected the distribution of unemployment prevalence, and identify county characteristics associated with disproportionately large recession

  17. [Use of area-level socioeconomic indicators in epidemiological research: experience in Spain and advancement opportunities].

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Berjón, María Felicitas; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Esnaola, Santiago; Prieto-Salceda, María Dolores; Duque, Ignacio; Rodrigo, María Pilar

    2014-01-01

    To determine the use of area-level socioeconomic indicators in epidemiological studies in Spain. We included studies analyzing the association of area-level socioeconomic indicators and health indicators in Spain published in peer-reviewed journals. An electronic search was conducted in PubMed-Medline, SCI-Expanded, SSCI, Embase, and the Spanish Medical Index (until December 31, 2012). A manual search was also conducted of the references of the selected studies. Each of the articles initially selected on the basis of the title and abstract was reviewed by two investigators. Information was obtained on the publication and methodology (design and study areas, information sources, health and socioeconomic indicators, and statistical analysis). We included 142 studies published since 1988 (58.4% since 2005). More than half (59.9%) were in English. The level of analysis was ecological in 73.2% and multilevel in 19.0%. The areas most frequently analyzed were census tracts (35 studies), especially within cities or autonomous regions, followed by the provinces (30 studies), mostly concerning Spain overall. The dependent variable most frequently analyzed was mortality and the socioeconomic dimension most commonly used was employment (71.1%). In the last decade in Spain, there has been an increase in the number of studies examining the association of area-level socioeconomic and health indicators, as well as in the complexity of design and analysis. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Neurocognitive deficits are associated with unemployment in chronic methamphetamine users

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Erica; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Iudicello, Jennfer E.; Morgan, Erin E.; Grant, Igor; Moore, David J.; Woods, Steven Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background Unemployment rates are high among chronic methamphetamine (MA) users and carry a significant economic burden, yet little is known about the neurocognitive and psychiatric predictors of employment in this vulnerable population. Methods The present study examined this issue in 63 participants with recent MA dependence and 47 comparison subjects without histories of MA use disorders. All participants completed a comprehensive neurocognitive, psychiatric and neuromedical evaluation. Individuals with HIV infection, severe neuropsychological or psychiatric conditions that might affect cognition (e.g., seizure disorder, schizophrenia), or a positive Breathalyzer or urine toxicology screen on the day of testing were excluded. Results Consistent with previous research, a logistic regression revealed MA dependence as a significant, independent predictor of full-time unemployment status. Within the MA-dependent sample, greater impairment in global neurocognitive functioning and history of injection drug use emerged as significant independent predictors of unemployment status. The association between worse global cognitive functioning and unemployment was primarily driven by deficits in executive functions, learning, verbal fluency, and working memory. Conclusion These findings indicate that neurocognitive deficits play a significant role in the higher unemployment rates of MA-dependent individuals, and highlight the need for vocational rehabilitation and supported employment programs that assess and bolster cognitive skills in this population. PMID:22560676

  19. Neurocognitive deficits are associated with unemployment in chronic methamphetamine users.

    PubMed

    Weber, Erica; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Iudicello, Jennfer E; Morgan, Erin E; Grant, Igor; Moore, David J; Woods, Steven Paul

    2012-09-01

    Unemployment rates are high among chronic methamphetamine (MA) users and carry a significant economic burden, yet little is known about the neurocognitive and psychiatric predictors of employment in this vulnerable population. The present study examined this issue in 63 participants with recent MA dependence and 47 comparison subjects without histories of MA use disorders. All participants completed a comprehensive neurocognitive, psychiatric and neuromedical evaluation. Individuals with HIV infection, severe neuropsychological or psychiatric conditions that might affect cognition (e.g., seizure disorder, schizophrenia), or a positive Breathalyzer or urine toxicology screen on the day of testing were excluded. Consistent with previous research, a logistic regression revealed MA dependence as a significant, independent predictor of full-time unemployment status. Within the MA-dependent sample, greater impairment in global neurocognitive functioning and history of injection drug use emerged as significant independent predictors of unemployment status. The association between worse global cognitive functioning and unemployment was primarily driven by deficits in executive functions, learning, verbal fluency, and working memory. These findings indicate that neurocognitive deficits play a significant role in the higher unemployment rates of MA-dependent individuals, and highlight the need for vocational rehabilitation and supported employment programs that assess and bolster cognitive skills in this population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Unemployment Among Mexican Immigrant Men in the United States, 2003 – 2012

    PubMed Central

    Laird, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Based on their socioeconomic characteristics, Mexican immigrant men should have very high un-employment. More than half do not have a high school diploma. One in four works in construction; at the height of the recent recession, 20% of construction workers were unemployed. Yet their unemployment rates are similar to those of native-born white men. After controlling for education and occupation, Mexican immigrant men have lower probabilities of unemployment than native-born white men – both before and during the recent recession. I consider explanations based on eligibility for unemployment benefits, out-migrant selection for unemployment, and employer preferences for Mexican immigrant labor. PMID:25432614

  1. Unemployment among Mexican immigrant men in the United States, 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Laird, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Based on their socioeconomic characteristics, Mexican immigrant men should have very high unemployment. More than half do not have a high school diploma. One in four works in construction; at the height of the recent recession, 20% of construction workers were unemployed. Yet their unemployment rates are similar to those of native-born white men. After controlling for education and occupation, Mexican immigrant men have lower probabilities of unemployment than native-born white men - both before and during the recent recession. I consider explanations based on eligibility for unemployment benefits, out-migrant selection for unemployment, and employer preferences for Mexican immigrant labor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Unemployment and crime: A neighborhood level panel data approach.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Martin A

    2012-11-01

    Twenty-five years ago, David Cantor and Kenneth Land presented a model of the relationship between unemployment and crime. This model showed the complexity of this seemingly simple relationship. Namely, there are two independent and counteracting effects from unemployment that affect crime: motivation and guardianship. In their analysis, Cantor and Land found that the guardianship effect dominates the motivation effect, but subsequent research has questioned this result. In this paper, the unemployment and crime relationship is tested using a neighborhood level hybrid modeling approach. Such a method allows for the nuances of Cantor and Land's model to be tested at a fine ecological resolution for the first time. It is found that both motivation and guardianship matter for crime, but at different time frames: motivation matters in the long-run whereas guardianship matters in the short-run, similar to what Cantor and Land hypothesized.

  3. Area-level socioeconomic disadvantage and suicidal behaviour in Europe: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Joanne-Marie; Graham, Eva; Bambra, Clare

    2017-09-23

    The relationship between adverse individual socio-economic circumstances and suicidal behaviour is well established. However, the impact of adverse collective circumstances - such as the socio-economic context where people live - is less well understood. This systematic review explores the extent to which area-level socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with inequalities in suicidal behaviour and self-harm in Europe. We performed a systematic review (in MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, EconLit and Social Sciences Citation Index) from 2005 to 2015. Observational studies were included if they were based in Europe and had a primary suicidal behaviour and self-harm outcome, compared at least two areas, included an area-level measure of socio-economic disadvantage and were published in the English language. The review followed The Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines for quality appraisal. We identified 27 studies (30 papers) from 14 different European countries. There was a significant association (in 25/27 studies, all of which were rated as of medium or high quality) between socioeconomic disadvantage and suicidal behaviour (and self-harm), particularly for men, and this was a consistent finding across a variety of European countries. Socio-economic disadvantage was found to have an independent effect in several studies whilst others found evidence of mediating contextual and compositional factors. There is strong evidence of an association between suicidal behaviours (and self-harm) and area-level socio-economic disadvantage in Europe, particularly for men. Suicide prevention strategies should take this into account. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. The influence of neighborhood unemployment on mortality after stroke.

    PubMed

    Unrath, Michael; Wellmann, Jürgen; Diederichs, Claudia; Binse, Lisa; Kalic, Marianne; Heuschmann, Peter Ulrich; Berger, Klaus

    2014-07-01

    Few studies have investigated the impact of neighborhood characteristics on mortality after stroke. Aim of our study was to analyze the influence of district unemployment as indicator of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES-NH) on poststroke mortality, and to compare these results with the mortality in the underlying general population. Our analyses involve 2 prospective cohort studies from the city of Dortmund, Germany. In the Dortmund Stroke Register (DOST), consecutive stroke patients (N=1883) were recruited from acute care hospitals. In the Dortmund Health Study (DHS), a random general population sample was drawn (n=2291; response rate 66.9%). Vital status was ascertained in the city's registration office and information on district unemployment was obtained from the city's statistical office. We performed multilevel survival analyses to examine the association between district unemployment and mortality. The association between neighborhood unemployment and mortality was weak and not statistically significant in the stroke cohort. Only stroke patients exposed to the highest district unemployment (fourth quartile) had slightly higher mortality risks. In the general population sample, higher district unemployment was significantly associated with higher mortality following a social gradient. After adjustment for education, health-related behavior and morbidity was made the strength of this association decreased. The impact of SES-NH on mortality was different for stroke patients and the general population. Differences in the association between SES-NH and mortality may be partly explained by disease-related characteristics of the stroke cohort such as homogeneous lifestyles, similar morbidity profiles, medical factors, and old age. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Area-Level and Individual-Level Factors for Teenage Motherhood: A Multilevel Analysis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Baba, Sachiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    Teenage motherhood is strongly associated with a range of disadvantages for both the mother and the child. No epidemiological studies have examined related factors for teenage motherhood at both area and individual levels among Japanese women. Therefore, we performed a multilevel analysis of nationwide data in Japan to explore the association of area- and individual-level factors with teenage motherhood. The study population comprised 21,177 mothers living in 47 prefectures who had their first, singleton baby between 10 and 17 January or between 10 and 17 July, 2001. Information on the prefecture in which the mothers resided was linked to prefecture-level variables. Primary outcomes were area-level characteristics (single-mother households, three-generation households, college enrollment, abortions, juvenile crime, and per capita income) and individual-level characteristics, and divided into tertiles or quintiles based on their variable distributions. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was then performed. There were 440 teenage mothers (2.1%) in this study. In addition to individual low level of education [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 7.40; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.59-9.78], low income [4.23 (2.95-6.08)], and smoking [1.65 (1.31-2.07)], high proportions of single-mother households [1.72 (1.05-2.80)] and three-generation household [1.81 (1.17-2.78)], and per capita income [2.19 (1.06-3.81)] at an area level were positively associated, and high level of college enrollment [0.46 (0.25-0.83)] and lower crime rate [0.62 (0.40-0.98)] at area level were inversely associated with teenage motherhood compared with the corresponding women living in prefectures with the lowest levels of these variables. Our findings suggest that encouraging the completion of higher education and reducing the number of single-mother household at an area level may be important public health strategies to reduce teenage motherhood.

  6. Prediction of forest fires occurrences with area-level Poisson mixed models.

    PubMed

    Boubeta, Miguel; Lombardía, María José; Marey-Pérez, Manuel Francisco; Morales, Domingo

    2015-05-01

    The number of fires in forest areas of Galicia (north-west of Spain) during the summer period is quite high. Local authorities are interested in analyzing the factors that explain this phenomenon. Poisson regression models are good tools for describing and predicting the number of fires per forest areas. This work employs area-level Poisson mixed models for treating real data about fires in forest areas. A parametric bootstrap method is applied for estimating the mean squared errors of fires predictors. The developed methodology and software are applied to a real data set of fires in forest areas of Galicia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Area-Level and Individual-Level Factors for Teenage Motherhood: A Multilevel Analysis in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Sachiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    Background Teenage motherhood is strongly associated with a range of disadvantages for both the mother and the child. No epidemiological studies have examined related factors for teenage motherhood at both area and individual levels among Japanese women. Therefore, we performed a multilevel analysis of nationwide data in Japan to explore the association of area- and individual-level factors with teenage motherhood. Methods The study population comprised 21,177 mothers living in 47 prefectures who had their first, singleton baby between 10 and 17 January or between 10 and 17 July, 2001. Information on the prefecture in which the mothers resided was linked to prefecture-level variables. Primary outcomes were area-level characteristics (single-mother households, three-generation households, college enrollment, abortions, juvenile crime, and per capita income) and individual-level characteristics, and divided into tertiles or quintiles based on their variable distributions. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was then performed. Results There were 440 teenage mothers (2.1%) in this study. In addition to individual low level of education [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 7.40; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.59–9.78], low income [4.23 (2.95–6.08)], and smoking [1.65 (1.31–2.07)], high proportions of single-mother households [1.72 (1.05–2.80)] and three-generation household [1.81 (1.17–2.78)], and per capita income [2.19 (1.06–3.81)] at an area level were positively associated, and high level of college enrollment [0.46 (0.25–0.83)] and lower crime rate [0.62 (0.40–0.98)] at area level were inversely associated with teenage motherhood compared with the corresponding women living in prefectures with the lowest levels of these variables. Conclusions Our findings suggest that encouraging the completion of higher education and reducing the number of single-mother household at an area level may be important public health strategies to reduce teenage motherhood

  8. Area-level socioeconomic context, total mortality and cause-specific mortality in Spain: Heterogeneous findings depending on the level of geographic aggregation.

    PubMed

    Regidor, Enrique; Vallejo, Fernando; Reques, Laura; Cea, Lucía; Miqueleiz, Estrella; Barrio, Gregorio

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the association between area-level socioeconomic context and mortality in Spain, using two different geographic aggregations. Nation-wide prospective study covering all persons living in Spain in 2001. Mortality was analysed in Spanish citizens by province of residence and in citizens of Madrid by neighbourhood of residence. Provinces and neighbourhoods were grouped into quartiles according to two socioeconomic indicators: percentage of the population with university education and unemployment rate. The measure of association was the rate ratio for total mortality and cause-specific mortality, by each socioeconomic indicator in two age groups, 25-64 years (adult population) and 65 years and over (elderly population). After adjustment for all individual socioeconomic variables, the rate ratio for total mortality among residents in the provinces with the worst versus best socioeconomic context was 0.92 (95% CI 0.88-0.97) when the indicator was percentage of university population and 0.89 (0.85-0.93) when it was unemployment rate in the adult population, and 1.05 (1.00-1.11) and 1.08 (1.03-1.13), respectively, in the elderly population. No significant differences in mortality were observed between adults residing in neighbourhoods with the worst versus best socioeconomic context, but in the elderly population the mortality rate ratios for the two socioeconomic indicators were 1.04 (1.01-1.07) and 1.06 (1.03-1.09), respectively. Residents in provinces with the worst socioeconomic context had the lowest mortality from cancer and external causes and the highest mortality from cardiovascular diseases, while residents in neighbourhoods with the worst socioeconomic context had the highest mortality from respiratory and digestive diseases. Further research should find out the reasons for the lower total mortality in adult population residing in the Spanish provinces with the most adverse socioeconomic context and the reasons for

  9. Trajectories of Antidepressant Medication before and after the Onset of Unemployment by Subsequent Employment Experience.

    PubMed

    Leinonen, Taina; Mäki, Netta; Martikainen, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    The unemployed more often suffer from depression than the employed. We examined whether mental health deterioration occurs already before unemployment implicating health selection, or whether it mostly occurs after becoming exposed to the experience rendering causal explanations more likely. We used nationally representative Finnish register data to examine changes in depressive morbidity as measured by antidepressant medication in 1995-2009 over four years before and since a new onset of unemployment (N = 28 000) at the age of 30-60 compared to the employed (N = 124 136). We examined separately those who became continuously long-term unemployed, intermittently unemployed and unemployed with eventual re-employment in the second, third or fourth year since the year of onset. Annual repeated measurements were analysed using generalised estimation equations. Among the employed antidepressant medication increased slowly but steadily over the study period and it was mainly at a lower level than among the unemployed. In the four years leading to unemployment there was excess increase in medication that was generally stronger among those with longer duration of the eventual unemployment experience. During unemployment medication decreased in all groups except among the intermittently unemployed. By the first year of re-employment antidepressant medication reached a level similar to that among the employed and afterwards followed no consistent trend. The associations of unemployment and re-employment with depressive morbidity appear to be largely driven by health selection. The question of potential causal associations remains unresolved for intermittent unemployment in particular.

  10. Parental unemployment and children's happiness: A longitudinal study of young people's well-being in unemployed households☆

    PubMed Central

    Powdthavee, Nattavudh; Vernoit, James

    2014-01-01

    Using a unique longitudinal data of British youths we estimate how adolescents' overall happiness is related to parents' exposure to unemployment. Our within-child estimates suggest that parental job loss when the child was relatively young has a positive influence on children's overall happiness. However, this positive association became either strongly negative or statistically insignificant as the child grew older. The estimated effects of parental job loss on children's happiness also appear to be unrelated to its effect on family income, parent–child interaction, and children's school experience. Together these findings offer new psychological evidence of unemployment effects on children's livelihood. PMID:24932068

  11. Parental unemployment and children's happiness: A longitudinal study of young people's well-being in unemployed households.

    PubMed

    Powdthavee, Nattavudh; Vernoit, James

    2013-10-01

    Using a unique longitudinal data of British youths we estimate how adolescents' overall happiness is related to parents' exposure to unemployment. Our within-child estimates suggest that parental job loss when the child was relatively young has a positive influence on children's overall happiness. However, this positive association became either strongly negative or statistically insignificant as the child grew older. The estimated effects of parental job loss on children's happiness also appear to be unrelated to its effect on family income, parent-child interaction, and children's school experience. Together these findings offer new psychological evidence of unemployment effects on children's livelihood.

  12. What Is a Current Equivalent to Unemployment Rates of the Past?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antos, Joseph; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The results of various attempts to quantify how much changes in the labor force, unemployment insurance, and minimum wages have affected unemployment rates are reasonably close; but no total effect on jobless rates can be determined. (BM)

  13. Teenage Unemployment: Some Evidence of the Long-Run Effects on Wages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Brian E.; Hills, Stephen M.

    1980-01-01

    For the average out-of-school youth, teenage unemployment has little effect on the wages earned as an adult. There is indirect evidence that government training programs offset part of the effect of long-term teenage unemployment. (JOW)

  14. 77 FR 54927 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Benefit Accuracy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Benefit Accuracy Measurement (BAM), Extension Without Revisions. AGENCY: Employment and Training... written comments to Andrew Spisak, Office of Unemployment Insurance, Room S-4524, Employment and Training...

  15. Examining a Model of Life Satisfaction among Unemployed Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Bott, Elizabeth M.; Allan, Blake A.; Torrey, Carrie L.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined a model of life satisfaction among a diverse sample of 184 adults who had been unemployed for an average of 10.60 months. Using the Lent (2004) model of life satisfaction as a framework, a model was tested with 5 hypothesized predictor variables: optimism, job search self-efficacy, job search support, job search…

  16. Borrowing during Unemployment: Unsecured Debt as a Safety Net

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, James X.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines whether unsecured credit markets help disadvantaged households supplement temporary shortfalls in earnings by investigating how unsecured debt responds to unemployment-induced earnings losses. Results indicate that very low-asset households--those in the bottom decile of total assets--do not borrow in response to these…

  17. Developing Digital Immigrants' Computer Literacy: The Case of Unemployed Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ktoridou, Despo; Eteokleous-Grigoriou, Nikleia

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a 40-hour computer course for beginners provided to a group of unemployed women learners with no/minimum computer literacy skills who can be characterized as digital immigrants. The aim of the study is to identify participants' perceptions and experiences regarding technology,…

  18. Employing the "Unemployable": Employer Perceptions of Malaysian Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheong, Kee-Cheok; Hill, Christopher; Fernandez-Chung, Rozilini; Leong, Yin-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Malaysia has made significant progress in advancing access to education over the last two decades, having achieved the education goals of the UN's Millennium Development Goals. Unfortunately, this has not been accompanied by quality improvement, with reports of "unemployable" graduates a frequent refrain. This paper reports on a study of…

  19. A Time-Series Analysis of Hispanic Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defreitas, Gregory

    1986-01-01

    This study undertakes the first systematic time-series research on the cyclical patterns and principal determinants of Hispanic joblessness in the United States. The principal findings indicate that Hispanics tend to bear a disproportionate share of increases in unemployment during recessions. (Author/CT)

  20. 45 CFR 302.65 - Withholding of unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.65 Withholding of unemployment compensation. The State plan...: Legal process means a writ, order, summons or other similar process in the nature of a garnishment... the SESA's actual, incremental costs of providing services to the IV-D agency. (c) Functions to be...

  1. Conference Report on Youth Unemployment: Its Measurements and Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Thirteen papers presented at a conference on employment statistics and youth are contained in this report. Reviewed are the problems of gathering, interpreting, and applying employment and unemployment data relating to youth. The titles of the papers are as follow: "Counting Youth: A Comparison of Youth Labor Force Statistics in the Current…

  2. Youth Unemployment and Localized Impact: A Career Studies Teacher's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godden, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    The global economic downturn and high youth unemployment have created a challenging context for Ontario secondary-school teachers to meet the compulsory half-credit career studies course objectives intended to support school-to-work (STW) transition. Bronfenbrener's (1979) ecological systems theory provided a clear framework to examine influences…

  3. Just a Phase? Youth Unemployment in the Republic of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, Emer

    2008-01-01

    Ireland has experienced an unprecedented level of economic growth since the mid-1990s. The present article assesses the extent to which this phenomenon has altered the level and nature of youth unemployment, using data from six waves of a nationally representative survey of school-leavers. The main impact of the "Celtic Tiger" has been…

  4. Some Implications of the Psychological Experience of Unemployment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoare, P. Nancey; Machin, M. Anthony

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of some of the implications gleaned from a research project which investigated the psychological influences on the experience of unemployment. Drawing from deprivation theory and the stress and coping literature, the research project explored coping resources, cognitive appraisals, coping behaviours, mental health and…

  5. Youth Unemployment and Labour Market Transitions in Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audas, Rick; Berde, Eva; Dolton, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Unemployment and labour market adjustment have featured prominently in the problems of transitional economies. However, the position of young people and their transitions from school to work in these new market economies has been virtually ignored. This paper examines a new large longitudinal data set relating to young people in Hungary over the…

  6. Unemployed Native Americans in a Work Orientation Program in Phoenix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Billie Jane

    The unemployment rate for Native Americans is 49% nationwide and 54% in Arizona. The Job Training Partnership Act (JPTA) program at the Phoenix Indian Center trains Native American adults to enter the urban work force. The Center offers work orientation programs, individual counseling, and work experience programs. The majority of the participants…

  7. Engineering Employment and Unemployment, 1971. Engineering Manpower Bulletin Number 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alden, John D.

    Statistics concerning employment of scientists were obtained from 59,300 scientists responding to an Engineers Joint Council questionnaire. Findings reported are: (1) the overall unemployment rate was 3 percent for engineers compared to a rate of 5.8 percent for all other workers; (2) considering engineers not having engineering jobs, the…

  8. A Cognitive Stress Reduction Program for Recently Unemployed Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saam, Robert H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined effectiveness of a structured cognitive stress reduction program for unemployed managers (n=42) involved in an outplacement program. Using a control group design, managers who were assigned to cognitively based stress reduction program found reemployment significantly sooner and showed reductions in levels of state anxiety and anger that…

  9. Unemployment Insurance in the United States: The First Half Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaustein, Saul J.; And Others

    This 10-chapter book covers the history of unemployment insurance (UI) in the United States from its beginning in the 1930's to the present and describes how the program evolved in response to various economic and other factors and to the controversies that emerged in the process. Chapter 1 provides background on trends in the extent, duration,…

  10. Mental Health Needs and Treatment of New Hampshire Unemployed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarzombek, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The intent of this research is to understand the types of mental health problems individuals encounter during periods of unemployment, and the severity of those problems from an individual, family and community-based perspective. Of primary importance is determining whether or not treatment services are utilized, and if so, the sensitivity…

  11. Professional Training of the Unemployed: Foreign and Native Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voliarska, Olena

    2015-01-01

    The article summarizes foreign and native tendencies in modern adult education. Their impact on the renovation of training the unemployed in Ukraine has been analyzed. It has been established that the system of adult training must meet the socio-economic, political and cultural changes in Ukraine. It has been indicated that defined tendencies…

  12. Unemployment Insurance in the One-Stop System. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzman, Jeffrey; Dickinson, Katherine P.; Fedrau, Ruth; Lazarin, Melissa

    To assess the current connections between the Unemployment Insurance (UI) and One-Stop (OS) systems, case studies were conducted of eight states and eight local areas. Findings indicated the major factor that influenced UI's role in the OS design was whether the state took initial claims by telephone or in-person; UI played differing roles in…

  13. Borrowing during Unemployment: Unsecured Debt as a Safety Net

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, James X.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines whether unsecured credit markets help disadvantaged households supplement temporary shortfalls in earnings by investigating how unsecured debt responds to unemployment-induced earnings losses. Results indicate that very low-asset households--those in the bottom decile of total assets--do not borrow in response to these…

  14. The Role of Industry in Training the Hard Core Unemployed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Jerome

    A project of the Riverside Research Institute (RRI) provided training for 10 hard core unemployed for one year in four vocational skills: computer peripheral equipment operators, electronics technicians, machine operators, and draftsmen. Selection was based on at least an eighth grade verbal and numerical achievement level, tests, and interviews.…

  15. Coping with Unemployment: Personality, Role Demands, and Time Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hoye, Greet; Lootens, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Time structure has been found to be an important coping mechanism for dealing with the negative effects of unemployment on psychological well-being. This study extends the literature by investigating personality (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, and proactivity) and role demands (marital status, being the only…

  16. The Challenge of Unemployment. A Report to Labour Ministers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report consists of an analysis of labor market conditions in Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) member countries and an exploration of possible future policy responses to the problems of unemployment. Covered in the labor market analysis are the following topics: the macro-economic environment (macro-economic trends…

  17. Developing Digital Immigrants' Computer Literacy: The Case of Unemployed Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ktoridou, Despo; Eteokleous-Grigoriou, Nikleia

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a 40-hour computer course for beginners provided to a group of unemployed women learners with no/minimum computer literacy skills who can be characterized as digital immigrants. The aim of the study is to identify participants' perceptions and experiences regarding technology,…

  18. A Time-Series Analysis of Hispanic Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defreitas, Gregory

    1986-01-01

    This study undertakes the first systematic time-series research on the cyclical patterns and principal determinants of Hispanic joblessness in the United States. The principal findings indicate that Hispanics tend to bear a disproportionate share of increases in unemployment during recessions. (Author/CT)

  19. Education, Job Openings, and Unemployment in Metropolitan America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to provide metro, state, and national policy makers with a better sense of the specific problems facing metropolitan labor markets. First, the analysis examines trends in the demand for educated labor and how a gap between education supply and demand is related to unemployment. Next, it attempts to distinguish between cyclical and…

  20. Coping with Unemployment: Personality, Role Demands, and Time Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hoye, Greet; Lootens, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Time structure has been found to be an important coping mechanism for dealing with the negative effects of unemployment on psychological well-being. This study extends the literature by investigating personality (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, and proactivity) and role demands (marital status, being the only…

  1. Re-education for Employment. Programmes for Unemployed Black Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggleston, John; And Others

    This report of the work of self-help groups of unemployed black adults in Britain shows how effectively these groups are able to generate employment opportunities for their members and offers recommendations for the further development of such initiatives. Chapter 1 describes setting up the research project to provide information on the efforts…

  2. State Unemployment Insurance Trust Solvency and Benefit Generosity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Daniel L.; Wenger, Jeffrey B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper employs panel estimators with data on the 50 American states for the years 1963 to 2006 to test the relationship between Unemployment Insurance (UI) trust fund solvency and UI benefit generosity. We find that both average and maximum weekly UI benefit amounts, as ratios to the average weekly wage, are higher in states and in years with…

  3. Job and Income Security for Unemployed Workers. Some New Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaustein, Saul J.

    This monograph describes a proposed program called the Job Security System (JSS), which would integrate the various public programs designed to help experienced unemployed workers find work. A justification for JSS and its general design are presented in the introduction, followed by a description of such potential JSS clientele as previously…

  4. An Incentives Approach to Improving the Unemployment Compensation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Paul L.; Kingston, Jerry L.

    A study addressed the issue of overpayments and other quality problems in the unemployment compensation (UC) program and was current as of June 1987. Principal findings are as follows: (1) overpayments constituted a major problem for the UC system as a whole; (2) high overpayment rates were symptomatic of fundamental problems including…

  5. Recent Developments in the Theory of Involuntary Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Carl

    The most prominent theories of unemployment that have emerged since 1960 are search, disequilibrium, implicit contracts, efficiency wage, and insider/outsider models. Search models assume that it takes time and effort for employers and potential employees to find each other. A "partial-partial" equilibrium approach focuses on one side of…

  6. Professional Training of the Unemployed: Foreign and Native Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voliarska, Olena

    2015-01-01

    The article summarizes foreign and native tendencies in modern adult education. Their impact on the renovation of training the unemployed in Ukraine has been analyzed. It has been established that the system of adult training must meet the socio-economic, political and cultural changes in Ukraine. It has been indicated that defined tendencies…

  7. Examining a Model of Life Satisfaction among Unemployed Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Bott, Elizabeth M.; Allan, Blake A.; Torrey, Carrie L.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined a model of life satisfaction among a diverse sample of 184 adults who had been unemployed for an average of 10.60 months. Using the Lent (2004) model of life satisfaction as a framework, a model was tested with 5 hypothesized predictor variables: optimism, job search self-efficacy, job search support, job search…

  8. Making Work Go Round. Plans for Combatting Unemployment. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Karsten

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, as elsewhere, the recent unemployment crisis has forced politicians, economists, trade unionists, and experts to consider a number of courses of action designed to reduce working time. Included among these alternatives are the following: adopting the 35-hour work week, shortening working life through early…

  9. Unemployment and Underemployment: A Narrative Analysis about Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blustein, David L.; Kozan, Saliha; Connors-Kellgren, Alice

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we conducted a narrative analysis of interviews with unemployed and underemployed adults to better understand their experiences and to learn how they are coping with job loss. Seven men and six women from diverse backgrounds who were receiving career exploration and job search services were interviewed at a one-stop career center in…

  10. Mental Health Needs and Treatment of New Hampshire Unemployed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarzombek, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The intent of this research is to understand the types of mental health problems individuals encounter during periods of unemployment, and the severity of those problems from an individual, family and community-based perspective. Of primary importance is determining whether or not treatment services are utilized, and if so, the sensitivity…

  11. Just a Phase? Youth Unemployment in the Republic of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, Emer

    2008-01-01

    Ireland has experienced an unprecedented level of economic growth since the mid-1990s. The present article assesses the extent to which this phenomenon has altered the level and nature of youth unemployment, using data from six waves of a nationally representative survey of school-leavers. The main impact of the "Celtic Tiger" has been…

  12. Unemployment and Underemployment: A Narrative Analysis about Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blustein, David L.; Kozan, Saliha; Connors-Kellgren, Alice

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we conducted a narrative analysis of interviews with unemployed and underemployed adults to better understand their experiences and to learn how they are coping with job loss. Seven men and six women from diverse backgrounds who were receiving career exploration and job search services were interviewed at a one-stop career center in…

  13. Employing the "Unemployable": Employer Perceptions of Malaysian Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheong, Kee-Cheok; Hill, Christopher; Fernandez-Chung, Rozilini; Leong, Yin-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Malaysia has made significant progress in advancing access to education over the last two decades, having achieved the education goals of the UN's Millennium Development Goals. Unfortunately, this has not been accompanied by quality improvement, with reports of "unemployable" graduates a frequent refrain. This paper reports on a study of…

  14. Maquiladoras, Women's Work, and Unemployment in Northern Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiano, Susan

    1984-01-01

    Uses Marxist/feminist concepts to explain employment patterns among female workers in multinational maquiladoras (assembly plants) in northern Mexico. Concludes that maquiladoras have not alleviated regional unemployment for either sex, but have created a docile low-wage work force that includes a pool of surplus labor. Contains 48 references. (SV)

  15. 45 CFR 233.101 - Dependent children of unemployed parents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... education to assure maximum utilization of available public vocational education services and facilities in...) of this section, the fair hearing requirements set forth at § 205.10(a)(4)(ii)(K) of this chapter... unemployment of the parent who is the principal earner) in at least 6 of the preceding 12 months. (iii)...

  16. 45 CFR 233.101 - Dependent children of unemployed parents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... education to assure maximum utilization of available public vocational education services and facilities in...) of this section, the fair hearing requirements set forth at § 205.10(a)(4)(ii)(K) of this chapter... unemployment of the parent who is the principal earner) in at least 6 of the preceding 12 months. (iii)...

  17. 45 CFR 233.101 - Dependent children of unemployed parents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... education to assure maximum utilization of available public vocational education services and facilities in...) of this section, the fair hearing requirements set forth at § 205.10(a)(4)(ii)(K) of this chapter... unemployment of the parent who is the principal earner) in at least 6 of the preceding 12 months. (iii)...

  18. Education, Job Openings, and Unemployment in Metropolitan America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to provide metro, state, and national policy makers with a better sense of the specific problems facing metropolitan labor markets. First, the analysis examines trends in the demand for educated labor and how a gap between education supply and demand is related to unemployment. Next, it attempts to distinguish between cyclical and…

  19. 45 CFR 233.100 - Dependent children of unemployed parents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dependent children of unemployed parents. 233.100... (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.100 Dependent children...

  20. Joblessness and Unemployment: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Patrick L.

    This literature review examines evidence on the relationship between African American male economic potential in the formal sector of the economy and transitions in African American family structure and marital stability. This review also provides insight into the crime, unemployment, family structure, and race debate. Competing theoretical…

  1. 45 CFR 233.100 - Dependent children of unemployed parents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Dependent children of unemployed parents. 233.100... (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.100 Dependent children...

  2. 45 CFR 233.101 - Dependent children of unemployed parents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Dependent children of unemployed parents. 233.101... (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.101 Dependent children...

  3. 45 CFR 233.100 - Dependent children of unemployed parents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dependent children of unemployed parents. 233.100... (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.100 Dependent children...

  4. 45 CFR 233.101 - Dependent children of unemployed parents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dependent children of unemployed parents. 233.101... (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.101 Dependent children...

  5. 45 CFR 233.100 - Dependent children of unemployed parents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dependent children of unemployed parents. 233.100... (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.100 Dependent children...

  6. State Unemployment Insurance Trust Solvency and Benefit Generosity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Daniel L.; Wenger, Jeffrey B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper employs panel estimators with data on the 50 American states for the years 1963 to 2006 to test the relationship between Unemployment Insurance (UI) trust fund solvency and UI benefit generosity. We find that both average and maximum weekly UI benefit amounts, as ratios to the average weekly wage, are higher in states and in years with…

  7. What Can You Do About the Hard-Core Unemployed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Inst. of America, Inc., New York, NY.

    American business has received a challenge from the federal government in a national experiment to find jobs for 500,000 "unemployables." The major purpose of this descriptive report was to develop hard facts for use by business men in making decisions concerning participation in the program. The content includes sections on: (1) Who Are the…

  8. Youth Unemployment and Localized Impact: A Career Studies Teacher's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godden, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    The global economic downturn and high youth unemployment have created a challenging context for Ontario secondary-school teachers to meet the compulsory half-credit career studies course objectives intended to support school-to-work (STW) transition. Bronfenbrener's (1979) ecological systems theory provided a clear framework to examine influences…

  9. [Correlation between Area-Level Sociodemographic Patterns and Estimates of Need for Medical Care].

    PubMed

    Schulz, M; Czihal, T; Erhart, M; Stillfried, D

    2016-05-01

    Besides the known determinants age, sex, and morbidity, regional sociodemographic factors may be important for the level of health care needs. This study proposes a possible characterisation of area-level sociodemographic patterns and proves their association to variation in morbidity, mortality and health service utilisation. We used the 412 counties of Germany as unit of analysis. To describe area-level sociodemographic patterns a factor analysis was conducted on a set of 27 indicators from official statistics. Two factors were retained and rotated according to the Varimax criteria, which explained 34.2 and 33.0% of variance. Mortality, utilisation of inpatient health services as well as parameters of the nationwide outpatient claims data [relative risk score (RRS) and the level of health care use (LB)] served as determinants of need for medical care and were correlated to the extracted factors. Factor 1 describes regional disparities in socio-economic and health status variables and is called socio-economic health index (SGX). Factor 2 characterises the spatial distribution of interregional migration and household size and is called urbanity index (UX). There was a strong positive correlation between SGX and RRS (r=0.77), mortality (r=0.68 and r=0.78 for overall and premature death rate) and inpatient health care use (r=0.62). UX was not correlated with RRS but weakly inversely correlated with inpatient health care use (r=-0.28). Both SGX and UX were significantly correlated to the level of outpatient health care use (r=0.39 and r=0.40). Stratification of LB by type of practitioner revealed that SGX was mainly associated with health care provided by general practitioners while UX was linked to health care provided by specialists, particularly psychotherapists. The extracted factors to describe area-level sociodemographic patterns showed distinct correlations to indicators for medical care use. While SGX was mainly associated with overall morbidity, UX showed

  10. Factors Influencing Youth Unemployment in Australia: 1980-1994. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Gary N.; Fleming, Nicole

    A study examined unemployment among Australian young people between 1980-94, using data obtained from the four Youth in Transition cohorts born in 1961, 1965, 1970, and 1975. It investigated factors that influenced becoming unemployed and leaving unemployment. Findings indicated that low school achievement in literacy and numeracy was consistently…

  11. Supplementary Papers from the Conference on Youth Unemployment: Its Measurement and Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Naomi Berger, Ed.

    Nine papers presented at the conference on Employment Statistics and Youth are presented. Focusing on the meaning of unemployment counts in the U.S., the first three papers are Measurement and Interpretation of Teenage Unemployment in the United States and Other Countries, by Beatrice Reubens; What Do Teenage Unemployment Statistics Measure?, by…

  12. Race and Unemployment: Labor Market Experiences of Black and White Men, 1968-1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Franklin D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Estimation of multinomial logistic regression models on a sample of unemployed workers suggested that persistently higher black unemployment is due to differential access to employment opportunities by region, occupational placement, labor market segmentation, and discrimination. The racial gap in unemployment is greatest for college-educated…

  13. Employability among the Long-Term Unemployed: A Futile Quest or Worth the Effort?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koen, Jessie; Klehe, Ute-Christine; Van Vianen, Annelies E. M.

    2013-01-01

    Unemployment bears many negative consequences for both individuals and societies. Particularly the long-term unemployed face poor chances of finding reemployment, and many recommendations issued in the regular unemployment literature may not apply to them. Therefore, the current study investigates whether employability (Fugate et al., 2004) may…

  14. American Indian Unemployment: Confronting a Distressing Reality. A First Friday Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Full Employment Action Council, Washington, DC.

    The devastation caused by unemployment among the nation's approximately 2 million American Indians is great. Analysis of January 1985 state unemployment rates reveals an enormous disparity between average state rates and the rates for the state American Indian populations. While the official unemployment rate in 28 states ranged from 5.8% to…

  15. Race and Unemployment: Labor Market Experiences of Black and White Men, 1968-1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Franklin D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Estimation of multinomial logistic regression models on a sample of unemployed workers suggested that persistently higher black unemployment is due to differential access to employment opportunities by region, occupational placement, labor market segmentation, and discrimination. The racial gap in unemployment is greatest for college-educated…

  16. Unemployment, Education, and Training: Case Studies from North America and Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrester, Keith, Ed.; Ward, Kevin, Ed.

    This book contains 12 chapters, each of which is a case study or a commentary on the unemployment of the 1980s and early 1990s and on the programs devised to retrain workers. Titles and authors are as follows: "Understanding Unemployment: A Critical Overview of Labour Market Trends, Employment, and Unemployment: (John Hughes); "A…

  17. Education and School Leavers' Unemployment Saga: Implication for Educational Planning in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwambam, Aja Sunday; Eze, Prisca Ijeoma

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviewed the relationship between the type of education and school leavers' unemployment with the view to highlighting its implications for educational planning in Nigeria. The concept of education, reasons for steady increase in the number of unemployed school leavers and what to do in order to curb educated unemployment were…

  18. 20 CFR 625.4 - Eligibility requirements for Disaster Unemployment Assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... is in effect with respect to that week; (c) The individual is an unemployed worker or an unemployed... refused without good cause to resume or commence suitable self-employment, if the employment or self... cause that occurred prior to the individual's unemployment due to the disaster, or for any other...

  19. Higher Education and Unemployment: A Cointegration and Causality Analysis of the Case of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdem, Ekrem; Tugcu, Can Tansel

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the short and the long-term relations between higher education and unemployment in Turkey for the period 1960-2007. It chooses the recently developed ARDL cointegration and Granger causality of Dolado and Lutkepohl (1996) methods. While the proxy of unemployment is total unemployment rate, higher education graduates were…

  20. 13 CFR 310.2 - Pressing need; alleviation of unemployment or underemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... unemployment or underemployment. 310.2 Section 310.2 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPECIAL IMPACT AREAS § 310.2 Pressing need; alleviation of unemployment or... Special Need. (b) For purposes of this part, excessive unemployment exists if the twenty-four (24)...

  1. 26 CFR 31.6001-4 - Additional records under Federal Unemployment Tax Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional records under Federal Unemployment... Federal Unemployment Tax Act. (a) Records of employers. Every employer liable for tax under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act for any calendar year shall, with respect to each such year, keep such records as...

  2. 26 CFR 301.6106-1 - Publicity of unemployment tax returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Publicity of unemployment tax returns. 301.6106... Records § 301.6106-1 Publicity of unemployment tax returns. For provisions relating to publicity of returns made in respect of unemployment tax imposed by chapter 23 of the Code, see §§ 301.6103(a)-1,...

  3. 26 CFR 1.6050B-1 - Information returns by person making unemployment compensation payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... unemployment compensation payments. 1.6050B-1 Section 1.6050B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.6050B-1 Information returns by person making unemployment compensation payments. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1978, every person who makes payments of unemployment compensation (as...

  4. 26 CFR 31.6402(a)-3 - Refund of Federal unemployment tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Refund of Federal unemployment tax. 31.6402(a... Provisions of Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6402(a)-3 Refund of Federal unemployment tax... 3301 of the Federal Unemployment Tax Act or a corresponding provision of prior law, or (b)...

  5. 20 CFR 625.4 - Eligibility requirements for Disaster Unemployment Assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Unemployment Assistance. 625.4 Section 625.4 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.4 Eligibility requirements for Disaster Unemployment Assistance. An individual shall be eligible to receive a payment of DUA with respect to a week...

  6. 20 CFR 606.33 - No payment of interest from unemployment fund. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false No payment of interest from unemployment fund... TAX CREDITS UNDER THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Interest on Advances § 606.33 No payment of interest from unemployment fund....

  7. 26 CFR 1.6050B-1 - Information returns by person making unemployment compensation payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... unemployment compensation payments. 1.6050B-1 Section 1.6050B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.6050B-1 Information returns by person making unemployment compensation payments. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1978, every person who makes payments of unemployment compensation (as...

  8. 26 CFR 301.6106-1 - Publicity of unemployment tax returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Publicity of unemployment tax returns. 301.6106... Records § 301.6106-1 Publicity of unemployment tax returns. For provisions relating to publicity of returns made in respect of unemployment tax imposed by chapter 23 of the Code, see §§ 301.6103(a)-1,...

  9. 26 CFR 31.6001-4 - Additional records under Federal Unemployment Tax Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional records under Federal Unemployment... Federal Unemployment Tax Act. (a) Records of employers. Every employer liable for tax under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act for any calendar year shall, with respect to each such year, keep such records as...

  10. 20 CFR 606.33 - No payment of interest from unemployment fund. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false No payment of interest from unemployment fund... TAX CREDITS UNDER THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Interest on Advances § 606.33 No payment of interest from unemployment fund....

  11. 26 CFR 31.6011(a)-3 - Returns under Federal Unemployment Tax Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Returns under Federal Unemployment Tax Act. 31... Provisions of Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6011(a)-3 Returns under Federal Unemployment Tax Act. (a) Requirement. Every person shall make a return of tax under the Federal Unemployment...

  12. 26 CFR 301.6106-1 - Publicity of unemployment tax returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Publicity of unemployment tax returns. 301.6106... Records § 301.6106-1 Publicity of unemployment tax returns. For provisions relating to publicity of returns made in respect of unemployment tax imposed by chapter 23 of the Code, see §§ 301.6103(a)-1,...

  13. 26 CFR 31.6001-4 - Additional records under Federal Unemployment Tax Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional records under Federal Unemployment... Federal Unemployment Tax Act. (a) Records of employers. Every employer liable for tax under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act for any calendar year shall, with respect to each such year, keep such records as...

  14. 26 CFR 31.6402(a)-3 - Refund of Federal unemployment tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Refund of Federal unemployment tax. 31.6402(a... Provisions of Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6402(a)-3 Refund of Federal unemployment tax... 3301 of the Federal Unemployment Tax Act or a corresponding provision of prior law, or (b)...

  15. 20 CFR 336.11 - Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment... RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Extended Benefits § 336.11 Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment benefits. For the purposes of this part, the Board considers...

  16. 20 CFR 601.6 - Grants for administration of unemployment compensation laws and employment service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grants for administration of unemployment... administration of unemployment compensation laws and employment service. Grants of funds for administration of State unemployment compensation laws and public employment service programs are made to States...

  17. 20 CFR 336.11 - Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment... RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Extended Benefits § 336.11 Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment benefits. For the purposes of this part, the Board considers...

  18. 20 CFR 606.33 - No payment of interest from unemployment fund. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false No payment of interest from unemployment fund... TAX CREDITS UNDER THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Interest on Advances § 606.33 No payment of interest from unemployment fund....

  19. 77 FR 37714 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Trust Fund Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for Unemployment Insurance... Section 3304(a)(3) of the Federal Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA) require that all monies received in the unemployment fund of a state be paid immediately to the Secretary of Treasury to the credit of the...

  20. 20 CFR 625.4 - Eligibility requirements for Disaster Unemployment Assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Unemployment Assistance. 625.4 Section 625.4 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.4 Eligibility requirements for Disaster Unemployment Assistance. An individual shall be eligible to receive a payment of DUA with respect to a week...

  1. 26 CFR 31.6011(a)-3 - Returns under Federal Unemployment Tax Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Returns under Federal Unemployment Tax Act. 31... Provisions of Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6011(a)-3 Returns under Federal Unemployment Tax Act. (a) Requirement. Every person shall make a return of tax under the Federal Unemployment...

  2. 26 CFR 301.6106-1 - Publicity of unemployment tax returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Publicity of unemployment tax returns. 301.6106... Records § 301.6106-1 Publicity of unemployment tax returns. For provisions relating to publicity of returns made in respect of unemployment tax imposed by chapter 23 of the Code, see §§ 301.6103(a)-1,...

  3. 26 CFR 31.6402(a)-3 - Refund of Federal unemployment tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Refund of Federal unemployment tax. 31.6402(a... Provisions of Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6402(a)-3 Refund of Federal unemployment tax... 3301 of the Federal Unemployment Tax Act or a corresponding provision of prior law, or (b)...

  4. 20 CFR 601.6 - Grants for administration of unemployment compensation laws and employment service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grants for administration of unemployment... administration of unemployment compensation laws and employment service. Grants of funds for administration of State unemployment compensation laws and public employment service programs are made to States...

  5. 77 FR 16074 - Notice of Listening Sessions on Implementation of Unemployment Insurance Provisions of the Middle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Listening Sessions on Implementation of Unemployment... Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012 (Pub. L. 112-96) (Act) includes within it Title II--Unemployment..., Federal Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA), to add a new subsection defining ``short-time compensation...

  6. 20 CFR 336.11 - Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment... RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Extended Benefits § 336.11 Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment benefits. For the purposes of this part, the Board considers...

  7. 26 CFR 31.6011(a)-3 - Returns under Federal Unemployment Tax Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Returns under Federal Unemployment Tax Act. 31... Provisions of Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6011(a)-3 Returns under Federal Unemployment Tax Act. (a) Requirement. Every person shall make a return of tax under the Federal Unemployment...

  8. 20 CFR 336.11 - Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment... RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Extended Benefits § 336.11 Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment benefits. For the purposes of this part, the Board considers...

  9. 20 CFR 625.4 - Eligibility requirements for Disaster Unemployment Assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Unemployment Assistance. 625.4 Section 625.4 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.4 Eligibility requirements for Disaster Unemployment Assistance. An individual shall be eligible to receive a payment of DUA with respect to a week...

  10. 13 CFR 310.2 - Pressing need; alleviation of unemployment or underemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... unemployment or underemployment. 310.2 Section 310.2 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPECIAL IMPACT AREAS § 310.2 Pressing need; alleviation of unemployment or... Special Need. (b) For purposes of this part, excessive unemployment exists if the twenty-four (24)...

  11. 13 CFR 310.2 - Pressing need; alleviation of unemployment or underemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... unemployment or underemployment. 310.2 Section 310.2 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPECIAL IMPACT AREAS § 310.2 Pressing need; alleviation of unemployment or... Special Need. (b) For purposes of this part, excessive unemployment exists if the twenty-four (24)...

  12. 20 CFR 606.33 - No payment of interest from unemployment fund. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false No payment of interest from unemployment fund... TAX CREDITS UNDER THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Interest on Advances § 606.33 No payment of interest from unemployment fund....

  13. Higher Education and Unemployment: A Cointegration and Causality Analysis of the Case of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdem, Ekrem; Tugcu, Can Tansel

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the short and the long-term relations between higher education and unemployment in Turkey for the period 1960-2007. It chooses the recently developed ARDL cointegration and Granger causality of Dolado and Lutkepohl (1996) methods. While the proxy of unemployment is total unemployment rate, higher education graduates were…

  14. 20 CFR 601.6 - Grants for administration of unemployment compensation laws and employment service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grants for administration of unemployment... administration of unemployment compensation laws and employment service. Grants of funds for administration of State unemployment compensation laws and public employment service programs are made to States...

  15. 26 CFR 31.6011(a)-3A - Returns of the railroad unemployment repayment tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returns of the railroad unemployment repayment... unemployment repayment tax. (a) Requirement—(1) Employers. Every rail employer (as defined in section 3323(a) and section 1 of the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act) shall make a return of the tax imposed by...

  16. Hidden Disadvantage: Asian American Unemployment and the Great Recession. EPI Issue Brief #277

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Algernon

    2010-01-01

    Nationally, Asian Americans have the lowest unemployment rate of the major racial groups. But a closer look at unemployment by educational attainment shows a more complicated picture. Asian Americans with bachelor's degrees have a higher unemployment rate than whites with comparable education, but Asian American high school dropouts are more…

  17. 76 FR 4724 - Catawba Sox, LLC Formerly Known as Catawba Sox, Inc. Including Workers Whose Unemployment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... Whose Unemployment Insurance UI) Wages Are Paid Through Ellis Hosiery Mill, LLC, Newton, NC; Amended... unemployment insurance (UI) tax account under the name Ellis Hosiery Mill, LLC, formerly known as Catawba Sox... workers whose unemployment insurance (UI) wages are paid through Ellis Hosiery Mill, LLC, Newton, North...

  18. 75 FR 26793 - Fypon, Ltd., Parkersburg, WV, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance, (UI) Wages Are Paid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ...] Fypon, Ltd., Parkersburg, WV, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance, (UI) Wages Are Paid..., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance, (UI) Wages Are Paid Through Therma-Tru Doors, Archbold, OH... reported under a separate unemployment insurance (UI) tax account under the name Therma-Tru Doors...

  19. 76 FR 12760 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Report ETA 902, Disaster Unemployment Assistance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ..., Disaster Unemployment Assistance Activities (OMB Control No. 1205- 0051): Extension Without Change AGENCY... ETA 902, Disaster Unemployment Assistance Activities under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and.... Background The ETA 902 Report, Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA) Activities, is a monthly report...

  20. 20 CFR 606.33 - No payment of interest from unemployment fund. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false No payment of interest from unemployment fund... TAX CREDITS UNDER THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Interest on Advances § 606.33 No payment of interest from unemployment fund. ...

  1. 77 FR 66482 - Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2012 Under the Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... Employment and Training Administration Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2012 Under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor... Unemployment Tax Act, 26 U.S.C. 3301 et seq., thereby enabling employers who make contributions to state...

  2. 26 CFR 31.6402(a)-3 - Refund of Federal unemployment tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refund of Federal unemployment tax. 31.6402(a... Provisions of Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6402(a)-3 Refund of Federal unemployment tax... 3301 of the Federal Unemployment Tax Act or a corresponding provision of prior law, or (b) Interest...

  3. 26 CFR 1.6050B-1 - Information returns by person making unemployment compensation payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... unemployment compensation payments. 1.6050B-1 Section 1.6050B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Information returns by person making unemployment compensation payments. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1978, every person who makes payments of unemployment compensation (as defined in section 85...

  4. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial unemployment...

  5. 77 FR 3500 - Hugo Boss Cleveland, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Paid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... Cleveland, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Paid Through Tjfc... wages reported under a separate unemployment insurance (UI) tax account under the name TJFC Distribution...: All workers of Hugo Boss Cleveland, Inc., including workers whose unemployment insurance (UI) wages...

  6. 75 FR 43557 - Wire Products Company, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Paid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... Employment and Training Administration Wire Products Company, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment... unemployment insurance (UI) tax account under the name Globe Pipe Hanger Products, Inc. Based on these findings..., Inc., including workers whose unemployment insurance (UI) wages are paid through Globe Pipe Hanger...

  7. 20 CFR 336.11 - Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment... RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Extended Benefits § 336.11 Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment benefits. For the purposes of this part, the Board considers that...

  8. 38 CFR 1.506 - Disclosure of records to Federal Government departments, State unemployment compensation agencies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Government departments, State unemployment compensation agencies, and the Office of Servicemembers....506 Disclosure of records to Federal Government departments, State unemployment compensation agencies... official purposes by any department or other agency of the U.S. Government or any state unemployment...

  9. 78 FR 59374 - Announcement Regarding a Change in Eligibility for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Claimants in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... Employment and Training Administration Announcement Regarding a Change in Eligibility for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Claimants in Alaska, Mississippi, and Wisconsin in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation..., 2013. Based on data from Alaska for the week ending August 3, 2013, the 13 week insured unemployment...

  10. 26 CFR 31.6011(a)-3 - Returns under Federal Unemployment Tax Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returns under Federal Unemployment Tax Act. 31... Provisions of Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6011(a)-3 Returns under Federal Unemployment Tax Act. (a) Requirement. Every person shall make a return of tax under the Federal Unemployment Tax...

  11. 26 CFR 301.6106-1 - Publicity of unemployment tax returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Publicity of unemployment tax returns. 301.6106... Records § 301.6106-1 Publicity of unemployment tax returns. For provisions relating to publicity of returns made in respect of unemployment tax imposed by chapter 23 of the Code, see §§ 301.6103(a)-1, 301...

  12. 20 CFR 625.4 - Eligibility requirements for Disaster Unemployment Assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Unemployment Assistance. 625.4 Section 625.4 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.4 Eligibility requirements for Disaster Unemployment Assistance. An individual shall be eligible to receive a payment of DUA with respect to a week of...

  13. 78 FR 68865 - Announcement Regarding a Change in Eligibility for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Claimants in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration Announcement Regarding a Change in Eligibility for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Claimants in Alaska, Mississippi, and Wisconsin in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation..., 2013. Based on data from Alaska for the week ending August 3, 2013, the 13 week insured unemployment...

  14. Risk and Nostalgia: The Problem of Education and Youth Unemployment in Australia--A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessant, Judith

    2002-01-01

    Explanations for persistent youth unemployment (deficits in the unemployed, structural need for unemployment, location of decision-making power) lead to education of youth at risk as a solution, an old paradigm inadequate for the restructured labor market. New questions must be asked, such as separating income from waged labor and finding other…

  15. Unemployment and psychological distress one year after childbirth in France.

    PubMed

    Saurel-Cubizolles, M J; Romito, P; Ancel, P Y; Lelong, N

    2000-03-01

    To analyse the relation between unemployment and the psychological distress of mothers one year after childbirth. Multicentric survey concerning births occurring between September 1993 and July 1994. In France: two maternity units in the Parisian area and one in Champagne-Ardennes, in the east of France, comprising both urban and rural areas. Primipara and secondipara women were interviewed three times: at birth by a face to face interview, five months and 12 months after the birth, by postal questionnaires, with a 83% response rate for the two postal questionnaires. The analysis includes 632 women who answered all three stages of the survey. Psychological distress was mainly assessed one year after birth by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. After adjustment for unwanted pregnancy, marital conflicts, marital status, hospitalisation of the baby during the last year, lack of confiding relationship, depressive or anxious troubles before pregnancy, age, educational level and parity, unemployed women had an excess of psychological distress compared with employed women (OR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.12, 3.13). The ratios for housewives were very close to those of employed women. Among the unemployed women, 60% had recently been without a job, since a few months before or after the birth. An excess of psychological distress among unemployed compared with employed women was observed in all social groups defined by the current or last occupation, but with various extents. Psychological distress was specially linked to the employment status in the group of women with the more qualified occupations. Even after a birth, when women are very much involved in their maternal role, those seeking a job have worse mental health than those in a stable situation, either employed or housewives. In France, the unemployment rate among young women is high. It is specially important that social regulations protecting employment during and after pregnancy are adequately applied. Employers

  16. Unemployment risk among individuals undergoing medical treatment for chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Nakaya, N; Nakamura, T; Tsuchiya, N; Tsuji, I; Hozawa, A; Tomita, H

    2016-03-01

    Chronic diseases increase the risk of unemployment even in non-disaster settings; therefore, in post-disaster settings, special attention needs to be paid to the employment status of those suffering from chronic diseases. To examine the association between chronic disease and the risk of unemployment in a disaster area. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Shichigahama Town, Miyagi, north-eastern Japan, where had been severely inundated by the 2011 tsunami. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between undergoing medical treatment for a combination of chronic diseases (stroke, cancer, myocardial infarction and angina) and unemployment risk. Confounders such as psychological distress and levels of daily life activity were considered. Among the 2588 individuals studied, there was a statistically significant association between undergoing medical treatment for chronic disease and the risk of unemployment [odds ratio (OR) = 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-2.7, P < 0.05]. In participants with a lower degree of psychological distress and better levels of daily life activity (n = 1967), no significant associations were observed (OR = 1.1, 95% CI 0.6-2.1). Conversely, in 536 participants with a higher degree of psychological distress and/or poorer levels of daily life activity, statistically significant associations were found (OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.01-6.6, P < 0.05). The association between undergoing medical treatment for chronic disease and unemployment risk was observed only in participants with a higher degree of psychological distress and/or poorer levels of daily life activity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Does alcohol outlet density differ by area-level disadvantage in metropolitan Perth?

    PubMed

    Foster, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Knuiman, Matthew; Trapp, Georgina; Wood, Lisa

    2017-09-01

    Research suggests that there are area-level disparities in alcohol outlets, with greater density in disadvantaged areas. In part, this might be explained by the inequitable distribution of retail, attracted by lower rents to disadvantaged neighbourhoods. This ecological study examines the distribution of liquor licences in Perth, Australia, and whether discrepancies in the distribution of retail land-uses could account for a socio-economic gradient. Area disadvantage was determined for each Statistical Area 1 (SA1) using the Australian Bureau of Statistics Index of Relative Socio-economic Disadvantage, and licence locations were mapped in GIS. Negative binomial loglinear models examined whether licence densities within SA1s differed by area disadvantage, controlling for demographics and spatial correlation. Models included an offset term, so the estimated effects of area-level disadvantage were on licences per km(2) , or licences per retail destination. In the area-based analyses, for every unit increase in disadvantage decile (i.e. a reduction in relative disadvantage), general licences reduced by 15% (P = 0.000) and liquor stores reduced by 7% (P = 0.004). These gradients were not apparent when licences were examined as a function of retail; however, for every unit increase in disadvantage decile, the density of on-premise licences per retail destination increased by 14% (P = 0.000). The direction of the socio-economic gradient for general licences and liquor stores in Perth is concerning, as all licences selling packaged alcohol were more abundant in disadvantaged areas. However, the over-representation of packaged liquor in disadvantaged areas may relate to the increased provision of retail. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  18. Duration of unemployment and suicide in Australia over the period 1985-2006: an ecological investigation by sex and age during rising versus declining national unemployment rates.

    PubMed

    Milner, Allison; Page, Andrew; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2013-03-01

    The relationship between unemployment and suicide may be sensitive to demographic factors, national unemployment rates, and length of time without employment. This study investigated these factors in relation to suicide in Australia for the period 1985-2006, in an ecological study. The outcome variable was annual suicide rate by age group, sex and the eight states and territories over 22 years of observation (total observations=1760). The main predictor variable was the average duration of unemployment in the population, categorised into three time periods (<2 weeks, 2-4 weeks, >4 weeks). Poisson regression models were used to investigate the relationship between duration of unemployment and suicide over the years 1985-2006 in a series of cross-sectional analyses. Interaction analyses indicated significant differences during periods of declining or increasing labour market opportunity and by age group. During periods of declining unemployment rates in the country, longer durations of unemployment were associated with higher male suicide rates. During periods of increasing unemployment in the country, longer unemployment duration was associated with lower male suicide rates. Effect modification was also apparent by age-group, with stronger associations between unemployment duration and male suicide evident in those aged 25-34 and 55-64, and weaker associations in those aged 15-24 and 44-54 years. Longer length of unemployment was not associated with an increase in female suicide rates. The labour market opportunities in Australia modified the effect of duration of unemployment on suicide, and the effect was more prominent in men and older age groups. This may reflect social norms and acceptability about unemployment, as well as life-stage influences associated with transitions into and out of the labour market.

  19. A reappraisal of the unemployment-mortality relationship: transitory and permanent effects.

    PubMed

    Bender, Keith A; Theodossiou, Ioannis

    2015-02-01

    Using US state-level data for 1974 to 2003, this article estimates a relationship that describes both the transitory and permanent effects of unemployment rates on mortality. It shows that the transitory effect of increasing unemployment rates is to decrease mortality. The permanent effect of increasing unemployment rates is to increase mortality. The detrimental effects of higher unemployment rates on health take a long time to become visible. The permanent scars of unemployment on population health are detrimental and overwhelming. They dwarf any opposite and transitory effects.

  20. Unemployment and dispensed prescribed antidepressants in Stockholm County 1998-09.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Andreas; Hansson, Anders

    2014-08-01

    The association between unemployment rates and population mental health has been studied with contradictory results. We examine the association between unemployment and antidepressants in Stockholm County. Age- and sex-specific monthly data on unemployment and dispensed prescribed antidepressants from January 1998 to January 2008 in Stockholm County were used. The association was studied with bivariate cointegration analysis with stationarity check of the residuals. We found that dispensing of antidepressants was inversely associated with unemployment. One interpretation is that antidepressants have not followed decreasing unemployment rates. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  1. Unemployment and psychological distress one year after childbirth in France

    PubMed Central

    Saurel-Cubizolles, M.; Romito, P.; Ancel, P.; Lelong, N.

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To analyse the relation between unemployment and the psychological distress of mothers one year after childbirth.
DESIGN—Multicentric survey concerning births occurring between September 1993 and July 1994.
SETTING—In France: two maternity units in the Parisian area and one in Champagne-Ardennes, in the east of France, comprising both urban and rural areas.
PARTICIPANTS—Primipara and secondipara women were interviewed three times: at birth by a face to face interview, five months and 12 months after the birth, by postal questionnaires, with a 83% response rate for the two postal questionnaires. The analysis includes 632 women who answered all three stages of the survey.
MEASUREMENTS—Psychological distress was mainly assessed one year after birth by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire.
RESULTS—After adjustment for unwanted pregnancy, marital conflicts, marital status, hospitalisation of the baby during the last year, lack of confiding relationship, depressive or anxious troubles before pregnancy, age, educational level and parity, unemployed women had an excess of psychological distress compared with employed women (OR = 1.87; 95%CI = 1.12, 3.13). The ratios for housewives were very close to those of employed women. Among the unemployed women, 60% had recently been without a job, since a few months before or after the birth. An excess of psychological distress among unemployed compared with employed women was observed in all social groups defined by the current or last occupation, but with various extents. Psychological distress was specially linked to the employment status in the group of women with the more qualified occupations.
CONCLUSION—Even after a birth, when women are very much involved in their maternal role, those seeking a job have worse mental health than those in a stable situation, either employed or housewives. In France, the unemployment rate among young women is high. It is specially important

  2. Area-level socioeconomic deprivation, nitrogen dioxide exposure, and term birth weight in New York City.

    PubMed

    Shmool, Jessie L C; Bobb, Jennifer F; Ito, Kazuhiko; Elston, Beth; Savitz, David A; Ross, Zev; Matte, Thomas D; Johnson, Sarah; Dominici, Francesca; Clougherty, Jane E

    2015-10-01

    Numerous studies have linked air pollution with adverse birth outcomes, but relatively few have examined differential associations across the socioeconomic gradient. To evaluate interaction effects of gestational nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and area-level socioeconomic deprivation on fetal growth, we used: (1) highly spatially-resolved air pollution data from the New York City Community Air Survey (NYCCAS); and (2) spatially-stratified principle component analysis of census variables previously associated with birth outcomes to define area-level deprivation. New York City (NYC) hospital birth records for years 2008-2010 were restricted to full-term, singleton births to non-smoking mothers (n=243,853). We used generalized additive mixed models to examine the potentially non-linear interaction of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and deprivation categories on birth weight (and estimated linear associations, for comparison), adjusting for individual-level socio-demographic characteristics and sensitivity testing adjustment for co-pollutant exposures. Estimated NO2 exposures were highest, and most varying, among mothers residing in the most-affluent census tracts, and lowest among mothers residing in mid-range deprivation tracts. In non-linear models, we found an inverse association between NO2 and birth weight in the least-deprived and most-deprived areas (p-values<0.001 and 0.05, respectively) but no association in the mid-range of deprivation (p=0.8). Likewise, in linear models, a 10 ppb increase in NO2 was associated with a decrease in birth weight among mothers in the least-deprived and most-deprived areas of -16.2g (95% CI: -21.9 to -10.5) and -11.0 g (95% CI: -22.8 to 0.9), respectively, and a non-significant change in the mid-range areas [β=0.5 g (95% CI: -7.7 to 8.7)]. Linear slopes in the most- and least-deprived quartiles differed from the mid-range (reference group) (p-values<0.001 and 0.09, respectively). The complex patterning in air pollution exposure and deprivation

  3. Unemployment and health selection in diverging economic conditions: Compositional changes? Evidence from 28 European countries.

    PubMed

    Heggebø, Kristian; Dahl, Espen

    2015-11-04

    Unemployment and health selection in diverging economic conditions: Compositional changes? Evidence from 28 european countries. People with ill health tend to be overrepresented among the unemployment population. The relationship between health and unemployment might, however, be sensitive to the overall economic condition. Specifically, the health composition of the unemployment population could change dramatically when the economy takes a turn for the worse. Using EU-SILC cross sectional data from 2007 (pre-crisis) and 2011 (during crisis) and linear regression models, this paper investigates the relationship between health and unemployment probabilities under differing economic conditions in 28 European countries. The countries are classified according to (i) the level of and (ii) increase in unemployment rate (i.e. >10 percent and doubling of unemployment rate = crisis country). Firstly, the unemployment likelihood for people with ill health is remarkably stable over time in Europe: the coefficients are very similar in pre-crisis and crisis years. Secondly, people with ill health have experienced unemployment to a lesser extent than those with good health status in the crisis year (when we pool the data and compare 2007 and 2011), but only in the countries with a high and rising unemployment rate. The health composition of the unemployment population changes significantly for the better, but only in those European countries that have been severely hit by the current economic crisis.

  4. An instrumental variable approach to unemployment, psychological health and social norm effects.

    PubMed

    Gathergood, John

    2013-06-01

    This empirical study presents estimates of the impact of unemployment on psychological health using U.K. household panel data. The causal impact of unemployment is established using instrumental variable methods. Psychological health is measured using both the General Household Questionnaire measure and also self-reported data on individual occurrences of anxiety-related conditions. We find evidence for positive selection into unemployment on the basis of poor psychological health. Nevertheless, panel instrumental variable estimates suggest a sizeable causal worsening of psychological health arising from unemployment. We also find evidence that the negative impact of unemployment can be largely mitigated by local labour market conditions: those entering unemployment in localities with higher unemployment rates suffer less deterioration in their psychological health.

  5. Multivariate spatial models of excess crash frequency at area level: case of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Aguero-Valverde, Jonathan

    2013-10-01

    Recently, areal models of crash frequency have being used in the analysis of various area-wide factors affecting road crashes. On the other hand, disease mapping methods are commonly used in epidemiology to assess the relative risk of the population at different spatial units. A natural next step is to combine these two approaches to estimate the excess crash frequency at area level as a measure of absolute crash risk. Furthermore, multivariate spatial models of crash severity are explored in order to account for both frequency and severity of crashes and control for the spatial correlation frequently found in crash data. This paper aims to extent the concept of safety performance functions to be used in areal models of crash frequency. A multivariate spatial model is used for that purpose and compared to its univariate counterpart. Full Bayes hierarchical approach is used to estimate the models of crash frequency at canton level for Costa Rica. An intrinsic multivariate conditional autoregressive model is used for modeling spatial random effects. The results show that the multivariate spatial model performs better than its univariate counterpart in terms of the penalized goodness-of-fit measure Deviance Information Criteria. Additionally, the effects of the spatial smoothing due to the multivariate spatial random effects are evident in the estimation of excess equivalent property damage only crashes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reciprocal link between exit from unemployment and geographical mobility.

    PubMed

    Detang-dessendre, C

    1999-08-01

    "Is geographical migration a consequence of the end of unemployment or does it help in finding a job? This question is approached within the general framework of human capital theory.... A model is introduced in the form of a system of two simultaneous equations with qualitative endogenous variables. The test is based on a 1993 survey of 1,176 young rural people of seven areas of France. A main finding is that migrations of young rural people are essentially the result of professional preoccupations. However, migration is not a factor which always helps in finding a job, when people are unemployed. When a young person has a good initial training, he or she has to migrate (and leave a rural area) to get a job. Yet, migration does not seem to be necessary for less trained people."

  7. Youth unemployment and mental health: some Dutch findings.

    PubMed

    Schaufeli, W B

    1997-06-01

    Two hypotheses were investigated: (1) the causation hypothesis that assumes that unemployment leads to poor mental health and (2) the selection hypothesis that assumes that poor mental health reduces the likelihood of finding a job. A prospective longitudinal design was used in order to study two Dutch samples: 635 college graduates and 767 school-leavers. The causation hypothesis was confirmed for school-leavers but not for college graduates. In addition, as expected, employment and further education increased levels of mental health among school-leavers. The selection hypothesis, that unfortunately could only be studied in the graduate sample, was not confirmed as far as mental health was concerned. However, it appeared that future employment among graduates was predicted by a positive attitude and an active way of dealing with unemployment. Results are interpreted with reference to the favourable Dutch structural and cultural context that existed at the time the research was conducted. In addition, the role of proactivity is discussed.

  8. The Far-Reaching Impact of Job Loss and Unemployment.

    PubMed

    Brand, Jennie E

    2015-08-01

    Job loss is an involuntary disruptive life event with a far-reaching impact on workers' life trajectories. Its incidence among growing segments of the workforce, alongside the recent era of severe economic upheaval, has increased attention to the effects of job loss and unemployment. As a relatively exogenous labor market shock, the study of displacement enables robust estimates of associations between socioeconomic circumstances and life outcomes. Research suggests that displacement is associated with subsequent unemployment, long-term earnings losses, and lower job quality; declines in psychological and physical well-being; loss of psychosocial assets; social withdrawal; family disruption; and lower levels of children's attainment and well-being. While reemployment mitigates some of the negative effects of job loss, it does not eliminate them. Contexts of widespread unemployment, although associated with larger economic losses, lessen the social-psychological impact of job loss. Future research should attend more fully to how the economic and social-psychological effects of displacement intersect and extend beyond displaced workers themselves.

  9. The Far-Reaching Impact of Job Loss and Unemployment*

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Jennie E.

    2015-01-01

    Job loss is an involuntary disruptive life event with a far-reaching impact on workers’ life trajectories. Its incidence among growing segments of the workforce, alongside the recent era of severe economic upheaval, has increased attention to the effects of job loss and unemployment. As a relatively exogenous labor market shock, the study of displacement enables robust estimates of associations between socioeconomic circumstances and life outcomes. Research suggests that displacement is associated with subsequent unemployment, long-term earnings losses, and lower job quality; declines in psychological and physical well-being; loss of psychosocial assets; social withdrawal; family disruption; and lower levels of children’s attainment and well-being. While reemployment mitigates some of the negative effects of job loss, it does not eliminate them. Contexts of widespread unemployment, although associated with larger economic losses, lessen the social-psychological impact of job loss. Future research should attend more fully to how the economic and social-psychological effects of displacement intersect and extend beyond displaced workers themselves. PMID:26336327

  10. Unemployment, earnings and enrollment among post 9/11 veterans.

    PubMed

    Kleykamp, Meredith

    2013-05-01

    This paper examines three outcomes characterizing different aspects of post 9/11 veterans' economic reintegration to civilian life: unemployment, earnings and college enrollment, using Current Population Survey data from 2005 to 2011. Analyses include interactions of veteran status with sex, race/ethnicity and educational attainment to evaluate whether diverse veterans experience diverse consequences of service. In brief, I find that the basic unemployment differences between veterans and non-veterans often reported in the media understate the effect of military service on unemployment for men, since veterans have other characteristics that are associated with higher employment rates. Female veterans appear to suffer a steeper employment penalty than male veterans, but black veterans appear to suffer less of a penalty than white veterans. But on two other measures, earnings and college enrollment, veterans appear to be doing better than their civilian peers. Veterans with a high school education or less outearn their civilian peers, but veterans with at least some college education appear to lose some or all of the veteran earnings advantage compared to veterans with a high school degree, suggesting the greatest wage returns to military service accrue among the least educated. Veterans with at least a high school education are more likely to be enrolled in college than their civilian peers. Treating veterans as a monolithic block obscures differences in the consequences of military service across diverse groups.

  11. Indicators of deprivation, voting patterns, and health status at area level in the Republic of Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Kelleher, C; Timoney, A; Friel, S; McKeown, D

    2002-01-01

    Study objective: To determine what relation, if any, exists between mortality patterns, indicators of deprivation, general lifestyle and social attitudes, as exemplified by general election voting pattern, in the Republic of Ireland. A relation has been demonstrated previously between voting and mortality patterns in the United Kingdom. Design: Cross sectional ecological study using three data sources. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were based on mortality rates at county level and 1996 census data from the Central Statistics Office, 1997 general election first preference voting data in all 41 constituencies were aggregated to county level. Selected reported measures of health status, lifestyle and social circumstances are from the first ever National survey on lifestyles, attitudes and nutrition (SLAN). This study comprised adults over 18 years sampled by post using the electoral register from 273 representative district electoral divisions. Univariate inter-relations were examined at individual level for the dataset as a whole, adjusting for age and at aggregated level for 26 county borough areas, which included the two largest cities and for 22 county areas, which afforded correlation with voting pattern, using the method of Pearson's correlation coefficient. Participants: 1 806 932 votes were cast nationally at the 1997 general election, representing a voter turnout of 65.92 %. There was an overall response rate of 62% to SLAN comprising 6539 adults (47% male). The demographic pattern of survey respondents was consistent with that of the general population over 18 years. Main results: At individual level there was a large number of highly significant inter-relations between indicators of deprivation, various measures of self rated health status and lifestyle factors. Aggregated at 26 county level percentage unemployed (r=0.408, p=0.038), and level of education (r=0.475, p=0.014) related significantly to SMR and inversely to both fruit and vegetable

  12. Indicators of deprivation, voting patterns, and health status at area level in the Republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, C; Timoney, A; Friel, S; McKeown, D

    2002-01-01

    To determine what relation, if any, exists between mortality patterns, indicators of deprivation, general lifestyle and social attitudes, as exemplified by general election voting pattern, in the Republic of Ireland. A relation has been demonstrated previously between voting and mortality patterns in the United Kingdom. Cross sectional ecological study using three data sources. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were based on mortality rates at county level and 1996 census data from the Central Statistics Office, 1997 general election first preference voting data in all 41 constituencies were aggregated to county level. Selected reported measures of health status, lifestyle and social circumstances are from the first ever National survey on lifestyles, attitudes and nutrition (SLAN). This study comprised adults over 18 years sampled by post using the electoral register from 273 representative district electoral divisions. Univariate inter-relations were examined at individual level for the dataset as a whole, adjusting for age and at aggregated level for 26 county borough areas, which included the two largest cities and for 22 county areas, which afforded correlation with voting pattern, using the method of Pearson's correlation coefficient. 1,806,932 votes were cast nationally at the 1997 general election, representing a voter turnout of 65.92 %. There was an overall response rate of 62% to SLAN comprising 6539 adults (47% male). The demographic pattern of survey respondents was consistent with that of the general population over 18 years. At individual level there was a large number of highly significant inter-relations between indicators of deprivation, various measures of self rated health status and lifestyle factors. Aggregated at 26 county level percentage unemployed (r=0.408, p=0.038), and level of education (r=0.475, p=0.014) related significantly to SMR and inversely to both fruit and vegetable consumption (r= -0.672, p=0.001) and excess alcohol

  13. Do relationships between environmental attributes and recreational walking vary according to area-level socioeconomic status?

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Howard, Natasha J; Paquet, Catherine; Coffee, Neil T; Taylor, Anne W; Daniel, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Residents of areas with lower socioeconomic status (SES) are known to be less physically active during leisure time. Neighborhood walkability has been shown to be related to recreational walking equally in low and high SES areas. This cross-sectional study tested whether associations of specific environmental attributes, measured objectively and subjectively, with walking for recreation were moderated by area-level SES. The data of the North West Adelaide Health Study collected in 2007 (n = 1500, mean age 57) were used. Self-reported walking frequency was the outcome of the study. Environmental exposure measures included objectively measured walkability components (residential density, intersection density, land use mix, and net retail area ratio) and perceived attributes (access to destinations, neighborhood esthetics, walking infrastructure, traffic/barriers, and crime safety). Participants' suburbs were categorized into low and high SES areas using an indicator of socioeconomic disadvantage. Low SES areas had lower scores in residential density, neighborhood esthetics, walking infrastructure, traffic/barriers, and crime safety. Recreational walking was associated with residential density, access to destinations, esthetics, traffic/barriers, and crime safety. Effect modification was observed for two attributes (out of nine): residential density was associated with walking only in low SES areas, while walking infrastructure was associated with walking only in high SES areas. The associations of neighborhood environmental attributes with recreational walking were largely consistent across SES groups. However, low SES areas were disadvantaged in most perceived environmental attributes related to recreational walking. Improving such attributes in low SES neighborhoods may help close socioeconomic disparities in leisure time physical activity.

  14. Individual and Area Level Factors Associated with Prenatal, Delivery, and Postnatal Care in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Budhwani, Henna; Hearld, Kristine Ria; Harbison, Hanne

    2015-10-01

    This research examines individual and area level factors associated with maternal health care utilization in Pakistan. The 2012-2013 Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys data was used to model five outcomes: prenatal care within the first trimester, four plus prenatal visits, birth attendance by a skilled attendant, birth in a medical facility, and receipt of postnatal care. Less than half of births were to mothers receiving prenatal care in the first trimester, and approximately 57 % had trained personnel at delivery. Over half were born to mothers who received postnatal care. Evidence was found to support the positive effect of individual level variables, education and wealth, on the utilization of maternal health care across all five measures. Although, this study did not find unilateral differences between women residing in rural and urban settings, rural women were found to have lower odds of utilizing prenatal services as compared to mothers in urban environments. Additionally, women who cited distance as a barrier, had lower odds of receiving postnatal health care, but still engaged in prenatal services and often had a skilled attendant present at delivery. The odds of utilizing prenatal care increased when women resided in an area where prenatal utilization was high, and this variability was found across measures across provinces. The results found in this paper highlight the uneven progress made around improving prenatal, delivery, and postnatal care in Pakistan; disparities persist which may be attributed to factors both at the individual and community level, but may be addressed through a consorted effort to change national policy around women's health which should include the promotion of evidence based interventions such as incentivizing health care workers, promoting girls' education, and improving transportation options for pregnant women and recent mothers with the intent of ultimately lowering the Maternal Mortality Rate as recommended in the U

  15. Area-level disadvantage and alcohol use disorder in northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Ricardo; Benjet, Corina; Ruiz Velasco-Acosta, Silvia; Moreno Altamirano, Laura; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Zemore, Sarah; Cherpitel, Cheryl; Borges, Guilherme

    2017-06-01

    In Mexico, the Northern States are highly impacted by alcohol consumption and associated problems. Little is known about the association between contextual social disadvantage and alcohol use disorder in this region. Information from 1265 current drinkers surveyed in the U.S.-Mexico Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions (UMSARC) was combined with official data on neighborhood disadvantage (index of urban marginalization, a composite of ten indicators of area-level social disadvantage) for 302 neighborhoods. Using statistical marginal models, we estimated the association of neighborhood disadvantage with alcohol use disorder (AUD; based on DSM-5 criteria), alone and with adjustment for individual and contextual covariates. We also tested for moderation of neighborhood disadvantage effects by sex, education, internal migration and border area. There was a statistically significant increase in the odds of AUD of 59% (AOR=1.59; 95%CI=1.03, 2.46) for every one-point increase on the neighborhood disadvantage scale, after adjustment for covariates. A significant interaction between sex and neighborhood disadvantage was indicated by two measures of additive interaction (AP=0.55; p<0.001 and S=2.55; p<0.001), with higher neighborhood disadvantage related to higher prevalence of AUD for men but not for women. No moderation effects were observed for education, internal migration or border area. Neighborhood disadvantage is a risk factor for AUD independent of other variables, specifically in men. Studies of contextual variables offer the possibility for understanding the role of collective circumstances on individuals in society. Future studies of alcohol use in this geographic area should consider effects of contextual determinants such as disadvantage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Area-level poverty and preterm birth risk: A population-based multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    DeFranco, Emily A; Lian, Min; Muglia, Louis A; Schootman, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is a complex disease with etiologic influences from a variety of social, environmental, hormonal, genetic, and other factors. The purpose of this study was to utilize a large population-based birth registry to estimate the independent effect of county-level poverty on preterm birth risk. To accomplish this, we used a multilevel logistic regression approach to account for multiple co-existent individual-level variables and county-level poverty rate. Methods Population-based study utilizing Missouri's birth certificate database (1989–1997). We conducted a multilevel logistic regression analysis to estimate the effect of county-level poverty on PTB risk. Of 634,994 births nested within 115 counties in Missouri, two levels were considered. Individual-level variables included demographics factors, prenatal care, health-related behavioral risk factors, and medical risk factors. The area-level variable included the percentage of the population within each county living below the poverty line (US census data, 1990). Counties were divided into quartiles of poverty; the first quartile (lowest rate of poverty) was the reference group. Results PTB < 35 weeks occurred in 24,490 pregnancies (3.9%). The rate of PTB < 35 weeks was 2.8% in counties within the lowest quartile of poverty and increased through the 4th quartile (4.9%), p < 0.0001. High county-level poverty was significantly associated with PTB risk. PTB risk (< 35 weeks) was increased for women who resided in counties within the highest quartile of poverty, adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) 1.18 (95% CI 1.03, 1.35), with a similar effect at earlier gestational ages (< 32 weeks), adjOR 1.27 (95% CI 1.06, 1.52). Conclusion Women residing in socioeconomically deprived areas are at increased risk of preterm birth, above other underlying risk factors. Although the risk increase is modest, it affects a large number of pregnancies. PMID:18793437

  17. Area-level risk factors for adverse birth outcomes: trends in urban and rural settings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Significant and persistent racial and income disparities in birth outcomes exist in the US. The analyses in this manuscript examine whether adverse birth outcome time trends and associations between area-level variables and adverse birth outcomes differ by urban–rural status. Methods Alabama births records were merged with ZIP code-level census measures of race, poverty, and rurality. B-splines were used to determine long-term preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) trends by rurality. Logistic regression models were used to examine differences in the relationships between ZIP code-level percent poverty or percent African-American with either PTB or LBW. Interactions with rurality were examined. Results Population dense areas had higher adverse birth outcome rates compared to other regions. For LBW, the disparity between population dense and other regions increased during the 1991–2005 time period, and the magnitude of the disparity was maintained through 2010. Overall PTB and LBW rates have decreased since 2006, except within isolated rural regions. The addition of individual-level socioeconomic or race risk factors greatly attenuated these geographical disparities, but isolated rural regions maintained increased odds of adverse birth outcomes. ZIP code-level percent poverty and percent African American both had significant relationships with adverse birth outcomes. Poverty associations remained significant in the most population-dense regions when models were adjusted for individual-level risk factors. Conclusions Population dense urban areas have heightened rates of adverse birth outcomes. High-poverty African American areas have higher odds of adverse birth outcomes in urban versus rural regions. These results suggest there are urban-specific social or environmental factors increasing risk for adverse birth outcomes in underserved communities. On the other hand, trends in PTBs and LBWs suggest interventions that have decreased adverse

  18. Access to eye health services among indigenous Australians: an area level analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This project is a community-level study of equity of access to eye health services for Indigenous Australians. Methods The project used data on eye health services from multiple sources including Medicare Australia, inpatient and outpatient data and the National Indigenous Eye Health Survey. The analysis focused on the extent to which access to eye health services varied at an area level according to the proportion of the population that was Indigenous (very low = 0-1.0%, low = 1.1-3.0%, low medium = 3.1-6.0%, high medium = 6.1-10.0%, high = 10.1-20.0%, very high = 20 + %). The analysis of health service utilisation also took into account age, remoteness and the Socioeconomic Indices for Areas (SEIFA). Results The rate of eye exams provided in areas with very high Indigenous populations was two-thirds of the rate of eye exams for areas with very low indigenous populations. The cataract surgery rates in areas with high medium to very high Indigenous populations were less than half that reference areas. In over a third of communities with very high Indigenous populations the cataract surgery rate fell below the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines compared to a cataract surgery rate of 3% in areas with very low Indigenous populations. Conclusions There remain serious disparities in access to eye health service in areas with high Indigenous populations. Addressing disparities requires a co-ordinated approach to improving Indigenous people’s access to eye health services. More extensive take-up of existing Medicare provisions is an important step in this process. Along with improving access to health services, community education concerning the importance of eye health and the effectiveness of treatment might reduce reluctance to seek help. PMID:22998612

  19. How the Issue of Unemployment and the Unemployed Is Treated in Adult Education Literature within Polish and U.S. Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogorzelska, Marzanna; Biniecki, Susan Yelich

    2016-01-01

    This paper, based on a qualitative analysis of adult education literature, presents a comparison of approaches to unemployment-related problems in Poland and the US. Unemployment serves here as a lens through which attitudes towards various areas connected with adult education can be viewed. The conclusions drawn from the research can be both the…

  20. Youth unemployment and functional somatic symptoms in adulthood: results from the Northern Swedish cohort.

    PubMed

    Brydsten, Anna; Hammarström, Anne; Strandh, Mattias; Johansson, Klara

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the possible long-term health consequences of youth unemployment. Research indicates that unemployment may lead to socioeconomic downward mobility and mental health problems, but we still lack knowledge of the long-term health consequences of youth unemployment. This article examines the potential long-term association between youth unemployment and functional somatic symptoms in adulthood. The 'Northern Swedish cohort' was used with data from five data collections, from 1981 (age 16) until 2007 (age 42). Youth unemployment was measured as months in unemployment between age 16 and 21, and health outcome as functional somatic symptoms (an index of 10 items of self-reported symptoms). Linear regression was used to analyse the relationship between months in youth unemployment and functional somatic symptoms at age 21 and age 42, stratified for women and men and adjusted for potential confounders, such as time spent in education at age 21 and later unemployment between age 21 and 42. Youth unemployment was significantly related to functional somatic symptoms at age 21 for men after controlling for confounders, but not for women. Among men, the association remained for functional somatic symptoms at age 42, after controlling for confounders. Adolescence seems to be a sensitive period during which unemployment could have remaining health effects in adulthood, at least for men, though assumptions of causality are tentative and more research is needed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of job loss and unemployment duration on suicide risk in the United States: a new look using mass-layoffs and unemployment duration*

    PubMed Central

    Classen, Timothy J.; Dunn, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the link between employment status and suicide risk using a panel of US states from 1996 to 2005 with monthly data on suicides, the duration of unemployment spells and the number of job losses associated with mass layoff events. The use of aggregate data at the monthly level along with the distribution of unemployment duration allows us to separate the effect of job loss from the effect of unemployment duration, an important distinction for policy purposes, especially for the timing of potential interventions. Our results are consistent with unemployment duration being the dominant force in the relationship between job loss and suicide. Nevertheless, mass layoffs may be powerful localized events where suicide risk increases shortly afterward. Implications for the design of unemployment insurance are discussed. PMID:21322087

  2. Unemployment among Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A report from the Childhood Cancer Survivors Study

    PubMed Central

    Kirchhoff, Anne C.; Leisenring, Wendy; Krull, Kevin R.; Ness, Kirsten K.; Friedman, Debra L.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Stovall, Marilyn; Park, Elyse R.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Hudson, Melissa; Robison, Leslie L.; Wickizer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background Adult childhood cancer survivors report high levels of unemployment although it is unknown whether this is due to health or employability limitations. Objectives We examined two employment outcomes from 2002–2005 in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS): 1. health-related unemployment and 2. unemployed but seeking work. We compared survivors to a nearest-age CCSS sibling cohort and examined demographic and treatment-related risk groups for each outcome. Methods We studied 6339 survivors and 2280 siblings aged ≥25 years excluding those unemployed by choice. Multivariable generalized linear models evaluated whether survivors were more likely to be unemployed than siblings and whether certain survivors were at a higher risk for unemployment. Results Survivors (10.4%) reported health-related unemployment more often than siblings (1.8%; Relative Risk [RR] 6.07, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 4.32–8.53). Survivors (5.0%) were more likely to report being unemployed but seeking work than siblings (2.7%; RR 1.90, 95% CI 1.43–2.54). Health-related unemployment was more common in female survivors than males (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.73, 95% CI 1.43–2.08). Cranial radiotherapy doses ≥25 Gy were associated with higher odds of unemployment (health-related: OR 3.47, 95% CI 2.54–4.74; seeking work: OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.15–2.71). Unemployed survivors reported higher levels of poor physical functioning than employed survivors, and had lower education and income and were more likely to be publicly insured than unemployed siblings. Conclusions Childhood cancer survivors have higher levels of unemployment due to health or being between jobs. High-risk survivors may need vocational assistance. PMID:20940653

  3. Trajectories of Antidepressant Medication before and after the Onset of Unemployment by Subsequent Employment Experience

    PubMed Central

    Leinonen, Taina; Mäki, Netta; Martikainen, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    Background The unemployed more often suffer from depression than the employed. We examined whether mental health deterioration occurs already before unemployment implicating health selection, or whether it mostly occurs after becoming exposed to the experience rendering causal explanations more likely. Methods We used nationally representative Finnish register data to examine changes in depressive morbidity as measured by antidepressant medication in 1995–2009 over four years before and since a new onset of unemployment (N = 28 000) at the age of 30–60 compared to the employed (N = 124 136). We examined separately those who became continuously long-term unemployed, intermittently unemployed and unemployed with eventual re-employment in the second, third or fourth year since the year of onset. Annual repeated measurements were analysed using generalised estimation equations. Results Among the employed antidepressant medication increased slowly but steadily over the study period and it was mainly at a lower level than among the unemployed. In the four years leading to unemployment there was excess increase in medication that was generally stronger among those with longer duration of the eventual unemployment experience. During unemployment medication decreased in all groups except among the intermittently unemployed. By the first year of re-employment antidepressant medication reached a level similar to that among the employed and afterwards followed no consistent trend. Conclusions The associations of unemployment and re-employment with depressive morbidity appear to be largely driven by health selection. The question of potential causal associations remains unresolved for intermittent unemployment in particular. PMID:28056083

  4. Time trends in the association of ESRD incidence with area-level poverty in the US population.

    PubMed

    Garrity, Bridget H; Kramer, Holly; Vellanki, Kavitha; Leehey, David; Brown, Julia; Shoham, David A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the temporal trends of the association between area-level poverty status and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) incidence. We hypothesized that the association between area-level poverty status and ESRD incidence has increased significantly over time. Patient data from the United States Renal Data System were linked with data from the 2000 and 2010 US census. Area-level poverty was defined as living in a zip code-defined area with ≥20% of households living below the federal poverty line. Negative binomial regression models were created to examine the association between area-level poverty status and ESRD incidence by time period in the US adult population while simultaneously adjusting for the distribution of age, sex, and race/ethnicity within a zip code. Time was categorized as January 1, 1995 through December 31, 2004 (Period 1) and January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2010 (Period 2). The percentage of adults initiating dialysis with area-level poverty increased from 27.4% during Period 1 to 34.0% in Period 2. After accounting for the distribution of age, sex, and race/ethnicity within a zip code, area-level poverty status was associated with a 1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22, 1.25)-fold higher ESRD incidence. However, this association differed by time period with 1.04-fold (95% CI 1.02, 1.05) higher ESRD incidence associated with poverty status for Period 2 compared with the association between ESRD and poverty status in Period 1. Area-level poverty and its association with ESRD incidence is not static over time. © 2015 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  5. Age differences in the association of childhood obesity with area-level and school-level deprivation: cross-classified multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data.

    PubMed

    Townsend, N; Rutter, H; Foster, C

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that area-level deprivation is associated with obesity independently of individual socioeconomic status; however, although the school may also have an impact on child health, few studies have investigated the association between school-level deprivation and the body mass index (BMI) of students. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the BMI for children of different ages and area-level and school-level deprivation. BMI measurements were collected through the National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) that samples from two school years: 396,171 reception year pupils (4-5-year olds) and 392,344 year 6 pupils (10-11-year olds) from 14,054 primary schools in England. Cross-classified multilevel models with four levels: individual (n=788,525), lower super output areas corresponding to area of residence (n=29,606), schools (n=14,054) and primary care trusts (PCTs, n=143), which coordinate the collection of data within a large area, were used to study the relationship between measures of deprivation at an area and school level, and childhood BMI within England. A positive association was found between the area and school measures of deprivation, and student BMI. Both the measures of deprivation explained a greater proportion of variance in BMI z-scores for year 6 students than for the reception year students, with a greater difference between the year groups found with the school-level measure of socioeconomic status than for the the area-level measure. Deprivation explains a greater proportion of the variance in BMI for older compared with younger children, perhaps reflecting the impact of deprivation as children age, highlighting the widening of health inequalities through childhood. The association with school-level deprivation illustrates the impact of the school on BMI status throughout the primary school years.

  6. Area-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Overweight and Obesity in a Community-Derived Cohort of Health Service Users - A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Bonney, Andrew; Mayne, Darren J; Jones, Bryan D; Bott, Lawrence; Andersen, Stephen E J; Caputi, Peter; Weston, Kathryn M; Iverson, Don C

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity lead to higher probability of individuals accessing primary care but adiposity estimates are rarely available at regional levels to inform health service planning. This paper analyses a large, community-derived clinical database of objectively measured body mass index (BMI) to explore relationships with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage for informing regional level planning activities. The study included 91776 adults who had BMI objectively measured between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2011 by a single pathology provider. Demographic data and BMI were extracted and matched to 2006 national census socioeconomic data using geocoding. Adjusted odds-ratios for overweight and obesity were calculated using sex-stratified logistic regression models with socioeconomic disadvantage of census collection district of residence as the independent variable. The prevalence of overweight or obesity was 79.2% (males) and 65.8% (females); increased with age to 74 years; and was higher in rural (74%) versus urban areas (71.4%) (p<0.001). Increasing socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with increasing prevalence of overweight (p<0.0001), obesity (p<0.0001) and overweight or obesity (p<0.0001) in women and obesity (p<0.0001) in men. Socioeconomic disadvantage was unrelated to overweight (p = 0.2024) and overweight or obesity (p = 0.4896) in males. It is feasible to link routinely-collected clinical data, representative of a discrete population, with geographic distribution of disadvantage, and to obtain meaningful area-level information useful for targeting interventions to improve population health. Our results demonstrate novel area-level socioeconomic gradients in overweight and obesity relevant to regional health service planning.

  7. Area-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Overweight and Obesity in a Community-Derived Cohort of Health Service Users – A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Bonney, Andrew; Mayne, Darren J.; Jones, Bryan D.; Bott, Lawrence; Andersen, Stephen E. J.; Caputi, Peter; Weston, Kathryn M.; Iverson, Don C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity lead to higher probability of individuals accessing primary care but adiposity estimates are rarely available at regional levels to inform health service planning. This paper analyses a large, community-derived clinical database of objectively measured body mass index (BMI) to explore relationships with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage for informing regional level planning activities. Materials and Methods The study included 91776 adults who had BMI objectively measured between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2011 by a single pathology provider. Demographic data and BMI were extracted and matched to 2006 national census socioeconomic data using geocoding. Adjusted odds-ratios for overweight and obesity were calculated using sex-stratified logistic regression models with socioeconomic disadvantage of census collection district of residence as the independent variable. Results The prevalence of overweight or obesity was 79.2% (males) and 65.8% (females); increased with age to 74 years; and was higher in rural (74%) versus urban areas (71.4%) (p<0.001). Increasing socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with increasing prevalence of overweight (p<0.0001), obesity (p<0.0001) and overweight or obesity (p<0.0001) in women and obesity (p<0.0001) in men. Socioeconomic disadvantage was unrelated to overweight (p = 0.2024) and overweight or obesity (p = 0.4896) in males. Conclusion It is feasible to link routinely-collected clinical data, representative of a discrete population, with geographic distribution of disadvantage, and to obtain meaningful area-level information useful for targeting interventions to improve population health. Our results demonstrate novel area-level socioeconomic gradients in overweight and obesity relevant to regional health service planning. PMID:26317861

  8. [Does unemployment cause illness? A review of the status of knowledge of the correlation between unemployment, physical and psychological health risks].

    PubMed

    Häfner, H

    1988-10-01

    Unemployment appears to be a complex condition that burdens the individuals affected in multiple ways both at job loss and in long-term unemployment. To a lesser extent unemployment may also relieve the stressors and risks associated with the place of work. The scope and nature of the burden experienced depends on individual factors, such as mental stability and coping resources, on economic, social and cultural factors, such as availability of alternative roles, system of social security and social context. In the industralized countries, especially in the Federal Republic of Germany, financial security and society's attitudes towards unemployment are less unfavourable than during the economic recession between the two world wars. Nevertheless, household income should not be overlooked as an important factor leading to stress beyond a certain threshold. In this respect it is noteworthy that the income of the unemployed households in the Federal Republic of Germany decreased by 8% between 1981 and 1983 (Brinkmann, 1986). Quantitative relationships between unemployment and physical health have frequently been reported. In studies whose designs allow such associations to be explained selection factors, i.e. an overrepresentation of frequently or chronically ill and disabled individuals among those losing their jobs and the long-term unemployed, contribute to the increased morbidity among the unemployed to a considerable extent. Causal relationships between unemployment and physical health risks have not yet been proven directly, which does not mean that there are none. The mediation of health risks by changes in behaviour during unemployment which as such might lead to or reduce morbidity and mortality risks has not yet been studied sufficiently. Unemployment appears to have both an increasing and a reducing effect, but also no effect at all on the use of alcohol and tobacco in different populations. But we do not yet know enough about the mechanisms bringing about

  9. Regional Inequalities in Lung Cancer Mortality in Belgium at the Beginning of the 21st Century: The Contribution of Individual and Area-Level Socioeconomic Status and Industrial Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Hagedoorn, Paulien; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Willaert, Didier; Vanthomme, Katrien; Gadeyne, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Being a highly industrialized country with one of the highest male lung cancer mortality rates in Europe, Belgium is an interesting study area for lung cancer research. This study investigates geographical patterns in lung cancer mortality in Belgium. More specifically it probes into the contribution of individual as well as area-level characteristics to (sub-district patterns in) lung cancer mortality. Data from the 2001 census linked to register data from 2001–2011 are used, selecting all Belgian inhabitants aged 65+ at time of the census. Individual characteristics include education, housing status and home ownership. Urbanicity, unemployment rate, the percentage employed in mining and the percentage employed in other high-risk industries are included as sub-district characteristics. Regional variation in lung cancer mortality at sub-district level is estimated using directly age-standardized mortality rates. The association between lung cancer mortality and individual and area characteristics, and their impact on the variation of sub-district level is estimated using multilevel Poisson models. Significant sub-district variations in lung cancer mortality are observed. Individual characteristics explain a small share of this variation, while a large share is explained by sub-district characteristics. Individuals with a low socioeconomic status experience a higher lung cancer mortality risk. Among women, an association with lung cancer mortality is found for the sub-district characteristics urbanicity and unemployment rate, while for men lung cancer mortality was associated with the percentage employed in mining. Not just individual characteristics, but also area characteristics are thus important determinants of (regional differences in) lung cancer mortality. PMID:26760040

  10. The Associations of Area-Level Violent Crime Rates and Self-Reported Violent Crime Exposure with Adolescent Behavioral Health.

    PubMed

    Grinshteyn, Erin G; Xu, Haiyong; Manteuffel, Brigitte; Ettner, Susan L

    2017-08-31

    The effects of witnessing and experiencing crime have seldom been disaggregated. Little research has assessed the effect of multiple exposures to crime. We assess independent contributions of self-reported crime and area-level crime to adolescent behavioral health outcomes. Cross sectional data on 5519 adolescents from the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and their Families Program was linked to FBI crime rate data to assess associations of mutually exclusive categories of self-reported crime exposure and area-level crime rates with mental health and substance abuse. Self-reported crime exposure was significantly associated with poorer behavioral health. Violent victimization had the largest association with all outcomes except internalizing scores. All self-reported crime variables were significantly associated with three of the outcomes. Area-level crime rates were associated with one mental health outcome. Providers should assess direct and indirect crime exposure rather than only focusing on violent victimization.

  11. Military and mental health correlates of unemployment in a national sample of women veterans.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Alison B; Williams, Lindsay; Washington, Donna L

    2015-04-01

    The unemployment rate is currently higher among women Veterans than among male Veterans and civilian women. Employment is a key social determinant of health, with unemployment being strongly associated with adverse health. To identify military-related and health-related characteristics associated with unemployment in women Veterans. Secondary analysis of workforce participants (n=1605) in the National Survey of Women Veterans telephone survey. Demographics, mental health conditions, health care utilization, and military experiences and effects. Unemployment was defined as being in the labor force but unemployed and looking for work. The χ analyses to identify characteristics of unemployed women Veterans; logistic regression to identify independent factors associated with unemployment. Ten percent of women Veterans were unemployed. Independent correlates of unemployment were screening positive for depression [odds ratio (OR)=4.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-12.4], military service during wartime (OR=2.9; 95%, CI 1.1-7.3), and service in the regular military (vs. in the National Guards/Reserves only) (OR=6.8; 95% CI, 2.2-20.5). Two postactive duty perceptions related to not being respected and understood as a Veteran were each independently associated with unemployment. Whether depression underlies unemployment, is exacerbated by unemployment, or both, it is critical to identify and treat depression among women Veterans, and also to investigate women Veterans' experiences and identities in civilian life. Community-based employers may need education regarding women Veterans' unique histories and strengths. Women who served in the regular military and during wartime may benefit from job assistance before and after they leave the military. Gender-specific adaptation of employment services may be warranted.

  12. Inequalities in Croatian pupils' risk behaviors associated to socioeconomic environment at school and area level: a multilevel approach.

    PubMed

    Pavic Simetin, Ivana; Kern, Josipa; Kuzman, Marina; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja

    2013-12-01

    The socioeconomic inequality in pupils' risk behaviors has been the topic of many studies with quite contradictory findings. Furthermore, the role of socioeconomic environment has been analyzed much less often than the role of individual socioeconomic status (SES). This study examined the association between school/area-level socioeconomic environment and Croatian pupils' risk behaviors (tobacco use, drunkenness, cannabis use, early sexual initiation and fighting). Data from the WHO-Collaborative 'Health Behavior in School-aged Children' study conducted in Croatia in 2006 (1601 secondary schools' pupils, aged 15) and census data were used. Multilevel logistic regression analyses, adjusted by gender, were performed. The individual level of SES explained the majority of differences in all risk behaviors among adolescents. Differences in tobacco use, early sexual initiation and fighting were more closely attributed to school level than area level, which was more closely associated with differences in adolescent drunkenness and cannabis use. At the individual level, high individual SES was associated with higher probability for tobacco use and drunkenness compared to low individual SES. Furthermore, school heterogeneity (compared to school homogeneity) and medium school-level SES (compared to low school-level SES) were associated with higher probability for cannabis use. Compared to the most advanced schools (gymnasiums), attending the least advanced schools (industrial and crafts schools) was associated with higher probability for fighting. Compared to low area-level SES, medium area-level SES was associated with higher probability for cannabis use and fighting. Conclusively, it was found that low SES at individual, school and area levels, school homogeneity and advanced school attendance play a protective role against risk behaviors. To reduce inequalities in pupils' risk behaviors, there is a need for community and school-based programs that take into consideration

  13. Workforce re-entry for Japanese unemployed dental hygienists.

    PubMed

    Usui, Y; Miura, H

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to define the profile of unemployed dental hygienists who could be enticed to re-enter the workforce and the factors that could facilitate their re-entry into the dental field in Japan. The questionnaire was mailed with a postage-paid return envelope to a sample of 3095 licensed dental hygienists. A 50.4% response rate (S = 1477) was observed. The rate of working dental hygienists was 60.3% (n = 891), and of unemployed dental hygienists was 39.7% (n = 586). Of the latter, 31.9% (n = 187) stated intentions of returning to the workplace. The unemployed dental hygienists seeking employment were more often married and had more children, compared with working dental hygienists currently. This group also had significantly fewer total service years. Moreover, only 11.96% of them belonged to the Japan Dental Hygienists' Association, and 41.3% of those attended training workshops. According to their response, they perceived their top three major barriers to re-entry as 'lack sufficient dental hygiene skill', 'child rearing' and 'poor working atmosphere'. 'Flexibility in the work schedule' and 'location' were the most important factors for re-entry from their perspective. There were not many dental hygienists hoping to return to the dental field. The findings suggested that strategies to encourage non-practicing dental hygienists to re-entry should be emphasized in the areas of a flexible working atmosphere, easy access to information on how to return to practice and guidance on how to maintain professionalism during inactivity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Income inequality, area-level poverty, perceived aversion to inequality, and self-rated health in Japan.

    PubMed

    Oshio, Takashi; Kobayashi, Miki

    2009-08-01

    In this study we conduct a multilevel analysis to investigate the association between regional income inequality and self-rated health in Japan, based on two nationwide surveys. We confirm that there is a significant association between area-level income inequality and individual-level health assessment. We also find that health assessment tends to be more sensitive to income inequality among lower income individuals, and to degree of area-level poverty, than income inequality for the society as a whole. In addition, we examine how individuals are averse to inequality, based on the observed association between inequality and self-rated health.

  15. Canada's unemployment-immigration linkage: demographic, economic, and political influences.

    PubMed

    Foot, D K

    1994-01-01

    "This paper rejects Veugelers and Klassen's initial suggestion that greater concern with demographic considerations might provide a useful explanation for their empirical finding of a post-1989 change in the unemployment-immigration linkage [in Canada] and offers alternative explanations consistent with economic and, especially, sociological-political theories. It shows how elements of Hawkins's (1988) ¿bureaucratic control' and Simmons and Keohane's (1991) ¿political legitimacy' theories can be combined to explain both continuity and change in Canada's postwar immigration policy."

  16. Surgeon unemployment: Would practice sharing be a viable solution?

    PubMed Central

    Wakeam, Elliot; Feinberg, Stan

    2016-01-01

    Summary Surgeon unemployment has become a crisis within Canadian surgery in recent years. Without dedicated governmental workforce planning, ensuring that new residency graduates can find employment will require new models of employment. Practice sharing, whereby a new graduate and a senior surgeon partner to divide their practices, allows the senior surgeon to wind down and the newer surgeon to ramp up. Importantly, this arrangement builds in formal mentoring, which is so important in the early years of starting a surgical practice. Practice sharing may be a solution for the workforce issues currently afflicting new surgical graduates across Canada. PMID:26820319

  17. Surgeon unemployment: would practice sharing be a viable solution?

    PubMed

    Wakeam, Elliot; Feinberg, Stan

    2016-04-01

    Surgeon unemployment has become a crisis within Canadian surgery in recent years. Without dedicated governmental workforce planning, ensuring that new residency graduates can find employment will require new models of employment. Practice sharing, whereby a new graduate and a senior surgeon partner to divide their practices, allows the senior surgeon to wind down and the newer surgeon to ramp up. Importantly, this arrangement builds in formal mentoring, which is so important in the early years of starting a surgical practice. Practice sharing may be a solution for the workforce issues currently afflicting new surgical graduates across Canada.

  18. Propensity to Work Among Chronically Unemployed Adult Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur Oli; DeFulio, Anthony; Long, Lauren; Silverman, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Analyses were conducted to compare rates of employment before, during, and after employment at the therapeutic workplace, which is a novel employment-based treatment for drug misuse. Participants in two clinical trials attended the therapeutic workplace at higher rates than they worked before intake and six months after discharge. These data suggest that unemployed chronic drug misusers will attend work at higher rates at the therapeutic workplace than in the community when paid modest wages, and that the failure of chronic drug misusers to obtain employment in the community may not result from lack of interest in work. PMID:20964531

  19. Financing Estonia's unemployment insurance system: problems and prospects.

    PubMed

    Paas, T; Scannell, N J

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, favorable media coverage of the glowing employment situation in the United States has been the norm. History, for one, won't permit us, however, to become complacent with what appears on the books to be a rosy economic picture for the nation. Moreover, the mounting recognition that the U.S. economy is inextricably tied to those of other nations--large and small--serves to keep us vigilant. This paper allows us a comparative exploration of the employment conditions in Estonia and the problems and prospects of financing its unemployment insurance program.

  20. Neoliberalism, "globalization," unemployment, inequalities, and the welfare state.

    PubMed

    Navarro, V

    1998-01-01

    This analysis of "neoliberalism" and its economic and social consequences is presented in six sections. Section I begins by describing the impact of neoliberal public policies on economic growth and inflation, on business profits and business investments, on productivity, on business credit, on unemployment and social inequalities, on social expenditures, and on poverty and family debt. The author shows that, except in the area of business profits and control of inflation, neoliberal policies have not proved superior to those they replaced. Section II deals with unemployment and social polarization in the developed capitalist countries. The author criticizes some of the theories put forward to explain these social problems, such as the introduction of new technologies and globalization of the economy, and suggests that a primary reason for these problems is the implementation of neoliberal policies. Section III challenges the widely held neoliberal perception that the U.S. economy is highly efficient and the E.U. economies are "sclerotic" due to their "excessive" welfare states and "rigid" labor markets. The author shows that the U.S. economy is not so dynamic, nor the E.U. economies so sclerotic. Some developed countries with greater social protection and more regulated labor markets are shown to be more successful than the United States in producing jobs and lowering unemployment. The reasons for the growing polarization in developed capitalist countries, rooted in political rather than economic causes, are discussed in section IV--especially the enormous power of the financial markets and their influence on international agencies and national governments, and the weakness of the labor movements, both nationally and internationally. Section V questions the major theses of globalization. The author shows that rather than globalization of commerce and investments, we are witnessing a regionalization of economic relations stimulated by political considerations. He