Science.gov

Sample records for arengukeskkonna mju lapse

  1. AMS Time Lapse Installation

    NASA Video Gallery

    A time lapse video compilation of the installation of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station’s starboard truss using the station’s robotic arm, Canadarm2, during the...

  2. A-3 Construction Time Lapse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    A time lapse from start to finish of steel erection for the 235-foot tall A-3 Test Stand. Ground work for the stand was broken in August 2008 and the final structural steel beam was placed April 9, 2009.

  3. Rim Fire Time Lapse, August 2013

    NASA Video Gallery

    Time-lapse photography shows various perspectives of the 2013 Rim Fire, as viewed from Yosemite National Park. The first part of this video is from the Crane Flat Helibase. The fire is currently bu...

  4. Crawler-Transporter Time-Lapse

    NASA Video Gallery

    Time-lapse video shows crawler-transporter No. 2 traveling from the Vehicle Assembly Building to Launch Pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The move was performed by the Ground Syste...

  5. Predicting the Initial Lapse Using a Mobile Health Application after Alcohol Detoxification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chih, Ming-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The prediction and prevention of the initial lapse--which is defined as the first lapse after a period of abstinence--is important because the initial lapse often leads to subsequent lapses (within the same lapse episode) or relapse. The prediction of the initial lapse may allow preemptive intervention to be possible. This dissertation reports on…

  6. Lapse resistance in the verbal letter reporting task.

    PubMed

    Arditi, Aries

    2006-04-01

    Lapses, or misreporting errors, can affect accuracy of threshold measurements. Assumptions about lapse rate, especially in untrained observers, have consequently guided the design of at least one clinical psychophysical test. Lapse rate was assessed using a verbal letter identification paradigm like that used in visual acuity and letter contrast sensitivity testing. Subjects occasionally made slip-of-the tongue errors but spontaneously corrected them. Lapse rate (excluding such errors) was 0-3 errors per 1,536 (average rate of 0.0005). In this common clinical paradigm, in which observers set their reporting pace, and where opportunity to amend responses is available, lapse rate is negligible.

  7. MUSCLE: MUltiscale Spherical-ColLapse Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neyrinck, Mark C.

    2016-05-01

    MUSCLE (MUltiscale Spherical ColLapse Evolution) produces low-redshift approximate N-body realizations accurate to few-Megaparsec scales. It applies a spherical-collapse prescription on multiple Gaussian-smoothed scales. It achieves higher accuracy than perturbative schemes (Zel'dovich and second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory - 2LPT), and by including the void-in-cloud process (voids in large-scale collapsing regions), solves problems with a single-scale spherical-collapse scheme.

  8. Pupil Diameter Tracks Lapses of Attention

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Peter R.; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Our ability to sustain attention for prolonged periods of time is limited. Studies on the relationship between lapses of attention and psychophysiological markers of attentional state, such as pupil diameter, have yielded contradicting results. Here, we investigated the relationship between tonic fluctuations in pupil diameter and performance on a demanding sustained attention task. We found robust linear relationships between baseline pupil diameter and several measures of task performance, suggesting that attentional lapses tended to occur when pupil diameter was small. However, these observations were primarily driven by the joint effects of time-on-task on baseline pupil diameter and task performance. The linear relationships disappeared when we statistically controlled for time-on-task effects and were replaced by consistent inverted U-shaped relationships between baseline pupil diameter and each of the task performance measures, such that most false alarms and the longest and most variable response times occurred when pupil diameter was both relatively small and large. Finally, we observed strong linear relationships between the temporal derivative of pupil diameter and task performance measures, which were largely independent of time-on-task. Our results help to reconcile contradicting findings in the literature on pupil-linked changes in attentional state, and are consistent with the adaptive gain theory of locus coeruleus-norepinephrine function. Moreover, they suggest that the derivative of baseline pupil diameter is a potentially useful psychophysiological marker that could be used in the on-line prediction and prevention of attentional lapses. PMID:27768778

  9. Understanding physical activity lapses among women: responses to lapses and the potential buffering effect of social support.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Leah M; Arigo, Danielle; Thomas, Coco

    2017-04-05

    Many women fail to meet recommended levels of physical activity (PA). Limited research has examined women's barriers to PA adoption during attempts to increase PA-in particular, how often they experience PA lapses (i.e., failure to meet PA goals), their cognitive-affective responses to lapses, and the role of social support in preventing or responding to lapses. The present study assessed weekly variability in PA lapses, cognitive-affective responses to lapses, and social support related to PA among women participating in a partner-based PA program (n = 20). Multilevel modeling showed that greater PA self-efficacy and more frequent partner communication predicted fewer lapses during the concurrent or subsequent week (ps < 0.02). Interestingly, greater self-forgiveness for lapsing also predicted more lapses the subsequent week (p = 0.04), though greater perceived partner support appeared to buffer the negative effect of self-forgiveness on future lapses (p = 0.04). These findings demonstrate the importance of cognitive-affective responses to PA lapses for future PA, as well as the potential benefit of social support for preventing PA lapses among women.

  10. New Siemens Research Turbine - time lapse

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Siemens Energy Inc. recently commissioned a new 2.3 megawatt Siemens wind turbine at NREL's National Wind Technology Center. This video shows a time lapse of the installation. The turbine is the centerpiece of a multi-year project to study the performance and aerodynamics of a new class of large, land-based machines — in what will be the biggest government-industry research partnership for wind power generation ever undertaken in the U.S.

  11. The lapse-rate feedback leads to polar temperature amplification.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grand Graversen, Rune; Langen, Peter; Mauritsen, Thorsten

    2014-05-01

    The atmospheric temperature will change in response to a radiative forcing of the climate system, but the temperature change may not be constant with height in the atmosphere. The dependence of the temperature change on hight gives rise to the lapse-rate feedback. In a warmer climate, the saturated mixing ratio of water vapour increases more at lower than at upper levels in the troposphere. Therefore due to enhanced latent heat release, the atmosphere tends to warm more in the upper than in the lower troposphere in regions where strong convection is present, such as at tropical latitudes. This results in enhanced radiation back to space, and in a more efficient cooling of the Earth system. This is contributing to a negative lapse-rate feedback. The opposite situation prevails at the high latitudes where stable stratification conditions in the lower troposphere result in a larger warming of the surface-near atmosphere than of the upper troposphere. This is contributing to a positive lapse-rate feedback. Hence the lapse-rate feedback is assumed to be negative at low, and positive at high latitudes. Here we explore the lapse-rate feedback and its effect on the climate system using a slab-ocean climate model, the Community Climate System Model version 4. By locking the temperature change throughout the troposphere to that at the surface in calls to the radiation code, the lapse-rate feedback is suppressed on-line in the model. Doubling-of-CO2 experiments where the lapse-rate feedback is suppressed are compared with experiments where it is retained. In a similar way the surface-albedo feedback is suppressed by keeping the surface albedo fixed in the entire model system. On the basis of model versions where either one or both of the feedbacks are suppressed, we are able to separate the effect of the surface-albedo and lapse-rate feedback. For instance we can estimate the contribution to the polar temperature amplification due to each of the feedbacks. The results show

  12. Saturn Time Lapse - Target of Opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, J.

    1990-12-01

    This program will obtain sets of exposures of Saturn in several spectral bands over a time span of about a week. By selecting filters that are sensitive to atmospheric processes (methane absorption and molecular scattering), the dynamic behavior can be mapped at several altitudes within the Saturnian atmosphere. This sequence will utilize time lapse sequences in chip PC-6 to continue monitoring motions associated with the great white spot that was discovered in late September. These observations will allow us to follow the evolution of the storm. Observation is broken up into 2 parts - part 1 = Get as many orbits as possible in a 31 orbit timeframe. Part 2 = Get as many orbits as possible in a 16 orbit timeframe. Use the FGS SAA avoidance contour versus the WF/PC SAA avoidance contour. During orbits with FGS SAA impact, obtain earth flats, using seq FLATn. Take flats in each filter (FLAT1->FLAT6) then go back and take second set in each filter, time permitting.

  13. The tropical lapse rate steepened during the Last Glacial Maximum

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, Shannon E.; Russell, James M.; Verschuren, Dirk; Morrill, Carrie; De Cort, Gijs; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Olago, Daniel; Eggermont, Hilde; Street-Perrott, F. Alayne; Kelly, Meredith A.

    2017-01-01

    The gradient of air temperature with elevation (the temperature lapse rate) in the tropics is predicted to become less steep during the coming century as surface temperature rises, enhancing the threat of warming in high-mountain environments. However, the sensitivity of the lapse rate to climate change is uncertain because of poor constraints on high-elevation temperature during past climate states. We present a 25,000-year temperature reconstruction from Mount Kenya, East Africa, which demonstrates that cooling during the Last Glacial Maximum was amplified with elevation and hence that the lapse rate was significantly steeper than today. Comparison of our data with paleoclimate simulations indicates that state-of-the-art models underestimate this lapse-rate change. Consequently, future high-elevation tropical warming may be even greater than predicted. PMID:28138544

  14. Atlantis Time-Lapse Move to KSC Visitor Complex

    NASA Video Gallery

    Time-lapse cameras captured space shuttle Atlantis making a 10-mile trek from the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex whe...

  15. Time-Lapsed Animation of a Mercury Day

    NASA Video Gallery

    Parts of Prokofiev crater (center) and Kandinsky crater (upper left side of Prokofiev) stay in darkness, making it possible for ice to persist on the surface. This time-lapsed animation represents ...

  16. NEA Scout Solar Sail: Half-scale Fold Time Lapse

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this time lapse, the Near-Earth Asteroid Scout (NEA Scout) CubeSat team rolls a half-scale prototype of the small satellite's solar sail in preparation for a deployment test. During its mission,...

  17. The tropical lapse rate steepened during the Last Glacial Maximum.

    PubMed

    Loomis, Shannon E; Russell, James M; Verschuren, Dirk; Morrill, Carrie; De Cort, Gijs; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Olago, Daniel; Eggermont, Hilde; Street-Perrott, F Alayne; Kelly, Meredith A

    2017-01-01

    The gradient of air temperature with elevation (the temperature lapse rate) in the tropics is predicted to become less steep during the coming century as surface temperature rises, enhancing the threat of warming in high-mountain environments. However, the sensitivity of the lapse rate to climate change is uncertain because of poor constraints on high-elevation temperature during past climate states. We present a 25,000-year temperature reconstruction from Mount Kenya, East Africa, which demonstrates that cooling during the Last Glacial Maximum was amplified with elevation and hence that the lapse rate was significantly steeper than today. Comparison of our data with paleoclimate simulations indicates that state-of-the-art models underestimate this lapse-rate change. Consequently, future high-elevation tropical warming may be even greater than predicted.

  18. 77 FR 38396 - Agency Information Collection (Notice of Lapse-Government Life Insurance) Activities Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Notice of Lapse--Government Life Insurance) Activities Under OMB... INFORMATION: Titles: a. Notice of Lapse--Government Life Insurance, VA Form 29-389. b. Application for... government life insurance has lapsed or will lapse due to nonpayment of premiums. The claimant must...

  19. Tropospheric Lapse Rate and Methane on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, C. P.; Martin, S. Chau; Griffith, C. A.; Keller, R. M.; Cuzzi, Jeffery N. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    We have reanalyzed the Voyager radio occultation data for Titan with two alternative approaches to methane condensation. In one approach, methane condensation is enhanced by the presence of nitrogen. In the other approach, methane condensation does not occur. As pointed out by Thompson, nitrogen lowers the condensation level for a methane/nitrogen Mixture and we find that the upper limit on surface relative humidity of methane obtained from the Voyager occultation data is lowered from 0.7 to 0.6. However, 140% supersaturation of methane in the troposphere, suggested by Courtin et al., allows all surface humidities to be consistent with the Voyager occultation data and the upper limit is set by other considerations. We conclude that if supersaturation is not included then the surface relative humidity of methane is between 0.08 and 0.6, with values close to 0.6 indicated. If supersaturation is included then the surface relative humidity of methane is between 0.08 and 0.85, again, with values close to 0.6 indicated. The tropospheric lapse rate on Titan appears to be determined by radiative equilibrium. It is everywhere stable against dry convection but is unstable to moist convection. This is consistent with a supersaturated atmosphere in which condensation - and hence moist convection - is inhibited. The absence of dry convection in the troposphere of Titan can be explained by a simple grey model which shows that the radiative profile of any gas for which the ratio of the gas constant to the specific heat at constant pressure is greater than 0.25 never becomes unstable to dry convection.

  20. Temperature lapse rate as an adjunct to wind shear detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweifil, Terry

    1991-01-01

    Several meteorological parameters were examined to determine if measurable atmospheric conditions can improve windshear detection devices. Lapse rate, the temperature change with altitude, shows promise as being an important parameter in the prediction of severe wind shears. It is easily measured from existing aircraft instrumentation, and it can be important indicator of convective activity including thunderstorms and microbursts. The meteorological theory behind lapse rate measurement is briefly reviewed, and and FAA certified system is described that is currently implemented in the Honeywell Wind Shear Detection and Guidance System.

  1. Chromatin Imaging with Time-Lapse Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lyubchenko, Yuri L.; Shlyakhtenko, Luda S.

    2016-01-01

    Time-lapse atomic force microscopy (AFM) is widely used for direct visualization of the nanoscale dynamics of various biological systems. The advent of high-speed AFM instrumentation made it possible to image the dynamics of proteins and protein-DNA complexes within millisecond time range. This chapter describes protocols for studies of structure and dynamics of nucleosomes with time-lapse AFM including the high-speed AFM instrument. The necessary specifics for the preparation of chromatin samples for imaging with AFM including the protocols for the surface preparation are provided. PMID:25827873

  2. Opioid abstinence reinforcement delays heroin lapse during buprenorphine dose tapering.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, Mark K

    2008-01-01

    A positive reinforcement contingency increased opioid abstinence during outpatient dose tapering (4, 2, then 0 mg/day during Weeks 1 through 3) in non-treatment-seeking heroin-dependent volunteers who had been maintained on buprenorphine (8 mg/day) during an inpatient research protocol. The control group (n=12) received $4.00 for completing assessments at each thrice-weekly visit during dose tapering; 10 of 12 lapsed to heroin use 1 day after discharge. The abstinence reinforcement group (n=10) received $30.00 for each consecutive opioid-free urine sample; this significantly delayed heroin lapse (median, 15 days).

  3. 30 CFR 556.55 - Lapse of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lapse of bond. 556.55 Section 556.55 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL... 72 hours of learning of such an action. All bonds must require the surety to provide this...

  4. 30 CFR 556.55 - Lapse of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lapse of bond. 556.55 Section 556.55 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL... 72 hours of learning of such an action. All bonds must require the surety to provide this...

  5. 30 CFR 556.55 - Lapse of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lapse of bond. 556.55 Section 556.55 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL... 72 hours of learning of such an action. All bonds must require the surety to provide this...

  6. Negative Affect and Smoking Lapses: A Prospective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiffman, Saul; Waters, Andrew J.

    2004-01-01

    Relapse is a central problem in smoking treatment. Data collected at the time of relapse episodes indicate that stress and negative affect (NA) promote relapse, but retrospective data are potentially biased. The authors performed a prospective analysis of stress and NA prior to initial lapses in smokers (N = 215). Day-to-day changes in stress…

  7. The nuclear debate: Deterrence and the lapse of faith

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This essay examines the growth of skepticism about the present system of nuclear deterrence. Tucker resists predicting the ultimate outcome, but he views the nuclear debate of this decade as an important ''lapse of faith'' in deterrence and he doubts there will ever be a full restoration of confidence.

  8. 26 CFR 25.2704-1 - Lapse of certain rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... immediately after death would have been $90X if the voting rights had been nonlapsing. The decrease in value... after the lapse of the voting rights. Example 2. Prior to D's death, D owned all the preferred stock of... market value of D's stock (determined immediately after D's death as though the voting rights had...

  9. 26 CFR 25.2704-1 - Lapse of certain rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... immediately after death would have been $90X if the voting rights had been nonlapsing. The decrease in value... after the lapse of the voting rights. Example 2. Prior to D's death, D owned all the preferred stock of... market value of D's stock (determined immediately after D's death as though the voting rights had...

  10. 26 CFR 25.2704-1 - Lapse of certain rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... immediately after death would have been $90X if the voting rights had been nonlapsing. The decrease in value... after the lapse of the voting rights. Example 2. Prior to D's death, D owned all the preferred stock of... market value of D's stock (determined immediately after D's death as though the voting rights had...

  11. 26 CFR 25.2704-1 - Lapse of certain rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... immediately after death would have been $90X if the voting rights had been nonlapsing. The decrease in value... after the lapse of the voting rights. Example 2. Prior to D's death, D owned all the preferred stock of... market value of D's stock (determined immediately after D's death as though the voting rights had...

  12. 26 CFR 25.2704-1 - Lapse of certain rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... immediately after death would have been $90X if the voting rights had been nonlapsing. The decrease in value... after the lapse of the voting rights. Example 2. Prior to D's death, D owned all the preferred stock of... market value of D's stock (determined immediately after D's death as though the voting rights had...

  13. Time-lapse microscopy using smartphone with augmented reality markers.

    PubMed

    Baek, Dongyoub; Cho, Sungmin; Yun, Kyungwon; Youn, Keehong; Bang, Hyunwoo

    2014-04-01

    A prototype system that replaces the conventional time-lapse imaging in microscopic inspection for use with smartphones is presented. Existing time-lapse imaging requires a video data feed between a microscope and a computer that varies depending on the type of image grabber. Even with proper hardware setups, a series of tedious and repetitive tasks is still required to relocate to the region-of-interest (ROI) of the specimens. In order to simplify the system and improve the efficiency of time-lapse imaging tasks, a smartphone-based platform utilizing microscopic augmented reality (μ-AR) markers is proposed. To evaluate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed system, a user test was designed and performed, measuring the elapse time for a trial of the task starting from the execution of the application software to the completion of restoring and imaging of an ROI saved in advance. The results of the user test showed that the average elapse time was 65.3 ± 15.2 s with 6.86 ± 3.61 μm of position error and 0.08 ± 0.40 degrees of angle error. This indicates that the time-lapse imaging task was accomplished rapidly with a high level of accuracy. Thus, simplification of both the system and the task was achieved via our proposed system.

  14. Comparison of radiative-convective models with constant and pressure-dependent lapse rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummel, J. R.; Kuhn, W. R.

    1981-01-01

    One of the most commonly used models for studying climatic processes is the convective adjustment radiation model. In current radiation models, stable temperature profiles are maintained with a convective adjustment in which the temperature lapse rate is set equal to a critical lapse rate whenever the computed lapse rates exceed the critical value. First introduced by Manabe and Strickler (1964), a variety of convective adjustment models are now in use. It is pointed out that on a global scale, moist adiabatic processes, and thus moist adiabatic lapse rates, approximate the atmospheric temperature profile. Comparisons of profiles from a one-dimensional-radiative-convective model have been made using the conventional 6.5 K/km as the critical lapse rate and the pressure-dependent moist adiabatic lapse rates. For a clear sky and a single effective cloud the surface temperatures are 1 to 3 K higher with the constant 6.5 K/km critical lapse rate.

  15. Time-lapse Raman imaging of osteoblast differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Aya; Yamaguchi, Yoshinori; Chiu, Liang-Da; Morimoto, Chiaki; Fujita, Katsumasa; Takedachi, Masahide; Kawata, Satoshi; Murakami, Shinya; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2015-07-01

    Osteoblastic mineralization occurs during the early stages of bone formation. During this mineralization, hydroxyapatite (HA), a major component of bone, is synthesized, generating hard tissue. Many of the mechanisms driving biomineralization remain unclear because the traditional biochemical assays used to investigate them are destructive techniques incompatible with viable cells. To determine the temporal changes in mineralization-related biomolecules at mineralization spots, we performed time-lapse Raman imaging of mouse osteoblasts at a subcellular resolution throughout the mineralization process. Raman imaging enabled us to analyze the dynamics of the related biomolecules at mineralization spots throughout the entire process of mineralization. Here, we stimulated KUSA-A1 cells to differentiate into osteoblasts and conducted time-lapse Raman imaging on them every 4 hours for 24 hours, beginning 5 days after the stimulation. The HA and cytochrome c Raman bands were used as markers for osteoblastic mineralization and apoptosis. From the Raman images successfully acquired throughout the mineralization process, we found that β-carotene acts as a biomarker that indicates the initiation of osteoblastic mineralization. A fluctuation of cytochrome c concentration, which indicates cell apoptosis, was also observed during mineralization. We expect time-lapse Raman imaging to help us to further elucidate osteoblastic mineralization mechanisms that have previously been unobservable.

  16. The Attention-Lapse and Motor Decoupling accounts of SART performance are not mutually exclusive.

    PubMed

    Seli, Paul

    2016-04-01

    There is an ongoing debate about the mechanisms purported to underlie performance in the Sustained-Attention-to-Response Task (SART). Whereas the Attention-Lapse account posits that SART errors result from attentional disengagement, the Motor Decoupling account proposes that SART errors result from failures to inhibit a fast, prepotent motor response, despite adequate attention to the task. That SART performance might be fully accounted for by motor decoupling is problematic for a Attention-Lapse account, and for the use of the SART as an index of attention lapses. To test whether SART performance is in fact fully accounted for by motor decoupling, I examined the relation between SART performance and attention lapses while controlling for motor decoupling. The results were clear: The SART was associated with attention lapses independently of motor decoupling. Thus, the present study suggests that both accounts are correct and that the SART is a valid measure of attention lapses.

  17. Improved site contamination through time-lapse complex resistivity imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores Orozco, Adrian; Kemna, Andreas; Cassiani, Giorgio; Binley, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the EU FP7 project ModelPROBE, time-lapse complex resistivity (CR) measurements were conducted at a test site close to Trecate (NW Italy). The objective was to investigate the capabilities of the CR imaging method to delineate the geometry and dynamics of subsurface hydrocarbon contaminant plume which resulted from a crude oil spill in 1994. To achieve this it is required to discriminate the electrical signal associated to static (i.e., lithology) from dynamic changes in the subsurface, with the latter associated to significant seasonal groundwater fluctuations. Previous studies have demonstrated the benefits of the CR method to gain information which is not accessible with common electrical resistivity tomography. However field applications are still rarely and neither the analysis of the data error for CR time-lapse measurements, nor the inversion itself haven not received enough attention. While the ultimate objective at the site is to characterize, here we address the discrimination of the lithological and hydrological controls on the IP response by considering data collected in an uncontaminated area of the site. In this study we demonstrate that an adequate error description of CR measurements provides images free of artifacts and quantitative superior than previous approaches. Based on this approach, differential images computed for time-lapse data exhibited anomalies well correlated with spatiotemporal changes correlated to seasonal fluctuations in the groundwater level. The proposed analysis may be useful in the characterization of fate and transport of hydrocarbon contaminants relevant for the site, which presents areas contaminated with crude oil.

  18. Recurrent event analysis of lapse and recovery in a smoking cessation clinical trial using bupropion.

    PubMed

    Wileyto, E Paul; Patterson, Freda; Niaura, Raymond; Epstein, Leonard H; Brown, Richard A; Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Hawk, Larry W; Lerman, Caryn

    2005-04-01

    We report a reanalysis of data from a prior study describing the event history of quitting smoking aided by bupropion, using recurrent-event models to determine the effect of the drug on occurrence of lapses and recoveries from lapse (resumption of abstinence). Data were collected on 1,070 subjects across two similar double-blind randomized clinical trials of bupropion versus placebo and fitted with separate Cox regression models for lapse and recovery. Analyses were split using discrete time-varying covariates between the treatment (weeks 1-10) and follow-up phases (end of treatment to 12 months). Bupropion was associated with slower lapse during treatment for both sexes, and being female was associated with faster lapse across both phases. Drug did not affect time to recovery for males but was associated with faster recovery among females, allowing women to recover as quickly as men. High levels of nicotine dependence did not affect time to lapse but were associated with slower recovery from lapse across treatment and follow-up phases. During the treatment phase, higher levels of baseline depression symptoms had no effect on time to lapse but were associated with slower recovery from lapse. Results highlight the asymmetry in factors preventing lapse versus promoting recovery. Specifically, dependence, depression symptoms, and a sex x drug interaction were found to affect recovery but not lapse. Further research disentangling lapse and recovery events from summary abstinence measures is needed to help us develop interventions that take advantage of bupropion at its best and that compensate where it is weak.

  19. Distinct coping strategies differentially predict urge levels and lapses in a smoking cessation attempt.

    PubMed

    Brodbeck, Jeannette; Bachmann, Monica S; Znoj, Hansjörg

    2013-06-01

    This study analysed mechanisms through which stress-coping and temptation-coping strategies were associated with lapses. Furthermore, we explored whether distinct coping strategies differentially predicted reduced lapse risk, lower urge levels, or a weaker association between urge levels and lapses during the first week of an unassisted smoking cessation attempt. Participants were recruited via the internet and mass media in Switzerland. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) with mobile devices was used to assess urge levels and lapses. Online questionnaires were used to measure smoking behaviours and coping variables at baseline, as well as smoking behaviour at the three-month follow-up. The sample consisted of 243 individuals, aged 20 to 40, who reported 4199 observations. Findings of multilevel regression analyses show that coping was mainly associated with a reduced lapse risk and not with lower urge levels or a weaker association between urge levels and lapses. 'Calming down' and 'commitment to change' predicted a lower lapse risk and also a weaker relation between urge levels and lapses. 'Stimulus control' predicted a lower lapse risk and lower urge levels. Conversely, 'task-orientation' and 'risk assessment' were related to higher lapse risk and 'risk assessment' also to higher urge levels. Disengagement coping i.e. 'eating or shopping', 'distraction', and 'mobilising social support' did not affect lapse risk. Promising coping strategies during the initial stage of smoking cessation attempt are targeted directly at reducing the lapse risk and are characterised by engagement with the stressor or one's reactions towards the stressor and a focus on positive consequences instead of health risks.

  20. Predictive Modeling of Addiction Lapses in a Mobile Health Application

    PubMed Central

    Chih, Ming-Yuan; Patton, Timothy; McTavish, Fiona M.; Isham, Andrew; Judkins-Fisher, Chris L.; Atwood, Amy K.; Gustafson, David H.

    2013-01-01

    The chronically relapsing nature of alcoholism leads to substantial personal, family, and societal costs. Addiction-Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System (A-CHESS) is a smartphone application that aims to reduce relapse. To offer targeted support to patients who are at risk of lapses within the coming week, a Bayesian network model to predict such events was constructed using responses on 2,934 weekly surveys (called the Weekly Check-in) from 152 alcohol-dependent individuals who recently completed residential treatment. The Weekly Check-in is a self-monitoring service, provided in A-CHESS, to track patients’ recovery progress. The model showed good predictability, with the area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.829 in the 10-fold cross-validation and 0.912 in the external validation. The sensitivity/specificity table assists the tradeoff decisions necessary to apply the model in practice. This study moves us closer to the goal of providing lapse prediction so that patients might receive more targeted and timely support. PMID:24035143

  1. Temperature lapse rate and methane in Titan's troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, C. P.; Chau Martin, S.; Griffith, C. A.; Keller, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    We have reanalyzed the Voyager radio occultation data for Titan, examining two alternative approaches to methane condensation. In one approach, methane condensation is facilitated by the presence of nitrogen because nitrogen lowers the condensation level of a methane/nitrogen mixture. The resulting enhancement in methane condensation lowers the upper limit on surface relative humidity of methane obtained from the Voyager occultation data from 0.7 to 0.6. We conclude that in this case the surface relative humidity of methane lies between 0.08 and 0.6, with values close to 0.6 indicated. In the other approach, methane is allowed to become supersaturated and reaches 1.4 times saturation in the troposphere. In this case, surface humidities up to 100% are allowed by the Voyager occultation data, and thus the upper limit must be set by other considerations. We conclude that if supersaturation is included, then the surface relative humidity of methane can be any value greater than 0.08--unless a deep ocean is present, in which case the surface relative humidity is limited to less than 0.85. Again, values close to 0.6 are indicated. Overall, the tropospheric lapse rate on Titan appears to be determined by radiative equilibrium. The lapse rate is everywhere stable against dry convection, but is unstable to moist convection. This finding is consistent with a supersaturated atmosphere in which condensation-and hence moist convection-is inhibited.

  2. Predictive modeling of addiction lapses in a mobile health application.

    PubMed

    Chih, Ming-Yuan; Patton, Timothy; McTavish, Fiona M; Isham, Andrew J; Judkins-Fisher, Chris L; Atwood, Amy K; Gustafson, David H

    2014-01-01

    The chronically relapsing nature of alcoholism leads to substantial personal, family, and societal costs. Addiction-comprehensive health enhancement support system (A-CHESS) is a smartphone application that aims to reduce relapse. To offer targeted support to patients who are at risk of lapses within the coming week, a Bayesian network model to predict such events was constructed using responses on 2,934 weekly surveys (called the Weekly Check-in) from 152 alcohol-dependent individuals who recently completed residential treatment. The Weekly Check-in is a self-monitoring service, provided in A-CHESS, to track patients' recovery progress. The model showed good predictability, with the area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.829 in the 10-fold cross-validation and 0.912 in the external validation. The sensitivity/specificity table assists the tradeoff decisions necessary to apply the model in practice. This study moves us closer to the goal of providing lapse prediction so that patients might receive more targeted and timely support.

  3. Debye decomposition of time-lapse spectral induced polarisation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, M.; Kemna, A.

    2016-01-01

    Spectral induced polarisation (SIP) measurements capture the low-frequency electrical properties of soils and rocks and provide a non-invasive means to access lithological, hydrogeological, and geochemical properties of the subsurface. The Debye decomposition (DD) approach is now increasingly being used to analyse SIP signatures in terms of relaxation time distributions due to its flexibility regarding the shape of the spectra. Imaging and time-lapse (monitoring) SIP measurements, capturing SIP variations in space and time, respectively, are now more and more conducted and lead to a drastic increase in the number of spectra considered, which prompts the need for robust and reliable DD tools to extract quantitative parameters from such data. We here present an implementation of the DD method for the analysis of a series of SIP data sets which are expected to only smoothly change in terms of spectral behaviour, such as encountered in many time-lapse applications where measurement geometry does not change. The routine is based on a non-linear least-squares inversion scheme with smoothness constraints on the spectral variation and in addition from one spectrum of the series to the next to deal with the inherent ill-posedness and non-uniqueness of the problem. By means of synthetic examples with typical SIP characteristics we elucidate the influence of the number and range of considered relaxation times on the inversion results. The source code of the presented routines is provided under an open source licence as a basis for further applications and developments.

  4. The Development of an Aftermath of Dietary Lapses Coping Questionnaire for Weight Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimpo, Misa; Akamatsu, Rie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to develop the Aftermath of Dietary Lapses Coping Questionnaire (ADLCQ) for evaluating how people cope with the aftermath of dietary lapses during weight control. Method: Between June-July 2012, dieticians working in public health centres and city offices in Sizuoka, Japan, recruited 466 participants. They were…

  5. Relations among affect, abstinence motivation and confidence, and daily smoking lapse risk.

    PubMed

    Minami, Haruka; Yeh, Vivian M; Bold, Krysten W; Chapman, Gretchen B; McCarthy, Danielle E

    2014-06-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that changes in momentary affect, abstinence motivation, and confidence would predict lapse risk over the next 12-24 hr using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) data from smokers attempting to quit smoking. One hundred and three adult, daily, treatment-seeking smokers recorded their momentary affect, motivation to quit, abstinence confidence, and smoking behaviors in near real time with multiple EMA reports per day using electronic diaries postquit. Multilevel models indicated that initial levels of negative affect were associated with smoking, even after controlling for earlier smoking status, and that short-term increases in negative affect predicted lapses up to 12, but not 24, hr later. Positive affect had significant effects on subsequent abstinence confidence, but not motivation to quit. High levels of motivation appeared to reduce increases in lapse risk that occur over hours although momentary changes in confidence did not predict lapse risk over 12 hr. Negative affect had short-lived effects on lapse risk, whereas higher levels of motivation protected against the risk of lapsing that accumulates over hours. An increase in positive affect was associated with greater confidence to quit, but such changes in confidence did not reduce short-term lapse risk, contrary to expectations. Relations observed among affect, cognitions, and lapse seem to depend critically on the timing of assessments.

  6. Distress Tolerance Treatment for Early-Lapse Smokers: Rationale, Program Description, and Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Richard A.; Palm, Kathleen M.; Strong, David R.; Lejuez, Carl W.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Hayes, Steven C.; Wilson, Kelly G.; Gifford, Elizabeth V.

    2008-01-01

    A significant percentage of individuals attempting smoking cessation lapse within a matter of days, and very few are able to recover to achieve long-term abstinence. This observation suggests that many smokers may have quit-attempt histories characterized exclusively by early lapses to smoking following quit attempts. Recent negative-reinforcement…

  7. Exploring Time-Lapse Photography as a Means for Qualitative Data Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persohn, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Collecting information via time-lapse photography is nothing new. Scientists and artists have been using this kind of data since the late 1800s. However, my research and experiments with time-lapse have shown that great potential may lie in its application to educational and social scientific research methods. This article is part history, part…

  8. Quantitative detection of fluid distribution using time-lapse seismic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuneyama, Futoshi

    The quantitative evaluation of time-lapse seismic data remains a challenge due to poor match between the model predictions and the actual seismic data. Velocity anisotropy is one important reason for the mismatch. I compile experimental velocity-anisotropy data from cores to explore the empirical relationships between anisotropy parameters and general well-log information. Then, I develop a method to estimate Thomsen's anisotropy parameters ε and gamma using a regression of the data in the crossplot domain between velocity and porosity. I present an application result of the method to demonstrate the significance of the correction. Next, using the corrected velocity, I present a method of impedance decomposition into Vp, Vs, and rho using three elastic impedances derived from the seismic inversion of angle stacks. In general, the maximum stack angle of seismic data is limited to be less than 30°, which is not wide enough to obtain the stable calculation result. I discuss the effect of noise on the analysis as the most important reason that decomposition is difficult. I show an innovative method incorporating rock-physics bounds as constraints for the analysis. I apply it to an actual dataset from an offshore oil field; I demonstrate the result of analysis for sand-body detection. Based on the estimated Vp, V s, rho and shale volume from the elastic impedances, I develop a workflow to determine the saturation of formation-water, oil and gas from seismic data. First, I consider the pressure effect and the saturation scale of fluids for time-lapse seismic analysis. Second, I demonstrate a deterministic approach to computing the fluid saturation to evaluate time-lapse seismic data. In this approach, I derive the physical properties of the water-saturated sandstone reservoir. Then, by comparing the in-situ-fluid-saturated properties with the 100% formation-water-saturated reservoir properties, I determine the bulk modulus and the density of the fluid phase in the

  9. Combined time-lapse cinematography and immuno-electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Balfour, B M; Goscicka, T; MacKenzie, J L; Gautam, A; Tate, M; Clark, J

    1990-04-01

    A method was developed to record interactions between mobile non-adherent immunocytes by time-lapse cinematography and then to study the same cells by immuno-electron microscopy, using monoclonal antibodies against surface components. For this purpose a modified stage was designed to fit an inverted microscope. The attachment included a device to cool the culture chamber with N2 gas, a micro-injector for monoclonal antibody and immuno-gold treatment, and two pairs of washing needles to change the medium without disturbance. The technique was first employed to study the formation of aggregates around the antigen-presenting cells in cultures containing cells from hyper-immunized animals. Recently peripheral blood cells from normal subjects and patients with immune deficiency syndromes were stimulated with pokeweed mitogen, cluster formation was recorded, and the cells were processed for immuno-electron microscopy.

  10. Time-lapse video sysem used to study nesting gyrfalcons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Booms, Travis; Fuller, Mark R.

    2003-01-01

    We used solar-powered time-lapse video photography to document nesting Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) food habits in central West Greenland from May to July in 2000 and 2001. We collected 2677.25 h of videotape from three nests, representing 94, 87, and 49% of the nestling period at each nest. The video recorded 921 deliveries of 832 prey items. We placed 95% of the items into prey categories. The image quality was good but did not reveal enough detail to identify most passerines to species. We found no evidence that Gyrfalcons were negatively affected by the video system after the initial camera set-up. The video system experienced some mechanical problems but proved reliable. The system likely can be used to effectively document the food habits and nesting behavior of other birds, especially those delivering large prey to a nest or other frequently used site.

  11. Time-Lapse Geophysics for Aquifer Characterization and Remediation Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, J. W.

    2003-12-01

    Time-lapse monitoring of subsurface processes is an emerging and promising area of hydrogeophysics. The use of non-invasive or minimally invasive geophysical methods to indirectly measure time-varying fluid saturation, solute concentration, and other hydraulic and geochemical conditions facilitates cost-effective aquifer characterization and remediation. The USGS Office of Ground Water, Branch of Geophysics, in cooperation with USEPA, DOD, and university researchers, has applied time-lapse geophysics for site characterization and remediation monitoring at a number of sites. This talk presents recent examples of applied research, including: (1) application of cross-borehole and surface-to-borehole radar methods to monitor vegetable-oil emulsion injections for biostimulation at a Navy site in Fridley, MN; (2) application of borehole and cross-borehole radar methods to monitor steam injections for remediation of VOCs at the former Loring Air Force Base, ME; (3) application of electrical resistivity tomography to monitor saline tracer tests at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, MA; (4) use of borehole and cross-borehole flowmeter and a discrete-zone packer system to characterize bedrock aquifer hydraulics and water quality at the University of Connecticut landfill, Storrs, CT; and (5) application of crosshole radar methods to monitor a saline tracer in fractured bedrock at the USGS Mirror Lake Site, NH. The goals of these studies are (1) to provide increasingly quantitative information about the subsurface, critical for developing models of aquifer structure, dynamics, and processes, and (2) identification of the spatial and temporal distributions of tracers, contamination, and fluids injected to enhance degradation of contaminants.

  12. Dust Storm Time Lapse Shows Opportunity's Skies Darken

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Dust Storm Time Lapse Shows Opportunity's Skies Darken

    NASA's Opportunity rover is literally seeing some of its darkest days. Both Mars Exploration Rovers have been riding out a regional dust storm for several weeks. Conditions became particularly dreary in the Meridiani Planum region where Opportunity sits, perched on the edge of 'Victoria Crater.'

    This image is a time-lapse composite where each horizon-survey image has been compressed horizontally (but not vertically) to emphasize the sky. The relative brightness and darkness of the sky from sol to sol (over a 30-sol period beginning June 14, 2007) is depicted accurately in these images, which view roughly the same part of the plains southwest of the rover. The images are approximately true color composites, generated from calibrated radiance data files using the panoramic camera's 601-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 482-nanometer filters.

    The rovers' atmospheric science team is concerned that smaller, regional dust storms could expand into a larger, globe-encircling storm. That could extend the time the sun stays obscured, challenging the capability of Opportunity's solar panels to produce enough electricity for the rover to function.

    Fortunately, as of July 19, 2007, the Opportunity site is clearing slightly. When the storm ends, atmospheric scientists hope to review data from the rovers that will help them determine what sort of dust was being lifted and distributed.

    The numbers across the top of the image report a measurement of atmospheric opacity, called by the Greek letter tau. The lower the number, the clearer the sky. Both Opportunity and Spirit have been recording higher tau measurements in July 2007 than they had seen any time previously in their three and a half years on Mars. The five sol numbers across the bottom correspond (left to right) to June 14, June 30, July 5, July 13 and July 15, 2007.

  13. Biomarkers identified with time-lapse imaging: discovery, validation, and practical application

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Alice A.; Tan, Lei; Suraj, Vaishali; Pera, Renee Reijo; Shen, Shehua

    2014-01-01

    “Time-lapse markers,” which are defined by time-lapse imaging and correlated with clinical outcomes, may provide embryologists with new opportunities for improving embryo selection. This article provides an overview of noninvasive biomarkers defined by time-lapse imaging studies. In addition to comprehensively reviewing the discovery of each time-lapse marker, it focuses on the criteria necessary for their successful integration into clinical practice, including [1] statistical and biological significance, [2] validation through prospective clinical studies, and [3] development of reliable technology to measure and quantify the time-lapse marker. Because manual analysis of time-lapse images is labor intensive and limits the practical use of the image data in the clinic, automated image analysis software platforms may contribute substantially to improvements in embryo selection accuracy. Ultimately, time-lapse markers that are based on a foundation of basic research, validated through prospective clinical studies, and enabled by a reliable quantification technology may improve IVF success rates, encourage broader adoption of single-embryo transfer, and reduce the risks associated with multiple gestation pregnancies. PMID:23499001

  14. Observation of infiltration experiments with time lapse electrical resistivity tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, Ursula; Ganz, Christina; Altfelder, Sven; Günther, Thomas; Duijnisveld, Wilhelmus; Grissemann, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    Recent progress in the development of resistivity equipment enables the real time observation of infiltration processes through the vadose zone. In order to study the advantages and limitations of the method infiltration experiments are carried out for different soil types at various locations. All sites are subsequently excavated and investigated in detail. For an improved verification of the resistivity data the most recent experiment is conducted using a colour tracer. Two infiltration experiments are carried out in sandy soil. The location is Fuhrberg, close to Hannover, Germany. The area has been intensively studied for soil research purposes for more than 30 years. During both infiltration experiments water (110 l/80 l) is infiltrated for a period of 4.5 h and 8 h, respectively, and the infiltration process is observed by ERT. The resistivity measurements are conducted using a 3D-dipole-dipole configuration with electrode distances of 20 cm in the centre of the infiltration field. The whole resistivity array consists of 200 and 300 electrodes, respectively. The second experiment uses increased electrode spacing in the border area in order to enable the resolution of the deeper groundwater table (3.5 m during the second experiment compared to about 1.2 m for the first experiment). Immediately after completion of the resistivity measurements TDR and tensiometer measurements are carried out in 5-8 slices of the excavated infiltration area over a period of several days. The colour tracer used during the second experiment clearly outlines the infiltration plume with sharp outer limits. The ERT inversion depicts the shape of the plume successfully. Time lapse ERT interpretation reveals the development of the plume in time. The combination of ERT interpretation and TDR measurements enables the construction of the relationship between water content and resistivity as reconstructed by ERT using an Archie approach. By using this function water content changes can be

  15. Time-lapse imaging of neural development: zebrafish lead the way into the fourth dimension.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Sandra; Wang, Fang; Sagasti, Alvaro

    2011-07-01

    Time-lapse imaging is often the only way to appreciate fully the many dynamic cell movements critical to neural development. Zebrafish possess many advantages that make them the best vertebrate model organism for live imaging of dynamic development events. This review will discuss technical considerations of time-lapse imaging experiments in zebrafish, describe selected examples of imaging studies in zebrafish that revealed new features or principles of neural development, and consider the promise and challenges of future time-lapse studies of neural development in zebrafish embryos and adults.

  16. Time-lapse imaging of neural development: Zebrafish lead the way into the fourth dimension

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, Sandra; Wang, Fang; Sagasti, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    Time-lapse imaging is often the only way to appreciate fully the many dynamic cell movements critical to neural development. Zebrafish possess many advantages that make them the best vertebrate model organism for live imaging of dynamic development events. This review will discuss technical considerations of time-lapse imaging experiments in zebrafish, describe selected examples of imaging studies in zebrafish that revealed new features or principles of neural development, and consider the promise and challenges of future time-lapse studies of neural development in zebrafish embryos and adults. PMID:21305690

  17. Near-surface air temperature lapse rates in Xinjiang, northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Mingxia; Zhang, Mingjun; Wang, Shengjie; Zhu, Xiaofan; Che, Yanjun

    2017-01-01

    Lapse rates of near-surface (2 m) air temperature are important parameters in hydrologic and climate simulations, especially for the mountainous areas without enough in-situ observations. In Xinjiang, northwestern China, the elevations range from higher than 7000 m to lower than sea level, but the existing long-term meteorological measurements are limited and distributed unevenly. To calculate lapse rates in Xinjiang, the daily data of near-surface air temperature (T min, T ave, and T max) were measured by automatic weather stations from 2012 to 2014. All the in situ observation stations were gridded into a network of 1.5° (latitude) by 1.5° (longitude), and the spatial distribution and the daily, monthly, seasonal variations of lapse rates for T min, T ave, and T max in Xinjiang are analyzed. The Urumqi River Basin has been considered as a case to study the influence of elevation, aspect, and the wet and dry air conditions to the T min, T ave, and T max lapse rates. Results show that (1) the lapse rates for T min, T ave, and T max vary spatially during the observation period. The spatial diversity of T min lapse rates is larger than that of T ave, and that of T max is the smallest. For each season, T max lapse rates have more negative values than T ave lapse rates which are steeper than T min lapse rates. The weakest spatial diversity usually appears in July throughout a year. (2) The comparison for the three subregions (North, Middle, and South region) exhibits that lapse rates have similar day-to-day and month-to-month characteristics which present shallower values in winter months and steeper values in summer months. The T ave lapse rates in North region are shallower than those in Middle and South region, and the steepest T ave lapse rates of the three regions all appear in April. T min lapse rates are shallower than T max lapse rates. The maximum medians of T min and T max lapse rates for each grid in the three regions all appear in January, whereas the

  18. Nanoscale Nucleosome Dynamics Assessed with Time-lapse AFM

    PubMed Central

    Lyubchenko, Yuri L.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental challenge associated with chromosomal gene regulation is accessibility of DNA within nucleosomes. Recent studies performed by various techniques, including single-molecule approaches, led to the realization that nucleosomes are dynamic structures rather than static systems, as it was once believed. Direct data is required in order to understand the dynamics of nucleosomes more clearly and answer fundamental questions, including: What is the range of nucleosome dynamics? Does a non-ATP dependent unwrapping process of nucleosomes exist? What are the factors facilitating the large scale opening and unwrapping of nucleosomes? This review summarizes the results of nucleosome dynamics obtained with time-lapse AFM, including a high-speed version (HS-AFM) capable of visualizing molecular dynamics on the millisecond time scale. With HS-AFM, the dynamics of nucleosomes at a sub-second time scale was observed allowing one to visualize various pathways of nucleosome dynamics, such as sliding and unwrapping, including complete dissociation. Overall, these findings reveal new insights into the dynamics of nucleosomes and the novel mechanisms controlling spontaneous chromatin dynamics. PMID:24839467

  19. Towards a LAPSE Theory of Teacher Preparation in English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alatis, James E.

    1974-01-01

    'LAPSE' is an organising acronym for the kinds of courses that should be included in any teacher education programme in English for speakers of other languages. The letters stand for Linguistics, Anthropology, Psychology, Sociolinguistics, English (and Education). (Author)

  20. Orb-2's Antares Rolls Out to Launch Pad (Time-Lapse)

    NASA Video Gallery

    This time-lapse video shows the roll out of the Orbital Sciences Corporation Antares rocket, with the Cygnus spacecraft aboard, from the Horizontal Integration Facility to the Mid-Atlantic Regional...

  1. NASA HS3 Mission Time Lapse Highlights Cameras Over Tropical Systems

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is a time-lapse video created with images recorded during a recent HS3 Science Missions with the NASA Global Hawk. Shown are the images from the Daylight, HDVis, and the Low-light Cameras on t...

  2. Distress tolerance treatment for early-lapse smokers: rationale, program description, and preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard A; Palm, Kathleen M; Strong, David R; Lejuez, Carl W; Kahler, Christopher W; Zvolensky, Michael J; Hayes, Steven C; Wilson, Kelly G; Gifford, Elizabeth V

    2008-05-01

    A significant percentage of individuals attempting smoking cessation lapse within a matter of days, and very few are able to recover to achieve long-term abstinence. This observation suggests that many smokers may have quit-attempt histories characterized exclusively by early lapses to smoking following quit attempts. Recent negative-reinforcement conceptualizations of early lapse to smoking suggest that individuals' reactions to withdrawal and inability to tolerate the experience of these symptoms, rather than withdrawal severity itself, may represent an important treatment target in the development of new behavioral interventions for this subpopulation of smokers. This article presents the theoretical rationale and describes a novel, multicomponent distress-tolerance treatment for early-lapse smokers that incorporates behavioral and pharmacological elements of standard smoking-cessation treatment, whereas drawing distress-tolerance elements from exposure-based and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy-based treatment approaches. Preliminary data from a pilot study (N = 16) are presented, and clinical implications are discussed.

  3. 77 FR 22069 - Proposed Information Collection (Notice of Lapse-Government Life Insurance); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Notice of Lapse--Government Life Insurance); Comment Request... Register concerning each proposed collection of information, including each proposed extension of a... Life Insurance policy. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the proposed collection...

  4. Time-Lapse of Backplane of the JWST Being Moved Into Clean Room

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is a time-lapse video of the center section of the 'pathfinder' backplane for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope being moved into the clean room at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbe...

  5. Speaking up: using OSTEs to understand how medical students address professionalism lapses

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Constance R.; Choby, Beth A.; Moore, Andrew; Parker, Robert Scott; Zambetti, Benjamin R.; Naids, Sarah; Scott, Jillian; Loome, Jennifer; Gaffney, Sierra

    2016-01-01

    Background Objective-structured teaching encounters (OSTEs) are used across many disciplines to assess teaching ability. The OSTE detailed in this paper assesses 191 fourth-year medical students’ (M4) ability to identify and address lapses in professionalism based on Association of American Medical Colleges’ professionalism competencies. The research questions addressed areHow frequently do M4s address professionalism lapses observed during an OSTE?What factors influence whether M4s provide feedback when they observe professionalism lapses in an OSTE? Methods Standardized patients (SPs) and standardized learners (SLs) were recruited and trained to participate in a standardized encounter with specific cognitive, social, and behavioral errors, including professionalism lapses. M4s viewed this encounter and then offered feedback to the SL, while remotely observed by faculty. Post-encounter, the SL and faculty completed identical checklists to assess both teaching readiness and ability to address professionalism concerns. Results An analysis of frequencies showed that six of the Association of American Medical Colleges’ nine professional competencies were addressed in the checklist and/or discussed in the focus group. Analysis of transcribed debriefing sessions confirmed that M4s did not consistently address professionalism lapses by their peers. Conclusions In focus groups, M4s indicated that, while they noticed professionalism issues, they were uncomfortable discussing them with the SLs. Findings of the current study suggest how medical educators might support learners’ ability to address lapses in professionalism as well as topics for future research. PMID:27814779

  6. Estimation of atmospheric parameters from time-lapse imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrae, Jack E.; Basu, Santasri; Fiorino, Steven T.

    2016-05-01

    A time-lapse imaging experiment was conducted to estimate various atmospheric parameters for the imaging path. Atmospheric turbulence caused frame-to-frame shifts of the entire image as well as parts of the image. The statistics of these shifts encode information about the turbulence strength (as characterized by Cn2, the refractive index structure function constant) along the optical path. The shift variance observed is simply proportional to the variance of the tilt of the optical field averaged over the area being tracked. By presuming this turbulence follows the Kolmogorov spectrum, weighting functions can be derived which relate the turbulence strength along the path to the shifts measured. These weighting functions peak at the camera and fall to zero at the object. The larger the area observed, the more quickly the weighting function decays. One parameter we would like to estimate is r0 (the Fried parameter, or atmospheric coherence diameter.) The weighting functions derived for pixel sized or larger parts of the image all fall faster than the weighting function appropriate for estimating the spherical wave r0. If we presume Cn2 is constant along the path, then an estimate for r0 can be obtained for each area tracked, but since the weighting function for r0 differs substantially from that for every realizable tracked area, it can be expected this approach would yield a poor estimator. Instead, the weighting functions for a number of different patch sizes can be combined through the Moore-Penrose pseudo-inverse to create a new weighting function which yields the least-squares optimal linear combination of measurements for estimation of r0. This approach is carried out, and it is observed that this approach is somewhat noisy because the pseudo-inverse assigns weights much greater than one to many of the observations.

  7. Variability of the isotopic lapse rate across the mountain ranges in Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brian, H.; Fan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Stable isotope based paleoaltimetry studies require knowledge of the isotope-elevation gradient during the time of interest, but this information is rarely available. As a result, many studies often apply the modern local lapse rate or a global average lapse rate and assume these values are valid for the area of interest and that they hold through time. However, natural variability in local-scale climate and mountain geometry and morphology can influence the isotope-elevation (and temperature-elevation) gradient. We evaluate the inter- and intra-mountain range variability of modern climate and isotope values of stream water for three Laramide ranges in Wyoming (Wind River Range, Bighorn and Laramie Mountains), as well as for a regional elevation transect across the central Rocky mountain front. Samples of steam water were taken from major catchments across Wyoming in 2007, 2011, and 2012. We find that the modern lapse rate for these ranges is -1.7‰/km, -2.2‰/km and -1.8‰/km respectively. Although these values are very similar to one another and to the global isotopic lapse rate (-2.1‰/km), large variation (up to 6‰/km) exists among individual small river catchments of the Bighorn Mountains. The variability in catchment-scale lapse rate does not appear to be systematically related to annual, or seasonal surface air temperature, precipitation amount, or catchment area. However, the range-scale lapse rates may yet reflect the regional climate, which is generally coolest and driest in the Wind River Range (lowest lapse rate) and warmest and wettest in the Bighorn Mountains (highest lapse rate). Similar d-excess values exist across individual mountain ranges, but inter-mountain range differences indicate that the Laramie Mountains (and regions of western Nebraska) receive evaporatively enriched rainwater compared to those in the Wind River Range and Bighorn Mountains. These differences do not necessarily require separate vapor sources as the lower d

  8. Time-lapse joint inversion of geophysical data with automatic joint constraints and dynamic attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittgers, J. B.; Revil, A.; Mooney, M. A.; Karaoulis, M.; Wodajo, L.; Hickey, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    Joint inversion and time-lapse inversion techniques of geophysical data are often implemented in an attempt to improve imaging of complex subsurface structures and dynamic processes by minimizing negative effects of random and uncorrelated spatial and temporal noise in the data. We focus on the structural cross-gradient (SCG) approach (enforcing recovered models to exhibit similar spatial structures) in combination with time-lapse inversion constraints applied to surface-based electrical resistivity and seismic traveltime refraction data. The combination of both techniques is justified by the underlying petrophysical models. We investigate the benefits and trade-offs of SCG and time-lapse constraints. Using a synthetic case study, we show that a combined joint time-lapse inversion approach provides an overall improvement in final recovered models. Additionally, we introduce a new approach to reweighting SCG constraints based on an iteratively updated normalized ratio of model sensitivity distributions at each time-step. We refer to the new technique as the Automatic Joint Constraints (AJC) approach. The relevance of the new joint time-lapse inversion process is demonstrated on the synthetic example. Then, these approaches are applied to real time-lapse monitoring field data collected during a quarter-scale earthen embankment induced-piping failure test. The use of time-lapse joint inversion is justified by the fact that a change of porosity drives concomitant changes in seismic velocities (through its effect on the bulk and shear moduli) and resistivities (through its influence upon the formation factor). Combined with the definition of attributes (i.e. specific characteristics) of the evolving target associated with piping, our approach allows localizing the position of the preferential flow path associated with internal erosion. This is not the case using other approaches.

  9. Acoustic startle and prepulse inhibition predict smoking lapse in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Vrana, Scott R; Calhoun, Patrick S; Dennis, Michelle F; Kirby, Angela C; Beckham, Jean C

    2015-10-01

    Most smokers who attempt to quit lapse within the first week and are ultimately unsuccessful in their quit attempt. Nicotine withdrawal exacerbates cognitive and attentional problems and may be one factor in smoking relapse. The startle reflex response and prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the response are sensitive to arousal and early attentional dysregulation. The current study examined whether startle response and PPI are related to early smoking lapse, and if this differs in people with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Participants with (N = 34) and without (N = 57) PTSD completed a startle reflex and PPI assessment during (1) ad lib smoking (2) on the first day of abstinence during a quit attempt. Most (88%) participants lapsed within the first week of the quit attempt. PTSD status predicted shorter time to lapse. Larger startle magnitude and greater PPI predicted a longer duration before smoking lapse. When diagnostic groups were examined separately, greater PPI predicted a longer successful quit attempt only in participants with a PTSD diagnosis. The startle reflex response and PPI may provide an objective, neurophysiological evaluation of regulation of arousal and early attentional processes by nicotine, which are important factors in smoking cessation success.

  10. THE ROLE OF NEGATIVE AFFECT IN RISK FOR EARLY LAPSE AMONG LOW DISTRESS TOLERANCE SMOKERS

    PubMed Central

    Abrantes, Ana M.; Strong, David R.; Lejuez, Carl W.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Carpenter, Linda L.; Price, Lawrence H.; Niaura, Raymond; Brown, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Individual differences in the ability to tolerate negative affect due to psychological and/or physical discomfort (e.g., distress tolerance) are emerging as an important predictor of smoking cessation outcomes. The purpose of this study was to build on existing evidence by exploring the relationship between levels of distress tolerance (DT) and negative affect on quit date in relation to risk for early lapse. Eighty-one smokers (48% female; M age = 42.6 years) who completed laboratory-based, behavioral distress tolerance tasks prior to an unaided quit attempt were categorized into low, average, and high persistence on the tasks. Low persistence smokers were significantly more likely to lapse on the assigned quit day. Among smokers able to achieve abstinence on quit day, low persistence smokers demonstrated higher levels of negative affect and urges compared to high persistence smokers. Further, negative affect-related risk for early lapse was strongest among those with low persistence. These findings suggest that smokers low in distress tolerance may be particularly vulnerable to very early lapse to smoking and that increases in negative affect may contribute to the risk for early lapse in this high-risk group of smokers. PMID:18684569

  11. Developing human laboratory models of smoking lapse behavior for medication screening.

    PubMed

    McKee, Sherry A

    2009-01-01

    Use of human laboratory analogues of smoking behavior can provide an efficient, cost-effective mechanistic evaluation of a medication signal on smoking behavior, with the result of facilitating translational work in medications development. Although a number of human laboratory models exist to investigate various aspects of smoking behavior and nicotine dependence phenomena, none have yet modeled smoking lapse behavior. The first instance of smoking during a quit attempt (i.e. smoking lapse) is highly predictive of relapse and represents an important target for medications development. Focusing on an abstinence outcome is critical for medication screening as the US Food and Drug Administration approval for cessation medications is contingent on demonstrating effects on smoking abstinence. This paper outlines a three-stage process for the development of a smoking lapse model for the purpose of medication screening. The smoking lapse paradigm models two critical features of lapse behavior: the ability to resist the first cigarette and subsequent ad libitum smoking. Within the context of the model, smokers are first exposed to known precipitants of smoking relapse (e.g. nicotine deprivation, alcohol, stress), and then presented their preferred brand of cigarettes. Their ability to resist smoking is then modeled and once smokers 'give in' and decide to smoke, they participate in a tobacco self-administration session. Ongoing and completed work developing and validating these models for the purpose of medication screening is discussed.

  12. Using Intensive Longitudinal Data Collected via Mobile Phone to Detect Imminent Lapse in Smokers Undergoing a Scheduled Quit Attempt

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ping; Kendzor, Darla E; Frank, Summer G; Wetter, David W; Vidrine, Damon J

    2016-01-01

    Background Mobile phone‒based real-time ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) have been used to record health risk behaviors, and antecedents to those behaviors, as they occur in near real time. Objective The objective of this study was to determine if intensive longitudinal data, collected via mobile phone, could be used to identify imminent risk for smoking lapse among socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers seeking smoking cessation treatment. Methods Participants were recruited into a randomized controlled smoking cessation trial at an urban safety-net hospital tobacco cessation clinic. All participants completed in-person EMAs on mobile phones provided by the study. The presence of six commonly cited lapse risk variables (ie, urge to smoke, stress, recent alcohol consumption, interaction with someone smoking, cessation motivation, and cigarette availability) collected during 2152 prompted or self-initiated postcessation EMAs was examined to determine whether the number of lapse risk factors was greater when lapse was imminent (ie, within 4 hours) than when lapse was not imminent. Various strategies were used to weight variables in efforts to improve the predictive utility of the lapse risk estimator. Results Participants (N=92) were mostly female (52/92, 57%), minority (65/92, 71%), 51.9 (SD 7.4) years old, and smoked 18.0 (SD 8.5) cigarettes per day. EMA data indicated significantly higher urges (P=.01), stress (P=.002), alcohol consumption (P<.001), interaction with someone smoking (P<.001), and lower cessation motivation (P=.03) within 4 hours of the first lapse compared with EMAs collected when lapse was not imminent. Further, the total number of lapse risk factors present within 4 hours of lapse (mean 2.43, SD 1.37) was significantly higher than the number of lapse risk factors present during periods when lapse was not imminent (mean 1.35, SD 1.04), P<.001. Overall, 62% (32/52) of all participants who lapsed completed at least one EMA wherein they

  13. Physical activity adoption to adherence, lapse, and dropout: a self-determination theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Kinnafick, Florence-Emilie; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Duda, Joan L

    2014-05-01

    Grounded in Self-Determination Theory, we aimed to explore and identify key motivational processes involved in the transition from a physically inactive to an active lifestyle, and the processes involved in lapse and dropout behavior within a walking program. We implemented a qualitative, longitudinal case study method, using semistructured interviews and theoretical thematic analyses. Fifteen women were interviewed over 10 months and three profiles were generated: (a) nonadherence, (b) lapse/readoption of physical activity, and (c) adherence. Internalization of walking behavior was key to adherence. Satisfaction of the needs for competence and relatedness were central for participation during exercise at the adoption stages, and autonomy was particularly pertinent in facilitating adherence. Those who lapsed and restarted physical activity experienced feelings of autonomy at the point of readoption. Sources of support were driving forces in the adoption and adherence phases.

  14. Global dynamics of selective attention and its lapses in primary auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Peter; Barczak, Annamaria; Neymotin, Samuel A; McGinnis, Tammy; Ross, Deborah; Javitt, Daniel C; O'Connell, Monica Noelle

    2016-12-01

    Previous research demonstrated that while selectively attending to relevant aspects of the external world, the brain extracts pertinent information by aligning its neuronal oscillations to key time points of stimuli or their sampling by sensory organs. This alignment mechanism is termed oscillatory entrainment. We investigated the global, long-timescale dynamics of this mechanism in the primary auditory cortex of nonhuman primates, and hypothesized that lapses of entrainment would correspond to lapses of attention. By examining electrophysiological and behavioral measures, we observed that besides the lack of entrainment by external stimuli, attentional lapses were also characterized by high-amplitude alpha oscillations, with alpha frequency structuring of neuronal ensemble and single-unit operations. Entrainment and alpha-oscillation-dominated periods were strongly anticorrelated and fluctuated rhythmically at an ultra-slow rate. Our results indicate that these two distinct brain states represent externally versus internally oriented computational resources engaged by large-scale task-positive and task-negative functional networks.

  15. A prospective examination of distress tolerance and early smoking lapse in adult self-quitters

    PubMed Central

    Lejuez, C. W.; Strong, David R.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Carpenter, Linda L.; Niaura, Raymond; Price, Lawrence H.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: A significant percentage of smokers attempting cessation lapse to smoking within a matter of days, and current models of relapse devote insufficient attention to such early smoking lapse. Studies attempting to relate severity of nicotine withdrawal symptoms to short-term smoking cessation outcomes have yielded equivocal results. How one reacts to the discomfort of nicotine withdrawal and quitting smoking (i.e., distress tolerance) may be a more promising avenue of investigation with important treatment implications. Methods: The present investigation examined distress tolerance and early smoking lapse using a prospective design. Participants were 81 adult daily smokers recruited through newspaper advertisements targeted at smokers planning to quit smoking without assistance (i.e., no pharmacotherapy or psychosocial treatment; 42 males and 39 females; mean age = 42.6 years, SD = 12.20). Results: As hypothesized, both greater breath-holding duration and carbon dioxide–enriched air persistence were associated with a significantly lower risk of smoking lapse following an unaided quit attempt. These effects were above and beyond the risk associated with levels of nicotine dependence, education, and history of major depressive disorder, suggesting that distress tolerance and task persistence may operate independently of risk factors such as nicotine dependence and depressive history. In contrast to expectation, persistence on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (a psychological challenge task) was not a significant predictor of earlier smoking lapse. Discussion: These results are discussed in relation to refining theoretical models of the role of distress tolerance in early smoking lapse and the utility of such models in the development of specialized treatment approaches for smoking cessation. PMID:19372572

  16. Source Repeatability of Time-Lapse Offset VSP Surveys for Monitoring CO2 Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Huang, L.; Rutledge, J. T.; Denli, H.; Zhang, H.; McPherson, B. J.; Grigg, R.

    2009-12-01

    Time-lapse vertical seismic profiling (VSP) surveys have the potential to remotely track the migration of injected CO2 within a geologic formation. To accurately detect small changes due to CO2 injection, the sources of time-lapse VSP surveys must be located exactly at the same positions. However, in practice, the source locations can vary from one survey to another survey. Our numerical simulations demonstrate that a variation of a few meters in the VSP source locations can result in significant changes in time-lapse seismograms. To address the source repeatability issue, we apply double-difference tomography to downgoing waves of time-lapse offset VSP data to invert for the source locations and the velocity structures simultaneously. In collaboration with Resolute Natural Resources, Navajo National Oil and Gas Company, and the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration under the support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, one baseline and two repeat offset VSP datasets were acquired in 2007-2009 for monitoring CO2 injection at the Aneth oil field in Utah. A cemented geophone string was used to acquire the data for one zero-offset and seven offset source locations. During the data acquisition, there was some uncertainty in the repeatability of the source locations relative to the baseline survey. Our double-difference tomography results of the Aneth time-lapse VSP data show that the source locations for different surveys are separated up to a few meters. Accounting for these source location variations during VSP data analysis will improve reliability of time-lapse VSP monitoring.

  17. Do small lapses predict relapse to smoking behavior under bupropion treatment?

    PubMed

    Wileyto, Paul; Patterson, Freda; Niaura, Raymond; Epstein, Leonard; Brown, Richard; Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Hawk, Larry; Lerman, Caryn; Patterson, Freda

    2004-04-01

    Although bupropion is known to be an effective aid to smoking cessation, little is known about its mode of action. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that bupropion reduces the likelihood that a smoking lapse, or slip, leads to a subsequent relapse. This hypothesis was tested in the context of a clinical trial of bupropion as a smoking cessation aid, using Cox regression and representing lapse history as a discrete time-varying covariate. Bupropion treatment reduced the probability of relapse during the treatment phase (hazard ratio, or HR=.421, p< or =.000) but not during the follow-up phase (end of treatment to 6 months, HR=.896, p< or=.67). As anticipated, having small lapses during treatment contributed to or predicted subsequent relapse, both during treatment (HR=2.897, p< or =.000) and during follow-up (HR=2.320, p< or=.008). Although an interaction was found between drug treatment and lapse history in predicting subsequent failure during the treatment phase, the finding suggested that drug slightly increased the effect of lapse on eventual failure during treatment (HR=1.706, plapse in predicting relapse.

  18. Advances in interpretation of subsurface processes with time-lapse electrical imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Singha, Kamini; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Slater, Lee D.

    2015-03-15

    Electrical geophysical methods, including electrical resistivity, time-domain induced polarization, and complex resistivity, have become commonly used to image the near subsurface. Here, we outline their utility for time-lapse imaging of hydrological, geochemical, and biogeochemical processes, focusing on new instrumentation, processing, and analysis techniques specific to monitoring. We review data collection procedures, parameters measured, and petrophysical relationships and then outline the state of the science with respect to inversion methodologies, including coupled inversion. We conclude by highlighting recent research focused on innovative applications of time-lapse imaging in hydrology, biology, ecology, and geochemistry, among other areas of interest.

  19. Time-lapse in the IVF-lab: how should we assess potential benefit?

    PubMed

    Armstrong, S; Vail, A; Mastenbroek, S; Jordan, V; Farquhar, C

    2015-01-01

    Time-lapse imaging of embryos has been widely introduced to fertility laboratories worldwide with the aim of identifying the best quality embryos to transfer that will ultimately improve IVF success rates. In this opinion paper, we explore the lack of evidence of benefit of this novel intervention, analyse the methodological flaws of current studies, offer ideal study designs that assess the various features of time-lapse imaging, and discuss forthcoming studies. In particular, we emphasize the ethical aspects of hastily adopting a costly technology without current high level evidence of improved live birth rates, safety and cost effectiveness.

  20. Lapses in Sustained Attention and Their Relation to Executive Control and Fluid Abilities: An Individual Differences Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash; Redick, Thomas S.; Lakey, Chad E.; Young, Diana L.

    2010-01-01

    A latent variable analysis was conducted to examine the nature of individual differences in lapses of attention and their relation to executive and fluid abilities. Participants performed a sustained attention task along with multiple measures of executive control and fluid abilities. Lapses of attention were indexed based on the slowest reaction…

  1. Time-Lapse Motion Picture Technique Applied to the Study of Geological Processes.

    PubMed

    Miller, R D; Crandell, D R

    1959-09-25

    Light-weight, battery-operated timers were built and coupled to 16-mm motion-picture cameras having apertures controlled by photoelectric cells. The cameras were placed adjacent to Emmons Glacier on Mount Rainier. The film obtained confirms the view that exterior time-lapse photography can be applied to the study of slow-acting geologic processes.

  2. Knowledge of Ethical Lapses and Other Experiences on Clinical Licensure Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feil, Philip; Meeske, Jessica; Fortman, Jared

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 429 general dentists attempted to verify anecdotal reports of ethical lapses in clinical dental licensing examinations. It found significant occurrence of not arranging followup care for the patient even though indicated, intentional creation of lesions, premature treatment for the purpose of the examinations, coercing patients into…

  3. Feasibility of monitoring gas hydrate production with time-lapse VSP

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalsky, M.B.; Nakagawa, S.; Moridis, G.J.

    2009-11-01

    In this work we begin to examine the feasibility of using time-lapse seismic methods-specifically the vertical seismic profiling (VSP) method-for monitoring changes in hydrate accumulations that are predicted to occur during production of natural gas.

  4. 37 CFR 1.317 - Lapsed patents; delayed payment of balance of issue fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... payment of balance of issue fee. 1.317 Section 1.317 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue of Patent § 1.317 Lapsed patents; delayed payment of balance of... is required at the time the issue fee is paid, any remaining balance of the issue fee is to be...

  5. 37 CFR 1.317 - Lapsed patents; delayed payment of balance of issue fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... payment of balance of issue fee. 1.317 Section 1.317 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue of Patent § 1.317 Lapsed patents; delayed payment of balance of... is required at the time the issue fee is paid, any remaining balance of the issue fee is to be...

  6. 37 CFR 1.317 - Lapsed patents; delayed payment of balance of issue fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... payment of balance of issue fee. 1.317 Section 1.317 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue of Patent § 1.317 Lapsed patents; delayed payment of balance of... is required at the time the issue fee is paid, any remaining balance of the issue fee is to be...

  7. 37 CFR 1.317 - Lapsed patents; delayed payment of balance of issue fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... payment of balance of issue fee. 1.317 Section 1.317 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue of Patent § 1.317 Lapsed patents; delayed payment of balance of... is required at the time the issue fee is paid, any remaining balance of the issue fee is to be...

  8. Lapse of time effects on tax evasion in an agent-based econophysics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibold, Götz; Pickhardt, Michael

    2013-05-01

    We investigate an inhomogeneous Ising model in the context of tax evasion dynamics where different types of agents are parameterized via local temperatures and magnetic fields. In particular, we analyze the impact of lapse of time effects (i.e. backauditing) and endogenously determined penalty rates on tax compliance. Both features contribute to a microfoundation of agent-based econophysics models of tax evasion.

  9. 75 FR 68037 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Reinstatement (Insurance Lapsed More Than 6...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... collection of information, including each proposed extension of a currently approved collection, and allow 60... to reinstate a claimant's Government Life Insurance and/or Total Disability Income Provision. DATES...: Application for Reinstatement (Insurance Lapsed More than 6 Months), Government Life Insurance and/or...

  10. Estimating topsoil water content of clay soils with data from time-lapse electrical conductivity surveys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spatial estimation of soil water content (') at the field, hillslope, or catchment scale is required in numerous applications. Time-lapse electrical resistivity and electrical conductivity surveys were recognized as the useful source of information about both spatial variations in soil water conten...

  11. A Typology of University Ethical Lapses: Types, Levels of Seriousness, and Originating Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Patricia C.; Chang, Pepe Lee

    2007-01-01

    Scandals ranging from National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) violations to falsified research results have fueled criticism of America's universities. Sports violations, research manipulation, gender discrimination, and other ethical lapses affect an entire institution as they have a spillover effect on its reputation. The results of…

  12. 3D inversion of time-lapse CSEM data for reservoir monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, N.; Wilson, G. A.; Zhdanov, M. S.

    2010-12-01

    Effective reservoir monitoring requires time-lapse reservoir information throughout the interwell volume. The ability to understand and control reservoir behavior over the course of production allows for optimization of reservoir performance and production strategies. Good monitoring information makes it possible to improve the timing and location of new drilling (for both production and injection wells), to recognize flow paths, and to map oil that has been bypassed. Recent studies have inferred the feasibility of time-lapse marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) methods for the monitoring of offshore oil and gas fields. However, quantitative interpretations to ascertain what reservoir information may be recovered have not been performed. The time-lapse CSEM inverse problem can be highly constrained since the geometry of the reservoir is established prior from high resolution seismic surveys, rock and fluid properties are measured from well logs, and multiple history matched production scenarios are contained in dynamic reservoir models. We present a 3D inversion study of synthetic time-lapse CSEM data modeled from dynamic reservoir simulations. We demonstrate that even with few constraints on the model, the hydrocarbon-water front can be recovered from 3D inversion.

  13. 30 CFR 585.530 - What must I do if my financial assurance lapses?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What must I do if my financial assurance lapses? 585.530 Section 585.530 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... subpart. (b) You must notify BOEM within 3 business days after you learn of any action filed alleging...

  14. 30 CFR 585.530 - What must I do if my financial assurance lapses?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What must I do if my financial assurance lapses? 585.530 Section 585.530 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... subpart. (b) You must notify BOEM within 3 business days after you learn of any action filed alleging...

  15. 30 CFR 585.530 - What must I do if my financial assurance lapses?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What must I do if my financial assurance lapses? 585.530 Section 585.530 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... subpart. (b) You must notify BOEM within 3 business days after you learn of any action filed alleging...

  16. Automated time-lapse microscopy and high-resolution tracking of cell migration

    SciTech Connect

    Fotos, Joseph S.; Vivek, Patel P.; Karin, Norm J.; Temburni, Murali; Koh, John T.; Galileo, Deni S.

    2006-08-09

    The study of cell motility is greatly enhanced by using a fully-automated high-throughput time-lapse microscopy system that is capable of collecting and analyzing data (1) from closely-spaced time points (seconds to minutes), (2) over long periods (hours to days), (3) from multiple areas of interest, (4) under several different experimental conditions simultaneously. Time-lapse video images collected under phase contrast and fluorescent illumination were analyzed using parameters of migration velocity, total accumulated distance (path length), and directionality for individual cells or for averaged cell populations. Quantitation of ''scratch'' or ''wound healing'' assays revealed unique motility dynamics of drug-treated and adhesion molecule-transfected cells with high resolution and, thus, is a vast distinct improvement of current methods. Several fluorescent vital labeling methods commonly used for end-point analyses, including GFP expression, were evaluated and most were useful for time-lapse studies under specific conditions. For example, fluorescently-labeled tumor cells were seeded onto cell monolayers expressing ectopic adhesion molecules displayed altered migration velocities compared to tumor cells plated directly onto culture dishes. The techniques described here revealed cell motility behavior not discernable by previously-used methods. We propose that quantitative time-lapse video analysis will foster the creation new cell motility assays, and increase the resolution and accuracy of existing assays.

  17. 2D Time-lapse Seismic Tomography Using An Active Time Constraint (ATC) Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    We propose a 2D seismic time-lapse inversion approach to image the evolution of seismic velocities over time and space. The forward modeling is based on solving the eikonal equation using a second-order fast marching method. The wave-paths are represented by Fresnel volumes rathe...

  18. First successful pregnancies following embryo selection using Time-lapse technology in Iran: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Faramarzi, Azita; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Soleimani, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Embryo selection is a vital part of in vitro fertilization (IVF) programs, with morphology-based grading systems having been widely used for decades. Time-lapse imaging combined with embryo morph kinetics may proffer a non-invasive means for improving embryo selection. We report the first ongoing and chemical pregnancies using Time-lapse embryo scope to select best embryos for transfer in Iran. Cases: A case with tubal factor infertility was admitted to IVF program with normozoospermia. After ovarian hyper stimulation, 6 COCs were retrieved and inseminated with 25,000 progressive sperms/ oocyte. Five zygotes were placed individually into the micro wells of equilibrated embryo scope dish for Time-lapse observation, and incubated at 37°C, 5% CO2. On day 3, single embryo transfer (SET) took place based on kinetic parameters of the embryos. Clinical pregnancy was confirmed 7 weeks after SET. The second case with history of previous ICSI failure was admitted with azoospermia. Nine MII oocytes underwent ICSI, and incubated in Time-lapse facilities. The rest of procedures were followed as described for case 1. Chemical pregnancy was confirmed 15 days after SET. Conclusion: This approach opens a way to select best embryo non-invasively for SET; thus, increasing implantation, while reducing multiple pregnancy complications. PMID:26131014

  19. Dynamic Association between Negative Affect and Alcohol Lapses following Alcohol Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Villarroel, Nadia Aracelliz

    2009-01-01

    Clinical research has found a strong association between negative affect and returning to alcohol use after a period of abstinence. Yet little is known about the probability of a lapse given a particular level of negative affect or whether there is a reciprocal relationship between negative affect and alcohol use across time. The goal of the…

  20. Relative Effectiveness of Continued, Lapsed, and Delayed Smoking Prevention Intervention in Senior High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckhardt, Laura; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Reports findings from the final year of a tobacco use prevention project for junior and senior high school students. After three years of intervention with junior high students, researchers assessed the relative effectiveness of continued, lapsed, and delayed interventions in high school. In grade 11, continued intervention students had the lowest…

  1. Time-lapse motion picture technique applied to the study of geological processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, R.D.; Crandell, D.R.

    1959-01-01

    Light-weight, battery-operated timers were built and coupled to 16-mm motion-picture cameras having apertures controlled by photoelectric cells. The cameras were placed adjacent to Emmons Glacier on Mount Rainier. The film obtained confirms the view that exterior time-lapse photography can be applied to the study of slow-acting geologic processes.

  2. Probabilistic 3-D time-lapse inversion of magnetotelluric data: application to an enhanced geothermal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas-Carbajal, M.; Linde, N.; Peacock, J.; Zyserman, F. I.; Kalscheuer, T.; Thiel, S.

    2015-12-01

    Surface-based monitoring of mass transfer caused by injections and extractions in deep boreholes is crucial to maximize oil, gas and geothermal production. Inductive electromagnetic methods, such as magnetotellurics, are appealing for these applications due to their large penetration depths and sensitivity to changes in fluid conductivity and fracture connectivity. In this work, we propose a 3-D Markov chain Monte Carlo inversion of time-lapse magnetotelluric data to image mass transfer following a saline fluid injection. The inversion estimates the posterior probability density function of the resulting plume, and thereby quantifies model uncertainty. To decrease computation times, we base the parametrization on a reduced Legendre moment decomposition of the plume. A synthetic test shows that our methodology is effective when the electrical resistivity structure prior to the injection is well known. The centre of mass and spread of the plume are well retrieved. We then apply our inversion strategy to an injection experiment in an enhanced geothermal system at Paralana, South Australia, and compare it to a 3-D deterministic time-lapse inversion. The latter retrieves resistivity changes that are more shallow than the actual injection interval, whereas the probabilistic inversion retrieves plumes that are located at the correct depths and oriented in a preferential north-south direction. To explain the time-lapse data, the inversion requires unrealistically large resistivity changes with respect to the base model. We suggest that this is partly explained by unaccounted subsurface heterogeneities in the base model from which time-lapse changes are inferred.

  3. Diurnal Wind Regimes and Lapse-Rate Variability Over Clean and Debris-Covered Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers, G. E.; Young, E.

    2015-12-01

    Near-surface winds and air temperature play an important role in the surface energy balance of glaciers and ice sheets, and can be highly variable in space and time. The increasing fraction of debris-covered ice observed in many retreating alpine glacier environments motivates the study of these variables, and the processes that control them, over both clean and debris-covered ice. We use meteorological data collected in the ablation zone of a ~ 5km-long valley glacier in Yukon, Canada, to analyze the diurnal variability of temperature and wind regimes over debris-covered and debris-free ice. Our data reveal pronounced diurnal cycles in temperature lapse rates, wind speeds, and wind directions. Common to both clean and debris-covered areas are: (1) a shallowing of lapse rates in the early morning from 6:00 to 9:00 and a steepening of lapse rates during the day from 9:00 to 16:00, (2) nearly identical lapse rates regardless of surface type between 15:00 and 19:00, and (3) a persistent diurnal wind regime in which up-valley winds occur from late morning to evening, peaking at 16:00-17:00, and relatively weaker down-valley winds occur overnight. Significant differences between the clean-ice and debris-covered sites are also evident in the data, namely: (1) much steeper night-time lapse rates over debris-covered ice than clean ice, (2) the occurrence of steepest lapse rates overnight for debris-covered ice and in late afternoon (around 16:00) for clean ice, and (3) a more pronounced diurnal cycle in windspeed over debris-covered ice than clean ice, despite all stations exhibiting evidence of the diurnal changes in wind direction. The patterns described above conform to a model of weak katabatic flow at night and relatively stronger up-valley winds during the day, peaking in late afternoon. Though absolute temperatures over clean and debris-covered ice are markedly different during the day, lapse rates over both surfaces evolve similarly through the day to achieve steep

  4. Full waveform inversion of repeating seismic events to estimate time-lapse velocity changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamei, R.; Lumley, D.

    2017-02-01

    Seismic monitoring provides valuable information regarding the time-varying changes in subsurface physical properties caused by natural or man-made processes. However, the resulting changes in the earth's subsurface properties are often small both in terms of magnitude and spatial extent, leading to minimal time-lapse differences in seismic amplitude or traveltime. In order to better extract information from the time-lapse data, we show that exploiting the full seismic waveform information can be critical. In this study, we develop and test methods of full waveform inversion that estimate an optimal subsurface model of time-varying elastic properties in order to fit the observed time-lapse seismic data with predicted waveforms based on numerical solutions of the wave equation. Time-lapse full waveform inversion is non-linear and non-unique, and depends on the knowledge of the baseline velocity model before a change, and (non-)repeatability of earthquake source and sensor parameters, and of ambient and cultural noise. We propose to use repeating earthquake data sets acquired with permanent arrays of seismic sensors to enhance the repeatability of source and sensor parameters. We further develop and test time-lapse parallel, double-difference and bootstrapping inversion strategies to mitigate the dependence on the baseline velocity model. The parallel approach uses a time-invariant full waveform inversion method to estimate velocity models independently of the different source event times. The double-difference approach directly estimates velocity changes from time-lapse waveform differences, requiring excellent repeatability. The bootstrapping approach inverts for velocity models sequentially in time, implicitly constraining the time-lapse inversions, while relaxing an explicit requirement for high data repeatability. We assume that prior to the time-lapse inversion, we can estimate the true source locations and the origin time of the events, and also we can also

  5. Time-lapse monitoring of localized changes within heterogeneous media with scattered waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinaemerem, Kanu

    Time-lapse monitoring of geological and mechanical media has been the focus of various studies over the past four decades because of the information that the inferred changes within the medium provides insight into the dynamic characteristics of the medium. Time-lapse changes within a medium can be used to characterize the temporal evolution of the medium, evaluate the forces driving the changes within the medium and make predictions on the future state of the monitored medium. The detectability of the changes within a material depends on the characteristics of the change to be imaged, the sensitivity of the monitoring data to the change, and the time-lapse monitoring parameters such as the monitoring source-receiver array and the spectral content of the monitoring waves. Various time-lapse monitoring tools have been used to monitor changes within media ranging from the earth's surface to tumors within the human body. These monitoring tools include the use of 4D active surveys were an imprint of the change within the medium is extracted from the time-lapse surveys and the use of interferometric techniques that use singly or multiply scattered waves. My major goal in this study is to image and localize changes present within a scattering medium using time-lapse multiply scattered waves generated within the monitored medium. The changes to be imaged are generally localized in space. This work is an extension of coda wave interferometry. Coda wave interferometry focuses on the identification and extraction of average velocity change occurring within a scattering medium. Due to the non-linear characteristics of multiply scattered waves and limited information of the origin of the multiply scattered waves, coda wave interferometry resolves the average velocity change within the scattering medium with no or limited indication of the location of the change. In this study, I demonstrate that time-lapse changes can be imaged and localized within scattering media using

  6. Developing an EEG-based on-line closed-loop lapse detection and mitigation system

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Te; Huang, Kuan-Chih; Wei, Chun-Shu; Huang, Teng-Yi; Ko, Li-Wei; Lin, Chin-Teng; Cheng, Chung-Kuan; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2014-01-01

    In America, 60% of adults reported that they have driven a motor vehicle while feeling drowsy, and at least 15–20% of fatal car accidents are fatigue-related. This study translates previous laboratory-oriented neurophysiological research to design, develop, and test an On-line Closed-loop Lapse Detection and Mitigation (OCLDM) System featuring a mobile wireless dry-sensor EEG headgear and a cell-phone based real-time EEG processing platform. Eleven subjects participated in an event-related lane-keeping task, in which they were instructed to manipulate a randomly deviated, fixed-speed cruising car on a 4-lane highway. This was simulated in a 1st person view with an 8-screen and 8-projector immersive virtual-reality environment. When the subjects experienced lapses or failed to respond to events during the experiment, auditory warning was delivered to rectify the performance decrements. However, the arousing auditory signals were not always effective. The EEG spectra exhibited statistically significant differences between effective and ineffective arousing signals, suggesting that EEG spectra could be used as a countermeasure of the efficacy of arousing signals. In this on-line pilot study, the proposed OCLDM System was able to continuously detect EEG signatures of fatigue, deliver arousing warning to subjects suffering momentary cognitive lapses, and assess the efficacy of the warning in near real-time to rectify cognitive lapses. The on-line testing results of the OCLDM System validated the efficacy of the arousing signals in improving subjects' response times to the subsequent lane-departure events. This study may lead to a practical on-line lapse detection and mitigation system in real-world environments. PMID:25352773

  7. Using Digital Time-Lapse Videos to Teach Geomorphic Processes to Undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. H.; Linneman, S. R.; Fuller, J.

    2004-12-01

    We demonstrate the use of relatively low-cost, computer-based digital imagery to create time-lapse videos of two distinct geomorphic processes in order to help students grasp the significance of the rates, styles, and temporal dependence of geologic phenomena. Student interviews indicate that such videos help them to understand the relationship between processes and landform development. Time-lapse videos have been used extensively in some sciences (e.g., biology - http://sbcf.iu.edu/goodpract/hangarter.html, meteorology - http://www.apple.com/education/hed/aua0101s/meteor/, chemistry - http://www.chem.yorku.ca/profs/hempsted/chemed/home.html) to demonstrate gradual processes that are difficult for many students to visualize. Most geologic processes are slower still, and are consequently even more difficult for students to grasp, yet time-lapse videos are rarely used in earth science classrooms. The advent of inexpensive web-cams and computers provides a new means to explore the temporal dimension of earth surface processes. To test the use of time-lapse videos in geoscience education, we are developing time-lapse movies that record the evolution of two landforms: a stream-table delta and a large, natural, active landslide. The former involves well-known processes in a controlled, repeatable laboratory experiment, whereas the latter tracks the developing dynamics of an otherwise poorly understood slope failure. The stream-table delta is small and grows in ca. 2 days; we capture a frame on an overhead web-cam every 3 minutes. Before seeing the video, students are asked to hypothesize how the delta will grow through time. The final time-lapse video, ca. 20-80 MB, elegantly shows channel migration, progradation rates, and formation of major geomorphic elements (topset, foreset, bottomset beds). The web-cam can also be "zoomed-in" to show smaller-scale processes, such as bedload transfer, and foreset slumping. Post-lab tests and interviews with students indicate that

  8. Temperature lapse rates at restricted thermodynamic equilibrium. Part II: Saturated air and further discussions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björnbom, Pehr

    2016-03-01

    In the first part of this work equilibrium temperature profiles in fluid columns with ideal gas or ideal liquid were obtained by numerically minimizing the column energy at constant entropy, equivalent to maximizing column entropy at constant energy. A minimum in internal plus potential energy for an isothermal temperature profile was obtained in line with Gibbs' classical equilibrium criterion. However, a minimum in internal energy alone for adiabatic temperature profiles was also obtained. This led to a hypothesis that the adiabatic lapse rate corresponds to a restricted equilibrium state, a type of state in fact discussed already by Gibbs. In this paper similar numerical results for a fluid column with saturated air suggest that also the saturated adiabatic lapse rate corresponds to a restricted equilibrium state. The proposed hypothesis is further discussed and amended based on the previous and the present numerical results and a theoretical analysis based on Gibbs' equilibrium theory.

  9. Near-surface temperature lapse rates in a mountainous catchment in the Chilean Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala; Schauwecker, S.; Pellicciotti, F.; McPhee, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    In mountainous areas, and in the Chilean Andes in particular, the irregular and sparse distribution of recording stations resolves insufficiently the variability of climatic factors such as precipitation, temperature and relative humidity. Assumptions about air temperature variability in space and time have a strong effect on the performance of hydrologic models that represent snow processes such as accumulation and ablation. These processes have large diurnal variations, and assumptions that average over longer time periods (days, weeks or months) may reduce the predictive capacity of these models under different climatic conditions from those for which they were calibrated. They also introduce large uncertainties when such models are used to predict processes with strong subdiurnal variability such as snowmelt dynamics. In many applications and modeling exercises, temperature is assumed to decrease linearly with elevation, using the free-air moist adiabatic lapse rate (MALR: 0.0065°C/m). Little evidence is provided for this assumption, however, and recent studies have shown that use of lapse rates that are uniform in space and constant in time is not appropriate. To explore the validity of this approach, near-surface (2 m) lapse rates were calculated and analyzed at different temporal resolution, based on a new data set of spatially distributed temperature sensors setup in a high elevation catchment of the dry Andes of Central Chile (approx. 33°S). Five minutes temperature data were collected between January 2011 and April 2011 in the Ojos de Agua catchment, using two Automatic Weather Stations (AWSs) and 13 T-loggers (Hobo H8 Pro Temp with external data logger), ranging in altitude from 2230 to 3590 m.s.l.. The entire catchment was snow free during our experiment. We use this unique data set to understand the main controls over temperature variability in time and space, and test whether lapse rates can be used to describe the spatial variations of air

  10. A hyperbolic slicing condition adapted to Killing fields and densitized lapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcubierre, Miguel; Corichi, Alejandro; González, José A.; Núñez, Darío; Salgado, Marcelo

    2003-09-01

    We study the properties of a modified version of the Bona Masso family of hyperbolic slicing conditions. This modified slicing condition has two very important features: in the first place, it guarantees that if a spacetime is static or stationary, and one starts the evolution in a coordinate system in which the metric coefficients are already time independent, then they will remain time independent during the subsequent evolution, i.e. the lapse will not evolve and will therefore not drive the time lines away from the Killing direction. Second, the modified condition is naturally adapted to the use of a densitized lapse as a fundamental variable, which in turn makes it a good candidate for a dynamic slicing condition that can be used in conjunction with some recently proposed hyperbolic reformulations of the Einstein evolution equations.

  11. Volumetric monitoring of aqueous two phase system droplets using time-lapse optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Bathany, C.; Ahn, Y.; Takayama, S.; Jung, W.

    2016-02-01

    We present a volumetric monitoring method to observe the morphological changes of aqueous two phase system (ATPS) droplets in a microfluidic system. Our method is based on time-lapse optical coherence tomography (OCT) which allows the study of the dynamics of ATPS droplets while visualizing their 3D structures and providing quantitative information on the droplets. In this study, we monitored the process of rehydration and deformation of an ATPS droplet in a microfluidic system and quantified the changes of its volume and velocity under both static and dynamic fluid conditions. Our results indicate that time-lapse OCT is a very promising tool to evaluate the unprecedented features of droplet-based microfluidics.

  12. Freeze core sampling to validate time-lapse resistivity monitoring of the hyporheic zone.

    PubMed

    Toran, Laura; Hughes, Brian; Nyquist, Jonathan; Ryan, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A freeze core sampler was used to characterize hyporheic zone storage during a stream tracer test. The pore water from the frozen core showed tracer lingered in the hyporheic zone after the tracer had returned to background concentration in collocated well samples. These results confirmed evidence of lingering subsurface tracer seen in time-lapse electrical resistivity tomographs. The pore water exhibited brine exclusion (ion concentrations in ice lower than source water) in a sediment matrix, despite the fast freezing time. Although freeze core sampling provided qualitative evidence of lingering tracer, it proved difficult to quantify tracer concentration because the amount of brine exclusion during freezing could not be accurately determined. Nonetheless, the additional evidence for lingering tracer supports using time-lapse resistivity to detect regions of low fluid mobility within the hyporheic zone that can act as chemically reactive zones of importance in stream health.

  13. Calixarenes and cations: a time-lapse photography of the big-bang.

    PubMed

    Casnati, Alessandro

    2013-08-07

    The outstanding cation complexation properties emerging from the pioneering studies on calixarene ligands during a five-year period in the early 1980s triggered a big-bang burst of publications on such macrocycles that is still lasting at a distance of more than 30 years. A time-lapse photography of this timeframe is proposed which allows the readers to pinpoint the contributions of the different research groups.

  14. Imaging Hydrological Processes in Headwater Riparian Seeps with Time-Lapse Electrical Resistivity.

    PubMed

    Williams, Mark R; Buda, Anthony R; Singha, Kamini; Folmar, Gordon J; Elliott, Herschel A; Schmidt, John P

    2017-01-01

    Delineating hydrologic and pedogenic factors influencing groundwater flow in riparian zones is central in understanding pathways of water and nutrient transport. In this study, we combined two-dimensional time-lapse electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) (depth of investigation approximately 2 m) with hydrometric monitoring to examine hydrological processes in the riparian area of FD-36, a small (0.4 km(2) ) agricultural headwater basin in the Valley and Ridge region of east-central Pennsylvania. We selected two contrasting study sites, including a seep with groundwater discharge and an adjacent area lacking such seepage. Both sites were underlain by a fragipan at 0.6 m. We then monitored changes in electrical resistivity, shallow groundwater, and nitrate-N concentrations as a series of storms transitioned the landscape from dry to wet conditions. Time-lapse ERI revealed different resistivity patterns between seep and non-seep areas during the study period. Notably, the seep displayed strong resistivity reductions (∼60%) along a vertically aligned region of the soil profile, which coincided with strong upward hydraulic gradients recorded in a grid of nested piezometers (0.2- and 0.6-m depth). These patterns suggested a hydraulic connection between the seep and the nitrate-rich shallow groundwater system below the fragipan, which enabled groundwater and associated nitrate-N to discharge through the fragipan to the surface. In contrast, time-lapse ERI indicated no such connections in the non-seep area, with infiltrated rainwater presumably perched above the fragipan. Results highlight the value of pairing time-lapse ERI with hydrometric and water quality monitoring to illuminate possible groundwater and nutrient flow pathways to seeps in headwater riparian areas.

  15. Extratropical lapse rates during the Paleogene and other very hot climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora, R. A.; Korty, R.; Huber, M.; Thomas, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Middle latitude storms redistribute heat across the planet, pushing warm tropical air poleward on one side and bringing cold polar air equatorward on the other. At the same time they redistribute heat vertically, stabilizing atmospheric lapse rates in the process. The interplay between convective processes and the stabilizing effects of these large-scale systems remains debated, and the purpose of this study is to examine how the relative importance of each varies with climate. We study output from NCAR's Community Atmospheric Model in which carbon dioxide concentrations vary over a wide range: from preindustrial-era levels of 280 ppm to 8960 ppm. One set uses present-day continental distributions while another has geography applicable to the Eocene epoch. As a tool to assess the stability of the atmosphere, we calculate a thermodynamic variable called saturation potential vorticity (P*), which has the property of being identically zero wherever lapse rates are neutral with respect to moist convection, and large where lapse rates are stable. To complement this analysis, we also examine how the heights of the thermal and dynamic tropopauses change. By examining simulations in which carbon dioxide concentrations vary over a wide range of values, we can assess the relative importance of convective processes to middle latitude thermal stratification in progressively warmer climate states. We also examine how the large-scale general circulation evolves in the hottest states, by assessing the relationship between the width of the Hadley circulation and subtropical stability. The controls for the Eocene epoch and preindustrial era cases have stabilites similar to those found in the present-day climate. Our simulations indicate tropical regions are neutral with respect to moist convection while higher latitudes most often have stable lapse rates, especially during the winter months. In the warmer climates, the frequency of convectively neutral air masses increases in both

  16. Time-lapse AVO fluid inversion for dynamic reservoir characterization in Delhi Field, Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, Indah Hermansyah

    In the development stage, CO2 injection is becoming more widely used in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Delhi Oil Field is part of Phases XIII and XIV of the Reservoir Characterization Project (RCP) Colorado School of Mines. The focus of these phases is to monitor the effectiveness of the CO 2 injection in Delhi Field by using multicomponent time-lapse seismic data. In this study, I analyze the amplitude versus offset (AVO) response of the time-lapse P-wave seismic data in order to quantify the fluid probability in the field. RCP acquired four square miles of multicomponent time-lapse seismic in Delhi Field to characterize the field dynamically. RCP's two surveys, monitor 1 and monitor 2, were shot in 2010 and 2011 after the start of CO2 injection in November 2009. Time-lapse AVO modeling was performed. The modeling results show that both the top Tuscaloosa and Paluxy Formations are class III AVO, and change toward class IV AVO by increasing the CO2 saturation in the reservoir. In addition, the Paluxy Formation shows a consistent result between the synthetic and real data, however, the Tuscaloosa Formation is not consistent as it is affected by tuning. AVO fluid inversion (AFI) was performed on both the Tuscaloosa and Paluxy Formations in order to quantify the fluid probability in these formations. The inversion results are confirmed by the pseudo gamma ray model, the porosity model, the permeability model, the pressure model, and the production data. In the Tuscaloosa and Paluxy Formations, oil and CO2 are located in the good quality, high porosity, and high permeability sandstones. The presence of CO2 is also confirmed by the pressure interpretation. Furthermore, production data from both Tuscaloosa and Paluxy Formations confirm the fluid presence in the reservoir.

  17. Analysis of the repeatability of time-lapse 3d vsp multicomponent surveys, delhi field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Mariana Fernandes de

    Delhi Field is a producing oil field located in northeastern Louisiana. In order to monitor the CO2 sweep efficiency, time-lapse 3D seismic data have been acquired in this area. Time-lapse studies are increasingly used to evaluate changes in the seismic response induced by the production of hydrocarbons or the injection of water, CO2 or steam into a reservoir. A 4D seismic signal is generated by a combination of production and injection effects within the reservoir as well as non-repeatability effects. In order to get reliable results from time-lapse seismic methods, it is important to distinguish the production and injection effects from the non-repeatability effects in the 4D seismic signal. Repeatability of 4D land seismic data is affected by several factors. The most significant of them are: source and receiver geometry inaccuracies, differences in seismic sources signatures, variations in the immediate near surface and ambient non-repeatable noise. In this project, two 3D multicomponent VSP surveys acquired in Delhi Field were used to quantify the relative contribution of each factor that can affect the repeatability in land seismic data. The factors analyzed in this study were: source and receiver geometry inaccura- cies, variations in the immediate near surface and ambient non-repeatable noise. This study showed that all these factors had a significant impact on the repeatability of the successive multicomponent VSP surveys in Delhi Field. This project also shows the advantages and disadvantages in the use of different repeata- bility metrics, normalized-root-mean-square (NRMS) difference and signal-to-distortion ratio (SDR) attribute, to evaluate the level of seismic repeatability between successive time-lapse seismic surveys. It is observed that NRMS difference is greatly influenced by time-shifts and that SDR attribute combined with the time-shift may give more distinct and representative repeatability information than the NRMS difference.

  18. Probabilistic 3-D time-lapse inversion of magnetotelluric data: Application to an enhanced geothermal system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosas-Carbajal, Marina; Linde, Nicolas; Peacock, Jared R.; Zyserman, F. I.; Kalscheuer, Thomas; Thiel, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Surface-based monitoring of mass transfer caused by injections and extractions in deep boreholes is crucial to maximize oil, gas and geothermal production. Inductive electromagnetic methods, such as magnetotellurics, are appealing for these applications due to their large penetration depths and sensitivity to changes in fluid conductivity and fracture connectivity. In this work, we propose a 3-D Markov chain Monte Carlo inversion of time-lapse magnetotelluric data to image mass transfer following a saline fluid injection. The inversion estimates the posterior probability density function of the resulting plume, and thereby quantifies model uncertainty. To decrease computation times, we base the parametrization on a reduced Legendre moment decomposition of the plume. A synthetic test shows that our methodology is effective when the electrical resistivity structure prior to the injection is well known. The centre of mass and spread of the plume are well retrieved.We then apply our inversion strategy to an injection experiment in an enhanced geothermal system at Paralana, South Australia, and compare it to a 3-D deterministic time-lapse inversion. The latter retrieves resistivity changes that are more shallow than the actual injection interval, whereas the probabilistic inversion retrieves plumes that are located at the correct depths and oriented in a preferential north-south direction. To explain the time-lapse data, the inversion requires unrealistically large resistivity changes with respect to the base model. We suggest that this is partly explained by unaccounted subsurface heterogeneities in the base model from which time-lapse changes are inferred.

  19. TIME-LAPSE SEISMIC MODELING & INVERSION OF CO2 SATURATION FOR SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    Mark A. Meadows

    2006-03-31

    Injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) into subsurface aquifers for geologic storage/sequestration, and into subsurface hydrocarbon reservoirs for enhanced oil recovery, has become an important topic to the nation because of growing concerns related to global warming and energy security. In this project we developed new ways to predict and quantify the effects of CO2 on seismic data recorded over porous reservoir/aquifer rock systems. This effort involved the research and development of new technology to: (1) Quantitatively model the rock physics effects of CO2 injection in porous saline and oil/brine reservoirs (both miscible and immiscible). (2) Quantitatively model the seismic response to CO2 injection (both miscible and immiscible) from well logs (1D). (3) Perform quantitative inversions of time-lapse 4D seismic data to estimate injected CO2 distributions within subsurface reservoirs and aquifers. This work has resulted in an improved ability to remotely monitor the injected CO2 for safe storage and enhanced hydrocarbon recovery, predict the effects of CO2 on time-lapse seismic data, and estimate injected CO2 saturation distributions in subsurface aquifers/reservoirs. We applied our inversion methodology to a 3D time-lapse seismic dataset from the Sleipner CO2 sequestration project, Norwegian North Sea. We measured changes in the seismic amplitude and traveltime at the top of the Sleipner sandstone reservoir and used these time-lapse seismic attributes in the inversion. Maps of CO2 thickness and its standard deviation were generated for the topmost layer. From this information, we estimated that 7.4% of the total CO2 injected over a five-year period had reached the top of the reservoir. This inversion approach could also be applied to the remaining levels within the anomalous zone to obtain an estimate of the total CO2 injected.

  20. Time-lapse cross-hole electrical resistivity tomography monitoring effects of an urban tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellmunt, F.; Marcuello, A.; Ledo, J.; Queralt, P.; Falgàs, E.; Benjumea, B.; Velasco, V.; Vázquez-Suñé, E.

    2012-12-01

    Tunnel construction in urban areas has recently become a topic of interest and has increased the use of tunnel boring machines. Monitoring subsurface effects due to tunnel building in urban areas with conventional surface geophysical techniques is not an easy task because of space constraints. Taking advantage of the construction of a new metro line in Barcelona (Spain), a geoelectrical experiment, which included borehole logging and time-lapse cross-hole measurements using permanent electrode deployments, was designed to characterise and to study the subsurface effects of the tunnel drilling in a test site. We present a case study in which the differences between time-lapse cross-hole resistivity measurements acquired before, during and after the tunnel drilling below the test site have been calculated using three different procedures: a constrained time-lapse inversion, a model subtraction and an inversion of the normalised data ratio. The three procedures have provided satisfactory images of the resistivity changes and tunnel geometry, but resistivity changes for the tunnel void were lower than predicted by modelling. This behaviour has been explained by considering a conductive zone around the tunnel. Further, an apparent resistivity pseudosection for the cross-hole data, equivalent to the case of the equatorial dipole-dipole on the surface, is introduced.

  1. Efficiency of time-lapse intervals and simple baits for camera surveys of wild pigs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.L.; Holtfreter, R.W.; Ditchkoff, S.S.; Grand, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Growing concerns surrounding established and expanding populations of wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have created the need for rapid and accurate surveys of these populations. We conducted surveys of a portion of the wild pig population on Fort Benning, Georgia, to determine if a longer time-lapse interval than had been previously used in surveys of wild pigs would generate similar detection results. We concurrently examined whether use of soured corn at camera sites affected the time necessary for pigs to locate a new camera site or the time pigs remained at a site. Our results suggest that a 9-min time-lapse interval generated dependable detection results for pigs and that soured corn neither attracted pigs to a site any quicker than plain, dry, whole-kernel corn, nor held them at a site longer. Maximization of time-lapse interval should decrease data and processing loads, and use of a simple, available bait should decrease cost and effort associated with more complicated baits; combination of these concepts should increase efficiency of wild pig surveys. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  2. Measuring fast gene dynamics in single cells with time-lapse luminescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mazo-Vargas, Anyimilehidi; Park, Heungwon; Aydin, Mert; Buchler, Nicolas E.

    2014-01-01

    Time-lapse fluorescence microscopy is an important tool for measuring in vivo gene dynamics in single cells. However, fluorescent proteins are limited by slow chromophore maturation times and the cellular autofluorescence or phototoxicity that arises from light excitation. An alternative is luciferase, an enzyme that emits photons and is active upon folding. The photon flux per luciferase is significantly lower than that for fluorescent proteins. Thus time-lapse luminescence microscopy has been successfully used to track gene dynamics only in larger organisms and for slower processes, for which more total photons can be collected in one exposure. Here we tested green, yellow, and red beetle luciferases and optimized substrate conditions for in vivo luminescence. By combining time-lapse luminescence microscopy with a microfluidic device, we tracked the dynamics of cell cycle genes in single yeast with subminute exposure times over many generations. Our method was faster and in cells with much smaller volumes than previous work. Fluorescence of an optimized reporter (Venus) lagged luminescence by 15–20 min, which is consistent with its known rate of chromophore maturation in yeast. Our work demonstrates that luciferases are better than fluorescent proteins at faithfully tracking the underlying gene expression. PMID:25232010

  3. Extended Time-lapse Intravital Imaging of Real-time Multicellular Dynamics in the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Harney, Allison S.; Wang, Yarong; Condeelis, John S.; Entenberg, David

    2016-01-01

    In the tumor microenvironment, host stromal cells interact with tumor cells to promote tumor progression, angiogenesis, tumor cell dissemination and metastasis. Multicellular interactions in the tumor microenvironment can lead to transient events including directional tumor cell motility and vascular permeability. Quantification of tumor vascular permeability has frequently used end-point experiments to measure extravasation of vascular dyes. However, due to the transient nature of multicellular interactions and vascular permeability, the kinetics of these dynamic events cannot be discerned. By labeling cells and vasculature with injectable dyes or fluorescent proteins, high-resolution time-lapse intravital microscopy has allowed the direct, real-time visualization of transient events in the tumor microenvironment. Here we describe a method for using multiphoton microscopy to perform extended intravital imaging in live mice to directly visualize multicellular dynamics in the tumor microenvironment. This method details cellular labeling strategies, the surgical preparation of a mammary skin flap, the administration of injectable dyes or proteins by tail vein catheter and the acquisition of time-lapse images. The time-lapse sequences obtained from this method facilitate the visualization and quantitation of the kinetics of cellular events of motility and vascular permeability in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:27341448

  4. Confocal time lapse imaging as an efficient method for the cytocompatibility evaluation of dental composites.

    PubMed

    Attik, Ghania Nina; Gritsch, Kerstin; Colon, Pierre; Grosgogeat, Brigitte

    2014-11-09

    It is generally accepted that in vitro cell material interaction is a useful criterion in the evaluation of dental material biocompatibility. The objective of this study was to use 3D CLSM time lapse confocal imaging to assess the in vitro biocompatibility of dental composites. This method provides an accurate and sensitive indication of viable cell rate in contact with dental composite extracts. The ELS extra low shrinkage, a dental composite used for direct restoration, has been taken as example. In vitro assessment was performed on cultured primary human gingival fibroblast cells using Live/Dead staining. Images were obtained with the FV10i confocal biological inverted system and analyzed with the FV10-ASW 3.1 Software. Image analysis showed a very slight cytotoxicity in the presence of the tested composite after 5 hours of time lapse. A slight decrease of cell viability was shown in contact with the tested composite extracts compared to control cells. The findings highlighted the use of 3D CLSM time lapse imaging as a sensitive method to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the biocompatibility behavior of dental composites.

  5. Can arousing feedback rectify lapses in driving? Prediction from EEG power spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chin-Teng; Huang, Kuan-Chih; Chuang, Chun-Hsiang; Ko, Li-Wei; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2013-10-01

    Objective. This study explores the neurophysiological changes, measured using an electroencephalogram (EEG), in response to an arousing warning signal delivered to drowsy drivers, and predicts the efficacy of the feedback based on changes in the EEG. Approach. Eleven healthy subjects participated in sustained-attention driving experiments. The driving task required participants to maintain their cruising position and compensate for randomly induced lane deviations using the steering wheel, while their EEG and driving performance were continuously monitored. The arousing warning signal was delivered to participants who experienced momentary behavioral lapses, failing to respond rapidly to lane-departure events (specifically the reaction time exceeded three times the alert reaction time). Main results. The results of our previous studies revealed that arousing feedback immediately reversed deteriorating driving performance, which was accompanied by concurrent EEG theta- and alpha-power suppression in the bilateral occipital areas. This study further proposes a feedback efficacy assessment system to accurately estimate the efficacy of arousing warning signals delivered to drowsy participants by monitoring the changes in their EEG power spectra immediately thereafter. The classification accuracy was up 77.8% for determining the need for triggering additional warning signals. Significance. The findings of this study, in conjunction with previous studies on EEG correlates of behavioral lapses, might lead to a practical closed-loop system to predict, monitor and rectify behavioral lapses of human operators in attention-critical settings.

  6. Estimating Flow Properties from the Onset of Time-Lapse Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasco, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    Geophysical time-lapse observations are increasingly important for monitoring subsurface fluid flow. Time-lapse data can even be used to characterize spatial variations in the properties of a porous medium. A major impediment to such characterization is the difficulty in connecting flow-related changes to changes geophysical properties. For example, physical models used to relate changes in fluid saturation and pressure to seismic velocity changes often depend upon unknown parameters, or on the detailed distribution of the fluid at intermediate spatial scales. The challange is particularly acute when one tries to relate the magnitudes of saturation and pressure changes to the magnitude of a change in a time-lapse observation. I present an alternative approach for the characterization of a porous medium, based upon the onset of changes of a geophysical attribute, that is applicable when there are a sequence of geophysical surveys. An onset time is the calander time as which a geophysical observable begins to deviate from its initial or background value. In many cases onset times are sensitive to flow properties, such as permeability, and insensitive to the details of the physical model governing the geophysical response. Several examples of the use of onset times will be presented, including the seismic monitoring of injected carbon dioxide and the use of surface deformation data to image fluid flow at depth. Though the technique works best when there are numerous geophysical snapshots, numerical modeling indicates useful results are possible from yearly seismic surveys.

  7. Global dynamics of selective attention and its lapses in primary auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Lakatos, Peter; Barczak, Annamaria; Neymotin, Samuel A; McGinnis, Tammy; Ross, Deborah; Javitt, Daniel C.; O’Connell, Monica Noelle

    2016-01-01

    Previous research demonstrated that while selectively attending to relevant aspects of the external world, the brain extracts pertinent information by aligning its neuronal oscillations to key time points of stimuli or their sampling by sensory organs. This alignment mechanism is termed oscillatory entrainment. We investigated the global, long-timescale dynamics of this mechanism in the primary auditory cortex of nonhuman primates, and hypothesized that lapses of entrainment would correspond to lapses of attention. By examining electrophysiological and behavioral measures we observed that besides the lack of entrainment by external stimuli, attentional lapses were characterized by high amplitude alpha oscillations, with alpha frequency structuring of neuronal ensemble and single unit operations. Strikingly, entrainment and alpha oscillation dominated periods were strongly anti-correlated and fluctuated rhythmically at an ultra-slow rate. Our results indicate that these two distinct brain states represent externally versus internally oriented computational resources engaged by large-scale task-positive and task-negative functional networks. PMID:27618311

  8. Dynamic association between negative affect and alcohol lapses following alcohol treatment.

    PubMed

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Villarroel, Nadia Aracelliz

    2009-08-01

    Clinical research has found a strong association between negative affect and returning to alcohol use after a period of abstinence. Yet little is known about the probability of a lapse given a particular level of negative affect or whether there is a reciprocal relationship between negative affect and alcohol use across time. The goal of the current study was to examine the association between negative affect and drinking behavior in the 1st year following alcohol treatment. The authors applied an associative latent transition analysis to the Project MATCH outpatient data (n = 952) and then replicated the model in the Project MATCH aftercare data (n = 774). Changes in drinking following treatment were significantly associated with current and prior changes in negative affect, and changes in negative affect were related to prior changes in drinking (effect size range = 0.13-0.33). The results supported the hypothesis that negative affect and alcohol lapses are dynamically linked and suggest that targeting the relationship between negative affect and alcohol use could greatly decrease the probability of lapses and improve alcohol treatment outcomes.

  9. Using time-lapse photogrammetric method to study the terminal part of the Perito Moreno glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenzano, M. G.; Toth, C.; Lenzano, L.; Skvarca, P.; Smalley, R.

    2013-05-01

    The changes that are occurring in regional climate affect cryospheric environments and have a direct impact on the hydrological cycle. This work presents a feasibility study on the implementation and performance assessment of time-lapse processing ofstereo image sequence, acquired by calibrated cameras, in order to determine the altimetric and volumetric changes in the terminus of Perito Moreno (PM) glacier. This glacier is located at 50° 28' 23''S, 73° 02' 10''W at the Parque Nacional Los Glaciares, South Patagonia Icefield, Santa Cruz, Argentina. This glacier has experienced minor fluctuations or unusual behavior with respect to others glaciers since early 1960's until nowadays. The time-lapse technique allows for obtaining accurate estimates of deformations and velocity models. Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) were created from images, captured daily from April, 2012 to November, 2012, with a total of 182 days. One of the challenges was maintaining the accurate co-registration of the DTMs, which was essential for the information extraction. The differences between DTMs provided the velocities in the terminal part of PM for the period as it approaches the Peninsula de Magallanes. In additon, the DTMs were validated in order to determine the degree of uncertainty in the estimation of changes in the glacier. Keywords: time-lapse, DTMs, glacier volume change, Perito Moreno.

  10. Prospective Analysis of Early Lapse to Drinking and Smoking Among Individuals in Concurrent Alcohol and Tobacco Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Laura J.; Litt, Mark D.; Cooney, Ned L.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine, prospectively, 1) dynamic changes in affective state, self-efficacy, and urge in the hours before initial smoking and drinking lapses among individuals in concurrent alcohol and smoking treatment, and 2) the extent to which self-efficacy, urge to use, and/or the use of one substance predicted lapse to the other substance. Ninety-six men and women recruited for a clinical trial of concurrent alcohol and tobacco treatment were eligible for inclusion. Only data from those who experienced an initial lapse to drinking (n=29), or smoking (n=32) were included. Two outpatient substance abuse clinics provided concurrent alcohol and smoking treatment on a weekly basis for three months. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) methods were employed over a 28-day monitoring period to assess antecedents to first drink and a 14-day monitoring period was examined for initial smoking lapses. Baseline and EMA measures of positive and negative affect, alcohol/smoking urge, alcohol/smoking abstinence self-efficacy, nicotine withdrawal, and quantity/frequency of alcohol and tobacco use were examined as lapse predictors. Analyses of EMA ratings controlled for the corresponding baseline measure. Smoking lapse among individuals in concurrent alcohol and tobacco treatment was foreshadowed by higher urges to smoke, lower positive mood, and lower confidence to resist smoking. Drinking lapse was preceded by lower confidence to resist smoking, but only among individuals who reported recent smoking. Concurrent alcohol and smoking treatment should focus on the enhancement of abstinence self-efficacy, positive mood, and the curbing of urges in order to offset lapse risk. PMID:22023022

  11. Enhancing Monitoring of Recharge-Related Environmental Remediation Processes Using Time-Lapse Seismic Refraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, D. P.; Baker, G. S.; Hubbard, S. S.; Watson, D. B.; Jardine, P. M.

    2008-12-01

    The application of time-lapse seismic methods has typically been constrained to large-scale geologic investigations associated with petroleum exploration and exploitation; however, there is growing interest in monitoring near-surface phenomena (e.g., fluid flow in fractured or karstic geologic media, hydraulic recharge, and near-surface anthropogenic manipulations) using time-lapse seismic methods. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of detailed time-lapse seismic refraction tomography (TLSRT), we have monitored a perched water table at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Y-12 site in conjunction with a multi- disciplinary investigation of the fate and transport of contaminants. Due to remnant anthropogenic alterations of the site (i.e., replacement of 0-7 meters of contaminated soil with poorly sorted limestone gravel fill during construction of a seepage basin cap), the near surface hydrology is extremely complex and is hypothesized to have a large influence on infiltration, contaminant distribution, and contaminant remobilization. Understanding the impact of recharge-related flow and transport processes is especially important in regions that are subjected to significant precipitation events, such as at the ORNL Y-12 site. Here, TLSRT techniques are used to monitor the changing geometry of a perched water table located near the covered seepage basin, while coincident time-lapse surface electrical resistivity (TLERT) measurements are used to monitor changes in total dissolved solids due to recharge-related dilution. Data are collected at multiple time intervals (i.e., daily, weekly, monthly, yearly) and at varying stages in the evolution of the perch zone. The resulting seismic data are processed using wavepath eikonal tomography (WET) and differenced to identify areas of variable velocity associated with a change in saturation. The differenced tomograms correlate with discrete point water table measurements; however, the highly variable water table at this

  12. The application of time-lapse photography for the observation of snow processes in mountainous catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvelmann, J.; Pohl, S.; Weiler, M.

    2012-04-01

    For the forecast of snowmelt flood events in mountainous catchments it is very important to know the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of the snowcover. Topography and vegetation have the most important influence on the spatio-temporal variability of the snowcover. In order to accomplish a continuous observation of the quantity and the status of the snowcover, an extensive measurement network consisting of numerous standalone snow and meteorological sensors and time-lapse photography was established in three catchments in the Black Forest, a typical mid latitude medium elevation mountain range. Catchments with different topographic characteristic and areal extent were specifically chosen for this study. Within the catchments, a stratified sampling design was used to cover a wide range of altitudes and exposures. In order to investigate the influence of a vegetation cover on the snow processes beneath sensors and cameras have been installed under the forest canopy and on adjacent open field sites, respectively. In the presented study the application of spatially distributed time-lapse cameras for the observation of snow processes and snowcover properties at the catchment scale will be discussed. Image analysis software was applied to extract information about snowdepth, snow albedo and canopy interception from the digital images. A measurement scale with a black/white board was installed in the focus of every camera to allow a determination of the snowdepth at every camera location while the black/white board was used to provide a white balance for the albedo estimation. The albedo provides important information about the status of the snowcover and its temporal evolution is a crucial factor for the snowmelt energy balance. Furthermore the time-lapse images provided a continuous observation of the forest canopy allowing the estimation of the interception efficiency and the temporal evolution of the snow interception for different topographic situations

  13. Time-lapse borehole radar for monitoring rainfall infiltration through podosol horizons in a sandy vadose zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobach, Elmar; Harris, B. D.; Dupuis, J. C.; Kepic, A. W.

    2014-03-01

    The shallow aquifer on the Gnangara Mound, north of Perth, Western Australia, is recharged by winter rainfall. Water infiltrates through a sandy Podosol where cemented accumulation (B-) horizons are common. They are water retentive and may impede recharge. To observe wetting fronts and the influence of soil horizons on unsaturated flow, we deployed time-lapse borehole radar techniques sensitive to soil moisture variations during an annual recharge cycle. Zero-offset crosswell profiling (ZOP) and vertical radar profiling (VRP) measurements were performed at six sites on a monthly basis before, during, and after annual rainfall in 2011. Water content profiles are derived from ZOP logs acquired in closely spaced wells. Sites with small separation between wells present potential repeatability and accuracy difficulties. Such problems could be lessened by (i) ZOP saturated zone velocity matching of time-lapse curves, and (ii) matching of ZOP and VRP results. The moisture contents for the baseline condition and subsequent observations are computed using the Topp relationship. Time-lapse moisture curves reveal characteristic vadose zone infiltration regimes. Examples are (I) full recharge potential after 200 mm rainfall, (II) delayed wetting and impeded recharge, and (III) no recharge below 7 m depth. Seasonal infiltration trends derived from long-term time-lapse neutron logging at several sites are shown to be comparable with infiltration trends recovered from time-lapse crosswell radar measurements. However, radar measurements sample a larger volume of earth while being safer to deploy than the neutron method which employs a radioactive source. For the regime (III) site, where time-lapse radar indicates no net recharge or zero flux to the water table, a simple water balance provides an evapotranspiration value of 620 mm for the study period. This value compares favorably to previous studies at similar test sites in the region. Our six field examples demonstrate

  14. Minds "at attention": mindfulness training curbs attentional lapses in military cohorts.

    PubMed

    Jha, Amishi P; Morrison, Alexandra B; Dainer-Best, Justin; Parker, Suzanne; Rostrup, Nina; Stanley, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the impact of mindfulness training (MT) on attentional performance lapses associated with task-unrelated thought (i.e., mind wandering). Periods of persistent and intensive demands may compromise attention and increase off-task thinking. Here, we investigated if MT may mitigate these deleterious effects and promote cognitive resilience in military cohorts enduring a high-demand interval of predeployment training. To better understand which aspects of MT programs are most beneficial, three military cohorts were examined. Two of the three groups were provided MT. One group received an 8-hour, 8-week variant of Mindfulness-based Mind Fitness Training (MMFT) emphasizing engagement in training exercises (training-focused MT, n = 40), a second group received a didactic-focused variant emphasizing content regarding stress and resilience (didactic-focused MT, n = 40), and the third group served as a no-training control (NTC, n = 24). Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) performance was indexed in all military groups and a no-training civilian group (CIV, n = 45) before (T1) and after (T2) the MT course period. Attentional performance (measured by A', a sensitivity index) was lower in NTC vs. CIV at T2, suggesting that performance suffers after enduring a high-demand predeployment interval relative to a similar time period of civilian life. Yet, there were significantly fewer performance lapses in the military cohorts receiving MT relative to NTC, with training-focused MT outperforming didactic-focused MT at T2. From T1 to T2, A' degraded in NTC and didactic-focused MT but remained stable in training-focused MT and CIV. In sum, while protracted periods of high-demand military training may increase attentional performance lapses, practice-focused MT programs akin to training-focused MT may bolster attentional performance more than didactic-focused programs. As such, training-focused MT programs should be further examined in cohorts experiencing

  15. High-Resolution Time-Lapse Monitoring of Unsaturated Flow using Automated GPR Data Collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangel, A. R.; Moysey, S. M.; Lytle, B. A.; Bradford, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data provide the detailed information required to image subsurface structures. Recent advances in GPR monitoring now also make it possible to study transient hydrologic processes, but high-speed data acquisition is critical for this application. We therefore highlight the capabilities of our automated system to acquire time-lapse, high-resolution multifold GPR data during infiltration of water into soils. The system design allows for fast acquisition of constant-offset (COP) and common-midpoint profiles (CMP) to monitor unsaturated flow at multiple locations. Qualitative interpretation of the unprocessed COPs can provide substantial information regarding the hydrologic response of the system, such as the complexities of patterns associated with the wetting of the soil and geophysical evidence of non-uniform propagation of a wetting front. While we find that unprocessed images are informative, we show that the spatial variability of velocity introduced by infiltration events can complicate the images and that migration of the data is an effective tool to improve interpretability of the time-lapse images. The ability of the system to collect high density CMP data also introduces the potential for improving the velocity model along with the image via reflection tomography in the post-migrated domain. We show that for both simulated and empirical time-lapse GPR profiles we can resolve a propagating wetting front in the soil that is in good agreement with the response of in-situ soil moisture measurements. The data from these experiments illustrate the importance of high-speed, high-resolution GPR data acquisition for obtaining insight about the dynamics of hydrologic events. Continuing research is aimed at improving the quantitative analysis of surface-based GPR monitoring data for identifying preferential flow in soils.

  16. Time-Lapse Electrical Geophysical Monitoring of Amendment-Based Biostimulation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Timothy C; Versteeg, Roelof J; Day-Lewis, Frederick D; Major, William; Lane, John W

    2015-01-01

    Biostimulation is increasingly used to accelerate microbial remediation of recalcitrant groundwater contaminants. Effective application of biostimulation requires successful emplacement of amendment in the contaminant target zone. Verification of remediation performance requires postemplacement assessment and contaminant monitoring. Sampling-based approaches are expensive and provide low-density spatial and temporal information. Time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is an effective geophysical method for determining temporal changes in subsurface electrical conductivity. Because remedial amendments and biostimulation-related biogeochemical processes often change subsurface electrical conductivity, ERT can complement and enhance sampling-based approaches for assessing emplacement and monitoring biostimulation-based remediation. Field studies demonstrating the ability of time-lapse ERT to monitor amendment emplacement and behavior were performed during a biostimulation remediation effort conducted at the Department of Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office (DRMO) Yard, in Brandywine, Maryland, United States. Geochemical fluid sampling was used to calibrate a petrophysical relation in order to predict groundwater indicators of amendment distribution. The petrophysical relations were field validated by comparing predictions to sequestered fluid sample results, thus demonstrating the potential of electrical geophysics for quantitative assessment of amendment-related geochemical properties. Crosshole radar zero-offset profile and borehole geophysical logging were also performed to augment the data set and validate interpretation. In addition to delineating amendment transport in the first 10 months after emplacement, the time-lapse ERT results show later changes in bulk electrical properties interpreted as mineral precipitation. Results support the use of more cost-effective surface-based ERT in conjunction with limited field sampling to improve spatial

  17. Time-lapse lens-free imaging of cell migration in diverse physical microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Evelien; Paul, Colin D; Stahl, Richard; Vanmeerbeeck, Geert; Reumers, Veerle; Liu, Chengxun; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos; Lagae, Liesbet

    2016-08-16

    Time-lapse imaging of biological samples is important for understanding complex (patho)physiological processes. A growing number of point-of-care biomedical assays rely on real-time imaging of flowing or migrating cells. However, the cost and complexity of integrating experimental models simulating physiologically relevant microenvironments with bulky imaging systems that offer sufficient spatiotemporal resolution limit the use of time-lapse assays in research and clinical settings. This paper introduces a compact and affordable lens-free imaging (LFI) device based on the principle of coherent in-line, digital holography for time-lapse cell migration assays. The LFI device combines single-cell resolution (1.2 μm) with a large field of view (6.4 × 4.6 mm(2)), thus rendering it ideal for high-throughput applications and removing the need for expensive and bulky programmable motorized stages. The set-up is so compact that it can be housed in a standard cell culture incubator, thereby avoiding custom-built stage top incubators. LFI is thoroughly benchmarked against conventional live-cell phase contrast microscopy for random cell motility on two-dimensional (2D) surfaces and confined migration on 1D-microprinted lines and in microchannels using breast adenocarcinoma cells. The quality of the results obtained by the two imaging systems is comparable, and they reveal that cells migrate more efficiently upon increasing confinement. Interestingly, assays of confined migration more readily distinguish the migratory potential of metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells from non-metastatic MCF7 cells relative to traditional 2D migration assays. Altogether, this single-cell migration study establishes LFI as an elegant and useful tool for live-cell imaging.

  18. Exploring the Resolution of Time-Lapse Microgravity at an Aquifer Storage and Recovery Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, C. C.; Ali, M.; Levannier, A.

    2008-12-01

    Time-Lapse Microgravity can reveal relatively small underground fluid displacements via the redistribution of density-contrast at fluid boundaries. The method has, for example, been successfully demonstrated in underground natural gas storage and carbon sequestration studies, and has clear potential for hydrological research and applications such as mining and hydrocarbon reservoir management. For surveys based on modern spring-type gravimeters, the technique's basic measurement resolution is limited by instrument drift, offset errors, and viscoelastic strain hysteresis of the sensor. Despite the sophistication of modern instruments, actual field performance of gravimeters still depends on operator technique and survey conditions. To explore the ultimate resolution of field microgravity (and time-lapse measurements, in particular), we have made repeated gravity surveys of a shallow aquifer storage and recovery test site in the UAE, where injection produces a 'water mound' - localized vertical water-level shifts - monitored by a set of instrumented wells. Based on field measurements and additional laboratory testing of our Scintrex CG-5 gravimeter, we find that the main limit on measurement resolution is from orientation strain hysteresis - a variable amplitude error that decays in approximately 30 minutes, typically in response to orientation during transport between measurement stations. Still, carefully conducted surveys (during the summer, in the desert conditions of the UAE) demonstrate time-lapse microgravity resolution of about 3 microGals, corresponding to a water-level shift of about 0.3 m for this aquifer. In this paper, we will discuss what a 'careful survey' requires and present our detailed testing and survey results.

  19. Time-Lapse Electrical Geophysical Monitoring of Amendment-Based Biostimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Timothy C.; Versteeg, Roelof; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Major, William; Lane, John W.

    2015-12-02

    Biostimulation is increasingly used to accelerate microbial remediation of recalcitrant groundwater contaminants. Effective application of biostimulation requires successful emplacement of amendment in the contaminant target zone. Verification of remediation performance requires postemplacement assessment and contaminant monitoring. Sampling based approaches are expensive and provide low-density spatial and temporal information. Time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is an effective geophysical method for determining temporal changes in subsurface electrical conductivity. Because remedial amendments and biostimulation-related biogeochemical processes often change subsurface electrical conductivity, ERT can complement and enhance sampling-based approaches for assessing emplacement and monitoring biostimulation-based remediation. Field studies demonstrating the ability of time-lapse ERT to monitor amendment emplacement and behavior were performed during a biostimulation remediation effort conducted at the Department of Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office (DRMO) Yard, in Brandywine, Maryland, United States. Geochemical fluid sampling was used to calibrate a petrophysical relation in order to predict groundwater indicators of amendment distribution. The petrophysical relations were field validated by comparing predictions to sequestered fluid sample results, thus demonstrating the potential of electrical geophysics for quantitative assessment of amendment-related geochemical properties. Crosshole radar zero-offset profile and borehole geophysical logging were also performed to augment the data set and validate interpretation. In addition to delineating amendment transport in the first 10 months after emplacement, the time-lapse ERT results show later changes in bulk electrical properties interpreted as mineral precipitation. Results support the use of more cost-effective surfacebased ERT in conjunction with limited field sampling to improve spatial

  20. Monitoring hydraulic processes with automated time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ALERT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuras, Olivier; Pritchard, Jonathan D.; Meldrum, Philip I.; Chambers, Jonathan E.; Wilkinson, Paul B.; Ogilvy, Richard D.; Wealthall, Gary P.

    2009-10-01

    Hydraulic processes in porous media can be monitored in a minimally invasive fashion by time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). The permanent installation of specifically designed ERT instrumentation, telemetry and information technology (IT) infrastructure enables automation of data collection, transfer, processing, management and interpretation. Such an approach gives rise to a dramatic increase in temporal resolution, thus providing new insight into rapidly occurring subsurface processes. In this paper, we discuss a practical implementation of automated time-lapse ERT. We present the results of a recent study in which we used controlled hydraulic experiments in two test cells at reduced field scale to explore the limiting conditions for process monitoring with cross-borehole ERT measurements. The first experiment used three adjacent boreholes to monitor rapidly rising and falling water levels. For the second experiment, we injected a saline tracer into a homogeneous flow field in freshwater-saturated sand; the dynamics of the plume were then monitored with 2D measurements across a 9-borehole fence and 3D measurements across a 3 × 3 grid of boreholes. We investigated different strategies for practical data acquisition and show that simple re-ordering of ERT measurement schemes can help harmonise data collection with the nature of the monitored process. The methodology of automated time-lapse ERT was found to perform well in different monitoring scenarios (2D/3D plus time) at time scales associated with realistic subsurface processes. The limiting factor is the finite amount of time needed for the acquisition of sufficiently comprehensive datasets. We found that, given the complexity of our monitoring scenarios, typical frame rates of at least 1.5-3 images per hour were possible without compromising image quality.

  1. A state-space Bayesian framework for estimating biogeochemical transformations using time-lapse geophysical data

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Hubbard, S.; Williams, K.; Pride, S.; Li, L.; Steefel, C.; Slater, L.

    2009-04-15

    We develop a state-space Bayesian framework to combine time-lapse geophysical data with other types of information for quantitative estimation of biogeochemical parameters during bioremediation. We consider characteristics of end-products of biogeochemical transformations as state vectors, which evolve under constraints of local environments through evolution equations, and consider time-lapse geophysical data as available observations, which could be linked to the state vectors through petrophysical models. We estimate the state vectors and their associated unknown parameters over time using Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling methods. To demonstrate the use of the state-space approach, we apply it to complex resistivity data collected during laboratory column biostimulation experiments that were poised to precipitate iron and zinc sulfides during sulfate reduction. We develop a petrophysical model based on sphere-shaped cells to link the sulfide precipitate properties to the time-lapse geophysical attributes and estimate volume fraction of the sulfide precipitates, fraction of the dispersed, sulfide-encrusted cells, mean radius of the aggregated clusters, and permeability over the course of the experiments. Results of the case study suggest that the developed state-space approach permits the use of geophysical datasets for providing quantitative estimates of end-product characteristics and hydrological feedbacks associated with biogeochemical transformations. Although tested here on laboratory column experiment datasets, the developed framework provides the foundation needed for quantitative field-scale estimation of biogeochemical parameters over space and time using direct, but often sparse wellbore data with indirect, but more spatially extensive geophysical datasets.

  2. Time-lapse 3D ground-penetrating radar during plot-scale infiltration experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allroggen, Niklas; Jackisch, Conrad; Tronicke, Jens

    2016-04-01

    In electrical resistive soils, surface-based ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is known as the geophysical tool providing the highest spatial resolution. Thus, 2D and 3D GPR surveys are commonly used for imaging subsurface structures or estimating soil moisture content. Due to its sensitivity to soil moisture and its non-invasive character, GPR provides a large potential to monitor soil moisture variation at high temporal and spatial resolution. As shown in previous experiments, the acquisition of time-lapse GPR data under field conditions requires a high data quality in terms of repeatability as well as spatial and temporal resolution. We present hydrogeophysical field experiments at the plot scale (1m x 1m), during which we record time-lapse 3D GPR. For GPR data acquisition, we use a pulseEKKO PRO GPR system equipped with a pair of 500 MHz antennas in combination with a specially designed metal-free measuring platform. Additionally, we collect tracer and soil moisture data, which are used to improve the interpretation of the GPR data with special focus on preferential flow paths and their structured advective flow field. After an accurate time-lapse GPR data processing, we compare 3D reflection events before and after infiltration and quantitatively interpret their relative time-shift in terms of soil moisture variations. Thereby, we are able to account for basically all of the infiltrated water. The first experiments demonstrate the general applicability of our experimental approach but are limited by the number of acquired time steps and measurement during the sprinkling period (the time of the highest temporal dynamics) are not possible at all. Based on this experience we redesign our experimental setup to continuously collect GPR data during irrigation and infiltration. Thereby, we strongly increase the temporal resolution of our measurements, improve the interpretability of the GPR data, and monitor the temporal and spatial dynamics of shallow subsurface

  3. A state-space Bayesian framework for estimating biogeochemical transformations using time-lapse geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jinsong; Hubbard, Susan S.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Pride, Steve; Li, Li; Steefel, Carl; Slater, Lee

    2009-08-01

    We develop a state-space Bayesian framework to combine time-lapse geophysical data with other types of information for quantitative estimation of biogeochemical parameters during bioremediation. We consider characteristics of end products of biogeochemical transformations as state vectors, which evolve under constraints of local environments through evolution equations, and consider time-lapse geophysical data as available observations, which could be linked to the state vectors through petrophysical models. We estimate the state vectors and their associated unknown parameters over time using Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling methods. To demonstrate the use of the state-space approach, we apply it to complex resistivity data collected during laboratory column biostimulation experiments that were poised to precipitate iron and zinc sulfides during sulfate reduction. We develop a petrophysical model based on sphere-shaped cells to link the sulfide precipitate properties to the time-lapse geophysical attributes and estimate volume fraction of the sulfide precipitates, fraction of the dispersed, sulfide-encrusted cells, mean radius of the aggregated clusters, and permeability over the course of the experiments. Results of the case study suggest that the developed state-space approach permits the use of geophysical data sets for providing quantitative estimates of end-product characteristics and hydrological feedbacks associated with biogeochemical transformations. Although tested here on laboratory column experiment data sets, the developed framework provides the foundation needed for quantitative field-scale estimation of biogeochemical parameters over space and time using direct, but often sparse wellbore data with indirect, but more spatially extensive geophysical data sets.

  4. Time-lapse camera studies of sea-disposed chemical munitions in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Margo H.; Fornari, Daniel J.; Rognstad, Mark R.; Kelley, Christopher D.; Mah, Christopher L.; Davis, Logan K.; Flores, Kyle R. M.; Main, Erin L.; Bruso, Natalie L.

    2016-06-01

    The interactions between fauna and sea-disposed munitions provide important evidence regarding whether munitions constituents affect the health of the ocean environment and its inhabitants. To date few studies of these interactions have been conducted at deep-water disposal sites; typically observations of fauna in the vicinity of sea-disposed munitions are limited to the few minutes or hours required to collect physical samples at a specific location. During the 2012 Hawaii Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA) field program we deployed two deep-sea time-lapse camera systems with the objectives of cataloging the diversity of fauna visiting sea-disposed chemical munitions and observing faunal behavior and physiology. Over the 1- and 3-day deployments we recorded 28 different species of fishes, crustaceans, mollusks, cnidarians, and echinoderms at the two sites. Both cameras captured the previously undocumented behavior of brisingid sea stars repositioning themselves along chemical munitions casings. Despite the fact that brisingid sea stars are able to move, for the duration of both time-lapse experiments they remained on chemical munitions casings. We interpret this result to indicate that the advantages of residing on a hard substrate slightly elevated above the seafloor outweigh the effects of chemical munitions constituents for brisingid sea stars. One type of physiological anomaly observed on several arms of the brisingid sea stars at the time-lapse sites led to the collection and examination of six specimens. As reported by Mah (2015. Deep Sea Res. II, 2015, XX-XX), these physiological features are the result of parasitic crustaceans and are not caused by chemical munitions constituents.

  5. Sensitivity of MJO to the CAPE lapse time in the NCAR CAM3

    SciTech Connect

    LIU, P.; Wang, B.; Meehl, Gerald, A.

    2007-09-05

    Weak and irregular boreal winter MJO in the NCAR CAM3 corresponds to very low CAPE background, which is caused by easy-to-occur and over-dominant deep convection indicating the deep convective scheme uses either too low CAPE threshold as triggering function or too large consumption rate of CAPE to close the scheme. Raising the CAPE threshold from default 70 J/kg to ten times large only enhances the CAPE background while fails to noticeably improve the wind mean state and the MJO. However, lengthening the CAPE lapse time from one to eight hours significantly improved the background in CAPE and winds, and salient features of the MJO. Variances, dominant periods and zonal wave numbers, power spectra and coherent propagating structure in winds and convection associated with MJO are ameliorated and comparable to the observations. Lengthening the CAPE lapse time to eight hours reduces dramatically the cloud base mass flux, which prevents effectively the deep convection from occurring prematurely. In this case, partitioning of deep to shallow convection in MJO active area is about 5:4.5 compared to over 9:0.5 in the control run. Latent heat is significantly enhanced below 600 hPa over the central Indian Ocean and the western Pacific. Such partitioning of deep and shallow convection is argued necessary for simulating realistic MJO features. Although the universal eight hours lies in the upper limit of that required by the quasi-equilibrium theory, a local CAPE lapse time for the parameterized cumulus convection will be more realistic.

  6. Epikarstic storage and doline structural characterization with time-lapse geophysics (seismic refraction & electrical resistivity)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valois, R.; Galibert, P.; Guérin, R.; Mendes, M.; Plagnes, V.

    2011-12-01

    Karst formations are one of the most challenging environments in terms of groundwater, engineering and environmental issues. Geophysical methods can provide useful subsurface information in karst regions concerning groundwater vulnerability assessment, exploitation or hazard estimation. First, dolines are studied as preferential pathways for the protection of karstic aquifer in south France. Geophysics helps to characterize lateral and underground morphologies of such objects and is able to detect doline hidden by the soil cover too. Electrical resistivity and seismic refraction tomographies provide information about dolines filling and could help to propose a genesis scenario. Time-lapse resistivity measurements show that the studied doline is more vulnerable to infiltration on its sides than at its centre. The epikarst could be defined as a perched aquifer above the massive carbonate rocks; it constitutes a highly fractured zone, which water stock capacities. So, the epikarst was investigated with 3D seismic refraction and results show an important velocity anisotropy linked to the fracturing and weathering of the dolostone. The 3D model presents also some large heterogeneities: a corridor with highly weathered dolostone and an unweathered pinnacle. The corridor is probably situated on vertical joints, which have conducted aggressive water. The associated weathering with residual weathered-rock keeping its initial volume could create a "ghost-rock" corridor. So, the epikarst in the dolostones of the Causse du Larzac (France) seems to be composed by "ghost-rock" developed around a specific direction of fractures. Time-lapse electrical resistivity and seismic refraction velocity were carried out on this epikarst to observe the influence of water saturation on the measurements. The results show important variations for both seismic and electrical methods and are localized in the first 6 m: in the weathered zone. So, time-lapse measurements could more easily identify

  7. Time-Lapse Imaging to Examine the Growth Kinetics of Arabidopsis Seedlings in Response to Ethylene.

    PubMed

    Binder, Brad M

    2017-01-01

    Ethylene is well known to inhibit the growth of dark-grown eudicot seedlings. Most studies examine this inhibition after several days of exposure to ethylene. However, such end-point analysis misses transient responses and the dynamic nature of growth regulation. Here, high-resolution, time-lapse imaging is described as a method to gather data about ethylene growth kinetics and movement responses of the hypocotyls of dark-grown seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana. These methods allow for the characterization of short-term kinetic responses and can be modified for the analysis of roots and seedlings from other species.

  8. Arctic sea-ice variations from time-lapse passive microwave imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. J.; Ramseier, R. O.; Zwally, H. J.; Gloersen, P.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents: (1) a short historical review of the passive microwave research on sea ice, which established the observational and theoretical base permitting the interpretation of the first passive microwave images of earth obtained by the Nimbus-5 ESMR; (2) the construction of a time-lapse motion picture film of a 16-month set of serial ESMR images to aid in the formidable data analysis task; and (3) a few of the most significant findings resulting from an early analysis of these data, using selected ESMR images to illustrate these findings.

  9. Time-lapse microscopy patent upheld in Europe: response to Pearce.

    PubMed

    Sterckx, Sigrid; Cockbain, Julian; Pennings, Guido

    2017-02-01

    In this piece, we comment on the article by Pearce earlier in this journal. As Pearce correctly points out, what is fundamentally at issue in ESHRE et al's opposition to Stanford University's European patent on time-lapse microscopy is whether an exclusion from patentability, here of methods of medical diagnosis, should be interpreted narrowly or not. In the present case, the dominant piece of case law from the European Patent Office (EPO) gives a narrow interpretation of what a method of diagnosis must be in order not to be patentable. In their submissions to the EPO, ESHRE et al. have argued that this narrow interpretation is unfounded and incorrect.

  10. Refinement of Eocene lapse rates, fossil-leaf altimetry, and North American Cordilleran surface elevation estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ran; Poulsen, Christopher J.

    2016-02-01

    Estimates of continental paleoelevation using proxy methods are essential for understanding the geodynamic, climatic, and geomorphoric evolution of ancient orogens. Fossil-leaf paleoaltimetry, one of the few quantitative proxy approaches, uses fossil-leaf traits to quantify differences in temperature or moist enthalpy between coeval coastal and inland sites along latitudes. These environmental differences are converted to elevation differences using their rates of change with elevation (lapse rate). Here, we evaluate the uncertainty associated with this method using the Eocene North American Cordillera as a case study. To do so, we develop a series of paleoclimate simulations for the Early (∼55-49 Ma) and Middle Eocene (49-40 Ma) period using a range of elevation scenarios for the western North American Cordillera. Simulated Eocene lapse rates over western North America are ∼5 °C/km and 9.8 kJ/km, close to moist adiabatic rates but significantly different from modern rates. Further, using linear lapse rates underestimates high-altitude (>3 km) temperature variability and loss of moist enthalpy induced by non-linear circulation changes in response to increasing surface elevation. Ignoring these changes leads to kilometer-scale biases in elevation estimates. In addition to these biases, we demonstrate that previous elevation estimates of the western Cordillera are affected by local climate variability at coastal fossil-leaf sites of up to ∼8 °C in temperature and ∼20 kJ in moist enthalpy, a factor which further contributes to elevation overestimates of ∼1 km for Early Eocene floras located in the Laramide foreland basins and underestimates of ∼1 km for late Middle Eocene floras in the southern Cordillera. We suggest a new approach for estimating past elevations by comparing proxy reconstructions directly with simulated distributions of temperature and moist enthalpy under a range of elevation scenarios. Using this method, we estimate mean elevations for

  11. Time-lapse and slow-motion tracking of temperature changes: response time of a thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moggio, L.; Onorato, P.; Gratton, L. M.; Oss, S.

    2017-03-01

    We propose the use of a smartphone based time-lapse and slow-motion video techniques together with tracking analysis as valuable tools for investigating thermal processes such as the response time of a thermometer. The two simple experimental activities presented here, suitable also for high school and undergraduate students, allow one to measure in a simple yet rigorous way the response time of an alcohol thermometer and show its critical dependence on the properties of the surrounding environment giving insight into instrument characteristics, heat transfer and thermal equilibrium concepts.

  12. In vitro ovarian tumor growth and treatment response dynamics visualized with time-lapse OCT imaging

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Conor L.; Rizvi, Imran; Hasan, Tayyaba; de Boer, Johannes F.

    2010-01-01

    In vitro three-dimensional models for metastatic ovarian cancer have been useful for recapitulating the human disease. These spheroidal tumor cultures, however, can grow in excess of 1 mm in diameter, which are difficult to visualize without suitable imaging technology. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an ideal live imaging method for non-perturbatively visualizing these complex systems. OCT enabled detailed observations of the model at both nodular and cellular levels, revealing growth dynamics not previously observed. The development of a time-lapse OCT system, capable of automated, multidimensional acquisition, further provided insights into the growth and chemotherapeutic response of ovarian cancer. PMID:19466138

  13. Real-Time Detector of Human Fatigue: Detecting Lapses in Alertness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-15

    188 188 20-30 223 222 30-40 210 210 40- 50 150 144 50 -60 75 31 SUM 1045 991 Session 11.17 00-10 205 202 10-20 224 233 20-30 229 232 30-40 226 219 40- 50 ...MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS (ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) USAF, AFRL/NL AF Office of Scientific Research 875 Randolph Street, Rm. 3112 11 ...larger number of stimuli and provide a larger number of responses.) We provisionally accepted the 50 longest RT events to index attentional lapses. We

  14. 3D Time-lapse Imaging and Quantification of Mitochondrial Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Sison, Miguel; Chakrabortty, Sabyasachi; Extermann, Jérôme; Nahas, Amir; James Marchand, Paul; Lopez, Antonio; Weil, Tanja; Lasser, Theo

    2017-01-01

    We present a 3D time-lapse imaging method for monitoring mitochondrial dynamics in living HeLa cells based on photothermal optical coherence microscopy and using novel surface functionalization of gold nanoparticles. The biocompatible protein-based biopolymer coating contains multiple functional groups which impart better cellular uptake and mitochondria targeting efficiency. The high stability of the gold nanoparticles allows continuous imaging over an extended time up to 3000 seconds without significant cell damage. By combining temporal autocorrelation analysis with a classical diffusion model, we quantify mitochondrial dynamics and cast these results into 3D maps showing the heterogeneity of diffusion parameters across the whole cell volume. PMID:28230188

  15. Arctic sea-ice variations from time-lapse passive microwave imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, W.J.; Ramseier, R.O.; Zwally, H.J.; Gloersen, P.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents: (1) a short historical review of the passive microwave research on sea ice which established the observational and theoretical base permitting the interpretation of the first passive microwave images of Earth obtained by the Nimbus-5 ESMR; (2) the construction of a time-lapse motion picture film of a 16-month set of serial ESMR images to aid in the formidable data analysis task; and (3) a few of the most significant findings resulting from an early analysis of these data, using selected ESMR images to illustrate these findings. ?? 1980 D. Reidel Publishing Co.

  16. Live-streaming: Time-lapse video evidence of novel streamer formation mechanism and varying viscosity

    PubMed Central

    Parvinzadeh Gashti, Mazeyar; Bellavance, Julien; Kroukamp, Otini; Wolfaardt, Gideon; Taghavi, Seyed Mohammad; Greener, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    Time-lapse videos of growing biofilms were analyzed using a background subtraction method, which removed camouflaging effects from the heterogeneous field of view to reveal evidence of streamer formation from optically dense biofilm segments. In addition, quantitative measurements of biofilm velocity and optical density, combined with mathematical modeling, demonstrated that streamer formation occurred from mature, high-viscosity biofilms. We propose a streamer formation mechanism by sudden partial detachment, as opposed to continuous elongation as observed in other microfluidic studies. Additionally, streamer formation occurred in straight microchannels, as opposed to serpentine or pseudo-porous channels, as previously reported. PMID:26339304

  17. Live-streaming: Time-lapse video evidence of novel streamer formation mechanism and varying viscosity.

    PubMed

    Parvinzadeh Gashti, Mazeyar; Bellavance, Julien; Kroukamp, Otini; Wolfaardt, Gideon; Taghavi, Seyed Mohammad; Greener, Jesse

    2015-07-01

    Time-lapse videos of growing biofilms were analyzed using a background subtraction method, which removed camouflaging effects from the heterogeneous field of view to reveal evidence of streamer formation from optically dense biofilm segments. In addition, quantitative measurements of biofilm velocity and optical density, combined with mathematical modeling, demonstrated that streamer formation occurred from mature, high-viscosity biofilms. We propose a streamer formation mechanism by sudden partial detachment, as opposed to continuous elongation as observed in other microfluidic studies. Additionally, streamer formation occurred in straight microchannels, as opposed to serpentine or pseudo-porous channels, as previously reported.

  18. Soil Contamination, Advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse Monitoring, SoilCAM project highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, H. K.; Van Der Zee, S. E.; Wehrer, M.; Godio, A.; Pedersen, L. B.; Tsocano, G.

    2013-12-01

    The SoilCAM project (2008- 2012, EU-FP7-212663) aimed at improving methods for monitoring subsurace contaminant distribution and biodegradation. Two test sites were chosen, Oslo airport Gardermoen, Norway where de-icing agents infiltrate the soil during snowmelt and the Trecate site in Italy where an inland crude oil spill occurred in 1994. A number of geophysical investigation techniques were combined with soil and water sampling techniques. Data obtained from time-lapse measurements were further analysed by numerical modelling of flow and transport at different scales in order to characterise transport processes in the unsaturated and saturated zones. Laboratory experiments provided physical and biogeochemical data for model parameterisation and to select remediation methods. The geophysical techniques were used to map geological heterogeneities and to conduct time-lapse measurements of processes in the unsaturated zone. Both cross borehole and surface electrodes were used for electrical resistivity and induced polarisation surveys. Results showed clear indications of areas highly affected by de-icing chemicals along the runway at Oslo airport. The time lapse measurements along the runway at the airport showed infiltration patterns during snowmelt and were used to validate 2D unsaturated flow and transport simulations using SUTRA. The simulations illustrate the effect of layering geological structures and membranes, buried parallel to the runway, on the flow pattern. Complex interaction between bio-geo-chemical processes in a 1D vertical profile along the runway were described with the ORCHESTRA model. Smaller scale field site measurements revealed increase of iron and manganese during degradation of de-icing chemicals. At the Trecate site a combination of georadar, electrical resistivity and radio magneto telluric provided a broad outline of the geology down to 50 m. Anomalies in the Induced polarisation and electrical resistivity data from the cross borehole

  19. High Lapse Rates in AIRS Retrieved Temperatures in Cold Air Outbreaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetzer, Eric J.; Kahn, Brian; Olsen, Edward T.; Fishbein, Evan

    2004-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) experiment, on NASA's Aqua spacecraft, uses a combination of infrared and microwave observations to retrieve cloud and surface properties, plus temperature and water vapor profiles comparable to radiosondes throughout the troposphere, for cloud cover up to 70%. The high spectral resolution of AIRS provides sensitivity to important information about the near-surface atmosphere and underlying surface. A preliminary analysis of AIRS temperature retrievals taken during January 2003 reveals extensive areas of superadiabatic lapse rates in the lowest kilometer of the atmosphere. These areas are found predominantly east of North America over the Gulf Stream, and, off East Asia over the Kuroshio Current. Accompanying the high lapse rates are low air temperatures, large sea-air temperature differences, and low relative humidities. Imagery from a Visible / Near Infrared instrument on the AIRS experiment shows accompanying clouds. These lines of evidence all point to shallow convection in the bottom layer of a cold air mass overlying warm water, with overturning driven by heat flow from ocean to atmosphere. An examination of operational radiosondes at six coastal stations in Japan shows AIRS to be oversensitive to lower tropospheric lapse rates due to systematically warm near-surface air temperatures. The bias in near-surface air temperature is seen to be independent of sea surface temperature, however. AIRS is therefore sensitive to air-sea temperature difference, but with a warm atmospheric bias. A regression fit to radiosondes is used to correct AIRS near-surface retrieved temperatures, and thereby obtain an estimate of the true atmosphere-ocean thermal contrast in five subtropical regions across the north Pacific. Moving eastward, we show a systematic shift in this air-sea temperature differences toward more isothermal conditions. These results, while preliminary, have implications for our understanding of heat flow from ocean to

  20. 3D Time-lapse Imaging and Quantification of Mitochondrial Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sison, Miguel; Chakrabortty, Sabyasachi; Extermann, Jérôme; Nahas, Amir; James Marchand, Paul; Lopez, Antonio; Weil, Tanja; Lasser, Theo

    2017-02-01

    We present a 3D time-lapse imaging method for monitoring mitochondrial dynamics in living HeLa cells based on photothermal optical coherence microscopy and using novel surface functionalization of gold nanoparticles. The biocompatible protein-based biopolymer coating contains multiple functional groups which impart better cellular uptake and mitochondria targeting efficiency. The high stability of the gold nanoparticles allows continuous imaging over an extended time up to 3000 seconds without significant cell damage. By combining temporal autocorrelation analysis with a classical diffusion model, we quantify mitochondrial dynamics and cast these results into 3D maps showing the heterogeneity of diffusion parameters across the whole cell volume.

  1. Fluorescence Time-lapse Imaging of the Complete S. venezuelae Life Cycle Using a Microfluidic Device.

    PubMed

    Schlimpert, Susan; Flärdh, Klas; Buttner, Mark

    2016-02-28

    Live-cell imaging of biological processes at the single cell level has been instrumental to our current understanding of the subcellular organization of bacterial cells. However, the application of time-lapse microscopy to study the cell biological processes underpinning development in the sporulating filamentous bacteria Streptomyces has been hampered by technical difficulties. Here we present a protocol to overcome these limitations by growing the new model species, Streptomyces venezuelae, in a commercially available microfluidic device which is connected to an inverted fluorescence widefield microscope. Unlike the classical model species, Streptomyces coelicolor, S. venezuelae sporulates in liquid, allowing the application of microfluidic growth chambers to cultivate and microscopically monitor the cellular development and differentiation of S. venezuelae over long time periods. In addition to monitoring morphological changes, the spatio-temporal distribution of fluorescently labeled target proteins can also be visualized by time-lapse microscopy. Moreover, the microfluidic platform offers the experimental flexibility to exchange the culture medium, which is used in the detailed protocol to stimulate sporulation of S. venezuelae in the microfluidic chamber. Images of the entire S. venezuelae life cycle are acquired at specific intervals and processed in the open-source software Fiji to produce movies of the recorded time-series.

  2. Time lapse seismic observations and effects of reservoir compressibility at Teal South oil field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Nayyer

    One of the original ocean-bottom time-lapse seismic studies was performed at the Teal South oil field in the Gulf of Mexico during the late 1990's. This work reexamines some aspects of previous work using modern analysis techniques to provide improved quantitative interpretations. Using three-dimensional volume visualization of legacy data and the two phases of post-production time-lapse data, I provide additional insight into the fluid migration pathways and the pressure communication between different reservoirs, separated by faults. This work supports a conclusion from previous studies that production from one reservoir caused regional pressure decline that in turn resulted in liberation of gas from multiple surrounding unproduced reservoirs. I also provide an explanation for unusual time-lapse changes in amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) data related to the compaction of the producing reservoir which, in turn, changed an isotropic medium to an anisotropic medium. In the first part of this work, I examine regional changes in seismic response due to the production of oil and gas from one reservoir. The previous studies primarily used two post-production ocean-bottom surveys (Phase I and Phase II), and not the legacy streamer data, due to the unavailability of legacy prestack data and very different acquisition parameters. In order to incorporate the legacy data in the present study, all three post-stack data sets were cross-equalized and examined using instantaneous amplitude and energy volumes. This approach appears quite effective and helps to suppress changes unrelated to production while emphasizing those large-amplitude changes that are related to production in this noisy (by current standards) suite of data. I examine the multiple data sets first by using the instantaneous amplitude and energy attributes, and then also examine specific apparent time-lapse changes through direct comparisons of seismic traces. In so doing, I identify time-delays that, when

  3. Numerical studies of imaging subsurface waterfloods using CSERT with time-lapse inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying-Ying; Liu, De-Jun; Wang, Li-Yang; Ai, Qing-Hui; Qin, Min-Jun

    2015-12-01

    During the operation of the waterflooding technique, it is necessary to identify the waterflooding areas to enhance oil displacement efficiency. A casing-surface electrical resistivity tomography (CSERT) system using a well casing as a long electrode is able to detect a wide lateral scope, but its vertical resolution and ability to identify deep anomalies in the reservoir are limited, particularly for reservoirs with high-conductivity anomalies in the shallow subsurface, which disturb the response from the water floods at depth. In this study, we first simplified this kind of reservoir into a dual layered anomaly model. Then the log-inject-log method with time-lapse inversion was proposed and evaluated regarding its ability to improve the imaging of the deep waterflooding areas and the shallow anomaly. The results were compared with the commonly used static measurement with static inversion. In the static inversion results, the shallow anomaly was imaged well but the deep anomaly was unobservable. The results of the proposed log-inject-log method with time-lapse inversion showed that it is able to identify the shallow and deep anomalies better under various conditions, thus validating its ability to improve the vertical resolution of the CSERT system.

  4. Fluorescence Time-lapse Imaging of the Complete S. venezuelae Life Cycle Using a Microfluidic Device

    PubMed Central

    Schlimpert, Susan; Flärdh, Klas; Buttner, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Live-cell imaging of biological processes at the single cell level has been instrumental to our current understanding of the subcellular organization of bacterial cells. However, the application of time-lapse microscopy to study the cell biological processes underpinning development in the sporulating filamentous bacteria Streptomyces has been hampered by technical difficulties. Here we present a protocol to overcome these limitations by growing the new model species, Streptomyces venezuelae, in a commercially available microfluidic device which is connected to an inverted fluorescence widefield microscope. Unlike the classical model species, Streptomyces coelicolor, S. venezuelae sporulates in liquid, allowing the application of microfluidic growth chambers to cultivate and microscopically monitor the cellular development and differentiation of S. venezuelae over long time periods. In addition to monitoring morphological changes, the spatio-temporal distribution of fluorescently labeled target proteins can also be visualized by time-lapse microscopy. Moreover, the microfluidic platform offers the experimental flexibility to exchange the culture medium, which is used in the detailed protocol to stimulate sporulation of S. venezuelae in the microfluidic chamber. Images of the entire S. venezuelae life cycle are acquired at specific intervals and processed in the open-source software Fiji to produce movies of the recorded time-series. PMID:26967231

  5. TIME-LAPSE MODELING AND INVERSION OF CO2 SATURATION FOR SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    Mark A. Meadows

    2005-05-25

    In this quarter we have continued our development of the inversion procedure for Phase III, in which time-lapse changes in seismic attributes are inverted to yield changes in CO{sub 2} fluid properties over time. In order to extract seismic attributes from the Sleipner North Sea CO{sub 2} time-lapse data set, a new, detailed interpretation was performed and multiple horizons were picked for the 1994 and 2002 vintages. Traveltime difference maps were constructed at several levels within the Sleipner CO{sub 2} injection zone, and were quantitatively analyzed. No traveltime change was seen in the overburden, as expected, while significant changes were seen in the upper half of the CO{sub 2} injection zone. Evidence of thin-bed tuning and undershooting was also found. A new semi-automated, quantitative method for estimating time sag anomalies was developed, and was used to calculate the amount of time sag along a selected horizon. The resulting time sag estimates matched those seen in the traveltime difference maps. Such a method will be useful for obtaining rapid, accurate quantitative measurements of traveltime changes in the Sleipner data cubes. The traveltime changes will be combined with other attributes, such as amplitude and frequency changes, for input into the real-data inversion.

  6. A cautionary note against embryo aneuploidy risk assessment using time-lapse imaging.

    PubMed

    Ottolini, Christian; Rienzi, Laura; Capalbo, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) for embryo aneuploidy using embryo biopsy is a widely available technique used to select embryos for transfer following IVF for certain patient populations. Since its introduction, there has been an ongoing search for a non-invasive technique to perform PGS. Such an advance would revolutionize the field of IVF enabling PGS to be used universally as a routine embryo selection tool with the potential to significantly increase pregnancy rates and decrease poor outcomes such as miscarriage. Recent publications illustrating the development of an algorithm using time-lapse imaging of IVF embryos have claimed to have done just this. We believe that the statements made in these articles, which include the proposed ability to increase pregnancy rates by determining embryo aneuploidy risk by time-lapse imaging, are premature and to this point unsubstantiated by the published data. We provide evidence from existing publications and from our own data that suggests that the statements recently made are misleading. We make the point that further investigation is needed either in the form of a larger, age-adjusted data set or preferably in a randomized controlled trial.

  7. The time-lapse AVO difference inversion for changes in reservoir parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longxiao, Zhi; Hanming, Gu; Yan, Li

    2016-12-01

    The result of conventional time-lapse seismic processing is the difference between the amplitude and the post-stack seismic data. Although stack processing can improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of seismic data, it also causes a considerable loss of important information about the amplitude changes and only gives the qualitative interpretation. To predict the changes in reservoir fluid more precisely and accurately, we also need the quantitative information of the reservoir. To achieve this aim, we develop the method of time-lapse AVO (amplitude versus offset) difference inversion. For the inversion of reservoir changes in elastic parameters, we apply the Gardner equation as the constraint and convert the three-parameter inversion of elastic parameter changes into a two-parameter inversion to make the inversion more stable. For the inversion of variations in the reservoir parameters, we infer the relation between the difference of the reflection coefficient and variations in the reservoir parameters, and then invert reservoir parameter changes directly. The results of the theoretical modeling computation and practical application show that our method can estimate the relative variations in reservoir density, P-wave and S-wave velocity, calculate reservoir changes in water saturation and effective pressure accurately, and then provide reference for the rational exploitation of the reservoir.

  8. Tracking CO2 Plume in Deep Saline Formations Utilizing a Time-lapse Pressure Tomography Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, L.; Bayer, P.; Brauchler, R.

    2015-12-01

    CO2 storage in deep saline formations is considered as an attractive option to cut down greenhouse gas emissions. Among the major challenges is the development of efficient technologies for controlling and monitoring the evolution of CO2 plumes during and after injection in the underground. As an alternative to the most commonly used geophysical approaches for subsurface characterization, we propose a pressure-based tomographical approach to track CO2 plume history. By taking into account the direct relationship between saturation and flow properties, pressure tomography has the potential not only to detect a plume but also to estimate the saturation of CO2. The experimental set-up of pressure tomography involves injection of brine or CO2 at variable depths (sources). We use a time-lapse approach, considering first the CO2-free formation, and then the multi-phase CO2-brine system. By applying a rapid eikonal-based inversion technique, pressure fluctuations at observation locations (receivers) are utilized to reconstruct the spatial distribution of the apparent single-phase and mixed-phase diffusivity. Evolution of the plume shape is then delineated by comparison of diffusivity tomograms derived from different times. Finally, an integrated value of CO2 saturation within the plume is obtained by means of a single-phase proxy. Applicability of this novel approach is evaluated in different virtual formations. The time-lapse pressure tomographic investigation revealed that knowledge about the spatial heterogeneity of permeability has a remarkable impact on proper characterization of plume shape.

  9. Long-term time-lapse multimodal microscopy for tracking cell dynamics in live tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Benedikt W.; Valero, Maria C.; Chaney, Eric J.; Marjanovic, Marina; Boppart, Marni D.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2011-02-01

    High speed intravital microscopy has emerged as an essential tool for studying cellular dynamics in live tissue. A limitation of this technique, however, is that the timescale that a sample can be continuously imaged is limited by practical considerations to several hours. Long term observation of live tissue is of great interest for a variety of research areas. We present methods for observing long term cellular dynamics in live tissue based on three-dimensional registration of time-lapse intravital microscopy images. For these experiments we utilized a custom multimodal microscope that allows simultaneous and co-registered acquisition of optical coherence (OCM) and multiphoton (MPM) microscopy images. OCM allows the structure of a sample to be visualized based on backscattered light while MPM excited fluorescence allows individual cells and cell function to be visualized. The OCM images of tissue structure are used to register data sets taken at different time points. The transformations of the OCM images are applied to MPM images to determine the migration of cell populations. This method of image registration is applied to in vivo tracking of bone-marrow derived GFP-labeled stem cells in mouse skin following bone marrow transplants from GFP donors into species-matched wildtype hosts. The use of three-dimensional image registration of time-lapse microscopy images enables tracking these cells after local cutaneous injury, and for investigating the role of skin stem cells in wound healing.

  10. The Extreme Ice Survey: Capturing and Conveying Glacial Processes Through Time-Lapse Imagery and Narration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balog, J. D.; Box, J. E.; Pfeffer, W. T.; Hood, E. W.; Fagre, D. B.; Anker, C.; O'Neel, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Extreme Ice Survey (EIS) uses time-lapse photography, conventional photography, and video to document rapid change in the Earth's glacial ice. The EIS team currently has 38 time-lapse cameras at sites in Greenland, Iceland, Alaska, the Rocky Mountains and Nepal. EIS supplements this ongoing record with annual repeat photography in British Columbia, Iceland, the Alps, and Bolivia. EIS imagery supplies basic knowledge in glacier dynamics to the science community, as well as compelling, engaging narratives to the general public about the immediacy of the Anthropocene and climate change. Visual materials from EIS have impacted more than 150 million people, ranging from White House staff, the U. S. Congress and government agency officials to globally influential corporate officers and all age strata of the general public. Media products include a National Geographic/NOVA special, two National Geographic magazine articles, a feature in Parade magazine (circulation 71 million), and numerous presentations on CNN, NBC, BBC and National Public Radio. Columbia Glacier, Alaska, June 2006, May 2007, June 2008 terminus indicated.

  11. Database for temporal events and spatial object features in time-lapse images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggers, Charles E.; Trivedi, Mohan M.

    2000-04-01

    We present an image database system with the capability to locate specified object-level merge and separation events in a sequence of time-lapse images. Specifically, the objects of interest are live cells in phase contrast images acquired by scanning cytometry. The system is named TERSIS and it resides on a workstation accessing time lapse images on CD- ROM. The cell objects are segmented and the resulting data are processed to extract a time series and its time derivative series for each spatial feature. Cell objects are tracked through the image sequence by applying similarity metrics to the cell object feature vectors, and cell merge and separation events are located using global image statistics. Multiple hypotheses are generated and scored to determine participating cell objects in merge/separation events. The cell association and time-varying spatial data re stored in a database. A graphical suer interface provides the user with tools to specify queries for specific cellular states and events for recall and display. Primary limitation include the need for an automatic front-end segmenter and increased cell tracking volume. The design of this system is extensible to other object types and forms of sequential image input, including video.

  12. Very-high-resolution time-lapse photography for plant and ecosystems research1

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Mary H.; Steven, Janet C.; Sargent, Randy; Dille, Paul; Schapiro, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Traditional photography is a compromise between image detail and area covered. We report a new method for creating time-lapse sequences of very-high-resolution photographs to produce zoomable images that facilitate observation across a range of spatial and temporal scales. • Methods and Results: A robotic camera mount and software were used to capture images of the growth and movement in Brassica rapa every 15 s in the laboratory. The resultant time-lapse sequence (http://timemachine.gigapan.org/wiki/Plant_Growth) captures growth detail such as circumnutation. A modified, solar-powered system was deployed at a remote field site in southern Arizona. Images were collected every 2 h over a 3-mo period to capture the response of vegetation to monsoon season rainfall (http://timemachine.gigapan.org/wiki/Arizona_Grasslands). • Conclusions: A technique for observing time sequences of both individual plant and ecosystem response at a range of spatial scales is available for use in the laboratory and in the field. PMID:25202588

  13. Using a time lapse microgravity model for mapping seawater intrusion around Semarang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supriyadi, Khumaedi, Yusuf, M.; Agung, W.

    2016-03-01

    A modeling of time-lapse microgravity anomaly due to sea water intrusion has been conducted. It used field data of aquifer cross section, aquifer thickness and lithology of research area. Those data were then processed using Grav3D and Surfer. Modeling results indicated that the intrusion of sea water resulting in a time-lapse microgravity anomalies of 0.12 to 0.18 mGal, at soil layer density of 0.15 g/cm3 to 0.3 g/cm3 and at depth of 30 to 100 m. These imply that the areas experiencing seawater intrusion were Tanjung Mas, SPBE Bandarharjo, Brass, Old Market Boom and Johar as the microgravity measured there were in the range of 0.12 to 0.18 mGal and the density contrast were at 0.15 g/cm3 to 0.28 g/cm3. Areas that experienced fluid reduction were Puri Anjasmoro, Kenconowungu and Puspowarno with microgravity changes from -0.06 mGal to -0.18 mGal.

  14. Watching amyloid fibrils grow by time-lapse atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Goldsbury, C; Kistler, J; Aebi, U; Arvinte, T; Cooper, G J

    1999-01-08

    Late-onset diabetes is typically associated with amyloid deposits of fibrillar amylin in the pancreatic islets. Aqueous synthetic human amylin spontaneously forms polymorphic fibrils in vitro, and this system was used to examine the dynamics of fibril assembly. By time-lapse atomic force microscopy (AFM), the growth of individual amylin fibrils on a mica surface was observed over several hours. Prominent was the assembly of a protofibril with an elongation rate in these experiments of 1.1(+/-0.5) nm/minute. The assembly of higher order polymorphic fibrils was also observed. Growth of the protofibrils was bidirectional, i.e. it occurred by elongation at both ends. This ability of AFM to continuously monitor growth, directionality, and changes in morphology for individual fibrils, provides a significant advantage over spectroscopy-based bulk methods which average the growth of many fibrils and typically require 100 to 1000-fold more protein. The time-lapse AFM procedure used for human amylin here is thus likely to be applicable to fibril formation from other amyloid proteins and peptides.

  15. Time-Lapse Electrical Resistivity Investigations for Imaging the Grouting Injection in Shallow Subsurface Cavities

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Muhammad; Kim, Jung Ho; Song, Young Soo; Amjad Sabir, Mohammad; Umar, Muhammad; Tariq, Mohammad; Muhammad, Said

    2014-01-01

    The highway of Yongweol-ri, Muan-gun, south-western part of the South Korean Peninsula, is underlain by the abandoned of subsurface cavities, which were discovered in 2005. These cavities lie at shallow depths with the range of 5∼15 meters below the ground surface. Numerous subsidence events have repeatedly occurred in the past few years, damaging infrastructure and highway. As a result of continuing subsidence issues, the Korean Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) was requested by local administration to resolve the issue. The KIGAM used geophysical methods to delineate subsurface cavities and improve more refined understanding of the cavities network in the study area. Cement based grouting has been widely employed in the construction industry to reinforce subsurface ground. In this research work, time-lapse electrical resistivity surveys were accomplished to monitor the grouting injection in the subsurface cavities beneath the highway, which have provided a quasi-real-time monitoring for modifying the subsurface cavities related to ground reinforcement, which would be difficult with direct methods. The results obtained from time-lapse electrical resistivity technique have satisfactory imaged the grouting injection experiment in the subsurface cavities beneath the highway. Furthermore, the borehole camera confirmed the presence of grouting material in the subsurface cavities, and hence this procedure increases the mechanical resistance of subsurface cavities below the highway. PMID:24578621

  16. Tracking tracer breakthrough in the hyporheic zone using time‐lapse DC resistivity, Crabby Creek, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nyquist, Jonathan E.; Toran, Laura; Fang, Allison C.; Ryan, Robert J.; Rosenberry, Donald O.

    2010-01-01

    Characterization of the hyporheic zone is of critical importance for understanding stream ecology, contaminant transport, and groundwater‐surface water interaction. A salt water tracer test was used to probe the hyporheic zone of a recently re‐engineered portion of Crabby Creek, a stream located near Philadelphia, PA. The tracer solution was tracked through a 13.5 meter segment of the stream using both a network of 25 wells sampled every 5–15 minutes and time‐lapse electrical resistivity tomographs collected every 11 minutes for six hours, with additional tomographs collected every 100 minutes for an additional 16 hours. The comparison of tracer monitoring methods is of keen interest because tracer tests are one of the few techniques available for characterizing this dynamic zone, and logistically it is far easier to collect resistivity tomographs than to install and monitor a dense network of wells. Our results show that resistivity monitoring captured the essential shape of the breakthrough curve and may indicate portions of the stream where the tracer lingered in the hyporheic zone. Time‐lapse resistivity measurements, however, represent time averages over the period required to collect a tomographic data set, and spatial averages over a volume larger than captured by a well sample. Smoothing by the resistivity data inversion algorithm further blurs the resulting tomograph; consequently resistivity monitoring underestimates the degree of fine‐scale heterogeneity in the hyporheic zone.

  17. Estimation and Discrimination of Stochastic Biochemical Circuits from Time-Lapse Microscopy Data

    PubMed Central

    Thorsley, David; Klavins, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The ability of systems and synthetic biologists to observe the dynamics of cellular behavior is hampered by the limitations of the sensors, such as fluorescent proteins, available for use in time-lapse microscopy. In this paper, we propose a generalized solution to the problem of estimating the state of a stochastic chemical reaction network from limited sensor information generated by microscopy. We mathematically derive an observer structure for cells growing under time-lapse microscopy and incorporates the effects of cell division in order to estimate the dynamically-changing state of each cell in the colony. Furthermore, the observer can be used to discrimate between models by treating model indices as states whose values do not change with time. We derive necessary and sufficient conditions that specify when stochastic chemical reaction network models, interpreted as continuous-time Markov chains, can be distinguished from each other under both continual and periodic observation. We validate the performance of the observer on the Thattai-van Oudenaarden model of transcription and translation. The observer structure is most effective when the system model is well-parameterized, suggesting potential applications in synthetic biology where standardized biological parts are available. However, further research is necessary to develop computationally tractable approximations to the exact generalized solution presented here. PMID:23139740

  18. Time-Lapse Evaluation of Interactions Between Biodegradable Mg Particles and Cells.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Florencia; Lozano Puerto, Rosa M; Pérez-Maceda, Blanca; Grillo, Claudia A; Fernández Lorenzo de Mele, Mónica

    2016-02-01

    Mg-based implants have promising applications as biodegradable materials in medicine for orthopedic, dental, and cardiovascular therapies. During wear and degradation microdebris are released. Time-lapse multidimensional microscopy (MM) is proposed here as a suitable tool to follow, in fixed intervals over 24-h periods, the interaction between cells and particles. Results of MM show interactions of macrophages (J774) with the magnesium particles (MgPa) that led to modifications of cell size and morphology, a decrease in duplication rate, and cell damage. Corrosion products were progressively formed on the surface of the particles and turbulence was generated due to hydrogen development. Changes were more significant after treating MgPa with potassium fluoride. In order to complement MM observations, membrane damage as detected by a lactase dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and mitochondrial activity as detected by a WST-1 assay with macrophages and osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) were compared. A more significant concentration-dependent effect was detected for macrophages exposed to MgPa than for osteoblasts. Accordingly, complementary data showed that viability and cell cycle seem to be more altered in macrophages. In addition, protein profiles and expression of proteins associated with the adhesion process changed in the presence of MgPa. These studies revealed that time-lapse MM is a helpful tool for monitoring changes of biodegradable materials and the biological surrounding in real time and in situ. This information is useful in studies related to biodegradable biomaterials.

  19. High-resolution, time-lapse imaging for ecosystem-scale phenotyping in the field.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tim; Zimmermann, Christopher; Panneton, Whitney; Noah, Nina; Borevitz, Justin

    2012-01-01

    The high spatial and temporal resolution of data required for high-throughput phenotyping has typically been all but impossible to obtain in field populations of plants. When studies of individual and population genetic variation and microclimate sensor data are combined with phenology data, a landscape-level view of how populations respond to changing environments can be obtained. This chapter will discuss the development of a multi-billion pixel ("gigapixel") camera system that enables the collection of phenology data at up to hourly intervals from in situ plant populations. Such gigapixel time-lapse imaging systems represent a key technological advancement for enabling high-throughput phenotyping in field settings. Gigapixel resolution image datasets allow researchers to record life-history (phenology) data across an entire landscape over multiple seasons. Image data can be wirelessly transmitted to a remote server where it can be accessed online within hours of capture. The time-lapse panoramic images are browsable through an interactive web tool that can be used to compare plant phenology with environmental sensor data collected simultaneously from the field. The high spatial and temporal resolution data can be used to identify individual plant phenology, which can in turn be used to generate complete population level phenotype data. The Gigavision platform is especially powerful when coupled with next-generation population genomic analysis. The Gigavision system permits the rapid identification of the phenotypes and genotypes responding to natural selection in wild populations.

  20. Time-lapse electrical resistivity investigations for imaging the grouting injection in shallow subsurface cavities.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Muhammad; Park, Samgyu; Kim, Jung Ho; Song, Young Soo; Amjad Sabir, Mohammad; Umar, Muhammad; Tariq, Mohammad; Muhammad, Said

    2014-01-01

    The highway of Yongweol-ri, Muan-gun, south-western part of the South Korean Peninsula, is underlain by the abandoned of subsurface cavities, which were discovered in 2005. These cavities lie at shallow depths with the range of 5∼15 meters below the ground surface. Numerous subsidence events have repeatedly occurred in the past few years, damaging infrastructure and highway. As a result of continuing subsidence issues, the Korean Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) was requested by local administration to resolve the issue. The KIGAM used geophysical methods to delineate subsurface cavities and improve more refined understanding of the cavities network in the study area. Cement based grouting has been widely employed in the construction industry to reinforce subsurface ground. In this research work, time-lapse electrical resistivity surveys were accomplished to monitor the grouting injection in the subsurface cavities beneath the highway, which have provided a quasi-real-time monitoring for modifying the subsurface cavities related to ground reinforcement, which would be difficult with direct methods. The results obtained from time-lapse electrical resistivity technique have satisfactory imaged the grouting injection experiment in the subsurface cavities beneath the highway. Furthermore, the borehole camera confirmed the presence of grouting material in the subsurface cavities, and hence this procedure increases the mechanical resistance of subsurface cavities below the highway.

  1. Time-lapse nanoscopy of friction in the non-Amontons and non-Coulomb regime.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Tadashi; Sato, Takaaki; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Oguma, Masatsugu; Itamura, Noriaki; Goda, Keisuke; Sasaki, Naruo; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-11

    Originally discovered by Leonard da Vinci in the 15th century, the force of friction is directly proportional to the applied load (known as Amontons' first law of friction). Furthermore, kinetic friction is independent of the sliding speed (known as Coulomb's law of friction). These empirical laws break down at high normal pressure (due to plastic deformation) and low sliding speed (in the transition regime between static friction and kinetic friction). An important example of this phenomenon is friction between the asperities of tectonic plates on the Earth. Despite its significance, little is known about the detailed mechanism of friction in this regime due to the lack of experimental methods. Here we demonstrate in situ time-lapse nanoscopy of friction between asperities sliding at ultralow speed (∼0.01 nm/s) under high normal pressure (∼GPa). This is made possible by compressing and rubbing a pair of nanometer-scale crystalline silicon anvils with electrostatic microactuators and monitoring its dynamical evolution with a transmission electron microscope. Our analysis of the time-lapse movie indicates that superplastic behavior is induced by decrystallization, plastic deformation, and atomic diffusion at the asperity-asperity interface. The results hold great promise for a better understanding of quasi-static friction under high pressure for geoscience, materials science, and nanotechnology.

  2. Coda-wave interferometry analysis of time-lapse VSP data for monitoring geological carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, R.; Huang, L.; Rutledge, J.T.; Fehler, M.; Daley, T.M.; Majer, E.L.

    2009-11-01

    Injection and movement/saturation of carbon dioxide (CO2) in a geological formation will cause changes in seismic velocities. We investigate the capability of coda-wave interferometry technique for estimating CO2-induced seismic velocity changes using time-lapse synthetic vertical seismic profiling (VSP) data and the field VSP datasets acquired for monitoring injected CO2 in a brine aquifer in Texas, USA. Synthetic VSP data are calculated using a finite-difference elastic-wave equation scheme and a layered model based on the elastic Marmousi model. A possible leakage scenario is simulated by introducing seismic velocity changes in a layer above the CO2 injection layer. We find that the leakage can be detected by the detection of a difference in seismograms recorded after the injection compared to those recorded before the injection at an earlier time in the seismogram than would be expected if there was no leakage. The absolute values of estimated mean velocity changes, from both synthetic and field VSP data, increase significantly for receiver positions approaching the top of a CO2 reservoir. Our results from field data suggest that the velocity changes caused by CO2 injection could be more than 10% and are consistent with results from a crosswell tomogram study. This study demonstrates that time-lapse VSP with coda-wave interferometry analysis can reliably and effectively monitor geological carbon sequestration.

  3. puffMarker: A Multi-Sensor Approach for Pinpointing the Timing of First Lapse in Smoking Cessation.

    PubMed

    Saleheen, Nazir; Ali, Amin Ahsan; Hossain, Syed Monowar; Sarker, Hillol; Chatterjee, Soujanya; Marlin, Benjamin; Ertin, Emre; al'Absi, Mustafa; Kumar, Santosh

    2015-09-01

    Recent researches have demonstrated the feasibility of detecting smoking from wearable sensors, but their performance on real-life smoking lapse detection is unknown. In this paper, we propose a new model and evaluate its performance on 61 newly abstinent smokers for detecting a first lapse. We use two wearable sensors - breathing pattern from respiration and arm movements from 6-axis inertial sensors worn on wrists. In 10-fold cross-validation on 40 hours of training data from 6 daily smokers, our model achieves a recall rate of 96.9%, for a false positive rate of 1.1%. When our model is applied to 3 days of post-quit data from 32 lapsers, it correctly pinpoints the timing of first lapse in 28 participants. Only 2 false episodes are detected on 20 abstinent days of these participants. When tested on 84 abstinent days from 28 abstainers, the false episode per day is limited to 1/6.

  4. Time-lapse 3D VSP monitoring of a carbon dioxide injection project at Delhi Field, Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubis, Muhammad Husni Mubarak

    Delhi Field is a producing oil field located in northeastern Louisiana. The estimated original oil in place (OOIP) is 357 mmbo and approximately 54% of OOIP has been produced through the primary production and water-flooding. A CO2-EOR program has been implemented since November 2009 to recover an additional 17% of OOIP. Reservoir surveillance using time-lapse 3D seismic data has been conducted to monitor the CO2 sweep efficiency. The goal of this study is to monitor the CO2 flow-path in the area around the injector using time-lapse 3D VSP data. For this purpose, two 3D VSPs acquired in June 2010 and again in August 2011 were processed together. Fluid substitution and VSP modeling were performed to understand the influence of pore-fluid saturation change on VSP records. A cross-equalization was performed to improve the similarity of the datasets. This step is important to reduce the ambiguity in time-lapse observation. The splice of a 3D VSP image into the surface seismic data becomes the key point in determining the reflector of the reservoir. By integrating the observation from the modeling and the splice of 3D VSP image to surface seismic, the CO2 flow-path from injector 164-3 can be identified from 3D time-lapse VSP data. The CO2 was not radially distributed around the injector, but moved toward southwest direction. This finding is also consistent with the flow-path interpreted from surface seismic. This consistency implies that time-lapse 3D VSP surveys at Delhi Field confirm and augment the time-lapse interpretation from surface seismic data.

  5. Time-lapse seismic waveform modelling and attribute analysis using hydromechanical models for a deep reservoir undergoing depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Y.-X.; Angus, D. A.; Blanchard, T. D.; Wang, G.-L.; Yuan, S.-Y.; Garcia, A.

    2016-04-01

    Extraction of fluids from subsurface reservoirs induces changes in pore pressure, leading not only to geomechanical changes, but also perturbations in seismic velocities and hence observable seismic attributes. Time-lapse seismic analysis can be used to estimate changes in subsurface hydromechanical properties and thus act as a monitoring tool for geological reservoirs. The ability to observe and quantify changes in fluid, stress and strain using seismic techniques has important implications for monitoring risk not only for petroleum applications but also for geological storage of CO2 and nuclear waste scenarios. In this paper, we integrate hydromechanical simulation results with rock physics models and full-waveform seismic modelling to assess time-lapse seismic attribute resolution for dynamic reservoir characterization and hydromechanical model calibration. The time-lapse seismic simulations use a dynamic elastic reservoir model based on a North Sea deep reservoir undergoing large pressure changes. The time-lapse seismic traveltime shifts and time strains calculated from the modelled and processed synthetic data sets (i.e. pre-stack and post-stack data) are in a reasonable agreement with the true earth models, indicating the feasibility of using 1-D strain rock physics transform and time-lapse seismic processing methodology. Estimated vertical traveltime shifts for the overburden and the majority of the reservoir are within ±1 ms of the true earth model values, indicating that the time-lapse technique is sufficiently accurate for predicting overburden velocity changes and hence geomechanical effects. Characterization of deeper structure below the overburden becomes less accurate, where more advanced time-lapse seismic processing and migration is needed to handle the complex geometry and strong lateral induced velocity changes. Nevertheless, both migrated full-offset pre-stack and near-offset post-stack data image the general features of both the overburden and

  6. Nonuniversal transmission phase lapses through a quantum dot: an exact diagonalization of the many-body transport problem.

    PubMed

    Baksmaty, Leslie O; Yannouleas, Constantine; Landman, Uzi

    2008-09-26

    Systematic trends of nonuniversal behavior of electron-transmission phases through a quantum dot, with no phase lapse for the transition N = 1-->N = 2 and a lapse of pi for the N = 2-->N = 3 transition, are predicted, in agreement with experiments, from many-body transport calculations involving exact diagonalization of the dot Hamiltonian. The results favor shape anisotropy of the dot and strong e-e repulsion with consequent electron localization, showing dependence on spin configurations and the participation of excited doorway transmission channels.

  7. Selected time-lapse movies of the east rift zone eruption of KĪlauea Volcano, 2004–2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orr, Tim R.

    2011-01-01

    Since 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory has used mass-market digital time-lapse cameras and network-enabled Webcams for visual monitoring and research. The 26 time-lapse movies in this report were selected from the vast collection of images acquired by these camera systems during 2004–2008. Chosen for their content and broad aesthetic appeal, these image sequences document a variety of flow-field and vent processes from Kīlauea's east rift zone eruption, which began in 1983 and is still (as of 2011) ongoing.

  8. Time-lapse VSP data processing for monitoring CO2 injection

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lianjie; Rutledge, James; Cheng, Arthur

    2009-01-01

    As a part of the effort of the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration supported by U.S. Department of Energy and managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory, two sets of time-lapse VSPs were acquired and processed in oil fields undergoing CO{sub 2} injection. One set of VSPs was acquired at the Aneth oil field in Utah, the other set at the Scurry Area Canyon Reef Operators Committee (SACROC) field in West Texas. One baseline and two repeat VSP surveys were conducted from 2007 to 2009 at the Aneth oil field in Utah for monitoring CO{sub 2} injection. The aim of the time-lapse VSP surveys is to study the combined enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and CO{sub 2} sequestration in collaboration with Resolute Natural Resources, Inc. VSP data were acquired using a cemented geophone string with 60 levels at depth from 805 m to 1704 m, and CO{sub 2} is injected into a horizontal well nearby within the reservoir at depth approximately from 1730 m to 1780 m. For each VSP survey, the data were acquired for one zero-offset source location and seven offset source locations (Figure 1). The baseline VSP survey was conducted before the CO{sub 2} injection. More than ten thousand tons of CO{sub 2} was injected between each of the two repeat VSP surveys. There are three horizontal injection wells, all originating from the same vertical well. One is drilled towards Southeast, directly towards the monitoring well (Figure 2), and the other two towards Northwest, directly away from the monitoring well. The injection is into the top portion of the Desert Creek formation, just beneath the Gothic shale, which acts as the reservoir seal. The initial baseline acquisition was done in October 2007; subsequent time-lapse acquisitions were conducted in July 2008, and January 2009. The acquisition geometry is shown in Figure 1. Shot point 1 is the zero-offset source location, Shot points 2 to 8 are the seven offset VSPs, arranged in a quarter circle on the Northwest side of the

  9. Active and passive electrical and seismic time-lapse monitoring of earthen embankments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittgers, Justin Bradley

    In this dissertation, I present research involving the application of active and passive geophysical data collection, data assimilation, and inverse modeling for the purpose of earthen embankment infrastructure assessment. Throughout the dissertation, I identify several data characteristics, and several challenges intrinsic to characterization and imaging of earthen embankments and anomalous seepage phenomena, from both a static and time-lapse geophysical monitoring perspective. I begin with the presentation of a field study conducted on a seeping earthen dam, involving static and independent inversions of active tomography data sets, and self-potential modeling of fluid flow within a confined aquifer. Additionally, I present results of active and passive time-lapse geophysical monitoring conducted during two meso-scale laboratory experiments involving the failure and self-healing of embankment filter materials via induced vertical cracking. Identified data signatures and trends, as well as 4D inversion results, are discussed as an underlying motivation for conducting subsequent research. Next, I present a new 4D acoustic emissions source localization algorithm that is applied to passive seismic monitoring data collected during a full-scale embankment failure test. Acoustic emissions localization results are then used to help spatially constrain 4D inversion of collocated self-potential monitoring data. I then turn to time-lapse joint inversion of active tomographic data sets applied to the characterization and monitoring of earthen embankments. Here, I develop a new technique for applying spatiotemporally varying structural joint inversion constraints. The new technique, referred to as Automatic Joint Constraints (AJC), is first demonstrated on a synthetic 2D joint model space, and is then applied to real geophysical monitoring data sets collected during a full-scale earthen embankment piping-failure test. Finally, I discuss some non-technical issues related to

  10. Minds “At Attention”: Mindfulness Training Curbs Attentional Lapses in Military Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Amishi P.; Morrison, Alexandra B.; Dainer-Best, Justin; Parker, Suzanne; Rostrup, Nina; Stanley, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the impact of mindfulness training (MT) on attentional performance lapses associated with task-unrelated thought (i.e., mind wandering). Periods of persistent and intensive demands may compromise attention and increase off-task thinking. Here, we investigated if MT may mitigate these deleterious effects and promote cognitive resilience in military cohorts enduring a high-demand interval of predeployment training. To better understand which aspects of MT programs are most beneficial, three military cohorts were examined. Two of the three groups were provided MT. One group received an 8-hour, 8-week variant of Mindfulness-based Mind Fitness Training (MMFT) emphasizing engagement in training exercises (training-focused MT, n = 40), a second group received a didactic-focused variant emphasizing content regarding stress and resilience (didactic-focused MT, n = 40), and the third group served as a no-training control (NTC, n = 24). Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) performance was indexed in all military groups and a no-training civilian group (CIV, n = 45) before (T1) and after (T2) the MT course period. Attentional performance (measured by A’, a sensitivity index) was lower in NTC vs. CIV at T2, suggesting that performance suffers after enduring a high-demand predeployment interval relative to a similar time period of civilian life. Yet, there were significantly fewer performance lapses in the military cohorts receiving MT relative to NTC, with training-focused MT outperforming didactic-focused MT at T2. From T1 to T2, A’ degraded in NTC and didactic-focused MT but remained stable in training-focused MT and CIV. In sum, while protracted periods of high-demand military training may increase attentional performance lapses, practice-focused MT programs akin to training-focused MT may bolster attentional performance more than didactic-focused programs. As such, training-focused MT programs should be further examined in cohorts experiencing

  11. Time-lapse cinematography of the capillary tube cell migration inhibition test.

    PubMed

    Bray, M A

    1980-01-01

    The kinetics of human and guinea pig cell migration inhibition have been studied using time-lapse cinematography of cells migrating from capillary tubes. Guinea pig and human cells exhibit markedly different kinetics in the absence of inhibitors. Specific antigen causes a dose-related inhibition of migration for up to 60 h using guinea pig cells and a peak of inhibition after 18 h using the human leucocyte system. The timing of measurement of maximum activity more critical for the latter test. The kinetics of lymphokine generation have been examined and the migration inhibitory activity of the plant mitogen (PHA), a Kurloff cell product and a continuous cell line supernatant have been compared with the inhibitory profiles of lymphokine preparations and specific antigen.

  12. Time-lapse cinematography in living Drosophila tissues: preparation of material.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ilan; Parton, Richard M

    2006-11-01

    The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been an extraordinarily successful model organism for studying the genetic basis of development and evolution. It is arguably the best-understood complex multicellular model system, owing its success to many factors. Recent developments in imaging techniques, in particular sophisticated fluorescence microscopy methods and equipment, now allow cellular events to be studied at high resolution in living material. This ability has enabled the study of features that tend to be lost or damaged by fixation, such as transient or dynamic events. Although many of the techniques of live cell imaging in Drosophila are shared with the greater community of cell biologists working on other model systems, studying living fly tissues presents unique difficulties in keeping the cells alive, introducing fluorescent probes, and imaging through thick hazy cytoplasm. This protocol outlines the preparation of major tissue types amenable to study by time-lapse cinematography and different methods for keeping them alive.

  13. Electron microscopic time-lapse visualization of surface pore filtration on particulate matter trapping process.

    PubMed

    Sanui, Ryoko; Hanamura, Katsunori

    2016-09-01

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to dynamically visualize the particulate matter (PM) trapping process on diesel particulate filter (DPF) walls at a micro scale as 'time-lapse' images corresponding to the increase in pressure drop simultaneously measured through the DPF. This visualization and pressure drop measurement led to the conclusion that the PM trapping in surface pores was driven by PM bridging and stacking at constricted areas in porous channels. This caused a drastic increase in the pressure drop during PM accumulation at the beginning of the PM trapping process. The relationship between the porous structure of the DPF and the depth of the surface pore was investigated in terms of the porosity distribution and PM penetration depth near the wall surface with respect to depth. The pressure drop calculated with an assumed surface pore depth showed a good correspondence to the measured pressure drop.

  14. Wavelet compression of three-dimensional time-lapse biological image data.

    PubMed

    Stefansson, H Narfi; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Thomas, Charles F; Ron, Amos; DeVore, Ron; Sharpley, Robert; White, John G

    2005-02-01

    The use of multifocal-plane, time-lapse recordings of living specimens has allowed investigators to visualize dynamic events both within ensembles of cells and individual cells. Recordings of such four-dimensional (4D) data from digital optical sectioning microscopy produce very large data sets. We describe a wavelet-based data compression algorithm that capitalizes on the inherent redunancies within multidimensional data to achieve higher compression levels than can be obtained from single images. The algorithm will permit remote users to roam through large 4D data sets using communication channels of modest bandwidth at high speed. This will allow animation to be used as a powerful aid to visualizing dynamic changes in three-dimensional structures.

  15. In vivo time-lapse imaging of mitochondria in healthy and diseased peripheral myelin sheath.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Sergio; Fernando, Ruani; Berthelot, Jade; Perrin-Tricaud, Claire; Sarzi, Emmanuelle; Chrast, Roman; Lenaers, Guy; Tricaud, Nicolas

    2015-07-01

    The myelin sheath that covers a large amount of neurons is critical for their homeostasis, and myelinating glia mitochondria have recently been shown to be essential for neuron survival. However morphological and physiological properties of these organelles remain elusive. Here we report a method to analyze mitochondrial dynamics and morphology in myelinating Schwann cells of living mice using viral transduction and time-lapse multiphoton microscopy. We describe the distribution, shape, size and dynamics of mitochondria in live cells. We also report mitochondrial alterations in Opa1(delTTAG) mutant mice cells at presymptomatic stages, suggesting that mitochondrial defects in myelin contribute to OPA1 related neuropathy and represent a biomarker for the disease.

  16. A poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based device enabling time-lapse imaging with high spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Masahiko; Hoshida, Tetsushi; Sakaue-Sawano, Asako; Miyawaki, Atsushi

    2010-02-12

    We have developed a regulator-free device that enables long-term incubation of mammalian cells for epi-fluorescence imaging, based on a concept that the size of sample to be gassed and heated is reduced to observation scale. A poly(dimethylsiloxane) block stamped on a coverslip works as a long-lasting supplier of CO{sub 2}-rich gas to adjust bicarbonate-containing medium in a tiny chamber at physiological pH, and an oil-immersion objective warms cells across the coverslip. A time-lapse imaging experiment using HeLa cells stably expressing fluorescent cell-cycle indicators showed that the cells in the chamber proliferated with normal cell-cycle period over 2 days.

  17. Patenting medical diagnosis methods in Europe: Stanford University and time-lapse microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sterckx, Sigrid; Cockbain, Julian; Pennings, Guido

    2017-02-01

    In 2013, a European Patent for the technique of time-lapse microscopy was granted by the European Patent Office (EPO) to Stanford University and was subsequently opposed by Unisense FertiliTech A/S and by the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE), Sigrid Sterckx, Julian Cockbain and Guido Pennings. ESHRE et al.'s opposition was based on the argument that Stanford's patent was directed to a method of medical diagnosis, methods that are excluded from patentability by Article 53(c) of the European Patent Convention. The Opposition Division of the EPO rejected the oppositions in November 2015, and both opponents have now filed their appeals. In this paper, we comment on the Opposition Division decision and the grounds of appeal put forward by ESHRE et al.

  18. Visualizing and quantifying movement from pre-recorded videos: The spectral time-lapse (STL) algorithm.

    PubMed

    Madan, Christopher R; Spetch, Marcia L

    2014-01-01

    When studying animal behaviour within an open environment, movement-related data are often important for behavioural analyses. Therefore, simple and efficient techniques are needed to present and analyze the data of such movements. However, it is challenging to present both spatial and temporal information of movements within a two-dimensional image representation. To address this challenge, we developed the spectral time-lapse (STL) algorithm that re-codes an animal's position at every time point with a time-specific color, and overlays it with a reference frame of the video, to produce a summary image. We additionally incorporated automated motion tracking, such that the animal's position can be extracted and summary statistics such as path length and duration can be calculated, as well as instantaneous velocity and acceleration. Here we describe the STL algorithm and offer a freely available MATLAB toolbox that implements the algorithm and allows for a large degree of end-user control and flexibility.

  19. Time-Lapse Electrical Resistivity Monitoring of the Remediation of a Saline Groundwater Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayley, K.; Bentlay, L. R.; Gharibi, M.

    2007-12-01

    Time-lapse electrical resistivity (ER) surveys are used to monitor the movement and remediation of a saline contaminant plume over the span of three years. Temperature is responsible for a large proportion of the observed ER changes. A temperature resistivity relationship is developed through laboratory testing on core from the site and analysis of petrophysical models. We present a protocol for removing the effects of temperature from ER difference images. Saturation changes also contribute to changes in the ER images. However, at this site, saturation is too spatially heterogeneous to apply a simple correction as was done with temperature. We show that the magnitude of the saturation changes are low and present an analysis of the uncertainty this introduces into the image interpretation. After accounting for temperature variations, we observe changes in the subsurface ER distribution that are consistent with depression focused recharge, solute flushing, and spatially variable effectiveness of the remediation program.

  20. TRIIG - Time-lapse reproduction of images through interactive graphics. [digital processing of quality hard copy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckner, J. D.; Council, H. W.; Edwards, T. R.

    1974-01-01

    Description of the hardware and software implementing the system of time-lapse reproduction of images through interactive graphics (TRIIG). The system produces a quality hard copy of processed images in a fast and inexpensive manner. This capability allows for optimal development of processing software through the rapid viewing of many image frames in an interactive mode. Three critical optical devices are used to reproduce an image: an Optronics photo reader/writer, the Adage Graphics Terminal, and Polaroid Type 57 high speed film. Typical sources of digitized images are observation satellites, such as ERTS or Mariner, computer coupled electron microscopes for high-magnification studies, or computer coupled X-ray devices for medical research.

  1. In vivo amyloid aggregation kinetics tracked by time-lapse confocal microscopy in real-time.

    PubMed

    Villar-Piqué, Anna; Espargaró, Alba; Ventura, Salvador; Sabate, Raimon

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid polymerization underlies an increasing number of human diseases. Despite this process having been studied extensively in vitro, aggregation is a difficult process to track in vivo due to methodological limitations and the slow kinetics of aggregation reactions in cells and tissues. Herein we exploit the amyloid properties of the inclusions bodies (IBs) formed by amyloidogenic proteins in bacteria to address the kinetics of in vivo amyloid aggregation. To this aim we used time-lapse confocal microscopy and a fusion of the amyloid-beta peptide (A β42) with a fluorescent reporter. This strategy allowed us to follow the intracellular kinetics of amyloid-like aggregation in real-time and to discriminate between variants exhibiting different in vivo aggregation propensity. Overall, the approach opens the possibility to assess the impact of point mutations as well as potential anti-aggregation drugs in the process of amyloid formation in living cells.

  2. Cell invasion with proliferation mechanisms motivated by time-lapse data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Matthew J.; Landman, Kerry A.; Hughes, Barry D.

    2010-09-01

    Cell invasion involves a population of cells which are motile and proliferative. Traditional discrete models of proliferation involve agents depositing daughter agents on nearest-neighbor lattice sites. Motivated by time-lapse images of cell invasion, we propose and analyze two new discrete proliferation models in the context of an exclusion process with an undirected motility mechanism. These discrete models are related to a family of reaction-diffusion equations and can be used to make predictions over a range of scales appropriate for interpreting experimental data. The new proliferation mechanisms are biologically relevant and mathematically convenient as the continuum-discrete relationship is more robust for the new proliferation mechanisms relative to traditional approaches.

  3. Contribution of 3-D time-lapse ERT to the study of leachate recirculation in a landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, R.; Oxarango, L.; Descloitres, M.

    2011-03-15

    Leachate recirculation is a key process in the operation of municipal waste landfills as bioreactors. It aims at increasing the moisture content to optimise the biodegradation. Because waste is a very heterogeneous and anisotropic porous media, the geometry of the leachate plume recirculation is difficult to delineate from the surface at the scale of the bioreactor site. In this study, 3-D time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was used to obtain useful information for understanding leachate recirculation hydrodynamics. The ERT inversion methodology and the electrode arrays were optimised using numerical modelling simulating a 3-D leachate injection scenario. Time-lapse ERT was subsequently applied at the field scale during an experimental injection. We compared ERT images with injected volumes to evaluate the sensitivity of time-lapse ERT to delineate the plume migration. The results show that time-lapse ERT can accomplish the following: (i) accurately locate the injection plume, delineating its depth and lateral extension; (ii) be used to estimate some hydraulic properties of waste.

  4. Motivations for Giving of Alumni Donors, Lapsed Donors and Non-Donors: Implications for Christian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugano, Emilio Kariuki

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive and causal comparative study sought to identify motivations for alumni donor acquisition and retention in Christian institutions of higher learning. To meet this objective, motivations for alumni donors, lapsed donors, and non-donors were analyzed and compared. Data was collected through an electronic survey of a stratified sample…

  5. Time-Lapse Joint Inversion of Cross-Well DC Resistivity and Seismic Data: A Numerical Investigation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Time-lapse joint inversion of geophysical data is required to image the evolution of oil reservoirs during production and enhanced oil recovery, CO2 sequestration, geothermal fields during production, and to monitor the evolution of contaminant plumes. Joint inversion schemes red...

  6. The use of time lapse photography in an in vitro fertilization programme for better selection for embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Kovačič, Borut; Hojnik, Nina; Vlaisavljević, Veljko

    2014-01-01

    The time lapse photography is not a new method for assessing the dynamics of early embryo development in vitro. It has been used many times in the past for studying cleavages and blastulation of embryos of various animal species. However, this technique became available for routine use in an human in vitro fertilization (IVF) programme only a couple years ago and it becomes more and more popular today. The new time lapse systems are using modified microscopes which are positioned within the incubators. The observation of embryos does not need the opening of incubators. By sequential photographing of each embryo separately with camera of low intensity illumination, more than 1400 pictures of embryo are made. All these pictures are collected together and transformed into a short movie with software. This system offers the observation of dynamics of embryo development. The studies, which have used a time lapse technique for studying embryo development, revealed that the timing between different events can be used for predicting its developmental potential. In this paper the advantages and drawbacks of time lapse photography is precisely described. An overview through the published papers analyzing the dynamics of human embryo development from the zygote toward blastocyst is done and new timing parameters for grading zygotes, early embryos and blastocysts are analyzed.

  7. Live Cell Imaging of Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus pneumoniae using Automated Time-lapse Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Imke G.; Beilharz, Katrin; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Veening, Jan- Willem

    2011-01-01

    During the last few years scientists became increasingly aware that average data obtained from microbial population based experiments are not representative of the behavior, status or phenotype of single cells. Due to this new insight the number of single cell studies rises continuously (for recent reviews see 1,2,3). However, many of the single cell techniques applied do not allow monitoring the development and behavior of one specific single cell in time (e.g. flow cytometry or standard microscopy). Here, we provide a detailed description of a microscopy method used in several recent studies 4, 5, 6, 7, which allows following and recording (fluorescence of) individual bacterial cells of Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus pneumoniae through growth and division for many generations. The resulting movies can be used to construct phylogenetic lineage trees by tracing back the history of a single cell within a population that originated from one common ancestor. This time-lapse fluorescence microscopy method cannot only be used to investigate growth, division and differentiation of individual cells, but also to analyze the effect of cell history and ancestry on specific cellular behavior. Furthermore, time-lapse microscopy is ideally suited to examine gene expression dynamics and protein localization during the bacterial cell cycle. The method explains how to prepare the bacterial cells and construct the microscope slide to enable the outgrowth of single cells into a microcolony. In short, single cells are spotted on a semi-solid surface consisting of growth medium supplemented with agarose on which they grow and divide under a fluorescence microscope within a temperature controlled environmental chamber. Images are captured at specific intervals and are later analyzed using the open source software ImageJ. PMID:21841760

  8. Spatial patterns of climatological temperature lapse rate in mainland China: A multi-time scale investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yue; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Zhao, Lin; Piao, Shilong

    2015-04-01

    Quantitative evaluation of how mountain ecosystems respond to climate change requires accurate estimates of temperature at high elevations. One approach to estimating highland temperature is to extrapolate temperatures from low elevations based on previous observations of the environmental temperature lapse rate (γlocal). However, our understanding of γlocal is still very limited. Here we use daily mean, maximum, and minimum temperature (Tmean, Tmax, and Tmin) data from 523 meteorological stations in mainland China to estimate the spatiotemporal patterns of the climatological γlocal (γlocal(Tmean), γlocal(Tmax), and γlocal(Tmin)). The patterns of all γlocal display (1) a significant (P < 0.05) spatial difference between southern China (4 to 6 K km-1) and northern China (including the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, >6 K km-1) and (2) a distinct seasonal variation, with higher γlocal occurring in summer and lower in winter (except for the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau where the seasonality is reversed). In addition, the seasonal amplitude of γlocal(Tmax) exceeds that of γlocal(Tmin). Physically, γlocal(Tmax) is significantly influenced by cloud cover (partial correlation coefficients: R = -0.25, P < 0.001) and regulated by precipitation, with γlocal (Tmax) increasing with Tmax in humid regions while decreasing in drier regions. At night, the spatial pattern of γlocal (Tmin) is determined by Tmin (R = -0.51, P < 0.001) due to temperature control on the saturated adiabatic lapse rate. Our results demonstrate that the magnitude of γlocal obviously differs in regional distributions and seasonal variations and may be a result of the interactions among the climatic factors. To improve the accuracy of the extrapolation method requires spatial patterns of γlocal rather than just a constant universal value.

  9. Low-cost motility tracking system (LOCOMOTIS) for time-lapse microscopy applications and cell visualisation.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Adam E; Triajianto, Junian; Routledge, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    Direct visualisation of cells for the purpose of studying their motility has typically required expensive microscopy equipment. However, recent advances in digital sensors mean that it is now possible to image cells for a fraction of the price of a standard microscope. Along with low-cost imaging there has also been a large increase in the availability of high quality, open-source analysis programs. In this study we describe the development and performance of an expandable cell motility system employing inexpensive, commercially available digital USB microscopes to image various cell types using time-lapse and perform tracking assays in proof-of-concept experiments. With this system we were able to measure and record three separate assays simultaneously on one personal computer using identical microscopes, and obtained tracking results comparable in quality to those from other studies that used standard, more expensive, equipment. The microscopes used in our system were capable of a maximum magnification of 413.6×. Although resolution was lower than that of a standard inverted microscope we found this difference to be indistinguishable at the magnification chosen for cell tracking experiments (206.8×). In preliminary cell culture experiments using our system, velocities (mean µm/min ± SE) of 0.81 ± 0.01 (Biomphalaria glabrata hemocytes on uncoated plates), 1.17 ± 0.004 (MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells), 1.24 ± 0.006 (SC5 mouse Sertoli cells) and 2.21 ± 0.01 (B. glabrata hemocytes on Poly-L-Lysine coated plates), were measured and are consistent with previous reports. We believe that this system, coupled with open-source analysis software, demonstrates that higher throughput time-lapse imaging of cells for the purpose of studying motility can be an affordable option for all researchers.

  10. Limiting aspects of using geophysical time-lapse measurements for contaminant site monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, H. K.; Bloem, E.

    2010-12-01

    Winter maintenance at airports and roads in the areas with winter frost requires the use of large quantities of de-icing chemicals. These chemicals infiltrate the unsaturated zone during winter and spring due to the mixing with snow next to the roads or runways and may hence pollute the groundwater. Geophysical methods provide insight into soil heterogeneity and characteristics and may, when used in time-lapse mode, serve as a monitoring technique for contaminant transport over larger areas than traditional sampling techniques such as suction cups, soil sampling techniques and groundwater wells. The presence of a mixture of materials and contaminants in the subsurface, as well as the natural temporal variable conditions such as temperature and water saturation are among the challenges of geophysical monitoring of flow and transport processes in the unsaturated zone. Some examples of the use of geophysical measurements for contaminant site monitoring from the literature will be given as well as insight to more specific challenges both practical and scientifically for a case study in Norway. The case study shows results of electrical resistivity measurements along two profiles next to one of the runways at Oslo airport, Gardermoen. One profile is located parallel to the runway and within the zone affected by contaminated snow, while the other set of surface electrodes are installed at an angle from the runway and covers areas both affected and unaffected by de-icing chemicals. In addition to time-lapse electrical resistivity measurements, the soil temperature, volumetric water content and the electrical conductivity of the soil water is measured at 4 depths at the crossing point of the two cables. Theoretical improvements and managerial aspects still required for the applicability of this monitoring technique at contaminated sites will be discussed.

  11. Assessment of Saturation Patterns on Agricultural Land Using Time-lapse Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silasari, R.; Bloeschl, G.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural land generates overland flow differently from natural environment due to features from anthropogenic activities such as cultivated soil layer and tile drain pipe. During rainfall events, the formation of overland flow may happen from infiltration excess and/or saturation excess according to the threshold processes which are influenced by rainfall characteristics and soil hydraulic parameters. The dynamics of threshold processes in varying rainfall and soil hydraulic conditions will affect the surface runoff response which can be inversely analyzed by visually observing the generated saturation patterns. This study aims to explore the use of time-lapse photographs of saturated plot during rainfall events to observe and understand the threshold processes of overland flow generation. The observation was conducted at Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) in Lower Austria with a 2 megapixels surveillance camera overlooking a 1.8 ha tile-drained agricultural field situated on a hillslope. The main tile drain pipe extends from the higher ground into the riparian area - creating a depression line which generates the main saturation track. The time-lapse photographs are able to capture the spatial and temporal dynamics of 0.1 ha saturated plot (117 m long and 10 m wide in average) during three big rainfall events in 2014 which produced measurable overland flow. The photographs also manage to capture the behavior of overland flow on tractor tracks which were generated faster than on the main saturated plot - due to the more compacted soil - and contribute significantly to the overall overland flow discharge and movements. Comparison of the photographs with on-field manual plotting shows good accuracy of the captured saturation plot and the possibility of calculating the plot area digitally. This method gives opportunity to observe overland flow generation on visual basis as a complement of the customary discharge measurements.

  12. Improving time-lapse seismic repeatability: CO2CRC Otway site permanent geophone array field trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pevzner, Roman; Dupuis, Christian; Shulakova, Valeriya; Urosevic, Milovan; Lumley, David

    2013-04-01

    The proposed Stage 2C of the CO2CRC Otway project involves injection of a small amount (around 15,000 tonnes) of CO2/CH4 gas mixture into saline acquifer (Paaratte formation) at the depth of ~1.5 km. The seismic time-lapse signal will depend largely on the formation properties and the injection scenario, but is likely to be relatively weak. In order to improve time-lapse seismic monitoring capabilities by decreasing the noise level, a buried receiver arrays can be used. A small-scale trial of such an array was conducted at Otway site in June 2012. A set of 25 geophones was installed in 3 m deep boreholes in parallel to the same number of surface geophones. In addition, four geophones were placed into boreholes of 1 to 12 m depth. In order to assess the gain in the signal-to-noise ratio and repeatability, both active and passive seismic surveys were carried out. The surveys were conducted in relatively poor weather conditions, with rain, strong wind and thunderstorms increasing the noise level. We found that noise level for buried geophones is on average 20 dB lower compared to the surface ones. Furthermore, the combination of active and passive experiments has allowed us to perform a detailed classification of various noise sources. Acknowledgement The authors acknowledge the funding provided by the Australian government through its CRC program to support this CO2CRC research project. We also acknowledge the CO2CRC's corporate sponsors and the financial assistance provided through Australian National Low Emissions Coal Research and Development (ANLEC R&D). ANLEC R&D is supported by Australian Coal Association Low Emissions Technology Limited and the Australian Government through the Clean Energy Initiative.

  13. Time-lapse microscopy and image analysis in basic and clinical embryo development research.

    PubMed

    Wong, C; Chen, A A; Behr, B; Shen, S

    2013-02-01

    Mammalian preimplantation embryo development is a complex process in which the exact timing and sequence of events are as essential as the accurate execution of the events themselves. Time-lapse microscopy (TLM) is an ideal tool to study this process since the ability to capture images over time provides a combination of morphological, dynamic and quantitative information about developmental events. Here, we systematically review the application of TLM in basic and clinical embryo research. We identified all relevant preimplantation embryo TLM studies published in English up to May 2012 using PubMed and Google Scholar. We then analysed the technical challenges involved in embryo TLM studies and how these challenges may be overcome with technological innovations. Finally, we reviewed the different types of TLM embryo studies, with a special focus on how TLM can benefit clinical assisted reproduction. Although new parameters predictive of embryo development potential may be discovered and used clinically to potentially increase the success rate of IVF, adopting TLM to routine clinical practice will require innovations in both optics and image analysis. Combined with such innovations, TLM may provide embryologists and clinicians with an important tool for making critical decisions in assisted reproduction. In this review, we perform a literature search of all published early embryo development studies that used time-lapse microscopy (TLM). From the literature, we discuss the benefits of TLM over traditional time-point analysis, as well as the technical difficulties and solutions involved in implementing TLM for embryo studies. We further discuss research that has successfully derived non-invasive markers that may increase the success rate of assisted reproductive technologies, primarily IVF. Most notably, we extend our discussion to highlight important considerations for the practical use of TLM in research and clinical settings.

  14. Gliding Motility of Babesia bovis Merozoites Visualized by Time-Lapse Video Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Asada, Masahito; Goto, Yasuyuki; Yahata, Kazuhide; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Kawai, Satoru; Inoue, Noboru; Kaneko, Osamu; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background Babesia bovis is an apicomplexan intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite that induces babesiosis in cattle after transmission by ticks. During specific stages of the apicomplexan parasite lifecycle, such as the sporozoites of Plasmodium falciparum and tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii, host cells are targeted for invasion using a unique, active process termed “gliding motility”. However, it is not thoroughly understood how the merozoites of B. bovis target and invade host red blood cells (RBCs), and gliding motility has so far not been observed in the parasite. Methodology/Principal Findings Gliding motility of B. bovis merozoites was revealed by time-lapse video microscopy. The recorded images revealed that the process included egress of the merozoites from the infected RBC, gliding motility, and subsequent invasion into new RBCs. The gliding motility of B. bovis merozoites was similar to the helical gliding of Toxoplasma tachyzoites. The trails left by the merozoites were detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay using antiserum against B. bovis merozoite surface antigen 1. Inhibition of gliding motility by actin filament polymerization or depolymerization indicated that the gliding motility was driven by actomyosin dependent process. In addition, we revealed the timing of breakdown of the parasitophorous vacuole. Time-lapse image analysis of membrane-stained bovine RBCs showed formation and breakdown of the parasitophorous vacuole within ten minutes of invasion. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report of the gliding motility of B. bovis. Since merozoites of Plasmodium parasites do not glide on a substrate, the gliding motility of B. bovis merozoites is a notable finding. PMID:22506073

  15. Time-Lapse Imaging of Red Blood Cell Invasion by the Rodent Malaria Parasite Plasmodium yoelii

    PubMed Central

    Yahata, Kazuhide; Treeck, Moritz; Culleton, Richard; Gilberger, Tim-Wolf; Kaneko, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    In order to propagate within the mammalian host, malaria parasites must invade red blood cells (RBCs). This process offers a window of opportunity in which to target the parasite with drugs or vaccines. However, most of the studies relating to RBC invasion have analyzed the molecular interactions of parasite proteins with host cells under static conditions, and the dynamics of these interactions remain largely unstudied. Time-lapse imaging of RBC invasion is a powerful technique to investigate cell invasion and has been reported for Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium falciparum. However, experimental modification of genetic loci is laborious and time consuming for these species. We have established a system of time-lapse imaging for the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii, for which modification of genetic loci is quicker and simpler. We compared the kinetics of RBC invasion by P. yoelii with that of P. falciparum and found that the overall kinetics during invasion were similar, with some exceptions. The most striking of these differences is that, following egress from the RBC, the shape of P. yoelii merozoites gradually changes from flat elongated ovals to spherical bodies, a process taking about 60 sec. During this period merozoites were able to attach to and deform the RBC membrane, but were not able to reorient and invade. We propose that this morphological change of P. yoelii merozoites may be related to the secretion or activation of invasion-related proteins. Thus the P. yoelii merozoite appears to be an excellent model to analyze the molecular dynamics of RBC invasion, particularly during the morphological transition phase, which could serve as an expanded window that cannot be observed in P. falciparum. PMID:23227208

  16. CO2 storage in Otway, Australia: influence of geological and reservoir parameters on time-lapse seismic signal modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gendrin, A.; Bouquet, S.; Urosevic, M.; Bernth, H.; Kostov, C.; Wisman, P.; Labregere, D.; Verliac, M.

    2009-04-01

    Until now, time lapse seismic signal is mostly used qualitatively in CO2 storage projects, to map the extent of the CO2 plume. Ultimately, we want to use it quantitatively to calculate the amount of injected CO2. This will allow us to check that all the CO2 injected is properly stored and that no leakage is occurring. CO2 injection started in Otway, Australia, in March 2008. Over two years, 100,000 tons of CO2 should be injected in this depleted methane reservoir. This project is very challenging since the injected CO2 mixes with residual methane, which generates a weak time-lapse seismic signature. However, a wealth of information is available: logs, a static model, a calibrated reservoir model, and a rock physics model based on core measurements, which are fundamental for the project. We use 3D finite difference modeling to simulate the expected time-lapse seismic signal. Our initial velocity model is built with logs and seismic interpretation. The rock physics approach is used on the outputs of the reservoir simulation to generate a velocity model after injection. Seismic simulation is then run before and after injection, which provides the theoretical time-lapse seismic signal. Several parameters are poorly constrained in the workflow, which affect time-lapse signal prediction. Porosity and permeability grids are constrained at the wells and are statistically distributed throughout the volume. Relative permeability, capillary pressure, hysteresis, have been measured, for CO2, on a few samples only throughout the world. In this work, we explore the influence of uncertainty on these parameters, and derive an error bar on the estimate of the amount of CO2 stored.

  17. A Submerged Filter Paper Sandwich for Long-term Ex Ovo Time-lapse Imaging of Early Chick Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Theodoor H.

    2016-01-01

    Due to its availability, low cost, flat geometry, and transparency, the ex ovo chick embryo has become a major vertebrate animal model for the study of morphogenetic events, such as gastrulation2, neurulation3-5, somitogenesis6, heart bending7,8, and brain formation9-13, during early embryogenesis. Key to understanding morphogenetic processes is to follow them dynamically by time-lapse imaging. The acquisition of time-lapse movies of chick embryogenesis ex ovo has been limited either to short time windows or to the need for an incubator to control temperature and humidity around the embryo14. Here, we present a new technique to culture chick embryos ex ovo for high-resolution time-lapse imaging using transmitted light microscopy. The submerged filter paper sandwich is a variant of the well-established filter paper carrier technique (EC-culture)1 and allows for the culturing of chick embryos without the need for a climate chamber. The embryo is sandwiched between two identical filter paper carriers and is kept fully submerged in a simple, temperature-controlled medium covered by a layer of light mineral oil. Starting from the primitive streak stage (Hamburger-Hamilton stage 5, HH5)15 up to at least the 28-somite stage (HH16)15, embryos can be cultured with either their ventral or dorsal side up. This allows the acquisition of time-lapse movies covering about 30 hr of embryonic development. Representative time-lapse frames and movies are shown. Embryos are compared morphologically to an embryo cultured in the standard EC-culture. The submerged filter paper sandwich provides a stable environment to study early dorsal and ventral morphogenetic processes. It also allows for live fluorescence imaging and micromanipulations, such as microsurgery, bead implantation, microinjection, gene silencing, and electroporation, and has a strong potential to be combined with immersion objectives for laser-based imaging (including light-sheet microscopy). PMID:28060338

  18. Monitoring channel head erosion processes in response to an artificially induced abrupt base level change using time-lapse photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, M. H.; Nearing, M.; Hernandez, M.; Polyakov, V. O.

    2016-07-01

    Gullies that terminate at a vertical-wall are ubiquitous throughout arid and semiarid regions. Multi-year assessments of gully evolution and headcut advance are typically accomplished using traditional ground surveys and aerial photographs, with much recent research focused on integrating data collected at very high spatial resolutions using new techniques such as aerial surveys with blimps or kites and ground surveys with LiDar scanners. However, knowledge of specific processes that drive headcut advance is limited due to inadequate observation and documentation of flash floods and subsequent erosion that can occur at temporal resolutions not captured through repeat surveys. This paper presents a method for using very-high temporal resolution ground-based time-lapse photography to capture short-duration flash floods and gully head evolution in response. In 2004, a base level controlling concrete weir was removed from the outlet of a 1.29 ha semiarid headwater drainage on the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed in southeastern Arizona, USA. During the ten year period from 2004 to 2014 the headcut migrated upchannel a total of 14.5 m reducing the contributing area at the headwall by 9.5%. Beginning in July 2012, time-lapse photography was employed to observe event scale channel evolution dynamics. The most frequent erosion processes observed during three seasons of time-lapse photography were plunge pool erosion and mass wasting through sidewall or channel headwall slumping that occurred during summer months. Geomorphic change during the ten year period was dominated by a single piping event in August 2014 that advanced the channel head 7.4 m (51% of the overall advance) and removed 11.3 m3 of sediment. High temporal resolution time-lapse photography was critical for identifying subsurface erosion processes, in the absence of time-lapse images piping would not have been identified as an erosion mechanism responsible for advancing the gully headwall at this site.

  19. Breath Holding Duration and Self-Reported Smoking Abstinence Intolerance as Predictors of Smoking Lapse Behavior in a Laboratory Analog Task

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Distress intolerance (DI) is elevated in smokers and confers increased risk for relapse following a quit attempt. Intolerance of respiratory distress and of nicotine withdrawal may be particularly relevant predictors of smoking cessation outcomes. However, no studies to date have examined the association between smoking relevant DI and smoking lapse behavior in a laboratory setting. The current study examined whether DI was associated with the risk of initiating smoking in a laboratory-based lapse analog task. Methods: This study is a secondary data analysis from a study of the impact of alcohol administration on smoking behavior. Ninety-six cigarette smokers completed measures of DI and a smoking lapse analog task. Breath holding (BH) duration and self-reported intolerance of smoking abstinence were analyzed as predictors of smoking initiation in a survival analysis model. Results: Shorter BH duration was associated with greater risk of smoking initiation, controlling for nicotine dependence, nicotine withdrawal symptoms, and demographics. Self-report measures of smoking abstinence DI were not associated with BH duration or time to smoking initiation when controlling for nicotine dependence severity. Conclusions: BH captures a domain of DI that is specifically associated with a higher risk of initiating smoking in this analog of smoking lapse. The prediction of smoking in an analog lapse task adds to the extant literature identifying an association between DI and smoking lapse and may enable further research to understand and address the mechanism through which BH affects smoking lapse risk. PMID:23132658

  20. Environmental monitoring of leaks using time-lapsed long electrode electrical resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rucker, Dale F.; Fink, James B.; Loke, Meng H.

    2011-08-01

    Highly industrialized areas pose challenges for surface electrical resistivity characterization due to metallic infrastructure. The infrastructure is typically more conductive than the desired targets and will mask the deeper subsurface information. The risk of this occurring may be minimized if steel-cased wells are used as long electrodes in the area near the target. We demonstrate a method of using long electrodes to electrically monitor a simulated leak from an underground storage tank with both synthetic examples and a field demonstration. Although the method of using long electrodes has been proposed by others, no time-lapse resistivity data have been collected, modeled, and analyzed within a nuclear waste tank farm environment. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to test whether the long electrode method using steel-cased wells can be employed to spatially and temporally track simulated leaks in a highly industrialized setting. A secondary objective was to apply a time-lapse regularization procedure in the inverse modeling code, similar to the 4D tomography approach by Kim et al. (2009), and to test the procedure's effect on the quality of the outcome regarding plume intensity and position. For the synthetic examples, a simple target of varying electrical properties was placed beneath different types of layers of low resistivity to simulate the effects of the infrastructure. Both surface and long electrodes were tested on the synthetic domain, and the test cases covered a variety of survey parameters including low and high electrode density, noise, array type, and the explicit location of the wells relative to the target. All data were processed in four dimensions, where the regularization procedure was applied in both the time and space domains. The synthetic test case showed that the long electrode resistivity method could detect relative changes in resistivity that was commensurate with the differing target properties. The surface electrodes

  1. Time-lapse capacitive resistivity imaging: a new technology concept for the monitoring of permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuras, O.; Krautblatter, M.; Murton, J.; Haslam, E.; Wilkinson, P.; Meldrum, P.

    2011-12-01

    We have investigated and sought to prove a new technology concept for the non-invasive volumetric imaging and routine temporal monitoring of the thermal state of permafrost, a key indicator of global climate change. Capacitive Resistivity Imaging (CRI), a technique based upon low-frequency, capacitively-coupled measurements across permanently installed multi-sensor arrays is applied in order to emulate Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) methodology, but without the need for galvanic contact on frozen soils or rocks. Recent work has shown that temperature-calibrated ERT using galvanic sensors is capable of imaging recession and re-advance of rock permafrost in response to the ambient temperature regime. However, our own laboratory experiments on rock samples under simulated permafrost conditions have equally demonstrated that galvanic electrodes experience large variations in contact resistances between sensors and the host material as the active layer freezes and thaws, leading to a rapid deterioration of data quality over time. As the presence of systematic but uncontrolled sensor noise will reduce the value of time-lapse ERT datasets for monitoring permafrost, the use of galvanic sensors will invariably impose practical limitations on field measurements. The capacitive methodology we are presenting here overcomes this problem and provides a roadmap for making stable resistance measurements with permanently installed sensors over time. We report on our experience with designing, building, testing and validating a functional prototype time-lapse CRI measurement system. The practical system architecture draws upon conceptual ideas incorporated in existing, field-scale CRI instrumentation designed by BGS; however, the use of dense capacitive sensor networks at the laboratory scale and the need for collecting tomographic imaging data across multiple sensors in an automated fashion required a novel technical approach. Our research has applied 4D CRI as well as

  2. Fast history matching of time-lapse seismic and production data for high resolution models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez Arismendi, Eduardo Antonio

    Integrated reservoir modeling has become an important part of day-to-day decision analysis in oil and gas management practices. A very attractive and promising technology is the use of time-lapse or 4D seismic as an essential component in subsurface modeling. Today, 4D seismic is enabling oil companies to optimize production and increase recovery through monitoring fluid movements throughout the reservoir. 4D seismic advances are also being driven by an increased need by the petroleum engineering community to become more quantitative and accurate in our ability to monitor reservoir processes. Qualitative interpretations of time-lapse anomalies are being replaced by quantitative inversions of 4D seismic data to produce accurate maps of fluid saturations, pore pressure, temperature, among others. Within all steps involved in this subsurface modeling process, the most demanding one is integrating the geologic model with dynamic field data, including 4Dseismic when available. The validation of the geologic model with observed dynamic data is accomplished through a "history matching" (HM) process typically carried out with well-based measurements. Due to low resolution of production data, the validation process is severely limited in its reservoir areal coverage, compromising the quality of the model and any subsequent predictive exercise. This research will aim to provide a novel history matching approach that can use information from high-resolution seismic data to supplement the areally sparse production data. The proposed approach will utilize streamline-derived sensitivities as means of relating the forward model performance with the prior geologic model. The essential ideas underlying this approach are similar to those used for high-frequency approximations in seismic wave propagation. In both cases, this leads to solutions that are defined along "streamlines" (fluid flow), or "rays" (seismic wave propagation). Synthetic and field data examples will be used

  3. Morphokinetic behavior of euploid and aneuploid embryos analyzed by time-lapse in embryoscope

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Deven V.; Shah, Preeti B.; Kotdawala, Aditi P.; Herrero, Javier; Rubio, Irene; Banker, Manish R.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Embryonic aneuploidy may result in miscarriage, implantation failure, or birth defects. Thus, it is clinically necessary to avoid the selection of aneuploid embryos during in vitro fertilization treatment. AIM: The aim of this study was to identify the morphokinetic differences by analyzing the development of euploid and aneuploid embryos using a time-lapse technology. We also checked the accuracy of a previously described model for selection of euploid embryos based on morphokinetics in our study population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is a retrospective study of 29 cycles undergoing preimplantation genetic screening from October 2013 to April 2015 at our center. Of 253 embryos, 167 suitable for biopsy embryos were analyzed for their chromosomal status using array-comparative genome hybridization (CGH). The morphokinetic behavior of these embryos was further analyzed in embryoscope using time-lapse technology. RESULTS: Among the analyzed embryos, 41 had normal and 126 had abnormal chromosome content. No significant difference in morphokinetics was found between euploid and aneuploid embryos. The percentage of embryos with blastulation was similar in the euploid (65.85%, 27/41) and aneuploid (60.31%, 76/126) embryos (P = 0.76). Although hard to define, majority of the chromosomal defects might be due to meiotic errors. On applying embryo selection model from Basile et al., embryos falling within optimal ranges for time to division to 5 cells (t5), time period of the third cell cycle (CC3), and time from 2 cell division to 5 cell division (t5-t2) exhibited greater proportion of normal embryos than those falling outside the optimal ranges (28.6%, 25.9%, and 26.7% vs. 17.5%, 20.8%, and 14.3%). CONCLUSION: Keeping a track of time interval between two stages can help us recognize aneuploid embryos at an earlier stage and prevent their selection of transfer. However, it cannot be used as a substitute for array CGH to select euploid embryos for transfer. PMID

  4. Geoelectrical time-lapse analysis for improved interpretation of data in a contaminated area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitea, Florina; Serban, Adrian; Ioane, Dumitru; Georgescu, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Non invasive geoelectrical studies are useful in the preliminary assessment of areas suspected to be contaminated but also in the investigation stage. Correctly adapted to the site specific situation, they are used to detect and investigate buried sources of pollution, to characterize the geology of the area, to detect the contaminated plume or to study the attenuation of pollution in case the appliance of an site-specific remediation techniques. Despite the improved technological acquisition techniques and the optimized inversion data algorithms, interpretation of geoelectrical data in still a challenging task, especially in a contaminated hydrogeological context. Beside the soil physical properties (composition, porosity, texture, etc.), moisture content and chemical composition of the pollutant are also influencing the measured parameter. Apparent electrical resistivity method was use in an area located near an Oil Refinery. Electrical measurements performed on profiles (transverse and along the direction of water flow -according to hydrological data) revealed the presence of contaminants by means of high resistivity anomalies. Using the same acquisition technique (Schlumberger array, same VES points, injection - AB - and voltage - MN - lines extension), measurements were repeated during time, along the same profiles. On the resulted electrical sections from 2006 to 2013, a dynamic situation regarding the pollution plume was observed. Time - lapse analysis, based on the calculation of resistivity differences between sets of data acquired along the same profile was applied, and data interpretation was made using the resulted sections. Significant variation between data sets (> 17% of apparent resistivity normalized differences) observed along the main profile were mainly ranging from the near surface (1.5 m) to an approximated depth (AB/2) of 10m. Using the time-lapse method, changes in the lateral and in depth extension of polluted areas could be observed and

  5. How to connect time-lapse recorded trajectories of motile microorganisms with dynamical models in continuous time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Jonas N.; Li, Liang; Grǎdinaru, Cristian; Austin, Robert H.; Cox, Edward C.; Flyvbjerg, Henrik

    2016-12-01

    We provide a tool for data-driven modeling of motility, data being time-lapse recorded trajectories. Several mathematical properties of a model to be found can be gleaned from appropriate model-independent experimental statistics, if one understands how such statistics are distorted by the finite sampling frequency of time-lapse recording, by experimental errors on recorded positions, and by conditional averaging. We give exact analytical expressions for these effects in the simplest possible model for persistent random motion, the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Then we describe those aspects of these effects that are valid for any reasonable model for persistent random motion. Our findings are illustrated with experimental data and Monte Carlo simulations.

  6. Time-lapse CO2 monitoring using ambient-noise seismic interferometry: a feasibility study from Ketzin, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boullenger, Boris; Verdel, Arie; Paap, Bob; Thorbecke, Jan; Draganov, Deyan

    2015-04-01

    Seismic interferometry applied to ambient-noise measurements allows retrieval of the Green's function between two seismic receivers, by cross-correlating their recordings, as if from a source at one of the receivers. We propose to use ambient-noise seismic interferometry (ANSI) to retrieve reflection data. The time-lapse differences between different vintages of the retrieved data may help characterize property changes within a geologic reservoir with varying CO2 saturation. We test the feasibility of this time-lapse passive seismic method with numerical experiments based on the CO2-storage site of Ketzin, Germany. Ambient-noise recordings from Ketzin exhibit significant passive body-wave energy (from natural tremors or induced seismicity in the vicinity of the reservoir), which is advantageous to retrieve reflections with ANSI. The ANSI numerical experiments aim to understand what the requirements are for the recorded body-wave noise to retrieve the time-lapse reflection signal caused by an increase of CO2 saturation in the reservoir. For this purpose, we design two velocity scenarios at Ketzin: a base scenario before the injection of CO2, and a repeat scenario corresponding to a P-wave velocity decline in the reservoir by 20 percent. For both scenarios, we simulate passive seismic experiments of body-wave noise recordings that may take several days or months to record in the field. The passive recordings are obtained by modelling global (direct wave, internal and surface multiples) transmission responses from band-limited subsurface noise sources, randomly triggered in space and time. The time-lapse reflection signal is obtained by taking the differences between the base and the repeat retrieved reflection data (virtual common-shot gathers). We found that the time-lapse signal is still recovered with ANSI even if the base and repeat retrieved reflection data are partially polluted with artifacts. This means that uneven illumination of the array does not

  7. Time-lapse microscopy studies of bystander effects induced by photosensitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yin-Chu; Redmond, Robert W.

    2006-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the pathogenesis of many critical diseases and are also utilized as cytotoxic agents in a variety of treatments for eradication of diseased tissue, including cancer. Oxidative stress ensues when the level of ROS in a system exceeds the antioxidant capacity. Oxidative stress can have local (direct) and long-range (bystander) effects in cells and tissue and this research was carried out to determine the spatial and temporal nature of the photosensitized bystander effect using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy. By initiating photosensitization in only a portion of the microscopic imaging field it was possible to differentiate direct from bystander effects in EMT-6 murine breast cancer cells in 6-well plates. Elevated ROS levels are seen immediately following photodynamic treatment in direct cells with a delayed increase in oxidative stress observed in bystander cells. Cytotoxicity is also seen at earlier times in direct cells and occurs in bystander cells in a delayed fashion. These studies confirm the existence of a bystander effect following photosensitization and implicate mediators capable of diffusing in an intercellular manner from directly photosensitized cells to bystander cells and also implicate increased oxidative stress as a mechanistic factor in generating damage in bystander cells.

  8. Mathematical analysis of endothelial sibling pair cell-cell interactions using time-lapse cinematography data.

    PubMed

    Brown, L M; Ryan, U S; Absher, M; Olazabal, B M

    1982-01-01

    The sibling pairs from two different endothelial cell cultures were analysed by time-lapse cinematography. It was shown that wounded and regular (low density seeded) cultures differed in the behaviour patterns of their siblings. The cultures differed most significantly in the minimum interdivision time (IDT) which was 27% lower for the wounded culture. In the wounded culture there was a greater correlation of IDT values between sibling pairs. IDT values recorded both for paired and for unpaired cells were shorter for the wounded than for the regular culture. The mean IDT for unpaired cells was longer than the mean IDT for paired cells in the regular culture. Thus paired cells in the regular culture, had shorter IDTs, but not as short as in the wounded culture. It was significant that in the wounded culture the first generation of siblings were very close (less than 150 microns apart) at division. Overall the behaviour differences between the two cultures resulted in a higher rate of increase in cell numbers, and thus faster repair, of the wounded monolayer.

  9. The impact of male age on embryo quality: a retrospective study using time-lapse imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rosário, Guilherme R. F.; Vidal, Diana S.; Silva, Adriana V.; Franco, Antônio C. C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to correlate male age with embryo morphokinetic parameters on D3 considering the timing and the exact moment of embryo cleavage. Methods Time-lapse imaging was used to produce an ideal cleavage curve for the embryos analyzed. The percentage of embryos under the curve was analyzed and correlated with male age. Results 32.6% of the embryos from patients aged 28-33 years were under the curve; 36.2% of the embryos from patients aged 34-39 years were under the curve; 41.3% of the embryos from patients aged 40-45 years were under the curve; and 26.3% of the embryos fro patients aged 46-57 years were under the curve. Conclusions a statistically non-significant decrease was observed in the percentage of embryos under the optimal cleavage curve on D3 in the group of men aged between 40 and 45 years. Further studies looking into embryos in the blastocyst stage (D5 or D6) are required. PMID:28050955

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF LEAKS USING TIME LAPSED LONG ELECTRODE ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    RUCKER DF; FINK JB; LOKE MH; MYERS DA

    2009-11-05

    Highly industrialized areas pose significant challenges for surface based electrical resistivity characterization and monitoring due to the high degree of metallic infrastructure. The infrastructure is typically several orders of magnitude more conductive than the desired targets, preventing the geophysicist from obtaining a clear picture of the subsurface. These challenges may be minimized if steel-cased wells are used as long electrodes. We demonstrate a method of using long electrodes in a complex nuclear waste facility to monitor a simulated leak from an underground storage tank. The leak was simulated by injecting high conductivity fluid in a perforated well and the resistivity measurements were made before and after the leak test. The data were processed in four dimensions, where a regularization procedure was applied in both the time and space domains. The results showed a lowered resistivity feature develop south of the injection site. The time lapsed regularization parameter had a strong influence on the differences in inverted resistivity between the pre and post datasets, potentially making calibration of the results to specific hydrogeologic parameters difficult.

  11. Time-lapse imaging of human heart motion with switched array UWB radar.

    PubMed

    Brovoll, Sverre; Berger, Tor; Paichard, Yoann; Aardal, Øyvind; Lande, Tor Sverre; Hamran, Svein-Erik

    2014-10-01

    Radar systems for detection of human heartbeats have mostly been single-channel systems with limited spatial resolution. In this paper, a radar system for ultra-wideband (UWB) imaging of the human heart is presented. To make the radar waves penetrate the human tissue the antenna is placed very close to the body. The antenna is an array with eight elements, and an antenna switch system connects the radar to the individual elements in sequence to form an image. Successive images are used to build up time-lapse movies of the beating heart. Measurements on a human test subject are presented and the heart motion is estimated at different locations inside the body. The movies show rhythmic motion consistent with the beating heart, and the location and shape of the reflections correspond well with the expected response form the heart wall. The spatial dependent heart motion is compared to ECG recordings, and it is confirmed that heartbeat modulations are seen in the radar data. This work shows that radar imaging of the human heart may provide valuable information on the mechanical movement of the heart.

  12. Protein Kinase A Catalytic Subunit Primed for Action: Time-Lapse Crystallography of Michaelis Complex Formation.

    PubMed

    Das, Amit; Gerlits, Oksana; Parks, Jerry M; Langan, Paul; Kovalevsky, Andrey; Heller, William T

    2015-12-01

    The catalytic subunit of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKAc) catalyzes the transfer of the γ-phosphate of bound Mg2ATP to a serine or threonine residue of a protein substrate. Here, time-lapse X-ray crystallography was used to capture a series of complexes of PKAc with an oligopeptide substrate and unreacted Mg2ATP, including the Michaelis complex, that reveal important geometric rearrangements in and near the active site preceding the phosphoryl transfer reaction. Contrary to the prevailing view, Mg(2+) binds first to the M1 site as a complex with ATP and is followed by Mg(2+) binding to the M2 site. Concurrently, the target serine hydroxyl of the peptide substrate rotates away from the active site toward the bulk solvent, which breaks the hydrogen bond with D166. Lastly, the serine hydroxyl of the substrate rotates back toward D166 to form the Michaelis complex with the active site primed for phosphoryl transfer.

  13. Direct prediction of spatially and temporally varying physical properties from time-lapse electrical resistance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermans, Thomas; Oware, Erasmus; Caers, Jef

    2016-09-01

    Time-lapse applications of electrical methods have grown significantly over the last decade. However, the quantitative interpretation of tomograms in terms of physical properties, such as salinity, temperature or saturation, remains difficult. In many applications, geophysical models are transformed into hydrological models, but this transformation suffers from spatially and temporally varying resolution resulting from the regularization used by the deterministic inversion. In this study, we investigate a prediction-focused approach (PFA) to directly estimate subsurface physical properties with electrical resistance data, circumventing the need for classic tomographic inversions. First, we generate a prior set of resistance data and physical property forecast through hydrogeological and geophysical simulations mimicking the field experiment. We reduce the dimension of both the data and the forecast through principal component analysis in order to keep the most informative part of both sets in a reduced dimension space. Then, we apply canonical correlation analysis to explore the relationship between the data and the forecast in their reduced dimension space. If a linear relationship can be established, the posterior distribution of the forecast can be directly sampled using a Gaussian process regression where the field data scores are the conditioning data. In this paper, we demonstrate PFA for various physical property distributions. We also develop a framework to propagate the estimated noise level in the reduced dimension space. We validate the results by a Monte Carlo study on the posterior distribution and demonstrate that PFA yields accurate uncertainty for the cases studied.

  14. Time-lapse live imaging of clonally related neural progenitor cells in the developing zebrafish forebrain.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhiqiang; Wagle, Mahendra; Guo, Su

    2011-04-06

    Precise patterns of division, migration and differentiation of neural progenitor cells are crucial for proper brain development and function. To understand the behavior of neural progenitor cells in the complex in vivo environment, time-lapse live imaging of neural progenitor cells in an intact brain is critically required. In this video, we exploit the unique features of zebrafish embryos to visualize the development of forebrain neural progenitor cells in vivo. We use electroporation to genetically and sparsely label individual neural progenitor cells. Briefly, DNA constructs coding for fluorescent markers were injected into the forebrain ventricle of 22 hours post fertilization (hpf) zebrafish embryos and electric pulses were delivered immediately. Six hours later, the electroporated zebrafish embryos were mounted with low melting point agarose in glass bottom culture dishes. Fluorescently labeled neural progenitor cells were then imaged for 36 hours with fixed intervals under a confocal microscope using water dipping objective lens. The present method provides a way to gain insights into the in vivo development of forebrain neural progenitor cells and can be applied to other parts of the central nervous system of the zebrafish embryo.

  15. Quantitative comparison of multiframe data association techniques for particle tracking in time-lapse fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Smal, Ihor; Meijering, Erik

    2015-08-01

    Biological studies of intracellular dynamic processes commonly require motion analysis of large numbers of particles in live-cell time-lapse fluorescence microscopy imaging data. Many particle tracking methods have been developed in the past years as a first step toward fully automating this task and enabling high-throughput data processing. Two crucial aspects of any particle tracking method are the detection of relevant particles in the image frames and their linking or association from frame to frame to reconstruct the trajectories. The performance of detection techniques as well as specific combinations of detection and linking techniques for particle tracking have been extensively evaluated in recent studies. Comprehensive evaluations of linking techniques per se, on the other hand, are lacking in the literature. Here we present the results of a quantitative comparison of data association techniques for solving the linking problem in biological particle tracking applications. Nine multiframe and two more traditional two-frame techniques are evaluated as a function of the level of missing and spurious detections in various scenarios. The results indicate that linking techniques are generally more negatively affected by missing detections than by spurious detections. If misdetections can be avoided, there appears to be no need to use sophisticated multiframe linking techniques. However, in the practically likely case of imperfect detections, the latter are a safer choice. Our study provides users and developers with novel information to select the right linking technique for their applications, given a detection technique of known quality.

  16. Segmentation Method of Time-Lapse Microscopy Images with the Focus on Biocompatibility Assessment.

    PubMed

    Soukup, Jindřich; Císař, Petr; Šroubek, Filip

    2016-06-01

    Biocompatibility testing of new materials is often performed in vitro by measuring the growth rate of mammalian cancer cells in time-lapse images acquired by phase contrast microscopes. The growth rate is measured by tracking cell coverage, which requires an accurate automatic segmentation method. However, cancer cells have irregular shapes that change over time, the mottled background pattern is partially visible through the cells and the images contain artifacts such as halos. We developed a novel algorithm for cell segmentation that copes with the mentioned challenges. It is based on temporal differences of consecutive images and a combination of thresholding, blurring, and morphological operations. We tested the algorithm on images of four cell types acquired by two different microscopes, evaluated the precision of segmentation against manual segmentation performed by a human operator, and finally provided comparison with other freely available methods. We propose a new, fully automated method for measuring the cell growth rate based on fitting a coverage curve with the Verhulst population model. The algorithm is fast and shows accuracy comparable with manual segmentation. Most notably it can correctly separate live from dead cells.

  17. A time-lapse photography method for monitoring salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) passage and abundance in streams

    PubMed Central

    Leacock, William B.; Eby, Lisa A.; Stanford, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    Accurately estimating population sizes is often a critical component of fisheries research and management. Although there is a growing appreciation of the importance of small-scale salmon population dynamics to the stability of salmon stock-complexes, our understanding of these populations is constrained by a lack of efficient and cost-effective monitoring tools for streams. Weirs are expensive, labor intensive, and can disrupt natural fish movements. While conventional video systems avoid some of these shortcomings, they are expensive and require excessive amounts of labor to review footage for data collection. Here, we present a novel method for quantifying salmon in small streams (<15 m wide, <1 m deep) that uses both time-lapse photography and video in a model-based double sampling scheme. This method produces an escapement estimate nearly as accurate as a video-only approach, but with substantially less labor, money, and effort. It requires servicing only every 14 days, detects salmon 24 h/day, is inexpensive, and produces escapement estimates with confidence intervals. In addition to escapement estimation, we present a method for estimating in-stream salmon abundance across time, data needed by researchers interested in predator--prey interactions or nutrient subsidies. We combined daily salmon passage estimates with stream specific estimates of daily mortality developed using previously published data. To demonstrate proof of concept for these methods, we present results from two streams in southwest Kodiak Island, Alaska in which high densities of sockeye salmon spawn. PMID:27326378

  18. Developmental dynamics of IMSI-derived embryos: a time-lapse prospective study.

    PubMed

    Knez, Katja; Tomazevic, Tomaz; Vrtacnik-Bokal, Eda; Virant-Klun, Irma

    2013-08-01

    Because sperm vacuoles were marked as zones without chromatin in the sperm nucleus, which may reflect underlying chromosomal or DNA defects, this study considered whether they influence the morphology and dynamics of early developmental events in preimplantation embryos. Oocytes were injected with spermatozoa of four classes, according to the number and size of vacuoles at ×6000 magnification, and derived embryos were observed under time-lapse microscopy. For each embryo, the times of pronuclei appearance and disappearance and the first, second and third divisions were determined and related to its respective class of injected spermatozoa and its developmental stage. Embryos arising from normal class-I spermatozoa (without vacuoles) reached the 4-cell stage significantly earlier than embryos developed from class-IV spermatozoa (with large vacuoles and other abnormalities) (P=0.012). Blastocysts from class-I spermatozoa required the shortest mean time for all developmental events in comparison with blastocysts from spermatozoa of other classes (with vacuoles). Blastocysts also showed significantly earlier first division than arrested embryos in embryos arising from class-I spermatozoa (P=0.033). An insight into the developmental dynamics of embryo development according to morphology and head vacuoles of injected spermatozoa in morphologically selected sperm-derived embryos was observed for the first time.

  19. Landslide monitoring in southwestern China via time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dong; Hu, Xiang-Yun; Shan, Chun-Ling; Li, Rui-Heng

    2016-03-01

    The dynamic monitoring of landslides in engineering geology has focused on the correlation among landslide stability, rainwater infiltration, and subsurface hydrogeology. However, the understanding of this complicated correlation is still poor and inadequate. Thus, in this study, we investigated a typical landslide in southwestern China via time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (TLERT) in November 2013 and August 2014. We studied landslide mechanisms based on the spatiotemporal characteristics of surface water infiltration and flow within the landslide body. Combined with borehole data, inverted resistivity models accurately defined the interface between Quaternary sediments and bedrock. Preferential flow pathways attributed to fracture zones and fissures were also delineated. In addition, we found that surface water permeates through these pathways into the slipping mass and drains away as fissure water in the fractured bedrock, probably causing the weakly weathered layer to gradually soften and erode, eventually leading to a landslide. Clearly, TLERT dynamic monitoring can provide precursory information of critical sliding and can be used in landslide stability analysis and prediction.

  20. Time lapse 3D geoelectric measurements for monitoring of in-situ remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tildy, Péter; Neducza, Boriszláv; Nagy, Péter; Kanli, Ali Ismet; Hegymegi, Csaba

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade, different kinds of in-situ methods have been increasingly used for hydrocarbon contamination remediation due to their effectiveness. One of these techniques operates by injection of chemical oxidant solution to remove (degrade) the subsurface contaminants. Our aim was to develop a surface (non-destructive) measurement strategy to monitor oxidative in-situ remediation processes. The difficulties of the presented study originate from the small volume of conductive solution that can be used due to environmental considerations, the effect of conductive groundwater and the high clay content of the targeted layer. Therefore a site specific synthetic modelling was necessary for measurement design involving the results of preliminary 2D ERT measurements, electrical conductivity measurements of different active agents and expected resistivity changes calculated by soil resistivity modelling. The results of soil resistivity modelling have suggested that the reagent have complex effects on contaminated soils because of chemical biodegradation. As a result the plume of resistivity changes caused by the injected agent was determined showing strong fracturing effect because of the high pressure of injection. Based on the sophisticated tests and synthetic modelling 3D time-lapse geo-electric measurements were proven to provide a usable monitoring tool for in-situ remediation to help in-field design of such techniques.

  1. Attentional Lapses of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Tasks of Sustained Attention.

    PubMed

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Walther, Stephan; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen

    2016-06-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show attentional dysfunction such as distractibility and mind-wandering, especially in lengthy tasks. However, fundamentals of dysfunction are ambiguous and relationships of neuropsychological test parameters with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms are marginal. We hypothesize that basic deficits in sustaining attention explain more complex attentional dysfunction in persons with ADHD and relate to ADHD symptoms. Attentional function was analyzed by computing ex-Gaussian parameters for 3 time Blocks in a 20 min test of sustained alertness. Changes in performance across these blocks were analyzed by comparing adult persons with ADHD (n = 24) with healthy matched controls (n = 24) and correlated with neuropsychological measures of selective and divided attention as well as self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. We found a significantly steeper increase in the number of slow responses (ex-Gaussian parameter τ) in persons with ADHD with time on task in basic sustained alertness. They also performed significantly worse in tasks of sustained selective and divided attention. However, after controlling for an increase in τ during the alertness task, significant differences between groups disappeared for divided and partly selective attention. Increases in τ in the sustained alertness task correlated significantly with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. Our results provide evidence that very basic deficits in sustaining attention in adults with ADHD are related to infrequent slow responses (=attentional lapses), with changes over time being relevant for more complex attentional function and experienced ADHD symptoms in everyday life.

  2. Imaging Rainfall Infiltration Processes with the Time-Lapse Electrical Resistivity Imaging Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Gui-Bin; Chen, Chien-chih; Chang, Ping-Yu; Wang, Tzu-Pin; Yen, Horng-Yuan; Dong, Jia-Jyun; Ni, Chuen-Fa; Chen, Su-Chin; Chen, Chao-Wei; Jia, Zheng-yuan

    2016-06-01

    Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) was carried out continuously for 10 days to map the subsurface resistivity distribution along a potentially hazardous hillslope at the Jieshou Junior High School in Taoyuan, Taiwan. The reliability of the inverted resistivity structures down to about 25 m depth was examined with synthetic modeling using the same electrode arrangements installed on land surface as in field surveys, together with a DOI (depth-of-investigation) index calculated from the ERI data. The subsurface resistivity distribution is consistent with results from well logging. These ERI recordings were taken daily and provided highly resolved imagery of the resistivity distribution underground and illustrated the dynamical fluid-flow behavior due to heavy rainfall infiltration. Using Archie's law, the resistivity distribution was transformed into a map of relative water saturation (RWS), which is strongly correlated with the rainfall infiltration process. We then found that the averaged RWS is significantly correlated with daily precipitation. Our observations indicate that time-lapse ERI is effective in monitoring subterraneous rainfall infiltration; moreover, the preferential flow paths can be delineated according to the changes in averaged RWS derived from the ERI data.

  3. Non-rigid estimation of cell motion in calcium time-lapse images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachi, Siham; Lucumi Moreno, Edinson; Desmet, An-Sofie; Vanden Berghe, Pieter; Fleming, Ronan M. T.

    2016-03-01

    Calcium imaging is a widely used technique in neuroscience permitting the simultaneous monitoring of electro- physiological activity of hundreds of neurons at single cell resolution. Identification of neuronal activity requires rapid and reliable image analysis techniques, especially when neurons fire and move simultaneously over time. Traditionally, image segmentation is performed to extract individual neurons in the first frame of a calcium sequence. Thereafter, the mean intensity is calculated from the same region of interest in each frame to infer calcium signals. However, when cells move, deform and fire, this segmentation on its own generates artefacts and therefore biased neuronal activity. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop a more efficient cell tracking technique. We hereby present a novel vision-based cell tracking scheme using a thin-plate spline deformable model. The thin-plate spline warping is based on control points detected using the Fast from Accelerated Segment Test descriptor and tracked using the Lucas-Kanade optical flow. Our method is able to track neurons in calcium time-series, even when there are large changes in intensity, such as during a firing event. The robustness and efficiency of the proposed approach is validated on real calcium time-lapse images of a neuronal population.

  4. Time-Lapse Dynamics of the Mouse Oocyte Chromatin Organisation during Meiotic Resumption

    PubMed Central

    Redi, Carlo Alberto; Zuccotti, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    In the mammalian oocyte, distinct patterns of centromeres and pericentromeric heterochromatin localisation correlate with the gamete's developmental competence. Mouse antral oocytes display two main types of chromatin organisation: SN oocytes, with a ring of Hoechst-positive chromatin surrounding the nucleolus, and NSN oocytes lacking this ring. When matured to MII and fertilised, only SN oocytes develop beyond the 2-cell, and reach full term. To give detailed information on the dynamics of the SN or NSN chromatin during meiosis resumption, we performed a 9 hr time-lapse observation. The main significant differences recorded are: (1) reduction of the nuclear area only in SN oocytes; (2) ~17 min delay of GVBD in NSN oocytes; (3) chromatin condensation, after GVBD, in SN oocytes; (4) formation of 4-5 CHCs in SN oocytes; (5) increase of the perivitelline space, ~57 min later in NSN oocytes; (6) formation of a rosette-like disposition of CHCs, ~84 min later in SN oocytes; (7) appearance of the MI plate ~40 min later in NSN oocytes. Overall, we described a pathway of transition from the GV to the MII stage that is punctuated of discrete recordable events showing their specificity and occurring with different time kinetics in the two types of oocytes. PMID:24864231

  5. Thermal erosion of a permafrost coastline: Improving process-based models using time-lapse photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wobus, C.; Anderson, R.; Overeem, I.; Matell, N.; Clow, G.; Urban, F.

    2011-01-01

    Coastal erosion rates locally exceeding 30 m y-1 have been documented along Alaska's Beaufort Sea coastline, and a number of studies suggest that these erosion rates have accelerated as a result of climate change. However, a lack of direct observational evidence has limited our progress in quantifying the specific processes that connect climate change to coastal erosion rates in the Arctic. In particular, while longer ice-free periods are likely to lead to both warmer surface waters and longer fetch, the relative roles of thermal and mechanical (wave) erosion in driving coastal retreat have not been comprehensively quantified. We focus on a permafrost coastline in the northern National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPR-A), where coastal erosion rates have averaged 10-15 m y-1 over two years of direct monitoring. We take advantage of these extraordinary rates of coastal erosion to observe and quantify coastal erosion directly via time-lapse photography in combination with meteorological observations. Our observations indicate that the erosion of these bluffs is largely thermally driven, but that surface winds play a crucial role in exposing the frozen bluffs to the radiatively warmed seawater that drives melting of interstitial ice. To first order, erosion in this setting can be modeled using formulations developed to describe iceberg deterioration in the open ocean. These simple models provide a conceptual framework for evaluating how climate-induced changes in thermal and wave energy might influence future erosion rates in this setting.

  6. Estimating the onset of time-lapse changes: A robust basis for reservoir monitoring and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasco, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    Time-lapse monitoring is useful for imaging flow related changes in geophysical attributes. However, it can be difficult to relate changes in geophysical observations to changes in saturation and pressure in a reservoir. As an alternative approach for reservoir monitoring and characterization, we introduce the idea of an onset time, the time at which measured quantities, such as seismic travel times or reflection amplitudes, begin to deviate from their background values. We illustrate the idea of an onset time and demonstrate its utility through the consideration of travel times recorded by the Continuous Active Source Seismic Monitoring (CASSM) system at the Frio pilot site near Houston, Texas. The system, which transmits an elastic wave every 15 minutes, is used to monitor the movement of carbon dioxide injected into a permeable sand formation. From these data we can estimate the onset of changes in seismic travel times to six receivers in an adjacent borehole. Numerical simulation and synthetic tests indicate that the onset times are not very sensitive to the method used to compute the effective fluid bulk modulus and, correspondingly, the seismic compressional velocity. Rather, the onset times are strongly influenced by saturation changes within the formation, specifically by the break-through time of the injected fluid phase. By means of an iterative inversion algorithm we use the onset times to estimate permeability variations between the boreholes at the Frio pilot site.

  7. Early events in insulin fibrillization studied by time-lapse atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Podestà, Alessandro; Tiana, Guido; Milani, Paolo; Manno, Mauro

    2006-01-15

    The importance of understanding the mechanism of protein aggregation into insoluble amyloid fibrils lies not only in its medical consequences, but also in its more basic properties of self-organization. The discovery that a large number of uncorrelated proteins can form, under proper conditions, structurally similar fibrils has suggested that the underlying mechanism is a general feature of polypeptide chains. In this work, we address the early events preceding amyloid fibril formation in solutions of zinc-free human insulin incubated at low pH and high temperature. Here, we show by time-lapse atomic force microscopy that a steady-state distribution of protein oligomers with a quasiexponential tail is reached within a few minutes after heating. This metastable phase lasts for a few hours, until fibrillar aggregates are observable. Although for such complex systems different aggregation mechanisms can occur simultaneously, our results indicate that the prefibrillar phase is mainly controlled by a simple coagulation-evaporation kinetic mechanism, in which concentration acts as a critical parameter. These experimental facts, along with the kinetic model used, suggest a critical role for thermal concentration fluctuations in the process of fibril nucleation.

  8. Deciphering the Receptor Repertoire Encoding Specific Odorants by Time-Lapse Single-Cell Array Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masato; Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Shimono, Ken; Kuroda, Shun’ichi

    2016-01-01

    Mammals can recognize a vast number of odorants by using olfactory receptors (ORs) known as G protein-coupled receptors. The OR gene family is one of the most diverse gene families in mammalian genomes. Because of the vast combinations of ORs and odorants, few ORs have thus far been linked to specific odorants. Here, we established a functional screening method for OR genes by using a microchamber array containing >5,400 single olfactory epithelium-derived cells from mice applied to time-lapse single-cell array cytometry. This method facilitated the prompt isolation of single olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) responding to the odorant of interest. Subsequent single-cell RT-PCR allowed us to isolate the genes encoding respective ORs. By using volatile molecules recognized as biomarkers for lung cancers, this method could deorphanize ORs and thereby reconstitute the OR-mediated signaling cascade in HEK293T cells. Thus, our system could be applied to identify any receptor by using specific ligands in the fields of physiopathology and pharmacology. PMID:26832639

  9. Investigating motion blur and temporal aliasing from time-lapse electrical resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rucker, Dale

    2014-12-01

    Geophysical monitoring through time-lapsed resistivity imaging is investigated to determine detrimental effects resulting from temporal smear. Temporal smear can be divided into motion blur and temporal aliasing, with motion blur attributed to an extended sample integration time relative to the velocity of a moving target, thus giving rise to reproduced targets that are distorted versions of the real target shape. Aliasing results from undersampling across time and may give a discontinuous movement. The degree to which each aspect of smear affects target properties described by spatial moment analysis depends on the spatial resolution of the imaging method and the degree to which temporal degradation is applied. For synthetic models with relatively high spatial resolution, aliasing effects were slight except in cases where the minimal number of snapshots was acquired to understand the end state condition of the target. Motion blur, on the other hand, had progressive detrimental effects with each level of additional smearing. For field data acquired during subsurface injection with a lower resolution array, the damaging effects from motion blur and temporal aliasing were equivalent. Both aspects showed progressive degeneration of spatial moments with each level of degradation. To combat this problem in the short term, it is recommended to acquire resistivity data as rapidly as possible and sacrifice some spatial resolution to enhance temporal resolution. In the future, there may be methods adopted from motion photography to deblur target motion by using the point spread function. Aliasing, however, can only be solved through continuous sampling.

  10. Cellular dynamics during early barley pollen embryogenesis revealed by time-lapse imaging

    PubMed Central

    Daghma, Diaa Eldin S.; Hensel, Goetz; Rutten, Twan; Melzer, Michael; Kumlehn, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Plants display a remarkable capacity for cellular totipotency. An intriguing and useful example is that immature pollen cultured in vitro can pass through embryogenic development to form haploid or doubled haploid plants. However, a lack of understanding the initial mechanisms of pollen embryogenesis hampers the improvement and more effective and widespread employment of haploid technology in plant research and breeding. To investigate the cellular dynamics during the onset of pollen embryogenesis, we used time-lapse imaging along with transgenic barley expressing nuclear localized Green Fluorescent Protein. The results enabled us to identify nine distinct embryogenic and non-embryogenic types of pollen response to the culture conditions. Cell proliferation in embryogenic pollen normally started via a first symmetric mitosis (54.3% of pollen observed) and only rarely did so via asymmetric pollen mitosis I (4.3% of pollen observed). In the latter case, proliferation generally originated from the vegetative-like cell, albeit the division of the generative-like cell was observed in few types of pollen. Under the culture conditions used, fusion of cell nuclei was the only mechanism of genome duplication observed. PMID:25538715

  11. Time-lapse characterization of hydrothermal seawater and microbial interactions with basaltic tephra at Surtsey Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, M. D.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Bach, W.; Cappelletti, P.; Coleman, N. J.; Ivarsson, M.; Jónasson, K.; Jørgensen, S. L.; Marteinsson, V.; McPhie, J.; Moore, J. G.; Nielson, D.; Rhodes, J. M.; Rispoli, C.; Schiffman, P.; Stefánsson, A.; Türke, A.; Vanorio, T.; Weisenberger, T. B.; White, J. D. L.; Zierenberg, R.; Zimanowski, B.

    2015-12-01

    A new International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) project will drill through the 50-year-old edifice of Surtsey Volcano, the youngest of the Vestmannaeyjar Islands along the south coast of Iceland, to perform interdisciplinary time-lapse investigations of hydrothermal and microbial interactions with basaltic tephra. The volcano, created in 1963-1967 by submarine and subaerial basaltic eruptions, was first drilled in 1979. In October 2014, a workshop funded by the ICDP convened 24 scientists from 10 countries for 3 and a half days on Heimaey Island to develop scientific objectives, site the drill holes, and organize logistical support. Representatives of the Surtsey Research Society and Environment Agency of Iceland also participated. Scientific themes focus on further determinations of the structure and eruptive processes of the type locality of Surtseyan volcanism, descriptions of changes in fluid geochemistry and microbial colonization of the subterrestrial deposits since drilling 35 years ago, and monitoring the evolution of hydrothermal and biological processes within the tephra deposits far into the future through the installation of a Surtsey subsurface observatory. The tephra deposits provide a geologic analog for developing specialty concretes with pyroclastic rock and evaluating their long-term performance under diverse hydrothermal conditions. Abstracts of research projects are posted at http://surtsey.icdp-online.org.

  12. Promoting Sound Ethical Decisions in the Air Force: CGO Solutions to Air Force Moral and Ethical Lapses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Recent ethical and moral lapses, defined as decisions or actions not in line with the Air Force Core Values, are not isolated occurrences. Rather...that can create a moral dilemma for Airmen. Positive and negative behavioral drivel> detennine the choices of an individual who is faced with such...a dilemma. An organization can also influence the individual’s decision-making through separate negative drivers collectively referred to as moral

  13. Time-lapse three-dimensional inversion of complex conductivity data using an active time constrained (ATC) approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karaoulis, M.; Revil, A.; Werkema, D.D.; Minsley, B.J.; Woodruff, W.F.; Kemna, A.

    2011-01-01

    Induced polarization (more precisely the magnitude and phase of impedance of the subsurface) is measured using a network of electrodes located at the ground surface or in boreholes. This method yields important information related to the distribution of permeability and contaminants in the shallow subsurface. We propose a new time-lapse 3-D modelling and inversion algorithm to image the evolution of complex conductivity over time. We discretize the subsurface using hexahedron cells. Each cell is assigned a complex resistivity or conductivity value. Using the finite-element approach, we model the in-phase and out-of-phase (quadrature) electrical potentials on the 3-D grid, which are then transformed into apparent complex resistivity. Inhomogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions are used at the boundary of the domain. The calculation of the Jacobian matrix is based on the principles of reciprocity. The goal of time-lapse inversion is to determine the change in the complex resistivity of each cell of the spatial grid as a function of time. Each model along the time axis is called a 'reference space model'. This approach can be simplified into an inverse problem looking for the optimum of several reference space models using the approximation that the material properties vary linearly in time between two subsequent reference models. Regularizations in both space domain and time domain reduce inversion artefacts and improve the stability of the inversion problem. In addition, the use of the time-lapse equations allows the simultaneous inversion of data obtained at different times in just one inversion step (4-D inversion). The advantages of this new inversion algorithm are demonstrated on synthetic time-lapse data resulting from the simulation of a salt tracer test in a heterogeneous random material described by an anisotropic semi-variogram. ?? 2011 The Authors Geophysical Journal International ?? 2011 RAS.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of a cookie in comparison with time-lapse photographic analysis (TLPA) during baking process.

    PubMed

    Hong, S W; Yan, Z Y; Otterburn, M S; McCarthy, M J

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has been used to study the baking of a cookie. The structural and dynamic changes occurring during baking have been monitored, including changes in the internal moisture saturations and distribution. The images reveal the moisture distribution is initially uniform, and during baking a gradient in moisture develops from the interior to the edge. Changes in physical dimensions calculated from the data are consistent with those obtained from time-lapsed photography.

  15. A Versatile Time-Lapse Camera System Developed by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory for Use at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orr, Tim R.; Hoblitt, Richard P.

    2008-01-01

    Volcanoes can be difficult to study up close. Because it may be days, weeks, or even years between important events, direct observation is often impractical. In addition, volcanoes are often inaccessible due to their remote location and (or) harsh environmental conditions. An eruption adds another level of complexity to what already may be a difficult and dangerous situation. For these reasons, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) have, for years, built camera systems to act as surrogate eyes. With the recent advances in digital-camera technology, these eyes are rapidly improving. One type of photographic monitoring involves the use of near-real-time network-enabled cameras installed at permanent sites (Hoblitt and others, in press). Time-lapse camera-systems, on the other hand, provide an inexpensive, easily transportable monitoring option that offers more versatility in site location. While time-lapse systems lack near-real-time capability, they provide higher image resolution and can be rapidly deployed in areas where the use of sophisticated telemetry required by the networked cameras systems is not practical. This report describes the latest generation (as of 2008) time-lapse camera system used by HVO for photograph acquisition in remote and hazardous sites on Kilauea Volcano.

  16. puffMarker: A Multi-Sensor Approach for Pinpointing the Timing of First Lapse in Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Saleheen, Nazir; Ali, Amin Ahsan; Hossain, Syed Monowar; Sarker, Hillol; Chatterjee, Soujanya; Marlin, Benjamin; Ertin, Emre; al’Absi, Mustafa; Kumar, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Recent researches have demonstrated the feasibility of detecting smoking from wearable sensors, but their performance on real-life smoking lapse detection is unknown. In this paper, we propose a new model and evaluate its performance on 61 newly abstinent smokers for detecting a first lapse. We use two wearable sensors — breathing pattern from respiration and arm movements from 6-axis inertial sensors worn on wrists. In 10-fold cross-validation on 40 hours of training data from 6 daily smokers, our model achieves a recall rate of 96.9%, for a false positive rate of 1.1%. When our model is applied to 3 days of post-quit data from 32 lapsers, it correctly pinpoints the timing of first lapse in 28 participants. Only 2 false episodes are detected on 20 abstinent days of these participants. When tested on 84 abstinent days from 28 abstainers, the false episode per day is limited to 1/6. PMID:26543927

  17. Exploring the use patterns of a mobile health application for alcohol addiction before the initial lapse after detoxification.

    PubMed

    Chih, Ming-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    How patients used Addiction-Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System (A-CHESS)1, a mobile health intervention, while quitting drinking is worthy exploring. This study is to explore A-CHESS use patterns prior to the initial lapse reported after discharge from inpatient detoxification programs. 142 patients with alcohol addiction from two treatment agencies in the U.S. were included. A comprehensive set of A-CHESS use measures were developed based on a three-level system use framework and three A-CHESS service categories. In latent profile analyses, three A-CHESS system use patterns-inactive, passive, and active users-were found. Compared to the passive users (with the highest chance of the initial lapse), the active users (with the lowest chance of such behavior) participated more in online social activities, used more sessions, viewed more pages, and used A-CHESS longer. However, the chances of the initial lapse between A-CHESS user profiles were not statistically different. Implications of this finding were provided.

  18. Enhanced imaging of CO2 at the Ketzin storage site: Inversion of 3D time-lapse seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, M.; Götz, J.; Ivanova, A.; Juhlin, C.; Krawczyk, C. M.; Lüth, S.; Yang, C.

    2012-04-01

    The Ketzin test site, located near Berlin, is Europe's longest-operating on-shore CO2 storage site. As of December 2011, more than 56,000 tons of food grade CO2 has been injected since June 2008 in an anticlinal structure of the Northeast German Basin. The target reservoir consists of porous, brine bearing sandstone units of the Upper Triassic Stuttgart Formation at approximately 630 to 650 m depth. In order to enhance the understanding of the structural geometry of the site and to investigate the extension of the CO2-plume, several geophysical monitoring methods are being applied at Ketzin, among these are active seismic measurements, geoelectrics and borehole measurements. Among the various seismic techniques (e.g. 2D reflection surveys, crosshole tomography, Vertical Seismic Profiling, 2D- and 3D-Moving Source Profiling) employed at this pilot site, 3D time-lapse reflection surveys are an important component. The baseline 3D survey was acquired in 2005 and the first repeat measurements were performed in 2009 after injection of about 22,000 tons of CO2. The second repeat survey is planned to be carried out in fall 2012. These measurements allow the time-lapse signature of the injected CO2 to be imaged. The time-lapse amplitude variation attributed to the injected CO2 in the reservoir matches, considering detection limits of seismic surface measurements, the expected distribution of the CO2 plume derived from reservoir simulations. Previous attempts towards a quantitative interpretation were based on integrative considerations of different types of geophysical measurements using strict assumptions and characterized by large error bars. In order to increase the resolution and reliability of the data and to improve estimation of rock properties and especially to enhance the imaging resolution of the CO2-plume, the time-lapse 3D seismic data have now been inverted for seismic impedances with different methods, which is the focus of this presentation. One difficulty

  19. Uncertainties in rock pore compressibility and effects on time lapse seismic modeling - An application to Norne field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suman, A.; Mukerji, T.

    2009-12-01

    Time lapse seismic has evolved as an important diagnostic tool in efficient reservoir characterization and monitoring. A typical step is modeling of seismic velocities, which can provide information on variation of pore pressure and saturation inside the reservoir. Using the data of Norne field, we have made a rock physics model and shown how uncertainties in rock pore compressibility (Cpp) can cause pitfalls in modeling of seismic velocities and associated time lapse seismic signatures. We derived pore compressibilities from well logs and used different pore compressibility for different zones. We start with the rock physics modeling of Norne field based on the well log data. We then present examples of sensitivity analyses on rock pore compressibility using flow simulation and velocity modeling based on the Norne field dataset. The Norne field is located in the southern part of the Nordland II area in the Norwegian Sea. It has 29 producer and 10 injector wells. The rocks within the Norne reservoir are of Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic age. The geological model consists of five reservoir zones. They are Garn, Not, Ile, Tofte and Tilje. Well logs of nine different wells have been considered for this study. These logs consist of porosity, volume of shale, saturations, sonic log and density. Well log data are analyzed for relationships among Vp, Vs, porosity, density and lithology. The basis of our approach is to relate elastic moduli and porosity near the well (based on the well log data) and use this relation to populate away from the well. Dvorkin’s unconsolidated sand model is used which relates the elastic moduli of high porosity sediments to porosity, mineralogy and effective pressure. Hertz-Mindlin contact theory is used to calculate the effective bulk and shear moduli of the rock frame at the critical porosity. Bulk and shear moduli of the rock frame having porosity below critical are calculated using the modified lower Hashin-Shtrikman bound. There are

  20. Overland flow dynamics through visual observation using time-lapse photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silasari, Rasmiaditya; Blöschl, Günter

    2016-04-01

    Overland flow process on agricultural land is important to be investigated as it affects the stream discharge and water quality assessment. During rainfall events the formation of overland flow may happen through different processes (i.e. Hortonian or saturation excess overland flow) based on the governing soil hydraulic parameters (i.e. soil infiltration rate, soil water capacity). The dynamics of the soil water state and the processes will affect the surface runoff response which can be analyzed visually by observing the saturation patterns with a camera. Although visual observation was proven useful in laboratory experiments, the technique is not yet assessed for natural rainfall events. The aim of this work is to explore the use of time-lapse photographs of naturally occurring-saturation patterns in understanding the threshold processes of overland flow generation. The image processing produces orthographic projection of the saturation patterns which will be used to assess the dynamics of overland flow formation in relation with soil moisture state and rainfall magnitude. The camera observation was performed at Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) catchment at Petzenkirchen, Lower Austria. The catchment covers an area of 66 ha dominated with agricultural land (87%). The mean annual precipitation and mean annual flow at catchment outlet are 750 mm and 4 l/s, respectively. The camera was set to observe the overland flow along a thalweg on an arable field which was drained in 1950s and has advantages of: (1) representing agricultural land as the dominant part of the catchment, (2) adjacent to the stream with clear visibility (no obstructing objects, such as trees), (3) drained area provides extra cases in understanding the response of tile drain outflow to overland flow formation and vice versa, and (4) in the vicinity of TDT soil moisture stations. The camera takes a picture with 1280 x 720 pixels resolution every minute and sends it directly in a PC via fiber

  1. Oil Sands Characteristics and Time-Lapse and P-SV Seismic Steam Monitoring, Athabasca, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, A.; Nakayama, T.; Kashihara, K.; Skinner, L.; Kato, A.

    2008-12-01

    -injection. The differences of the seismic responses between the time-lapse seismic volumes can be quantitatively explained by P-wave velocity decrease of the oil sands layers due to steam-injection. In addition, the data suggests that a larger area would be influenced by pressure than temperature. We calculate several seismic attributes such as RMS values of amplitude difference, maximum cross correlations, and interval velocity differences. These attributes are integrated by using self-organization maps (SOM) and K-means methods. By this analysis, we are able to distinguish areas of steam chamber growth from transitional and non-affected areas. In addition, 3D P-SV converted-wave processing and analysis are applied on the second 3D data set (recorded with three-component digital sensor). Low Vp/Vs values in the P-SV volume show areas of steam chamber development, and high Vp/Vs values indicate transitional zones. Our analysis of both time-lapse 3D seismic and 3D P-SV data along with the rock physics model can be used to monitor qualitatively and quantitatively the rock property changes of the inter-well reservoir sands in the field.

  2. Time-Lapse Retinal Ganglion Cell Dendritic Field Degeneration Imaged in Organotypic Retinal Explant Culture

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Thomas V.; Oglesby, Ericka N.; Steinhart, Matthew R.; Cone-Kimball, Elizabeth; Jefferys, Joan; Quigley, Harry A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop an ex vivo organotypic retinal explant culture system suitable for multiple time-point imaging of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) dendritic arbors over a period of 1 week, and capable of detecting dendrite neuroprotection conferred by experimental treatments. Methods Thy1-YFP mouse retinas were explanted and maintained in organotypic culture. Retinal ganglion cell dendritic arbors were imaged repeatedly using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Maximal projection z-stacks were traced by two masked investigators and dendritic fields were analyzed for characteristics including branch number, size, and complexity. One group of explants was treated with brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) added to the culture media. Changes in individual dendritic fields over time were detected using pair-wise comparison testing. Results Retinal ganglion cells in mouse retinal explant culture began to degenerate after 3 days with 52.4% surviving at 7 days. Dendritic field parameters showed minimal change over 8 hours in culture. Intra- and interobserver measurements of dendrite characteristics were strongly correlated (Spearman rank correlations consistently > 0.80). Statistically significant (P < 0.001) dendritic tree degeneration was detected following 7 days in culture including: 40% to 50% decreases in number of branch segments, number of junctions, number of terminal branches, and total branch length. Scholl analyses similarly demonstrated a significant decrease in dendritic field complexity. Treatment of explants with BDNF+CNTF significantly attenuated dendritic field degeneration. Conclusions Retinal explant culture of Thy1-YFP tissue provides a useful model for time-lapse imaging of RGC dendritic field degeneration over a course of several days, and is capable of detecting neuroprotective amelioration of dendritic pruning within individual RGCs. PMID:26811145

  3. The altitudinal temperature lapse rates applied to high elevation rockfalls studies in the Western European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigrelli, Guido; Fratianni, Simona; Zampollo, Arianna; Turconi, Laura; Chiarle, Marta

    2017-02-01

    Temperature is one of the most important aspects of mountain climates. The relationships between air temperature and rockfalls at high-elevation sites are very important to know, but are also very difficult to study. In relation to this, a reliable method to estimate air temperatures at high-elevation sites is to apply the altitudinal temperature lapse rates (ATLR). The aims of this work are to quantify the values and the variability of the hourly ATLR and to apply this to estimated temperatures at high-elevation sites for rockfalls studies. To calculate ATLR prior the rockfalls, we used data acquired from two automatic weather stations that are located at an elevation above 2500 m. The sensors/instruments of these two stations are reliable because subjected to an accurate control and calibration once for year and the raw data have passed two automatic quality controls. Our study has yielded the following main results: (i) hourly ATLR increases slightly with increasing altitude, (ii) it is possible to estimate temperature at high-elevation sites with a good level of accuracy using ATLR, and (iii) temperature plays an important role on slope failures that occur at high-elevation sites and its importance is much more evident if the values oscillate around 0 °C with an amplitude of ±5 °C during the previous time-period. For these studies, it is not enough to improve the knowledge on air temperature, but it is necessary to develop an integrated knowledge of the thermal conditions of different materials involved in these processes (rock, debris, ice, water). Moreover, this integrated knowledge must be acquired by means of sensors and acquisition chains with known metrological traceability and uncertainty of measurements.

  4. Time Lapse Storey Building Early Monitoring Based on Rapid Seismic Response Analysis in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julius, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Within the last decade, advances in the acquisition, processing and transmission of data from seismic monitoring has contributed to the growth in the number structures instrumented with such systems. An equally important factor for such growth can be attributed to the demands by stakeholders to find rapid answers to important questions related to the functionality or state of "health" of structures during and immediately of a seismic events. Consequently, this study aims to monitor the storey building based on seismic response i. e. earthquake and tremor analysis at short time lapse using accelerographs data. This study used one of storey building (X) in Jakarta city that suffered the effects of Kebumen earthquake January 25th 2014, Pandeglang earthquake July 9th 2014, and Lebak earthquake November 8th 2014. Tremors used in this study are tremors after the three following earthquakes. Data processing used to determine peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV), peak ground displacement (PGD), spectral acceleration (SA), spectral velocity (SV), spectral displacement (SD), A/V ratio, acceleration amplification and effective duration (te). Then determine the natural frequency (f0) and peak of H/V ratio using H/V ratio method. The earthquakes data processing result shows the value of peak ground motion, spectrum response, A/V ratio and acceleration amplification increases with height, while the value of the effective duration decreases. Then, tremors data processing result one month after each earthquakes shows the natural frequency of building in constant value. Increasing of peak ground motion, spectrum response, A/V ratio, acceleration amplification, then decrease of effective duration following the increase of building floors shows that the building construction supports the increasing of shaking and strongly influenced by local site effect. The constant value of building natural frequency shows the building still in good performance. This

  5. Time Lapse Gravity and Seismic Monitoring of CO2 Injection at the West Hastings Field, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, J. F.; Richards, T.; Klopping, F.; MacQueen, J.; Hosseini, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Time lapse or 4D gravity and seismic reflection surveys are being conducted at the West Hastings Field near Houston, Texas to monitor the progress of CO2 injection. This Department of Energy supported CO2 sequestration experiment is conducted in conjunction with a Denbury Onshore, LLC tertiary recovery project. The reservoir is at a depth of 1.8 km in the Oligocene Frio sands and has been produced since the 1930s. Goals are an accounting and mapping of the injected CO2 and to determine if migration occurs along intra-reservoir faults. An integrated interpretation of the geophysical surveys will be made together with well logs and engineering data. Gravity monitoring of water versus gas replacement has been very successful, but liquid phase CO2 monitoring is problematic due to the smaller density contrast with respect to oil and water. This reservoir has a small volume to depth ratio and hence only a small gravity difference signal is expected on the surface. New borehole gravity technology introduced by Micro-g-Lacoste can make gravity measurements at near reservoir depths with a much higher signal to noise ratio. This method has been successfully evaluated on a simulation of the Hastings project. Field operations have been conducted for repeated surface and borehole gravity surveys beginning in 2013. The surface survey of 95 stations covers an area of 3 by 5 km and 22 borehole gravity logs are run in the interval above the Frio formation. 4D seismic reflection surveys are being made at 6 month intervals on the surface and in 3 VSP wells. CO2 injection into the targeted portion of the reservoir only began in early 2015 and monitoring will continue into 2017. To date only the baseline reservoir conditions have been assessed. The overall success of the gravity monitoring will not be determined until 2017.

  6. A Local Index of Cloud Immersion in Tropical Forests Using Time-Lapse Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassiouni, M.; Scholl, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Data on the frequency, duration and elevation of cloud immersion is essential to improve estimates of cloud water deposition in water budgets in cloud forests. Here, we present a methodology to detect local cloud immersion in remote tropical forests using time-lapse photography. A simple approach is developed to detect cloudy conditions in photographs within the canopy where image depth during clear conditions may be less than 10 meters and moving leaves and branches and changes in lighting are unpredictable. A primary innovation of this study is that cloudiness is determined from images without using a reference clear image and without minimal threshold value determination or human judgment for calibration. Five sites ranging from 600 to 1000 meters elevation along a ridge in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, Puerto Rico were each equipped with a trail camera programmed to take an image every 30 minutes since March 2014. Images were classified using four selected cloud-sensitive image characteristics (SCICs) computed for small image regions: contrast, the coefficient of variation and the entropy of the luminance of each image pixel, and image colorfulness. K-means clustering provided reasonable results to discriminate cloudy from clear conditions. Preliminary results indicate that 79-94% (daytime) and 85-93% (nighttime) of validation images were classified accurately at one open and two closed canopy sites. The euclidian distances between SCICs vectors of images during cloudy conditions and the SCICs vector of the centroid of the cluster of clear images show potential to quantify cloud density in addition to immersion. The classification method will be applied to determine spatial and temporal patterns of cloud immersion in the study area. The presented approach offers promising applications to increase observations of low-lying clouds at remote mountain sites where standard instruments to measure visibility and cloud base may not be practical.

  7. Microfluidics-integrated time-lapse imaging for analysis of cellular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Dirk R; Underhill, Gregory H; Resnikoff, Joshua; Mendelson, Avital; Bhatia, Sangeeta N; Shah, Jagesh V

    2010-06-01

    An understanding of the mechanisms regulating cellular responses has recently been augmented by innovations enabling the observation of phenotypes at high spatio-temporal resolution. Technologies such as microfluidics have sought to expand the throughput of these methods, although assimilation with advanced imaging strategies has been limited. Here, we describe the pairing of high resolution time-lapse imaging with microfluidic multiplexing for the analysis of cellular dynamics, utilizing a design selected for facile fabrication and operation, and integration with microscopy instrumentation. This modular, medium-throughput platform enables the long-term imaging of living cells at high numerical aperture (via oil immersion) by using a conserved 96-well, approximately 6 x 5 mm(2) imaging area with a variable input/output channel design chosen for the number of cell types and microenvironments under investigation. In the validation of this system, we examined fundamental features of cell cycle progression, including mitotic kinetics and spindle orientation dynamics, through the high-resolution parallel analysis of model cell lines subjected to anti-mitotic agents. We additionally explored the self-renewal kinetics of mouse embryonic stem cells, and demonstrate the ability to dynamically assess and manipulate stem cell proliferation, detect rare cell events, and measure extended time-scale correlations. We achieved an experimental throughput of >900 cells/experiment, each observed at >40x magnification for up to 120 h. Overall, these studies illustrate the capacity to probe cellular functions and yield dynamic information in time and space through the integration of a simple, modular, microfluidics-based imaging platform.

  8. Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Altitudinal Lapse Rate of Temperature in Mainland China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhao, L.; Piao, S.

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative evaluation of how mountain ecosystems respond to climate change requires accurate estimates of temperature at high altitudes. One approach to estimating highland temperature is by extrapolating temperatures from low altitudes, based on previous observations of the actual altitudinal lapse rate of temperature (γlocal). However, our understanding of γlocal is still very limited. Here, we use daily mean, maximum and minimum temperature (Tmean, Tmax, Tmin) data from 523 meteorological stations in mainland China to estimate the spatiotemporal patterns of γlocal. The mean γlocal across the whole country is 5.4 K km-1, with a daytime average of 5.0 K km-1 and a nighttime average of 5.6 K km-1. The patterns of γlocal for Tmean (γlocal(Tmean)) display: 1) a significant spatial difference between southern China and northern China (including the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, p<0.05); 2) a distinct seasonal variation, with higher γlocal occurring in summer and lower occurring in winter in most regions. Interestingly, the seasonal variation for the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is reversed, with γlocal being lower in summer and higher in winter. In addition, the spatial difference and seasonal variation of γlocal for Tmax and Tmin (γlocal(Tmax) and γlocal(T­min)) show similar patterns to γlocal(Tmean), but slightly diverge from each other. Our results demonstrate that the magnitude of γlocal obviously differs in regional distributions and seasonal variations, and may be a result of the interactions among temperature, atmospheric moisture content and solar radiation. To improve the accuracy of the extrapolation method requires spatial patterns of γlocal rather than just a constant universal value.

  9. Using electromagnetic conductivity imaging to generate time-lapse soil moisture estimates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jingyi; Scuderio, Elia; Corwin, Dennis; Triantafilis, John

    2015-04-01

    Irrigated agriculture is crucial to the agricultural productivity of the Moreno valley. To maintain profitability, more will need to be done by irrigators with less water, owing to competing demands from rapidly expanding urbanisation in southern California. In this regard, irrigators need to understand the spatial and temporal variation of soil moisture to discern inefficiencies. However, soil moisture is difficult to measure and monitor, unless a large bank of soil sensors are installed and at various depths in the profile. In order to value add to the limited amount of information, geophysical techniques, such as direct current resisivity (DCR) arrays are used to develop electrical resistivity images (ERI). Whilst successful the approach is time consuming and labour intensive. In this research we describe how equivalent data can be collected using a proximal sensing electromagnetic (EM) induction instrument (i.e. DUALEM-421) and inversion software (EM4Soil) to generate EM conductivity images (EMCI). Figure 1 shows the EMCI generated from DUALEM-421 data acquired at various days of a time-lapse experiment and including; day a) 0, b) 1, c) 2, d) 3, e) 5, f) 7 and g) 11. We calibrate the estimates of true electrical conductivity (sigma - mS/m) with volumetric moisture content and show with good accuracy the spatial and temporal variation of soil moisture status and over 12 day period. The results show clearly that the pivot sprinkler irrigation system is effective at providing sufficient amounts of water to the top 0.5 m of a Lucerne crop (i.e. red shaded areas of high sigma). However, in some places faulty sprinklers are evident owing to the lack of wetting (i.e. blue shaded areas of low sigma). In addition, and over time, our approach shows clearly the effect the Lucerne crop has in drying the soil profile and using the soil moisture.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF LEAKS USING TIME LAPSED LONG ELECTRODE ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    MYERS DA; RUCKER DF; FINK JB; LOKE MH

    2009-12-16

    Highly industrialized areas pose challenges for surface electrical resistivity characterization due to metallic infrastructure. The infrastructure is typically more conductive than the desired targets and will mask the deeper subsurface information. These challenges may be minimized if steel-cased wells are used as long electrodes in the area near the target. We demonstrate a method of using long electrodes to electrically monitor a simulated leak from an underground storage tank with both synthetic examples and a field demonstration. The synthetic examples place a simple target of varying electrical properties beneath a very low resistivity layer. The layer is meant to replicate the effects of infrastructure. Both surface and long electrodes are tested on the synthetic domain. The leak demonstration for the field experiment is simulated by injecting a high conductivity fluid in a perforated well within the S tank farm at Hanford, and the resistivity measurements are made before and after the leak test. All data are processed in four dimensions, where a regularization procedure is applied in both the time and space domains. The synthetic test case shows that the long electrode ERM could detect relative changes in resistivity that are commensurate with the differing target properties. The surface electrodes, on the other hand, had a more difficult time matching the original target's footprint. The field results shows a lowered resistivity feature develop south of the injection site after cessation of the injections. The time lapsed regularization parameter has a strong influence on the differences in inverted resistivity between the pre and post injection datasets, but the interpretation of the target is consistent across all values of the parameter. The long electrode ERM method may provide a tool for near real-time monitoring of leaking underground storage tanks.

  11. Public health response to a large-scale endoscopy infection control lapse in a nonhospital clinic

    PubMed Central

    Willmore, Jacqueline; Ellis, Edward; Etches, Vera; Labrecque, Lise; Osiowy, Carla; Andonov, Anton; McDermaid, Cameron; Majury, Anna; Achonu, Camille; Maher, Maurica; MacLean, Brenda; Levy, Isra

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether transmission of blood-borne pathogens (BBPs) (hepatitis B virus [HBV], hepatitis C virus [HCV] and HIV) occurred as a result of endoscopy reprocessing failures identified during an inspection of a nonhospital endoscopy clinic in 2011. METHODS: The present analysis was a retrospective cohort study. Registered notification letters were mailed to 6992 patients who underwent endoscopy from 2002 to 2011 at one Canadian nonhospital endoscopy clinic, informing them of the infection control lapse and offering BBP testing. Multimedia communications and a telephone line supplemented notification. A retrospective study of patients with BBPs was performed with viral genetic testing and risk factor assessment for eligible patients. Risk for infection among patients whose procedure was within seven days of a known positive patient was compared with those whose procedure was performed more than seven days after a known postive patient. The seven-day period was selected as the period most likely to present a risk for transmission based on the documented cleaning procedures at the clinic and the available literature on virus survival. RESULTS: Ninety-five percent (6628 of 6992) of patients/estates were contacted and 5042 of 6728 (75%) living patients completed BBP testing. Three were newly diagnosed with HBV and 14 with HCV. Twenty-three and 48 tested positive for previously known HBV or HCV, respectively, 367 were immune to HBV due to natural infection and one was immune to HBV due to immunization. None tested positive for HIV. Sequencing did not reveal any relationships among the 46 unique case patients with viral genetic test results available. Ninety-three percent of patients reported alternative risk factors for BBP. An increased risk for infection among those who underwent a procedure within seven days of a known HBV or HCV case was not demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopy reprocessing failures were not associated with an increased risk for BBP

  12. A microfluidic system for long-term time-lapse microscopy studies of mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Golchin, Solmaz A; Stratford, James; Curry, Richard J; McFadden, Johnjoe

    2012-11-01

    Phenotypic heterogeneity in bacterial populations is thought to contribute to a number of important phenomena including sporulation and persistence. The latter has clinical implications in many diseases such as tuberculosis, where persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within the human host is believed to be the root cause of latent tuberculosis and the ability of a minority population of cells to survive antibiotic exposure, despite being genetically identical to the bulk population that are killed. However, phenotypic variations caused by non-genetic mechanisms are difficult to study because of the transient nature of the persistent state and thereby the requirement to observe individual cells in real-time. Recently, microfluidics, combined with time-lapse microscopy, has become a powerful tool for studying population heterogeneity in bacteria. However, growth and replication of mycobacterial cells provide particular problems for the development of microfluidic systems due to their tendency to grow in three dimensions. We here describe a novel microfluidic device for the observation of growth and antibiotic killing in individual mycobacterial cells. We constructed a microfluidic device suitable for studying single cell behavior in mycobacteria. The growth of single cells of Mycobacterium smegmatis expressing green fluorescent protein was monitored using a confocal laser scanning microscope. Within the device M. smegmatis cells were tightly confined within a hydrogel matrix thus promoting planar growth. Cell growth and killing was observed in the device with dead cells highlighted by uptake of propidium iodide. Conclusions/Significance. We demonstrate that our device allows real-time analysis and long-term culture of single cells of mycobacteria, and is able to support the study of cell death during the application of antibiotics. The device will allow observation of individual cells' cell genealogy to be determined and direct observation of rare states, such

  13. Assessing spatial and temporal snowpack evolution and melt with time-lapse photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, C. E.; Ewers, B. E.; Beverly, D.; Speckman, H. N.; Hyde, K.; Ohara, N.

    2015-12-01

    Snowpack supplies and stores water for many ecosystems of the greater Rocky Mountain region. In Wyoming the snowpack supplies water to 18 states east and west of the Continental Divide. The spatial variability in physical and biological processes creates a heterogeneous pattern of snow evolution. Understanding these processes within individual plots and throughout the entire watershed increases the predictive power of snow distribution, melt rates and contribution to streamflow. However, on site sampling of snow can be an expensive and arduous process. The objective of this experiment was to quantify spatial and temporal patterns of snowpack evolution and melt rates while minimizing perturbations to snowpack through the use of time-lapse photography via trail cameras. Field cameras were assessed as a method to quantify snow depths throughout the 120 ha No Name watershed at approximately 3000 m elevation in central Wyoming. RGB trail cameras were installed at three systematically chosen sites within the watershed to correlate physical and biological drivers of snow distribution. Five stakes were placed in each site in heterogeneous spots that remained in the frame of the camera. Stakes were divided into five centimeter increments, alternating black and white bars, with red bars denoting each half meter. Images were then taken at two-hour intervals over a period of three-months and analyzed with the ImageJ program. Snowpack distributions, as well as melt rates, were variable at both the plot and watershed scales. Meteorological and physical drivers, primarily topography and radiation, accounted for the greatest variability when comparing among plot across the watershed; however, LAI and soil and air temperature were the most significant drivers within plots. Snow-melt rate increased as soils and course woody debris became exposed increasing ground and soil temperature. These data will improve process model predictions of streamflow from the watershed.

  14. Sensitivity of the atmospheric lapse rate to solar cloud absorption in a radiative-convective model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlick, Carynelisa; Ramaswamy, V.

    2003-08-01

    Previous radiative-convective model studies of the radiative forcing due to absorbing aerosols such as soot and dust have revealed a strong dependence on the vertical distribution of the absorbers. In this study, we extend this concept to absorption in cloud layers, using a one-dimensional radiative-convective model employing high, middle, and low cloud representations to investigate the response of the surface temperature and atmospheric lapse rate to increases in visible cloud absorption. The visible single-scattering albedo (ssa) of the clouds is prescribed, ranging from 1.0 to 0.6, where 0.99 is the minimum that would be expected from the presence of absorbing aerosols within the cloud drops on the basis of recent Monterey Area Ship Track (MAST) Experiment case studies. Simulations are performed with respect to both a constant cloud optical depth and an increasing cloud optical depth and as a function of cloud height. We find that increases in solar cloud absorption tend to warm the troposphere and surface and stabilize the atmosphere, while increases in cloud optical depth cool the troposphere and surface and slightly stabilize the atmosphere between the low cloud top and surface because of the increase in surface cooling. In the absence of considerations involving microphysical or cloud-climate feedbacks, we find that two conditions are required to yield an inversion from a solar cloud absorption perturbation: (1) The solar absorption perturbation must be included throughout the tropospheric clouds column, distributing the solar heating to higher altitudes, and (2) the ssa of the clouds must be ≤0.6, which is an unrealistically low value. The implication is that there is very little possibility of significant stabilization of the global mean atmosphere due to perturbation of cloud properties given current ssa values.

  15. Time-lapse 3-D seismic imaging of shallow subsurface contaminant flow.

    PubMed

    McKenna, J; Sherlock, D; Evans, B

    2001-12-01

    This paper presents a physical modelling study outlining a technique whereby buoyant contaminant flow within water-saturated unconsolidated sand was remotely monitored utilizing the time-lapse 3-D (TL3-D) seismic response. The controlled temperature and pressure conditions, along with the high level of acquisition repeatability attainable using sandbox physical models, allow the TL3-D seismic response to pore fluid movement to be distinguished from all other effects. TL3-D seismic techniques are currently being developed to monitor hydrocarbon reserves within producing reservoirs in an endeavour to improve overall recovery. However, in many ways, sandbox models under atmospheric conditions more accurately simulate the shallow subsurface than petroleum reservoirs. For this reason, perhaps the greatest application for analogue sandbox modelling is to improve our understanding of shallow groundwater and environmental flow mechanisms. Two fluid flow simulations were conducted whereby air and kerosene were injected into separate water-saturated unconsolidated sand models. In both experiments, a base 3-D seismic volume was recorded and compared with six later monitor surveys recorded while the injection program was conducted. Normal incidence amplitude and P-wave velocity information were extracted from the TL3-D seismic data to provide visualization of contaminant migration. Reflection amplitudes displayed qualitative areal distribution of fluids when a suitable impedance contrast existed between pore fluids. TL3-D seismic reflection tomography can potentially monitor the change in areal distribution of fluid contaminants over time, indicating flow patterns. However, other research and this current work have not established a quantifiable relationship between either normal reflection amplitudes and attenuation and fluid saturation. Generally, different pore fluids will have unique seismic velocities due to differences in compressibility and density. The predictable

  16. Variogram-based inversion of time-lapse electrical resistivity data: development and application to a thermal tracing experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermans, Thomas; Nguyen, Frédéric

    2015-04-01

    Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) has become a popular imaging methodology in a broad range of applications given its large sensitivity to subsurface parameters and its relative simplicity to implement. More particularly, time-lapse ERT is now increasingly used for monitoring purposes in many contexts such as water content, permafrost, landslide, seawater intrusion, solute transport or heat transport experiments. Specific inversion schemes have been developed for time-lapse data sets. However, in contrast with static inversions for which many techniques including geostatistical, minimum support or structural inversion are commonly applied, most of the methodologies for time-lapse inversion still rely on non-physically based spatial and/or temporal smoothing of the parameters or parameter changes. In this work, we propose a time-lapse ERT inversion scheme based on the difference inversion scheme. We replace the standard smoothness-constraint regularization operator by the parameter change covariance matrix. The objective function can be expressed as ψdiff(Δm ) = ||Wd [d - d0 + f(m0)- f(m )]||2 + λ ||||C-Δ0m.5Δm ||||2 where Wd is the data weighting matrix, d and d0 are the data sets corresponding to the considered time-step and to the background, f() is the forward operator, m and m0 are the models corresponding to the considered time-step and to the background, Δm is the parameter change (resistivity), CΔm is the parameter change covariance matrix and λ the regularization parameter. This operator takes into account the correlation between changes in resistivity at different locations through a variogram computed using independent data (e.g., electromagnetic logs). It may vary for subsequent time-steps if the correlation length is time-dependent. The methodology is first validated and compared to the standard smoothness-constraint inversion using a synthetic benchmark simulating the injection of a conductive tracer into a homogeneous aquifer inducing

  17. Near real-time imaging of molasses injections using time-lapse electrical geophysics at the Brandywine DRMO, Brandywine, Maryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versteeg, R. J.; Johnson, T.; Major, B.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Lane, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Enhanced bioremediation, which involves introduction of amendments to promote biodegradation, increasingly is used to accelerate cleanup of recalcitrant compounds and has been identified as the preferred remedial treatment at many contaminated sites. Although blind introduction of amendments can lead to sub-optimal or ineffective remediation, the distribution of amendment throughout the treatment zone is difficult to measure using conventional sampling. Because amendments and their degradation products commonly have electrical properties that differ from those of ambient soil, time-lapse electrical geophysical monitoring has the potential to verify amendment emplacement and distribution. In order for geophysical monitoring to be useful, however, results of the injection ideally should be accessible in near real time. In August 2010, we demonstrated the feasibility of near real-time, autonomous electrical geophysical monitoring of amendment injections at the former Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office (DRMO) in Brandywine, Maryland. Two injections of about 1000 gallons each of molasses, a widely used amendment for enhanced bioremediation, were monitored using measurements taken with borehole and surface electrodes. During the injections, multi-channel resistance data were recorded; data were transmitted to a server and processed using a parallel resistivity inversion code; and results in the form of time-lapse imagery subsequently were posted to a website. This process occurred automatically without human intervention. The resulting time-lapse imagery clearly showed the evolution of the molasses plume. The delay between measurements and online delivery of images was between 45 and 60 minutes, thus providing actionable information that could support decisions about field procedures and a check on whether amendment reached target zones. This experiment demonstrates the feasibility of using electrical imaging as a monitoring tool both during amendment emplacement

  18. Analysis of Zebrafish Kidney Development with Time-lapse Imaging Using a Dissecting Microscope Equipped for Optical Sectioning

    PubMed Central

    Perner, Birgit; Schnerwitzki, Danny; Graf, Michael; Englert, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand organogenesis, the spatial and temporal alterations that occur during development of tissues need to be recorded. The method described here allows time-lapse analysis of normal and impaired kidney development in zebrafish embryos by using a fluorescence dissecting microscope equipped for structured illumination and z-stack acquisition. To visualize nephrogenesis, transgenic zebrafish (Tg(wt1b:GFP)) with fluorescently labeled kidney structures were used. Renal defects were triggered by injection of an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide against the Wilms tumor gene wt1a, a factor known to be crucial for kidney development. The advantage of the experimental setup is the combination of a zoom microscope with simple strategies for re-adjusting movements in x, y or z direction without additional equipment. To circumvent focal drift that is induced by temperature variations and mechanical vibrations, an autofocus strategy was applied instead of utilizing a usually required environmental chamber. In order to re-adjust the positional changes due to a xy-drift, imaging chambers with imprinted relocation grids were employed. In comparison to more complex setups for time-lapse recording with optical sectioning such as confocal laser scanning or light sheet microscopes, a zoom microscope is easy to handle. Besides, it offers dissecting microscope-specific benefits such as high depth of field and an extended working distance. The method to study organogenesis presented here can also be used with fluorescence stereo microscopes not capable of optical sectioning. Although limited for high-throughput, this technique offers an alternative to more complex equipment that is normally used for time-lapse recording of developing tissues and organ dynamics. PMID:27078207

  19. Analysis of Zebrafish Kidney Development with Time-lapse Imaging Using a Dissecting Microscope Equipped for Optical Sectioning.

    PubMed

    Perner, Birgit; Schnerwitzki, Danny; Graf, Michael; Englert, Christoph

    2016-04-07

    In order to understand organogenesis, the spatial and temporal alterations that occur during development of tissues need to be recorded. The method described here allows time-lapse analysis of normal and impaired kidney development in zebrafish embryos by using a fluorescence dissecting microscope equipped for structured illumination and z-stack acquisition. To visualize nephrogenesis, transgenic zebrafish (Tg(wt1b:GFP)) with fluorescently labeled kidney structures were used. Renal defects were triggered by injection of an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide against the Wilms tumor gene wt1a, a factor known to be crucial for kidney development. The advantage of the experimental setup is the combination of a zoom microscope with simple strategies for re-adjusting movements in x, y or z direction without additional equipment. To circumvent focal drift that is induced by temperature variations and mechanical vibrations, an autofocus strategy was applied instead of utilizing a usually required environmental chamber. In order to re-adjust the positional changes due to a xy-drift, imaging chambers with imprinted relocation grids were employed. In comparison to more complex setups for time-lapse recording with optical sectioning such as confocal laser scanning or light sheet microscopes, a zoom microscope is easy to handle. Besides, it offers dissecting microscope-specific benefits such as high depth of field and an extended working distance. The method to study organogenesis presented here can also be used with fluorescence stereo microscopes not capable of optical sectioning. Although limited for high-throughput, this technique offers an alternative to more complex equipment that is normally used for time-lapse recording of developing tissues and organ dynamics.

  20. Blunted striatal response to monetary reward anticipation during smoking abstinence predicts lapse during a contingency-managed quit attempt

    PubMed Central

    Sweitzer, Maggie M.; Geier, Charles F.; Denlinger, Rachel; Forbes, Erika E.; Raiff, Bethany R.; Dallery, Jesse; McClernon, F.J.; Donny, Eric C.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale Tobacco smoking is associated with dysregulated reward processing within the striatum, characterized by hypersensitivity to smoking rewards and hyposensitivity to non-smoking rewards. This bias toward smoking reward at the expense of alternative rewards is further exacerbated by deprivation from smoking, which may contribute to difficulty maintaining abstinence during a quit attempt. Objective We examined whether abstinence-induced changes in striatal processing of rewards predicted lapse likelihood during a quit attempt supported by contingency management (CM), in which abstinence from smoking was reinforced with money. Methods Thirty-six non-treatment seeking smokers participated in two fMRI sessions, one following 24-hr abstinence and one following smoking as usual. During each scan, participants completed a rewarded guessing task designed to elicit striatal activation in which they could earn smoking and monetary rewards delivered after the scan. Participants then engaged in a 3-week CM-supported quit attempt. Results As previously reported, 24-hr abstinence was associated with increased striatal activation in anticipation of smoking reward and decreased activation in anticipation of monetary reward. Individuals exhibiting greater decrements in right striatal activation to monetary reward during abstinence (controlling for activation during non-abstinence) were more likely to lapse during CM (p<.05), even when controlling for other predictors of lapse outcome (e.g., craving); no association was seen for smoking reward. Conclusions These results are consistent with a growing number of studies indicating the specific importance of disrupted striatal processing of non-drug reward in nicotine dependence, and highlight the importance of individual differences in abstinence-induced deficits in striatal function for smoking cessation. PMID:26660448

  1. Development and Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial of a Distress Tolerance Treatment for Smokers With a History of Early Lapse

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: An inability to tolerate distress is a significant predictor of early smoking lapse following a cessation attempt. We conducted a preliminary randomized controlled trial to compare a distress tolerance (DT) treatment that incorporated elements of exposure-based therapies and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to standard smoking cessation treatment (ST). Methods: Smokers with a history of early lapse in prior quit attempts received either DT (N = 27; 9 2-hr group and 6 50-min individual sessions) or ST (N = 22; 6 90-min group and 1 20-min individual session), plus 8 weeks of transdermal nicotine patch. Results: At the end of behavioral treatment, odds of abstinence among participants receiving DT were 6.46 times greater than among participants receiving ST (66.7% vs. 31.8%), equivalent to a medium- to large-effect size. Odds of abstinence for DT were still 1.73 times greater at 8 weeks, corresponding to a small- to medium-effect size, although neither this difference nor those at 13 and 26 weeks were statistically significant. Furthermore, of those who lapsed to smoking during the first week postquit, DT participants had more than 4 times greater odds of abstinence than ST participants at the end of treatment. Relative to ST, DT participants also reported a larger decrease in experiential avoidance, a hypothesized DT treatment mediator, prior to quit day. The trajectory of negative mood and withdrawal symptoms in DT differed from ST and was largely consistent with hypotheses. Conclusions: Reasons for the decrease in abstinence in DT after treatment discontinuation and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:23884317

  2. Time-lapse and UAV Thermal Imaging of Glacial and Periglacial Environments in the Peruvian Andes (Cordillera Blanca, Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, J. M.; Wigmore, O.; Aubry-Wake, C.; Mark, B. G.; Hellstrom, R. A.; Lautz, L.

    2015-12-01

    In the tropics, the acquisition of high-resolution geospatial data of high-mountain glacial and periglacial systems presents unique challenges due to remote site access and very high elevations. For glaciers and hydrologic systems, a key variable of interest is surface temperature as it constrains glacier melt rates, traces hydrologic processes, and is needed for the calibration of energy budget models. We present results from two studies that acquired high resolution temperature data from the Cuchillacocha Glacier, Peru (9.24°S, 77.21°W). The glacier resides on the western drainage of the Cordillera Blanca with an elevation range of 4700 to 6096 m. In the first study we use high resolution time-lapse infrared imagery (5-10 minute interval over 3 days; 0.6 m2 pixel size) to observe diel changes in the surface energy budget of the glacier and to demonstrate how radiation from bare rock adjacent to the glacier may affect melt rates. In the second study we use a newly developed, inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for high resolution multispectral mapping of the glacier (2 cm resolution orthomosaic and 5 cm resolution DEM). We present results showing how the time-lapse and the high-resolution UAV imagery can be combined to further strengthen our understanding of the Cuchillacocha Glacier's energy budget and possible insights about turbulent heat fluxes. While the new instruments provide unprecedented data acquisition capabilities, there is an outstanding need for proper data correction. Spatial/thermal control points and post-processing algorithms are needed to produce quantifiable datasets. For example, our post-processed time-lapse imagery has an r2 > 0.9 after emissivity, transmissivity and offset corrections.

  3. Time-lapse analysis of sparse 3D seismic data from the CO2 storage pilot site at Ketzin, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivandic, M.; Yang, C.; Lüth, S.; Cosma, C.; Juhlin, C.

    2012-04-01

    Capture and geological storage of CO2 is considered to be a feasible method for reducing carbon emissions. In April 2004, a research pilot project in the German town of Ketzin started as the first onshore CO2 storage project in Europe. Injection started in June 2008 and until the latest repeat survey in February 2011 around 45 kilotons of CO2 had been injected into a saline aquifer at approximately 630-650 m depth. Different seismic methods, such as time-lapse Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP), Crosswell, Moving Source Profiling (MSP) and surface seismics have been employed to detect and monitor changes in the reservoir. We present here time-lapse results from sparse 3D seismic surveying with a "star" geometry, i.e. with a radial distribution of acquisition profiles directed towards the approximate location of the injection well, which were acquired to link downhole surveys with full 3D surface seismic surveys. The main objectives of the sparse 3D surveys were (1) to identify changes in the seismic response related to the injection of CO2 between the repeat surveys and baseline survey and (2) to compare these results with those from the repeat 3D seismic survey. The results are consistent with the 3D seismic time-lapse studies over the injection site and show that the sparse 3D geometry can be used to qualitatively map the migration of the CO2 plume within the saline reservoir, as well as potential migration out of the reservoir rock at a significantly lower effort than the full 3D surveying. The latest repeat survey indicates preferential migration of the CO2 to the west. Both sparse 3D repeat surveys show that the CO2 is being confined within the aquifer, implying that there is no leakage into the caprock at the time of the repeat surveys. The same observation was obtained from the 3D dataset.

  4. Time-lapse Geophysical Monitoring of the Subsurface Hydrology at Kings Park, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adekoya, Tunde; McGrath, Gavan; Leopold, Matthias; Shragge, Jeffrey; Challis, Anthea; Stevens, Jason; Miller, Ben

    2015-04-01

    The increasing occurrence of drought stress throughout Southwestern Western Australia is postulated to have contributed to the decline of Banksia populations both in Kings Park, Perth, and in the Banksia woodlands in the greater Swan Coastal Plain region. To help quantify these assertions, there is an urgent need to better understand the base levels of soil moisture content - as well as seasonal variations thereof - in these geographical regions. We conducted time-lapse (TL) electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods on a monthly basis (May-August 2014). In addition, at each site we hand-augured test holes to a depth of 3-4 m and collected samples at 20-cm intervals to enable grain-size analysis, soil moisture content and water retention tests. PR2 capacitance probe measurements were also acquired when augering to enable a moisture content comparison study. The acquired TL ERT datasets were inverted using 2D EarthImager software and the temporal variations in resistivity were interpreted in terms of changes in moisture content. The TL ERT data reveal significant calendar variations in the spatial distribution of moisture content. The TL ERT inversions also detected isolated less resistive lithologies and the depth to groundwater. Processed TL GPR data were interpreted to show vertical variations in the vadose zone moisture content. The water content variations were consistent with the rainfall data. The grain-size distributions of the samples were analysed statistically. The apparent resistivity values from the analysed samples and observed volumetric water content are strongly correlated (R2=0.84) as may be expected from Archie's law. Soil moisture content analysis results including the PR2 probe measurements were plotted as a function of depth, the result shows vertical variations in moisture content with depth. The hydrological tests indicated the properties of the subsurface lithologies and confirm the responses of the

  5. Time-lapse 3D electrical resistivity tomography to monitor soil-plant interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boaga, Jacopo; Rossi, Matteo; Cassiani, Giorgio; Putti, Mario

    2013-04-01

    In this work we present the application of time-lapse non-invasive 3D micro- electrical tomography (ERT) to monitor soil-plant interactions in the root zone in the framework of the FP7 Project CLIMB (Climate Induced Changes on the Hydrology of Mediterranean Basins). The goal of the study is to gain a better understanding of the soil-vegetation interactions by the use of non-invasive techniques. We designed, built and installed a 3D electrical tomography apparatus for the monitoring of the root zone of a single apple tree in an orchard located in the Trentino region, Northern Italy. The micro-ERT apparatus consists of 48 buried electrodes on 4 instrumented micro boreholes plus 24 mini-electrodes on the surface spaced 0.1 m on a square grid. We collected repeated ERT and TDR soil moisture measurements for one year and performed two different controlled irrigation tests: one during a very dry Summer and one during a very wet and highly dynamic plant growing Spring period. We also ran laboratory analyses on soil specimens, in order to evaluate the electrical response at different saturation steps. The results demonstrate that 3D micro-ERT is capable of characterizing subsoil conditions and monitoring root zone activities, especially in terms of root zone suction regions. In particular, we note that in very dry conditions, 3D micro ERT can image water plumes in the shallow subsoil produced by a drip irrigation system. In the very dynamic growing season, under abundant irrigation, micro 3D ERT can detect the main suction zones caused by the tree root activity. Even though the quantitative use of this technique for moisture content balance suffers from well-known inversion difficulties, even the pure imaging of the active root zone is a valuable contribution. However the integration of the measurements in a fully coupled hydrogeophysical inversion is the way forward for a better understanding of subsoil interactions between biomass, hydrosphere and atmosphere.

  6. Globally referenced real time monitoring of mass movements using monoscopic time-lapse photography.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenner, Robert; Phillips, Marcia; Buchroithner, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    The creep movement of a rock glacier was monitored in daily resolution using images of an automatic in-situ time-lapse camera (AC). Displacements were calculated between the images in 2D image coordinates using the imaging velocimetry algorithm of Roesgen and Totaro, 1995. To georeference and scale these displacements, a creep velocity field captured once by a terrestrial laser scan (TLS) repeat measurement was used. The laser scan point cloud and the creep velocity vector field were projected in image coordinates of the AC to obtain a georeferencing mask, a scale mask and an azimuth mask for the 2D displacements calculated between two images. The scale mask was obtained by comparing the TLS derived displacement vectors with those of the AC, referring to a common measurement period. The automatic procedure includes the following work steps: 1. Offsets between two images are identified and corrected based on image parts representing unchanged terrain. 2. 2D displacements are calculated between all chronological image sequences. 3. Faulty displacement vectors are eliminated based on a predefined threshold for spatial direction differences. 4. The remaining displacements are georeferenced, scaled and attributed with individual displacement directions (azimuths) in global coordinates. 5. In addition to the displacement values, displacement velocities and accelerations are calculated using the date of the images. 6. For chronologically successive displacement vector fields, the spatial mean of the relative velocity is defined and expressed as a percentage of the first displacement velocity in the series. The time series of the relative velocities is expressed in chart form. 7. The spatial resolution of all georeferenced output data sets is homogenized, as they were influenced by the central projection of the photos. The described procedure proved to be a reliable, low cost method to monitor mass wasting processes. Even under difficult conditions, like thin snow coverage

  7. Preliminary observations on polar body extrusion and pronuclear formation in human oocytes using time-lapse video cinematography.

    PubMed

    Payne, D; Flaherty, S P; Barry, M F; Matthews, C D

    1997-03-01

    In this study, we have used time-lapse video cinematography to study fertilization in 50 human oocytes that had undergone intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Time-lapse recording commenced shortly after ICSI and proceeded for 17-20 h. Oocytes were cultured in an environmental chamber which was maintained under standard culture conditions. Overall, 38 oocytes (76%) were fertilized normally, and the fertilization rate and embryo quality were not significantly different from 487 sibling oocytes cultured in a conventional incubator. Normal fertilization followed a defined course of events, although the timing of these events varied markedly between oocytes. In 35 of the 38 fertilized oocytes (92%), there were circular waves of granulation within the ooplasm which had a periodicity of 20-53 min. The sperm head decondensed during this granulation phase. The second polar body was then extruded, and this was followed by the central formation of the male pronucleus. The female pronucleus formed in the cytoplasm adjacent to the second polar body at the same time as, or slightly after, the male pronucleus, and was subsequently drawn towards the male pronucleus until the two abutted. Both pronuclei then increased in size, the nucleoli moved around within the pronuclei and some nucleoli coalesced. During pronuclear growth, the organelles contracted from the cortex towards the centre of the oocyte, leaving a clear cortical zone. The oocyte decreased in diameter from 112 to 106 microm (P < 0.0001) during the course of the observation period. The female pronucleus was significantly smaller in diameter than the male pronucleus (24.1 and 22.4 microm respectively, P = 0.008) and contained fewer nucleoli (4.2 and 7.0 respectively, P < 0.0001). After time-lapse recording, oocytes were cultured for 48 h prior to embryo transfer or cryopreservation. Embryo quality was related to fertilization events and periodicity of the cytoplasmic wave, and it was found that good quality embryos

  8. A direct algorithm for convective adjustment of the vertical temperature profile for an arbitrary critical lapse rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akmaev, Rashid A.

    1991-01-01

    An efficient direct algorithm of convective adjustment for an arbitrary critical value of the vertical temperature lapse rate gamma is proposed. The algorithm provides an exact and unique solution of a standard convective adjustment problem for models with temperature specified either on nonuniformly spaced levels or for layers of different thicknesses in pressure, sigma, or other vertical coordinate related to pressure. The algorithm may be recommended for use either directly in atmospheric models not explicitly including a hydrologic cycle with prescribed gamma, or as a part of more complicated parameterizations of moist convection, where gamma may be calculated depending on relative humidity.

  9. A Modular and Affordable Time-Lapse Imaging and Incubation System Based on 3D-Printed Parts, a Smartphone, and Off-The-Shelf Electronics

    PubMed Central

    Schwan, Emil; Fatsis-Kavalopoulos, Nikos; Kreuger, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Time-lapse imaging is a powerful tool for studying cellular dynamics and cell behavior over long periods of time to acquire detailed functional information. However, commercially available time-lapse imaging systems are expensive and this has limited a broader implementation of this technique in low-resource environments. Further, the availability of time-lapse imaging systems often present workflow bottlenecks in well-funded institutions. To address these limitations we have designed a modular and affordable time-lapse imaging and incubation system (ATLIS). The ATLIS enables the transformation of simple inverted microscopes into live cell imaging systems using custom-designed 3D-printed parts, a smartphone, and off-the-shelf electronic components. We demonstrate that the ATLIS provides stable environmental conditions to support normal cell behavior during live imaging experiments in both traditional and evaporation-sensitive microfluidic cell culture systems. Thus, the system presented here has the potential to increase the accessibility of time-lapse microscopy of living cells for the wider research community. PMID:28002463

  10. A Modular and Affordable Time-Lapse Imaging and Incubation System Based on 3D-Printed Parts, a Smartphone, and Off-The-Shelf Electronics.

    PubMed

    Hernández Vera, Rodrigo; Schwan, Emil; Fatsis-Kavalopoulos, Nikos; Kreuger, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Time-lapse imaging is a powerful tool for studying cellular dynamics and cell behavior over long periods of time to acquire detailed functional information. However, commercially available time-lapse imaging systems are expensive and this has limited a broader implementation of this technique in low-resource environments. Further, the availability of time-lapse imaging systems often present workflow bottlenecks in well-funded institutions. To address these limitations we have designed a modular and affordable time-lapse imaging and incubation system (ATLIS). The ATLIS enables the transformation of simple inverted microscopes into live cell imaging systems using custom-designed 3D-printed parts, a smartphone, and off-the-shelf electronic components. We demonstrate that the ATLIS provides stable environmental conditions to support normal cell behavior during live imaging experiments in both traditional and evaporation-sensitive microfluidic cell culture systems. Thus, the system presented here has the potential to increase the accessibility of time-lapse microscopy of living cells for the wider research community.

  11. Viral Plaque Analysis on a Wide Field-of-view, Time-lapse, On-chip Imaging Platform

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chao; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-01-01

    The observation of viral plaques is the standard method for determining viral titer and understanding the behaviors of viruses. Here, we report the application of a wide field-of-view (FOV), time-lapse, on-chip imaging platform, termed the ePetri, for plaque analysis of murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1). The ePetri offers the ability to dynamically track plaques at the individual cell death event level over a wide FOV of 6 mm × 4 mm. As demonstration, we captured high-resolution time-lapse images of MNV-1-infected cells at 30 min intervals. We implemented a customized image-processing program containing a density-based clustering algorithm to analyze the spatial-temporal distribution of cell death events to identify plaques at their earliest stages. By using the results in a viral titer count format, we showed that our approach gives results that are comparable to conventional plaque assays. We further showed that the extra information collected by the ePetri can be used to monitor the dynamics of plaque formation and growth. Finally, we performed a demonstration experiment to show the relevance of such an experimental format for viral inhibitor study. We believe the ePetri is a simple and compact solution for the automation of viral plaque assays, plaque behavior analysis, and antiviral drug discovery and study. PMID:24611157

  12. High-resolution Time-lapse Imaging and Automated Analysis of Microtubule Dynamics in Living Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Alexander; Caesar, Nicole M.; Dang, Kyvan; Myers, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    The physiological process by which new vasculature forms from existing vasculature requires specific signaling events that trigger morphological changes within individual endothelial cells (ECs). These processes are critical for homeostatic maintenance such as wound healing, and are also crucial in promoting tumor growth and metastasis. EC morphology is defined by the organization of the cytoskeleton, a tightly regulated system of actin and microtubule (MT) dynamics that is known to control EC branching, polarity and directional migration, essential components of angiogenesis. To study MT dynamics, we used high-resolution fluorescence microscopy coupled with computational image analysis of fluorescently-labeled MT plus-ends to investigate MT growth dynamics and the regulation of EC branching morphology and directional migration. Time-lapse imaging of living Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) was performed following transfection with fluorescently-labeled MT End Binding protein 3 (EB3) and Mitotic Centromere Associated Kinesin (MCAK)-specific cDNA constructs to evaluate effects on MT dynamics. PlusTipTracker software was used to track EB3-labeled MT plus ends in order to measure MT growth speeds and MT growth lifetimes in time-lapse images. This methodology allows for the study of MT dynamics and the identification of how localized regulation of MT dynamics within sub-cellular regions contributes to the angiogenic processes of EC branching and migration. PMID:27584860

  13. Estimation of temporal variations in path-averaged atmospheric refractive index gradient from time-lapse imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Santasri; McCrae, Jack E.; Fiorino, Steven; Przelomski, Jared

    2016-09-01

    The sea level vertical refractive index gradient in the U.S. Standard Atmosphere model is -2.7×10-8 m-1 at 500 nm. At any particular location, the actual refractive index gradient varies due to turbulence and local weather conditions. An imaging experiment was conducted to measure the temporal variability of this gradient. A tripod mounted digital camera captured images of a distant building every minute. Atmospheric turbulence caused the images to wander quickly, randomly, and statistically isotropically and changes in the average refractive index gradient along the path caused the images to move vertically and more slowly. The temporal variations of the refractive index gradient were estimated from the slow, vertical motion of the building over a period of several days. Comparisons with observational data showed the gradient variations derived from the time-lapse imagery correlated well with solar heating and other weather conditions. The time-lapse imaging approach has the potential to be used as a validation tool for numerical weather models. These validations will benefit directed energy simulation tools and applications.

  14. Lapse-time-dependent coda-wave depth sensitivity to local velocity perturbations in 3-D heterogeneous elastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obermann, Anne; Planès, Thomas; Hadziioannou, Céline; Campillo, Michel

    2016-10-01

    In the context of seismic monitoring, recent studies made successful use of seismic coda waves to locate medium changes on the horizontal plane. Locating the depth of the changes, however, remains a challenge. In this paper, we use 3-D wavefield simulations to address two problems: first, we evaluate the contribution of surface- and body-wave sensitivity to a change at depth. We introduce a thin layer with a perturbed velocity at different depths and measure the apparent relative velocity changes due to this layer at different times in the coda and for different degrees of heterogeneity of the model. We show that the depth sensitivity can be modelled as a linear combination of body- and surface-wave sensitivity. The lapse-time-dependent sensitivity ratio of body waves and surface waves can be used to build 3-D sensitivity kernels for imaging purposes. Second, we compare the lapse-time behaviour in the presence of a perturbation in horizontal and vertical slabs to address, for instance, the origin of the velocity changes detected after large earthquakes.

  15. Time-lapse imaging of primary preneoplastic mammary epithelial cells derived from genetically engineered mouse models of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakles, Rebecca E; Millman, Sarah L; Cabrera, M Carla; Johnson, Peter; Mueller, Susette; Hoppe, Philipp S; Schroeder, Timm; Furth, Priscilla A

    2013-02-08

    Time-lapse imaging can be used to compare behavior of cultured primary preneoplastic mammary epithelial cells derived from different genetically engineered mouse models of breast cancer. For example, time between cell divisions (cell lifetimes), apoptotic cell numbers, evolution of morphological changes, and mechanism of colony formation can be quantified and compared in cells carrying specific genetic lesions. Primary mammary epithelial cell cultures are generated from mammary glands without palpable tumor. Glands are carefully resected with clear separation from adjacent muscle, lymph nodes are removed, and single-cell suspensions of enriched mammary epithelial cells are generated by mincing mammary tissue followed by enzymatic dissociation and filtration. Single-cell suspensions are plated and placed directly under a microscope within an incubator chamber for live-cell imaging. Sixteen 650 μm x 700 μm fields in a 4x4 configuration from each well of a 6-well plate are imaged every 15 min for 5 days. Time-lapse images are examined directly to measure cellular behaviors that can include mechanism and frequency of cell colony formation within the first 24 hr of plating the cells (aggregation versus cell proliferation), incidence of apoptosis, and phasing of morphological changes. Single-cell tracking is used to generate cell fate maps for measurement of individual cell lifetimes and investigation of cell division patterns. Quantitative data are statistically analyzed to assess for significant differences in behavior correlated with specific genetic lesions.

  16. Visualization of craniofacial development in the sox10: kaede transgenic zebrafish line using time-lapse confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Gfrerer, Lisa; Dougherty, Max; Liao, Eric C

    2013-09-30

    Vertebrate palatogenesis is a highly choreographed and complex developmental process, which involves migration of cranial neural crest (CNC) cells, convergence and extension of facial prominences, and maturation of the craniofacial skeleton. To study the contribution of the cranial neural crest to specific regions of the zebrafish palate a sox10: kaede transgenic zebrafish line was generated. Sox10 provides lineage restriction of the kaede reporter protein to the neural crest, thereby making the cell labeling a more precise process than traditional dye or reporter mRNA injection. Kaede is a photo-convertible protein that turns from green to red after photo activation and makes it possible to follow cells precisely. The sox10: kaede transgenic line was used to perform lineage analysis to delineate CNC cell populations that give rise to maxillary versus mandibular elements and illustrate homology of facial prominences to amniotes. This protocol describes the steps to generate a live time-lapse video of a sox10: kaede zebrafish embryo. Development of the ethmoid plate will serve as a practical example. This protocol can be applied to making a time-lapse confocal recording of any kaede or similar photoconvertible reporter protein in transgenic zebrafish. Furthermore, it can be used to capture not only normal, but also abnormal development of craniofacial structures in the zebrafish mutants.

  17. Assessment of ice-dam collapse by time-lapse photos at the Perito Moreno glacier, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenzano, M. G.; Lannutti, E.; Toth, C. K.; Lenzano, L. E.; Lovecchio, A.

    2014-11-01

    This research provides a feasibility study on the implementation and performance assessment of time-lapse processing of a monoscopic image sequence, acquired by a calibrated camera in the Perito Moreno Glacier in Argentina. The glacier is located at 50°28'23" S, 73°02'10" W at the Parque Nacional Los Glaciares, South Patagonia Icefield, Santa Cruz and has experienced minor fluctuations and unusual behavior since the early 1960's to present. The objective of this study was to determine the evolution and changes in the ice-dam of the Perito Moreno glacier that started on November, 23 2012 and collapsed on January 19, 2013. Two images every 24 hours were acquired since October 2012 until February 2013, a total of 135 days. Image information was supported by ground data. Image and ground data was correlated with a 2D affine transformation. This technique allows the determination of the distortions in the images and estimating the values of scale factors. This, along with an accurate time-lapse interval, has produced accurate data for the analysis. In addition, changes in the level of the Brazo Rico lake were validated with direct data in order to determine the degree of uncertainty in the estimation of changes in the glacier. Based on the calculations, advance rates of the front of the Perito Moreno glacier were estimated at 0.67 m/d ± 0.003 m, and the tunnel evolution was also recorded.

  18. 3D time-lapse seismic traveltime tomography for detecting near surface velocity variations: a case study from the Ketzin CO2 storage pilot site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fengjiao; Juhlin, Christopher; Huang, Fei; Lüth, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Time-lapse seismic methods are an important tool for monitoring CO2 migration and storage in geological formations. Near surface variations are one of the major problems which may introduce time-lapse noise in the application of land based seismic monitoring. Conventional reflection seismic methods have difficulties in imaging near surface structures (10-30 m depth) due to the limitation of the methods themselves. Traveltime tomography is a commonly used method to reconstruct the subsurface velocity model. It can often provide extra information on near surface structures which is difficult to obtain by the conventional reflection seismic method. In this study, we apply traveltime tomography to 3D time-lapse seismic data sets acquired from at the Ketzin CO2 storage site. We also test different inversion strategies for traveltime tomography to investigate which one is more suitable for this case study. The results show good correlation with near surface variations obtained by other studies.

  19. Intense dust episodes in the Mediterranean and possible effects on atmospheric lapse rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzianastassiou, Nikos; Gkikas, Antonis; Papadimas, Christos D.; Gavrouzou, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Dust aerosols are major contributor to the atmospheric particulate matter, having significant effects on climate and weather patterns as well as on human health, not to mention others like agriculture or ocean chlorophyll. Moreover, these effects are maximized under conditions of massive dust concentration in the atmosphere, namely dust episodes or events. Such events are caused by uplifting and transport of dust from arid and semi-arid areas under favorable synoptic conditions. The Mediterranean basin, nearby to the greatest world deserts of North Africa and Middle East, frequently undergoes dust episodes. During such Mediterranean episodes, the number and mass concentration of dust is high, due to the proximity of its source areas. The dust episodes, through the direct interaction of dust primarily withthe shortwave but also with longwave radiation can lead to strong local warming in the atmosphere, possibly causing temperature inversion during daytime. The existence of such temperature inversions, associated with intense dust episodes in the Mediterranean, is the focus in this study. The methodology followed to achieve the scientific goal of the study consists in the use of a synergy of different data. This synergy enables: (i) the determination of intense dust episodes over the Mediterranean, (ii) the investigation and specification of temperature lapse rates and inversions during the days of dust episodes and (iii) the identification of vertical distribution of aerosols in the atmosphere over specific locations during the days of the episodes. These objectives are achieved through the use of data from: (i) the AERosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET) network, (ii) the Upper Air Observations (radiosondes) database of the University of Wyoming (UoW) and (iii) the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) database. The study period spans the years from 2000 to 2013, constrained by the data availability of the databases. A key element of the methodology is the

  20. Understanding infiltration and groundwater flow at an artificial recharge facility using time-lapse gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Jeffrey

    Groundwater provides a fundamental resource for modern life. Throughout the world, groundwater is managed by storing (recharging) it underground in natural aquifers for future withdrawal and consumptive use. In Arizona, over 4 million people benefit from managed aquifer storage, but little effort is made to track the movement of recharged water through the subsurface. Motivated by current limitations in our ability to monitor percolation and groundwater movement at the scale of a recharge facility, an effort to collect time-lapse gravity data was carried out at the Southern Avra Valley Storage and Recovery Project (SAVSARP) operated by the City of Tucson, Arizona. In addition to collecting water-level data 12 wells, there were three primary gravity experiments: (1) five continuously-recording gravity meters (2 iGrav superconducting gravity meters and 3 gPhone gravity meters) were installed semi-permanently in control buildings adjacent to the recharge basins, (2) absolute gravity measurements were made at nine locations over a 17 month period, and (3) three relative-gravity campaigns were carried out on a network of 70 stations. This large-scale controlled experiment, with known infiltration and pumping rates, resulted in one of the most comprehensive datasets of its kind. Gravity data led to several hydrologic insights, both through direct measurement and modeling. First, the infiltration rate could be estimated accurately based on the initial rate of gravity change during infiltration, regardless of the specific yield. Using two gravity meters, the depth, and therefore speed, of the wetting front beneath a recharge basin was observed, including the time at which the water table was reached. Spatial maps of gravity change from relative gravity surveys show areas where infiltration efficiency is highest, and where groundwater accumulates; storage accumulated preferentially to the west of the recharge basins, away from pumping wells. Such information would be

  1. Evaluation and localization of an artificial drainage network by 3D time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography.

    PubMed

    Jouen, T; Clément, R; Henine, H; Chaumont, C; Vincent, B; Tournebize, J

    2016-08-26

    In France, 10 % of total arable land is equipped with subsurface drainage systems, to control winter and spring waterlogging due to a temporary perched water table. Most of these systems were installed in the1980s and have aged since then and may now need maintenance. Sometimes, the location of the systems is known, but the standard situation in France is that the original as-built master sketches are no longer available. Performance assessment of drainage systems and curative actions are complicated since drain location is unknown. In this article, the authors test the application of a non-destructive drain detection method which consists in water injection at the outfall of the drainage network combined with time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) monitoring. To assess the performance of this methodology, which consists in measuring electrical resistivity from electrodes placed at the nodes of a 1.2-m regular mesh, the authors interpreted the signal using a two-step approach. The first step is based on 3D ERT numerical modelling during a scenario of surface infiltration processes (forward modelling followed by geophysical inversion); this step optimizes the ERT method for locating the infiltration at depths below 1 m. The second step is the validation of the results obtained by numerical modelling with an experimental data set, using water injection into the drainage network combined with time-lapse ERT monitoring on an experimental field site. The results showed the relevance of time-lapse ERT monitoring on a small agricultural plot for locating the drainage network. The numerical results also showed several limitations of the combined methodology: (i) it is necessary to use an electrode spacing unit less than 1.20 m, which does not facilitate investigation on large agriculture plots, (ii) measurements must be taken when resistivity contrast is the strongest between the infiltration area and the soil and (iii) the volume of water needed for

  2. Entropy-Bayesian Inversion of Time-Lapse Tomographic GPR data for Monitoring Dielectric Permittivity and Soil Moisture Variations

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Zhangshuan; Terry, Neil C.; Hubbard, Susan S.

    2013-02-22

    In this study, we evaluate the possibility of monitoring soil moisture variation using tomographic ground penetrating radar travel time data through Bayesian inversion, which is integrated with entropy memory function and pilot point concepts, as well as efficient sampling approaches. It is critical to accurately estimate soil moisture content and variations in vadose zone studies. Many studies have illustrated the promise and value of GPR tomographic data for estimating soil moisture and associated changes, however, challenges still exist in the inversion of GPR tomographic data in a manner that quantifies input and predictive uncertainty, incorporates multiple data types, handles non-uniqueness and nonlinearity, and honors time-lapse tomograms collected in a series. To address these challenges, we develop a minimum relative entropy (MRE)-Bayesian based inverse modeling framework that non-subjectively defines prior probabilities, incorporates information from multiple sources, and quantifies uncertainty. The framework enables us to estimate dielectric permittivity at pilot point locations distributed within the tomogram, as well as the spatial correlation range. In the inversion framework, MRE is first used to derive prior probability density functions (pdfs) of dielectric permittivity based on prior information obtained from a straight-ray GPR inversion. The probability distributions are then sampled using a Quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) approach, and the sample sets provide inputs to a sequential Gaussian simulation (SGSIM) algorithm that constructs a highly resolved permittivity/velocity field for evaluation with a curved-ray GPR forward model. The likelihood functions are computed as a function of misfits, and posterior pdfs are constructed using a Gaussian kernel. Inversion of subsequent time-lapse datasets combines the Bayesian estimates from the previous inversion (as a memory function) with new data. The memory function and pilot point design takes advantage of

  3. Entropy-Bayesian Inversion of Time-Lapse Tomographic GPR data for Monitoring Dielectric Permittivity and Soil Moisture Variations

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Z; Terry, N; Hubbard, S S; Csatho, B

    2013-02-12

    In this study, we evaluate the possibility of monitoring soil moisture variation using tomographic ground penetrating radar travel time data through Bayesian inversion, which is integrated with entropy memory function and pilot point concepts, as well as efficient sampling approaches. It is critical to accurately estimate soil moisture content and variations in vadose zone studies. Many studies have illustrated the promise and value of GPR tomographic data for estimating soil moisture and associated changes, however, challenges still exist in the inversion of GPR tomographic data in a manner that quantifies input and predictive uncertainty, incorporates multiple data types, handles non-uniqueness and nonlinearity, and honors time-lapse tomograms collected in a series. To address these challenges, we develop a minimum relative entropy (MRE)-Bayesian based inverse modeling framework that non-subjectively defines prior probabilities, incorporates information from multiple sources, and quantifies uncertainty. The framework enables us to estimate dielectric permittivity at pilot point locations distributed within the tomogram, as well as the spatial correlation range. In the inversion framework, MRE is first used to derive prior probability distribution functions (pdfs) of dielectric permittivity based on prior information obtained from a straight-ray GPR inversion. The probability distributions are then sampled using a Quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) approach, and the sample sets provide inputs to a sequential Gaussian simulation (SGSim) algorithm that constructs a highly resolved permittivity/velocity field for evaluation with a curved-ray GPR forward model. The likelihood functions are computed as a function of misfits, and posterior pdfs are constructed using a Gaussian kernel. Inversion of subsequent time-lapse datasets combines the Bayesian estimates from the previous inversion (as a memory function) with new data. The memory function and pilot point design takes

  4. Identifying unsaturated soil hydraulic parameters using integrated hydrogeophysical inversion approach on time-lapse ground-penetrating radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadoon, K. Z.; Weihermüller, L.; Scharnagl, B.; Kowalsky, M. B.; Bechtold, M.; Hubbard, S. S.; Vereecken, H.; Lambot, S.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) has proven to have a great potential for high resolution, non-invasive mapping of the soil hydrogeophysical properties at the scale of interest. Common GPR techniques are usually based on ray-based travel time or reflection analyses to retrieve soil dielectric permittivity, which is strongly correlated to soil water content. These methods suffer, however, from two major limitations. First, only a part of the information in the GPR signal is considered (e.g., propagation time). Second, the forward model describing the radar data is subject to relatively strong simplifications with respect to electromagnetic wave propagation phenomena. These limitations typically results in errors in the reconstructed water content images and, moreover, this does not permit to exploit all information contained in the radar data. We explored an alternative method by using full-waveform hydrogeophysical inversion of time-lapse, proximal GPR data to remotely estimate the unsaturated soil hydraulic properties. The radar system is based on international standard vector network analyzer technology and a full-waveform model is used to describe wave propagation in the antenna-air-soil system, including antenna-soil interactions. A hydrodynamic model is used to constrain the inverse electromagnetic problem in reconstructing continuous vertical water content profiles. In that case the estimated parameters reduce to the soil hydraulic properties, thereby strongly reducing the dimensionality of the inverse problem. In this study, we present an application of the proposed method to a data set collected in a field experiment. The GPR model involves a full-waveform frequency-domain solution of Maxwell's equations for wave propagation in three-dimensional multilayered media. The hydrodynamic model used in this work is based on a one-dimensional solution of Richards equation and the hydrological simulator HYDRUS 1-D was used with a single- and dual

  5. Separating climate change signals into thermodynamic, lapse-rate and circulation effects: theory and application to the European summer climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröner, Nico; Kotlarski, Sven; Fischer, Erich; Lüthi, Daniel; Zubler, Elias; Schär, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    Climate models robustly project a strong overall summer warming across Europe showing a characteristic north-south gradient with enhanced warming and drying in southern Europe. However, the processes that are responsible for this pattern are not fully understood. We here employ an extended surrogate or pseudo-warming approach to disentangle the contribution of different mechanisms to this response pattern. The basic idea of the surrogate technique is to use a regional climate model and apply a large-scale warming to the lateral boundary conditions of a present-day reference simulation, while maintaining the relative humidity (and thus implicitly increasing the specific moisture content). In comparison to previous studies, our approach includes two important extensions: first, different vertical warming profiles are applied in order to separate the effects of a mean warming from lapse-rate effects. Second, a twin-design is used, in which the climate change signals are not only added to present-day conditions, but also subtracted from a scenario experiment. We demonstrate that these extensions provide an elegant way to separate the full climate change signal into contributions from large-scale thermodynamic (TD), lapse-rate (LR), and circulation and other remaining effects (CO). The latter in particular include changes in land-ocean contrast and spatial variations of the SST warming patterns. We find that the TD effect yields a large-scale warming across Europe with no distinct latitudinal gradient. The LR effect, which is quantified for the first time in our study, leads to a stronger warming and some drying in southern Europe. It explains about 50 % of the warming amplification over the Iberian Peninsula, thus demonstrating the important role of lapse-rate changes. The effect is linked to an extending Hadley circulation. The CO effect as inherited from the driving GCM is shown to further amplify the north-south temperature change gradient. In terms of mean summer

  6. Modeling of time-lapse seismic reflection data from CO2 sequestration at West Pearl Queen Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartel, L. C.; Haney, M. M.; Aldridge, D. F.; Symons, N. P.; Elbring, G. J.

    2006-12-01

    Sequestration of CO2 in depleted oil reservoirs, saline aquifers, or unminable coal sequences may prove to be an economical and environmentally safe means for long-term removal of carbon from the atmosphere. Requirements for storage of CO2 in subsurface geologic repositories (e.g., less than 0.1% per year leakage) pose significant challenges for geophysical remote sensing techniques. The many issues relevant to successful CO2 sequestration (volume in place, migration, leakage rate) require improved understanding of the advantages and pitfalls of potential monitoring methods. Advanced numerical modeling of time-lapse seismic reflection responses offers a controlled environment for testing hypotheses and exploring alternatives. The U.S. Department of Energy has conducted CO2 sequestration and monitoring tests at West Pearl Queen (WPQ) field in southeastern New Mexico. High-quality 9C/3D seismic reflection data were acquired before and after injection of ~2 kt of CO2 into a depleted sandstone unit at ~4200 ft depth. Images developed from time- lapse seismic data appear to reveal strong reflectivity changes attributed to displacement of brine by CO2. We are pursuing seismic numerical modeling studies with the goal of understanding and assessing the reliability and robustness of the time-lapse reflection responses. A 3D time-domain finite-difference isotropic elastic wave propagation algorithm generates realistic synthetic data. With this capability, we examine how various types of errors and noise in the 4D data degrade the ability to image a deep CO2 plume. Source/receiver sampling, subsurface illumination, correlated geologic heterogeneity, and static shifts are considered. As a result, we are able to make quantitative estimates of the tolerable errors for monitoring CO2 injection at WPQ field. Future plans include incorporating 3D poroelastic wave propagation modeling into the analysis. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram science and engineering facility

  7. Separating climate change signals into thermodynamic, lapse-rate and circulation effects: Theory and application to the European summer climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroener, Nico; Kotlarski, Sven; Fischer, Erich; Lüthi, Daniel; Zubler, Elias; Schär, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Climate models robustly project a strong overall summer warming across Europe showing a characteristic north-south gradient with enhanced warming and drying in southern Europe. However, the processes that are responsible for this pattern are not fully understood. We here employ an extended surrogate or pseudo-warming approach to disentangle the contribution of different mechanisms to this response pattern. The basic idea of the surrogate technique is to use a regional climate model and apply a large-scale warming to the lateral boundary conditions of a present-day reference simulation, while maintaining the relative humidity (and thus implicitly increasing the specific moisture content). In comparison to previous studies, our approach includes two important extensions: First, different vertical warming profiles are applied in order to separate the effects of a mean warming from lapse-rate effects. Second, a twin-design is used, in which the temperature change signal is not only added to present-day conditions, but also subtracted from a scenario experiment. We use the regional climate model COSMO-CLM with a grid spacing of approximately 50 km (EURO-CORDEX EUR-44 setup) using transient simulations (1950-2100) with the RCP8.5 emissions scenario. We demonstrate that the aforementioned extensions provide an elegant way to separate the full climate change signal into contributions from large-scale thermodynamics (LST), lapse-rate (LR) and large-scale circulation (LSC). In our framework the LSC effect also includes effects due to changes in land-sea contrast and the spatial variations of the SST warming pattern. We find that the LST effect yields a large-scale warming across Europe without any distinct latitudinal gradient. The LR effect, which is quantified for the first time in our study, leads to a stronger warming and some drying in Southern Europe. It explains about 50% of the warming amplification over the Iberian Peninsula, thus demonstrating the important role of

  8. Accurate Enumeration of Aspergillus brasiliensis in Hair Color and Mascara by Time-Lapse Shadow Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Matsuoka, Hideaki; Saito, Mikako

    2015-01-01

    The growth of black mold (Aspergillus brasiliensis) in black-colored samples such as hair color and mascara was measured with an automatic count system based on time-lapse shadow image analysis (TSIA). A. brasiliensis suspended in a lecithin and polysorbate (LP) solution of each sample (hair color or mascara) was spread on a potato dextrose agar medium plate containing LP. The background image darkness of the agar plate could be adjusted to attain accurate colony counts. 95 colonies in hair color and 22 colonies in mascara could be automatically determined at 48 h. The accuracy of the colony counts could be confirmed from the timelapse image data. In contrast, conventional visual counting at a specified time could not determine the number of colonies or led to false colony counts.

  9. Rapid and retrievable recording of big data of time-lapse 3D shadow images of microbial colonies.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Nasu, Senshi; Takeshige, Motomu; Saito, Mikako; Matsuoka, Hideaki

    2015-05-15

    We formerly developed an automatic colony count system based on the time-lapse shadow image analysis (TSIA). Here this system has been upgraded and applied to practical rapid decision. A microbial sample was spread on/in an agar plate with 90 mm in diameter as homogeneously as possible. We could obtain the results with several strains that most of colonies appeared within a limited time span. Consequently the number of colonies reached a steady level (Nstdy) and then unchanged until the end of long culture time to give the confirmed value (Nconf). The equivalence of Nstdy and Nconf as well as the difference of times for Nstdy and Nconf determinations were statistically significant at p < 0.001. Nstdy meets the requirement of practical routines treating a large number of plates. The difference of Nstdy and Nconf, if any, may be elucidated by means of retrievable big data. Therefore Nconf is valid for official documentation.

  10. Validation of snow depth reconstruction from lapse-rate webcam images against terrestrial laser scanner measurements in centrel Pyrenees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revuelto, Jesús; Jonas, Tobias; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio

    2015-04-01

    Snow distribution in mountain areas plays a key role in many processes as runoff dynamics, ecological cycles or erosion rates. Nevertheless, the acquisition of high resolution snow depth data (SD) in space-time is a complex task that needs the application of remote sensing techniques as Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS). Such kind of techniques requires intense field work for obtaining high quality snowpack evolution during a specific time period. Combining TLS data with other remote sensing techniques (satellite images, photogrammetry…) and in-situ measurements could represent an improvement of the available information of a variable with rapid topographic changes. The aim of this study is to reconstruct daily SD distribution from lapse-rate images from a webcam and data from two to three TLS acquisitions during the snow melting periods of 2012, 2013 and 2014. This information is obtained at Izas Experimental catchment in Central Spanish Pyrenees; a catchment of 33ha, with an elevation ranging from 2050 to 2350m a.s.l. The lapse-rate images provide the Snow Covered Area (SCA) evolution at the study site, while TLS allows obtaining high resolution information of SD distribution. With ground control points, lapse-rate images are georrectified and their information is rasterized into a 1-meter resolution Digital Elevation Model. Subsequently, for each snow season, the Melt-Out Date (MOD) of each pixel is obtained. The reconstruction increases the estimated SD lose for each time step (day) in a distributed manner; starting the reconstruction for each grid cell at the MOD (note the reverse time evolution). To do so, the reconstruction has been previously adjusted in time and space as follows. Firstly, the degree day factor (SD lose/positive average temperatures) is calculated from the information measured at an automatic weather station (AWS) located in the catchment. Afterwards, comparing the SD lose at the AWS during a specific time period (i.e. between two TLS

  11. Large-scale time-lapse microscopy of Oct4 expression in human embryonic stem cell colonies.

    PubMed

    Bhadriraju, Kiran; Halter, Michael; Amelot, Julien; Bajcsy, Peter; Chalfoun, Joe; Vandecreme, Antoine; Mallon, Barbara S; Park, Kye-Yoon; Sista, Subhash; Elliott, John T; Plant, Anne L

    2016-07-01

    Identification and quantification of the characteristics of stem cell preparations is critical for understanding stem cell biology and for the development and manufacturing of stem cell based therapies. We have developed image analysis and visualization software that allows effective use of time-lapse microscopy to provide spatial and dynamic information from large numbers of human embryonic stem cell colonies. To achieve statistically relevant sampling, we examined >680 colonies from 3 different preparations of cells over 5days each, generating a total experimental dataset of 0.9 terabyte (TB). The 0.5 Giga-pixel images at each time point were represented by multi-resolution pyramids and visualized using the Deep Zoom Javascript library extended to support viewing Giga-pixel images over time and extracting data on individual colonies. We present a methodology that enables quantification of variations in nominally-identical preparations and between colonies, correlation of colony characteristics with Oct4 expression, and identification of rare events.

  12. In vivo dynamics of axon pathfinding in the Drosophilia CNS: a time-lapse study of an identified motorneuron.

    PubMed

    Murray, M J; Merritt, D J; Brand, A H; Whitington, P M

    1998-12-01

    We developed a system for time-lapse observation of identified neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) of the Drosophila embryo. Using this system, we characterize the dynamics of filopodia and axon growth of the motorneuron RP2 as it navigates anteriorly through the CNS and then laterally along the intersegmental nerve (ISN) into the periphery. We find that both axonal extension and turning occur primarily through the process of filopodial dilation. In addition, we used the GAL4-UAS system to express the fusion protein Tau-GFP in a subset of neurons, allowing us to correlate RP2's patterns of growth with a subset of axons in its environment. In particular, we show that RP2's sharp lateral turn is coincident with the nascent ISN.

  13. Aneuploidy is a key causal factor of delays in blastulation: author response to 'A cautionary note against aneuploidy risk assessment using time-lapse imaging'.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Alison; Fishel, Simon; Laegdsmand, Mette

    2014-03-01

    In a previous paper, we had reported use of time-lapse monitoring to develop an aneuploidy risk classification model after identifying significant periblastulation delays in aneuploid embryos compared with euploid embryos. The model was validated subsequently in a second paper by retrospective assessment of transferred blastocysts that had also undergone time-lapse monitoring in which clinical pregnancy or live birth outcomes were established. A significant difference was seen for both outcome measures between embryos classified as low and medium risk by the model. Here we respond to the commentary entitled 'A cautionary note against embryo aneuploidy risk assessment using time-lapse imaging', which presented a case for our conclusions being unsound on the basis that maternal age, rather than aneuploidy, might be the cause of the developmental delays observed. We demonstrate that this is not the case and strengthen the argument that ploidy is a key factor influencing morphokinetics of blastulation. We also describe why the arguments made in the commentary based on comparisons between static standard observations and timings of the preimplantation embryo compared with those obtained from dynamic or time-lapse methodologies are inexact.

  14. Monitoring channel head erosion processes in response to an artificially induced abrupt base level change using time-lapse photography 2301

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Headcut and channel extension in response to an abrupt base level change in 2004 of approximately 1m was studied in a 1.29 ha semiarid headwater drainage on the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW) in southeastern Arizona, USA. Field observations and time-lapse photography were coupled with hy...

  15. 78 FR 61869 - Notice of Procedures To Be Followed in the Event Board Offices Are Closed Due to a Lapse in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-04

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2013-24362] NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD Notice of Procedures To Be Followed in the Event Board Offices Are Closed Due to a Lapse in Appropriated Funds AGENCY: National Labor Relations Board. ACTION: The National Labor Relations Board is issuing this notice to advise the public...

  16. Stimulant Treatment Reduces Lapses in Attention among Children with ADHD: The Effects of Methylphenidate on Intra-Individual Response Time Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Sarah V.; Hawk, Larry W., Jr.; Richards, Jerry B.; Shiels, Keri; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Waxmonsky, James G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that intra-individual variability in reaction time (RT) distributions of children with ADHD is characterized by a particularly large rightward skew that may reflect lapses in attention. The purpose of the study was to provide the first randomized, placebo-controlled test of the effects of the stimulant methylphenidate…

  17. Time-lapse Monitoring of Two-dimensional Non-uniform Unsaturated Flow Processes Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytle, B. A.; Mangel, A. R.; Moysey, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Unsaturated flow in the vadose zone often manifests as preferential flow resulting in transport of water and solutes through the soil much faster than would occur for uniform matrix flow. Time-lapse ground-penetrating radar (GPR) monitoring shows significant potential for identifying the presence of non-uniform flow and quantitative monitoring of the hydrologic response of a soil system. We investigate non-uniform flow in the vadose zone for an infiltration experiment performed in a 60 cm deep sand-filled tank that is continuously monitored with 1000 MHz reflection GPR. During the experiment, 100 constant offset and 300 common mid-point (CMP) time-lapse radar profiles were collected using an automated gantry system to rapidly position the antennas, allowing for a set of 1 constant offset and 3 CMP profiles to be collected every 13 seconds. The constant offset profiles were interpreted to evaluate spatial and temporal changes of reflected arrivals over the course of the experiment, whereas the CMPs were used to estimate the initial EM wave velocity in the tanks using a normal moveout analysis. Changes in traveltime to a static reflector were used to estimate spatial changes in velocity and to create two-dimensional velocity models. The GPR data were then migrated using the estimated 2D velocity model to improve GPR reflection images, which could then be interpreted to identify evidence of non-uniform flow phenomena. To verify the approach, the methodology was also applied to GPR data simulated using transient water contents generated by the unsaturated flow simulator HYDRUS2D given lab-measured hydraulic properties for the soil. For both the empirical and simulated data, we found that the 2D velocity analysis was effective in monitoring changes in the wetting front and that migration of the reflection profiles was able to improve the interpretation of non-uniform flow.

  18. Automated Ground-based Time-lapse Camera Monitoring of West Greenland ice sheet outlet Glaciers: Challenges and Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Y.; Box, J. E.; Balog, J.; Lewinter, A.

    2008-12-01

    Monitoring Greenland outlet glaciers using remotely sensed data has drawn a great attention in earth science communities for decades and time series analysis of sensory data has provided important variability information of glacier flow by detecting speed and thickness changes, tracking features and acquiring model input. Thanks to advancements of commercial digital camera technology and increased solid state storage, we activated automatic ground-based time-lapse camera stations with high spatial/temporal resolution in west Greenland outlet and collected one-hour interval data continuous for more than one year at some but not all sites. We believe that important information of ice dynamics are contained in these data and that terrestrial mono-/stereo-photogrammetry can provide theoretical/practical fundamentals in data processing along with digital image processing techniques. Time-lapse images over periods in west Greenland indicate various phenomenon. Problematic is rain, snow, fog, shadows, freezing of water on camera enclosure window, image over-exposure, camera motion, sensor platform drift, and fox chewing of instrument cables, and the pecking of plastic window by ravens. Other problems include: feature identification, camera orientation, image registration, feature matching in image pairs, and feature tracking. Another obstacle is that non-metric digital camera contains large distortion to be compensated for precise photogrammetric use. Further, a massive number of images need to be processed in a way that is sufficiently computationally efficient. We meet these challenges by 1) identifying problems in possible photogrammetric processes, 2) categorizing them based on feasibility, and 3) clarifying limitation and alternatives, while emphasizing displacement computation and analyzing regional/temporal variability. We experiment with mono and stereo photogrammetric techniques in the aide of automatic correlation matching for efficiently handling the enormous

  19. Application of an extended Kalman filter approach to inversion of time-lapse electrical resistivity imaging data for monitoring recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenna, Vanessa; Pidlisecky, Adam; Knight, Rosemary

    2011-10-01

    We apply an extended Kalman filter (EKF) approach to inversion of time-lapse electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) field data. The EKF is a method of time series signal processing that incorporates both a state evolution model, describing changes in the physical system, and an observation model, incorporating the physics of the electrical resistivity measurement. We test the feasibility of using an EKF approach to inverting ERI data collected with 2-D surface array geometries. As a first test, we invert synthetic data generated using a simulated recharge event and water saturation distributions converted to electrical conductivity values using an Archie's law relationship. In the synthetic example we demonstrate the impact that the noise structure of the state evolution and the regularization weight have on EKF-estimated model parameters and errors. We then apply the method to inversion of field data collected to monitor changes in electrical conductivity beneath a recharge pond that is part of an aquifer storage and recovery project in northern California. Using lines of electrodes buried at a depth of 0.25 m when the base of the pond is dry, we monitor the wetting front associated with the diversion of stormflow runoff to the pond. Using field data, we demonstrate that by oversampling in time, we are able to apply the so-called random walk model for the state evolution and to build the model of observation noise directly from collected data. EKF-estimated values track changes in conductivity associated with both increasing water content in subsurface sediments and changes in the properties of the pore water, showing the method is a feasible approach for inversion of time-lapse ERI field data.

  20. Acute effects of low and high dose alcohol on smoking lapse behavior in a laboratory analogue task

    PubMed Central

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Metrik, Jane; Spillane, Nichea S.; Day, Anne; Leventhal, Adam M.; McKee, Sherry A.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; McGeary, John E.; Knopik, Valerie S.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Smoking lapses (i.e., returns to smoking after quitting) often occur following alcohol consumption with observational data suggesting greater quantities of alcohol lead to greater risk. However, a causal dose-dependent effect of alcohol consumption on smoking lapse behavior has not been established, and the mechanisms that might account for such an effect have not been tested. Objectives In a within-subjects design, we examined effects of low (0.4 g/kg) and high (0.8 g/kg) dose alcohol, relative to placebo, on smokers’ ability to resist initiating smoking after acute smoking abstinence. Methods Participants were 100 heavy alcohol drinkers, smoking 10–30 cigarettes per day. Across three separate days, participants consumed placebo, low, or high dose alcohol following 3 h of smoking abstinence, and 35 min later were offered the opportunity to smoke while resisting smoking was monetarily reinforced proportional to the amount of time delayed. Results Consistent with a dose-response effect, participants smoked 3.35 min (95% CI [−7.09, 0.40], p=.08) earlier following low dose alcohol and 6.36 min (95% CI [−9.99, −2.73], p=.0006) earlier following high dose alcohol compared to drinking a placebo beverage. Effects of dose on smoking behavior were partially mediated by increases in urge to smoke. There was no evidence that alcohol’s effects on urge to smoke or ability to resist smoking were mediated through its stimulating or sedating effects. Conclusions Alcohol can reduce the ability to resist smoking in a dose-dependent fashion, in part, due to its effect on increasing the intensity of smoking urges. PMID:24858377

  1. Time-lapse ERT and DTS for seasonal and short-term monitoring of an alpine river hyporheic zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boaga, Jacopo; Laura, Busato; Mariateresa, Perri; Giorgio, Cassiani

    2016-04-01

    The hyporheic zone (HZ) is the area located beneath and adjacent to rivers and streams, where the interactions between surface water and groundwater take place. This complex physical domain allows the transport of several substances from a stream to the unconfined aquifer below, and vice versa, thus playing a fundamental role in the river ecosystem. The importance of the hyporheic zone makes its characterization a goal shared by several disciplines, which range from applied geophysics to biogeochemistry, from hydraulics to ecology. The frontier field of HZ characterization stays in applied non-invasive methodologies as Electrical Resistivity Tomography - ERT - and Distributed Temperature Sensing - DTS. ERT is commonly applied in cross-well configuration or with a superficial electrodes deployment while DTS is used in hydro-geophysics in the last decade, revealing a wide applicability to the typical issues of this field of study. DTS for hydro-geophysics studies is based on Raman scattering and employs heat as tracer and uses a fiber-optic cable to acquire temperature values. We applied both techniques for an alpine river case studies located in Val di Sole, TN, Italy. The collected measurements allow high-resolution characterization of the hyporheic zone, overcoming the critical problem of invasive measurements under riverbeds. In this work, we present the preliminary results regarding the characterization of the hyporheic zone of the alpine river obtained combining ERT and DTS time-lapse measurements. The data collection benefits from an innovative instrumentation deployment, which consists of both an ERT multicore cable and a DTS fiber-optic located in two separated boreholes drilled 5m under the watercourse and perpendicular to it. In particular we present the first year monitoring results and a short time-lapse monitoring experiment conducted during summer 2015. The site and the results here described are part of the EU FP7 CLIMB (Climate Induced Changes on the

  2. Monitoring the geothermal fluid using time lapse electrical resistivity tomography: The Pisciarelli fumarolic field test site (Campi Flegrei, South Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedele, Alessandro; Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Troiano, Antonio; Somma, Reanto; Caputo, Teresa; Patella, Domenico; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Pisciarelli area is a fumarolic field subject to very short time morphological changes. A number of critical problems affect this area, i.e. increase of temperature of the fumaroles above the average background temperature, local seismicity and occurrence of fumaroles mixed with jets of boiling water. The presence of a very shallow aquifer seem to have the control on the behavior and composition of the fumaroles. This fumarolic field is still largely unknown regarding geophysical surveys mainly because of its limited space, surrounded on the eastern side by intense urbanization inside the large Agnano crater (Troiano et al. 2014). Currently is mainly affected by geochemical, thermal and seismic monitoring which may not fully explain the behaviour of fluids surface. Many monitoring or time lapse (TL) applications are discussed in literature (e.g., White, 1994; Daily et al., 1995; Barker and Moore, 1998; Ramirez and Daily, 2001; Carter, 2002; Slater et al., 2002; Singha and Gorelick, 2005; Cassiani et al., 2006; Swarzenski et al., 2006; de Franco et al., 2009). However all these experiments are devoted to the use of the ERT for tracer tests or in contaminant hydrology and are characterized by a short monitoring period due to the complexity and problems of long-time instrument maintenance. We propose and present a first approach of a geophysical monitoring by time lapse electrical resistivity in a fumarolic field. The profiles were acquired in January 2013, in January, March, May, July, September and November 2014 respectively. They cross the Pisciarelli area following approximately the NS direction and were characterized by a 2.5 m electrode spacing and maximum penetration depth of about 20 m. and will supply fundamental evidences on the possible seasonal resistivity fluctuations or if the resistivity changes are indicative of an increase in volcanic gases present in the hydrothermal system.

  3. Spatial-temporal variation of near-surface temperature lapse rates over the Tianshan Mountains, central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yan-Jun; Shen, Yanjun; Goetz, Jason; Brenning, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    Adequate estimates of near-surface temperature lapse rate (γlocal) are needed to represent air temperature in remote mountain regions with sparse instrumental records such as the mountains of central Asia. To identify the spatial and temporal variations of γlocal in the Tianshan Mountains, long-term (1961-2011) daily maximum, mean, and minimum temperature (Tmax, Tmean, and Tmin) data from 17 weather stations and 1 year of temperature logger data were analyzed considering three subregions: northern slopes, Kaidu Basin, and southern slopes. Simple linear regression was performed to identify relationships between elevation and temperature, revealing spatial and seasonal variations in γlocal. The γlocal are higher on the southern slopes than the northern slopes due to topography and regional climate conditions. Seasonally, γlocal are more pronounced higher in the summer than in the winter months. The γlocal are generally higher for Tmax than Tmean and Tmin. The Kaidu Basin shows similar seasonal variability but with the highest γlocal for Tmean and Tmin occurring in the spring. Formation of γlocal patterns is associated with the interactions of climate factors in different subregions. Overall, annual mean γlocal for Tmax, Tmean, and Tmin in the study's subregions are lower than the standard atmospheric lapse rate (6.5°C km-1), which would therefore be an inadequate choice for representing the near-surface temperature conditions in this area. Our findings highlight the importance of spatial and temporal variations of γlocal in hydrometeorological research in the data-sparse Tianshan Mountains.

  4. Pembina Cardium CO2-EOR monitoring project: Integrated surface seismic and VSP time-lapse seismic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshuhail, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    In the Pembina field in west-central Alberta, Canada, approximately 40,000 tons of supercritical CO2 was injected into the 1650 m deep, 20 m thick upper-Cretaceous Cardium Fm. between March 2005 and 2007. A time-lapse seismic program was designed and incorporated into the overall measurement, monitoring and verification program. The objectives were to track the CO2 plume within the reservoir, and to evaluate the integrity of storage. Fluid replacement modeling predicts a decrease in the P-wave velocity and bulk density in the reservoir by about 4% and 1%, respectively. Synthetic seismograms show subtle reflectivity changes at the Cardium Fm. and a traveltime delay at the later high-amplitude Viking event of less than 1 ms. The time-lapse datasets, however, show no significant anomalies in the P-wave seismic data that can be attributed to supercritical CO2 injected into the Cardium Fm. (Figure 1). The converted-wave (P-S) data, on the other hand, showed small traveltime anomalies. The most coherent results were those obtained by the fixed-array VSP dataset (Figure 2) due to higher frequency bandwidth and high signal to noise ratio. The amplitude and traveltime changes observed in the VSP dataset are small but are consistent in magnitude with those predicted from rock physics modeling. The analysis suggests that the inability to clearly detect the CO2 plume in surface seismic data is likely due to the CO2 being contained in thin permeable sandstone members of the Cardium Formation. The seismic signature of the Cardium Fm. in this area may also be degraded by multiples and strong attenuation involving the shallow Ardley coals. However, the lack of a 4D seismic changes above the reservoir indicates that the injected CO2 is not migrating through the caprock into shallower formations.

  5. Assessing Uncertainty and Repeatability in Time-Lapse VSP Monitoring of CO2 Injection in a Brine Aquifer, Frio Formation, Texas (A Case Study)

    SciTech Connect

    Nazari, Siamak; Daley, Thomas M.

    2013-02-07

    This study was done to assess the repeatability and uncertainty of time-lapse VSP response to CO2 injection in the Frio formation near Houston Texas. A work flow was built to assess the effect of time-lapse injected CO2 into two Frio brine reservoir intervals, the ‘C’ sand (Frio1) and the ‘Blue sand’ (Frio2). The time-lapse seismic amplitude variations with sensor depth for both reservoirs Frio1 and Frio2 were computed by subtracting the seismic response of the base survey from each of the two monitor seismic surveys. Source site 1 has been considered as one of the best sites for evaluating the time-lapse response after injection. For site 1, the computed timelapse NRMS levels after processing had been compared to the estimated time-lapse NRMS level before processing for different control reflectors, and for brine aquifers Frio1, and Frio2 to quantify detectability of amplitude difference. As the main interest is to analyze the time-lapse amplitude variations, different scenarios have been considered. Three different survey scenarios were considered: the base survey which was performed before injection, monitor1 performed after the first injection operation, and monitor2 which was after the second injection. The first scenario was base-monitor1, the second was basemonitor2, and the third was monitor1-monitor2. We considered three ‘control’ reflections above the Frio to assist removal of overburden changes, and concluded that third control reflector (CR3) is the most favorable for the first scenario in terms of NRMS response, and first control reflector (CR1) is the most favorable for the second and third scenarios in terms of NRMS response. The NRMS parameter is shown to be a useful measure to assess the effect of processing on time-lapse data. The overall NRMS for the Frio VSP data set was found to be in the range of 30% to 80% following basic processing. This could be considered as an estimated baseline in assessing the utility

  6. Application of time-lapse seismic shear wave inversion to characterize the stimulated rock volume in the Niobrara and Codell Reservoirs, Wattenberg Field, CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Staci K.

    Advances in horizontal drilling and completions in shale reservoirs have allowed operators to extract hydrocarbons within low permeability reservoirs that were once impossible to access. The integration of time-lapse multicomponent seismic data with engineering technology aids in the characterization of these reservoirs through monitoring. This thesis investigates the fast and slow shear wave components of a time-lapse, nine-component seismic survey to determine the stimulated volume in the Niobrara and Codell reservoir intervals. The time-lapse post-stack inversions of the shear wave datasets provide insight into how the shear impedance is affected by hydraulic fracturing through the work of cross-equalized seismic shear impedances and shear wave splitting. The study area is the Wishbone Section within Wattenberg Field, CO, which is owned and operated by Anadarko Petroleum Corporation and contains eleven horizontal wells that vary in spacing and completion methods. Shear seismic data sets were acquired over this section before and after hydraulic stimulation. The time-lapse shear seismic inversions show an increase in fast shear wave velocity and a decrease in slow shear velocity after stimulation. The sensitivity of both the fast and slow shear seismic to stimulation correlates with the net pressure trends at each stage. Borehole image log interpretations are compared to the inversions to analyze the affect that a complex fracture network has on induced anisotropy. The stimulated volume for the Niobrara and Codell reservoir intervals are now more accurately defined. Time-lapse shear seismic is the only technology that is able to define the stimulated rock volume and reveal areas that are not being accessed by the wells currently drilled. These areas are now detected within the Wishbone section, and may be candidates for future re-completion.

  7. CO2 mass estimation visible in time-lapse 3D seismic data from a saline aquifer and uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, A.; Lueth, S.; Bergmann, P.; Ivandic, M.

    2014-12-01

    At Ketzin (Germany) the first European onshore pilot scale project for geological storage of CO2 was initiated in 2004. This project is multidisciplinary and includes 3D time-lapse seismic monitoring. A 3D pre-injection seismic survey was acquired in 2005. Then CO2 injection into a sandstone saline aquifer started at a depth of 650 m in 2008. A 1st 3D seismic repeat survey was acquired in 2009 after 22 kilotons had been injected. The imaged CO2 signature was concentrated around the injection well (200-300 m). A 2nd 3D seismic repeat survey was acquired in 2012 after 61 kilotons had been injected. The imaged CO2 signature further extended (100-200 m). The injection was terminated in 2013. Totally 67 kilotons of CO2 were injected. Time-lapse seismic processing, petrophysical data and geophysical logging on CO2 saturation have allowed for an estimate of the amount of CO2 visible in the seismic data. This estimate is dependent upon a choice of a number of parameters and contains a number of uncertainties. The main uncertainties are following. The constant reservoir porosity and CO2 density used for the estimation are probably an over-simplification since the reservoir is quite heterogeneous. May be velocity dispersion is present in the Ketzin reservoir rocks, but we do not consider it to be large enough that it could affect the mass of CO2 in our estimation. There are only a small number of direct petrophysical observations, providing a weak statistical basis for the determination of seismic velocities based on CO2 saturation and we have assumed that the petrophysical experiments were carried out on samples that are representative for the average properties of the whole reservoir. Finally, the most of the time delay values in the both 3D seismic repeat surveys within the amplitude anomaly are near the noise level of 1-2 ms, however a change of 1 ms in the time delay affects significantly the mass estimate, thus the choice of the time-delay cutoff is crucial. In spite

  8. Analysis of embryo morphokinetics, multinucleation and cleavage anomalies using continuous time-lapse monitoring in blastocyst transfer cycles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Time-lapse imaging combined with embryo morphokinetics may offer a non-invasive means for improving embryo selection. Data from clinics worldwide are necessary to compare and ultimately develop embryo classifications models using kinetic data. The primary objective of this study was to determine if there were kinetic differences between embryos with limited potential and those more often associated with in vitro blastocyst formation and/or implantation. We also wanted to compare putative kinetic markers for embryo selection as proposed by other laboratories to what we were observing in our own laboratory setting. Methods Kinetic data and cycle outcomes were retrospectively analyzed in patients age 39 and younger with 7 or more zygotes cultured in the Embryoscope. Timing of specific events from the point of insemination were determined using time-lapse (TL) imaging. The following kinetic markers were assessed: time to syngamy (tPNf), t2, time to two cells (c), 3c (t3), 4c ( t4), 5c (t5), 8c (t8), morula (tMor), start of blastulation (tSB); tBL, blastocyst (tBL); expanded blastocyst (tEBL). Durations of the second (cc2) and third (cc3) cell cycles, the t5-t2 interval as well as time to complete synchronous divisions s1, s2 and s3 were calculated. Incidence and impact on development of nuclear and cleavage anomalies were also assessed. Results A total of 648 embryos transferred on day 5 were analyzed. The clinical pregnancy and implantation rate were 72% and 50%, respectively. Morphokinetic data showed that tPNf, t2,t4, t8, s1, s2,s3 and cc2 were significantly different in embryos forming blastocysts (ET or frozen) versus those with limited potential either failing to blastulate or else forming poor quality blastocysts ,ultimately discarded. Comparison of embryo kinetics in cycles with all embryos implanting (KID+) versus no implantation (KID-) suggested that markers of embryo competence to implant may be different from ability to form a blastocyst. The

  9. An effective assay for high cellular resolution time-lapse imaging of sensory placode formation and morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The vertebrate peripheral nervous system contains sensory neurons that arise from ectodermal placodes. Placodal cells ingress to move inside the head to form sensory neurons of the cranial ganglia. To date, however, the process of placodal cell ingression and underlying cellular behavior are poorly understood as studies have relied upon static analyses on fixed tissues. Visualizing placodal cell behavior requires an ability to distinguish the surface ectoderm from the underlying mesenchyme. This necessitates high resolution imaging along the z-plane which is difficult to accomplish in whole embryos. To address this issue, we have developed an imaging system using cranial slices that allows direct visualization of placode formation. Results We demonstrate an effective imaging assay for capturing placode development at single cell resolution using chick embryonic tissue ex vivo. This provides the first time-lapse imaging of mitoses in the trigeminal placodal ectoderm, ingression, and intercellular contacts of placodal cells. Cell divisions with varied orientations were found in the placodal ectoderm all along the apical-basal axis. Placodal cells initially have short cytoplasmic processes during ingression as young neurons and mature over time to elaborate long axonal processes in the mesenchyme. Interestingly, the time-lapse imaging data reveal that these delaminating placodal neurons begin ingression early on from within the ectoderm, where they start to move and continue on to exit as individual or strings of neurons through common openings on the basal side of the epithelium. Furthermore, dynamic intercellular contacts are abundant among the delaminating placodal neurons, between these and the already delaminated cells, as well as among cells in the forming ganglion. Conclusions This new imaging assay provides a powerful method to analyze directly development of placode-derived sensory neurons and subsequent ganglia formation for the first time in

  10. Assessment of human embryos by time-lapse videography: A comparison of quantitative and qualitative measures between two independent laboratories.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanhe; Copeland, Christopher; Stevens, Adam; Feenan, Katie; Chapple, Vincent; Myssonski, Kim; Roberts, Peter; Matson, Phillip

    2015-12-01

    A total of 488 Day 3 human embryos with known implantation data from two independent in vitro fertilization laboratories were included for analysis, with 270 from Fertility North (FN) and 218 from Canberra Fertility Centre (CFC). Implanting embryos grew at different rates between FN and CFC as indicated in hours of the time intervals between pronuclear fading and the 4- (13.9 ± 1.1 vs. 14.9 ± 1.8), 5- (25.7 ± 1.9 vs. 28.4 ± 3.7) and 8-cell stages (29.0 ± 3.2 vs. 32.2 ± 4.6), as well as the durations of 2- (10.8 ± 0.8 vs. 11.6 ± 1.1), 3- (0.4 ± 0.5 vs. 0.9 ± 1.2), and 4-cell stages (11.8 ± 1.4 vs. 13.6 ± 2.9), all p<0.05. The application of a previously published time-lapse algorithm on ICSI embryos from the two participating laboratories failed to reproduce a predictive pattern of implantation outcomes (FN: AUC=0.565, p=0.250; CFC: AUC=0.614, p=0.224). However, for the qualitative measures including poor conventional morphology, direct cleavage, reverse cleavage and <6 intercellular contact points at the end of the 4-cell stage, there were similar proportions of embryos showing at least one of these biological events in either implanting (3.1% vs. 3.3%, p>0.05) or non-implanting embryos (30.4% vs. 38.3%, p>0.05) between FN and CFC. Furthermore, implanting embryos favored lower proportions of the above biological events compared to the non-implanting ones in both laboratories (both p<0.01). To conclude, human embryo morphokinetics may vary between laboratories, therefore time-lapse algorithms emphasizing quantitative timing parameters may have reduced inter-laboratory transferability; qualitative measures are independent of cell division timings, with potentially improved inter-laboratory reproducibility.

  11. Field measurement of erosion rates: time-lapse monitoring of rapid stone flaking at Howden Minster, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doehne, E.; Pinchin, S.

    2012-04-01

    The use of a solar-powered, field time-lapse camera and environmental monitoring system enabled measurements of the pattern and rate of loss of stone from the surface of Howden Minster, an abandoned monastery in Yorkshire dating to 1380 AD. Acquiring a photograph every 1-3 hours allowed the stone damage to be correlated with local environmental conditions. Image comparison techniques borrowed from observational astronomy, such as blink comparison, were used to determine what elements had changed from image to image. Results indicate that loss is episodic rather than continuous and in several cases is related to specific environmental conditions, such as condensation/dew formation or high winds. Damage was found also to be synchronous, with surface change (flaking, granular disintegration, and loss of flakes) occurring at the same time on different stone blocks. Crystallization pressure from magnesium sulfate phase transitions appear to be the main cause of the loss of stone surfaces. Significant variation in surface loss rates was observed and appears to be related to variations in salt concentration. An examination of stone texture by ESEM/EDS revealed signification variations and suggests that salt concentrations are controlled in part by stone micromorphology. Quantitative data on rates of surface loss are not available from most monuments. Time-lapse methods permit the relatively inexpensive acquisition of this type of data, which is needed to aid conservation decision-making and the evaluation of interventions. Such tools should also prove useful to geomorphologists studying honeycomb weathering, the moving rocks on Death Valley's Racetrack Playa, and other phenomena that are otherwise difficult to study. Context: The rapid deterioration of magnesian limestone structures in the north of England has been a serious problem for more than one hundred years. While air quality in England has improved during this period, the rate of stone loss in these carved stone

  12. Exploring what lies behind public preferences for avoiding health losses caused by lapses in healthcare safety and patient lifestyle choices

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although many studies have identified public preferences for prioritising health care interventions based on characteristics of recipient or care, very few of them have examined the reasons for the stated preferences. We conducted an on-line person trade-off (PTO) study (N=1030) to investigate whether the public attach a premium to the avoidance of ill health associated with alternative types of responsibilities: lapses in healthcare safety, those caused by individual action or lifestyle choice; or genetic conditions. We found that the public gave higher priority to prevention of harm in a hospital setting such as preventing hospital associated infections than genetic disorder but drug administration errors were valued similar to genetic disorders. Prevention of staff injuries, lifestyle diseases and sports injuries, were given lower priority. In this paper we aim to understand the reasoning behind the responses by analysing comments provided by respondents to the PTO questions. Method A majority of the respondents who participated in the survey provided brief comments explaining preferences in free text responses following PTO questions. This qualitative data was transformed into explicit codes conveying similar meanings. An overall coding framework was developed and a reliability test was carried out. Recurrent patterns were identified in each preference group. Comments which challenged the assumptions of hypothetical scenarios were also investigated. Results NHS causation of illness and a duty of care were the most cited reasons to prioritise lapses in healthcare safety. Personal responsibility dominated responses for lifestyle related contexts, and many respondents mentioned that health loss was the result of the individual’s choice to engage in risky behaviour. A small proportion of responses questioned the assumptions underlying the PTO questions. However excluding these from the main analysis did not affect the conclusions. Conclusion Although

  13. Prospective Memory in Substance Abusers at Treatment Entry: Associations with Education, Neuropsychological Functioning, and Everyday Memory Lapses

    PubMed Central

    Weinborn, Michael; Woods, Steven Paul; O'Toole, Stephanie; Kellogg, Emily J.; Moyle, Jonson

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) commonly report lapses in prospective memory (PM) in their daily lives; however, our understanding of the profile and predictors of laboratory-based PM deficits in SUDs and their associations with everyday PM failures is still very preliminary. The current study examined these important questions using well-validated measures of self-report and laboratory-based PM in a mixed cohort of 53 SUD individuals at treatment entry and 44 healthy adults. Consistent with prior research, the SUD group endorsed significantly more self-cued and environmentally based PM failures in their daily lives. Moreover, the SUD group demonstrated significantly lower time-based PM performance, driven largely by cue detection errors. The effect of SUDs on PM was particularly strong among participants with fewer years of education. Within the SUD cohort, time-based PM was correlated with clinical measures assessing executive functions, retrospective memory, and psychomotor speed. Importantly, time-based PM was uniquely associated with elevated PM failures in daily lives of the SUD participants, independent of current affective distress and other neurocognitive deficits. Findings suggest that individuals with SUD are vulnerable to deficits in PM, which may in turn increase their risk for poorer everyday functioning outcomes (e.g., treatment non-compliance). PMID:21903701

  14. Monitoring the impact of de-icing salt on roadside soils with time-lapse resistivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olofsson, Bo; Lundmark, Annika

    2009-03-01

    Monitoring systems along roads are needed to facilitate decisions on improving protection of water resources and decreasing the impact of road-related pollutants on the roadside environment. This paper presents a monitoring system using permanently installed electrodes and monthly measurements of resistivity at a motorway in Sweden with heavy loads of de-icing salt. A significant increase in resistivity in the vadose zone with increasing distance from the road was shown in both sand and glacial till areas during the whole year. By measuring temporal variations in a less affected environment further from the road, a distinction could be made between more natural variations and variations due to de-icing salt and melting of roadside snowbanks. The highest resistivities occurred in October-November and the lowest in January-March, while the more natural resistivities showed an opposing temporal variation. The difference was up to 35% on a log-scale in the sand area during the latter period. Hence, the time-lapse resistivity measurements clearly showed a strong influence of de-icing salt on roadside soils and groundwater during winter and spring. The measurement system and the analysis methods proved useful for monitoring both the spatial and seasonal variation in resistivity.

  15. The sexual phase of the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata: cytological and time-lapse cinematography characterization.

    PubMed

    Scalco, Eleonora; Amato, Alberto; Ferrante, Maria Immacolata; Montresor, Marina

    2016-11-01

    Pseudo-nitzschia is a thoroughly studied pennate diatom genus for ecological and biological reasons. Many species in this genus, including Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata, can produce domoic acid, a toxin responsible for amnesic shellfish poisoning. Physiological, phylogenetic and biological features of P. multistriata were studied extensively in the past. Life cycle stages, including the sexual phase, fundamental in diatoms to restore the maximum cell size and avoid miniaturization to death, have been well described for this species. P. multistriata is heterothallic; sexual reproduction is induced when strains of opposite mating type are mixed, and proceeds with cells producing two functionally anisogamous gametes each; however, detailed cytological information for this process is missing. By means of confocal laser scanning microscopy and nuclear staining, we followed the nuclear fate during meiosis, and using time-lapse cinematography, we timed every step of the sexual reproduction process from mate pairing to initial cell hatching. The present paper depicts cytological aspects during gametogenesis in P. multistriata, shedding light on the chloroplast behaviour during sexual reproduction, finely describing the timing of the sexual phases and providing reference data for further studies on the molecular control of this fundamental process.

  16. Time-Lapse Observation of Electrolysis of Copper Sulfate with a Full-Field X-ray Fluorescence Imaging Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohigashi, Takuji; Aota, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Norio; Takano, Hidekazu; Yokosuka, Hiroki; Aoki, Sadao

    2008-06-01

    The time-lapse observation of the electrodeposition of copper in copper sulfate solution was performed by imaging X-ray fluorescence from the copper deposition. The X-ray fluorescence was directly imaged with a full-field Wolter mirror microscope, which was constructed at the Photon Factory. Controlling the electric current in the solution from 0 to 71.7 µA, the deposition of copper on a Pt cathode was directly observed by imaging its X-ray fluorescence. One exposure time for obtaining an X-ray fluorescence image was 80 s. Then, it was 17 min later from the beginning of the electrolysis when the X-ray fluorescence image of the electrodeposition is observed for the first time. At this exposure time, the detection limit of the mass of copper was estimated to be 0.60 pg/image, which was calculated using test samples of 1.00×10-3-1.00 mol/l copper sulfate solutions.

  17. Analysis of the temperature dynamics of a proglacial river using time-lapse thermal imaging and energy balance modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas, M. Bayani; Doering, Michael; Rivas, Denny S.; Galdeano, Carlos; Neilson, Bethany T.; Robinson, Christopher T.

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the temperature dynamics of rivers is critical for their management and for ecological and biogeochemical aquatic processes. In proglacial rivers, there is typically a paucity of thermal observations which in turn limits the understanding of these sensitive and evolving environments. Here we collected ground-based thermal images, with approximately meter resolution and imaged every half hour for 24 h, of a proglacial river and 2 km2 of its floodplain and interpret the observations using a numerical energy balance model. The images revealed the longitudinal thermal pattern of the Urbach River in Switzerland - there was gradual cooling in the upstream half of the study section and then warming in the remaining downstream portion. This pattern persisted through the diurnal warming and cooling cycle. The spatio-temporal thermal pattern was explained by a model that included distributed thermal inputs of cooler water in the upstream half coming from alluvial fans and warmer water in the downstream half running off steep cliffs that warm snowmelt. The warm inputs from the cliffs were confirmed by the thermal imaging. These data and the associated modeling illustrated that distributed inflows can overwhelm the influence of atmospheric fluxes, and that their knowledge is critical for understanding stream temperatures. The combination of modeling and detailed time-lapse thermal imaging allowed for identification and quantification of processes critical to in-stream temperature dynamics in a proglacial river.

  18. Lapses, infidelities, and creative adaptations: lessons from evaluation of a participatory market development approach in the Andes.

    PubMed

    Horton, Douglas; Rotondo, Emma; Paz Ybarnegaray, Rodrigo; Hareau, Guy; Devaux, André; Thiele, Graham

    2013-08-01

    Participatory approaches are frequently recommended for international development programs, but few have been evaluated. From 2007 to 2010 the Andean Change Alliance evaluated an agricultural research and development approach known as the "Participatory Market Chain Approach" (PMCA). Based on a study of four cases, this paper examines the fidelity of implementation, the factors that influenced implementation and results, and the PMCA change model. We identify three types of deviation from the intervention protocol (lapses, creative adaptations, and true infidelities) and five groups of variables that influenced PMCA implementation and results (attributes of the macro context, the market chain, the key actors, rules in use, and the capacity development strategy). There was insufficient information to test the validity of the PMCA change model, but results were greatest where the PMCA was implemented with highest fidelity. Our analysis suggests that the single most critical component of the PMCA is engagement of market agents - not just farmers - throughout the exercise. We present four lessons for planning and evaluating participatory approaches related to the use of action and change models, the importance of monitoring implementation fidelity, the limits of baseline survey data for outcome evaluation, and the importance of capacity development for implementers.

  19. Automated segmentation and tracking of non-rigid objects in time-lapse microscopy videos of polymorphonuclear neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Brandes, Susanne; Mokhtari, Zeinab; Essig, Fabian; Hünniger, Kerstin; Kurzai, Oliver; Figge, Marc Thilo

    2015-02-01

    Time-lapse microscopy is an important technique to study the dynamics of various biological processes. The labor-intensive manual analysis of microscopy videos is increasingly replaced by automated segmentation and tracking methods. These methods are often limited to certain cell morphologies and/or cell stainings. In this paper, we present an automated segmentation and tracking framework that does not have these restrictions. In particular, our framework handles highly variable cell shapes and does not rely on any cell stainings. Our segmentation approach is based on a combination of spatial and temporal image variations to detect moving cells in microscopy videos. This method yields a sensitivity of 99% and a precision of 95% in object detection. The tracking of cells consists of different steps, starting from single-cell tracking based on a nearest-neighbor-approach, detection of cell-cell interactions and splitting of cell clusters, and finally combining tracklets using methods from graph theory. The segmentation and tracking framework was applied to synthetic as well as experimental datasets with varying cell densities implying different numbers of cell-cell interactions. We established a validation framework to measure the performance of our tracking technique. The cell tracking accuracy was found to be >99% for all datasets indicating a high accuracy for connecting the detected cells between different time points.

  20. Retrospective analysis of outcomes after IVF using an aneuploidy risk model derived from time-lapse imaging without PGS.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Alison; Fishel, Simon; Bowman, Natalie; Duffy, Samantha; Sedler, Mark; Thornton, Simon

    2013-08-01

    Time-lapse imaging of human preimplantation IVF embryos has enabled objective algorithms based on novel observations of development (morphokinetics) to be used for clinical selection of embryos. Embryo aneuploidy, a major cause of IVF failure, has been correlated with specific morphokinetic variables used previously to develop an aneuploidy risk classification model. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and potential impact of this model for unselected IVF patients without biopsy and preimplantation genetic screening (PGS). Embryo outcomes - no implantation, fetal heart beat (FHB) and live birth (LB) - of 88 transferred blastocysts were compared according to calculated aneuploidy risk classes (low, medium, high). A significant difference was seen for FHB (P<0.0001) and LB (P<0.01) rates between embryos classified as low and medium risk. Within the low-risk class, relative increases of 74% and 56%, compared with rates for all blastocysts, were observed for FHB and LB respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.75 for FHB and 0.74 for LB. This study demonstrates the clinical relevance of the aneuploidy risk classification model and introduces a novel, non-invasive method of embryo selection to yield higher implantation and live birth rates without PGS.

  1. Working Memory Moderates the Association Between Smoking Urge and Smoking Lapse Behavior After Alcohol Administration in a Laboratory Analogue Task

    PubMed Central

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Metrik, Jane; Spillane, Nichea S.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lapses after smoking cessation often occur in the context of alcohol use, possibly because alcohol increases urge to smoke. Poor working memory, or alcohol-induced decrements in working memory, may influence this relationship by making it more difficult for an individual to resist smoking in the face of smoking urges. Methods: Participants (n = 41) completed measures of working memory and urge to smoke before and after alcohol administration (placebo, 0.4g/kg, and 0.8g/kg, within subjects) and then participated in a laboratory analogue task in which smoking abstinence was monetarily incentivized. Results: Working memory moderated the relationship between smoking urge and latency to smoke: for those with relatively poorer working memory, urge to smoke was more strongly and negatively associated with latency to smoke (i.e., higher urges were associated with shorter latency). Conclusions: Those with weak working memory may need additional forms of treatment to help them withstand smoking urges. PMID:25481913

  2. Acquiring Fluorescence Time-lapse Movies of Budding Yeast and Analyzing Single-cell Dynamics using GRAFTS

    PubMed Central

    Zopf, Christopher J.; Maheshri, Narendra

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence time-lapse microscopy has become a powerful tool in the study of many biological processes at the single-cell level. In particular, movies depicting the temporal dependence of gene expression provide insight into the dynamics of its regulation; however, there are many technical challenges to obtaining and analyzing fluorescence movies of single cells. We describe here a simple protocol using a commercially available microfluidic culture device to generate such data, and a MATLAB-based, graphical user interface (GUI) -based software package to quantify the fluorescence images. The software segments and tracks cells, enables the user to visually curate errors in the data, and automatically assigns lineage and division times. The GUI further analyzes the time series to produce whole cell traces as well as their first and second time derivatives. While the software was designed for S. cerevisiae, its modularity and versatility should allow it to serve as a platform for studying other cell types with few modifications. PMID:23892428

  3. [Time lapse (Embryoscope®) as a routine technique in the IVF laboratory: a useful tool for better embryo selection?].

    PubMed

    Freour, T; Lammers, J; Splingart, C; Jean, M; Barriere, P

    2012-09-01

    Among all the strategies available in order to improve success rates in IVF cycles, a lot of work has been done on embryo culture conditions and embryo quality evaluation. Most IVF centres use conventional incubators and select embryo according to punctual morphological evaluation, but this strategy has several limitations. Recently developed commercial devices associating more stable culture conditions and time lapse observation of embryo development provide new insights into early embryo development in IVF cycles. Among them, the Embryoscope(®) appears to be the most user-friendly, performing and suited for routine daily practice. The first Embryoscope(®) for France was installed in the University Hospital of Nantes in 2011. In our experience, it takes relatively a short time to get used to this system. Moreover, its integration in routine process yielded several advantages, such as better embryo selection according to kinetic parameters and observation of abnormal cleavage events, continuing education and training, quality control and flexibility. This leaded to an overall increase in success rates in IVF cycles.

  4. Improving snow process modeling with satellite-based estimation of near-surface-air-temperature lapse rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Sun, Litao; Shrestha, Maheswor; Li, Xiuping; Liu, Wenbin; Zhou, Jing; Yang, Kun; Lu, Hui; Chen, Deliang

    2016-10-01

    In distributed hydrological modeling, surface air temperature (Tair) is of great importance in simulating cold region processes, while the near-surface-air-temperature lapse rate (NLR) is crucial to prepare Tair (when interpolating Tair from site observations to model grids). In this study, a distributed biosphere hydrological model with improved snow physics (WEB-DHM-S) was rigorously evaluated in a typical cold, large river basin (e.g., the upper Yellow River basin), given a mean monthly NLRs. Based on the validated model, we have examined the influence of the NLR on the simulated snow processes and streamflows. We found that the NLR has a large effect on the simulated streamflows, with a maximum difference of greater than 24% among the various scenarios for NLRs considered. To supplement the insufficient number of monitoring sites for near-surface-air-temperature at developing/undeveloped mountain regions, the nighttime Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer land surface temperature is used as an alternative to derive the approximate NLR at a finer spatial scale (e.g., at different elevation bands, different land covers, different aspects, and different snow conditions). Using satellite-based estimation of NLR, the modeling of snow processes has been greatly refined. Results show that both the determination of rainfall/snowfall and the snowpack process were significantly improved, contributing to a reduced summer evapotranspiration and thus an improved streamflow simulation.

  5. Cinemechanometry (CMM): A method to determine the forces that drive morphogenetic movements from time-lapse images.

    PubMed

    Cranston, P Graham; Veldhuis, Jim H; Narasimhan, Sriram; Brodland, G Wayne

    2010-09-01

    Although cell-level mechanical forces are crucial to tissue self-organization in contexts ranging from embryo development to cancer metastases to regenerative engineering, the absence of methods to map them over time has been a major obstacle to new understanding. Here, we present a technique for constructing detailed, dynamic maps of the forces driving morphogenetic events from time-lapse images. Forces in the cell are considered to be separable into unknown active driving forces and known passive forces, where actomyosin systems and microtubules contribute primarily to the first group and intermediate filaments and cytoplasm to the latter. A finite-element procedure is used to estimate the field of forces that must be applied to the passive components to produce their observed incremental deformations. This field is assumed to be generated by active forces resolved along user-defined line segments whose location, often along cell edges, is informed by the underlying biology. The magnitudes and signs of these forces are determined by a mathematical inverse method. The efficacy of the approach is demonstrated using noisy synthetic data from a cross section of a generic invagination and from a planar aggregate that involves two cell types, edge forces that vary with time and a neighbor change.

  6. Automated tracking of temporal displacements of a red blood cell obtained by time-lapse digital holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Moon, Inkyu; Yi, Faliu; Rappaz, Benjamin

    2016-01-20

    Red blood cell (RBC) phase images that are numerically reconstructed by digital holographic microscopy (DHM) can describe the cell structure and dynamics information beneficial for a quantitative analysis of RBCs. However, RBCs investigated with time-lapse DHM undergo temporal displacements when their membranes are loosely attached to the substrate during sedimentation on a glass surface or due to the microscope drift. Therefore, we need to develop a tracking algorithm to localize the same RBC among RBC image sequences and dynamically monitor its biophysical cell parameters; this information is helpful for studies on RBC-related diseases and drug tests. Here, we propose a method, which is a combination of the mean-shift algorithm and Kalman filter, to track a single RBC and demonstrate that the optical path length of the single RBC can be continually extracted from the tracked RBC. The Kalman filter is utilized to predict the target RBC position in the next frame. Then, the mean-shift algorithm starts execution from the predicted location, and a robust kernel, which is adaptive to changes in the RBC scale, shape, and direction, is designed to improve the accuracy of the tracking. Finally, the tracked RBC is segmented and parameters such as the RBC location are extracted to update the Kalman filter and the kernel function for mean-shift tracking; the characteristics of the target RBC are dynamically observed. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed algorithm.

  7. Retinal flat cells participate in the formation of fibers by retinal neuroblasts in vitro. Time lapse video studies.

    PubMed

    Li, H P; Sheffield, J B

    1986-03-01

    Freshly dissociated cells from embryonic chick neural retinas grow in characteristic patterns on flat cells or on chick embryo mesodermal cells. A striking difference between the two patterns is that the cells grown on flat cells are interconnected by a complex network of fibers, whereas those grown on mesodermal cells are aggregated into clusters that remain relatively isolated within the mesodermal monolayer. Analysis by time-lapse video microscopy indicates that two processes produce the fibers. (1) Fibers grow out by the extension of growth cones from cells within aggregates. (2) Neuronal cell aggregates that attach to two flat cells are pulled apart by the movement of the cells beneath them. As the aggregate is pulled apart, portions of the cells remain attached to the two halves, and their cytoplasm is drawn into thin fibers. The lack of fibers on a mesodermal substrate is due to two factors: (1) Aggregates are widely spaced on the substrate surface and do not come into contact often. (2) On those occasions when they do come into contact, the movement of the monolayer is so vigorous that emerging fibers are torn.

  8. Rapid drug susceptibility test of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using microscopic time-lapse imaging in an agarose matrix.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jungil; Yoo, Jungheon; Kim, Ki-Jung; Kim, Eun-Geun; Park, Kyung Ock; Kim, Hyejin; Kim, Haeun; Jung, Hyunju; Kim, Taeyoung; Choi, Myungjin; Kim, Hee Chan; Ryoo, Sungweon; Jung, Yong-Gyun; Kwon, Sunghoon

    2016-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem, and multi-drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) are spreading throughout the world. However, conventional drug susceptibility test (DST) methods, which rely on the detection of the colony formation on a solid medium, require 1-2 months to the result. A rapid and accurate DST is necessary to identify patients with drug-resistant TB and treat them with appropriate drugs. Here, we used microscopic imaging of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) immobilized in an agarose matrix for a rapid DST. The agarose matrix, which was molded in a microfluidic chip, was inoculated with MTB, and TB drugs in liquid culture medium diffused throughout the agarose to reach the MTB immobilized in the agarose matrix. After the responses of MTB to drugs were tracked with an automated microscopic system, an image-processing program automatically determined the susceptibility and resistance of MTB to specific doses of TB drugs. The automatic DST system was able to assess the drug susceptibility of various drug-resistant clinical TB strains within 9 days with an accuracy comparable to that of conventional method. Our rapid DST method based on microscopic time-lapse imaging greatly reduces the time required for a DST and can be used to rapidly and accurately treat TB patients.

  9. Imaging high stage river-water intrusion into a contaminated aquifer along a major river corridor using 2D time-lapse surface electrical resistivity tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Wallin, Erin L.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Greenwood, William J.; Zachara, John M.

    2013-03-29

    The Hanford 300 Area is located adjacent to the Columbia River in south-central Washington State, USA, and was a former site for nuclear fuel processing operations. Waste disposal practices resulted in persistent unsaturated zone and groundwater contamination, the primary contaminant of concern being uranium. Uranium behavior at the site is intimately linked with river stage driven groundwater-river water exchange such that understanding the nature of river water intrusion into the 300 Area is critical for predicting uranium desorption and transport. In this paper we use time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) to image the inland intrusion of river during high stage conditions. We demonstrate a modified time-lapse inversion approach, whereby the transient water table elevation is explicitly modeled by removing regularization constraints across the water table boundary. This implementation was critical for producing meaningful imaging results. We inverted approximately 1200 data sets (400 per line over 3 lines) using high performance computing resources to produce a time-lapse sequence of changes in bulk conductivity caused by river water intrusion during the 2011 spring runoff cycle over approximately 125 days. The resulting time series for each mesh element was then analyzed using common time series analysis to reveal the timing and location of river water intrusion beneath each line. The results reveal non-uniform flows characterized by preferred flow zones where river water enters and exits quickly with stage increase and decrease, and low permeability zones with broader bulk conductivity ‘break through’ curves and longer river water residence times. The time-lapse ERT inversion approach removes the deleterious effects of changing water table elevation and enables remote and spatial continuous groundwater-river water exchange monitoring using surface based ERT arrays under conditions where groundwater and river water conductivity are in contrast.

  10. Spatial and Temporal Variation of Boundary Layer Lapse Rate and Cloud-top-height Observed from MODIS, CALIPSO and AMSR-E over Eastern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, L.; Xie, F.; Winning, T.

    2015-12-01

    The strong free tropospheric subsidence and the cool sea surface temperatures over the subtropical eastern Pacific Ocean often lead to a shallow and cloudy planetary boundary layer (PBL) capped by a strong inversion. These low PBL clouds are crucial for understanding the ocean-atmosphere interaction and the cloud-radiation feedback processes. However, accurate identification/representation of these clouds remains a key challenge in both satellite observations and global climate model simulations. Specifically, the cloud transition from the near-shore stratocumulus to trade-cumulus remains a huge challenge in climate models and warrants high-quality PBL observations from space. The MODIS collection 6 cloud top height vastly improves the global PBL cloud top heights (CTH) compared to collection 5. However, the MODIS collection 6 CTH still shows systematic higher CTH than CALIPSO in the subtropical subsidence region, which is likely due to the underestimation of lapse rate. This study presents the seasonal climatology of PBL lapse rate derived from multi-year CALIPSO with co-incident MODIS CTT and AMSR-E SST measurements. The lapse rate climatology is validated by the high-resolution radiosonde observations and then used to derive the CTH from MODIS measurements. Comparison of the new lapse rate based MODIS CTH with CALIPSO CTH will be presented. The PBL height derived from the COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate) GPS radio occultation (RO) will be used to evaluate the MODIS CTH as an independent dataset. The discrepancies over the transition from stratus to trade-cumuli regions (broken clouds) will also be discussed.

  11. Presentation of a High Resolution Time Lapse 3D Groundwater Model of Metsähovi for Calculating the Gravity Effect of Groundwater in Local Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hokkanen, T. M.; Hartikainen, A.; Raja-Halli, A.; Virtanen, H.; Makinen, J.

    2015-12-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of this study is to construct a fine resolution time lapse groundwater (GW) model of Metsähovi (MH). GW, geological, and soil moisture (SM) data were collected for several years to achieve the goal. The knowledge of the behavior of the GW at local scale is essential for superconductive gravimeter (SG) investigations performing in MH. DESCRIPTION OF THE DATA Almost 50 sensors have been recorded SM data some 6 years with 1 to 5 minutes sampling frequency. The GW table has been monitored, both in bedrock and in soil, in many stages with all together 15 piezometers. Two geological sampling campaigns were conducted to get the knowledge of hydrological properties of soil in the study area of 200×200 m2 around SG station in MH. PRINCIPLE OF TIME LAPSE 3D HYDROGEOLOGICAL MODEL The model of study site consists of the surfaces of ground and bedrock gridded with 2×2 m2 resolution. The height of GW table was interpolated to 2×2×0.1 m3 grid between GW and SM monitoring points. Close to the outline of the study site and areas lacking of sensors GW table was defined by extrapolation and considering the geological information of the area. The bedrock porosity is 2% and soil porosity determined by geological information and SM recordings is from 5 to 35%. Only fully saturated media is considered in the time lapse model excluding unsaturated one. BENEFICIERS With a new model the fluctuation of GW table can be followed with ranging time lapses from 1 minute to 1 month. The gravity effect caused by the variation of GW table can be calculated more accurate than before in MH. Moreover, the new model can be validated and refined by measured gravity, i.e. hydrological model can be improved by SG recordings (Figure 1).

  12. Microfluidic device enabled quantitative time-lapse microscopic-photography for phenotyping vegetative and reproductive phases in Fusarium virguliforme, which is pathogenic to soybean

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Jill; Qiao, Xuan; Baumbach, Jordan; Xie, Jingyu; Dong, Liang; Bhattacharyya, Madan K.

    2017-01-01

    Time-lapse microscopic-photography allows in-depth phenotyping of microorganisms. Here we report development of such a system using a microfluidic device, generated from polydimethylsiloxane and glass slide, placed on a motorized stage of a microscope for conducting time-lapse microphotography of multiple observations in 20 channels simultaneously. We have demonstrated the utility of the device in studying growth, germination and sporulation in Fusarium virguliforme that causes sudden death syndrome in soybean. To measure the growth differences, we developed a polyamine oxidase fvpo1 mutant in this fungus that fails to grow in minimal medium containing polyamines as the sole nitrogen source. Using this system, we demonstrated that the conidiospores of the pathogen take an average of five hours to germinate. During sporulation, it takes an average of 10.5 h for a conidiospore to mature and get detached from its conidiophore for the first time. Conidiospores are developed in a single conidiophore one after another. The microfluidic device enabled quantitative time-lapse microphotography reported here should be suitable for screening compounds, peptides, micro-organisms to identify fungitoxic or antimicrobial agents for controlling serious plant pathogens. The device could also be applied in identifying suitable target genes for host-induced gene silencing in pathogens for generating novel disease resistance in crop plants. PMID:28295054

  13. Sex Differences in Stimulus Expectancy and Pharmacologic Effects of a Moderate Dose of Alcohol on Smoking Lapse Risk in a Laboratory Analogue Study

    PubMed Central

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Metrik, Jane; Spillane, Nichea S.; Leventhal, Adam M.; McKee, Sherry A.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; McGeary, John E.; Knopik, Valerie S.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Alcohol use is often implicated in initial lapses to smoking during quit smoking attempts. Mechanisms explaining this association are unknown but could include (a) learned associations between drinking and smoking or (b) direct pharmacologic effects of alcohol. Objectives In a 2 (Told Alcohol vs. Told Placebo) × 2 (0.4g/kg vs. 0.0 g/kg ethanol) between-subjects balanced-placebo design, we examined instruction and beverage condition effects on smokers’ ability to resist initiating smoking and whether these effects differed by sex. Methods Participants were 96 heavy alcohol drinkers, smoking 10–30 cigarettes per day. After 15 hours of smoking abstinence, participants consumed either an alcoholic or a non-alcoholic beverage and 35 minutes later completed a smoking lapse task. Results Overall, neither instructions nor beverage contents influenced behavior on the smoking lapse task. However, the instruction condition had different effects in men and women. Women, but not men, were more likely to smoke and reported expecting greater satisfaction from smoking when they were Told Alcohol compared to Told Placebo. The effects of instruction condition on smoking behavior were not mediated by self-reported expected satisfaction from smoking. Conclusions Women may be more likely to choose to smoke after drinking moderate amounts of alcohol because of their expectations rather than the pharmacological effects of the alcohol. PMID:22227611

  14. Time-lapse resistivity investigation of salinity changes at an ex-promontory land: a case study of Carey Island, Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tajul Baharuddin, Mohamad Faizal; Taib, Samsudin; Hashim, Roslan; Zainal Abidin, Mohd Hazreek; Ishak, Mohd Fakhrurrazi

    2011-09-01

    Time-lapse resistivity measurements and groundwater geochemistry were used to study salinity effect on groundwater aquifer at the ex-promontory-land of Carey Island in Malaysia. Resistivity was measured by ABEM Terrameter SAS4000 and ES10-64 electrode selector. Relationship between earth resistivity and total dissolved solids (TDS) was derived, and with resistivity images, used to identify water types: fresh (ρ ( e ) > 6.5 Ω m), brackish (3 Ω m < ρ ( e ) < 6.5 Ω m), or saline (ρ ( e ) < 3 Ω m). Long-term monitoring of the studied area's groundwater quality via measurements of its time-lapse resistivity showed salinity changes in the island's groundwater aquifers not conforming to seawater-freshwater hydraulic gradient. In some aquifers far from the coast, saline water was dominant, while in some others, freshwater 30 m thick showed groundwater potential. Land transformation is believed to have changed the island's hydrogeology, which receives saltwater pressure all the time, limiting freshwater recharge to the groundwater system. The time-lapse resistivity measurements showed active salinity changes at resistivity-image bottom moving up the image for two seasons' (wet and dry) conditions. The salinity changes are believed to have been caused by incremental tide passing through highly porous material in the active-salinity-change area. The study's results were used to plan a strategy for sustainable groundwater exploration of the island.

  15. Microfluidic device enabled quantitative time-lapse microscopic-photography for phenotyping vegetative and reproductive phases in Fusarium virguliforme, which is pathogenic to soybean.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Jill; Qiao, Xuan; Baumbach, Jordan; Xie, Jingyu; Dong, Liang; Bhattacharyya, Madan K

    2017-03-15

    Time-lapse microscopic-photography allows in-depth phenotyping of microorganisms. Here we report development of such a system using a microfluidic device, generated from polydimethylsiloxane and glass slide, placed on a motorized stage of a microscope for conducting time-lapse microphotography of multiple observations in 20 channels simultaneously. We have demonstrated the utility of the device in studying growth, germination and sporulation in Fusarium virguliforme that causes sudden death syndrome in soybean. To measure the growth differences, we developed a polyamine oxidase fvpo1 mutant in this fungus that fails to grow in minimal medium containing polyamines as the sole nitrogen source. Using this system, we demonstrated that the conidiospores of the pathogen take an average of five hours to germinate. During sporulation, it takes an average of 10.5 h for a conidiospore to mature and get detached from its conidiophore for the first time. Conidiospores are developed in a single conidiophore one after another. The microfluidic device enabled quantitative time-lapse microphotography reported here should be suitable for screening compounds, peptides, micro-organisms to identify fungitoxic or antimicrobial agents for controlling serious plant pathogens. The device could also be applied in identifying suitable target genes for host-induced gene silencing in pathogens for generating novel disease resistance in crop plants.

  16. Selection of competent blastocysts for transfer by combining time-lapse monitoring and array CGH testing for patients undergoing preimplantation genetic screening: a prospective study with sibling oocytes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent advances in time-lapse monitoring in IVF treatment have provided new morphokinetic markers for embryonic competence. However, there is still very limited information about the relationship between morphokinetic parameters, chromosomal compositions and implantation potential. Accordingly, this study aimed at investigating the effects of selecting competent blastocysts for transfer by combining time-lapse monitoring and array CGH testing on pregnancy and implantation outcomes for patients undergoing preimplantation genetic screening (PGS). Methods A total of 1163 metaphase II (MII) oocytes were retrieved from 138 PGS patients at a mean age of 36.6 ± 2.4 years. These sibling MII oocytes were then randomized into two groups after ICSI: 1) Group A, oocytes (n = 582) were cultured in the time-lapse system and 2) Group B, oocytes (n = 581) were cultured in the conventional incubator. For both groups, whole genomic amplification and array CGH testing were performed after trophectoderm biopsy on day 5. One to two euploid blastocysts within the most predictive morphokinetic parameters (Group A) or with the best morphological grade available (Group B) were selected for transfer to individual patients on day 6. Ongoing pregnancy and implantation rates were compared between the two groups. Results There were significant differences in clinical pregnancy rates between Group A and Group B (71.1% vs. 45.9%, respectively, p = 0.037). The observed implantation rate per embryo transfer significantly increased in Group A compared to Group B (66.2% vs. 42.4%, respectively, p = 0.011). Moreover, a significant increase in ongoing pregnancy rates was also observed in Group A compared to Group B (68.9% vs. 40.5%. respectively, p = 0.019). However, there was no significant difference in miscarriage rate between the time-lapse system and the conventional incubator (3.1% vs. 11.8%, respectively, p = 0.273). Conclusions This is the first prospective investigation using

  17. Are seismic velocity time-lapse changes due to fluid substitution or matrix dissolution? A CO2 sequestration study at Pohokura Field, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, L.; Sim, C. Y.; Macfarlane, J.; van Wijk, K.; Shragge, J. C.; Higgs, K.

    2015-12-01

    Time-lapse seismic signatures can be used to quantify fluid saturation and pressure changes in a reservoir undergoing CO2 sequestration. However, the injection of CO2 acidifies the water, which may dissolve and/or precipitate minerals. Understanding the impact on the rock frame from field seismic time-lapse changes remains an outstanding challenge. Here, we study the effects of carbonate-CO2-water reactions on the physical and elastic properties of rock samples with variable volumes of carbonate cementation. The effects of fluid substitution alone (brine to CO2) and those due to the combination of fluid substitution and mineral dissolution on time-lapse seismic signatures are studied by combining laboratory data, geophysical well-log data and 1-D seismic modeling. Nine rocks from Pohokura Field (New Zealand) are reacted with carbonic acid. The elastic properties are measured using a high-density laser-ultrasonic setup. We observe that P-wave velocity changes up to -19% and correlate with sandstone grain size. Coarse-grained sandstones show greater changes in elastic wave velocities due to dissolution than fine-grained sandstones. To put this in perspective, this velocity change is comparable to the effect of fluid substitution from brine to CO2. This can potentially create an ambiguity in the interpretation of the physical processes responsible for time-lapse signatures in a CO2injection scenario. The laboratory information is applied onto well-log data to model changes in elastic properties of sandstones at the well-log scale. Well-logs and core petrographic analyses are used to find an elastic model that best describes the observed elastic waves velocities in the cemented reservoir sandstones. The Constant-cement rock physics model is found to predict the elastic behaviour of the cemented sandstones. A possible late-time sequestration scenario is that both mineral dissolution and fluid substitution occur in the reservoir. 1-D synthetic seismograms show that

  18. Application of Time-Lapse Seismic Monitoring for the Control and Optimization of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Brian E. Toelle

    2006-02-28

    The ''Application of Time-Lapse Seismic Monitoring for the Control and Optimization of CO{sub 2} Enhanced Oil Recovery Operations'' project is investigating the potential for monitoring CO{sub 2} floods in carbonate reservoirs through the use of standard p-wave seismic data. This project will involve the use of 4D seismic (time lapse seismic) to try to observe the movement of the injected CO{sub 2} through the reservoir. The differences between certain seismic attributes, such as amplitude, will be used to detect and map the movement of CO{sub 2} within the reservoir. This technique has recently been shown to be effective in CO{sub 2} monitoring in EOR projects such as Weyborne. The project is being conducted in the Charlton 30/31 field in northern Michigan Basin which is a Silurian pinnacle reef that has completed its primary production. This field is now undergoing enhanced oil recovery using CO{sub 2}. The CO{sub 2} flood was initiated the end of 2005 when the injection of small amounts of CO{sub 2} begin in the A1 Carbonate. This injection was conducted for 2 months before being temporarily halted in order for pressure measurements to be conducted. The determination of the reservoir's porosity distribution is proving to be a significant portion of this project. In order to relate the differences observed between the seismic attributes seen on the multiple surveys and the actual location of the CO{sub 2}, a predictive reservoir simulation model had to be developed. From this model, an accurate determination of porosity within the carbonate reservoir must be obtained. For this certain seismic attributes have been investigated. The study reservoirs in the Charlton 30/31 field range from 50 to 400 acres in size. The relatively small area to image makes 3-D seismic data acquisition reasonably cost effective. Permeability and porosity vary considerably throughout the reef, thus it is essential to perform significant reservoir characterization and modeling prior to

  19. Regularized focusing inversion of time-lapse electrical resistivity data: an approach to parametrize the minimum gradient support functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Frédéric; Hermans, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Inversion of time-lapse resistivity data allows obtaining 'snapshots' of changes occurring in monitored systems for applications such as aquifer storage, geothermal heat exchange, site remediation or tracer tests. Based on these snapshots, one can infer qualitative information on the location and morphology of changes occurring in the subsurface but also quantitative estimates on the degree of changes in certain property such as temperature or total dissolved solid content. Analysis of these changes can provide direct insight into flow and transport and associated processes and controlling parameters. However, the reliability of the analysis is dependent on survey geometry, measurement schemes, data error, and regularization. Survey design parameters may be optimized prior to the monitoring survey. Regularization, on the other hand, may be chosen depending on available information collected during the monitoring. Common approaches consider smoothing model changes both in space and time but it is often needed to obtain a sharp temporal anomaly, for example in fractured aquifers. We here propose to use the alternative regularization approach based on minimum gradient support (MGS) (Zhdanov, 2002) for time-lapse surveys which will focus the changes in tomograms snapshots. MGS will limit the occurrences of changes in electrical resistivity but will also restrict the variations of these changes inside the different zones. A commonly encountered difficulty by practitioners in this type of regularization is the choice of an additional parameter, the so-called β, required to define the MGS functional. To the best of our knowledge, there is no commonly accepted or standard methodology to optimize the MGS parameter β. The inversion algorithm used in this study is CRTomo (Kemna 2000). It uses a Gauss-Newton scheme to iteratively minimize an objective function which consists of a data misfit functional and a model constraint functional. A univariate line search is performed

  20. Proliferation of pulmonary endothelial cells: time-lapse cinematography of growth to confluence and restitution of monolayer after wounding.

    PubMed

    Ryan, U S; Absher, M; Olazabal, B M; Brown, L M; Ryan, J W

    1982-01-01

    A fundamental characteristic of vascular endothelium is that it exists as a monolayer, a condition that must be met in both vascular growth and repair. Maintenance of the monolayer is important both for the exchange of nutrients and for interactions between blood solutes and endothelial enzymes and transport systems. We have used time-lapse cinematography to compare proliferative behavior of bovine pulmonary endothelial cells in (1) establishment of a monolayer from a low-density seed (7.5 X 10(4) cells in a 60 mm dish) and (2) restitution of a confluent monolayer (approx. 2.9 x 10(6) cells in a 60 mm dish) following a mechanical wound (removal of cells from an area 5 x 15 mm by scraping). Culture 2 was not refed after wounding. In culture 2, approx. 30% of the cells accounted for repopulation (confluence in 40 hr). In culture 1, all cells entered into division. Participating cells of culture 2 began division immediately (69 divisions/filmed area in 10 hr, vs. four divisions in culture 1). Interdivision times (IDT) were longer and relatively constant in culture 1 until near confluence; none were less than 10 h, whereas in 2, 24% of the IDT's were less than or equal to 10 hr. Remarkably, IDTs of culture 2 decreased steadily until confluence was re-established. Cell migration in culture 1 was multidirectional while direction of migration in culture 2 was always into the wound area. Mean migration rate (MIG) in culture 2 was related to the site of origin of the cells, those dividing farthest from the unwounded area had fastest MIGs. Neither culture formed more than a single layer of cells. Although the cell kinetics of cultures 1 and 2 differed, the same goal, confluence, was achieved in either case.

  1. Documentation of normal and leukemic myelopoietic progenitor cells with high-resolution phase-contrast time-lapse cinematography.

    PubMed

    Boll, I T

    2001-08-01

    The high-resolution phase-contrast, time-lapse cinematography using oil immersion lenses and 16-mm film demonstrates the kinetic cell events as maturation, locomotion, mitosis, and apoptosis of cells cultivated at 37 degrees C for up to 10 days. 0.5 v/v frozen-thawed sera with presumably high cytokine concentrations were added to the plasma or agar clot. Vital progenitor cells from human bone marrow and blood have a large, bright, unstructured nucleus with a large nucleolus and a narrow rim of cytoplasm (nuclear/cytoplasmic volume ratio = 0.7). Their nuclei are 6-14 micrometer in diameter and double their volume within 8 h. Many (70%) move at a mean speed of 2 micrometer/min, and many (30%) multiply with alpha-2alpha mitoses, generating progenitor cell families. Various disturbances during the course of mitosis lead to the formation of polyploid cells, thereby yielding the megakaryocytic cell line. Some of the progenitor cells undergo asymmetric alpha-alphan mitoses: One of the two initially identical daughter cells remains a progenitor cell in the morphological sense, whereas the other daughter cell - depending on the size of its mother cell - matures in the same culture medium to form a granulocytopoietic, monocytopoietic or erythrocytopoietic cell line. - In acute myeloid leukemias (AML), the blasts and their nuclei are slightly larger than the corresponding progenitor cells and move faster (5 micrometer/min). Symmetric alpha-2alpha mitoses permit unlimited multiplication of the leukemic blasts if contact with cytotoxic lymphocytes does not render them apoptotic. This results in more stromal cells than normal. Granulocytopenia, monocytopenia, and anemia occur due to the genetic impairment of signaling control for asymmetric alpha-alphan mitoses, and thrombocytopenia occurs due to the reduction in polyploidization.

  2. PFLOTRAN-E4D: A parallel open source PFLOTRAN module for simulating time-lapse electrical resistivity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Timothy C.; Hammond, Glenn E.; Chen, Xingyuan

    2017-02-01

    Time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is finding increased application for remotely monitoring processes occurring in the near subsurface in three-dimensions (i.e. 4D monitoring). However, there are few codes capable of simulating the evolution of subsurface resistivity and corresponding tomographic measurements arising from a particular process, particularly in parallel and with an open source license. Herein we describe and demonstrate an electrical resistivity tomography module for the PFLOTRAN subsurface flow and reactive transport simulation code, named PFLOTRAN-E4D. The PFLOTRAN-E4D module operates in parallel using a dedicated set of compute cores in a master-slave configuration. At each time step, the master processes receives subsurface states from PFLOTRAN, converts those states to bulk electrical conductivity, and instructs the slave processes to simulate a tomographic data set. The resulting multi-physics simulation capability enables accurate feasibility studies for ERT imaging, the identification of the ERT signatures that are unique to a given process, and facilitates the joint inversion of ERT data with hydrogeological data for subsurface characterization. PFLOTRAN-E4D is demonstrated herein using a field study of stage-driven groundwater/river water interaction ERT monitoring along the Columbia River, Washington, USA. Results demonstrate the complex nature of subsurface electrical conductivity changes, in both the saturated and unsaturated zones, arising from river stage fluctuations and associated river water intrusion into the aquifer. The results also demonstrate the sensitivity of surface based ERT measurements to those changes over time. PFLOTRAN-E4D is available with the PFLOTRAN development version with an open-source license at https://bitbucket.org/pflotran/pflotran-dev.

  3. Application of time-lapse ERT to Characterize Soil-Water-Disease Interactions of Citrus Orchard - Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peddinti, S. R.; Kbvn, D. P.; Ranjan, S.; Suradhaniwar, S.; J, P. A.; R M, G.

    2015-12-01

    Vidarbha region in Maharashtra, India (home for mandarin Orange) experience severe climatic uncertainties resulting in crop failure. Phytopthora are the soil-borne fungal species that accumulate in the presence of moisture, and attack the root / trunk system of Orange trees at any stage. A scientific understanding of soil-moisture-disease relations within the active root zone under different climatic, irrigation, and crop cycle conditions can help in practicing management activities for improved crop yield. In this study, we developed a protocol for performing 3-D time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) at micro scale resolution to monitor the changes in resistivity distribution within the root zone of Orange trees. A total of 40 electrodes, forming a grid of 3.5 m x 2 m around each Orange tree were used in ERT survey with gradient and Wenner configurations. A laboratory test on un-disturbed soil samples of the region was performed to plot the variation of electrical conductivity with saturation. Curve fitting techniques were applied to get the modified Archie's model parameters. The calibrated model was further applied to generate the 3-D soil moisture profiles of the study area. The point estimates of soil moisture were validated using TDR probe measurements at 3 different depths (10, 20, and 40 cm) near to the root zone. In order to understand the effect of soil-water relations on plant-disease relations, we performed ERT analysis at two locations, one at healthy and other at Phytopthora affected Orange tree during the crop cycle, under dry and irrigated conditions. The degree to which an Orange tree is affected by Phytopthora under each condition is evaluated using 'grading scale' approach following visual inspection of the canopy features. Spatial-temporal distribution of moisture profiles is co-related with grading scales to comment on the effect of climatic and irrigation scenarios on the degree and intensity of crop disease caused by Phytopthora.

  4. Time-lapse downhole electrical resistivity monitoring of subsurface CO2 storage at the Maguelone shallow experimental site (Languedoc, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denchik, Nataliya; Pezard, Philippe; Lofi, Johanna; Perroud, Hervé; Neyens, Denis; Luquot, Linda

    2015-04-01

    A shallow field experimental site for CO2 injection was established at Maguelone (Languedoc,France), in order to test in an integrated manner a suite of surface and downhole hydrogeophysical monitoring methods. The objective is to improve our understanding of gas transport in the shallow subsurface and to determine the sensitivity of CO2 monitoring systems for leakage detection. The site offers a natural laboratory to study the processes associated with CO2 injection in a clastic and clay-rich context saturated with saline fluids. Prior to CO2injection, three nitrogen (N2) injections were undertaken in 2012 to measure the site response to neutral gas injection. In 2013, a volume of 111 m3 of CO2 was injected during 3.5 hours at 15 meter depth. During each experiment, the gas plumes were successfully detected from pressure monitoring, time-lapse induction logging and downhole resistivity monitoring with downhole dipole-dipole arrays. Increases in resistivity are attributed to free gas propagation (either N2 or CO2) whereas decreases in resistivity correlate with CO2 dissolution in the pore fluid. Chemical analyses confirm this hypothesis with a decrease in pH and an increase in the concentration of dissolved species in the later case. The next stage of the project will be performing the CO2 injection experiments with improved monitoring schema using results of the present study. In perspective, besides of improving our understanding of gas transport in the shallow subsurface, the additional issues could not just show a capability of used geophysical and geochemical techniques to monitor the CO2 plume and to detect near-surface CO2 migration pathways, but to help quantifying potential CO2 migration.

  5. In vivo time-lapse imaging of skin burn wound healing using second-harmonic generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Takeshi; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Hase, Eiji; Fukushima, Shu-ichiro; Araki, Tsutomu

    2014-02-01

    Wound healing is a process to repair the damaged tissue caused by thermal burn, incised wound, or stab wound. Although the wound healing has many aspects, it is common for dynamics of collagen fiber, such as decomposition, production, or growth, to be closely related with wound healing. If such the healing process can be visualized as a timelapse image of the collagen fiber in the same subject, one may obtain new findings regarding biological repairing mechanisms in the healing process. In this article, to investigate the temporal modoification of dermal collagen fiber in the burn wound healing, we used second-harmonic-generation (SHG) microscopy, showing high selectivity and good image contrast to collagen molecules as well as high spatial resolution, optical three-dimensional sectioning, minimal invasiveness, deep penetration, the absence of interference from background light, and in vivo measurement without additional staining. Since SHG light arises from a non-centrosymmetric triple helix of three polypeptide chains in the collagen molecule, SHG intensity sensitively reflects the structure maturity of collagen molecule and its aggregates. A series of time-lapse SHG images during the wound healing process of 2 weeks clearly indicated that condensation and melting of dermal collagen fibers by the deep dermal burn, decomposition of the damaged collagen fibers in the inflammation phase, production of new collagen fibers in the proliferation phase, and the growth of the new collagen fibers in the remodeling phase. These results show a high potential of SHG microscopy for optical assessment of the wound healing process in vivo.

  6. Slow cellular dynamics in MDCK and R5 cells monitored by time-lapse atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Schoenenberger, C A; Hoh, J H

    1994-01-01

    We have examined dynamic events that occur on a time scale of minutes in an epithelial monolayer of Madine-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells and in ras-transformed MDCK cells by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cells were imaged under physiological conditions, and time-lapse movies representing approximately 60 s real time per frame were assembled. In normal MDCK cells, two types of protrusions in the apical plasma membrane exhibit dynamic behavior. First, smooth bulges formed transiently over the time scale of minutes to tens of minutes. Second, spike-like protrusions appear initially as bulges, extend well above the apical surface and, finally, seem to detach. R5, an oncogenic transformant derived from MDCK cells, grows very flat on glass. During AFM imaging, these cells sometimes round up and detach from the substrate. In light microscopic observations of parallel preparations, cells rarely detach, suggesting that this is an active response of these cells to irritation by the AFM tip. R5 cells often extend processes that are supported by actin stress fibers. During imaging with the AFM, these processes withdraw at a rate of 1-5 microns/min, similar to that observed by light microscopy. During the withdrawal, movement of the stress fibers can be clearly seen. In the flat periphery of these cells, the transport of intracellular particles along cytoskeletal elements was seen. In addition, we have observed two types of wave-like movements through the cell, which appear to be an organized rearrangement of cytoplasm. One type of wave moves radially out from center of the cell while the other moves circularly along the cell periphery. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 PMID:7948707

  7. 2D Time-lapse Resistivity Monitoring of an Organic Produced Gas Plume in a Landfill using ERT.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, N. D.; Mendonça, C. A.; Doherty, R.

    2014-12-01

    This project has the objective to study a landfill located on the margins of Tietê River, in São Paulo, Brazil, using the electroresistivity tomography method (ERT). Due to huge organic matter concentrations in the São Paulo Basin quaternary sediments, there is subsurface depth related biogas accumulation (CH4 and CO2), induced by anaerobic degradation of the organic matter. 2D resistivity sections were obtained from a test area since March 2012, a total of 7 databases, being the last one dated from October 2013. The studied line has the length of 56m, the electrode interval is of 2m. In addition, there are two boreholes along the line (one with 3 electrodes and the other one with 2) in order to improve data quality and precision. The boreholes also have a multi-level sampling system that indicates the fluid (gas or water) presence in relation to depth. With our results it was possible to map the gas plume position and its area of extension in the sections as it is a positive resistivity anomaly, with the gas level having approximately 5m depth. With the time-lapse analysis (Matlab script) between the obtained 2D resistivity sections from the site, it was possible to map how the biogas volume and position change in the landfill in relation to time. Our preliminary results show a preferential gas pathway through the subsurface studied area. A consistent relation between the gas depth and obtained microbiological data from archea and bacteria population was also observed.

  8. Water content dynamics at plot scale - comparison of time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography monitoring and pore pressure modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieher, Thomas; Markart, Gerhard; Ottowitz, David; Römer, Alexander; Rutzinger, Martin; Meißl, Gertraud; Geitner, Clemens

    2017-01-01

    Physically-based dynamic modelling of shallow landslide susceptibility rests on several assumptions and simplifications. However, the applicability of physically-based models is only rarely tested in the field at the appropriate scale. This paper presents results of a spray irrigation experiment conducted on a plot of 100 m2 on an Alpine slope susceptible to shallow landsliding. Infiltrating precipitation applied at a constant rate (27.5 mm/h for 5.3 h) was monitored by means of 2D time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography, combined with time-domain reflectometry sensors installed at various depths. In addition, regolith characteristics were assessed by dynamic cone penetration tests using a light-weight cone penetrometer. The spray irrigation experiment resulted in a vertically progressing wetting front to a depth of 80-100 cm. Below that, the unconsolidated material was already saturated by rainfall in the previous days. The observed mean resistivity reduction attributed to infiltrating water during irrigation was scaled to pressure head. Mean variations in pore pressure were reproduced by a linear diffusion model also used in physically-based dynamic landslide susceptibility modelling. Sensitive parameters (hydraulic conductivity and specific storage) were tested over selected value ranges and calibrated. Calibrated parameter values are within published and experimentally derived ranges. The results of the comparison of observations and model results suggest that the model is capable of reproducing mean changes of pore pressure at a suitable scale for physically-based modelling of shallow landslide susceptibility. However, small-scale variations in pore pressure that may facilitate the triggering of shallow landslides are not captured by the model.

  9. Time-lapse microscopy and classification of 2D human mesenchymal stem cells based on cell shape picks up myogenic from osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Christof; Gazdhar, Amiq; Reyes, Mauricio; Benneker, Lorin M; Geiser, Thomas; Siebenrock, Klaus A; Gantenbein-Ritter, Benjamin

    2014-09-01

    Current methods to characterize mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are limited to CD marker expression, plastic adherence and their ability to differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic precursors. It seems evident that stem cells undergoing differentiation should differ in many aspects, such as morphology and possibly also behaviour; however, such a correlation has not yet been exploited for fate prediction of MSCs. Primary human MSCs from bone marrow were expanded and pelleted to form high-density cultures and were then randomly divided into four groups to differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic chondrogenic and myogenic progenitor cells. The cells were expanded as heterogeneous and tracked with time-lapse microscopy to record cell shape, using phase-contrast microscopy. The cells were segmented using a custom-made image-processing pipeline. Seven morphological features were extracted for each of the segmented cells. Statistical analysis was performed on the seven-dimensional feature vectors, using a tree-like classification method. Differentiation of cells was monitored with key marker genes and histology. Cells in differentiation media were expressing the key genes for each of the three pathways after 21 days, i.e. adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic, which was also confirmed by histological staining. Time-lapse microscopy data were obtained and contained new evidence that two cell shape features, eccentricity and filopodia (= 'fingers') are highly informative to classify myogenic differentiation from all others. However, no robust classifiers could be identified for the other cell differentiation paths. The results suggest that non-invasive automated time-lapse microscopy could potentially be used to predict the stem cell fate of hMSCs for clinical application, based on morphology for earlier time-points. The classification is challenged by cell density, proliferation and possible unknown donor-specific factors, which affect the performance of

  10. Monitoring CO 2 sequestration into deep saline aquifer and associated salt intrusion using coupled multiphase flow modeling and time lapse electrical resistivity tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Chuan Lu; CHI Zhang; Hai Hanag; Timothy C. Johnson

    2014-04-01

    Successful geological storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) require efficient monitoring of the migration of CO2 plume during and after large-scale injection in order to verify the containment of the injected CO2 within the target formation and to evaluate potential leakage risk. Field studies have shown that surface and cross-borehole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) can be a useful tool in imaging and characterizing solute transport in heterogeneous subsurface. In this synthetic study, we have coupled a 3-D multiphase flow model with a parallel 3-D time-lapse ERT inversion code to explore the feasibility of using time-lapse ERT for simultaneously monitoring the migration of CO2 plume in deep saline formation and potential brine intrusion into shallow fresh water aquifer. Direct comparisons of the inverted CO2 plumes resulting from ERT with multiphase flow simulation results indicate the ERT could be used to delineate the migration of CO2 plume. Detailed comparisons on the locations, sizes and shapes of CO2 plume and intruded brine plumes suggest that ERT inversion tends to underestimate the area review of the CO2 plume, but overestimate the thickness and total volume of the CO2 plume. The total volume of intruded brine plumes is overestimated as well. However, all discrepancies remain within reasonable ranges. Our study suggests that time-lapse ERT is a useful monitoring tool in characterizing the movement of injected CO2 into deep saline aquifer and detecting potential brine intrusion under large-scale field injection conditions.

  11. Integrating Terrestrial Time-Lapse Photography with Laser Scanning to Distinguish the Drivers of Movement at Sólheimajökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    How, P.; James, M. R.; Wynn, P.

    2014-12-01

    Glacier movement is attributed to a sensitive configuration of driving forces. Here, we present an approach designed to evaluate the drivers of movement at Sólheimajökull, an outlet glacier from the Myrdalsjökull ice cap, Iceland, through combining terrestrial time-lapse photography and laser scanning (TLS). A time-lapse camera (a dSLR with intervalometer and solar-recharged battery power supply) collected hourly data over the summer of 2013. The data are subject to all the difficulties that are usually present in long time-lapse sequences, such as highly variable illumination and visibility conditions, evolving surfaces, and camera instabilities. Feature-tracking software [1] was used to: 1) track regions of static topography (e.g. the skyline) from which camera alignment could be continuously updated throughout the sequence; and 2) track glacial surface features for velocity estimation. Absolute georeferencing of the image sequence was carried out by registering the camera to a TLS survey acquired at the beginning of the monitoring period. A second TLS survey (July 2013) provided an additional 3D surface. By assuming glacial features moved in approximately planimetrically straight lines between the two survey dates, combining the two TLS surfaces with the monoscopic feature tracking allows 3D feature tracks to be derived. Such tracks will enable contributions from different drivers (e.g. surface melting) to be extracted, even in imagery that is acquired not perpendicular to glacier motion. At Sólheimajökull, our aim is to elucidate any volcanic contribution to the observed movement.[1] http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/staff/jamesm/software/pointcatcher.htm

  12. Modeling and mapping the effects of heat and pressure outside a SAGD steam chamber using time-lapse multicomponent seismic data, Athabasca oil sands, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeigler, Loren Michelle

    The field of study is a bitumen producing reservoir within the McMurray Formation. The deposit is a part of the Athabasca oil sands trend in Northeastern Alberta, Canada. This field contains 16 well pads that are, combined, producing more than 41,000 BOPD. Bitumen reservoirs are unique as a result of their high viscosity, low API gravity oil. This oil in this field has been produced by means of a method called Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD), since 2007. In this method, two vertically stacked, horizontal wells are drilled. The upper well injects high temperature, high pressure steam and as the viscosity of the bitumen decreases it will begin to flow, via gravity, down to the lower producing well. Reservoir monitoring in this field is very important for multiple reasons, including the shallow depth and the large velocity changes that result from SAGD production. In order to map these changes, time-lapse multicomponent data were incorporated with rock physics modeling in order to map and interpret changes in Vp/Vs with production. When fluid substitution results and pressure estimations are combined, the resulting velocities are consistent with the core sample modeling done by Kato et al. (2008). These results were then compared with the seismic data in order to identify areas affected by steam, heat, and pressure within the reservoir through time-lapse Vp/Vs. PP time-lapse results show the location of the steam chamber within the reservoir, however these data do not give any information about the effects of pressure or heat. Converted-wave (PS) data can be used to image pressure and viscosity changes in the reservoir. When these data are combined into a Vp/Vs volume, the effects of steam, heat and pressure can be identified. Vp/Vs areas of little to no difference indicate steamed zones while the surrounding areas with large differences indicate heated and pressured zones.

  13. Dynamic interactions of snow and plants in the boreal forest, winter 2011-2012 revealed by time-lapse photography and LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filhol, S. V.; Sturm, M.

    2012-12-01

    The winter blanket of snow in the boreal forest is anything but still. In winter 2011-2012 we followed the evolution of a snowpack on a boreal forest plot (0.5 ha) from first snowfall to the beginning of the melt in springtime. We used multiple methods such as time-lapse ground-based LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging), time-lapse photography, imagery from a suspended cableway, snow-depth sensors, and frequent manual snow-pits. The experimental site is located near Fairbanks, Alaska, a typical boreal forest underlain by permafrost with sparse black spruce, larch, willow, and dwarf birch. We observed snowpack properties to be greatly affected by the vegetation substrate. Interactions between snow and plants are mainly dependent on falling snow properties (rate, wetness), plant heights and stiffness, plant canopy structure (leaves, number of branches, density), succession of weather events (wind before or after snow, thaw events) and pre-existing snow depth. Time-lapse imagery shows interception of snow by trees and shrubs controlled by air-temperature and wind events. LiDAR and snow pit measurements show one class of flexible shrubs (i.e. dwarf birch) bending under load, while a second class (willows) were far stiffer and resisted bending. Where dwarf birch branches were dense, it prevented snow from reaching the ground, leaving a significant air space under the snowpack. This vertical air gap can be as high as 10% of the total snow depth by the end of winter. Improving our understanding of the dynamic relationships between plants and snow is a fundamental key for studying boreal snow physics and snow ecology.

  14. Analysis of one year time-lapse electrical data to unravel hydrological processes acting on a clayey landslide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gance, J.; Sailhac, P.; Malet, J.; Supper, R.; Jochum, B.; Ottowitz, D.; Grandjean, G.

    2013-12-01

    Movements of water in the topsoil (infiltration, run-off and evaporation) influence changes in slope stability which is the main controlling factor of landslide triggering (e.g. van Asch et al., 1999). Among the petrophysical parameters that can provide time-lapse sections of the topsoil, we consider the electrical conductivity for its sensitivity to soil water contents. Based on recent works which showed the possibility of monitoring the hydrological response of a clay-shale slope to a controlled rainfall experiment (Travelletti et al., 2012), we installed a permanent electrical monitoring experiment at the Super-Sauze landslide for long-term monitoring (one year) of natural meteorological events. We used the GEOMON4D resistivimeter, developed by the Austrian Geological Survey (Vienna, Austria) for experiments needing high rate of data acquisition, records of full signal samples for noise detection, remote controlled management and automatic data transfer (Supper et al., 2002, 2003 & 2004). The electrode positions varying with time, we installed two terrestrial optical cameras to characterize the changes in dipole geometry. Several hydrological sensors were installed along the profile to measure soil temperature, water temperature and conductivity, ground water level and soil humidity in the vadose zone. The main challenge is the processing of ca. 4.2 million of electrical resistivity data. In this difficult context, the potential factors influencing electrical resistivity with time without modification of soil saturation are the relative changes in the dipole geometry (linked to the displacement of the electrodes), changes in soil and water temperature, change in material porosity due to compaction/dilatation caused by the landslide movement. Therefore, before any inversion of data, we verify the presence of possible 3D effects, and assess the measurement accuracy and uncertainty. An apparent resistivity variation threshold, from which a modification of the

  15. Monitoring the saltwater intrusion by time lapse electrical resistivity tomography: The Chioggia test site (Venice Lagoon, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Franco, R.; Biella, G.; Tosi, L.; Teatini, P.; Lozej, A.; Chiozzotto, B.; Giada, M.; Rizzetto, F.; Claude, C.; Mayer, A.; Bassan, V.; Gasparetto-Stori, G.

    2009-12-01

    A novel experiment of time lapse electrical resistivity tomography (TL-ERT) aimed at monitoring the dynamics of the saltwater intrusion in the coastland bounding the southern Venice Lagoon is presented. A dedicated apparatus was developed and operated for about 9 months from November 2005. The system acquired ten resistivity tomograms per day, five of which with high resolution by a 97.5 m long and 2.5 m electrode spacing ERT line, and five by a 300 m long and 5 m electrode spacing line down to 50-60 m depth. The stratigraphy of a 50 m deep borehole drilled in the nearby of the ERT-TL alignment outlines the presence of a shallow phreatic aquifer in the shallower 12 m thick unit, followed by a semi-confined aquifer between 18 and 38 m depth and a locally confined aquifer down to the bottom. The shallow aquifer is the most contaminated by the salt intrusion with a minimum value of the formation resistivity equal to 1.0 ohm m corresponding to a salinity of 25-30 gr/l. A seasonal resistivity fluctuation is observed, with the saltwater front that intrudes landward during the autumn-winter season and moves back seaward in spring-summer. The first semi-confined aquifer is characterized by resistivity value of about 5 ohm m, while the confined aquifer is less contaminated showing resistivity values greater than 7.5 ohm m. For both the two confined aquifers the resistivity value rises at the beginning of the summer probably due to the seasonal fresh water recharge supplied regionally from the mainland. The TL-ERT data have been correlated with a number of environmental variables. A relationship is found between the resistivity in the upper 3-4 m of the phreatic aquifer and the rainfalls, and between the water level in the adjacent main channel and the resistivity down to about 10 m depth. With respect to the tidal regime, a daily/weekly correlation with resistivity changes is not evidenced, while a significant negative correlation coefficient exists at monthly to seasonal

  16. Time lapse imaging of water content with geoelectrical methods: on the interest of working with absolute water content data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Gaël; Pilawski, Tamara; Robert, Tanguy; Hermans, Thomas; Garré, Sarah; Nguyen, Frederic

    2016-04-01

    The electrical resistivity tomography is a suitable method to estimate the water content of a waste material and detect changes in water content. Various ERT profiles, both static data and time-lapse, where acquired on a landfill during the Minerve project. In the literature, the relative change of resistivity (Δρ/ρ) is generally computed. For saline or heat tracer tests in the saturated zone, the Δρ/ρ can be easily translated into pore water conductivity or underground temperature changes (provided that the initial salinity or temperature condition is homogeneous over the ERT panel extension). For water content changes in the vadose zone resulting of an infiltration event or injection experiment, many authors also work with the Δρ/ρ or relative changes of water content Δθ/θ (linked to the change of resistivity through one single parameter: the Archie's law exponent "m"). This parameter is not influenced by the underground temperature and pore fluid conductivity (ρ¬w) condition but is influenced by the initial water content distribution. Therefore, you never know if the loss of Δθ/θ signal is representative of the limit of the infiltration front or more humid initial condition. Another approach for the understanding of the infiltration process is the assessment of the absolute change of water content (Δθ). This requires the direct computation of the water content of the waste from the resistivity data. For that purpose, we used petrophysical laws calibrated with laboratory experiments and our knowledge of the in situ temperature and pore fluid conductivity parameters. Then, we investigated water content changes in the waste material after a rainfall event (Δθ= Δθ/θ* θ). This new observation is really representatives of the quantity of water infiltrated in the waste material. However, the uncertainty in the pore fluid conductivity value may influence the computed water changes (Δθ=k*m√(ρw) ; where "m" is the Archie's law exponent

  17. The Relationship between Cell Number, Division Behavior and Developmental Potential of Cleavage Stage Human Embryos: A Time-Lapse Study.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangyi; Yang, Shuting; Gong, Fei; Lu, Changfu; Zhang, Shuoping; Lu, Guangxiu; Lin, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Day 3 cleavage embryo transfer is routine in many assisted reproductive technology centers today. Embryos are usually selected according to cell number, cell symmetry and fragmentation for transfer. Many studies have showed the relationship between cell number and embryo developmental potential. However, there is limited understanding of embryo division behavior and their association with embryo cell number and developmental potential. A retrospective and observational study was conducted to investigate how different division behaviors affect cell number and developmental potential of day 3 embryos by time-lapse imaging. Based on cell number at day 3, the embryos (from 104 IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment cycles, n = 799) were classified as follows: less than 5 cells (< 5C; n = 111); 5-6 cells (5-6C; n = 97); 7-8 cells (7-8C; n = 442), 9-10 cells (9-10C; n = 107) and more than 10 cells (>10C; n = 42). Division behavior, morphokinetic parameters and blastocyst formation rate were analyzed in 5 groups of day 3 embryos with different cell numbers. In <5C and 5-6C embryos, fragmentation (FR; 62.2% and 30.9%, respectively) was the main cause for low cell number. The majority of 7-8C embryos exhibited obvious normal behaviors (NB; 85.7%) during development. However, the incidence of DC in 9-10C and >10C embryos increased compared to 7-8C embryos (45.8%, 33.3% vs. 11.1%, respectively). In ≥5C embryos, FR and DC significantly reduced developmental potential, whereas <5C embryos showed little potential irrespective of division behaviors. In NB embryos, the blastocyst formation rate increased with cell number from 7.4% (<5C) to 89.3% (>10C). In NB embryos, the cell cycle elongation or shortening was the main cause for abnormally low or high cell number, respectively. After excluding embryos with abnormal division behaviors, the developmental potential, implantation rate and live birth rate of day 3 embryos increased with cell number.

  18. Monitoring CO2 Storage at Cranfield, Mississippi with Time-Lapse Offset VSP – Using Integration and Modeling to Reduce Uncertainty

    DOE PAGES

    Daley, Thomas M.; Hendrickson, Joel; Queen, John H.

    2014-12-31

    A time-lapse Offset Vertical Seismic Profile (OVSP) data set was acquired as part of a subsurface monitoring program for geologic sequestration of CO2. The storage site at Cranfield, near Natchez, Mississippi, is part of a detailed area study (DAS) site for geologic carbon sequestration operated by the U.S. Dept. of Energy’s Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB). The DAS site includes three boreholes, an injection well and two monitoring wells. The project team selected the DAS site to examine CO2 sequestration multiphase fluid flow and pressure at the interwell scale in a brine reservoir. The time-lapse (TL) OVSP was partmore » of an integrated monitoring program that included well logs, crosswell seismic, electrical resistance tomography and 4D surface seismic. The goals of the OVSP were to detect the CO2 induced change in seismic response, give information about the spatial distribution of CO2 near the injection well and to help tie the high-resolution borehole monitoring to the 4D surface data. The VSP data were acquired in well CFU 31-F1, which is the ~3200 m deep CO2 injection well at the DAS site. A preinjection survey was recorded in late 2009 with injection beginning in December 2009, and a post injection survey was conducted in Nov 2010 following injection of about 250 kT of CO2. The sensor array for both surveys was a 50-level, 3-component, Sercel MaxiWave system with 15 m (49 ft) spacing between levels. The source for both surveys was an accelerated weight drop, with different source trucks used for the two surveys. Consistent time-lapse processing was applied to both data sets. Time-lapse processing generated difference corridor stacks to investigate CO2 induced reflection amplitude changes from each source point. Corridor stacks were used for amplitude analysis to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for each shot point. Spatial variation in reflectivity (used to ‘map’ the plume) was similar in magnitude to the

  19. Time-lapse videography of human embryos: Using pronuclear fading rather than insemination in IVF and ICSI cycles removes inconsistencies in time to reach early cleavage milestones.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanhe; Chapple, Vincent; Feenan, Katie; Roberts, Peter; Matson, Phillip

    2015-06-01

    Time-lapse videography showed that human early cleavage embryos were quicker following intracytoplasmic sperm injection to reach developmental milestones compared to in vitro fertilization when using insemination as the timing start point (t0), due to differences in the time taken for embryos to reach pronuclear fading (PNF). These differences disappeared when PNF was used as t0. Using a biological rather than procedural t0 will allow a unified assessment strategy to be applied to all cycles irrespective of the insemination method.

  20. Monitoring CO2 Storage at Cranfield, Mississippi with Time-Lapse Offset VSP – Using Integration and Modeling to Reduce Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, Thomas M.; Hendrickson, Joel; Queen, John H.

    2014-12-31

    A time-lapse Offset Vertical Seismic Profile (OVSP) data set was acquired as part of a subsurface monitoring program for geologic sequestration of CO2. The storage site at Cranfield, near Natchez, Mississippi, is part of a detailed area study (DAS) site for geologic carbon sequestration operated by the U.S. Dept. of Energy’s Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB). The DAS site includes three boreholes, an injection well and two monitoring wells. The project team selected the DAS site to examine CO2 sequestration multiphase fluid flow and pressure at the interwell scale in a brine reservoir. The time-lapse (TL) OVSP was part of an integrated monitoring program that included well logs, crosswell seismic, electrical resistance tomography and 4D surface seismic. The goals of the OVSP were to detect the CO2 induced change in seismic response, give information about the spatial distribution of CO2 near the injection well and to help tie the high-resolution borehole monitoring to the 4D surface data. The VSP data were acquired in well CFU 31-F1, which is the ~3200 m deep CO2 injection well at the DAS site. A preinjection survey was recorded in late 2009 with injection beginning in December 2009, and a post injection survey was conducted in Nov 2010 following injection of about 250 kT of CO2. The sensor array for both surveys was a 50-level, 3-component, Sercel MaxiWave system with 15 m (49 ft) spacing between levels. The source for both surveys was an accelerated weight drop, with different source trucks used for the two surveys. Consistent time-lapse processing was applied to both data sets. Time-lapse processing generated difference corridor stacks to investigate CO2 induced reflection amplitude changes from each source point. Corridor stacks were used for amplitude analysis to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for each shot point. Spatial variation in

  1. Application of Time-Lapse Seismic Monitoring for the Control and Optimization of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Brian Toelle

    2008-11-30

    This project, 'Application of Time-Lapse Seismic Monitoring for the Control and Optimization of CO{sub 2} Enhanced Oil Recovery Operations', investigated the potential for monitoring CO{sub 2} floods in carbonate reservoirs through the use of standard p-wave seismic data. This primarily involved the use of 4D seismic (time lapse seismic) in an attempt to observe and map the movement of the injected CO{sub 2} through a carbonate reservoir. The differences between certain seismic attributes, such as amplitude, were used for this purpose. This technique has recently been shown to be effective in CO{sub 2} monitoring in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) projects, such as Weyborne. This study was conducted in the Charlton 30/31 field in the northern Michigan Basin, which is a Silurian pinnacle reef that completed its primary production in 1997 and was scheduled for enhanced oil recovery using injected CO{sub 2}. Prior to injection an initial 'Base' 3D survey was obtained over the field and was then processed and interpreted. CO{sub 2} injection within the main portion of the reef was conducted intermittently during 13 months starting in August 2005. During this time, 29,000 tons of CO{sub 2} was injected into the Guelph formation, historically known as the Niagaran Brown formation. By September 2006, the reservoir pressure within the reef had risen to approximately 2000 lbs and oil and water production from the one producing well within the field had increased significantly. The determination of the reservoir's porosity distribution, a critical aspect of reservoir characterization and simulation, proved to be a significant portion of this project. In order to relate the differences observed between the seismic attributes seen on the multiple 3D seismic surveys and the actual location of the CO{sub 2}, a predictive reservoir simulation model was developed based on seismic attributes obtained from the base 3D seismic survey and available well data. This simulation predicted

  2. Time-lapse 3-D measurements of a glucose biosensor in multicellular spheroids by light sheet fluorescence microscopy in commercial 96-well plates

    PubMed Central

    Maioli, Vincent; Chennell, George; Sparks, Hugh; Lana, Tobia; Kumar, Sunil; Carling, David; Sardini, Alessandro; Dunsby, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Light sheet fluorescence microscopy has previously been demonstrated on a commercially available inverted fluorescence microscope frame using the method of oblique plane microscopy (OPM). In this paper, OPM is adapted to allow time-lapse 3-D imaging of 3-D biological cultures in commercially available glass-bottomed 96-well plates using a stage-scanning OPM approach (ssOPM). Time-lapse 3-D imaging of multicellular spheroids expressing a glucose Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensor is demonstrated in 16 fields of view with image acquisition at 10 minute intervals. As a proof-of-principle, the ssOPM system is also used to acquire a dose response curve with the concentration of glucose in the culture medium being varied across 42 wells of a 96-well plate with the whole acquisition taking 9 min. The 3-D image data enable the FRET ratio to be measured as a function of distance from the surface of the spheroid. Overall, the results demonstrate the capability of the OPM system to measure spatio-temporal changes in FRET ratio in 3-D in multicellular spheroids over time in a multi-well plate format. PMID:27886235

  3. Time-lapse 3-D measurements of a glucose biosensor in multicellular spheroids by light sheet fluorescence microscopy in commercial 96-well plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maioli, Vincent; Chennell, George; Sparks, Hugh; Lana, Tobia; Kumar, Sunil; Carling, David; Sardini, Alessandro; Dunsby, Chris

    2016-11-01

    Light sheet fluorescence microscopy has previously been demonstrated on a commercially available inverted fluorescence microscope frame using the method of oblique plane microscopy (OPM). In this paper, OPM is adapted to allow time-lapse 3-D imaging of 3-D biological cultures in commercially available glass-bottomed 96-well plates using a stage-scanning OPM approach (ssOPM). Time-lapse 3-D imaging of multicellular spheroids expressing a glucose Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensor is demonstrated in 16 fields of view with image acquisition at 10 minute intervals. As a proof-of-principle, the ssOPM system is also used to acquire a dose response curve with the concentration of glucose in the culture medium being varied across 42 wells of a 96-well plate with the whole acquisition taking 9 min. The 3-D image data enable the FRET ratio to be measured as a function of distance from the surface of the spheroid. Overall, the results demonstrate the capability of the OPM system to measure spatio-temporal changes in FRET ratio in 3-D in multicellular spheroids over time in a multi-well plate format.

  4. Heterogeneous cell-cycle behavior in response to UVB irradiation by a population of single cancer cells visualized by time-lapse FUCCI imaging.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Shinji; Yano, Shuya; Kimura, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Mako; Toneri, Makoto; Murakami, Takashi; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Norio; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    The present study analyzed the heterogeneous cell-cycle dependence and fate of single cancer cells in a population treated with UVB using a fluorescence ubiquitination-based cell-cycle (FUCCI) imaging system. HeLa cells expressing FUCCI were irradiated by 100 or 200 J/m(2) UVB. Modulation of the cell-cycle and apoptosis were observed by time-lapse confocal microscopy imaging every 30 min for 72 h. Correlation between cell survival and factors including cell-cycle phase at the time of the irradiation of UVB, mitosis and the G1/S transition were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method along with the log rank test. Time-lapse FUCCI imaging of HeLa cells demonstrated that UVB irradiation induced cell-cycle arrest in S/G2/M phase in the majority of the cells. The cells irradiated by 100 or 200 J/m(2) UVB during G0/G1 phase had a higher survival rate than the cells irradiated during S/G2/M phase. A minority of cells could escape S/G2/M arrest and undergo mitosis which significantly correlated with decreased survival of the cells. In contrast, G1/S transition significantly correlated with increased survival of the cells after UVB irradiation. UVB at 200 J/m(2) resulted in a greater number of apoptotic cells.

  5. Quantitative time-lapse 3D seismic data interpretation from the pilot site of Ketzin (CO2 Storage): the level of noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Alexandra; Lüth, Stefan; Kempka, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The first European onshore pilot scale project for geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) was initiated in 2004 near Berlin (Germany). This project is multidisciplinary including 3D seismic time-lapse surveys as an essential tool for reservoir characterization at a depth of 650 m. A 3D pre-injection baseline seismic survey was acquired in 2005. CO2 injection into a sandstone saline aquifer started in 2008 and stopped in 2013 after 67 kilotons of CO2 had been injected. The 1st and 2nd 3D seismic repeat surveys were acquired after 22 and 61 kilotons of CO2 had been injected respectively. Time-lapse seismic processing, petrophysical data and geophysical logging of CO2 saturation levels have allowed for an estimate of the total amount of CO2 visible in the seismic data to be made. The close agreement (over 85%) between the injected and observed amount is encouraging for quantitative monitoring of a CO2 storage site using seismic methods. However this estimate contains a number of uncertainties. For example the most of the time delay values in the both 3D seismic repeat surveys within the amplitude anomaly are near the noise level of 1-2 ms, however a change of 1 ms in the time delay affects significantly the mass estimate, thus the choice of the time-delay cutoff is crucial. In this study we put bounds into the noise in seismic data from Ketzin using results of 3D flow simulations.

  6. Study of time-lapse processing for dynamic hydrologic conditions. [electronic satellite image analysis console for Earth Resources Technology Satellites imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serebreny, S. M.; Evans, W. E.; Wiegman, E. J.

    1974-01-01

    The usefulness of dynamic display techniques in exploiting the repetitive nature of ERTS imagery was investigated. A specially designed Electronic Satellite Image Analysis Console (ESIAC) was developed and employed to process data for seven ERTS principal investigators studying dynamic hydrological conditions for diverse applications. These applications include measurement of snowfield extent and sediment plumes from estuary discharge, Playa Lake inventory, and monitoring of phreatophyte and other vegetation changes. The ESIAC provides facilities for storing registered image sequences in a magnetic video disc memory for subsequent recall, enhancement, and animated display in monochrome or color. The most unique feature of the system is the capability to time lapse the imagery and analytic displays of the imagery. Data products included quantitative measurements of distances and areas, binary thematic maps based on monospectral or multispectral decisions, radiance profiles, and movie loops. Applications of animation for uses other than creating time-lapse sequences are identified. Input to the ESIAC can be either digital or via photographic transparencies.

  7. An ensemble Kalman filter approach to identify the hydraulic conductivity spatial distribution from electrical resistivity tomography time-lapse monitoring of three-dimensional tracer test experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camporese, M.; Cassiani, G.; Deiana, R.; Perri, M. T.; Salandin, P.

    2012-04-01

    An approach based on the Lagrangian formulation of transport and the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is applied to assess the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity K by assimilating time-lapse cross-hole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) images generated for a synthetic tracer test in a heterogeneous aquifer. Assuming that the solute spreads as a passive tracer, for high Peclet numbers the spatial moments of the evolving plume are dominated by the spatial distribution of the hydraulic conductivity. The assimilation of the electrical conductivity 4D images allows updating both the hydrological state in terms of solute concentration and the spatial distribution of K. Thus, delineation of the tracer plume and estimation of the aquifer heterogeneity at the local scale can be achieved at the same time by means of this interpretation of time-lapse electrical images from tracer tests. We assess the impact on the performance of the hydrological inversion of the uncertainty inherently affecting ERT inversions in terms of tracer concentration and the choice of the prior statistics of K. The results show that realistic ERT images can be integrated into a hydrological model even within an uncoupled inverse modeling framework, the reconstruction of the hydraulic conductivity spatial distribution being satisfactory in the portion of the domain directly covered by the passage of the tracer. Aside from the issues commonly affecting inverse models, the proposed approach is subject to the problem of the filter inbreeding and the retrieval performance is sensitive to the choice of K prior geostatistical parameters.

  8. Incubator-independent cell-culture perfusion platform for continuous long-term microelectrode array electrophysiology and time-lapse imaging

    PubMed Central

    Saalfrank, Dirk; Konduri, Anil Krishna; Latifi, Shahrzad; Habibey, Rouhollah; Golabchi, Asiyeh; Martiniuc, Aurel Vasile; Knoll, Alois; Ingebrandt, Sven; Blau, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Most in vitro electrophysiology studies extract information and draw conclusions from representative, temporally limited snapshot experiments. This approach bears the risk of missing decisive moments that may make a difference in our understanding of physiological events. This feasibility study presents a simple benchtop cell-culture perfusion system adapted to commercial microelectrode arrays (MEAs), multichannel electrophysiology equipment and common inverted microscopy stages for simultaneous and uninterrupted extracellular electrophysiology and time-lapse imaging at ambient CO2 levels. The concept relies on a transparent, replica-casted polydimethylsiloxane perfusion cap, gravity- or syringe-pump-driven perfusion and preconditioning of pH-buffered serum-free cell-culture medium to ambient CO2 levels at physiological temperatures. The low-cost microfluidic in vitro enabling platform, which allows us to image cultures immediately after cell plating, is easy to reproduce and is adaptable to the geometries of different cell-culture containers. It permits the continuous and simultaneous multimodal long-term acquisition or manipulation of optical and electrophysiological parameter sets, thereby considerably widening the range of experimental possibilities. Two exemplary proof-of-concept long-term MEA studies on hippocampal networks illustrate system performance. Continuous extracellular recordings over a period of up to 70 days revealed details on both sudden and gradual neural activity changes in maturing cell ensembles with large intra-day fluctuations. Correlated time-lapse imaging unveiled rather static macroscopic network architectures with previously unreported local morphological oscillations on the timescale of minutes. PMID:26543581

  9. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2-Integrin αvβ3 Binding Is Required for Mesenchymal Cell Invasive Activity but Not Epithelial Locomotion: A Computational Time-Lapse Study

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, Paul A.; Visconti, Richard P.; Czirók, András; Cheresh, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Cellular invasive behavior through three-dimensional collagen gels was analyzed using computational time-lapse imaging. A subpopulation of endocardial cells, derived from explanted quail cardiac cushions, undergoes an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and invades the substance of the collagen gels when placed in culture. In contrast, other endocardial cells remain epithelial and move over the gel surface. Here, we show that integrin αvβ3 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2 are present and active in cushion mesenchymal tissue. More importantly, functional assays show that mesenchymal invasive behavior is dependent on MMP2 activity and integrin αvβ3 binding. Inhibitors of MMP enzymatic activity and molecules that prevent integrin αvβ3 binding to MMP2, via its hemopexin domain, result in significantly reduced cellular protrusive activity and invasive behavior. Computational analyses show diminished intensity and persistence time of motility in treated invasive mesenchymal cells, but no reduction in motility of the epithelial-like cells moving over the gel surface. Thus, quantitative time-lapse data show that mesenchymal cell invasive behavior, but not epithelial cell locomotion over the gel surface, is partially regulated by the MMP2–integrin interactions. PMID:18923152

  10. Time-lapse 3-D measurements of a glucose biosensor in multicellular spheroids by light sheet fluorescence microscopy in commercial 96-well plates.

    PubMed

    Maioli, Vincent; Chennell, George; Sparks, Hugh; Lana, Tobia; Kumar, Sunil; Carling, David; Sardini, Alessandro; Dunsby, Chris

    2016-11-25

    Light sheet fluorescence microscopy has previously been demonstrated on a commercially available inverted fluorescence microscope frame using the method of oblique plane microscopy (OPM). In this paper, OPM is adapted to allow time-lapse 3-D imaging of 3-D biological cultures in commercially available glass-bottomed 96-well plates using a stage-scanning OPM approach (ssOPM). Time-lapse 3-D imaging of multicellular spheroids expressing a glucose Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensor is demonstrated in 16 fields of view with image acquisition at 10 minute intervals. As a proof-of-principle, the ssOPM system is also used to acquire a dose response curve with the concentration of glucose in the culture medium being varied across 42 wells of a 96-well plate with the whole acquisition taking 9 min. The 3-D image data enable the FRET ratio to be measured as a function of distance from the surface of the spheroid. Overall, the results demonstrate the capability of the OPM system to measure spatio-temporal changes in FRET ratio in 3-D in multicellular spheroids over time in a multi-well plate format.

  11. Time-Lapse Analysis of Methane Quantity in the Mary Lee Group of Coal Seams Using Filter-Based Multiple-Point Geostatistical Simulation.

    PubMed

    Karacan, C Özgen; Olea, Ricardo A

    2013-08-01

    Coal seam degasification and its success are important for controlling methane, and thus for the health and safety of coal miners. During the course of degasification, properties of coal seams change. Thus, the changes in coal reservoir conditions and in-place gas content as well as methane emission potential into mines should be evaluated by examining time-dependent changes and the presence of major heterogeneities and geological discontinuities in the field. In this work, time-lapsed reservoir and fluid storage properties of the New Castle coal seam, Mary Lee/Blue Creek seam, and Jagger seam of Black Warrior Basin, Alabama, were determined from gas and water production history matching and production forecasting of vertical degasification wellbores. These properties were combined with isotherm and other important data to compute gas-in-place (GIP) and its change with time at borehole locations. Time-lapsed training images (TIs) of GIP and GIP difference corresponding to each coal and date were generated by using these point-wise data and Voronoi decomposition on the TI grid, which included faults as discontinuities for expansion of Voronoi regions. Filter-based multiple-point geostatistical simulations, which were preferred in this study due to anisotropies and discontinuities in the area, were used to predict time-lapsed GIP distributions within the study area. Performed simulations were used for mapping spatial time-lapsed methane quantities as well as their uncertainties within the study area. The systematic approach presented in this paper is the first time in literature that history matching, TIs of GIPs and filter simulations are used for degasification performance evaluation and for assessing GIP for mining safety. Results from this study showed that using production history matching of coalbed methane wells to determine time-lapsed reservoir data could be used to compute spatial GIP and representative GIP TIs generated through Voronoi decomposition

  12. Time-lapse cinematography study of the germinal vesicle behaviour in mouse primary oocytes treated with activators of protein kinases A and C.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, H; Mulnard, J

    1988-12-01

    A passive erratic movement of the germinal vesicle (GV), already visible in small incompetent oocytes, is followed by an active scalloping of the nuclear membrane soon before GV breakdown (GVBD) in cultured competent oocytes. Maturation can be inhibited by activators of protein kinase A (PK-A) and protein kinase C (PK-C). Our time-lapse cinematography analysis allowed us to describe an unexpected behaviour of the GV when PK-C, but not PK-A, is activated: GV undergoes a displacement toward the cortex according to the same biological clock which triggers the programmed translocation of the spindle in control oocytes. It is concluded that, when oocytes become committed to undergo maturation, the cytoplasm acquires a PK-A-controlled "centrifugal displacement property" which is not restricted to the spindle.

  13. LONG-TERM OBSERVATIONS OF BOTTOM CONDITIONS AND SEDIMENT MOVEMENT ON THE ATLANTIC CONTINENTAL SHELF: TIME-LAPSE PHOTOGRAPHY FROM INSTRUMENTED TRIPODS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butman, Bradford; Bryden, Cynthia G.; Pfirman, Stephanie L.; Strahle, William J.; Noble, Marlene A.

    1984-01-01

    An instrument system that measures bottom current, temperature, light transmission, and pressure, and that photographs the bottom at 2- to 6-hour intervals has been developed to study sediment transport on the Atlantic Continental Shelf. Instruments have been deployed extensively along the United States East Coast Continental Shelf for periods of from 2 to 6 months to study the frequency, direction, and rate of bottom sediment movement, and the processes causing movement. The time-lapse photographs are used to (1) characterize the bottom benthic community and surface microtopography; (2) monitor changes in the bottom topography and near-bottom water column caused by currents and storms (for example, ripple generation and migration, sediment resuspension); and (3) monitor seasonal changes in the bottom benthic community and qualitative effects of this community on the bottom sediments.

  14. Time-lapse imagery of the breaching of Marmot Dam, Oregon, and subsequent erosion of sediment by the Sandy River, October 2007 to May 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, Jon J.; Spicer, Kurt R.; Collins, Rebecca A.

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, Marmot Dam on the Sandy River, Oregon, was removed and a temporary cofferdam standing in its place was breached, allowing the river to flow freely along its entire length. Time-lapse imagery obtained from a network of digital single-lens reflex cameras placed around the lower reach of the sediment-filled reservoir behind the dam details rapid erosion of sediment by the Sandy River after breaching of the cofferdam. Within hours of the breaching, the Sandy River eroded much of the nearly 15-m-thick frontal part of the sediment wedge impounded behind the former concrete dam; within 24-60 hours it eroded approximately 125,000 m3 of sediment impounded in the lower 300-meter-reach of the reservoir. The imagery shows that the sediment eroded initially through vertical incision, but that lateral erosion rapidly became an important process.

  15. Probing the immune and healing response of murine intestinal mucosa by time-lapse 2-photon microscopy of laser-induced lesions with real-time dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Orzekowsky-Schroeder, Regina; Klinger, Antje; Freidank, Sebastian; Linz, Norbert; Eckert, Sebastian; Hüttmann, Gereon; Gebert, Andreas; Vogel, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    Gut mucosa is an important interface between body and environment. Immune response and healing processes of murine small intestinal mucosa were investigated by intravital time-lapse two-photon excited autofluorescence microscopy of the response to localized laser-induced damage. Epithelial lesions were created by 355-nm, 500-ps pulses from a microchip laser that produced minute cavitation bubbles. Size and dynamics of these bubbles were monitored using a novel interferometric backscattering technique with 80 nm resolution. Small bubbles (< 2.5 µm maximum radius) merely resulted in autofluorescence loss of the target cell. Larger bubbles (7-25 µm) affected several cells and provoked immigration of immune cells (polymorphonuclear leucocytes). Damaged cells were expelled into the lumen, and the epithelium healed within 2 hours by stretching and migration of adjacent epithelial cells. PMID:25360369

  16. Label Free Cell-Tracking and Division Detection Based on 2D Time-Lapse Images For Lineage Analysis of Early Embryo Development

    PubMed Central

    Cicconet, Marcelo; Gutwein, Michelle; Gunsalus, Kristin C; Geiger, Davi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we report a database and a series of techniques related to the problem of tracking cells, and detecting their divisions, in time-lapse movies of mammalian embryos. Our contributions are: (1) a method for counting embryos in a well, and cropping each individual embryo across frames, to create individual movies for cell tracking; (2) a semi-automated method for cell tracking that works up to the 8-cell stage, along with a software implementation available to the public (this software was used to build the reported database); (3) an algorithm for automatic tracking up to the 4-cell stage, based on histograms of mirror symmetry coefficients captured using wavelets; (4) a cell-tracking database containing 100 annotated examples of mammalian embryos up to the 8-cell stage; (5) statistical analysis of various timing distributions obtained from those examples. PMID:24873887

  17. Application of RVA and Time-Lapse Photography to Explore Effects of Extent of Chlorination, Milling Extraction Rate, and Particle-Size Reduction of Flour on Cake-Baking Functionality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three factors (extent of chlorination, milling extraction rate and particle-size reduction) in the cake-bakeing functionality of Croplan 594W flour were explored by Rapid Visco-Analyzer (RVA) and time-lapse photography. The extent of chlorination and milling extraction rate showed dramatic effects,...

  18. Interpretaion of synthetic seismic time-lapse monitoring data for Korea CCS project based on the acoustic-elastic coupled inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, J.; Min, D.; Kim, W.; Huh, C.; Kang, S.

    2012-12-01

    Recently, the CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) is one of the promising methods to reduce the CO2 emission. To evaluate the success of the CCS project, various geophysical monitoring techniques have been applied. Among them, the time-lapse seismic monitoring is one of the effective methods to investigate the migration of CO2 plume. To monitor the injected CO2 plume accurately, it is needed to interpret seismic monitoring data using not only the imaging technique but also the full waveform inversion, because subsurface material properties can be estimated through the inversion. However, previous works for interpreting seismic monitoring data are mainly based on the imaging technique. In this study, we perform the frequency-domain full waveform inversion for synthetic data obtained by the acoustic-elastic coupled modeling for the geological model made after Ulleung Basin, which is one of the CO2 storage prospects in Korea. We suppose the injection layer is located in fault-related anticlines in the Dolgorae Deformed Belt and, for more realistic situation, we contaminate the synthetic monitoring data with random noise and outliers. We perform the time-lapse full waveform inversion in two scenarios. One scenario is that the injected CO2 plume migrates within the injection layer and is stably captured. The other scenario is that the injected CO2 plume leaks through the weak part of the cap rock. Using the inverted P- and S-wave velocities and Poisson's ratio, we were able to detect the migration of the injected CO2 plume. Acknowledgment This work was financially supported by the Brain Korea 21 project of Energy Systems Engineering, the "Development of Technology for CO2 Marine Geological Storage" program funded by the Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs (MLTM) of Korea and the Korea CCS R&D Center (KCRC) grant funded by the Korea government (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology) (No. 2012-0008926).

  19. Automatic detection and analysis of cell motility in phase-contrast time-lapse images using a combination of maximally stable extremal regions and Kalman filter approaches.

    PubMed

    Kaakinen, M; Huttunen, S; Paavolainen, L; Marjomäki, V; Heikkilä, J; Eklund, L

    2014-01-01

    Phase-contrast illumination is simple and most commonly used microscopic method to observe nonstained living cells. Automatic cell segmentation and motion analysis provide tools to analyze single cell motility in large cell populations. However, the challenge is to find a sophisticated method that is sufficiently accurate to generate reliable results, robust to function under the wide range of illumination conditions encountered in phase-contrast microscopy, and also computationally light for efficient analysis of large number of cells and image frames. To develop better automatic tools for analysis of low magnification phase-contrast images in time-lapse cell migration movies, we investigated the performance of cell segmentation method that is based on the intrinsic properties of maximally stable extremal regions (MSER). MSER was found to be reliable and effective in a wide range of experimental conditions. When compared to the commonly used segmentation approaches, MSER required negligible preoptimization steps thus dramatically reducing the computation time. To analyze cell migration characteristics in time-lapse movies, the MSER-based automatic cell detection was accompanied by a Kalman filter multiobject tracker that efficiently tracked individual cells even in confluent cell populations. This allowed quantitative cell motion analysis resulting in accurate measurements of the migration magnitude and direction of individual cells, as well as characteristics of collective migration of cell groups. Our results demonstrate that MSER accompanied by temporal data association is a powerful tool for accurate and reliable analysis of the dynamic behaviour of cells in phase-contrast image sequences. These techniques tolerate varying and nonoptimal imaging conditions and due to their relatively light computational requirements they should help to resolve problems in computationally demanding and often time-consuming large-scale dynamical analysis of cultured cells.

  20. Indications of Coupled Carbon and Iron Cycling at a Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Site from Time-Lapse Magnetic Susceptibility (MS) Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, A.; Slater, L. D.; Atekwana, E. A.; Rossbach, S.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Bekins, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic susceptibility (MS) data acquired at hydrocarbon contaminated sites have documented enhanced MS within the smear zone (zone of water table fluctuation at hydrocarbon contaminated location) coincident with the free phase (mobile or free liquids moving down through the unsaturated zone independent of the direction of flow of the groundwater or surface water) hydrocarbon plume These studies suggest that magnetic susceptibility can be used as a tool to: (1) infer regions of hydrocarbon contamination, and (2) investigate intrinsic bioremediation by iron reducing bacteria. We performed a campaign of time-lapse MS monitoring at the National Crude Oil Spill Fate and Natural Attenuation Research Site (Bemidji, MN) between July 2011 and August 2015. This highly instrumented site has multiple boreholes installed through the free phase, dissolved phase and uncontaminated portions of the aquifer impacted by an oil spill resulting from a pipeline rupture in 1979. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) data acquired in 2011 showed that MS values in the smear zone are higher than in the dissolved phase plume and background, leading to the hypothesis that MS measurements could be used to monitor the long-term progress of biodegradation at the site. However, repeated MS data acquired in 2014 and 2015 showed strong changes in the character of the MS signal in the smear zone with multiple free phase contamination locations showing a strong suppression of the signal relative to that observed in 2011. Other locations in the dissolved phase of the plume show evidence for vertical migration of the zone of enhanced MS, possibly due to changes in the redox profiles driven by hydrology. Such changes in the MS signal are hypothesized to result from either variations in Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratios in the magnetite or changes in the magnetite concentration associated with coupled carbon and iron biogeochemistry. This work is generating a unique time-lapse geophysical dataset providing information on

  1. Preliminary Seismic Time-lapse Results of the First Post-injection Monitoring at the Ketzin Pilot Site for CO2 Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Fei; Monika, Ivandic; Julin, Christopher; Lüth, Stefan; Bergmann, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Time-lapse surface seismic monitoring methods have proven to be notably successful in imaging the development of the CO2 plume injected into the 630-650 meters deep saline aquifer at the Ketzin pilot site. A 3D baseline survey was acquired in the autumn of 2005 prior to CO2 injection, followed by two 3D repeat surveys conducted in the same season of 2009 and 2012 after injection of about 22 and 61 kt of CO2, respectively. These repeat surveys showed that the CO2 plume was concentrated around the injection well with a preferred WNW propagating trend due to reservoir heterogeneity. The CO2 induced amplitude anomaly continued to grow with more CO2 injected into the reservoir. The CO2 injection ended on August 29, 2013 after a total of about 67 kt injected CO2. In the autumn of 2015, a third 3D repeat survey with a nominal fold of 25 was acquired during the post-injection phase. The acquisition was implemented with an identical template scheme and acquisition parameters as in the previous surveys. About 5500 source points were acquired during the 57 days of active acquisition. The same processing steps as used before were carried out from pre-stack to post-stack. In order to minimize changes unrelated to the site operations, cross-calibration was applied to the data. Preliminary results of the time-lapse analysis show that the obtained amplitude anomaly at the reservoir level is smaller in size than the one observed at the time of the second repeat survey. This may indicate that CO2 dissolution is active, especially east of the injection site, where permeability and flow rate appear to be lower. In comparison to the previous surveys, the maximum amplitude anomaly has moved towards the west, which is consistent with the previously observed propagating tendency of the CO2 plume within the reservoir. No CO2 leakage is observed within the overburden.

  2. In Vivo Time-Lapse Imaging in the Zebrafish Lateral Line: A Flexible, Open-Ended Research Project for an Undergraduate Neurobiology Laboratory Course

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Molly H.; Tobias, Zachary J.C.; Cohen, Hannah R.; Glover, Greta; Weissman, Tamily A.

    2015-01-01

    The lateral line sensory system in fish detects movements in the water and allows fish to respond to predators, prey, and other stimuli. As the lateral line forms in the first two days of zebrafish development, axons extend caudally along the lateral surface of the fish, eventually forming synapses with hair cells of neuromasts. Growing lateral line axons are located superficially under the skin and can be labeled in living zebrafish using fluorescent protein expression. This system provides a relatively straightforward approach for in vivo time-lapse imaging of neuronal development in an undergraduate setting. Here we describe an upper-level neurobiology laboratory module in which students investigate aspects of axonal development in the zebrafish lateral line system. Students learn to handle and image living fish, collect time-lapse videos of moving mitochondria, and quantitatively measure mitochondrial dynamics by generating and analyzing kymographs of their movements. Energy demands may differ between axons with extending growth cones versus axons that have already reached their targets and are forming synapses. Since relatively little is known about this process in developing lateral line axons, students generate and test their own hypotheses regarding how mitochondrial dynamics may differ at two different time points in axonal development. Students also learn to incorporate into their analysis a powerful yet accessible quantitative tool, the kymograph, which is used to graph movement over time. After students measure and quantify dynamics in living fish at 1 and 2 days post fertilization, this module extends into independent projects, in which students can expand their studies in a number of different, inquiry-driven directions. The project can also be pared down for courses that wish to focus solely on the quantitative analysis (without fish handling), or vice versa. This research module provides a useful approach for the design of open-ended laboratory

  3. Realtime infiltration process monitoring in macroporous soil - a plot-scale experiment accompanied by high-resolution time-lapse 3D GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackisch, Conrad; Allroggen, Niklas

    2016-04-01

    Infiltration and quick vertical redistribution of event water through rapid subsurface flow in soil structures is one of the key issues in hydrology. Although the importance of preferential flow is broadly recognised, our theories, observation techniques and modelling approaches lose grounds when the assumption of well-mixed states in REVs collapses. To characterise the combination of advective and diffusive flow is especially challenging. We have shown in earlier studies that a combination of TDR monitoring, dye- and salt-tracer recovery and time-lapse 3D GPR in irrigation experiments provides means to characterise infiltration dynamics at the plot- and hillslope-scale also in highly structured soils. We pinpointed that the spatial and temporal resolution requires special attention and improvement - particularly owing to the facts of high velocity (10-3 ms-1) of advective flow and small scale (10-2 m) of the respective flow structures. We present insights from a novel technique of continuous high-resolution time-lapse 3D GPR measurements during and after a plot-scale (1 m x 1 m) irrigation experiment. Continuous TDR soil moisture measurements, dye tracer excavation and salt-tracer samples are used as qualitative and quantitative references. While classical infiltration experiments either look at spatial patterns or temporal dynamics at singular gauges, we highlight the advantage of combining both to achieve a more complete image of the infiltration process. Although operating at the limits of the techniques this setup enables non-invasive observation of preferential flow processes in the field and allows to explore and characterise macropore matrix exchange.

  4. Combining time-lapse electrical resistivity, suction cup and tensiometer measurements to monitor snowmelt and solute transport at Oslo airport, Gardermoen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloem, Esther; French, Helen K.

    2013-04-01

    Geophysical methods provide indirect measurements of subsurface properties over larger volumes than traditional techniques, and are potentially cost-efficient. However, the usefulness of any individual set of geophysical measurements (akin to a snapshot at one point in time) is severely limited by the problem of non-uniqueness or ambiguity when used to study contaminated sites, where the attendant processes vary in space and time. To make progress on soil contamination assessment and site characterization there is a strong need to integrate quasi field-scale, extensively instrumented tools, with non-invasive (geophysical) methods. The impact of annual infiltration of large quantities of de-icing chemicals at Oslo airport, Gardermoen, represents common challenge for all airports with winter frost. It is also similar to the challenge posed by de-icing salt application along roads. To improve risk assessment, monitoring, and treatment strategies for natural attenuation, we require a better understanding on the resistivity effects from infiltrating snowmelt and contaminant movement to the methods suitable for monitoring resistivity changes over time at contaminated sites. Electrical and electromagnetic methods are widely applied for soil mapping and detecting of contaminated plumes. Time-lapse measurements have become a common method to characterize changes in water saturation and solute transport in the unsaturated zone (French and Binley, 2004; French et al. 2002). The non-uniqueness of the interpretation techniques can be reduced by constraining the inversion through the addition of independent measurements along the same profile. Such measurements include soil physical properties, soil suction, contaminant concentration and temperatures. At the research field station at Gardermoen, a degradable de-icing chemical and an inactive tracer were added to the snow cover prior to snowmelt. In order to link geophysical measurements to solute transport processes in the

  5. Live Cells as Dynamic Laboratories: Time Lapse Raman Spectral Microscopy of Nanoparticles with Both IgE Targeting and pH-Sensing Functions

    DOE PAGES

    Nowak-Lovato, Kristy L.; Rector, Kirk D.

    2012-01-01

    Tmore » his review captures the use of live cells as dynamic microlaboratories through implementation of labeled nanoparticles (nanosensors) that have both sensing and targeting functions.he addition of 2,4-ε-dinitrophenol-L-lysine (DNP) as a FcεRI targeting ligand and 4-mercaptopyridine (4-MPy) as a pH-sensing ligand enables spatial and temporal monitoring of FcεRI receptors and their pH environment within the endocytic pathway.o ensure reliability, the sensor is calibrated in vivo using the ionophore nigericin and standard buffer solutions to equilibrate the external [ H + ] concentration with that of the cell compartments.his review highlights the nanosensors, ability to traffic and respond to pH of receptor-bound nanosensors (1) at physiological temperature ( 37 ° C ) versus room temperature ( 25 ° C ) , (2) after pharmacological treatment with bafilomycin, an H + ATPase pump inhibitor, or amiloride, an inhibitor of Na + / H + exchange, and (3) in response to both temperature and pharmacological treatment. Whole-cell, time lapse images are demonstrated to show the ability to transform live cells into dynamic laboratories to monitor temporal and spatial endosomal pH.he versatility of these probes shows promise for future applications relevant to intracellular trafficking and intelligent drug design.« less

  6. Novel fixed z-direction (FiZD) kidney primordia and an organoid culture system for time-lapse confocal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Akram, Saad Ullah; Shan, Jingdong; Cereghini, Silvia; Heikkilä, Janne

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tissue, organ and organoid cultures provide suitable models for developmental studies, but our understanding of how the organs are assembled at the single-cell level still remains unclear. We describe here a novel fixed z-direction (FiZD) culture setup that permits high-resolution confocal imaging of organoids and embryonic tissues. In a FiZD culture a permeable membrane compresses the tissues onto a glass coverslip and the spacers adjust the thickness, enabling the tissue to grow for up to 12 days. Thus, the kidney rudiment and the organoids can adjust to the limited z-directional space and yet advance the process of kidney morphogenesis, enabling long-term time-lapse and high-resolution confocal imaging. As the data quality achieved was sufficient for computer-assisted cell segmentation and analysis, the method can be used for studying morphogenesis ex vivo at the level of the single constituent cells of a complex mammalian organogenesis model system. PMID:28219945

  7. Time-lapse imaging reveals highly dynamic structural maturation of postnatally born dentate granule cells in organotypic entorhino-hippocampal slice cultures

    PubMed Central

    Radic, Tijana; Jungenitz, Tassilo; Singer, Mathias; Beining, Marcel; Cuntz, Hermann; Vlachos, Andreas; Deller, Thomas; Schwarzacher, Stephan W.

    2017-01-01

    Neurogenesis of hippocampal granule cells (GCs) persists throughout mammalian life and is important for learning and memory. How newborn GCs differentiate and mature into an existing circuit during this time period is not yet fully understood. We established a method to visualize postnatally generated GCs in organotypic entorhino-hippocampal slice cultures (OTCs) using retroviral (RV) GFP-labeling and performed time-lapse imaging to study their morphological development in vitro. Using anterograde tracing we could, furthermore, demonstrate that the postnatally generated GCs in OTCs, similar to adult born GCs, grow into an existing entorhino-dentate circuitry. RV-labeled GCs were identified and individual cells were followed for up to four weeks post injection. Postnatally born GCs exhibited highly dynamic structural changes, including dendritic growth spurts but also retraction of dendrites and phases of dendritic stabilization. In contrast, older, presumably prenatally born GCs labeled with an adeno-associated virus (AAV), were far less dynamic. We propose that the high degree of structural flexibility seen in our preparations is necessary for the integration of newborn granule cells into an already existing neuronal circuit of the dentate gyrus in which they have to compete for entorhinal input with cells generated and integrated earlier. PMID:28256620

  8. Visualization of living terminal hypertrophic chondrocytes of growth plate cartilage in situ by differential interference contrast microscopy and time-lapse cinematography.

    PubMed

    Farnum, C E; Turgai, J; Wilsman, N J

    1990-09-01

    The functional unit within the growth plate consists of a column of chondrocytes that passes through a sequence of phases including proliferation, hypertrophy, and death. It is important to our understanding of the biology of the growth plate to determine if distal hypertrophic cells are viable, highly differentiated cells with the potential of actively controlling terminal events of endochondral ossification prior to their death at the chondro-osseous junction. This study for the first time reports on the visualization of living hypertrophic chondrocytes in situ, including the terminal hypertrophic chondrocyte. Chondrocytes in growth plate explants are visualized using rectified differential interference contrast microscopy. We record and measure, using time-lapse cinematography, the rate of movement of subcellular organelles at the limit of resolution of this light microscopy system. Control experiments to assess viability of hypertrophic chondrocytes include coincubating organ cultures with the intravital dye fluorescein diacetate to assess the integrity of the plasma membrane and cytoplasmic esterases. In this system, all hypertrophic chondrocytes, including the very terminal chondrocyte, exist as rounded, fully hydrated cells. By the criteria of intravital dye staining and organelle movement, distal hypertrophic chondrocytes are identical to chondrocytes in the proliferative and early hypertrophic cell zones.

  9. Proliferation kinetics of cultured cells after irradiation with X-rays and 14 MeV neutrons studied by time-lapse cinematography.

    PubMed

    Kooi, M W; Stap, J; Barendsen, G W

    1984-06-01

    Exponentially growing cells of an established line derived from a mouse osteosarcoma (MOS) have been studied by time-lapse cinematography after irradiation with 3 Gy of 200 kV X-rays or 1.5 Gy of 14 MeV neutrons. Cell cycle times (Tc) of individual cells and their progeny in three subsequent generations as well as the occurrence of aberrant mitosis have been determined to evaluate the variation in expression of damage in relation to the stage in the intermitotic cycle and the radiation quality. The results show that the radiation doses applied cause an equal elongation of the mean Tc, which is largest in the irradiated cells but persists in the three subsequent generations. After 3 Gy of X-rays, mitotic delay is largest in cells irradiated in later stages of the cycle, but this difference is not observed after 1.5 Gy of 14 MeV neutrons. In subsequent generations the Tc values show larger variations among descendents of cells treated in the same stage of the cycle as compared to controls but this variation is equal for the doses of X-rays and neutrons applied. Division probability was significantly reduced in irradiated cells as well as in subsequent generations, whereby with neutrons as compared to X-rays the damage is expressed in earlier generations, with less variation as a function of the cell cycle.

  10. Time-lapse analysis of methane quantity in Mary Lee group of coal seams using filter-based multiple-point geostatistical simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karacan, C. Özgen; Olea, Ricardo A.

    2013-01-01

    The systematic approach presented in this paper is the first time in literature that history matching, TIs of GIPs and filter simulations are used for degasification performance evaluation and for assessing GIP for mining safety. Results from this study showed that using production history matching of coalbed methane wells to determine time-lapsed reservoir data could be used to compute spatial GIP and representative GIP TIs generated through Voronoi decomposition. Furthermore, performing filter simulations using point-wise data and TIs could be used to predict methane quantity in coal seams subjected to degasification. During the course of the study, it was shown that the material balance of gas produced by wellbores and the GIP reductions in coal seams predicted using filter simulations compared very well, showing the success of filter simulations for continuous variables in this case study. Quantitative results from filter simulations of GIP within the studied area briefly showed that GIP was reduced from an initial ∼73 Bcf (median) to ∼46 Bcf (2011), representing a 37 % decrease and varying spatially through degasification. It is forecasted that there will be an additional ∼2 Bcf reduction in methane quantity between 2011 and 2015. This study and presented results showed that the applied methodology and utilized techniques can be used to map GIP and its change within coal seams after degasification, which can further be used for ventilation design for methane control in coal mines.

  11. Dispositional Mindfulness Uncouples Physiological and Emotional Reactivity to a Laboratory Stressor and Emotional Reactivity to Executive Functioning Lapses in Daily Life

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Greg; Lavalle, Jayne; Gildawie, Kelsea; Greeson, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Both dispositional mindfulness and mindfulness training may help to uncouple the degree to which distress is experienced in response to aversive internal experience and external events. Because emotional reactivity is a transdiagnostic process implicated in numerous psychological disorders, dispositional mindfulness and mindfulness training could exert mental health benefits, in part, by buffering emotional reactivity. The present studies examine whether dispositional mindfulness moderates two understudied processes in stress reactivity research: the degree of concordance between subjective and physiological reactivity to a laboratory stressor (Study 1); and the degree of dysphoric mood reactivity to lapses in executive functioning in daily life (Study 2). In both studies, lower emotional reactivity to aversive experiences was observed among individuals scoring higher in mindfulness, particularly non-judging, relative to those scoring lower in mindfulness. These findings support the hypothesis that higher dispositional mindfulness fosters lower emotional reactivity. Results are discussed in terms of implications for applying mindfulness-based interventions to a range of psychological disorders in which people have difficulty regulating emotional reactions to stress. PMID:27087863

  12. Dispositional Mindfulness Uncouples Physiological and Emotional Reactivity to a Laboratory Stressor and Emotional Reactivity to Executive Functioning Lapses in Daily Life.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Greg; Lavalle, Jayne; Gildawie, Kelsea; Greeson, Jeffrey M

    2016-04-01

    Both dispositional mindfulness and mindfulness training may help to uncouple the degree to which distress is experienced in response to aversive internal experience and external events. Because emotional reactivity is a transdiagnostic process implicated in numerous psychological disorders, dispositional mindfulness and mindfulness training could exert mental health benefits, in part, by buffering emotional reactivity. The present studies examine whether dispositional mindfulness moderates two understudied processes in stress reactivity research: the degree of concordance between subjective and physiological reactivity to a laboratory stressor (Study 1); and the degree of dysphoric mood reactivity to lapses in executive functioning in daily life (Study 2). In both studies, lower emotional reactivity to aversive experiences was observed among individuals scoring higher in mindfulness, particularly non-judging, relative to those scoring lower in mindfulness. These findings support the hypothesis that higher dispositional mindfulness fosters lower emotional reactivity. Results are discussed in terms of implications for applying mindfulness-based interventions to a range of psychological disorders in which people have difficulty regulating emotional reactions to stress.

  13. Enabling user-guided segmentation and tracking of surface-labeled cells in time-lapse image sets of living tissues.

    PubMed

    Mashburn, David N; Lynch, Holley E; Ma, Xiaoyan; Hutson, M Shane

    2012-05-01

    To study the process of morphogenesis, one often needs to collect and segment time-lapse images of living tissues to accurately track changing cellular morphology. This task typically involves segmenting and tracking tens to hundreds of individual cells over hundreds of image frames, a scale that would certainly benefit from automated routines; however, any automated routine would need to reliably handle a large number of sporadic, and yet typical problems (e.g., illumination inconsistency, photobleaching, rapid cell motions, and drift of focus or of cells moving through the imaging plane). Here, we present a segmentation and cell tracking approach based on the premise that users know their data best-interpreting and using image features that are not accounted for in any a priori algorithm design. We have developed a program, SeedWater Segmenter, that combines a parameter-less and fast automated watershed algorithm with a suite of manual intervention tools that enables users with little to no specialized knowledge of image processing to efficiently segment images with near-perfect accuracy based on simple user interactions.

  14. Computer-automated time-lapse analysis results correlate with embryo implantation and clinical pregnancy: A blinded, multi-centre study

    PubMed Central

    VerMilyea, Matthew D; Tan, Lei; Anthony, Joshua T; Conaghan, Joe; Ivani, Kristen; Gvakharia, Marina; Boostanfar, Robert; Baker, Valerie L; Suraj, Vaishali; Chen, Alice A; Mainigi, Monica; Coutifaris, Christos; Shen, Shehua

    2015-01-01

    Computer-automated time-lapse analysis has been shown to improve embryo selection by providing quantitative and objective information to supplement traditional morphology. In this multi-centre study, the relationship between such computer-derived outputs (High, Medium, Low scores), embryo implantation and clinical pregnancy were examined. Data were collected from six clinics, including 205 patients whose embryos were imaged by the Eeva™System. The Eeva scores were blinded and not considered during embryo selection. Embryos with High and Medium scores had significantly higher implantation rates than those with Low scores (37% and 35% versus 15%; P < 0.0001; P = 0.0004). Similar trends in implantation rates were observed in different IVF centres each using their own protocols. Further analysis revealed that patients with at least one High embryo transferred had significantly higher clinical pregnancy rates than those with only Low embryos transferred (51% versus 34%; P = 0.02), although patients’ clinical characteristics across groups were comparable. These data, together with previous research and clinical studies, confirm that computer-automated Eeva scores provide valuable information, which may improve the clinical outcome of IVF procedures and ultimately facilitate the trend of single embryo selection. PMID:25444507

  15. Time-lapse camera observations of gas piston activity at Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō, Kīlauea volcano, Hawai‘i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orr, Tim R.; Rea, James

    2012-01-01

    Gas pistoning is a type of eruptive behavior described first at Kīlauea volcano and characterized by the (commonly) cyclic rise and fall of the lava surface within a volcanic vent or lava lake. Though recognized for decades, its cause continues to be debated, and determining why and when it occurs has important implications for understanding vesiculation and outgassing processes at basaltic volcanoes. Here, we describe gas piston activity that occurred at the Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō cone, in Kīlauea’s east rift zone, during June 2006. Direct, detailed measurements of lava level, made from time-lapse camera images captured at close range, show that the gas pistons during the study period lasted from 2 to 60 min, had volumes ranging from 14 to 104 m3, displayed a slowing rise rate of the lava surface, and had an average gas release duration of 49 s. Our data are inconsistent with gas pistoning models that invoke gas slug rise or a dynamic pressure balance but are compatible with models which appeal to gas accumulation and loss near the top of the lava column, possibly through the generation and collapse of a foam layer.

  16. Time-lapse ultrashort pulse microscopy of infection in three-dimensional versus two-dimensional culture environments reveals enhanced extra-chromosomal virus replication compartment formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, Holly C.; Sing, Garwin; Armas, Juan Carlos González; Campbell, Colin J.; Ghazal, Peter; Yeh, Alvin T.

    2013-03-01

    The mechanisms that enable viruses to harness cellular machinery for their own survival are primarily studied in cell lines cultured in two-dimensional (2-D) environments. However, there are increasing reports of biological differences between cells cultured in 2-D versus three-dimensional (3-D) environments. Here we report differences in host-virus interactions based on differences in culture environment. Using ultrashort pulse microscopy (UPM), a form of two-photon microscopy that utilizes sub-10-fs pulses to efficiently excite fluorophores, we have shown that de novo development of extra-chromosomal virus replication compartments (VRCs) upon murine cytomegalovirus (mCMV) infection is markedly enhanced when host cells are cultured in 3-D collagen gels versus 2-D monolayers. In addition, time-lapse imaging revealed that mCMV-induced VRCs have the capacity to grow by coalescence. This work supports the future potential of 3-D culture as a useful bridge between traditional monolayer cultures and animal models to study host-virus interactions in a more physiologically relevant environment for the development of effective anti-viral therapeutics. These advances will require broader adoption of modalities, such as UPM, to image deep within scattering tissues.

  17. Understanding leachate flow in municipal solid waste landfills by combining time-lapse ERT and subsurface flow modelling - Part II: Constraint methodology of hydrodynamic models.

    PubMed

    Audebert, M; Oxarango, L; Duquennoi, C; Touze-Foltz, N; Forquet, N; Clément, R

    2016-09-01

    Leachate recirculation is a key process in the operation of municipal solid waste landfills as bioreactors. To ensure optimal water content distribution, bioreactor operators need tools to design leachate injection systems. Prediction of leachate flow by subsurface flow modelling could provide useful information for the design of such systems. However, hydrodynamic models require additional data to constrain them and to assess hydrodynamic parameters. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is a suitable method to study leachate infiltration at the landfill scale. It can provide spatially distributed information which is useful for constraining hydrodynamic models. However, this geophysical method does not allow ERT users to directly measure water content in waste. The MICS (multiple inversions and clustering strategy) methodology was proposed to delineate the infiltration area precisely during time-lapse ERT survey in order to avoid the use of empirical petrophysical relationships, which are not adapted to a heterogeneous medium such as waste. The infiltration shapes and hydrodynamic information extracted with MICS were used to constrain hydrodynamic models in assessing parameters. The constraint methodology developed in this paper was tested on two hydrodynamic models: an equilibrium model where, flow within the waste medium is estimated using a single continuum approach and a non-equilibrium model where flow is estimated using a dual continuum approach. The latter represents leachate flows into fractures. Finally, this methodology provides insight to identify the advantages and limitations of hydrodynamic models. Furthermore, we suggest an explanation for the large volume detected by MICS when a small volume of leachate is injected.

  18. A semi-Markov model for mitosis segmentation in time-lapse phase contrast microscopy image sequences of stem cell populations.

    PubMed

    Liu, An-An; Li, Kang; Kanade, Takeo

    2012-02-01

    We propose a semi-Markov model trained in a max-margin learning framework for mitosis event segmentation in large-scale time-lapse phase contrast microscopy image sequences of stem cell populations. Our method consists of three steps. First, we apply a constrained optimization based microscopy image segmentation method that exploits phase contrast optics to extract candidate subsequences in the input image sequence that contains mitosis events. Then, we apply a max-margin hidden conditional random field (MM-HCRF) classifier learned from human-annotated mitotic and nonmitotic sequences to classify each candidate subsequence as a mitosis or not. Finally, a max-margin semi-Markov model (MM-SMM) trained on manually-segmented mitotic sequences is utilized to reinforce the mitosis classification results, and to further segment each mitosis into four predefined temporal stages. The proposed method outperforms the event-detection CRF model recently reported by Huh as well as several other competing methods in very challenging image sequences of multipolar-shaped C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells. For mitosis detection, an overall precision of 95.8% and a recall of 88.1% were achieved. For mitosis segmentation, the mean and standard deviation for the localization errors of the start and end points of all mitosis stages were well below 1 and 2 frames, respectively. In particular, an overall temporal location error of 0.73 ± 1.29 frames was achieved for locating daughter cell birth events.

  19. Live Cells as Dynamic Laboratories: Time Lapse Raman Spectral Microscopy of Nanoparticles with Both IgE Targeting and pH-Sensing Functions

    PubMed Central

    Nowak-Lovato, Kristy L.; Rector, Kirk D.

    2012-01-01

    This review captures the use of live cells as dynamic microlaboratories through implementation of labeled nanoparticles (nanosensors) that have both sensing and targeting functions. The addition of 2,4-ε-dinitrophenol-L-lysine (DNP) as a FcεRI targeting ligand and 4-mercaptopyridine (4-MPy) as a pH-sensing ligand enables spatial and temporal monitoring of FcεRI receptors and their pH environment within the endocytic pathway. To ensure reliability, the sensor is calibrated in vivo using the ionophore nigericin and standard buffer solutions to equilibrate the external [H+] concentration with that of the cell compartments. This review highlights the nanosensors, ability to traffic and respond to pH of receptor-bound nanosensors (1) at physiological temperature (37°C) versus room temperature (25°C), (2) after pharmacological treatment with bafilomycin, an H+ ATPase pump inhibitor, or amiloride, an inhibitor of Na+/H+ exchange, and (3) in response to both temperature and pharmacological treatment. Whole-cell, time lapse images are demonstrated to show the ability to transform live cells into dynamic laboratories to monitor temporal and spatial endosomal pH. The versatility of these probes shows promise for future applications relevant to intracellular trafficking and intelligent drug design. PMID:22778738

  20. Reduction of nocturnal slow-wave activity affects daytime vigilance lapses and memory encoding but not reaction time or implicit learning.

    PubMed

    Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D; Altena, Ellemarije; Vis, José C; Koene, Teddy; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2011-01-01

    Total sleep deprivation in healthy subjects has a profound effect on the performance on tasks measuring sustained attention or vigilance. We here report how a selective disruption of deep sleep only, that is, selective slow-wave activity (SWA) reduction, affects the performance of healthy well-sleeping subjects on several tasks: a "simple" and a "complex" vigilance task, a declarative learning task, and an implicit learning task despite unchanged duration of sleep. We used automated electroencephalogram (EEG) dependent acoustic feedback aimed at selective interference with-and reduction of-SWA. In a within-subject repeated measures crossover design, performance on the tasks was assessed in 13 elderly adults without sleep complaints after either SWA-reduction or after normal sleep. The number of vigilance lapses increased as a result of SWA reduction, irrespective of the type of vigilance task. Recognition on the declarative memory task was also affected by SWA reduction, associated with a decreased activation of the right hippocampus on encoding (measured with fMRI) suggesting a weaker memory trace. SWA reduction, however, did not affect reaction time on either of the vigilance tasks or implicit memory task performance. These findings suggest a specific role of slow oscillations in the subsequent daytime ability to maintain sustained attention and to encode novel declarative information but not to maintain response speed or to build implicit memories. Of particular interest is that selective SWA reduction can mimic some of the effects of total sleep deprivation, while not affecting sleep duration.

  1. The time lapse experiment in Al Wasse water pumping field in Saudi Arabia by an ultra-stable seismic source (ACROSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlAnezi, Ghunaim; Kasahara, Junzo; AlDamegh, Khaled S.; Lafouza, Omar; AlYousef, Khaled; Almalki, Fahad; Nishiyama, Eichiro

    2015-04-01

    We have developed the time lapse technology for EOR (enhanced oil recovery) and CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) using a very stable and continuous seismic source called ACROSS (Accurately Controlled Routinely Operated Signal System) with multi-geophones. Since 2011, we have tested this technology in the context of carbonate rocks in Saudi Arabia. The Al Wasee water pumping site approximately 120 km east of Riyadh city has been selected as a trail-site. The intention is to observe the changes in aquifers induced by pumping operations. One ACROSS source unit was installed at the Al Wasee site in December 2011 and we are continuing the field test. The instrument has been operated from 10 to 50 Hz with 40 tons-f at 50 Hz. Using alternatively clockwise and counter-clockwise rotations we can synthesize vertical and horizontal forces, respectively. 31 3C-geophones in 2 km x 3 km area and four nearby 3Cgeophones have been used to monitor the seismic changes from pumping the water. The one and half month data between December 2012 and February 2013 show continuous and clear change of observed waveforms for all 31 stations while the source signature did not change. The change is closest and fastest at the station #42. The cause of continuous change with time is interpreted as pumping of water by 64 wells located in this field.

  2. Gigavision - A weatherproof, multibillion pixel resolution time-lapse camera system for recording and tracking phenology in every plant in a landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, T.; Borevitz, J. O.; Zimmermann, C.

    2010-12-01

    retrieved at bi-weekly intervals. Our longer-term goal is to make gigapixel time-lapse datasets available online in an interactive interface that layers plant-level phenology data with gigapixel resolution images, genomic sequence data from individual plants with weather and other abitotic sensor data. Co-visualization of all of these data types provides researchers with a powerful new tool for examining complex ecological interactions across scales from the individual to the ecosystem. We will present detailed phenostage data from more than 100 plants of multiple species from our Gigavision timelapse camera at our “Big Blowout East” field site in the Indiana Dunes State Park, IN. This camera has been recording three to four 700 million pixel images a day since February 28, 2010. The camera field of view covers an area of about 7 hectares resulting in an average image resolution of about 1 pixel per centimeter over the entire site. We will also discuss some of the many technological challenges with developing and maintaining these types of hardware systems, collecting quantitative data from gigapixel resolution time-lapse data and effectively managing terabyte-sized datasets of millions of images.

  3. Time-lapse cinematography-compatible polystyrene-based microwell culture system: a novel tool for tracking the development of individual bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Sugimura, Satoshi; Akai, Tomonori; Somfai, Tamás; Hirayama, Muneyuki; Aikawa, Yoshio; Ohtake, Masaki; Hattori, Hideshi; Kobayashi, Shuji; Hashiyada, Yutaka; Konishi, Kazuyuki; Imai, Kei

    2010-12-01

    We have developed a polystyrene-based well-of-the-well (WOW) system using injection molding to track individual embryos throughout culture using time-lapse cinematography (TLC). WOW culture of bovine embryos following in vitro fertilization was compared with conventional droplet culture (control). No differences between control- and WOW-cultured embryos were observed during development to the blastocyst stage. Morphological quality and inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) cell numbers were not different between control- and WOW-derived blastocysts; however, apoptosis in both the ICM and TE cells was reduced in WOW culture (P < 0.01). Oxygen consumption in WOW-derived blastocysts was closer to physiological level than that of control-derived blastocysts. Moreover, WOW culture improved embryo viability, as indicated by increased pregnancy rates at Days 30 and 60 after embryo transfer (P < 0.05). TLC monitoring was performed to evaluate the cleavage pattern and the duration of the first cell cycle of embryos from oocytes collected by ovum pickup; correlations with success of pregnancy were determined. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the cleavage pattern correlated with success of pregnancy (P < 0.05), but cell cycle length did not. Higher pregnancy rates (66.7%) were observed for animals in which transferred blastocysts had undergone normal cleavage, identified by the presence of two blastomeres of the same size without fragmentation, than among those with abnormal cleavage (33.3%). These results suggest that our microwell culture system is a powerful tool for producing and selecting healthy embryos and for identifying viability biomarkers.

  4. Time-lapse monitoring reveals that vitrification increases the frequency of contraction during the pre-hatching stage in mouse embryos

    PubMed Central

    SHIMODA, Yuki; KUMAGAI, Jin; ANZAI, Mibuki; KABASHIMA, Katsuya; TOGASHI, Kazue; MIURA, Yasuko; SHIRASAWA, Hiromitsu; SATO, Wataru; KUMAZAWA, Yukiyo; TERADA, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Contraction during the blastocyst stage is observed during embryonic development of various mammals, including humans, but the physiological role of this process is not well understood. Using time-lapse monitoring (TLM), we studied the influence of vitrification and contractions on embryonic development in mice. Mouse embryos were cultured at the 2-cell stage. At the 8-cell stage, embryos were randomly divided into a fresh group (FG) and vitrified group (VG) and observed for up to 144 h. Strong contractions (i.e., contractions causing a decrease in volume of more than 20% and expansion of the perivitelline space) occurred significantly more often in unhatched embryos than hatching embryos in both groups. Regarding hatching embryos, contractions in the pre-hatching stage were significantly more frequent in the VG than the FG. Furthermore, mRNA expression levels of genes related to contractions were determined at three time points, the 8-cell stage, early blastocyst stage, and 20 h after blastocoel formation, with quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. There was no significant difference in Hspa1a expression between the FG and VG, but Hspa1a overexpression was observed just after thawing and tended to decrease gradually thereafter in some blastocysts. Furthermore, in the VG, Atp1a1 tended to show higher expression in the strong contraction group than in the weak contraction group. Overall, vitrification is an excellent method for cryopreservation but could increase contractions in the pre-hatching stage and may increase energy demands of the embryo. Observation of contraction by TLM may improve the evaluation of embryo quality. PMID:26806421

  5. Assessing clogging processes caused by biofilm growth and organic particle accumulation in constructed wetlands using time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoub, Himi; Tapias, Josefina C.; Lovera, Raúl; Rivero, Lluís; Font, Xavier; Casas, Albert

    2016-04-01

    Constructed wetlands for removing pollutants from wastewater in small communities are growing rapidly in many regions of the world. The advantages over conventional mechanical sanitation systems, where land availability is not a limiting factor, are low energy requirements, easy operation and maintenance, low sludge production and cost-effectivity. Nevertheless, with time the cleaning process can result in gradual clogging of the porous layer by suspended solids, bacterial film, chemical precipitates and compaction. The clogging development causes decrease of hydraulic conductivity, reduced oxygen supply and further leads to a rapid decrease of the treatment performance. As the investment involved in reversing clogging can represent a substantial fraction of the cost of a new system it is essential to assess in advance the evolution of clogging process and detect potential failures in the system. Since there is a lack of experiences for monitoring the functionality of constructed wetlands time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography studies have been conducted at horizontal sub-surface flow municipal wastewater treatment wetlands of Catalonia (Spain). The results of this research show that electrical resistivity tomography can be a very useful technique for assessing the extent of silting up processes that clog the subsurface flow constructed wetlands through the gravel layer. In the unsaturated zone, the electrical resistivity is greater at the end of the filter, since the pores contains air which is dielectric, while at the beginning of the filter the resistivity is lower because the electrical conduction of organic matter around the mineral grains. Conversely, in the saturated zone, the electrical resistivity is lower at the end of the filter, since pores contain a higher proportion of high ionic conductivity wastewater, while at the beginning of the filter the electrical resistivity is higher because of the lower porosity due to the clogging process.

  6. Diffusion of solutes inside bacterial colonies immobilized in model cheese depends on their physicochemical properties: a time-lapse microscopy study

    PubMed Central

    Floury, Juliane; El Mourdi, Ilham; Silva, Juliana V. C.; Lortal, Sylvie; Thierry, Anne; Jeanson, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    During cheese processing and ripening, bacteria develop as colonies. Substrates and metabolites must then diffuse either from or into the colonies. Exploring how the inner cells of the colony access the substrates or get rid of the products leads to study the diffusion of solutes inside bacterial colonies immobilized in cheese. Diffusion limitations of substrates within the bacterial colony could lead to starvation for the cells in the center of the colony. This study aimed at better understands ripening at the colony level, by investigating how diffusion phenomena inside colonies vary depending on both the physicochemical properties of the solutes and Lactococcus lactis strain. Dextrans (4, 70, and 155 kDa) and milk proteins (BSA, lactoferrin and αS1-casein) of different sizes and physicochemical properties were chosen as model of diffusing solutes, and two L. lactis strains presenting different surface properties were immobilized as colonies in a model cheese. Diffusion of solutes inside and around colonies was experimentally followed by time-lapse confocal microscopy. Dextran solutes diffused inside both lactococci colonies with a non-significantly different effective diffusion coefficient, which depended mainly on size of the solute. However, whereas flexible and neutral hydrophilic polymers such as dextran can diffuse inside colonies whatever its size, none of the three proteins investigated in this study could penetrate inside lactococci colonies. Therefore, the diffusion behavior of macromolecules through bacterial colonies immobilized in a model cheese did not only depends on the size of the diffusing solutes, but also and mainly on their physicochemical properties. Milk caseins are probably first hydrolyzed by the cell wall proteases of L. lactis and/or other proteases present in the cheese, and then the generated peptides diffuse inside colonies to be further metabolized into smaller peptides and amino acids by all the cells located inside the colonies

  7. Remotely Measuring Trash Fluxes in the Flood Canals of Megacities with Time Lapse Cameras and Computer Vision Algorithms - a Case Study from Jakarta, Indonesia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlar, F.; Turpin, E.; Kerkez, B.

    2014-12-01

    As megacities around the world continue to develop at breakneck speeds, future development, investment, and social wellbeing are threatened by a number of environmental and social factors. Chief among these is frequent, persistent, and unpredictable urban flooding. Jakarta, Indonesia with a population of 28 million, is a prime example of a city plagued by such flooding. Yet although Jakarta has ample hydraulic infrastructure already in place with more being constructed, the increasingly severity of the flooding it experiences is not from a lack of hydraulic infrastructure but rather a failure of existing infrastructure. As was demonstrated during the most recent floods in Jakarta, the infrastructure failure is often the result of excessive amounts of trash in the flood canals. This trash clogs pumps and reduces the overall system capacity. Despite this critical weakness of flood control in Jakarta, no data exists on the overall amount of trash in the flood canals, much less on how it varies temporally and spatially. The recent availability of low cost photography provides a means to obtain such data. Time lapse photography postprocessed with computer vision algorithms yields a low cost, remote, and automatic solution to measuring the trash fluxes. When combined with the measurement of key hydrological parameters, a thorough understanding of the relationship between trash fluxes and the hydrology of massive urban areas becomes possible. This work examines algorithm development, quantifying trash parameters, and hydrological measurements followed by data assimilation into existing hydraulic and hydrological models of Jakarta. The insights afforded from such an approach allows for more efficient operating of hydraulic infrastructure, knowledge of when and where critical levels of trash originate from, and the opportunity for community outreach - which is ultimately needed to reduce the trash in the flood canals of Jakarta and megacities around the world.

  8. Time-Lapse Geophysical Measurements targeting Spatial and Temporal Variability in Biogenic Gas Production from Peat Soils in a Hydrologically Controlled Wetland in the Florida Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, W. J.; Shahan, T.; Sharp, N.; Comas, X.

    2015-12-01

    Peat soils are known to release globally significant amounts of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. However, uncertainties still remain regarding the spatio-temporal distribution of gas accumulations and triggering mechanisms of gas releasing events. Furthermore, most research on peatland gas dynamics has traditionally been focused on high latitude peatlands. Therefore, understanding gas dynamics in low-latitude peatlands (e.g. the Florida Everglades) is key to global climate research. Recent studies in the Everglades have demonstrated that biogenic gas flux values may vary when considering different temporal and spatial scales of measurements. The work presented here targets spatial variability in gas production and release at the plot scale in an approximately 85 m2 area, and targets temporal variability with data collected during the spring months of two different years. This study is located in the Loxahatchee Impoundment Landscape Assessment (LILA), a hydrologically controlled, landscape scale (30 Ha) model of the Florida Everglades. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been used in the past to investigate biogenic gas dynamics in peat soils, and is used in this study to monitor changes of in situ gas storage. Each year, a grid of GPR profiles was collected to image changes in gas distribution in 2d on a weekly basis, and several flux chambers outfitted with time-lapse cameras captured high resolution (hourly) gas flux measurements inside the GPR grid. Combining these methods allows us to use a mass balance approach to estimate spatial variability in gas production rates, and capture temporal variability in gas flux rates.

  9. Ionomycin-induced calcium influx induces neurite degeneration in mouse neuroblastoma cells: analysis of a time-lapse live cell imaging system.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Saki; Nakanishi, Ayumi; Takazawa, Minami; Okihiro, Shunsuke; Urano, Shiro; Fukui, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species induce neuronal cell death. However, the detailed mechanisms of cell death have not yet been elucidated. Previously, we reported neurite degeneration before the induction of cell death. Here, we attempted to elucidate the mechanisms of neurite degeneration before the induction of cell death using the neuroblastoma N1E-115 cell line and a time-lapse live cell imaging system. Treatment with the calcium ionophore ionomycin induced cell death and neurite degeneration in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Treatment with a low concentration of ionomycin immediately produced a significant calcium influx into the intracellular region in N1E-115 cells. After 1-h incubation with ionomycin, the fluorescence emission of MitoSOX(TM) increased significantly compared to the control. Finally, analysis using a new mitochondrial specific fluorescence dye, MitoPeDPP, indicated that treatment with ionomycin significantly increased the mitochondrial lipid hydroperoxide production in N1E-115 cells. The fluorescence emissions of Fluo-4 AM and MitoPeDPP were detected in the cell soma and neurite regions in ionomycin-treated N1E-115 cells. However, the emissions of neurites were much lower than those of the cell soma. TBARS values of ionomycin-treated cells significantly increased compared to the control. These results indicate that ionomycin induces calcium influx into the intracellular region and reactive oxygen species production in N1E-115 cells. Lipid hydroperoxide production was induced in ionomycin-treated N1E-115 cells. Calcium influx into the intracellular region is a possible activator of neurite degeneration.

  10. Time-lapse fluorescence imaging of Arabidopsis root growth with rapid manipulation of the root environment using the RootChip.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Guido; Meier, Matthias; Cartwright, Heather N; Sosso, Davide; Quake, Stephen R; Ehrhardt, David W; Frommer, Wolf B

    2012-07-07

    The root functions as the physical anchor of the plant and is the organ responsible for uptake of water and mineral nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfate and trace elements that plants acquire from the soil. If we want to develop sustainable approaches to producing high crop yield, we need to better understand how the root develops, takes up a wide spectrum of nutrients, and interacts with symbiotic and pathogenic organisms. To accomplish these goals, we need to be able to explore roots in microscopic detail over time periods ranging from minutes to days. We developed the RootChip, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)- based microfluidic device, which allows us to grow and image roots from Arabidopsis seedlings while avoiding any physical stress to roots during preparation for imaging(1) (Figure 1). The device contains a bifurcated channel structure featuring micromechanical valves to guide the fluid flow from solution inlets to each of the eight observation chambers(2). This perfusion system allows the root microenvironment to be controlled and modified with precision and speed. The volume of the chambers is approximately 400 nl, thus requiring only minimal amounts of test solution. Here we provide a detailed protocol for studying root biology on the RootChip using imaging-based approaches with real time resolution. Roots can be analyzed over several days using time lapse microscopy. Roots can be perfused with nutrient solutions or inhibitors, and up to eight seedlings can be analyzed in parallel. This system has the potential for a wide range of applications, including analysis of root growth in the presence or absence of chemicals, fluorescence-based analysis of gene expression, and the analysis of biosensors, e.g. FRET nanosensors(3).

  11. 4-D imaging of seepage in earthen embankments with time-lapse inversion of self-potential data constrained by acoustic emissions localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittgers, J. B.; Revil, A.; Planes, T.; Mooney, M. A.; Koelewijn, A. R.

    2015-02-01

    New methods are required to combine the information contained in the passive electrical and seismic signals to detect, localize and monitor hydromechanical disturbances in porous media. We propose a field experiment showing how passive seismic and electrical data can be combined together to detect a preferential flow path associated with internal erosion in a Earth dam. Continuous passive seismic and electrical (self-potential) monitoring data were recorded during a 7-d full-scale levee (earthen embankment) failure test, conducted in Booneschans, Netherlands in 2012. Spatially coherent acoustic emissions events and the development of a self-potential anomaly, associated with induced concentrated seepage and internal erosion phenomena, were identified and imaged near the downstream toe of the embankment, in an area that subsequently developed a series of concentrated water flows and sand boils, and where liquefaction of the embankment toe eventually developed. We present a new 4-D grid-search algorithm for acoustic emissions localization in both time and space, and the application of the localization results to add spatially varying constraints to time-lapse 3-D modelling of self-potential data in the terms of source current localization. Seismic signal localization results are utilized to build a set of time-invariant yet spatially varying model weights used for the inversion of the self-potential data. Results from the combination of these two passive techniques show results that are more consistent in terms of focused ground water flow with respect to visual observation on the embankment. This approach to geophysical monitoring of earthen embankments provides an improved approach for early detection and imaging of the development of embankment defects associated with concentrated seepage and internal erosion phenomena. The same approach can be used to detect various types of hydromechanical disturbances at larger scales.

  12. Time lapse: Mobile Launcher Moves

    NASA Video Gallery

    The mobile launcher returned from Launch Pad 39B at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida following two weeks of structural and other testing. The 355-foot-tall structure is to be used by the Spac...

  13. Monitoring snowmelt and solute transport at Oslo airport by combining time-lapse electrical resistivity, soil water sampling and tensiometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloem, E.; French, H. K.

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring contaminant transport at contaminated sites requires optimization of the configuration of a limited number of samplings points combined with heterogeneous flow and preferential flowpaths. Especially monitoring processes in the unsaturated zone is a major challenge due to the limited volume monitored by for example suction cups and their risk to clog in a highly active degradation zone. To make progress on soil contamination assessment and site characterization there is a strong need to integrate field-sale extensively instrumented tools, with non-invasive (geophysical) methods which provide spatially integrated measurements also in the unsaturated zone. Examples of sites that might require monitoring activities in the unsaturated zone are airports with winter frost where large quantities of de-icing chemicals are used each winter; salt and contaminant infiltration along roads; constructed infiltration systems for treatment of sewerage or landfill seepage. Electrical resistivity methods have proved to be useful as an indirect measurement of subsurface properties and processes at the field-scale. The non-uniqueness of the interpretation techniques can be reduced by constraining the inversion through the addition of independent geophysical measurements along the same profile. Or interpretation and understanding of geophysical images can be improved by the combination with classical measurements of soil physical properties, soil suction, contaminant concentration and temperatures. In our experiment, at the research field station at Gardermoen, Oslo airport, we applied a degradable de-icing chemical and an inactive tracer to the snow cover prior to snowmelt. To study the solute transport processes in the unsaturated zone time-lapse cross borehole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) measurements were conducted at the same time as soil water samples were extracted at multiple depths with suction cups. Measurements of soil temperature, and soil tension were

  14. A low-cost landslide displacement activity assessment from time-lapse photogrammetry and rainfall data: Application to the Tessina landslide site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrieli, F.; Corain, L.; Vettore, L.

    2016-09-01

    Acquiring useful and reliable displacement data from a complex landslide site is often a problem because of large, localized and scattered erosive processes and deformations; the inaccessibility of the site; the high cost of instrumentation and maintenance. However, these data are of fundamental importance not only to hazard assessments but also to understanding the processes at the basis of slope evolution. In this framework, time-lapse photogrammetry can represent a good compromise; the low accuracy is compensated for by the wide-ranging and dense spatial displacement information that can be obtained with inexpensive equipment. Nevertheless, when large displacement monitoring data sets become available, the problem becomes the choice of the most suitable statistical model to describe the probability of movement and adequately simplify the complexity of a scattered, intermittent, and spatially inhomogeneous displacement field. In this paper, an automated displacement detection method, which is based on the absolute image differences and digital correlations from a sequence of photos, was developed and applied to a photographic survey activity at the head of the Tessina landslide (northeastern Italy). The method allowed us to simplify and binarize the displacement field and to recognize the intermittent activity and the peculiar behaviours of different parts of the landslide, which were identified and classified by combining geomorphological and geological information. Moreover, for the first time, sliding correlations between these areas were quantitatively estimated using time-series-based binary logistic regression and the definition of a probability-based directed graph of displacement occurrence that connected the source zones to the lower depletion basin and the main collector channel. Using rainfall data, event-based logistic and Poisson regression models were applied to the upper zones of the landslide to estimate the probability of movement of each scarp

  15. Evaluation of a distributed energy balance model for a high-altitude glacier on the Tibetan Plateau using a time lapse camera system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huintjes, Eva; Sauter, Tobias; Krenscher, Tobias; Maussion, Fabien; Kropacek, Jan; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Guoshuai; Kang, Shichang; Buchroithner, Manfred; Scherer, Dieter; Schneider, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    In the remote and high-altitude mountain areas of the Tibetan Plateau, climate observations as well as glacier-wide mass and energy balance determinations are scarce. Therefore, the application of models to determine reliable information on mass balance and runoff is important. Simultaneously, these circumstances make it difficult to evaluate the models. Since 2009, we operate an automatic weather station (AWS) in the ablation zone of Zhadang Glacier (5.665 m a.s.l.). The glacier is easily accessible. It is situated in the southern-central part of the Tibetan Plateau (30.5°N) in the Nam Co drainage basin and ranges between 5.400 and 5.900 m a.s.l. Based on these measurements over 2009-2012, we run and evaluate a physically based, distributed energy and mass balance model. The applied model couples an energy balance to a multilayer snow model and therefore accounts for subsurface processes like refreezing, subsurface melt and densification of the snowpack. First, the model is evaluated at point scale against measurements from the AWS. The results show that modelled accumulation and ablation patterns reproduce the observed changes in surface height very well. To evaluate the distributed model, we use daily images of a time lapse camera system installed nearby the glacier over 2010-2012. Therefore the non calibrated slope images had to be orthorectified using ground control points measured during field campaigns. The temporally and spatially highly resolved time series allows a detailed evaluation of the distributed energy balance model by analyzing the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of the snow line during the ablation season. First results show that the model captures the observed spatial heterogeneity of melt on the glacier surface. Subsequently to the evaluation the model will be applied on several glaciers and small ice caps in remote areas on the Tibetan Plateau to determine the linkages between climate fluctuations and glacier variability. The work is part

  16. Application of quantitative time-lapse imaging (QTLI) for evaluation of Mrp2-based drug–drug interaction induced by liver metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, Takeo; Ikenaga, Miho; Fukuda, Hajime; Matsunaga, Norikazu; Tamai, Ikumi

    2012-09-01

    We previously reported a quantitative time-lapse imaging (QTLI)-based analysis method to assess drug–drug interactions (DDI) at multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) in rat sandwich-cultured hepatocyte (SCH) system, utilizing the fluorescent Mrp2 substrate, 5-(and 6)-carboxy-2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein (CDF). Here, we aimed to examine the feasibility of using QTLI to evaluate DDI involving drug metabolite(s) generated in hepatocytes. We used estradiol (E2) and bilirubin as model compounds; both are not substrates of MRP2, whereas their hepatic metabolites, estradiol-17β-glucuronide (E17G) or bilirubin glucuronides, are known to be its substrates as well as inhibitors. When rat SCHs were pre-exposed with E2, fluorescence of CDF accumulated in bile canaliculi decreased depending upon both the duration of pre-exposure and the concentration of extracellular E2. The decrease corresponded with the increase in intracellular concentration of E17G in hepatocytes. Furthermore, cytotoxicity of vinblastine, a substrate of MRP2, was enhanced in SCHs treated with E2. Similarly, CDF accumulated in bile canaliculi was significantly reduced in rat SCHs pre-exposed with bilirubin. In conclusion, these results suggest that phase II biotransformation of a competitor is reflected in alteration of MRP2-mediated CDF transport detected in QTLI. The QTLI might provide a convenient platform to evaluate transporter-based DDIs involving hepatic metabolites of drug candidates without the need to identify the metabolites. -- Highlights: ► Mrp2-mediated CDF transport is inhibited by E2, but not E17G in vesicle study. ► Both E2 and E17G do not compromise CDF formation from CDFDA in hepatocytes. ► CDF accumulation in bile canaliculi is inhibited by E2 or E17G in QTLI. ► Increasing exposure to E2 decreases CDF accumulation in bile canaliculi in QTLI. ► QTLI is feasible to assess Mrp2-based DDI involving drug metabolite in hepatocytes.

  17. Developments and field tests of low-frequency portable acoustic transducers for a mobile exploration and time lapse experiment of a sea-bottom reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuruga, K.; Kasahara, J.; Hasada, Y.; Kondo, H.

    2013-12-01

    Depth, scale and resolutions of geophysical explorations for mineral resources are controlled by transmitted seismic energy and wavelength (frequency range). Most explorations in marine have been conducted by survey ship system with arrayed acoustic sources whose dominant frequency range is about 10 to 500 Hz. On the other hand, for shallow parts of sea bottom structure survey, some sub-bottom profilers with frequency range around 3.5kHz are used. To monitor a time lapse of a sea bottom reservoir such as an oil, gas, or methane hydrate reservoir as well as to exploit a mobile survey near a sea bottom by AUVs, it is necessary to use a broadband portable acoustic transducer with a dominant frequency range of 500 Hz to 5 kHz. We have been developing several types of portable acoustic transducers and a transmitting and recording system which is accurately controlled by a GPS clock (Tsuruga et al., 2012). In this pater, we report the new broadband acoustic portable transducers which have larger power than the original cylindrical acoustic transducers in a low frequency range (<5 kHz), partly funded by JOGMEC, and show the preliminary results of field tests at the shallow sea bottom around 32 m deep by means of the transducers and hydrophone receivers array. Each transducer repeatedly transmitted Chirp signals with a unit period of 500 msec in two frequency ranges of 0.5k-4.5kHz and 4k-16kHz . We stacked 500-ms data by 28 times to obtain a transfer function of each source-receiver pair in the time and frequency domains. The preliminary results suggest as the follows: (i) it is successful to broaden the frequency bandwidth (i.e., 2k-10kHz) by extending a geometrical resonance length of a cylindrical acoustic transducers, and (ii) the observation at the sea bottom with accurately controlled timing systems of transmitter and data-logger is very useful to identify the stable and/or unstable seismic phases, that is, waves propagating in a underground and/or in a sea water as

  18. Utilizing time-lapse micro-CT-correlated bisphosphonate binding kinetics and soft tissue-derived input functions to differentiate site-specific changes in bone metabolism in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tower, R J; Campbell, G M; Müller, M; Glüer, C C; Tiwari, S

    2015-05-01

    The turnover of bone is a tightly regulated process between bone formation and resorption to ensure skeletal homeostasis. This process differs between bone types, with trabecular bone often associated with higher turnover than cortical bone. Analyses of bone by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) reveal changes in structure and mineral content, but are limited in the study of metabolic activity at a single time point, while analyses of serum markers can reveal changes in bone metabolism, but cannot delineate the origin of any aberrant findings. To obtain a site-specific assessment of bone metabolic status, bisphosphonate binding kinetics were utilized. Using a fluorescently-labeled bisphosphonate, we show that early binding kinetics monitored in vivo using fluorescent molecular tomography (FMT) can monitor changes in bone metabolism in response to bone loss, stimulated by ovariectomy (OVX), or bone gain, resulting from treatment with the anabolic bone agent parathyroid hormone (PTH), and is capable of distinguishing different, metabolically distinct skeletal sites. Using time-lapse micro-CT, longitudinal bone turnover was quantified. The spine showed a significantly greater percent resorbing volume and surface in response to OVX, while mice treated with PTH showed significantly greater resorbing volume per bone surface in the spine and significantly greater forming surfaces in the knee. Correlation studies between binding kinetics and micro-CT suggest that forming surfaces, as assessed by time-lapse micro-CT, are preferentially reflected in the rate constant values while forming and resorbing bone volumes primarily affect plateau values. Additionally, we developed a blood pool correction method which now allows for quantitative multi-compartment analyses to be conducted using FMT. These results further expand our understanding of bisphosphonate binding and the use of bisphosphonate binding kinetics as a tool to monitor site-specific changes in bone metabolism in

  19. Comparative effects of 60Co gamma-rays and neon and helium ions on cycle duration and division probability of EMT 6 cells. A time-lapse cinematography study.

    PubMed

    Collyn-d'Hooghe, M; Hemon, D; Gilet, R; Curtis, S B; Valleron, A J; Malaise, E P

    1981-03-01

    Exponentially growing cultures of EMT 6 cells were irradiated in vitro with neon ions, helium ions or 60Co gamma-rays. Time-lapse cinematography allowed the determination, for individual cells, of cycle duration, success of the mitotic division and the age of the cell at the moment of irradiation. Irradiation induced a significant mitotic delay increasing proportionally with the delivered dose. Using mitotic delay as an endpoint, the r.b.e. for neon ions with respect to 60Co gamma-rays was 3.3 +/- 0.2 while for helium ions it was 1.2 +/- 0.1. Mitotic delay was greatest in those cells that had progressed furthest in their cycle at the time of irradiation. No significant mitotic delay was observed in the post-irradiation generation. Division probability was significantly reduced by irradiation both in the irradiated and in the post-irradiated generation. The reduction in division probability obtained with 3 Gy of neon ions was similar to that obtained after irradiation with 6 Gy of helium ions or 60Co gamma-rays.

  20. Time-lapse atomic force microscopy observations of the morphology, growth rate, and spontaneous alignment of nanofibers containing a peptide-amphiphile from the hepatitis G virus (NS3 protein).

    PubMed

    Weroński, Konrad J; Cea, Pilar; Diez-Peréz, Ismael; Busquets, Maria Antonia; Prat, Josefina; Girona, Victoria

    2010-01-14

    Time-lapse atomic force microscopy is used in this contribution to directly watch the growth of nanofibers of a lipidated peptide on a mica surface. Specifically, the studied lipopeptide is the palmitoyl derivative of the fragment 505-514 of NS3 protein from the hepatitis G virus, abbreviated as Palmitoyl-NS3 (505-514). Data on the morphology, growth rate, and orientation of these peptide-amphiphile nanofibers have been obtained. From these data, it can be concluded that this synthetic lipopeptide forms two types of fiber-like aggregates: (i) half-spherical fibrous aggregates with lengths of hundreds of nanometers and (ii) spherical fibrous aggregates with lengths of several micrometers. In addition, when a fresh lipopeptide aqueous solution is deposited onto a mica surface, the aggregates spontaneously orient parallel to each other, yielding well-aligned nanofibers on large areas of the mica surface. A significant growth in both the length and the number of the fibers was observed during the first minutes after the solution deposition. Elongation of the fibrous aggregates from one end is more frequent, though elongation from both ends also occurs, with growth rates in the 4-5 nm/s range. The effects of dilution, mechanical perturbation, and pH on the aggregation behavior of Palmitoyl-NS3 (505-514) are also detailed in this paper.

  1. Characterizing a Mississippian Carbonate Reservoir for CO2-EOR and Carbon Geosequestration: Applicability of Existing Rock Physics Models and Implications to Feasibility of a Time Lapse Monitoring Program in the Wellington Oil Field, Sumner County, Kansas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lueck, A. J.; Raef, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    This study will focus on characterizing subsurface rock formations of the Wellington Field, in Sumner County, Kansas, for both geosequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the saline Arbuckle formation and enhanced oil recovery of a depleting Mississippian oil reservoir. Multi-scale data including lithofacies core samples, X-ray diffraction, digital rock physics scans, scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging, well log data including sonic and dipole sonic, and surface 3D seismic reflection data will be integrated to establish and/or validate a new or existing rock physics model that best represents our reservoir rock types and characteristics. We will acquire compressional wave velocity and shear wave velocity data from Mississippian and Arbuckle cores by running ultrasonic tests using an Ult 100 Ultrasonic System and a 12 ton hydraulic jack located in the geophysics lab in Thompson Hall at Kansas State University. The elastic constants Young's Modulus, Bulk Modulus, Shear (Rigidity) Modulus and Poisson's Ratio will be extracted from these velocity data. Ultrasonic velocities will also be compared to sonic and dipole sonic log data from the Wellington 1-32 well. These data will be integrated to validate a lithofacies classification statistical model, which will be and partially has been applied to the largely unknown saline Arbuckle formation, with hopes for a connection, perhaps via Poisson's ratio, allowing a time-lapse seismic feasibility assessment and potentially developing a transformation of compressional wave sonic velocities to shear wave sonic for all wells, where compressional wave sonic is available. We will also be testing our rock physics model by predicting effects of changing effective (brine + CO2 +hydrocarbon) fluid composition on seismic properties and the implications on feasibility of seismic monitoring. Lessons learned from characterizing the Mississippian are essential to understanding the potential of utilizing similar workflows for the

  2. Resource Prospector Sand-Crawl Time Lapse

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Resource Prospector Ground Test Unit demonstrates the rover's skills and adaptive wheels as it navigates through tough, sandy terrain. The flight unit will experience similar conditions on the ...

  3. Time Lapse Photography From Arctic Buoys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentic, T. A.; Matrai, P.; Woods, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    We have equipped a number of buoys with cameras that have been deployed throughout the Arctic. These systems need to be simple, reliable and low power. The images are transmitted over an Iridium satellite link and assembled into long running movies. We have captured a number of interesting events, observed the ice dynamics through the year and visits by local wildlife. Each of the systems have been deployed for periods of up to a year, with images every hour. The cameras have proved to be a great outreach tool and are routinely watched by number of people on our websites. This talk will present the techniques used in developing these camera systems, the methods used for reliably transmitting the images and the process for generating the movies.

  4. Noradrenergic Genotype Predicts Lapses in Sustained Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Ciara M.; Bellgrove, Mark A.; Gill, Michael; Robertson, Ian H.

    2009-01-01

    Sustained attention is modulated by the neurotransmitter noradrenaline. The balance of dopamine and noradrenaline in the cortex is controlled by the DBH gene. The principal variant in this gene is a C/T change at position-1021, and the T allele at this locus is hypothesised to result in a slower rate of dopamine to noradrenaline conversion than…

  5. Endeavour Mated to SCA Time-Lapse

    NASA Video Gallery

    At the Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, space shuttle Endeavour is mounted atop NASA's Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, or SCA, in preparation for its ferry flight to Ca...

  6. Automated Time-lapse GPR Imaging of an Ethanol Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, D. R.; Henderson, R.; Versteeg, R. J.; Werkema, D. D.; Kinoshita, R.; Mattson, E.

    2010-12-01

    The increased use of biofuels (e.g. ethanol) as an alternative to, and additive in, petroleum-based fuels likely will result in the same types of accidental releases and exposure currently associated with the transport and storage of petroleum products. Within the last decade a large number of studies have focused on the geophysical detection and monitoring of petroleum-based fuel releases, and subsequent biodegradation and remediation activity. Ethanol has unique properties; it is miscible in water, preferentially biodegraded, and manifests cosolvency when released in the presence of existing contamination. New tools are needed to rapidly identify and delineate a potential release to the subsurface. This study examines the feasibility of using ground penetrating radar (GPR) as a tool to image the migration of an ethanol release within an Ottawa sand matrix. A tank scale model of a closed hydrologic system was prepared. An automated gantry measurement apparatus allowed for both zero offset, and coincident reflection measurements with a multi-channel 800 MHz GPR system on multiple horizontal planes. Measurements were acquired in the vadose and saturated zones to image the injection and migration of the ethanol release. Preliminary results suggest a measureable contrast within the time series GPR data at the location of the injected ethanol release and subsequent migration.

  7. Spatially Locating Time-Lapsed Relative Velocity Changes in Yellowstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seats, K.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we examine temporal subsurface relative velocity variations in Yellowstone. This project region has a much larger spatial scaling, as well as a much longer, less abrupt, temporal change than most of the other active settings in which ambient noise temporal velocity variations are measured. By examining the time lag of the ambient Noise Correlation Function (NCF) for a given station pair, we can extract relative velocity variations. These changes represent either subsurface velocity changes (in active settings) or changes due to the seasonal variation in the ambient seismic field. We improve the temporal and spectral stability of the NCFs through a new filter (the adaptive covariance filter - ACF), which allows us to evaluate the main Rayleigh wave arrival rather than coda. By making use of the main arrival the spatial location of these changes can be better understood. We examine all of the available data near the Yellowstone National Park area, including the USArray and the NOISY networks. Using the ACF, we calculate robust NCFs for all station pairs (overlapping in time). We then obtain time-lag estimates of the main arrival for various calendar times throughout the data availability. These lags are then compared to the lags observed at all other spatial station pairs. Using these many combinations of station pairs and lags, we build and perform an inversion, where these relative velocities are compared to a background velocity at subsequently different times. The spatial location of the velocity changes can be observed over time, and it can be ascertained as to whether these observed velocity variations are due to subsurface changes (such as the inflationary uplift from 2004-2010 in Yellowstone), or whether the observed changes are more indicative of the regional changes in the ambient seismic field.

  8. Time-Lapse View of Earth's Limb from the ISS

    NASA Video Gallery

    Bright swaths of red in the upper atmosphere, known as airglow, can be seen in this video captured by the International Space Station. NASA's ICON mission, with a planned launch for the summer of 2...

  9. Time-lapse resistivity surveys over simulated clandestine graves.

    PubMed

    Jervis, John R; Pringle, Jamie K; Tuckwell, George W

    2009-11-20

    The aim of this study was to develop a better understanding of how electrical resistivity surveys can be used to locate clandestine graves. Resistivity surveys were conducted regularly over three simulated clandestine graves containing a pig cadaver, no cadaver and a pig cadaver wrapped in tarpaulin, respectively. Additionally, soil and groundwater samples were collected from two more simulated graves outside the survey area. The grave containing a pig cadaver was detectable from a low resistivity anomaly in the survey data. Groundwater data suggest that the resistivity anomaly associated with the surveyed pig grave was caused by a localised increase in groundwater conductivity. Wrapping a cadaver was found to initially change the resistivity response of a grave to a high resistivity anomaly. Resistivity surveys did not detect the disturbed soil in the grave that did not contain a cadaver. Although soil samples showed grave soil to be more porous than undisturbed soil, the lack of response from the grave that did not contain a cadaver suggests that disturbed soil was not responsible for the resistivity anomalies observed in this study. Resistivity surveys successfully detected all graves containing cadavers throughout the study, whilst also showing the potential to eliminate the need for mass excavation in a genuine search.

  10. Time-Lapse: Mobile Launcher Moves to Launch Pad

    NASA Video Gallery

    The mobile launcher that will host NASA's Space Launch System and new Orion spacecraft was moved to Launch Pad 39B at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to begin two weeks of structural and sys...

  11. Optimal experiment design for time-lapse traveltime tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Ajo-Franklin, J.B.

    2009-10-01

    Geophysical monitoring techniques offer the only noninvasive approach capable of assessing both the spatial and temporal dynamics of subsurface fluid processes. Increasingly, permanent sensor arrays in boreholes and on the ocean floor are being deployed to improve the repeatability and increase the temporal sampling of monitoring surveys. Because permanent arrays require a large up-front capital investment and are difficult (or impossible) to re-configure once installed, a premium is placed on selecting a geometry capable of imaging the desired target at minimum cost. We present a simple approach to optimizing downhole sensor configurations for monitoring experiments making use of differential seismic traveltimes. In our case, we use a design quality metric based on the accuracy of tomographic reconstructions for a suite of imaging targets. By not requiring an explicit singular value decomposition of the forward operator, evaluation of this objective function scales to problems with a large number of unknowns. We also restrict the design problem by recasting the array geometry into a low dimensional form more suitable for optimization at a reasonable computational cost. We test two search algorithms on the design problem: the Nelder-Mead downhill simplex method and the Multilevel Coordinate Search algorithm. The algorithm is tested for four crosswell acquisition scenarios relevant to continuous seismic monitoring, a two parameter array optimization, several scenarios involving four parameter length/offset optimizations, and a comparison of optimal multi-source designs. In the last case, we also examine trade-offs between source sparsity and the quality of tomographic reconstructions. One general observation is that asymmetric array lengths improve localized image quality in crosswell experiments with a small number of sources and a large number of receivers. Preliminary results also suggest that high-quality differential images can be generated using only a small number of optimally positioned sources.

  12. Reclaiming Instructional Integrity: Probing Ethical Lapses in College Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Jon E.; Scott, Joyce A.

    2014-01-01

    Suffering from chronic underfunding and in a headlong race to compete with for-profit higher education, institutions across America are struggling to maintain their operations, and some are forced into desperate measures just to survive. Administrators and faculty faced with these challenges are not immune to compromising the quality of…

  13. Flying qualities - A costly lapse in flight-control design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, D. T.

    1982-01-01

    Generic problems in advanced aircraft with advanced control systems which suffer from control sensitivity, sluggish response, and pilot-induced oscillation tendencies are examined, with a view to improving techniques for eliminating the problems in the design phase. Results of two NASA and NASA/AIAA workshops reached a consensus that flying qualities criteria do not match control system development, control system designers are not relying on past experience in their field, ground-based simulation is relied on too heavily, and communications between flying qualities and control systems engineers need improvement. A summation is offered in that hardware and software have outstripped the pilot's capacity to use the capabilities which new aircraft offer. The flying qualities data base is stressed to be dynamic, and continually redefining the man/machine relationships.

  14. Life in the Fourth Estate: One Lapsed Physicist's Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Adrian

    2013-10-01

    Having been the house physics nerd in the news section of Science for 8 years and a writer for 14 years, I will explain the nuts and bolts of the craft of science journalism. I'll trace my career path, explain how I've been aided in my work by training in physics, and describe as best I can how journalists and scientists may differ in their views of the world. I'll look at how science journalism is changing, too.

  15. Strategy implementation time lapse microgravity method for monitoring subsidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supriyadi, Khumaedi, Qudus, Nur; Wibowo, Pradana Adi; Gunawan, Dino

    2017-03-01

    Microgravity over time is the development of methods of gravity with specificity was repeated measurements in the same place at different times using Gravimeter order μGal. Implementation strategies method is as follows (1) modeling the response of the gravity anomaly caused by the source anomaly that the target of survey, (2) calibration gravimeter, (3) determination of the point of the base which is stable and does not undergo subsidence during, (4) specify looping point measurement measuring used to guidelines for measurement in the next period, (5) the processing of the data that begins with the correction tide and drift correction, (6) to calculate the value of gravity micro across time (7), further correction by using filters MBF (Model Based filter). This filter will minimize one source of micro gravity anomaly between the time to obtain the source of the anomaly targeted surveys, (8) calculates the subsidence based micro gravity anomaly between the time the filtering results. An example is the monitoring of subsidence in Semarang were conducted in the period 2002-2005 which shows subsidence has occurred in the city of Semarang. The maximum subsidence occurred in the north of 16 cm/year.

  16. Time-Lapse Assembly of NASA Supersonic Model

    NASA Video Gallery

    Supersonic passenger airplanes are another step closer to reality as NASA and Lockheed Martin began the first high-speed wind tunnel tests for the Quiet Supersonic Technology, or QueSST, X-plane pr...

  17. Opioid Abstinence Reinforcement Delays Heroin Lapse during Buprenorphine Dose Tapering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwald, Mark K.

    2008-01-01

    A positive reinforcement contingency increased opioid abstinence during outpatient dose tapering (4, 2, then 0 mg/day during Weeks 1 through 3) in non-treatment-seeking heroin-dependent volunteers who had been maintained on buprenorphine (8 mg/day) during an inpatient research protocol. The control group (n = 12) received $4.00 for completing…

  18. Data link relay design. [space probe with entry at Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, P.

    1974-01-01

    The data link for the Ames baseline probe as applied to the MJU spacecraft specifically with an entry at Uranus is analyzed. A frequency analysis, a trajectory analysis, and a discussion of the effects on the spacecraft design by the data link are presented. The possibilities of a two-way link are considered.

  19. Sea-floor-mounted rotating side-scan sonar for making time-lapse sonographs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, David M.; McCulloch, David S.; Hill, H. R.

    1983-01-01

    Records that are collected with this system offer several advantages over records that are collected with towed systems. Bottom features are presented in nearly true plan geometry, and transducer yaw, pitch, and roll are eliminated. Most importantly, repeated observations can be made from a single point, and bedform movements of <50 cm can be measured. In quiet seas the maximum useful range of the system varies from 30 m (for mapping ripples) to 200 m (for mapping 10-m wavelength sand waves) to 450 m or more (for mapping gravel patches).

  20. Performance Lapses in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Contribute to Poor Reading Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Lisa A.; Ryan, Matthew; Denckla, Martha B.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Mahone, E. Mark

    2013-01-01

    Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) demonstrate increased response variability compared with controls, which is thought to be associated with deficits in attention regulation and response control that subsequently affect performance of more cognitively demanding tasks, such as reading. The present study examined response variability during a computerized simple reaction time (RT) task in 67 children. Ex-Gaussian analyses separated the response time distribution into normal (mu and sigma) and exponential (tau) components; the association of each with reading fluency was examined. Children with ADHD had significantly slower, more variable, and more skewed RTs compared with controls. After controlling for ADHD symptom severity, tau (but not mu or mean RT) was significantly associated with reduced reading fluency, but not with single word reading accuracy. These data support the growing evidence that RT variability, but not simply slower mean response speed, is the characteristic of youth with ADHD and that longer response time latencies (tau) may be implicated in the poorer academic performance associated with ADHD. PMID:23838684

  1. Long-term, high-resolution confocal time lapse imaging of Arabidopsis cotyledon epidermis during germination.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kylee M; Torii, Keiko U

    2012-12-31

    Imaging in vivo dynamics of cellular behavior throughout a developmental sequence can be a powerful technique for understanding the mechanics of tissue patterning. During animal development, key cell proliferation and patterning events occur very quickly. For instance, in Caenorhabditis elegans all cell divisions required for the larval body plan are completed within six hours after fertilization, with seven mitotic cycles(1); the sixteen or more mitoses of Drosophila embryogenesis occur in less than 24 hr(2). In contrast, cell divisions during plant development are slow, typically on the order of a day (3,4,5) . This imposes a unique challenge and a need for long-term live imaging for documenting dynamic behaviors of cell division and differentiation events during plant organogenesis. Arabidopsis epidermis is an excellent model system for investigating signaling, cell fate, and development in plants. In the cotyledon, this tissue consists of air- and water-resistant pavement cells interspersed with evenly distributed stomata, valves that open and close to control gas exchange and water loss. Proper spacing of these stomata is critical to their function, and their development follows a sequence of asymmetric division and cell differentiation steps to produce the organized epidermis (Fig. 1). This protocol allows observation of cells and proteins in the epidermis over several days of development. This time frame enables precise documentation of stem-cell divisions and differentiation of epidermal cells, including stomata and epidermal pavement cells. Fluorescent proteins can be fused to proteins of interest to assess their dynamics during cell division and differentiation processes. This technique allows us to understand the localization of a novel protein, POLAR(6), during the proliferation stage of stomatal-lineage cells in the Arabidopsis cotyledon epidermis, where it is expressed in cells preceding asymmetric division events and moves to a characteristic area of the cell cortex shortly before division occurs. Images can be registered and streamlined video easily produced using public domain software to visualize dynamic protein localization and cell types as they change over time.

  2. Numerical modeling of time-lapse monitoring of CO2 sequestration in a layered basalt reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khatiwada, M.; Van Wijk, K.; Clement, W.P.; Haney, M.

    2008-01-01

    As part of preparations in plans by The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP) to inject CO2 in layered basalt, we numerically investigate seismic methods as a noninvasive monitoring technique. Basalt seems to have geochemical advantages as a reservoir for CO2 storage (CO2 mineralizes quite rapidly while exposed to basalt), but poses a considerable challenge in term of seismic monitoring: strong scattering from the layering of the basalt complicates surface seismic imaging. We perform numerical tests using the Spectral Element Method (SEM) to identify possibilities and limitations of seismic monitoring of CO2 sequestration in a basalt reservoir. While surface seismic is unlikely to detect small physical changes in the reservoir due to the injection of CO2, the results from Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) simulations are encouraging. As a perturbation, we make a 5%; change in wave velocity, which produces significant changes in VSP images of pre-injection and post-injection conditions. Finally, we perform an analysis using Coda Wave Interferometry (CWI), to quantify these changes in the reservoir properties due to CO2 injection.

  3. A time-lapse lidar survey of the Mam Tor landslide, Derbyshire, UK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgetts, David; Rutter, Ernest

    2013-04-01

    Since 2004 a terrestrial lidar survey of the Mam Tor landslide in Castleton, Derbyshire, has been undertaken each year. Using a Riegl LMSZ420i laser scanner, the data has been collected during the winter months, while the vegetation is at a minimum, to ensure the surveys record a surface as close to the true geometry of the landslip as possible. These surveys, when combined and viewed in sequence provide an accurate record of the landslides movement over this time. The main challenge in comparing yearly scans of a progressively moving feature (at up to 500mm/year) is to ensure that each year's scan is in the correct place relative to the others, to this end features outside of the landslip are used as reference points to ensure consistent cross referencing of the landslip scans. In addition to this each year the laser scanner is sited in the same position within the study area, to ensure the same areal coverage over consecutive years. In-house software called Virtual Reality Geological Studio (VRGS) is used to interpret and analyse the landslip data (in both point cloud and triangulated mesh form), providing tools for comparing surface elevation, but also to tracking individual features (such as individual boulders) from year to year allowing movement vectors to be mapped across the area of the landslip. These vectors can then be compared with other measurements from total-station surveys to act as a check on the validity of the lidar mapping approach. Topographic sections will be shown through several parts of the slip to facilitate year by year comparison. The landslide itself has formed within the Carboniferous Edale Mudstone Formation, is approximately 900m long, 270 to 300m wide and up to 20m thick. The landslip is estimated to be over 3200 years old.

  4. Time Lapse Spectropolarimetry: Constraining the Nature and Progenitors of Interacting CCSNe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huk, Leah N.; SNSPOL

    2017-01-01

    SNe Type IIn are among the brightest supernova explosions due to strong circumstellar interaction, but the category is not well defined. The heterogeneous nature of the class implies that any number of different progenitors can give rise to a IIn event so long as there is appreciable mass loss prior to explosion. Examining the geometric and optical properties of the circumstellar material (CSM) can help to identify the progenitors of individual IIn SNe. Polarimetry is the optimal method for constraining CSM characteristics as polarimetric signals depend on and preserve geometric information from unresolved sources.I present results of an ensemble of three-dimensional simulations of the polarized H alpha emission-line profiles of interacting SNe using a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code called SLIP. A novel feature of these simulations is their ability to emit photons from a distributed shock region as well as from a central source. This allows us to investigate two different illumination scenarios as well as CSM properties. We present results for how these different models best match multi-epoch observed polarized spectra of the IIn SNe 1997eg, and all IIn from the the SNSPOL collaboration database. I will use the results to investigate relationships among SNe IIn based on viewing angle and consider whether the IIn category should be subdivided based on physical properties of the CSM and/or progenitor.

  5. Lapses in Alertness: Brain-Evoked Responses to Task-Irrelevant Auditory Probes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    attention has been given to changes in the appearance (Santarnaria and Chiappa , 1987), topography (Ulrich and Frick, 1986), or spectrum (Townsend and John...Further, across subjects the appearance of these signs varies substantially (Santamaria and Chiappa , 1987), limiting the potential success of subject... Chiappa , K.H. (1987). The EEG of drowsiness in normal adults. J Clin Neu- rophysiolog 4, 327-382. Torsvall, L. & Akerstedt, T. (1988). Extreme

  6. Time-lapse gravity data for monitoring and modeling artificial recharge through a thick unsaturated zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Ferre, Ty P.A.; Creutzfeldt, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater-level measurements in monitoring wells or piezometers are the most common, and often the only, hydrologic measurements made at artificial recharge facilities. Measurements of gravity change over time provide an additional source of information about changes in groundwater storage, infiltration, and for model calibration. We demonstrate that for an artificial recharge facility with a deep groundwater table, gravity data are more sensitive to movement of water through the unsaturated zone than are groundwater levels. Groundwater levels have a delayed response to infiltration, change in a similar manner at many potential monitoring locations, and are heavily influenced by high-frequency noise induced by pumping; in contrast, gravity changes start immediately at the onset of infiltration and are sensitive to water in the unsaturated zone. Continuous gravity data can determine infiltration rate, and the estimate is only minimally affected by uncertainty in water-content change. Gravity data are also useful for constraining parameters in a coupled groundwater-unsaturated zone model (Modflow-NWT model with the Unsaturated Zone Flow (UZF) package).

  7. Morphological Changes of Tidal Headland Connected Sandbanks infered from Time Lapse Multibeam Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, T.; Mitchell, N. C.; Ramsay, T.

    2003-04-01

    Sandbanks are commonly found near irregularities of the coastline. A popular hypothesis for their origin states that interaction of tidal currents with a coastal headland induces vortices in residual currents downstream of it. Such vortices lead to the development and maintenance of such sandbanks (Pingree and Maddock, 1979). We have surveyed two headland-connected sandbanks in the Bristol Channel (South Wales, UK), the Helwick and the Nash Sand Banks, using a new Reson Seabat 8101 multibeam echo-sounder owned by Cardiff University. Around the Helwick sand bank, we surveyed an area encompassing the connection of the bank with the south Gower coast, the headland (Port Eynon Point) and the offshore part of a bay (Port Eynon Bay) to infer the distribution of bedforms and to test the above hypothesis. On the southern side of the bank, close to its connection with the coastline, an area has been surveyed on two occasions separated by a year to infer the ability of multibeam sonar to track the mobility of the bedforms around the bank. Sandwaves of ~5 m high and 100-200 m spacing are superimposed on the bank. Their lee sides, on the southern side of the bank, point to the west, indicating an ebb-dominated sediment movement, whereas their shape changes towards the crest of the bank to a more symmetrical form. On the northern side of the bank their orientations indicate that they are dominated by flood flow. Hence the sandwaves orientations suggest a circular flow pattern around the bank, as expected. This study forms part of a time-series comparison of successive multibeam surveys of this area. Preliminary comparisons of the two first surveys (September 2001-August 2002) indicates a differential migration of the bedforms of ~40m on the northern flank of the bank towards the east and ~80m on the southern side towards the west. Such migration of the sandwaves is similar to the direction of the residual currents downstream of the headland mentioned by the Pingree and Maddock

  8. Investigating hydrological contributions to volcano monitoring signals: a time-lapse gravity example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmings, B.; Gottsmann, J.; Whitaker, F.; Coco, A.

    2016-10-01

    Geophysical techniques are widely used to monitor volcanic unrest. A number of studies have also demonstrated that hydrological processes can produce or trigger geophysical signals. Hydrologically induced gravity signals have previously been recorded by specifically designed gravity surveys as well as, inadvertently, by volcano monitoring studies. Water table corrections of microgravity surveys are commonplace. However, the fluctuations of the water table beneath survey locations are often poorly known, and such a correction fails to account for changes in water-mass storage in the unsaturated zone. Here, we combine 2-D axis-symmetrical numerical fluid-flow models with an axis-symmetric, distributed-mass, gravity calculation to model gravity changes in response to fluctuating hydrological recharge. Flow simulations are based on tropical volcanic settings where high surface permeabilities promote thick unsaturated zones. Our study highlights that mass storage (saturation) changes within the unsaturated zone beneath a survey point can generate recordable gravity changes. We show that for a tropical climate, recharge variations can generate gravity variations of over 150 μGal; although, we demonstrate that for the scenarios investigated here, the probability of recording such large signals is low. Our modelling results indicate that microgravity survey corrections based on water table elevation may result in errors of up to 100 μGal. The effect of inter-annual recharge fluctuations dominate over seasonal cycles which makes prediction and correction of the hydrological contribution more difficult. Spatial hydrogeological heterogeneity can also impact on the accuracy of relative gravity surveys, and can even result in the introduction of additional survey errors. The loading fluctuations associated with saturation variations in the unsaturated zone may also have implications for other geophysical monitoring techniques, such as geodetic monitoring of ground deformation.

  9. In situ visualization of magma deformation at high temperature using time-lapse 3D tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinho, jose; Lee, Peter; Lavallee, Yan; Kendrick, Jackie; Von-Aulock, Felix

    2016-04-01

    We use synchrotron based x-ray computed micro-tomography (sCT) to visualize, in situ, the microstructural evolution of magma samples 3 mm diameter with a resolution of 3 μm during heating and uniaxial compression at temperatures up to 1040 °C. The interaction between crystals, melt and gas bubbles is analysed in 4D (3D + time) during sample deformation. The ability to observe the changes of the microstructure as a function of time allow us to: a) study the effect of temperature in the ability of magma to fracture or deform; b) quantify bubble nucleation and growth rates during heating; c) study the relation between crystal displacement and volatile exsolution. We will show unique beautiful videos of how bubbles grow and coalescence, how samples and crystals within the sample fracture, heal and deform. Our study establishes in situ sCT as a powerful tool to quantify and visualize with micro-scale resolution fast processes taking place in magma that are essential to understand ascent in a volcanic conduit and validate existing models for determining the explosivity of volcanic eruptions. Tracking simultaneously the time and spatial changes of magma microstructures is shown to be primordial to study disequilibrium processes between crystals, melt and gas phases.

  10. Surface velocities at Engabreen produced from time-lapse feature tracking.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messerli, Alexandra; Grinsted, Aslak; Jackson, Miriam; Karlsson, Nanna; Lefeuvre, Pierre-Marie

    2014-05-01

    A six month long time series of images was collected from an automated camera located on the valley sides at Engabreen, northern Norway. The viewshed of the camera overlooks the dominant icefall of Engabreen. This viewshed was chosen for a number of reasons, namely that the icefall is punctuated by deep crevasses and easily tracked features. It is also difficult to instrument the icefall and so alternative methods were needed to obtain velocity measurements, and finally there was already an existing solid mast for mounting in place. Here we present velocity fields over the icefall from 2013 and compare these to SAR produced velocity fields. The velocity fields are produced for periods where interesting subglacial and hydrological events have been identified. We detect the events from various discharge records at the glacier and pressure cells at the base of the glacier, located in the Svartisen Subglacial Laboratory (SSL).

  11. Lapses in Alertness: Coherence of Fluctuations in Performance and EEG Spectrum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    panels. the regression equations derivcd to fit the Terzano and Parrino lh&: Pastclak-Price et al. 1 990)). first sessions were used to predict error rates...time. Ann. NY 1991: 57P. Acad. Sci., 1966, 138: 623-631. PERFORMANCE FLUCTUATIONS AND EEG SPECTRUM 35 Terzano. M.G. anti Parrino , L. The cyclic

  12. The Relation of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury to Chronic Lapses of Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontifex, Matthew B.; Broglio, Steven P.; Drollette, Eric S.; Scudder, Mark R.; Johnson, Chris R.; O'Connor, Phillip M.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the extent to which failures in sustained attention were associated with chronic mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) deficits in cognitive control among college-age young adults with and without a history of sport-related concussion. Participants completed the ImPACT computer-based assessment and a modified flanker task. Results…

  13. Time Lapse to Colorectal Cancer: Telomere Dynamics Define the Malignant Potential of Polyps

    PubMed Central

    Druliner, Brooke R; Ruan, Xiaoyang; Johnson, Ruth; Grill, Diane; O'Brien, Daniel; Lai, Tsung-Po; Rashtak, Shahrooz; Felmlee-Devine, Donna; Washechek-Aletto, Jill; Malykh, Andrei; Smyrk, Thomas; Oberg, Ann; Liu, Hongfang; Shay, Jerry W; Ahlquist, David A; Boardman, Lisa A

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Whereas few adenomas become cancer, most colorectal cancers arise from adenomas. Telomere length is a recognized biomarker in multiple cancers, and telomere maintenance mechanisms (TMM) are exploited by malignant cells. We sought to determine whether telomere length and TMM distinguish cancer-associated adenomas from those that are cancer-free. Methods: Tissues were identified as cancer-adjacent polyp (CAP)—residual adenoma contiguous with cancer—and cancer-free polyp (CFP)—adenomas without malignancy. Telomere length, TMM, and expression were measured in 102 tissues including peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs), normal colon epithelium, adenoma, and cancer (in CAP cases) from 31 patients. Telomere length was measured in a separate cohort of 342 PBL from CAP and CFP patients. Results: The mean differences in telomere length between normal and adenoma were greater in CAP than in CFP cases, P=0.001; telomere length in PBL was 91.7 bp greater in CAP than in CFP, P=0.007. Each 100 bp telomere increase was associated with a 1.14 (1.04–1.26) increased odds of being a CAP, P=0.0063. The polyp tissue from CAP patients had shorter telomeres and higher Telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression compared with polyps from CFP patients, P=0.05. There was a greater degree of alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) level difference in CFP polyps than in CAP polyps. The polyp telomere lengths of aggressive CAPs were significantly different from the polyps of non-aggressive CAPs, P=0.01. Conclusions: Adenomas that progress to cancer exhibit distinct telomere length and TMM profiles. We report for the first time that PBL telomeres differ in patients with polyps that become malignant, and therefore may have clinical value in adenoma risk assessment and management. PMID:27584834

  14. Automatic Tracking and Motility Analysis of Human Sperm in Time-Lapse Images.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Leonardo F; Masson, Puneet; VerMilyea, Matthew; Kam, Moshe

    2017-03-01

    We present a fully automated multi-sperm tracking algorithm. It has the demonstrated capability to detect and track simultaneously hundreds of sperm cells in recorded videos while accurately measuring motility parameters over time and with minimal operator intervention. Algorithms of this kind may help in associating dynamic swimming parameters of human sperm cells with fertility and fertilization rates. Specifically, we offer an image processing method, based on radar tracking algorithms, that detects and tracks automatically the swimming paths of human sperm cells in timelapse microscopy image sequences of the kind that is analyzed by fertility clinics. Adapting the well-known joint probabilistic data association filter (JPDAF), we automatically tracked hundreds of human sperm simultaneously and measured their dynamic swimming parameters over time. Unlike existing CASA instruments, our algorithm has the capability to track sperm swimming in close proximity to each other and during apparent cell-to-cell collisions. Collecting continuously parameters for each sperm tracked without sample dilution (currently impossible using standard CASA systems) provides an opportunity to compare such data with standard fertility rates. The use of our algorithm thus has the potential to free the clinician from having to rely on elaborate motility measurements obtained manually by technicians, speed up semen processing, and provide medical practitioners and researchers with more useful data than are currently available.

  15. 75 FR 52066 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Reinstatement (Insurance Lapsed More than 6...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... Register concerning each proposed collection of information, including each proposed extension of a... solicits comments for information needed to reinstate a claimant's Government Life Insurance and/or Total...), Government Life Insurance and/or Total Disability Income Provision, VA Form 29-352, and Application...

  16. 78 FR 29436 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Reinstatement (Insurance Lapsed More Than 6...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... Register concerning each proposed collection of information, including each proposed extension of a... solicits comments for information needed to reinstate a claimant's Government Life Insurance and/or Total...), Government Life Insurance and/or Total Disability Income Provision, VA Form 29-352, and Application...

  17. Reactivation of Lapsed Languages in the Context of Modern Foreign Languages Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llewellyn-Williams, Jill

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the problems encountered by trainee language teachers who strive to maintain their language skills at their optimum level in the classroom. Many trainees will admit that their language skills need refreshing and a significant number of mentors agree with them. This article explores language attrition and strategies that can be…

  18. Time-lapse monitoring of soil water content using electromagnetic conductivity imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The volumetric soil water content (VWC) is fundamental to agriculture. Unfortunately, the universally accepted thermogravimetric method is labour intensive and time-consuming to use for field-scale monitoring. Electromagnetic (EM) induction instruments have proven to be useful in mapping the spatio-...

  19. Imaging hydrological processes in headwater riparian seeps with time-lapse electrical resistivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The activation of subsurface seepage in response to precipitation events represents a potentially important pathway of nitrogen (N) delivery to streams in agricultural catchments. We used electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) and shallow piezometers to elucidate how seep and non-seep areas within the...

  20. Time-lapse seismic study of levees in southern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivanov, J.; Miller, R.D.; Stimac, N.; Ballard, R.F.; Dunbar, J. Joseph; Smullen, S. Steve

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of this work was to measure changes in compressional- (Vp) and shear-wave (Vs) velocities in an earthen levee during a ponding experiment designed to simulate flood conditions on the Rio Grande in south New Mexico. Although similar to such experiment, performed an year earlier on the Rio Grande in south Texas, the levee seismic response results are different. This work was similar to previous Preliminary testing at three levee sites, all within a 1 km radius and each with unique physical, EM, and core characteristics, was completed and a single low-conductivity, highly fractured site was selected for investigation. Several different types of seismic data were recorded. Seismic data analysis techniques appraised included P-refraction tomography and Rayleigh surface-wave analysis using multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW). P-wave velocity change (decrease) was rapid and isolated to one section within the pool confines, which already had anomalously high velocity most likely related to burrowing animals modification of the levee structure. S-wave velocity change was gradual and could be observed along the whole width of the pond within and below the levee. The results within the levee sand core were consistent with the observations of sand S-wave velocity changed due to saturation. ?? 2005 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  1. Time-lapse gravity data for monitoring and modeling artificial recharge through a thick unsaturated zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Jeffrey; Ferré, Ty P. A.; Creutzfeldt, Benjamin

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater-level measurements in monitoring wells or piezometers are the most common, and often the only, hydrologic measurements made at artificial recharge facilities. Measurements of gravity change over time provide an additional source of information about changes in groundwater storage, infiltration, and for model calibration. We demonstrate that for an artificial recharge facility with a deep groundwater table, gravity data are more sensitive to movement of water through the unsaturated zone than are groundwater levels. Groundwater levels have a delayed response to infiltration, change in a similar manner at many potential monitoring locations, and are heavily influenced by high-frequency noise induced by pumping; in contrast, gravity changes start immediately at the onset of infiltration and are sensitive to water in the unsaturated zone. Continuous gravity data can determine infiltration rate, and the estimate is only minimally affected by uncertainty in water-content change. Gravity data are also useful for constraining parameters in a coupled groundwater-unsaturated zone model (Modflow-NWT model with the Unsaturated Zone Flow (UZF) package).

  2. Embryonic lineage analysis using three-dimensional, time-lapse in-vivo fluorescent microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minden, Jonathan; Kam, Zvi; Agard, David A.; Sedat, John W.; Alberts, Bruce

    1990-08-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has become one of the most extensively studied organisms because of its amenability to genetic analysis. Unfortunately, the biochemistry and cell biology ofDrosophila has lagged behind. To this end we have been microinjecting fluorescently labelled proteins into the living embryo and observing the behavior of these proteins to determine their role in the cell cycle and development. Imaging of these fluorescent probes is an extremely important element to this form of analysis. We have taken advantage of the sensitivity and well behaved characteristics of the charge coupled device (CCD) camera in conjunction with digital image enhancement schemes to produce highly accurate images of these fluorescent probes in vivo. One of our major goals is to produce a detailed map of cell fate so that we can understand how fate is determined and maintained. In order produce such a detailed map, protocols for following the movements and mitotic behavior of a large number of cells in three dimensions over relatively long periods of time were developed. We will present our results using fluorescently labelled histone proteins as a marker for nuclear location1. In addition, we will also present our initial results using a photoactivatable analog of fluorescein to mark single cells so that their long range fate can be unambiguously determined.

  3. Very high resolution time-lapse photography for plant and ecosystems research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Very high resolution gigapixel photography increasingly is being used to support a br