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Sample records for arf immersion lithography

  1. Defectivity reduction studies for ArF immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Kentaro; Kondoh, Takehiro; Kato, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Yuuji; Hayasaki, Kei; Ito, Shinichi; Yoshida, Akira; Shimura, Satoru; Kawasaki, Tetsu; Kyoda, Hideharu

    2007-03-01

    Immersion lithography is widely expected to meet the manufacturing requirements of future device nodes. A critical development in immersion lithography has been the construction of a defect-free process. Two years ago, the authors evaluated the impact of water droplets made experimentally on exposed resist films and /or topcoat. (1) The results showed that the marks of drying water droplet called watermarks became pattern defects with T-top profile. In the case that water droplets were removed by drying them, formation of the defects was prevented. Post-exposure rinse process to remove water droplets also prevented formation of the defects. In the present work, the authors evaluated the effect of pre- and post-exposure rinse processes on hp 55nm line and space pattern with Spin Rinse Process Station (SRS) and Post Immersion Rinse Process Station (PIR) modules on an inline lithography cluster with the Tokyo Electron Ltd. CLEAN TRACK TM LITHIUS TM i+ and ASML TWINSCAN XT:1700Fi , 193nm immersion scanner. It was found that total defectivity is decreased by pre- and post-exposure rinse. In particular, bridge defects and large bridge defects were decreased by pre- and post-exposure rinse. Pre- and post-exposure rinse processes are very effective to reduce the bridge and large bridge defects of immersion lithography.

  2. Highly hydrophobic materials for ArF immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takebe, Yoko; Shirota, Naoko; Sasaki, Takashi; Murata, Koichi; Yokokoji, Osamu

    2008-03-01

    In immersion lithography, the impact of water on resist performance and the possibility of damage to the lens by the components eluted from the resist material are seriously concern. And much work has shown that controlling the water-resist interface is critical to enabling high scan rates. Many topcoat materials have been developed to control the aforementioned interfacial properties. Developable topcoats have been particularly investigated as suitable candidates for its applicability to the resist developing process. Achieving the balance between the low surface energy required for higher receding contact angle and the base solubility for topcoat removal is challenging. We have already reported FUGU polymer which have partially fluorinated monocyclic structure and hexafluoroalcohol(HFA) group and showed that its developer solubility was excellent but hydrophobicity was insufficient for high scan rate. We have also reported that co-polymers of FUGU and highly fluorinated monomers which have perfluorinated cyclic structure had sufficient hydrophobicity but lower developer solubility. We have found that it was difficult to use these copolymers in themselves as topcoat. But by blending of moderate amount of these copolymers into FUGU polymer, we have finally obtained highly hydrophobic developer-soluble topcoat. Hydrophobicity can be controlled by blending ratio. Furthermore we have newly successfully synthesized a series of fluoropolymers, FIT polymer partially fluorinated monocyclic structure and having carboxylic acid group as developer-soluble unit. When FIT polymer as well as FUGU polymer, was blended to highly hydrophobic copolymer, the blended polymer also showed higher hydrophobicity keeping sufficient developer solubility.

  3. Development of high-transmittance phase-shifting mask for ArF immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Won-suk; Seo, Hwan-Seok; Bang, Ju-Mi; Kim, Ji-Young; Song, Jae-Min; Seung, Byoung-Hoon; Kim, Hee-Bom; Jeon, Chan-Uk

    2015-07-01

    A new PSM using high transmittance is developed to overcome patterning process limits in ArF immersion lithography. We optimized mask structure, materials, and film thicknesses for patterning process. A new material for phase-shifter is applied to the HT-PSM to exhibit higher transmittance in ArF wavelengths and the thickness of the new material is thinner than that of the conventional 6% phase-shifter (MoSiON). A new blank structure using a MoSi shading layer with double Cr hardmasks (HM) is developed and suggested for the HTPSM process. Double HM blank stacks enable the HT-PSM to adopt thin PR process for resolution enhancement in mask process. The first Cr on the MoSi is utilized as a HM to etch MoSi shading layer, an adhesion layer for PR process, and also a capping layer to protect blind area during MoSi and phase-shifter etching. In contrast, the role of the second Cr between MoSi and phase-shifter is an etch stopper for MoSi and a HM to etch phase-shifter at the same time. However, Double HM process has some problems, such as first Cr removal during second Cr etching and complex process steps. To solve the Cr removal issues, we evaluated various Cr layers which have different etchrates and compositions. According to the evaluations, we optimized thicknesses and compositions of the two Cr layers and corresponding etching conditions. Lithography simulations demonstrate that the new HT-PSM has advantages in NILS in aerial images. As a result, initial wafer exposure experiments using the HT-PSM show 13-32% improvements in LCDU compared to that of the conventional 6% PSM due to its higher NILS.

  4. Novel topcoat materials with improved receding angles and dissolution properties for ArF immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Sang Geun; Lee, Jin Young; Yang, Young Soo; Shin, Seung Wook; Lee, Sung Jae; Kwon, Hyo Young; Cho, Youn Jin; Choi, Seung Jib; Choi, Sang Jun; Kim, Jong Seob; Chang, Tuwon

    2010-04-01

    A topcoat material plays a significant role in achieving technology nodes below 45 nm via ArF immersion lithography. Switching the exposure medium between the lens and the photoresist (PR) film from gas (air, n=1) to liquid (H2O, n=1.44) may lead to leaching of the polymer, the photoacid generator (PAG), or the solvent. These substances can contaminate the lens or cause bubbles, which can lead to defects during the patterning. Previously reported topcoat materials mainly use hydrophobic fluoro-compounds and carboxylic acids to provide high dissolution rates (DR) to basic developers as well as high receding contact angles (RCA). Recently, the demand for a new top-coat material has risen since current materials cause water-mark defects and decreases in scan speeds, due to insufficient RCA's. However, RCA and DR are in a trade-off relationship as an increase in RCA generally results in a lower DR. To overcome this, a novel polymer with high-fluorine content was synthesized to produce a topcoat material with improved DR (120 nm/s in 2.38 wt% TMAH) and RCA (>70°). In addition, a strategy to control the pattern profile according to needs of customers was found.

  5. Flexible and reliable high power injection locked laser for double exposure and double patterning ArF immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshino, Masaya; Umeda, Hiroshi; Tsushima, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Hidenori; Tanaka, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Shinich; Onose, Takashi; Nogawa, Hiroyuki; Kawasuji, Yasufumi; Matsunaga, Takashi; Fujimoto, Junichi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru

    2010-04-01

    ArF immersion technology is spotlighted as the enabling technology for the 45nm node and beyond. Recently, double exposure technology is also considered as a possible candidate for the 32nm node and beyond. We have already released an injection lock ArF excimer laser, the GT61A (60W/6kHz/10mJ/0.30pm) with ultra line-narrowed spectrum and stabilized spectrum performance for immersion lithography tools with N.A.>1.3, and we have been monitoring the field reliability data of our lasers used in the ArF immersion segment since Q4 2006. In this report we show field reliability data of our GigaTwin series - twin chamber ArF laser products. GigaTwin series have high reliability. The availability that exceeds 99.5% proves the reliability of the GigaTwin series. We have developed tunable and high power injection-lock ArF excimer laser for double patterning, GT62A (Max90W/6000Hz/Tunable power with 10-15mJ/0.30pm (E95)) based on the GigaTwin platform. A number of innovative and unique technologies are implemented on GT62A. - Support the latest illumination optical system - Support E95 stability and adjustability - Reduce total cost (Cost of Consumables, Cost of Downtime and Cost of Energy & Environment)

  6. Optimization of Alt-PSM structure for 45nm node ArF immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Takashi; Mesuda, Kei; Toyama, Nobuhito; Morikawa, Yasutaka; Mohri, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Naoya

    2005-11-01

    Alternating Aperture Phase Shifting Mask (Alt-APSM) has been expected as one of the practical techniques for 45nm node ArF lithography. We have already discussed and proposed the Single trench with undercut (UC) and bias structure is the primary candidate for 65nm node Alt-APSM structure. In fact, we have selected this structure as a standard in production for 65nm node Alt-PSM. For the 45nm node, according to the design shrinkage, mask rule such as MRC which specify minimum chrome CD between 0 and pi degree apertures and etc. is getting tighter. So, we need to consider about single trench with no undercut and bias structure. Such two types of structure are the candidates for 45nm node Alt-APSM. Exposure conditions will be considered as 0.9 or higher NA and the immersion technology as well. In this work, we will discuss about 45nm node Alt-PSM structure in terms of lithographic performance by using 3D rigorous optical simulation software. Two types of structure, single trench with UC and bias, and single trench with No UC and bias are compared. We examined the following items to find optimum Alt-PSM structure, 0/pi space bias to minimize CD difference at the wafer, quartz depth to optimize effective phase and optical proximity correction (OPC) to adjust printed line CD in through pitch condition. Wafer printing performance will be evaluated by the stability of line CD and 0-pi CD difference, contrast, NILS, phase angles, MEEF, ED-window and gate position shift.

  7. Ecology and high-durability injection locked laser with flexible power for double-patterning ArF immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, Hiroshi; Tsushima, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Hidenori; Tanaka, Satoshi; Yoshino, Masaya; Matsumoto, Shinich; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kurosu, Akihiko; Kawasuji, Yasufumi; Matsunaga, Takashi; Fujimoto, Junichi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru

    2011-04-01

    ArF immersion technology has been used widely in volume production for 45nm node. For 32nm node and beyond, double patterning technology with ArF immersion lithography is considered to be the main stream solution until EUV is ready. Our target is to reduce CoO(Cost of ownership) and we aim to develop for ecology and high durability laser. We will introduce the latest performance data of the laser built for ArF immersion lithography under the EcoPhoton concept. Eco-photon concept: -CoC (Cost of Consumable) -CoD (Cost of Downtime) -CoE(Cost of Energy & Environment) We have developed flexible and high power injection-lock ArF excimer laser for double patterning, GT62A-1SxE (Max90W/6000Hz/Flexible power with 10-15mJ/0.30pm (E95)) based on the GigaTwin platform5). A number of innovative and unique technologies are implemented on GT62A-1SxE. In addition, GT62A-1SxE is the laser matching the enhancement technology of advanced illumination systems. For example, in order to provide illumination power optimum for resist sensitivity, it has extendable power from 60W to 90W. We have confirmed durability under these concept with the regulated operation condition with flexible power 60-90W. We show the high durability data of GT62A-1SxE with Eco-Photon concept. In addition to the results the field reliability and availability of our Giga Twin series (GT6XA). We also show technologies which made these performances and its actual data. A number of innovative and unique technologies are implemented on GT62A.

  8. XLR 500i: recirculating ring ArF light source for immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D. J. W.; O'Keeffe, P.; Fleurov, V. B.; Rokitski, R.; Bergstedt, R.; Fomenkov, I. V.; O'Brien, K.; Farrar, N. R.; Partlo, W. N.

    2007-03-01

    As Argon Fluoride (ArF) lithography moves into high volume production, ArF light sources need to meet performance requirements beyond the traditional drivers of power and bandwidth. The first key requirement is a continuous decrease in Cost of Ownership (CoO) where the industry requirement is for reduction in ArF CoO in line with the historical cost reduction demonstrated for Krypton Fluoride (KrF) light sources. A second requirement is improved light source performance stability. As CD control requirements shrink, following the ITRS roadmap, all process parameters which affect CD variation need tighter control. In the case of the light source, these include improved control of bandwidth, pulse energy stability and wavelength. In particular, CD sensitivity to exposure dose has become a serious challenge for device processing and improvements to laser pulse energy stability can contribute to significantly better dose control. To meet these performance challenges Cymer has designed a new dual chamber laser architecture. The Recirculating Ring design requires 10X less energy from the Master Oscillator (MO). This new configuration enables the MO chamber lifetime to reach that of the power amplifier chamber at around 30Bp. In addition, other optical modules in the system such as the line narrowing module experience lower light intensity, ensuring even longer optics lifetime. Furthermore, the Recirculating Ring configuration operates in much stronger saturation. MO energy instabilities are reduced by a factor of 9X when passed through the Ring. The output energy stability exhibits the characteristics of a fully saturated amplifier and pulse energy stability improvement of 1.5X is realized. This performance enables higher throughput scanner operation with enhanced dose control. The Recirculating Ring technology will be introduced on the XLR 500i, Cymer's fifth-generation dual chamber-based light source built on the production-proven XLA platform. This paper will describe

  9. Silicon-based anti-reflective spin-on hardmask materials for 45 nm pattern of immersion ArF lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Kyun; Cho, Hyeon Mo; Koh, Sang Ran; Kim, Mi-young; Yoon, Hui Chan; Chung, Yong-jin; Kim, Jong Seob; Chang, Tuwon

    2008-03-01

    In current semiconductor manufacturing processes, hardmasks have become more prevalent in patterning of small features. A silicon-containing hardmask, which can be spun onto wafers, is desirable in terms of mass production throughput and cost of ownership. Previously, we reported a paper on silicon-based anti-reflective spin-on hardmask materials for 193 nm lithography. In this paper, hardmask materials for 45 nm pattern of immersion ArF lithography are described. To achieve 45 nm patterning, a different base resin platform from the previous paper has been used. Furthermore, we have improved the etch resistance by changing our synthesis method without modifying the resin platform and silicon contents. Despite these changes, an excellent storage stability, which is one of the essential requirements for the materials, is still maintained. Characterization and lithographic performance of 45 nm immersion ArF lithography using our new materials are described in detail.

  10. The next-generation ArF excimer laser for multiple-patterning immersion lithography with helium free operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Hirotaka; Kumazaki, Takahito; Tsushima, Hiroaki; Kurosu, Akihiko; Ohta, Takeshi; Matsunaga, Takashi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru

    2016-03-01

    Multiple patterning ArF immersion lithography has been expected as the promising technology to satisfy tighter leading edge device requirements. A new ArF excimer laser, GT64A has been developed to cope with the prevention against rare resource shortage and the reduction of operational costs. GT64A provides the sophisticated technologies which realize the narrow spectral bandwidth with helium free operation. A helium gas purge has usually been employed due to the low refractive index variation with temperature rises within a line narrowing module(LNM). Helium is a non-renewable resource and the world's reserves have been running out. Nitrogen gas with an affordable price has been used as an alternative purge gas of helium on the restrictive condition of low thermal loads. However, the refractive index variation of nitrogen gas is approximately ten times more sensitive to temperature rises than that of helium, and broadens a spectral bandwidth in the high duty cycle operations. The new LNM design enables heat effect in laser shooting at optical elements and mechanical components in the vicinity of an optical path to be lower. This reduces thermal wavefront deformation of a laser beam without helium gas purge within LNM, and narrows a spectrum bandwidth without helium purge. Gigaphoton proved that the new LNM enabled E95 bandwidth without control to improve a lot with nitrogen purge.

  11. The ArF laser for the next-generation multiple-patterning immersion lithography supporting green operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Keisuke; Ohta, Takeshi; Miyamoto, Hirotaka; Kumazaki, Takahito; Tsushima, Hiroaki; Kurosu, Akihiko; Matsunaga, Takashi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru

    2016-03-01

    Multiple patterning ArF immersion lithography has been expected as the promising technology to satisfy tighter leading edge device requirements. One of the most important features of the next generation lasers will be the ability to support green operations while further improving cost of ownership and performance. Especially, the dependence on rare gases, such as Neon and Helium, is becoming a critical issue for high volume manufacturing process. The new ArF excimer laser, GT64A has been developed to cope with the reduction of operational costs, the prevention against rare resource shortage and the improvement of device yield in multiple-patterning lithography. GT64A has advantages in efficiency and stability based on the field-proven injection-lock twin-chamber platform (GigaTwin platform). By the combination of GigaTwin platform and the advanced gas control algorithm, the consumption of rare gases such as Neon is reduced to a half. And newly designed Line Narrowing Module can realize completely Helium free operation. For the device yield improvement, spectral bandwidth stability is important to increase image contrast and contribute to the further reduction of CD variation. The new spectral bandwidth control algorithm and high response actuator has been developed to compensate the offset due to thermal change during the interval such as the period of wafer exchange operation. And REDeeM Cloud™, new monitoring system for managing light source performance and operations, is on-board and provides detailed light source information such as wavelength, energy, E95, etc.

  12. High refractive index materials design for the next generation ArF immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Taiichi; Kishida, Takanori; Yasuda, Kyouyuu; Shimokawa, Tsutomu; Liu, Zhi; Slezak, Mark; Hieda, Katsuhiko

    2008-03-01

    High-refractive-index fluids (HIFs) are being considered to replace water as the immersion fluid in next generation 193nm immersion scanner. We have demonstrated the attractive optical properties for our HIF candidates, HIL-001, HIL-203 and HIL-204. Especially, HIL-203 and HIL-204 have higher transmittance compared to water. In this paper, we describe our latest results on the comparative evaluations including photo-degradation behavior and lens contamination phenomenon in a flow system. For laser induced fluid degradation behavior, it was shown the higher initial transmittance resulted in the higher laser durability. However, the complicated phenomenon was observed for the lens contamination test. That is, HIL-204 with higher initial transmittance showed higher lens contamination rate than HIL-203. From several analyses, the complicated behaviors among HILs were speculated to be caused by the different nature of photo-degraded impurities. In order to control the fluid transmittance change and suppress the lens contamination during exposure, the refining process was definitely necessary for HIL reuse system. Based on the refining mechanism and the refining material design, we have developed an appropriate refinement unit named Refine B. This approach provided us with the result that Refine B could control the change of fluid transmittance and suppress the lens contamination rate.

  13. 120W ArF laser with high-wavelength stability and efficiency for the next-generation multiple-patterning immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Takeshi; Ishida, Keisuke; Kumazaki, Takahito; Tsushima, Hiroaki; Kurosu, Akihiko; Kakizaki, Kouji; Matsunaga, Takashi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru

    2015-03-01

    The new ArF Immersion Laser, GT64A has been developed to support the next generation multiple-patterning process. It offers the industry's highest output power of 120W with high stability and efficiency. 120W output power with auto-adjusting function enables to meet the requirements of various processes and makes higher-throughput possible even at 450mm-wafers. The increased wavelength stability and bandwidth stability can further improve overlay accuracy and CD error required for the next generation multiple-patterning lithography. Advanced gas control algorithm reduces the consumption of rare gases such as neon to a half. Helium-free operation is also under development to cope with the unstable supply of helium gases worldwide. New advanced wavelength control and bandwidth control algorithm has been developed to meet tighter stability requirement for the next generation multiple-patterning lithography.

  14. Performance of a 1.35NA ArF immersion lithography system for 40-nm applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Klerk, Jos; Wagner, Christian; Droste, Richard; Levasier, Leon; Jorritsma, Louis; van Setten, Eelco; Kattouw, Hans; Jacobs, Jowan; Heil, Tilmann

    2007-03-01

    Water based immersion lithography is now widely recognized a key enabler for continued device shrinks beyond the limits of classical dry lithography. Since 2004, ASML has shipped multiple TWINSCAN immersion systems to IC manufacturers, which have facilitated immersion process integration and optimization. In early 2006, ASML commenced shipment of the first immersion systems for 45nm volume production, featuring an innovative in-line catadioptric lens with a numerical aperture (NA) of 1.2 and a high transmission polarized illumination system. A natural extension of this technology, the XT:1900Gi supports the continued drive for device shrinks that the semiconductor industry demands by offering 40nm half-pitch resolution. This tool features a projection lens based on the already proven in-line catadioptric lens concept but with an enhanced, industry leading NA of 1.35. In this paper, we will discuss the immersion technology challenges and solutions, and present performance data for this latest dual wafer stage TWINSCAN immersion system.

  15. Green solution: 120W ArF immersion light source supporting the next-generation multiple-pattering lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumazaki, Takahito; Ohta, Takeshi; Ishida, Keisuke; Tsushima, Hiroaki; Kurosu, Akihiko; Kakizaki, Kouji; Matsunaga, Takashi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru

    2015-03-01

    The difficulty of EUV lithography system development has prolonged the industry's dependence on ArF excimer lasers to realize further advancements in lithography process technologies. Smaller CD with reduced cost requires tighter specifications, and the potential extension to 450mm wafers introduces extremely difficult performance challenges on lasers. One of the most important features of the next generation lasers will be the ability to support green operations while further improving cost of ownership and performance. For example, electricity consumption costs and the dependence on rare gases, such as neon and helium, will become critical considerations for HVM process going forward. As a laser vendor, Gigaphoton continues to innovate and develop solutions that address these important issues. The latest model GT64A with its field-proven, twin-chamber platform has reduced environmental impact while upgrading performance and power. A variety of green technologies are employed on the GT64A. The first is the reduction of gas usage. Parameters, such as input power and gas pressure are closely monitored during operations and fed back to the injection/exhaust gas controller system. By applying a special algorithm, the laser gas consumption can be reduced by up to 50%. More than 96% of the gas used by the lasers is neon. Another rare gas that requires attention is Helium. Recently the unstable supply of helium became a serious worldwide issue. To cope with this situation, Gigaphoton is developing lasers that support completely helium-free operations.

  16. Enabling high volume manufacturing of double patterning immersion lithography with the XLR 600ix ArF light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokitski, Rostislav; Fleurov, Vladimir; Bergstedt, Robert; Ye, Hong; Rafac, Robert; Jacques, Robert; Trintchouk, Fedor; Ishihara, Toshihiko; Rao, Rajasekhar; Cacouris, Theodore; Brown, Daniel; Partlo, William

    2009-03-01

    Deep ultraviolet (DUV) lithography improvements have been focused on two paths: further increases in the effective numerical aperture (NA) beyond 1.3, and double patterning (DP). High-index solutions for increasing the effective NA have not gained significant momentum due to several technical factors, and have been eclipsed by an aggressive push to make DP a high-volume manufacturing solution. The challenge is to develop a cost-effective solution using a process that effectively doubles the lithography steps required for critical layers, while achieving a higher degree of overlay performance. As a result, the light source requirements for DP fall into 3 main categories: (a) higher power to enable higher throughput on the scanner, (b) lower operating costs to offset the increased number of process steps, and (c) high stability of optical parameters to support more stringent process requirements. The XLR 600i (6kHz, 90W @15mJ) was introduced last year to enable DP by leveraging the higher performance and lower operating costs of the ring architecture XLR 500i (6kHz, 60W @10mJ) platform currently used for 45nm immersion lithography in production around the world. In February 2009, the XLR 600ix was introduced as a 60/90W switchable product to provide flexibility in the transition to higher power requirements as scanner capabilities are enhanced. The XLR 600ix includes improved optics materials to meet reliability requirements while operating at higher internal fluences. In this paper we will illustrate the performance characteristics during extended testing. Examples of performance include polarization stability, divergence and pointing stability, which enable consistent pupil fill under extreme illumination conditions, as well as overall thermal stability which maintains constant beam performance under large changes in laser operating modes. Furthermore, the unique beam uniformity characteristics that the ring architecture generates result in lower peak energy

  17. Flexible power 90W to 120W ArF immersion light source for future semiconductor lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdt, R.; Thornes, J.; Duffey, T.; Bibby, T.; Rokitski, R.; Mason, E.; Melchior, J.; Aggarwal, T.; Haran, D.; Wang, J.; Rechtsteiner, G.; Haviland, M.; Brown, D.

    2014-03-01

    Semiconductor market demand for improved performance at lower cost continues to drive enhancements in excimer light source technologies. Increased output power, reduced variability in key light source parameters, and improved beam stability are required of the light source to support immersion lithography, multi-patterning, and 450mm wafer applications in high volume semiconductor manufacturing. To support future scanner needs, Cymer conducted a technology demonstration program to evaluate the design elements for a 120W ArFi light source. The program was based on the 90W XLR 600ix platform, and included rapid power switching between 90W and 120W modes to potentially support lot-to-lot changes in desired power. The 120W requirements also included improved beam stability in an exposure window conditionally reduced by 20%. The 120W output power is achieved by efficiency gains in system design, keeping system input power at the same level as the 90W XLR 600ix. To assess system to system variability, detailed system testing was conducted from 90W - 120W with reproducible results.

  18. Simulations of immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Min; Lei, Junjiang; Zhang, Lin; Shiely, James P.

    2005-05-01

    Immersion lithography has been regarded as the most viable contender to extend the resolution capability of optical lithography using 193nm wavelength. In parallel with the tremendous effort of overcoming the engineering challenges in immersion, support from modeling and simulations is strongly needed. Although immersion simulation has become available through a number of simulation tools, we need to investigate the model generation and its compatibility within the context of full-chip optical proximity correction (OPC). In this paper, we will describe the physics of a full vector model that is necessary for the high NA optical modeling under immersion. In this full vector model, we consider not only the plane wave decomposition as light travels from the mask to wafer plane, but also the refraction, transmission and reflection of light through a thin film stack on the wafer. We integrated this comprehensive vector model into Synopsys OPC modeling tool ProGen. Through ProGen simulation results, we will discuss several important merits of immersion lithography, as well as the full portability of immersion models into OPC process flow.

  19. Immersion lithography bevel solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedeschi, Len; Tamada, Osamu; Sanada, Masakazu; Yasuda, Shuichi; Asai, Masaya

    2008-03-01

    The introduction of Immersion lithography, combined with the desire to maximize the number of potential yielding devices per wafer, has brought wafer edge engineering to the forefront for advanced semiconductor manufactures. Bevel cleanliness, the position accuracy of the lithography films, and quality of the EBR cut has become more critical. In this paper, the effectiveness of wafer track based solutions to enable state-of-art bevel schemes is explored. This includes an integrated bevel cleaner and new bevel rinse nozzles. The bevel rinse nozzles are used in the coating process to ensure a precise, clean film edge on or near the bevel. The bevel cleaner is used immediately before the wafer is loaded into the scanner after the coating process. The bevel cleaner shows promise in driving down defectivity levels, specifically printing particles, while not damaging films on the bevel.

  20. Solvent immersion imprint lithography.

    PubMed

    Vasdekis, A E; Wilkins, M J; Grate, J W; Kelly, R T; Konopka, A E; Xantheas, S S; Chang, T-M

    2014-06-21

    We present Solvent Immersion Imprint Lithography (SIIL), a technique for polymer functionalization and microsystem prototyping. SIIL is based on polymer immersion in commonly available solvents. This was experimentally and computationally analyzed, uniquely enabling two practical aspects. The first is imprinting and bonding deep features that span the 1 to 100 μm range, which are unattainable with existing solvent-based methods. The second is a functionalization scheme characterized by a well-controlled, 3D distribution of chemical moieties. SIIL is validated by developing microfluidics with embedded 3D oxygen sensors and microbioreactors for quantitative metabolic studies of a thermophile anaerobe microbial culture. Polystyrene (PS) was employed in the aforementioned applications; however all soluble polymers - including inorganic ones - can be employed with SIIL under no instrumentation requirements and typical processing times of less than two minutes.

  1. Characterization of ArF immersion process for production (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jeng-Horng; Chen, Li-Jui; Fang, Tun-Ying; Fu, Tzung-Chi; Shiu, Lin-Hung; Huang, Yao-Te; Chen, Norman; Oweyang, Da-Chun; Wu, Ming-Che; Wang, Shih-Che; Lin, John C.; Chen, Chun-Kuang; Chen, Wei-Ming; Gau, Tsai-Sheng; Lin, Burn J.; Moerman, Richard; Gehoel-van Ansem, Wendy; van der Heijden, Eddy; de Jong, Fred; Oorschot, Dorothe; Boom, Herman; Hoogendorp, Martin; Wagner, Christian; Koek, Bert

    2005-05-01

    ArF immersion lithography is essential to extend optical lithography. In this study, we characterized the immersion process on production wafers. Key lithographic manufacturing parameters, overlay, CD uniformity, depth of focus (DOF), optical proximity effects (OPE), and defects are reported. Similar device electrical performance between the immersion and the dry wafers assures electrical compatibility with immersion lithography. The yield results on 90-nm Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) chips confirm doubling of DOF by immersion as expected. Poly images of the 65-nm node from a 0.85NA immersion scanner are also shown.

  2. Prospects and challenges of ArF excimer laser lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasago, Masaru

    1997-07-01

    ArF excimer laser lithography which is extension of the next generation optical lithography is a nearer candidate realizing Giga devices with 0.18 micrometer design-rule and beyond. However, it is the present situation compared with KrF excimer laser lithography introducing to mass-production that infrastructure preparation of ArF is too late. To accelerate ArF excimer laser lithography, 3 pole that is Japanese ASET, SEMATECH of USA, Esprit of EU, consortiums have been established in 1995. The broad development system of industry/government/university was regulated by these consortium in semiconductor industry. A time limit of neither consortiums gets the base infrastructure ready by 1998. The target feature-size is same as 0.13 micrometer from 0.18 micrometer. In this paper, technology issues and the final goal specification of ArF excimer laser lithography and the present development situation with ASET is described.

  3. Immersion lithography exposure systems: today's capabilities and tomorrow's expectations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulkens, Jan; Streefkerk, Bob; Hoogendorp, Martin; Moerman, Richard; Leenders, Martijn; de Jong, Fred; Stavenga, Marco; Boom, Herman

    2005-05-01

    In less than two years immersion lithography has been developed from curiosity to viable technology for IC manufacturing. With water as immersion fluid ArF immersion offers the potential to extend conventional optical lithography to at least the 45-nm node. By slightly modifying "dry lenses" it is possible to use the immersion option as enhancement for the focus window. With immersion the DOF can be increased with 50% and more. ASML has developed and shipped ArF immersion TWINSCAN systems with lens NA"s of 0.75 and of 0.85. In the near future immersion systems with 0.93 NA and >1.1NA will become available. In this paper we discuss the experimental results obtained on the TWINSCAN immersion systems. In the first part we discuss the experimental results obtained with the 0.75 NA and 0.85 NA immersion systems. It is demonstrated that basic system performance is maintained in case of immersion, while the imaging performance is improved significantly. We present data on resolution capability, full wafer CD uniformity, lens aberrations and single machine overlay. In the last part of the paper we will give an outlook to the next generations of immersion systems. This will include a discussion on the possible use of high index fluids and what resolution can be reached ultimately.

  4. Solvent Immersion Imprint Lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Grate, Jay W.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Konopka, Allan; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Chang, M. T.

    2014-06-21

    The mechanism of polymer disolution was explored for polymer microsystem prototyping, including microfluidics and optofluidics. Polymer films are immersed in a solvent, imprinted and finally brought into contact with a non-modified surface to permanently bond. The underlying polymer-solvent interactions were experimentally and theoretically investigated, and enabled rapid polymer microsystem prototyping. During imprinting, small molecule integration in the molded surfaces was feasible, a principle applied to oxygen sensing. Polystyrene (PS) was employed for microbiological studies at extreme environmental conditions. The thermophile anaerobe Clostridium Thermocellum was grown in PS pore-scale micromodels, revealing a double mean generation lifetime than under ideal culture conditions. Microsystem prototyping through directed polymer dissolution is simple and accessible, while simultaneous patterning, bonding, and surface/volume functionalization are possible in less than one minute.

  5. 32nm node technology development using interference immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sewell, Harry; McCafferty, Diane; Markoya, Louis; Hendrickx, Eric; Hermans, Jan; Ronse, Kurt

    2005-05-01

    The 38nm and 32nm lithography nodes are the next major targets for optical lithography on the Semiconductor Industry Roadmap. The recently developed water-based immersion lithography using ArF illumination will be able to provide an optical solution for lithography at the 45nm node, but it will not be able to achieve the 38nm or the 32nm nodes as currently defined. To achieve these next lithographic nodes will require new, very high refractive index fluids to replace the water used in current immersion systems. This paper describes tests and experiments using an interference immersion lithography test jig to develop key technology for the 32nm node. Interference imaging printers have been available for years, and with the advent of Immersion Lithography, they have a new use. Interference immersion image printing offers users a rapid, cost-effective way to develop immersion lithography, particularly at extremely high resolutions. Although it can never replace classical lens-based lithography systems for semiconductor device production, it does offer a way to develop resist and fluid technology at a relatively low cost. Its simple image-forming format offers easy access to the basic physics of advanced imaging. Issues such as: Polarization of the image forming light rays; Fluid/resist interaction during exposure; Topcoat film performance; and the Line Edge Roughness (LER) of resists at extremely high resolutions can all be readily studied. Experiments are described and results are provided for work on: 32nm imaging tests; high refractive index fluid testing using 193nm wavelength at resolutions well beyond current lens-based system capabilities; and polarization configuration testing on 45nm, 38nm, and 32nm L/S features. Results on the performance of resists and topcoats are reported for 32nm L/S features.

  6. High-index resist for 193-nm immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Kazuya; Costner, Elizabeth; Nishimura, Isao; Ueda, Mitsuru; Willson, C. Grant

    2008-03-01

    ArF immersion lithography using water as a fluid medium enables production of 45 nm features. Extending immersion lithography to 32 nm or below requires increases in the refractive indices of the lens material, the immersion fluid, and the resist material. However, a material with a high refractive index generally also has high absorbance. In attempt to design a resist with high refractive index and low absorbance, we studied several types of sulfur-containing polymers and determined which sulfur groups increase the refractive index without increasing the absorbance at 193 nm. We describe new thioester and sulfone structures that enable high index with low absorbance. This chemistry has been exploited to produce polymers with a refractive index of 1.8 at 193 nm and an absorbance less than 1.4 μm-1. The compatibility of the sulfur functionality with chemically amplified imaging chemistry was demonstrated by printing at 193 nm.

  7. High-n immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sewell, Harry; Mulkens, Jan; Graeupner, Paul; McCafferty, Diane; Markoya, Louis; Donders, Sjoerd; Cortie, Rogier; Meijers, Ralph; Evangelista, Fabrizio; Samarakone, Nandarisi

    2008-03-01

    A two-year study on the feasibility of High-n Immersion Lithography shows very promising results. This paper reports the findings of the study. The evaluation shows the tremendous progress made in the development of second-generation immersion fluid technology. Candidate fluids from several suppliers have been evaluated. All the commercial fluids evaluated are viable, so there are a number of options. Life tests have been conducted on bench top fluid-handling systems and the results referenced to full-scale systems. Parameters such as Dose per Laser Pulse, Pulse Rate, Fluid Flow Rate, and Fluid Absorbency at 193nm, and Oxygen/Air Contamination Levels were explored. A detailed evaluation of phenomena such as Last Lens Element (LLE) contamination has been conducted. Lens cleaning has been evaluated. A comparison of High-n fluid-based technology and water-based immersion technology shows interesting advantages of High-n fluid in the areas of Defect and Resist Interaction. Droplet Drying tests, Resist Staining evaluations, and Resist Contrast impact studies have all been run. Defect-generating mechanisms have been identified and are being eliminated. The lower evaporation rate of the High-n fluids compared with water shows the advantages of High-n Immersion. The core issue for the technology, the availability of High-n optical material for use as the final lens element, is updated. Samples of LuAG material have been received from development partners and have been evaluated. The latest status of optical materials and the technology timelines are reported. The potential impact of the availability of the technology is discussed. Synergy with technologies such as Double Patterning is discussed. The prospects for <22nm (hp) are evaluated.

  8. Basic studies of overlay performance on immersion lithography tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Ken-ichi; Fujiwara, Tomoharu; Tanizaki, Hirokazu; Ishii, Yuuki; Kono, Takuya; Nakagawa, Shinichiro; Higashiki, Tatsuhiko

    2006-03-01

    Immersion lithography with ArF light and Ultra Pure Water (UPW) is the most promising technology for semiconductor manufacturing with 65 nm hp design and below. Since Nikon completed the first full-field immersion scanner, the Engineering Evaluation Tool (EET, NA=0.85) at the end of 2004, Toshiba and Nikon have investigated overlay accuracy with the EET which uses the local fill nozzle. EET successfully demonstrated immersion tools are comparable in single machine overlay accuracy to dry tools, and immersion-dry matching has the same level overlay matching accuracy as dry-dry matching. EET also made it clear that overlay accuracy is independent of scanning speed, and both solvent-soluble topcoats, as well as developer-soluble topcoats can be used without degradation of overlay accuracy. We investigated the impact of the thermal environment on overlay accuracy also, assuming that a key technology of overlay with immersion tools must achieve thermal stabilities similar to dry tools. It was found that the temperature of supply water and loading wafer are stable enough to keep the overlay accuracy good. As for evaporation heat, water droplets on the backside of the wafer lead to overlay degradation. We have decided to equip the wafer holder of S609B, the first immersion production model, with an advanced watertight structure.

  9. PMJ (Photomask Japan) 2004 panel overview: Issues on mask technology for 65-nm lithography with ArF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hisashi; Watanabe, Hidehiro

    2004-12-01

    At the panel discussion of Photomask Japan 2004, we discussed about "Issues on mask technology for 65nm lithography with ArF". The summary of the PMJ2004 panel discussion is as follows: (1) 65nm node will be achieved with ArF immersion/dry lithography, (2) Attenuated PSM, Alternative PSM and Gate-Shrink will be used for 65nm device production., (3) there are no red brick walls for 65nm mask making, though there are many issues to be solved for 65nm mask fabrication; CD control, inspection, writer, repair, metrology and mask cost. The message from the panel discussion of PMJ2004 is "The mask technology will be ready for 65nm device development and production at 2007" For the business success, chip makers, mask manufacturers, EDA tool and equipment suppliers should work together in order to reduce the mask cost and cycle time.

  10. Synthesis of fluorinated materials for 193-nm immersion lithography and 157-nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Yoshida, T.; Hayamai, T.; Araki, Takayuki; Aoyama, H.; Hagiwara, T.; Itani, Toshiro; Fujii, Kiyoshi

    2005-05-01

    Various fluorinated polymers were synthesized for application in 193-nm immersion lithography with the goal of improving 157-nm photoresist performance. Their fundamental properties were characterized, such as transparency at 193-nm and 157-nm (wavelength) and solubility in water and a standard alkaline developer. High transparency, i.e., absorbance better than 0.3 μm-1 at 193-nm wavelength, was achieved. The dissolution behaviors of them were studied by using the Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) method. We find that the dissolution rate of Poly(norbornene-2-fluoro-2-hexafluoroalchol) (PNB1FVIP) in 0.065N tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) was >200 times (nm/s) faster than that of the copolymer of tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) and norbornene-2-fluoro-2-hexafluoroalchol (TFE/NB1FVIP). A resist based on TFE/NB1FVIP was able to delineate 75 nm dense lines by exposure at 193-nm (wavelength) with an alternating phase shift mask using a 0.75 NA ArF scanner. The dissolution rates of the fluoropolymers in water and a 0.262N and 0.065 TMAH can be controlled by optimizing counter monomers containing hexafluoroisopropanol (HFA) unit, carboxylic acid unit and so on. In addition, we have collect water contact angle data. This data shows that fluoropolymers can be used as resist cover materials for 193-nm immersion lithography.

  11. Formation Factors of Watermark for Immersion Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niiyama, Takayoshi; Kawai, Akira

    2006-06-01

    In immersion lithography, some defects such as watermarks and nanoscale bubbles have been focused on as serious problems to be solved. To clarify the formation mechanism of the watermarks, the in-situ observations of the drying behaviors of water drops containing with particles and without particles, are conducted on Si substrates. In static watermark formation on a flat substrate, we can classify the watermark formation processes on the basis of the watermark shapes. From a surface energy balance analysis, particles dispersed in deionized (DI) water adhere on a Si substrate. In addition, owing to the Laplace force balance, the particles adhered on the Si substrate will attract surrounding particles. Hence, we can confirm the formation mechanism of the static watermark condensed in a ring shape. On the other hand, in dynamic watermark formation, we can observe clearly that a condensed watermark is formed on a Si substrate and particles move to a lower region in an inclined drop. In an actual immersion lithography system, the particles are more likely to remain in the immersion liquid under the lens system.

  12. Film stacking architecture for immersion lithography process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Tomohiro; Sanada, Masakazu; Miyagi, Tadashi; Shigemori, Kazuhito; Kanaoka, Masashi; Yasuda, Shuichi; Tamada, Osamu; Asai, Masaya

    2008-03-01

    In immersion lithography process, film stacking architecture will be necessary due to film peeling. However, the architecture will restrict lithographic area within a wafer due to top side EBR accuracy In this paper, we report an effective film stacking architecture that also allows maximum lithographic area. This study used a new bevel rinse system on RF3 for all materials to make suitable film stacking on the top side bevel. This evaluation showed that the new bevel rinse system allows the maximum lithographic area and a clean wafer edge. Patterning defects were improved with suitable film stacking.

  13. Preliminary microfluidic simulations for immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Alexander C.; Nellis, Greg F.; Abdo, Amr Y.; Engelstad, Roxann L.; Chen, Cheng-Fu; Switkes, Michael; Rothschild, Mordechai

    2003-06-01

    The premise behind immersion lithography is to improve the resolution for optical lithography technology by increasing the index of refraction in the space between the final projection lens of an exposure system and the device wafer. This is accomplished through the insertion of a high index liquid in place of the low index air that currently fills the gap. The fluid management system must reliably fill the lens-wafer gap with liquid, maintain the fill under the lens throughout the entire wafer exposure process, and ensure that no bubbles are entrained during filling or scanning. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the fluid flow characteristics of a liquid between the lens and the wafer in immersion lithography. The objective of this feasibility study was to identify liquid candidates that meet both optical and specific fluid mechanical requirements. The mechanics of the filling process was analyzed to simplify the problem and identify those fluid properties and system parameters that affect the process. Two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of the fluid between the lens and the wafer were developed for simulating the process. The CFD simulations were used to investigate two methods of liquid deposition. In the first, a liquid is dispensed onto the wafer as a "puddle" and then the wafer and liquid move under the lens. This is referred to as passive filling. The second method involves the use of liquid jets in close proximity to the edge of the lens and is referred to as active filling. Numerical simulations of passive filling included a parametric study of the key dimensionless group influencing the filling process and an investigation of the effects of the fluid/wafer and fluid/lens contact angles and wafer direction. The model results are compared with experimental measurements. For active filling, preliminary simulation results characterized the influence of the jets on fluid flow.

  14. Hybrid source mask optimization for robust immersion lithography.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xu; Han, Chunying; Li, Yanqiu; Wu, Bingliang; Song, Zhiyang; Dong, Lisong; Arce, Gonzalo R

    2013-06-20

    To keep pace with the shrinkage of critical dimension, source and mask optimization (SMO) has emerged as a promising resolution enhancement technique to push the resolution of 193 nm argon fluoride immersion lithography systems. However, most current pixelated SMO approaches relied on scalar imaging models that are no longer accurate for immersion lithography systems with hyper-NA (NA>1). This paper develops a robust hybrid SMO (HSMO) algorithm based on a vector imaging model capable of effectively improving the robustness of immersion lithography systems to defocus and dose variations. The proposed HSMO algorithm includes two steps. First, the individual source optimization approach is carried out to rapidly reduce the cost function. Subsequently, the simultaneous SMO approach is applied to further improve the process robustness by exploiting the synergy in the joint optimization of source and mask patterns. The conjugate gradient method is used to update the source and mask pixels. In addition, a source regularization approach and source postprocessing are both used to improve the manufacturability of the optimized source patterns. Compared to the mask optimization method, the HSMO algorithm achieves larger process windows, i.e., extends the depth of focus and exposure latitude, thus more effectively improving the process robustness of 45 nm immersion lithography systems.

  15. Innovative metrology for wafer edge defectivity in immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollentier, I.; Iwamoto, F.; Kocsis, M.; Somanchi, A.; Burkeen, F.; Vedula, S.

    2007-03-01

    In semiconductor manufacturing, the control of defects at the edge of the wafer is a key factor to keep the number of yielding die on a wafer as high as possible. Using dry lithography, this control is typically done by an edge bead removal (EBR) process, which is understood well. Immersion lithography however changes this situation significantly. During this exposure, the wafer edge is locally in contact with water from the immersion hood, and particles can then be transported back and forth from the wafer edge area to the scanner wafer stage. Materiel in the EBR region can also potentially be damaged by the dynamic force of the immersion hood movement. In this paper, we have investigated the impact of immersion lithography on wafer edge defectivity. In the past, such work has been limited to the inspection of the flat top part of the wafer edge, due to the inspection challenges at the curved wafer edge and lack of a comprehensive defect inspection solution. This study utilized KLA-Tencor's VisEdge, a new automated edge inspection system, that provides full wafer edge imaging (top, side, bottom) using laser-based optics and multi-sensor detection, and where defects of interest can be classified with Automated Defect Classification (ADC) software. Using the VisEdge technology, the impact from the immersion lithography towards wafer edge defectivity is investigated. The work revealed several key challenges to keep the wafer edge related defectivity under control : choice of resist, optimization of EBR recipes, scanner pollution and related memory effects, wafer handling, device processing, etc... Contributing to the understanding of the mechanisms of wafer edge related immersion defects and to the optimization the die yield level, this technology is believed to be important when the immersion processes are introduced in semiconductor manufacturing.

  16. Adhesion characteristics of alicyclic polymers for use in ArF excimer laser lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Kaichiro; Iwasa, Shigeyuki; Maeda, Katsumi; Hasegawa, Etsuo

    1998-06-01

    We evaluate the adhesion characteristics and relationship between work of adhesion and structure of polar-alicyclic polymers we developed for use in ArF excimer laser lithography. We found that the adhesion of the polymers and resists in both the alkaline-developer and water circumstances depends on the work of adhesion in air. Stronger adhesion can be obtained with higher polarity of polymer films caused by the higher surface free energy due to hydrogen bonds. The polarity of polymers and functional groups is evaluated with their relative dielectric constants. With the standard developer (2.38% tetramethylammonium hydroxide aqueous solution), the chemically amplified resist based on poly(carboxy- tetracyclo[4.4.0.12,5.17,10]dodecylacrylate- co-hydroxy-tricyclo[5.2.1.02,6]decylacrylate) forms a 0.18-micrometers L&S pattern by the ArF excimer laser dose.

  17. Design of chirped fly's eye uniformizer for ArF lithography illumination system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Lei; Li, Yanqiu; Wei, Lidong

    2014-11-01

    Fly's eye uniformizer is the key part of ArF lithography illumination system, whose main function is to illuminate the reticle uniformly. Due to the periodic structure of regular fly's eye uniformizer and the high coherence of the ArF laser, the output intensity distribution is modulated with equidistant sharp intensity peaks (interference speckle pattern) which disturbed the uniformity on the reticle. In this paper, we design a chirped fly's eye uniformizer which consists of chirped fly's eye and a condenser for illumination system in ArF lithography system. The chirped fly's eye consists of individually shaped micro-lenses defined by a parametric description which can be derived completely from analytical functions. The micro-lenses with different thicknesses in the chirped fly's eye have a function of delaying the optical path which reducing the laser coherence and speckle pattern on the reticle. Detailed design process of the chirped fly's eye uniformizer for numerical aperture (NA) 0.75 lithography illumination system is presented. Light intensity distribution on reticle produced by regular and chirped fly's eye uniformizer are analyzed and compared by the method of wave optics, and the results show that chirped can restrain sharp intensity peaks efficiently. Furthermore, the chirped fly's eye uniformizer has been traced in LightTools software under conventional and annual illumination modes, and the non-uniformity of the non-scan and scan direction on the reticle reached 0.75% and 1.24% respectively. The simulation results show that the chirped fly's eye uniformizer can provide high illumination uniformity and reduce the speckle pattern efficiently without additional elements.

  18. Integration considerations for 130-nm device patterning using ArF lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoroanyanwu, Uzodinma; Levinson, Harry J.; Yang, Chih-Yuh; Pangrle, Suzette K.; Schefske, Jeff A.; Kent, Eric

    2000-07-01

    With the delivery of ful field ArF steppers and scanners to the leading edge IC manufacturers in 1999 for process development work, the industry is poised to implement ArF lithography in volume production in a few years from now. The introduction of ArF lithography in large volume deice manufacturing will be at the 130-nm technology node, with a k1-factor of roughly 0.4. This will represent the first time in the history of the semiconductor industry when the critical feature size of first generation devices for a given technology node is significantly smaller than the lithographic wavelength used in the patterning. Accordingly, there are a number of integration issues that must be resolved to ensure the successful implement of this technology. Such issues include antireflection coatings issues like reflectivity control and thickness, and the tradeoffs between using organic and inorganic ARCs; resist material issues like optical absorption, feature profile, CD uniformity and line edge roughness; and etch issues like resist loss, line edge roughening, endcap pullback, etc. For instance, one of the major problems with most currently available 193-nm resists is their high optical absorption at the exposure wavelength. This necessitates the use of significantly thinner 193-nm resist films than have been the case in earlier lithographic regimes, but etch considerations preclude this option as these materials do not have bey good etch stability. A balance between absorption and etch requirements must therefore be struck to ensure the successful implementation of this lithography. The above outlined integration issues involved in striking this balance are the subject of this paper, and they will be presented from a patterning perspective. Our exposures are made with ASML/900 full field scanner.

  19. Modular Polymer Biosensors by Solvent Immersion Imprint Lithography.

    PubMed

    Moore, J S; Xantheas, S S; Grate, J W; Wietsma, T W; Gratton, E; Vasdekis, A E

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated Solvent Immersion Imprint Lithography (SIIL), a rapid benchtop microsystem prototyping technique, including polymer functionalization, imprinting and bonding. Here, we focus on the realization of planar polymer sensors using SIIL through simple solvent immersion without imprinting. We describe SIIL's impregnation characteristics, including an inherent mechanism that not only achieves practical doping concentrations, but their unexpected 2-fold enhancement compared to the immersion solution. Subsequently, we developed and characterized optical sensors for detecting molecular O2. To this end, a substantially high dynamic range is reported, including its control through the immersion duration, a manifestation of SIIL's modularity. Overall, SIIL exhibits the potential of improving the operating characteristics of polymer sensors, while significantly accelerating their prototyping, as it requires a few seconds of processing and no need for substrates or dedicated instrumentation. These are critical for O2 sensing as probed by way of example here, as well as any polymer permeable reactant.

  20. Modular Polymer Biosensors by Solvent Immersion Imprint Lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Jayven S.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Grate, Jay W.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Gratton, Enrico; Vasdekis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated Solvent Immersion Imprint Lithography (SIIL), a rapid benchtop microsystem prototyping technique, including polymer functionalization, imprinting and bonding. Here, we focus on the realization of planar polymer sensors using SIIL through simple solvent immersion without imprinting. We describe SIIL’s impregnation characteristics, including an inherent mechanism that not only achieves practical doping concentrations, but their unexpected 4-fold enhancement compared to the immersion solution. Subsequently, we developed and characterized optical sensors for detecting molecular O2. To this end, a high dynamic range is reported, including its control through the immersion duration, a manifestation of SIIL’s modularity. Overall, SIIL exhibits the potential of improving the operating characteristics of polymer sensors, while significantly accelerating their prototyping, as it requires a few seconds of processing and no need for substrates or dedicated instrumentation. These are critical for O2 sensing as probed by way of example here, as well as any polymer permeable reactant.

  1. Verification of optical proximity effect in immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suganaga, Toshifumi; Maejima, Shinroku; Hanawa, Tetsuro; Ishibashi, Takeo; Nakao, Shuji; Shirai, Seiichiro; Narimatsu, Koichiro; Suko, Kazuyuki; Shiraishi, Kenichi; Ishii, Yuki; Ando, Tomoyuki; Ohmori, Katsumi

    2006-03-01

    193 nm lithography is one of the most promising technologies for next-generation lithography and is being actively evaluated for making it practicable (1,2). First, we evaluated an immersion lithography tool (engineering evaluation tool (EET)) (3) and a dry lithography tool (S307E) with the same numerical aperture (NA = 0.85), manufactured by Nikon Corporation. As a result, an increase in the depth of focus (DOF) of the EET to 200 nm in comparison with the DOF (110 nm) of the dry exposure tool was confirmed in a 90 nm isolated space pattern. Next, the optical proximity effect (OPE) in this pattern was evaluated. Generally, when an immersion lithography tool is compared with a dry one with the same NA or both the tools, only an increase in the DOF is found. However, we confirmed that the OPE (The OPE of the 90 nm isolated space pattern is defined as the difference in the space width between a dense space and an isolated space.) of the dry exposure tool for the 90 nm isolated space pattern reduced from 33.1 nm to 14.1 nm by immersion lithography. As the effect of the reduction of 19 nm, the OPE reduced to 15.2 nm by the effect of the top coatings (TCs) and to 3.8 nm by the optical characteristics. An impact of about 5 nm on the OPE was confirmed by the process parameters-film thickness and the pre-bake temperature of the TC. In the case that the solvent was replaced with a high boiling point solvent, the impact changed from 5 to 20 nm further, the replacement of the solvent had a considerable impact on the OPE. However, this influence differs considerably according to the kind of resists; further, it was shown that the addition of acid materials and a change in the polymer base resulted in a high impact on the OPE for a certain resist. Thus, it was demonstrated that the selection of TC is very important for the OPE in immersion lithography.

  2. Pixelated source and mask optimization for immersion lithography.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xu; Han, Chunying; Li, Yanqiu; Dong, Lisong; Arce, Gonzalo R

    2013-01-01

    Immersion lithography systems with hyper-numerical aperture (hyper-NA) (NA>1) have become indispensable in nanolithography for technology nodes of 45 nm and beyond. Source and mask optimization (SMO) has emerged as a key technique used to further improve the imaging performance of immersion lithography. Recently, a set of pixelated gradient-based SMO approaches were proposed under the scalar imaging models, which are inaccurate for hyper-NA settings. This paper focuses on developing pixelated gradient-based SMO algorithms based on a vector imaging model that is accurate for current immersion lithography. To achieve this goal, an integrative and analytic vector imaging model is first used to formulate the simultaneous SMO (SISMO) and sequential SMO (SESMO) frameworks. A gradient-based algorithm is then exploited to jointly optimize the source and mask. Subsequently, this paper studies and compares the performance of individual source optimization (SO), individual mask optimization (MO), SISMO, and SESMO. Finally, a hybrid SMO (HSMO) approach is proposed to take full advantage of SO, SISMO, and MO, consequently achieving superior performance.

  3. Inverse pupil wavefront optimization for immersion lithography.

    PubMed

    Han, Chunying; Li, Yanqiu; Dong, Lisong; Ma, Xu; Guo, Xuejia

    2014-10-10

    As the critical dimension of integrated circuits is continuously shrunk, thick mask induced aberration (TMIA) cannot be ignored in the lithography image process. Recently, a set of pupil wavefront optimization (PWO) approaches has been proposed to compensate for TMIA, based on a wavefront manipulator in modern scanners. However, these prior PWO methods have two intrinsic drawbacks. First, the traditional methods fell short in building up the analytical relationship between the pupil wavefront and the cost function, and used time-consuming algorithms to solve for the PWO problem. Second, in traditional methods, only the spherical aberrations were optimized to compensate for the focus exposure matrix tilt and best focus shift induced by TMIA. Thus, the degrees of freedom were limited during the optimization procedure. To overcome these restrictions, we build the analytical relationship between the pupil wavefront and the cost function based on Abbe vector imaging theory. With this analytical model and the Fletcher-Reeves conjugate-gradient algorithm, an inverse PWO method is innovated to balance the TMIA including 37 Zernike terms. Simulation results illustrate that our approach significantly improves image fidelity within a larger process window. This demonstrates that TMIA is effectively compensated by our inverse PWO approach.

  4. Solid defects condensation during watermark formation for immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niiyama, Takayoshi; Kawai, Akira; Hori, Simpei; Harumoto, Masahiko; Tamada, Osamu; Sanada, Masakazu

    2006-03-01

    In immersion lithography technique, some defects such as a watermark and a nanoscale bubble have been focused as the serious problems to be solved. In order to clarify the formation mechanism of the watermark, the in-situ observation of the drying behavior of the water drop containing the particles and without the particles, are conducted on the Si substrates. In the static watermark formation on the flat substrate, we can classify the watermark formation processes based on the watermark shapes. From the surface energy balance analysis, the particles dispersed in the DI-water adhere on the Si substrate. In addition, from the Laplace force balance, the particles adhered on the Si substrate will attract the surrounding particles. Hence, we can clarify the formation mechanism of the static watermark condensed in the ring shape. Meanwhile, in the dynamic watermark formation, we can observe clearly the condensed watermark is formed on the Si substrate and the particles move to lower region in inclined drop. In actual immersion lithography system, we can discuss the particles are more likely to remain in the immersion liquid under the lens system.

  5. Gap Fill Materials Using Cyclodextrin Derivatives in ArF Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, Satoshi; Shinjo, Tetsuya; Sakaida, Yasushi; Hashimoto, Keisuke

    2007-11-01

    High planarizing gap fill materials based on β-cyclodextrin in ArF photoresist under-layer materials have been developed for fast etching in CF4 gas. Gap fill materials used in the via-first dual damascene process need to have high etch rates to prevent crowning or fencing on top of the trench after etching and a small thickness bias between the dense and blanket areas to minimize issues observed during trench lithography by narrowing the process latitude. Cyclodextrin is a circular oligomer with a nanoscale porous structure that has a high number of oxygen atoms, as calculated using the Ohnishi parameter, providing high etch rates. Additionally, since gap fill materials using cyclodextrin derivatives have low viscosities and molecular weights, they are expected to exhibit excellent flow properties and minimal thermal shrinkage during baking. In this paper, we describe the composition and basic film properties of gap fill materials; planarization in the via-first dual damascene process and etch rates in CF4 gas compared with dextrin with α-glycoside bonds in polysaccharide, poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) and poly(4-hydroxystyrene). The β-cyclodextrin used in this study was obtained by esterifying the hydroxyl groups of dextrin resulting in improved wettability on via substrates and solubility in photoresist solvents such as propylene glycol monomethyl ether, propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate and ethyl lactate. Gap fill materials using cyclodextrin derivatives showed good planarization and via filling performance without observing voids in via holes. In addition to superior via filling performance, the etch rate of gap fill materials using β-cyclodextrin derivatives was 2.8-2.9 times higher than that of an ArF photoresist, evaluated under CF4 gas conditions by reactive ion etching. These results were attributed to the combination of both nanoscale porous structures and a high density of oxygen atoms in our gap fill materials using cyclodextrin

  6. Immersion liquids for lithography in the deep ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switkes, Michael; Kunz, Roderick R.; Sinta, Roger F.; Rothschild, Mordechai; Gallagher-Wetmore, Paula M.; Krukonis, Val J.; Williams, Kara

    2003-06-01

    The requirements of liquids for use in immersion lithography are discussed. We present simple calculations of the transmission and index homogeneity requirements of the immersion liquid (T > 0.95 and δn < 5×10-7 respectively for sin θ = NA/n = 0.9 and a working distance of 1 mm) along with the temperature and pressure control requirements which follow from them. Water is the leading candidate immersion liquid for use at 193 nm, and we present data on its chemical compatibility with existing 193 nm resists through dissolution/swelling and surface energy studies. We find that it has a minimal impact on at least some current 193 nm resists. At 157 nm, suitably transparent immersion fluids remain to be identified. Perfluorinated polyethers (PFPE) are among the most transparent organics measured. The lowest PFPE absorbance at 157 nm can be further reduced by roughly a factor of two, from 6 to 3 cm-1 through removal of dis-solved oxygen. We also discuss our efforts to understand the origin of the remaining absorbance through supercritical CO2 fractionation.

  7. Solvent immersion nanoimprint lithography of fluorescent conjugated polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitworth, G. L.; Zhang, S.; Stevenson, J. R. Y.; Ebenhoch, B.; Samuel, I. D. W.; Turnbull, G. A.

    2015-10-01

    Solvent immersion imprint lithography (SIIL) was used to directly nanostructure conjugated polymer films. The technique was used to create light-emitting diffractive optical elements and organic semiconductor lasers. Gratings with lateral features as small as 70 nm and depths of ˜25 nm were achieved in poly(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl). The angular emission from the patterned films was studied, comparing measurement to theoretical predictions. Organic distributed feedback lasers fabricated with SIIL exhibited thresholds for lasing of ˜40 kW/cm2, similar to those made with established nanoimprint processes. The results show that SIIL is a quick, convenient and practical technique for nanopatterning of polymer photonic devices.

  8. Immersion defectivity study with volume production immersion lithography tool for 45 nm node and below

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Katsushi; Nagaoka, Shiro; Yoshida, Masato; Iriuchijima, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Tomoharu; Shiraishi, Kenichi; Owa, Soichi

    2008-03-01

    Volume production of 45nm node devices utilizing Nikon's S610C immersion lithography tool has started. Important to the success in achieving high-yields in volume production with immersion lithography has been defectivity reduction. In this study we evaluate several methods of defectivity reduction. The tools used in our defectivity analysis included a dedicated immersion cluster tools consisting of a Nikon S610C, a volume production immersion exposure tool with NA of 1.3, and a resist coater-developer LITHIUS i+ from TEL. In our initial procedure we evaluated defectivity behavior by comparing on a topcoat-less resist process to a conventional topcoat process. Because of its simplicity the topcoatless resist shows lower defect levels than the topcoat process. In a second study we evaluated the defect reduction by introducing the TEL bevel rinse and pre-immersion bevel cleaning techniques. This technique was shown to successfully reduce the defect levels by reducing the particles at the wafer bevel region. For the third defect reduction method, two types of tool cleaning processes are shown. Finally, we discuss the overall defectivity behavior at the 45nm node. To facilitate an understanding of the root cause of the defects, defect source analysis (DSA) was applied to separate the defects into three classes according to the source of defects. DSA analysis revealed that more than 99% of defects relate to material and process, and less than 1% of the defects relate to the exposure tool. Material and process optimization by collaborative work between exposure tool vendors, track vendors and material vendors is a key for success of 45nm node device manufacturing.

  9. Novel alicyclic polymers having 7,7-dimethyloxepan-2-one acid labile groups for ArF lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Jun; Kim, Jin-Baek; Honda, Kenji

    2002-07-01

    The present paper describes a novel class of norbornene- based copolymers containing 7,7-dimethyloxepan-2-one acid labile groups. Poly(3-(bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-en-2- ylhydroxymethyl)-7,7-dimethyloxepan-2-one-co-5-((2- decahydronaphth-yl)oxycarbonyl)-norbornene-co-5-norbornene- 2-carboxxylic acid-co-maleic anhydride) was synthesized and evaluated as a potential chemically amplified resist for ArF lithography. The 7,7-dimethyloxepan-2-one group of the matrix polymer was readily cleaved and the carboxylic acid functionality was formed by acid-catalyzed ring-opening reaction in the exposed region after post-exposure bake. 0.12micrometers line and space patterns were obtained at a dose of 10 mJ cm-2 with a conventional developer, 2.38 wt% tetramethylammonium hydroxide aqueous solution, using an ArF excimer laser stepper.

  10. High index fluoride materials for 193nm immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawata, T.; Inui, Y.; Masada, I.; Nishijima, E.; Satoh, H.; Fukuda, T.

    2006-03-01

    We tried to investigate various kinds of metal fluoride materials which have higher gravity than CaF II and cubic crystal system, and we found out barium lithium fluoride (BaLiF 3) and potassium yttrium fluoride (KY 3F 10) as candidates for the last lens material. We have developed unique Czochralski (CZ) machines and techniques for the growth of large calcium fluoride single crystals. And we applied these technologies to the growth of fluoride high index materials. We have succeeded to grow the large BaLiF 3 single crystal with 120mm in diameter and a KY 3F 10 single crystal, and measured their basic properties such as refractive index, VUV transmittance, birefringence, and so on. As a result of our basic research, we found out that BaLiF 3 single crystal is transparent at VUV region, and the refractive index at 193nm is 1.64, and KY 3F 10 single crystal has the index of 1.59 at the wavelength of 193nm which is slightly higher than fused silica. We expect that these fluoride high index materials are useful for the last lens material of the next generation immersion lithography.

  11. Optimization of BARC process for hyper-NA immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kilyoung; Lee, Junghyung; Lee, Sungkoo; Park, Dongheok; Bok, Cheolkyu; Moon, Seungchan

    2008-03-01

    The extension of current 193nm immersion lithography technology is depending on increasing the numerical aperture (NA). High-resolution imaging requires the decrease of photoresist thickness to compensate for smaller depth of focus (DOF) and prevent pattern collapse. Poor etch selectivity between photoresist and BARC reads to the use of thinner BARC with faster etch-rate. Also, controlling reflectance over a wider range of incident angles for hyper-NA above 1.0 gives more challenge for thin BARC. To reduce substrate reflectivity, various material strategies (dual-layer BARC such as organic/inorganic BARC or organic/organic BARC, Si-based ARC/spin-on carbon (SOC), and so on) have been introduced through many papers. Organic dual-layer BARC is capable of suppressing reflectivity through wide range of incident angles. But, the inevitable increase of its thickness is not a desirable direction due to the decreasing trend of photoresist thickness. When amorphous carbon (a-C) is used as a hardmask for sub-stack, the combination of organic/inorganic BARC (i.e. SiON) is currently well known process. Si-ARC/SOC may be the promising candidates of hardmask because Si component of Si-ARC affords a high etch selectivity to photoresist and its combination with SOC decreases reflectance. The optical constants of above organic materials can be tuned to control the substrate reflectivity for hyper-NA.

  12. Customized illumination shapes for 193nm immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Moh Lung; Chua, Gek Soon; Lin, Qunying; Tay, Cho Jui; Quan, Chenggen

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, a study on customized illumination shape configurations as resolution enhancement for 45nm technology node will be presented. Several new source shape configurations will be explored through simulation based on 193nm immersion lithography on 6% Attenuated Phase Shift Mask. Forbidden pitch effect is commonly encountered in the application of off axis illumination (OAI). The illumination settings are often optimized to allow maximum process window for a pitch. This is done by creating symmetrical distribution of diffraction order on the pupil plane. However, at other pitch, the distribution of diffraction order on the pupil plane results in severe degradation in image contrast and results in significant critical dimension (CD) fluctuation. The problematic pitch is often known as forbidden pitch. It has to be avoided in the design and thus limited the pitch range to be imaged for particular illumination. An approach to modify off axis illumination to minimize the effect of forbidden pitch is explored in this study. The new customized shape for one dimensional line and space pattern is modified from current off axis illumination. Simulation study is done to evaluate the performance some customized shapes. The extent of CD fluctuation and CD through pitch uniformity is analyzed to determine the performance enhancement of the new illumination shapes. From simulation result, the proposed modification have significantly improved the through pitch performance and minimized the effect of forbidden pitch.

  13. 193-nm immersion lithography for high volume manufacturing using novel immersion exposure tool and coater/developer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakamizu, Shinya; Kyouda, Hideharu; Nakano, Katsushi; Fujiwara, Tomoharu

    2008-11-01

    The demand for more highly integrated semiconductor devices is driving efforts to reduce pattern dimensions in semiconductor lithography. It has been found that 193-nm immersion lithography can achieve smaller patterns without having to modify the infrastructure used for existing state-of-the-art 193-nm dry lithography. As a result, 193-nm immersion lithography is a promising technology for use in mass production processes. Recently, the scanning speed of the exposure stage has been increasing in order to achieve high throughput for mass production. Currently, the topcoat process is one of the promising candidates for this high speed scanning process. On the other hand, the non topcoat resist process is being tested from a C.O.O. (cost of ownership) point of view. However, there are some important points that become apparent, such as specific defect countermeasures and wafer bevel control. Nikon and TEL developed the novel immersion exposure tool and coater/developer system application technology in order to solve these immersion specific issues. In this paper, we examine the process performance using novel immersion exposure tool and coater/developer system.

  14. Development of fluoropolymer for 193nm immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirota, Naoko; Takebe, Yoko; Sasaki, Takashi; Yokokoji, Osamu; Toriumi, Minoru; Masuhara, Hiroshi

    2006-03-01

    We had already developed several series of fluoropolymers, FPRs and FUGUs, having a partially fluorinated monocyclic structure and having acidic hydroxyl group, which acts as dissolution unit into alkaline solution. Then we have optimized these polymers for top-coat as the developer-soluble type in the 193nm immersion lithography. However the hydrophobicity of these polymers were a little poor due to its hydroxyl group. So we thought that the introduction of water repellent moiety into the these polymers structure is effective to improve the their hydrophobicity though the increase of water repellent unit in the polymer leads to lower dissolution rate in developer. To introduce as much as possible of hydrophobicity unit, we selected FUGU as platform, which has larger dissolution rate in developer than that of FPRs, We copolymerized FUGU with higher water-repellent component and obtained three copolymers, FUGU-CoA, FUGU-CoB, and FUGU-CoC. In this paper, we described characteristics and evaluation of these polymers. Most of these polymer showed an improvement of hydrophobicity, in particular FUGU-CoB had excellent hydrophobicity due to introduction bulky containing-fluorine group. In this study, we also investigated the interaction between the water and various polymers by using QCM method. The difference between FUGU and water repellent polymers for swelling behavior to water became clear by analysis of diffusion coefficient. We found that our new co-polymers have excellent diffusion coefficient than FUGU which was confirmed by QCM method used to evaluate water permeability and water diffusion in the materials.

  15. Impact of ArF attenuated PSM using multishifter layer (TiN/Si3N4) for next-generation lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Kyung-Han; Kim, Lee-Ju; Jeong, Hyoung-Sup; Lee, Sang W.; Lee, In-Soo; Shin, Cheol; Kim, Hong-Seok; Dieu, L.; Paek, Seung-Weon; Koo, Sang-Sool; Bae, Sang-Man; Ham, Young-Mog; Shin, Ki-Soo

    2001-09-01

    ArF lithography that is expected the candidate for next generation optical lithography and attenuated Phase Shift Mask (att-PSM) will be adapted for 0.12micrometers design-rule and beyond. For the next-generation lithography, the most important requirement for mask process is enough resolution and good pattern fidelity to generate various critical patterns, of which sizes are below 0.5micrometers main pattern including OPC patterns. In this paper we describe in terms of blank mask properties, mask making process and wafer performance of ArF attenuated Phase Shift Mask (att-OSM) using TiN/Si3N4(abbreviated as TiN/SiN) multi-layer for Next Generation Lithography (NGL). In view point of material, we have evaluated for the applicability of TiN/SiN multi-layer to ArF lithography as compared with non- stoichiometric MoSiON-based single-layer structure. In mask making process, we used Chemically Amplified Resist (CAR) process characteristics and Dry etching system for improvement of enough resolution and pattern fidelity. Also we have investigated wafer performance for ArF att-PSM in terms of process windows as compared with BIM (Binary Intensity Mask) in 120nm D/R real cell pattern and 100nm L/S(Line and Space)D/R pattern, respectively.

  16. Simultaneous optimization of dose and focus controls in advanced ArF immersion scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toki, Tsuyoshi; Izikson, Pavel; Kosugi, Junichi; Sakasai, Naruo; Saotome, Keiko; Suzuki, Kazuaki; Kandel, Daniel; Robinson, John C.; Koyanagi, Yuji

    2010-04-01

    We have developed a new scheme of process control combining a CD metrology system and an exposure tool. A new model based on Neural Networks has been created in KLA-Tencor's "KT Analyzer" which calculates the dose and focus errors simultaneously from CD parameters, such as mid CD and height information, measured by a scatterometry (OCD) measurement tool. The accuracy of this new model was confirmed by experiment. Nikon's "CDU master" then calculated the control parameters for dose and focus per each field from the dose and focus error data of a reference wafer provided by KT Analyzer. Using the corrected parameters for dose and focus from CDU master, we exposed wafers on an NSR-S610C (ArF immersion scanner), and measured the CDU on a KLA SCD100 (OCD tool). As a result, we confirmed that CDU in the entire wafer can be improved more than 60% (from 3.36nm (3σ) to 1.28nm (3σ)).

  17. Defectivity reduction by optimization of 193-nm immersion lithography using an interfaced exposure-track system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carcasi, Michael; Hatakeyama, Shinichi; Nafus, Kathleen; Moerman, Richard; van Dommelen, Youri; Huisman, Peter; Hooge, Joshua; Scheer, Steven; Foubert, Philippe

    2006-03-01

    As the integration of semiconductor devices continues, pattern sizes required in lithography get smaller and smaller. To achieve even more scaling down of these patterns without changing the basic infrastructure technology of current cutting-edge 193-nm lithography, 193-nm immersion lithography is being viewed as a powerful technique that can accommodate next-generation mass productions needs. Therefore this technology has been seriously considered and after proof of concept it is currently entering the stage of practical application. In the case of 193-nm immersion lithography, however, because liquid fills the area between the projection optics and the silicon wafer, several causes of concern have been raised - namely, diffusion of moisture into the resist film due to direct resist-water interaction during exposure, dissolution of internal components of the resist into the de-ionized water, and the influence of residual moisture generated during exposure on post-exposure processing. To prevent these unwanted effects, optimization of the three main components of the lithography system: materials, track and scanner, is required. For the materials, 193nm resist formulation improvements specifically for immersion processing have reduced the leaching and the sensitivity to water related defects, further benefits can be seen by the application of protective top coat materials. For the track component, optimization of the processing conditions and immersion specific modules are proven to advance the progress made by the material suppliers. Finally, by optimizing conditions on the 3 rd generation immersion scanner with the latest hardware configuration, defectivity levels comparable to dry processing can be achieved. In this evaluation, we detail the improvements that can be realized with new immersion specific track rinse modules and formulate a hypothesis for the improvements seen with the rinsing process. Additionally, we show the current status of water induced

  18. Efficient modeling of immersion lithography in an aggressive RET mask synthesis flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Min; Lei, Junjiang; Zhang, Lin; Shiely, James P.

    2005-06-01

    Immersion lithography has been accepted as the major breakthrough for enabling next generation deep subwavelength chip production. As it extends the resolution capability of optical lithography to the next technology node, it brings fresh challenges to resolution enhancement techniques (RET). Accurate lithography modeling becomes even more critical for RET at the sub-65nm nodes. On the other hand, immersion models need to be fully compatible within the context of existing optical proximity correction (OPC) flow. With the hyper NA approach, modeling of immersion lithography requires full vector treatment of the electric fields in the propagating light wave. We developed a comprehensive vector model that considers not only the plane wave decomposition from the mask to the wafer plane, but also the light propagation through a thin film stack on the wafer. With the integration of this model into Synopsys OPC modeling tool ProGen, we have simulated and demonstrated several important enhancements introduced by immersion. In the mean time, the modeling and correction flow for immersion is completely compatible with the current OPC infrastructure.

  19. Production aspects of 45nm immersion lithography defect monitoring using laser DUV inspection methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsch, Remo; Martin, Antje; Okoroanyanwu, Uzodinma; Grundke, Wolfram; Vogler, Ute; Beyer, Mirko; Valfer, Eran; Weiher-Tellford, Susan; Perlovitch, Renana; Racah, Nurit; Vanoppen, Peter; Moerman, Richard

    2008-03-01

    Immersion lithography addresses the limits of optical lithography by providing higher NA's (NA > 1), which enable imaging of smaller features and hence it enables production of 45nm logic devices. One of the key challenges of this advanced technology, however, is controlling the defectivity level produced specifically by the Lithography immersion stepper and track systems. To control and monitor the immersion processes in production, consideration has been given to identifying an alternative to the traditional sensitivity approaches, using Darkfield (DF) and Brightfield (BF) wafer inspection methodologies. This unique method should provide for stable, reliable and sensitive inspection results which are capable of supporting a technology node introduction (product ramp) as well as monitoring the base line performance (in other words, capture excursions). The following study was done to explore laser DUV Brightfield inspection, utilizing the Applied Materials UVision TM, which has the ability to detect defects as small as 20-40nm size. Additionally a joint project between AMD, ASML and AMAT developed an appropriate inspection strategy that combines, lithographic defect printing simulations and sensitive inspection routines to identify defect problems effectively, drive defect reduction efforts and result in stable production monitoring. We investigated the use of traditional Photo Test Monitor (PTM) as a valid technique to monitor the introduction of the immersion lithography at 45nm. In addition, we explored the correlation between these PTM wafers and the actual production wafers for new types of defects. It was found that the amount of small protrusion defects (~20-40nm size) increased on immersion PTM wafers compared to dry processed PTM wafers. Based on process experiments at AMD and immersion defect simulations provided by ASML we were able to isolate immersion specific defect problems from general lithography related defects also seen in Dry lithography. The

  20. Extending immersion lithography with high-index materials: results of a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sewell, Harry; Mulkens, Jan; Graeupner, Paul; McCafferty, Diane; Markoya, Louis; Donders, Sjoerd; Samarakone, Nandasiri; Duesing, Rudiger

    2007-03-01

    In this paper we report the status of our feasibility work on high index immersion. The development of high index fluids (n>1.64) and high index glass materials (n>1.9) is reported. Questions answered are related to the design of a high NA optics immersion system for fluid containment and fluid handling, and to the compatibility of the fluid with ArF resist processes. Optical design and manufacturing challenges are related to the use of high index glass materials such as crystalline LuAG or ceramic Spinel. Progress on the material development will be reviewed. Progress on immersion fluids development has been sustained. Second-generation fluids are available from many suppliers. For the practical use of second-generation fluids in immersion scanners, we have evaluated and tested fluid recycling concepts in combination with ArF radiation of the fluids. Results on the stability of the fluid and the fluid glass interface will be reported. Fluid containment with immersion hood structures under the lens has been evaluated and tested for several scan speeds and various fluids. Experimental results on scan speed limitations will be presented. The application part of the feasibility study includes the imaging of 29nm L/S structures on a 2-beam interference printer, fluid/resist interaction testing with pre- and post-soak testing. Immersion defect testing using a fluid misting setup was also carried out. Results of these application-related experiments will be presented and discussed.

  1. A year in the life of an immersion lithography alpha tool at Albany NanoTech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tittnich, Michael; Hartley, John; Denbeaux, Greg; Okoroanyanwu, Uzo; Levinson, Harry; Petrillo, Karen; Robinson, Chris; Gil, Dario; Corliss, Dan; Back, David; Brandl, Stefan; Schwarz, Christian; Goodwin, Frank; Wei, Yayi; Martinick, Brian; Housley, Richard; Benson, Peter; Cummings, Kevin

    2006-03-01

    Immersion Lithography continues to get more and more attention as a possible solution for the 45nm technology node puzzle. In 2005, there has, indeed, been a lot of progress made. It has gone from a laboratory curiosity to being one of the industry's prime contenders for the lithography technology of choice for the 45nm node. Yet a lot of work remains to be done before it's fully implemented into production. Today, there are over a dozen full field immersion scanners in R&D and pilot lines all around the world. The first full field, pre-production "Alpha" version of the ASML Twinscan AT 1150i was delivered to Albany NanoTech in August, 2004. A consortium made up of AMD, IBM, Infineon, and Micron Technology began early evaluation of immersion technology and in December of 2004, the production of the world's first Power PC microprocessor using immersion lithography, processed on this tool, was announced by IBM. This paper will present a summary of some of the work that was done on this system over the past year. It will also provide an overview of Albany NanoTech, the facility, its capabilities, and the programs in place. Its operating model, which is heavily focused on cooperative joint ventures, is described. The immersion data presented is a review of the work done by AMD, IBM, Infineon Technologies, and Micron Technology, all members of the INVENT Lithography Consortium in place at Albany NanoTech. All the data was published and presented by the authors in much more detail at the 2005 International Symposium on Immersion Lithography, in Bruges, Belgium.

  2. Process window simulation study with immersion lithography for 45-nm technology node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Oseo; Gutmann, Alois; Neumueller, Walter; Back, David

    2004-05-01

    As the potentials of experimental studies are still limited, a predictive resist image simulation of Immersion lithography is very important for a better understanding of the technology. One of the most critical issues in Immersion lithography is the description of the influence of immersion which is the presence of a uniform liquid layer between the last objective lens and the photo resist, on optical lithography. It enables the real part of the index of refraction in the image space, and the numerical aperture of the projection lens, to be greater than unity. Therefore, it is virtually involves Maxwell vector solution approach, including polarization effects and arbitrary thin film multi-layers. This paper discusses the improvement in process window afforded by immersion under a variety of conditions, including 193nm and 157nm, Off-axis illumination, Attenuated Phase Shift Mask for 65nm and 45nm technology node. Comparisons with dry and liquid lithography simulations are used to evaluate the availability and the performance of the proposed approach. The implemented resist simulation approach is examined the impact to the process window of variations in liquid refractive index as well.

  3. Design and performance of photoresist materials for ArF lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Dong-Won; Lee, Sook; Choi, Sang-Jun; Woo, Sang-Gyun; Kavanagh, Robert J.; Barclay, George G.; Blacksmith, Robert F.; Kang, Doris; Pohlers, Gerd; Cameron, James F.; Mattia, Joe; Caporale, Stefan; Penniman, Thomas; Joesten, Lori A.; Thackeray, James W.

    2001-08-01

    In this paper we review the design and performance of ArF resists developed from various polymer platforms. Inadequate etch performance of early ArF acrylate platforms necessitated the development of new etch resistant platforms, in terms of both etch rate and etch uniformity. Two resist platforms were developed to address etch resistance: 1) alternating copolymers of cyclic olefins and maleic anhydride (COMA); and 2) polycycloolefin polymers (CO). Improvements have been made in the imaging performance of these resists, such that they now approach the lithographic performance of acrylate based resists. Recently, a third platform based on polymerization of vinyl ethers with maleic anhydride (VEMA), which has excellent etch performance, was developed by Samsung. Here we will focus our discussion on acrylate, COMA and VEMA based resists.

  4. Design of cycloolefin-maleic-anhydride resist for ArF lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jae Chang; Bok, Cheol-Kyu; Baik, Ki-Ho

    1998-06-01

    Recently reported ArF positive photoresists can be classified into three groups: derivative methacrylate copolymers (methacrylate resist), methacrylate copolymers functionalized with pendant alicyclic moieties (alicyclic resist), and cycloolefin-maleic anhydride copolymers (cycloolefin resist). Each system has its own advantages and drawbacks from the viewpoint of lithographic properties. Methacrylate resist has been used for the assessment of ArF lens performance. However, it is hard to apply them in real device process because of its low plasma-etch resistance. Previous studies have reported that alicyclic resists possess adequate etch resistance with the help of cyclic carbon units, however these resists show poor adhesion and seldom dissolve in 2.38% TMAH developer. The cycloolefin resists will be good candidate for addressing the trade-off between etch resistance and requisite material properties for lithographic performance because these resists, unlike methacrylate-based resists, contain large quantities of alicyclic structures directly in the polymer backbone and such properties as dissolution, adhesion can be readily controlled by incorporation of -COOH and -OH functional groups into cycloolefin structures. We have synthesized poly(2-hydroxylethyl 5-norbornene-2-carboxylate/t-butyl 5- norbornene-2-carboxylate/5-norbornene-2-carboxylic acid/maleic anhydride; HNC/BNC/NC/MA) resists with a variety of functional groups and obtained lithographic performance using ArF stepper (0.6 NA). In this paper, we will describe the basic idea for designing of the novel olefin resist and demonstrate lithographic capabilities, especially in terms of process window for 130 nm feature. We believe that both off-axis illumination and bottom anti-reflective technologies should be applied in order to obtain wider process window.

  5. Directed self-assembly compliant flow with immersion lithography: from material to design and patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuansheng; Wang, Yan; Word, James; Lei, Junjiang; Mitra, Joydeep; Torres, Juan Andres; Hong, Le; Fenger, Germain; Khaira, Daman; Preil, Moshe; Kye, Jongwook; Levinson, Harry J.

    2016-07-01

    We present a directed self-assembly (DSA) compliant flow for contact/via layers with immersion lithography assuming the graphoepitaxy process for the cylinders' formation. We demonstrate that the DSA technology enablement needs co-optimization among material, design, and lithography. We show that the number of DSA grouping constructs is countable for the gridded-design architecture. We use template error enhancement factor to choose DSA material, determine grouping design rules, and select the optimum guiding patterns. Our post-pxOPC imaging data show that it is promising to achieve two-mask solution with DSA for the contact/via layer using 193i at 5 nm node.

  6. Characterization of resist and topcoat properties for immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Kaveri; Hishiro, Yoshi

    2008-03-01

    For this paper, we have performed a fundamental characterization of various resists and topcoats supplied by different vendors. The resists and topcoats were selected based on the inherent properties of these chemicals (elemental composition, contact angle, etc.). The goal of this study is to better understand the resist and topcoat interaction under various process conditions. We have characterized these materials using a number of analytical techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We have also provided data on the effect of the constitution of the resist and topcoat materials on the resist profile, under both dry and immersion exposure.

  7. Current status of water immersion lithography and prospect of higher index method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owa, Soichi; Nakano, Katsushi; Nagasaka, Hiroyuki; Kohno, Hirotaka; Ohmura, Yasuhiro; McCallum, Martin

    2007-02-01

    In this paper we will present the progress that has been made in the area of tool development for ArF Immersion. The local fill nozzle design adopted by Nikon has been implemented in the world's first production Immersion tools, the S609B and S610C, to produce bubble free and low defect imaging. Defect, imaging and overlay results from the S609B are presented showing manufacturing level results. First imaging results from the 1.30 NA S610C are also reported showing the tools capability to image at the 45nm node and beyond. Beyond 1.30 NA it is likely that high index materials will be required. We examine the prospects for taking immersion to lens NA's of around 1.55 with second generation fluids and even 1.70 NA with third generation fluids. However, it cannot be forgotten that this also requires new glass materials for lenses; the status of these will also be discussed. It is likely that high index immersion, if implemented, will not be in time for most customers' roadmaps, in the interim it is likely that Double Patterning (DP) will be used with potential cost penalites. The potential applications of this technique will be briefly discussed.

  8. Via patterning in the 7-nm node using immersion lithography and graphoepitaxy directed self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doise, Jan; Bekaert, Joost; Chan, Boon Teik; Hori, Masafumi; Gronheid, Roel

    2017-04-01

    Insertion of a graphoepitaxy directed self-assembly process as a via patterning technology into integrated circuit fabrication is seriously considered for the 7-nm node and beyond. At these dimensions, a graphoepitaxy process using a cylindrical block copolymer that enables hole multiplication can alleviate costs by extending 193-nm immersion-based lithography and significantly reducing the number of masks that would be required per layer. To be considered for implementation, it needs to be proved that this approach can achieve the required pattern quality in terms of defects and variability using a representative, aperiodic design. The patterning of a via layer from an actual 7-nm node logic layout is demonstrated using immersion lithography and graphoepitaxy directed self-assembly in a fab-like environment. The performance of the process is characterized in detail on a full 300-mm wafer scale. The local variability in an edge placement error of the obtained patterns (4.0 nm 3σ for singlets) is in line with the recent results in the field and significantly less than of the prepattern (4.9 nm 3σ for singlets). In addition, it is expected that pattern quality can be further improved through an improved mask design and optical proximity correction. No major complications for insertion of the graphoepitaxy directed self-assembly into device manufacturing were observed.

  9. Impact of water and top-coats on lithographic performance in 193-nm immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimura, Shinji; Gronheid, Roel; Ercken, Monique; Maenhoudt, Mireille; Matsuo, Takahiro; Endo, Masayuki; Sasago, Masaru

    2005-05-01

    We have investigated the impact of water and top-coats on the resist in water immersion lithography by analyzing the dissolution behavior and the film constitution. We used a resist development analyzer (RDA) and a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to study the dissolution behavior. The film constitution was studied through the gradient shaving preparation (GSP) method in combination with TOF-SIMS. The GSP/TOF-SIMS method reveals the constitution of a top-coat/resist film. We found that, in a resist, the photo acid generator (PAG) anion at a depth of about 30 nm from the surface leached into water and a surface insoluble layer formed during immersion. The estimated amount of leaching was about 5% of the original content. The formation of an intermixing layer with a low dissolution rate was observed for some top-coat and resist combinations. The thickness of the intermixing layer and the formation behavior were made clear. We believe the intermixing layer was caused by the top-coat solvent eluting resist components. In a top-coat, a PAG existed within the top-coat and the PAG anion leached into the water. Top-coats blocked gaseous decomposed products from the resist film during PEB. These results are useful for estimating patterning characteristics and the defectivity due to materials for actual immersion exposure.

  10. High-index immersion lithography: preventing lens photocontamination and identifying optical behavior of LuAG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberman, V.; Rothschild, M.; Palmacci, S. T.; Bristol, R.; Byers, J.; Turro, N. J.; Lei, X.; O'Connor, N.; Zimmerman, P. A.

    2008-03-01

    A potential extension of water-based 193-nm immersion lithography involves transition to a higher refractive index organic immersion fluid coupled with a higher index last lens element. While considerable progress has been made in improving the photo-durability of the immersion fluid itself, photo-induced contamination of the last lens element caused by laser exposure in the presence of such organic fluids remains a major concern. In this work, we study remediation strategies for such contamination, which would be compatible with conventional lithographic production environments. In general, surface photocontamination layers were found to be highly graphitic in nature, where the first monolayer is strongly bound to the substrate. We have attempted to develop a surface passivation treatment for altering the monolayer chemistry and preventing large-scale contamination, but found such treatments to be unstable under laser irradiation. On the other hand, using hydrogen peroxide as a in-situ cleaning solution has been shown to be extremely effective. We also present first laser-based durability results of LuAG, which is a leading candidate material for high index last element to be used with high index fluids.

  11. High refractive index Fresnel lens on a fiber fabricated by nanoimprint lithography for immersion applications.

    PubMed

    Koshelev, Alexander; Calafiore, Giuseppe; Piña-Hernandez, Carlos; Allen, Frances I; Dhuey, Scott; Sassolini, Simone; Wong, Edward; Lum, Paul; Munechika, Keiko; Cabrini, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    In this Letter, we present a Fresnel lens fabricated on the end of an optical fiber. The lens is fabricated using nanoimprint lithography of a functional high refractive index material, which is suitable for mass production. The main advantage of the presented Fresnel lens compared to a conventional fiber lens is its high refractive index (n=1.68), which enables efficient light focusing even inside other media, such as water or an adhesive. Measurement of the lens performance in an immersion liquid (n=1.51) shows a near diffraction limited focal spot of 810 nm in diameter at the 1/e2 intensity level for a wavelength of 660 nm. Applications of such fiber lenses include integrated optics, optical trapping, and fiber probes.

  12. High refractive index Fresnel lens on a fiber fabricated by nanoimprint lithography for immersion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshelev, Alexander; Calafiore, Giuseppe; Piña-Hernandez, Carlos; Allen, Frances I.; Dhuey, Scott; Sassolini, Simone; Wong, Edward; Lum, Paul; Munechika, Keiko; Cabrini, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    In this Letter we present a Fresnel lens fabricated on the end of an optical fiber. The lens is fabricated using nanoimprint lithography of a functional high refractive index material, which is suitable for mass production. The main advantage of the presented Fresnel lens compared to a conventional fiber lens is its high refractive index (n=1.69), which enables efficient light focusing even inside other media such as water or adhesive. Measurement of the lens performance in an immersion liquid (n=1.51) shows a near diffraction limited focal spot of 810 nm in diameter at the 1/e2 intensity level for a wavelength of 660 nm. Applications of such fiber lenses include integrated optics, optical trapping and fiber probes.

  13. Development of an operational high refractive index resist for 193nm immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Paul A.; Byers, Jeffrey; Piscani, Emil; Rice, Bryan; Ober, Christopher K.; Giannelis, Emmannuel P.; Rodriguez, Robert; Wang, Dongyan; Whittaker, Andrew; Blakey, Idriss; Chen, Lan; Dargaville, Bronwin; Liu, Heping

    2008-03-01

    Generation-three (Gen-3) immersion lithography offers the promise of enabling the 32nm half-pitch node. For Gen-3 lithography to be successful, however, there must be major breakthroughs in materials development: The hope of obtaining numerical aperture imaging >= 1.70 is dependent on a high index lens, fluid, and resist. Assuming that a fluid and a lens will be identified, this paper focuses on a possible path to a high index resist. Simulations have shown that the index of the resist should be >= 1.9 with any index higher than 1.9 leading to an increased process latitude. Creation of a high index resist from conventional chemistry has been shown to be unrealistic. The answer may be to introduce a high index, polarizable material into a resist that is inert relative to the polymer behavior, but will this too degrade the performance of the overall system? The specific approach is to add very high index (~2.9) nanoparticles to an existing resist system. These nanoparticles have a low absorbance; consequently the imaging of conventional 193nm resists does not degrade. Further, the nanoparticles are on the order of 3nm in diameter, thus minimizing any impact on line edge roughness (LER).

  14. Towards ultimate optical lithography with NXT:1950i dual stage immersion platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castenmiller, Tom; van de Mast, Frank; de Kort, Toine; van de Vin, Coen; de Wit, Marten; Stegen, Raf; van Cleef, Stefan

    2010-04-01

    Optical lithography, currently being used for 45-nm semiconductor devices, is expected to be extended further towards the 32-nm and 22-nm node. A further increase of lens NA will not be possible but fortunately the shrink can be enabled with new resolution enhancement methods like source mask optimization (SMO) and double patterning techniques (DPT). These new applications lower the k1 dramatically and require very tight overlay control and CD control to be successful. In addition, overall cost per wafer needs to be lowered to make the production of semiconductor devices acceptable. For this ultimate era of optical lithography we have developed the next generation dual stage NXT:1950i immersion platform. This system delivers wafer throughput of 175 wafers per hour together with an overlay of 2.5nm. Several extensions are offered enabling 200 wafers per hour and improved imaging and on product overlay. The high productivity is achieved using a dual wafer stage with planar motor that enables a high acceleration and high scan speed. With the dual stage concept wafer metrology is performed in parallel with the wafer exposure. The free moving planar stage has reduced overhead during chuck exchange which also improves litho tool productivity. In general, overlay contributors are coming from the lithography system, the mask and the processing. Main contributors for the scanner system are thermal wafer and stage control, lens aberration control, stage positioning and alignment. The back-bone of the NXT:1950i enhanced overlay performance is the novel short beam fixed length encoder grid-plate positioning system. By eliminating the variable length interferometer system used in the previous generation scanners the sensitivity to thermal and flow disturbances are largely reduced. The alignment accuracy and the alignment sensitivity for process layers are improved with the SMASH alignment sensor. A high number of alignment marker pairs can be used without throughput loss, and

  15. Immersion exposure system using high-index materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Keita; Iwasaki, Yuichi; Mori, Sunao; Yamada, Akihiro; Ogusu, Makoto; Yamashita, Keiji; Nishikawara, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Takatoshi; Hasegawa, Noriyasu; Hara, Shin-ichi; Watanabe, Yutaka

    2008-03-01

    ArF water immersion systems with a numerical aperture (NA) of over 1.3 have already introduced for the node up to 45- nm half-pitch production. For the next generation of lithography, we focus on ArF immersion lithography using high-index materials. At present, LuAG (n=2.14) is the most promising candidate as a high-index lens material. Second-generation fluids (n=1.64) have the sufficient performance as a high-index immersion fluid. The combination of LuAG and a second-generation fluid can enhance the NA up to 1.55 and the exposure system would be available for the 34-nm half-pitch node when k1 is 0.27. Although high-index immersion lithography is attractive since it is effective in raising resolution, there are some issues not encountered in water immersion system. The issues of LuAG are its availability and the intrinsic birefringence. Fluid degradation induced by dissolved oxygen or laser irradiation, lens contamination, and residual fluid on a wafer are the specific issues of the immersion system. In this article, we introduce the current status for the above issues and discuss the feasibility of ArF immersion system using high-index materials.

  16. Solvent immersion imprint lithography: A high-performance, semi-automated procedure.

    PubMed

    Nemati, S H; Liyu, D A; Canul, A J; Vasdekis, A E

    2017-03-01

    We expand upon our recent, fundamental report on solvent immersion imprint lithography (SIIL) and describe a semi-automated and high-performance procedure for prototyping polymer microfluidics and optofluidics. The SIIL procedure minimizes manual intervention through a cost-effective (∼$200) and easy-to-assemble apparatus. We analyze the procedure's performance specifically for Poly (methyl methacrylate) microsystems and report repeatable polymer imprinting, bonding, and 3D functionalization in less than 5 min, down to 8 μm resolutions and 1:1 aspect ratios. In comparison to commercial approaches, the modified SIIL procedure enables substantial cost reductions, a 100-fold reduction in imprinting force requirements, as well as a more than 10-fold increase in bonding strength. We attribute these advantages to the directed polymer dissolution that strictly localizes at the polymer-solvent interface, as uniquely offered by SIIL. The described procedure opens new desktop prototyping opportunities, particularly for non-expert users performing live-cell imaging, flow-through catalysis, and on-chip gas detection.

  17. Novel rinse process for reducing pattern collapse in 0.30-k1 ArF lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Geunsu; Hwang, Young Sun; Ban, Keun Do; Bok, Cheol Kyu; Moon, Seung Chan; Shin, Ki Soo

    2004-05-01

    In-house rinse, HR31 has a strong point in terms of lithographic performance, defect, bubble, and metal impurity. The collapse behavior was quantified in terms of SMCD (Standing Minimum CD) in 80nm dense L/S ArF resist patterns. It contributed to enlarging process window by improving collapse (SMCD: 84-->72nm), CD uniformity (12.3-->9.3nm), and lithographic margin [EL (11.7-->12.8%), and DOF (0.20-->0.25μm)].

  18. Feasibility Study on Immersion System Using High-Index Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Keita; Iwasaki, Yuichi; Mori, Sunao; Yamada, Akihiro; Ogusu, Makoto; Yamashita, Keiji; Nishikawara, Tomofumi; Hara, Shin-ichi; Watanabe, Yutaka

    2008-06-01

    ArF water immersion systems with a numerical aperture (NA) of more than 1.3 have already been introduced for the node up to 45-nm half-pitch production. For next-generation lithography, we focus on ArF immersion lithography using high-index materials. At present, LuAG (n=2.14) is the most promising candidate as a high-index lens material. Second-generation fluids (n=1.64) have the sufficient performance as a high-index immersion fluid. The combination of LuAG and a second-generation fluid can enhance the NA up to 1.55 and the exposure system would be available for the 34-nm half-pitch node when k1 is 0.27. Although high-index immersion lithography is attractive because it is effective in improving the resolution, there are some issues not encountered in a water immersion system. The issues associated with LuAG are its availability and intrinsic birefringence. Fluid degradation induced by dissolved oxygen or laser irradiation, lens contamination, and residual fluid on a wafer are the specific issues associated with second-generation fluids. In this article, we describe the current status of the above issues and discuss the feasibility of an ArF immersion system using high-index materials.

  19. Charting CEBL's role in mainstream semiconductor lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, David K.

    2013-09-01

    historically kept it out of mainstream fabs. Thanks to continuing EBDW advances combined with the industry's move to unidirectional (1D) gridded layout style, EBDW promises to cost-efficiently complement 193nm ArF immersion (193i) optical lithography in high volume manufacturing (HVM). Patterning conventional 2D design layouts with 193i is a major roadblock in device scaling: the resolution limitations of optical lithography equipment have led to higher mask cost and increased lithography complexity. To overcome the challenge, IC designers have used 1D layouts with "lines and cuts" in critical layers.1 Leading logic and memory chipmakers have been producing advanced designs with lines-and-cuts in HVM for several technology nodes in recent years. However, cut masks in multiple optical patterning are getting extremely costly. Borodovsky proposes Complementary Lithography in which another lithography technology is used to pattern line-cuts in critical layers to complement optical lithography.2 Complementary E-Beam Lithography (CEBL) is a candidate to pattern the Cuts of optically printed Lines. The concept of CEBL is gaining acceptance. However, challenges in throughput, scaling, and data preparation rate are threatening to deny CEBL's role in solving industry's lithography problem. This paper will examine the following issues: The challenges of massively parallel pixel writing The solutions of multiple mini-column design/architecture in: Boosting CEBL throughput Resolving issues of CD control, CDU, LER, data rate, higher resolution, and 450mm wafers The role of CEBL in next-generation solution of semiconductor lithography

  20. Programmed defects study on masks for 45nm immersion lithography using the novel AIMS 45-193i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherübl, Thomas; Dürr, Arndt C.; Böhm, Klaus; Birkner, Robert; Richter, Rigo; Strößner, Ulrich

    2007-02-01

    Mask manufacturing for the 45nm node for hyper NA lithography requires tight defect and printability control at small features sizes. The AIMS TM1 technology is a well established methodology to analyze printability of mask defects, repairs and critical features by scanner emulation. With the step towards hyper NA imaging by immersion lithography the AIMS TM technology has been faced with new challenges like vector effects, polarized illumination and tighter specs for repeatability and tool stability. These requirements pushed the development of an entirely new AIMS TM generation. The AIMS TM 45-193i has been designed and developed by Carl Zeiss to address these challenges. A new mechanical platform with a thermal and environmental control unit enables high tool stability. Thus a new class of specification becomes available. The 193nm optical beam path together with an improved beam homogenizer is dedicated to emulate scanners up to 1.4 NA. New features like polarized illumination and vector effect emulation make the AIMS TM 45- 193i a powerful tool for defect disposition and scanner emulation for 45nm immersion lithography. In this paper results from one of the first production tools will be presented. Aerial images from phase shifting and binary masks with different immersion relevant settings will be discussed. Also, data from a long term repeatability study performed on masks with programmed defects will be shown. This study demonstrates the tool's ability to perform defect disposition with high repeatability. It is found that the tool will fulfill the 45nm node requirements to perform mask qualification for production use.

  1. Optimization of resist shrink techniques for contact hole and metal trench ArF lithography at the 90-nm technology node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Christine; Schacht, Jochen; Huang, I. H.; Hsu, Ruei H.

    2004-05-01

    Two fundamentally different approaches for chemical ArF resist shrinkage are evaluated and integrated into process flows for 90 nm technology node. The chemical shrink and the corresponding gain in process window is studied in detail for different resist types with respect to CD uniformity through pitch, linearity and resist profiles. For both, SAFIER and RELACS material, the sensitivity of the shrink process with respect to the baking temperature is characterized by a temperature matrix to check process stability, and optimized conditions are found offering an acceptable amount of shrinkage at contact and trench levels. For the SAFIER material, thermal flow contributes to the chemical shrink which is a function of the photoresist chemistry and its hydrodynamic properties depending on the resists" glass transition temperature (Tg) and the baking temperature: at baking temperatures close to Tg, a proximity and pattern dependent shrink is observed. For a given resist, line-space patterns and contact holes shrink differently, and their resist profiles are affected significantly. Additionally, the chemical shrinkage depends on the size of contact holes and resist profile prior to the application of the SAFIER process. At baking temperatures below Tg some resists exhibit no shrink at all. The RELACS technique offers a constant shrink for contacts at various pitches and sizes. This shrink can be moderately adjusted and controlled by varying the mixing bake temperature which is generally and preferably below the glass transistion temperature of the resist, therefore no resist profile degradation is observed. A manufacturable process with a shrink of 20nm using RELACS at the contact layer is demonstrated. Utilizing an increased reticle bias in combination with an increased CD target prior to the chemical shrink, the common lithography process window at contact layer was increased by 0.15um. The results also indicate a possibility for an extension of the shrink to greater

  2. 90nm node contact hole patterning through applying model based OPC in KrF lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Young-Doo; Lee, Sang-Uk; Choi, Jaeyoung; Kim, Jeahee; Han, Jaewon

    2008-03-01

    As semiconductor technologies move toward 90nm generation and below, contact hole is one of the most challenging features to print in the semiconductor manufacturing process. There are two principal difficulties in order to define small contact hole pattern on wafer. One is insufficient process margin besides poor resolution compared with line & space pattern. The other is that contact hole should be made through pitches and sometimes random contact hole pattern should be fabricated. Therefore advanced ArF lithography scanner should be used for small contact hole printing with RETs (Resolution Enhancement Techniques) such as immersion lithography, OPC(Optical Proximity Correction), PSM(Phase Shift Mask), high NA(Numerical Aperture), OAI(Off-Axis Illumination), SRAF(Sub-resolution Assistant Feature), mask biasing and thermal flow. Like this, ArF lithography propose the method of enhancing resolution, however, we must spend an enormous amount of CoC(cost of ownership) to utilize ArF photolithography process than KrF. In this paper, we suggest the method of contact holes patterning by using KrF lithography tool in 90nm sFlash(stand alone Flash)devices. For patterning of contact hole, we apply RETs which combine OAI and Model based OPC. Additionally, in this paper we present the result of hole pattern images which operate ArF lithography equipment. Also, this study describes comparison of two wafer images that ArF lithography process which is used mask biasing and Rule based OPC, KrF lithography process which is applied hybrid OPC.

  3. Combining in-situ lithography with 3D printed solid immersion lenses for single quantum dot spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartison, Marc; Portalupi, Simone Luca; Gissibl, Timo; Jetter, Michael; Giessen, Harald; Michler, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, we report on the deterministic fabrication of solid immersion lenses (SILs) on lithographically pre-selected semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). We demonstrate the combination of state-of-the-art low-temperature in-situ photolithography and femtosecond 3D direct laser writing. Several QDs are pre-selected with a localization accuracy of less than 2 nm with low-temperature lithography and three-dimensional laser writing is then used to deterministically fabricate hemispherical lenses on top of the quantum emitter with a submicrometric precision. Due to the printed lenses, the QD light extraction efficiency is enhanced by a factor of 2, the pumping laser is focused more, and the signal-to-noise ratio is increased, leading to an improved localization accuracy of the QD to well below 1 nm. Furthermore, modifications of the QD properties, i.e. strain and variation of internal quantum efficiency induced by the printed lenses, are also reported.

  4. Using scanning electrochemical microscopy to probe chemistry at the solid-liquid interface in chemically amplified immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeSuer, Robert J.; Fan, Fu-Ren F.; Bard, Allen J.; Taylor, J. Christopher; Tsiartas, Pavlos; Willson, Grant; Conley, Willard E.; Feit, Gene; Kunz, Roderick R.

    2004-05-01

    Three modes of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) - voltammetry, pH, and conductivity - have been used to better understand the chemistry at, and diffusion through, the solid/liquid interface formed between a resist film and water in 193 nm immersion lithography. Emphasis has been placed on investigating the photoacid generator (PAG), triphenylsulfonium perfluorobutanesulfonate, and the corresponding photoacid. The reduction of triphenylsulfonium at a hemispherical Hg microelectrode was monitored using square wave voltammetry to detect trace amounts of the PAG leaching from the surface. pH measurements at a 100 μm diameter Sb microelectrode show the formation of acid in the water layer above a resist upon exposure with UV irradiation. Bipolar conductance measurements at a 100 μm Pt tip positioned 100 μm from the surface indicate that the conductivity of the solution during illumination is dependent upon the percentage of PAG in the film. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometric analysis of water samples in contact with resist films has been used to quantify the amounts (< 10 ng/cm2) of PAG leaching from the film in the dark which occurs within the first 30 seconds of contact time. Washing the film removes approximately 80% of the total leachable PAG.

  5. Combining in-situ lithography with 3D printed solid immersion lenses for single quantum dot spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sartison, Marc; Portalupi, Simone Luca; Gissibl, Timo; Jetter, Michael; Giessen, Harald; Michler, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, we report on the deterministic fabrication of solid immersion lenses (SILs) on lithographically pre-selected semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). We demonstrate the combination of state-of-the-art low-temperature in-situ photolithography and femtosecond 3D direct laser writing. Several QDs are pre-selected with a localization accuracy of less than 2 nm with low-temperature lithography and three-dimensional laser writing is then used to deterministically fabricate hemispherical lenses on top of the quantum emitter with a submicrometric precision. Due to the printed lenses, the QD light extraction efficiency is enhanced by a factor of 2, the pumping laser is focused more, and the signal-to-noise ratio is increased, leading to an improved localization accuracy of the QD to well below 1 nm. Furthermore, modifications of the QD properties, i.e. strain and variation of internal quantum efficiency induced by the printed lenses, are also reported. PMID:28057941

  6. Patterning 45nm flash/DRAM contact hole mask with hyper-NA immersion lithography and optimized illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ting; Van Den Broeke, Doug; Hsu, Stephen; Park, Sangbong; Berger, Gabriel; Coskun, Tamer; de Vocht, Joep; Corcoran, Noel; Chen, Fung; van der Heijden, Eddy; Finders, Jo; Engelen, Andre; Socha, Robert

    2006-03-01

    Patterning contact-hole mask for Flash/DRAM is probably one of the most challenging tasks for design rule below 50nm due to the extreme low-k I printing conditions common in the memory designs. When combined with optical proximity corrections (OPC) to the mask, using optimized illumination has become a viable part of the production lithography process for 65nm node. At k I<0.31, both resolution and imaging contrast can become severely limited by some of the current imaging tools with NA<0.85 and using standard illumination sources. Hyper-NA immersion lithography increases the process latitude and is therefore expected to become more indispensable for manufacturing under extreme low-k I conditions for sub-50nm design rule. In this work, we describe our process optimization approach for patterning Flash/DRAM contact-hole patterns with 130nm, 120nm, and smaller minimum pitch design rules. Here we use 6% attPSM mask for simulation and actual exposure in ASML XT 1400i (NA=0.93) and 1700i (NA=1.2) respectively. We begin with the illumination source optimization using full vector high-NA calculation (VHNA) with production resist stack and all manufacturability requirements for the source shaping diffractive optical element (DOE) are accounted for during the source optimization. Using the optimized source, IML TM technology based scattering bars (SB) placement together with model based OPC (MOPC) are applied to the original contact-hole design. In-focus printing and process latitude simulations are used to gauge the performance and manufacturability of the final optimized process, which includes the optimized mask, optimized source and required imaging settings. Our results show that for the 130nm pitch Flash contact-hole patterns, on ASML XT 1400i at NA=0.93, both optimized illumination source and immersion lithography are necessary in order to achieve manufacturability. The worst-case depth of focus (DOF) before SB and MOPC is 100-130nm at 6% EL, without common process

  7. Advanced mask technique to improve bit line CD uniformity of 90 nm node flash memory in low-k1 lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-doo; Choi, Jae-young; Kim, Jea-hee; Han, Jae-won

    2008-10-01

    As devices size move toward 90nm technology node or below, defining uniform bit line CD of flash devices is one of the most challenging features to print in KrF lithography. There are two principal difficulties in defining bit line on wafer. One is insufficient process margin besides poor resolution compared with ArF lithography. The other is that asymmetric bit line should be made for OPC(Optical Proximity Correction) modeling. Therefore advanced ArF lithography scanner should be used for define bit line with RETs (Resolution Enhancement Techniques) such as immersion lithography, OPC, PSM(Phase Shift Mask), high NA(Numerical Aperture), OAI(Off-Axis Illumination), SRAF(Sub-resolution Assistant Feature), and mask biasing.. Like this, ArF lithography propose the method of enhancing resolution, however, we must spend an enormous amount of CoC(cost of ownership) to utilize ArF photolithography process than KrF. In this paper, we suggest method to improve of bit line CD uniformity, patterned by KrF lithographic process in 90nm sFlash(stand alone Flash) devices. We applied new scheme of mask manufacturing, which is able to realize 2 different types of mask, binary and phase-shift, into one plate. Finally, we could get the more uniform bit lines and we expect to get more stable properties then before applying this technique.

  8. Across scanner platform optimization to enable EUV lithography at the 10-nm logic node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulkens, Jan; Karssenberg, Jaap; Wei, Hannah; Beckers, Marcel; Verstappen, Leon; Hsu, Stephen; Chen, Guangqin

    2014-04-01

    EUV lithography is expected to be introduced in volume manufacturing at the 10-nm and 7-nm node. Especially in these first EUV nodes, critical layer patterning will be balanced with the use of ArF immersion. As a consequence a good overlay and placement matching between both lithography methods becomes an enabling factor for EUV. In this paper we present an integral method to optimize critical layer patterning across the EUV and ArF scanner platform, such that good overlay and device pattern placement is achieved. It is discussed that besides classical overlay control methods, also the optimization of the ArF and EUV imaging steps is needed. Best matching is achieved by applying high-order field-to-field overlay corrections for both imaging and overlay. The lithography architecture we build for these higher order corrections connects the dynamic scanner actuators with the angle resolved scatterometer via a separate computational application server. Improvements of CD uniformity are based on source mask optimization for EUV combined with CD optimization using freeform intra-field dose actuator in the immersion scanner.

  9. Immersion and dry lithography monitoring for flash memories (after develop inspection and photo cell monitor) using a darkfield imaging inspector with advanced binning technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, P.; Mani, A.; Perry-Sullivan, C.; Kopp, J.; Simpson, G.; Renis, M.; Padovani, M.; Severgnini, C.; Piacentini, P.; Piazza, P.; Beccalli, A.

    2009-12-01

    After-develop inspection (ADI) and photo-cell monitoring (PM) are part of a comprehensive lithography process monitoring strategy. Capturing defects of interest (DOI) in the lithography cell rather than at later process steps shortens the cycle time and allows for wafer re-work, reducing overall cost and improving yield. Low contrast DOI and multiple noise sources make litho inspection challenging. Broadband brightfield inspectors provide the highest sensitivity to litho DOI and are traditionally used for ADI and PM. However, a darkfield imaging inspector has shown sufficient sensitivity to litho DOI, providing a high-throughput option for litho defect monitoring. On the darkfield imaging inspector, a very high sensitivity inspection is used in conjunction with advanced defect binning to detect pattern issues and other DOI and minimize nuisance defects. For ADI, this darkfield inspection methodology enables the separation and tracking of 'color variation' defects that correlate directly to CD variations allowing a high-sampling monitor for focus excursions, thereby reducing scanner re-qualification time. For PM, the darkfield imaging inspector provides sensitivity to critical immersion litho defects at a lower cost-of-ownership. This paper describes litho monitoring methodologies developed and implemented for flash devices for 65nm production and 45nm development using the darkfield imaging inspector.

  10. Advanced patterning approaches based on negative-tone development (NTD) process for further extension of 193nm immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirakawa, Michihiro; Inoue, Naoki; Furutani, Hajime; Yamamoto, Kei; Goto, Akiyoshi; Fujita, Mitsuhiro

    2015-03-01

    Two approaches which achieve the further evolution of NTD (Negative Tone Development) process are shown in this article. One is ACCEL (Advanced Chemical Contrast Enhancement Layer) process that can improve the lithography performance and the other is DTD (Dual Tone Development) process that can shrink patterning pitch below the limit of single exposure process. ACCEL is an additionally provided layer which is coated on a surface of NTD resist film before exposure and removed by NTD developer. ACCEL can enhance the acid distribution and dissolution contrast of the NTD resist. In fact, lithography performances such as exposure latitude (EL) and DOF improved dramatically by applying ACCEL compared to the NTD resist without ACCEL. We consider that suppression of excessive acid diffusion and material transfer between the resist layer and the ACCEL layer are the causes of the contrast enhancement. DTD process is one of the simplest pitch shrink method which is achieved by repeating PTD and NTD process. Feasibility study of DTD patterning has been demonstrated so far. However, Exposure latitude margin and CDU performance were not sufficient for applying DTD to HVM. We developed the novel DTD specific resist under a new concept, and 32 nm half pitch (hp) contact hole (CH) pattern was successfully formed with enough margins. DTD line and space (L/S) patterning are also demonstrated and 24 nm hp L/S pattern can be resolved. k1 factors of DTD CH and L/S patterns reach to 0.20 and 0.15, respectively.

  11. Tumor suppressor ARF

    PubMed Central

    Través, Paqui G.; Luque, Alfonso; Hortelano, Sonsoles

    2012-01-01

    ARF (alternative reading frame) is one of the most important tumor regulator playing critical roles in controlling tumor initiation and progression. Recently, we have demonstrated a novel and unexpected role for ARF as modulator of inflammatory responses. PMID:23162766

  12. Study on RLS trade-off resist upgrade for production ready EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Junghyung; Kim, Jieun; Jeong, Seunguk; Lim, Mijung; Koo, Sunyoung; Lim, Chang-Moon; Kim, Young-Sik

    2016-03-01

    Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) is the most promising technology as substitute for multiple patterning based on ArF immersion lithography. If enough productivity can be accomplished, EUV will take main role in the chip manufacturing. Since the introduction of NXE3300, many significant results have been achieved in source power and availability, but lots of improvements are still required in various aspects for the implementation of EUV lithography on high volume manufacturing. Among them, it is especially important to attain high sensitivity resist without degrading other resolution performance. In this paper, performances of various resists were evaluated with real device patterns on NXE3300 scanner and technical progress of up-to-date EUV resists will be shown by comparing with the performance of their predecessors. Finally the prospect of overcoming the triangular trade-off between sensitivity, resolution, line edge roughness (LER) and achieving high volume manufacturing will be discussed.

  13. Low-loss and flatband silicon-nanowire-based 5th-order coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROW) fabricated by ArF-immersion lithography process on a 300-mm SOI wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Seok-Hwan; Shimura, Daisuke; Simoyama, Takasi; Seki, Miyoshi; Yokoyama, Nobuyuki; Ohtsuka, Minoru; Koshino, Keiji; Horikawa, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Yu; Morito, Ken

    2014-03-01

    We present flatband, low-loss and low-crosstalk characteristics of Si-nanowire-based 5th-order coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROW) fabricated by ArF-immersion lithography process on a 300-mm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. We theoretically specified why phase controllability over Si-nanowire waveguides is prerequisite to attain desired spectral response, discussing spectral degradation by random phase errors during fabrication process. It was experimentally demonstrated that advanced patterning technology based on ArF-immersion lithography process showed extremely low phase errors even for Si-nanowire channel waveguides. As a result, the device exhibited extremely low loss of <0.2dB and low crosstalk of <-40dB without any external phase compensation. Furthermore, fairly good spectral uniformity for all fabricated devices was found both in intra-dies and inter-dies. The center wavelengths for box-like drop channel responses were distributed within 0.4 nm in the same die. This tendency was kept nearly constant for other dies on the 300-mm SOI wafer. In the case of the inter-die distribution where each die is spaced by ~3cm, the deviation of the center wavelengths was as low as +/-1.8 nm between the dies separated by up to ~15 cm. The spectral superiority was reconfirmed by measuring 25 Gbps modulation signals launched into the device. Clear eye openings were observed as long as the optical signal wavelengths are stayed within the flat-topped passband of the 5th-order CROW. We believe these high-precision fabrication technologies based on 300-mm SOI wafer scale ArF-immersion lithography would be promising for several kinds of WDM multiplexers/demultiplexers having much complicated configurations and requiring much finer phase controllability.

  14. Theoretical study of fabrication of line-and-space patterns with 7 nm quarter-pitch using electron beam lithography with chemically amplified resist processes: II. Stochastic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozawa, Takahiro

    2015-09-01

    Electron beam (EB) lithography is a core technology for nanofabrication. Owing to the increasing demand for high-resolution semiconductor lithography, the requirements for the resist processes of EB lithography for the photomasks used in ArF immersion and extreme ultraviolet lithographies and the mold fabrication of nanoimprints have also become stricter. In this study, the feasibility of single nano patterning by EB lithography with a chemically amplified resist process was investigated from the viewpoint of stochastic effects. The latent images of line-and-space patterns with a 7 nm quarter-pitch (7 nm space width and 21 nm line width) were calculated using a Monte Carlo method on the basis of the sensitization and reaction mechanisms of chemically amplified EB resists. Compared with the line-and-space pattern with a 7 nm half-pitch, line edge roughness (LER) and the stochastic pinching generation are considered to be significantly improved by increasing the pitch. It was found that the suppression of the stochastic generation of bridges is the critical issue in 7 nm quarter-pitch fabrication.

  15. Extending lithography with advanced materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, Douglas J.

    2014-03-01

    Material evolution has been a key enabler of lithography nodes in the last 30 years. This paper explores the evolution of anti-reflective coatings and their transformation from materials that provide only reflection control to advanced multifunctional layers. It is expected that complementary processes that do not require a change in wavelength will continue to dominate the development of new devices and technology nodes. New device architecture, immersion lithography, negative-tone development, multiple patterning, and directed self-assembly have demonstrated the capabilities of extending lithography nodes beyond what anyone thought would be possible. New material advancements for future technology nodes are proposed.

  16. An ice lithography instrument.

    PubMed

    Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J A

    2011-06-01

    We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines.

  17. An ice lithography instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J. A.

    2011-06-15

    We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines.

  18. Immersion lithography with an ultrahigh-NA in-line catadioptric lens and a high-transmission flexible polarization illumination system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasper, Hans; Modderman, Theo; van de Kerkhof, Mark; Wagner, Christian; Mulkens, Jan; de Boeij, Wim; van Setten, Eelco; Kneer, Bernhard

    2006-03-01

    A second phase in the immersion era is starting with the introduction of ultra high NA (NA >1) systems. These systems are targeting for 45 nm node device production and beyond. ASML TWINSCAN XT:1700i features a maximum NA of 1.2 and a 26x33 mm2 scanner field size. The projection lens is an in-line catadioptric lens design and the AERIAL XP illumination system enables conventional an off-axis illumination pupil shapes in either polarized or un-polarized modes at maximum light efficiency. In this paper a description and a performance overview of the TWINSCAN XT:1700i is given. We will present and discuss lithographic performance results, with special attention at low-k1 imaging using high NA and polarized illumination. Overlay, focus and productivity performance will also be presented.

  19. Improved Nanogap Servo System Using an Error-Based Disturbance Observer for High-Speed in Solid Immersion Lens-Based Plasmonic Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Geon; Kim, Taeseob; Lee, Won-Sup; Choi, Guk-Jong; Park, Kyoung-Su; Park, Young-Pil; Yang, Hyunseok; Park, No-Cheol

    2013-09-01

    We proposed an advanced nanogap servo system using the error-based disturbance observer (EDOB) system. To achieve the feedback control over the nanogap based on the gap error signal (GES) in the near-field region, a precise gap-curve was obtained experimentally between a solid immersion lens and a photoresist-coated wafer using a piezo nanoposition actuator. With an accurate nanogap servo system, the EDOB was designed with a low-pass filter of 2.0 kHz bandwidth. Due to the powerful properties of the EDOB, which include stable robustness and disturbance rejection, a high-speed nanogap servo was achieved with up to 400 and 300 mm/s at the desired gaps of 20 and 15 nm, respectively. The disturbance rejection performance was evaluated from the GES, and the maximum deviation value was reduced by approximately 40% over that of the servo system without the EDOB.

  20. Full-chip pitch/pattern splitting for lithography and spacer double patterning technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiou, Tsann-Bim; Socha, Robert; Kang, Ho-Young; Chen, Alek C.; Hsu, Stephen; Chen, Hong; Chen, Luoqi

    2008-11-01

    When k1 is smaller than the resolution limit, e.g., for a half-pitch (HP) <=32nm, the most advanced immersion scanner does not have sufficient imaging capability. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) technology at wavelength of 13.5nm is considered a practical light source for next-generation lithographic technology [1,2]. However, before EUV lithography is suited to mass production, an appropriate exposure technology is needed to fill the gap between immersion ArF and EUV scanners. Double patterning technology (DPT) is a technology that extends the usability of immersion ArF systems. Notably, DPT relaxes the minimum pitch of a circuit layout for each split exposure; thus, ArF water-based immersion systems can be extended to 32 nm node and beyond. Improvements to exposure system hardware are needed to enhance imaging, overlay, and productivity performance. Additionally, patterning-related processes [3-5] must be improved to ensure patterning fidelity when two splits are combined. The remaining challenge is to develop an intelligent approach for splitting the original layout to two different exposure mask layouts. Generally, DPT can be categorized as two types according to its applications. One type is the so-called 'litho DPT,' which adopts dual litho-etching steps. The final pattern is a combination of two individual litho-etched patterns. In this case, a normal pattern-splitting method is required to keep the minimum HP of separate patterns as large as possible. The best method for pattern splitting is to use a rule-based approach, which separates features according to their geometrical information such as edge-to-edge and/or vertex-to-vertex distance. When using a rule-based scheme, a full-chip pattern decomposition is practical because it can has fast processing speed. The other type is 'spacer DPT,' which adopts a single split pattern as a sacrificial layer to form spacers deposited onto pattern edges. The idea implies that one can arbitrarily select one of the split

  1. Optimizing the lithography model calibration algorithms for NTD process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, C. M.; Lo, Fred; Yang, Elvis; Yang, T. H.; Chen, K. C.

    2016-03-01

    As patterns shrink to the resolution limits of up-to-date ArF immersion lithography technology, negative tone development (NTD) process has been an increasingly adopted technique to get superior imaging quality through employing bright-field (BF) masks to print the critical dark-field (DF) metal and contact layers. However, from the fundamental materials and process interaction perspectives, several key differences inherently exist between NTD process and the traditional positive tone development (PTD) system, especially the horizontal/vertical resist shrinkage and developer depletion effects, hence the traditional resist parameters developed for the typical PTD process have no longer fit well in NTD process modeling. In order to cope with the inherent differences between PTD and NTD processes accordingly get improvement on NTD modeling accuracy, several NTD models with different combinations of complementary terms were built to account for the NTD-specific resist shrinkage, developer depletion and diffusion, and wafer CD jump induced by sub threshold assistance feature (SRAF) effects. Each new complementary NTD term has its definite aim to deal with the NTD-specific phenomena. In this study, the modeling accuracy is compared among different models for the specific patterning characteristics on various feature types. Multiple complementary NTD terms were finally proposed to address all the NTD-specific behaviors simultaneously and further optimize the NTD modeling accuracy. The new algorithm of multiple complementary NTD term tested on our critical dark-field layers demonstrates consistent model accuracy improvement for both calibration and verification.

  2. New spin-on metal hardmask materials for lithography processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Huirong; Mullen, Salem; Wolfer, Elizabeth; Rahman, Dalil; Anyadiegwu, Clement; Mckenzie, Douglas; Dioses, Alberto; Cho, Joonyeon; Padmanaban, Munirathna

    2013-03-01

    Since the critical dimensions in integrated circuit (IC) device fabrication continue to shrink below 32 nm, multilayer stacks with alternating etch selectivities are required for successful pattern transfer from the exposed photoresist to the substrate. Inorganic resist underlayer materials are used as hard masks in reactive ion etching (RIE) with oxidative gases. The conventional silicon hardmask has demonstrated good reflectivity control and reasonable etch selectivity. However, some issues such as the rework of trilayer stacks and cleaning of oxide residue by wet chemistry are challenging problems for manufacturability. The present work reveals novel spin-on underlayer materials containing significant amounts of metal oxides in the film after baking at normal processing conditions. Such an inorganic metal hardmask (MHM) has excellent etch selectivity in plasma etch processes of the trilayer stack. The composition has good long term shelf life and pot life stability based on solution LPC analysis and wafer defect studies, respectively. The material absorbs DUV wavelengths and can be used as a spin-on inorganic or hybrid antireflective coating to control substrate reflectivity under DUV exposure of photoresist. Some of these metal-containing materials can be used as an underlayer in EUV lithography to significantly enhance photospeed. Specific metal hard masks are also developed for via or trench filling applications in IRT processes. The materials have shown good coating and lithography performance with a film thicknesses as low as 10 nm under ArF dry or immersion conditions. In addition, the metal oxide films or residues can be partially or completely removed by using various wet-etching solutions at ambient temperature.

  3. The study of lithography conditions to use advanced resist performance properly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhengkai; Wang, Wuping; Chen, Quan; Aoyama, Hajime; Takemasa, Kengo; Sei, Toshihiko; Miyazawa, Tami; Matsuyama, Tomoyuki; Shao, Chun

    2015-03-01

    Correlation of resist modeling of printed features with lithographic data is a necessary part of developing new lithographic processes. Recently, we have found a case in which the most advanced resist types sometimes show better behavior than expectations from optical simulation in terms of dose latitude, MEEF (mask error enhancement factor), and even CD variation through different pitches. This superior resist performance may allow greater margin for error in each component, such as mask, scanner, and metrology in very low-k1 lithography. On the other hand, since the resist pattern CD for the most advanced resist is very much different from the prediction of optical simulation, it is a challenge to build OPC models using the exposure result with the resist. In order to solve this issue, we have tried to use several litho parameters to reduce the gap between optical simulation and resist CDs for OPC modeling. In this paper we discuss the effect of the parameters to reduce the gap between optical model and actual resist behavior with keeping superior performance as much as possible. The method we mention may be a key to use the most advanced resist in near future. As a result the life of ArF immersion lithography in the critical layer would be extended than we expect today.

  4. Below 70-nm contact hole pattern with RELACS process on ArF resist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terai, Mamoru; Toyoshima, Toshiyuki; Ishibashi, Takeo; Tarutani, Shinji; Takahashi, Kiyohisa; Takano, Yusuke; Tanaka, Hatsuyuki

    2003-06-01

    A chemical shrink technology, RELACS (Resolution Enhancement Lithography Assisted by Chemical Shrink), utilizes the cross linking reaction catalyzed by the acid component existing in a predefined resist pattern. This "RELACS" process is a hole shrinking procedure that includes simple coating, baking, and rinsing applied after conventional photolithography. Our target is realize of sub-70nm hole pattern formation by using new RELACS for ArF resist. At present, RELACS process is introduced to mass production of KrF lithography by using AZ R200 (Product name of Clariant) mainly. Then first of all we reported process performance of conventional RELACS material, AZ R200 with ArF resist. However AZ R200 does not show satisfactory shrinkage on ArF resist. Thereupon, we started on the development of new RELACS corresponding to ArF resist. As the result, we developed new RELACS material including Cross Linking Accelerator (CLA). It was found that CLA is able to improve reactivity of RELACS with ArF-resist. By using this new RELACS, It is Realized sub-70nm hole pattern formation with ArF-Ex lithography and It is able to Control of hole size by mixing bake (MB) temperature and additive ratio of CLA. Moreover this process was realized that thickness of shrunk hole is increased.

  5. Theoretical study of fabrication of line-and-space patterns with 7 nm quarter-pitch using electron beam lithography with chemically amplified resist process: III. Post exposure baking on quartz substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozawa, Takahiro

    2015-09-01

    Electron beam (EB) lithography is a key technology for the fabrication of photomasks for ArF immersion and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography and molds for nanoimprint lithography. In this study, the temporal change in the chemical gradient of line-and-space patterns with a 7 nm quarter-pitch (7 nm space width and 21 nm line width) was calculated until it became constant, independently of postexposure baking (PEB) time, to clarify the feasibility of single nano patterning on quartz substrates using EB lithography with chemically amplified resist processes. When the quencher diffusion constant is the same as the acid diffusion constant, the maximum chemical gradient of the line-and-space pattern with a 7 nm quarter-pitch did not differ much from that with a 14 nm half-pitch under the condition described above. Also, from the viewpoint of process control, a low quencher diffusion constant is considered to be preferable for the fabrication of line-and-space patterns with a 7 nm quarter-pitch on quartz substrates.

  6. Litho-freeze-litho-etch (LFLE) enabling dual wafer flow coat/develop process and freeze CD tuning bake for >200wph immersion ArF photolithography double patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieczulewski, Charles N.; Rosslee, Craig A.

    2009-12-01

    The SOKUDO DUO track system incorporates a dual-path wafer flow to reduce the burden on the wafer handling unit and enables high-throughput coat/develop/bake processing in-line with semiconductor photolithography exposure (scanner) equipment. Various photolithography-based double patterning process flows were modeled on the SOKUDO DUO system and it was confirmed to be able to process both Litho-Process-Litho-Etch (LPLE)*2 and negative-tone develop process wafers at greater than 200 wafer-per-hour (wph) capability for each litho-pass through the in-line exposure tool. In addition, it is demonstrated that Biased Hot Plates (BHP) with "cdTune" software improves litho pattern #1 and litho pattern #2 within wafer CD uniformity. Based primarily on JSR Micro materials for Litho-Freeze- Litho-Etch (LFLE) the coat, develop and bake process CD uniformity improvement results are demonstrated on the SOKUDO RF3S immersion track in-line with ASML XT:1900Gi system at IMEC, Belgium.

  7. Coaxial Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozel, Tuncay

    The optical and electrical properties of heterogeneous nanowires are profoundly related to their composition and nanoscale architecture. However, the intrinsic constraints of conventional synthetic and lithographic techniques have limited the types of multi-compositional nanowires that can be realized and studied in the laboratory. This thesis focuses on bridging templated electrochemical synthesis and lithography for expanding current synthetic capabilities with respect to materials generality and the ability to tailor two-dimensional growth in the formation of core-shell structures for the rational design and preparation of nanowires with very complex architectures that cannot be made by any other techniques. Chapter 1 introduces plasmonics, templated electrochemical synthesis, and on-wire lithography concepts and their significances within chemistry and materials science. Chapter 2 details a powerful technique for the deposition of metals and semiconductors with nanometer resolution in segment and gap lengths using on-wire lithography, which serves as a new platform to explore plasmon-exciton interactions in the form of long-range optical nanoscale rulers. Chapter 3 highlights an approach for the electrochemical synthesis of solution dispersible core-shell polymeric and inorganic semiconductor nanowires with metallic leads. A photodetector based on a single core-shell semiconductor nanowire is presented to demonstrate the functionality of the nanowires produced using this approach. Chapter 4 describes a new materials general technique, termed coaxial lithography (COAL), bridging templated electrochemical synthesis and lithography for generating coaxial nanowires in a parallel fashion with sub-10 nanometer resolution in both axial and radial dimensions. Combinations of coaxial nanowires composed of metals, metal oxides, metal chalcogenides, conjugated polymers, and a core/shell semiconductor nanowire with an embedded plasmonic nanoring are presented to

  8. Antiviral action of the tumor suppressor ARF

    PubMed Central

    García, María A; Collado, Manuel; Muñoz-Fontela, César; Matheu, Ander; Marcos-Villar, Laura; Arroyo, Javier; Esteban, Mariano; Serrano, Manuel; Rivas, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    Oncogenic viruses frequently target the pathways controlled by tumor suppressor genes, suggesting an extra function for these proteins as antiviral factors. The control exerted by the tumor suppressor Arf on cellular proliferation is crucial to restrict tumor development; however, a potential contribution of Arf to prevent viral infectivity has remained unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the consequences of loss or increased expression of Arf on viral infection. Our results reveal that ARF expression is induced by interferon and after viral infection. Furthermore, we show that ARF protects against viral infection in a gene dosage-dependent manner, and that this antiviral action is mediated in part by PKR through a mechanism that involves ARF-induced release of PKR from nucleophosmin complexes. Finally, Arf-null mice were hypersensitive to viral infection compared to wild-type mice. Together, our results reveal a novel and unexpected role for the tumor suppressor ARF in viral infection surveillance. PMID:16957780

  9. Source mask optimization study based on latest Nikon immersion scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jun; Wei, Fang; Chen, Lijun; Zhang, Chenming; Zhang, Wei; Nishinaga, Hisashi; El-Sewefy, Omar; Gao, Gen-Sheng; Lafferty, Neal; Meiring, Jason; Zhang, Recoo; Zhu, Cynthia

    2016-03-01

    The 2x nm logic foundry node has many challenges since critical levels are pushed close to the limits of low k1 ArF water immersion lithography. For these levels, improvements in lithographic performance can translate to decreased rework and increased yield. Source Mask Optimization (SMO) is one such route to realize these image fidelity improvements. During SMO, critical layout constructs are intensively optimized in both the mask and source domain, resulting in a solution for maximum lithographic entitlement. From the hardware side, advances in source technology have enabled free-form illumination. The approach allows highly customized illumination, enabling the practical application of SMO sources. The customized illumination sources can be adjusted for maximum versatility. In this paper, we present a study on a critical layer of an advanced foundry logic node using the latest ILT based SMO software, paired with state-of-the-art scanner hardware and intelligent illuminator. Performance of the layer's existing POR source is compared with the ideal SMO result and the installed source as realized on the intelligent illuminator of an NSR-S630D scanner. Both simulation and on-silicon measurements are used to confirm that the performance of the studied layer meets established specifications.

  10. Mechanism for low-etching resistance and surface roughness of ArF photoresist during plasma irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jinnai, Butsurin; Koyama, Koji; Kato, Keisuke; Yasuda, Atsushi; Momose, Hikaru; Samukawa, Seiji

    2009-03-01

    ArF excimer laser lithography was introduced to fabricate nanometer-scale devices and uses chemically amplified photoresist polymers including photoacid generators (PAGs). Because plasma-etching processes cause serious problems related to the use of ArF photoresists, such as line-edge roughness and low etching selectivity, we have to understand the interaction between plasma and ArF photoresist polymers. Investigating the effects of surface temperature and the irradiation species from plasma, we have found that ion irradiation by itself did not drastically increase the roughness or etching rate of ArF photoresist films unless it was combined with ultraviolet/vacuum ultraviolet (UV/VUV) photon irradiation. The structures of ArF photoresist polymers were largely unchanged by ion irradiation alone but were destroyed by combinations of ion and UV/VUV-photon irradiation. Our results suggested that PAG-mediated deprotection induced by UV/VUV-photon irradiation was amplified at surface temperatures above 100 deg. C. The etching rate and surface roughness of plasma-etched ArF photoresists are affected by the irradiation species and surface temperature during plasma etching. UV/VUV-photon irradiation plays a particularly important role in the interaction between plasma and ArF photoresist polymers.

  11. Expected innovations of optical lithography in the next 10 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owa, Soichi; Hirayanagi, Noriyuki

    2016-03-01

    In the past 10 years, immersion lithography has been the most effective high volume manufacturing method for the critical layers of semiconductor devices. Thinking of the next 10 years, we can expect continuous improvement on existing 300 mm wafer scanners with better accuracy and throughput to enhance the total output value per input cost. This value productivity, however, can be upgraded also by larger innovations which might happen in optical lithography. In this paper, we will discuss the possibilities and the impossibilities of potential innovation ideas of optical lithography, which are 450 mm wafer, optical maskless, multicolor lithography, and metamaterial.

  12. The Drosophila Arf1 homologue Arf79F is essential for lamellipodium formation.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Daniel; Liu, Tao; Davidson, Anthony C; Hume, Peter J; Koronakis, Vassilis

    2012-12-01

    The WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) drives the polymerisation of actin filaments located beneath the plasma membrane to generate lamellipodia that are pivotal to cell architecture and movement. By reconstituting WRC-dependent actin assembly at the membrane, we recently discovered that several classes of Arf family GTPases directly recruit and activate WRC in cell extracts, and that Arf cooperates with Rac1 to trigger actin polymerisation. Here, we demonstrate that the Class 1 Arf1 homologue Arf79F colocalises with the WRC at dynamic lamellipodia. We report that Arf79F is required for lamellipodium formation in Drosophila S2R+ cells, which only express one Arf isoform for each class. Impeding Arf function either by dominant-negative Arf expression or by Arf double-stranded RNA interference (dsRNAi)-mediated knockdown uncovered that Arf-dependent lamellipodium formation was specific to Arf79F, establishing that Class 1 Arfs, but not Class 2 or Class 3 Arfs, are crucial for lamellipodia. Lamellipodium formation in Arf79F-silenced cells was restored by expressing mammalian Arf1, but not by constitutively active Rac1, showing that Arf79F does not act via Rac1. Abolition of lamellipodium formation in Arf79F-silenced cells was not due to Golgi disruption. Blocking Arf79F activation with guanine nucleotide exchange factor inhibitors impaired WRC localisation to the plasma membrane and concomitant generation of lamellipodia. Our data indicate that the Class I Arf GTPase is a central component in WRC-driven lamellipodium formation.

  13. The Drosophila Arf1 homologue Arf79F is essential for lamellipodium formation

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Daniel; Liu, Tao; Davidson, Anthony C.; Hume, Peter J.; Koronakis, Vassilis

    2012-01-01

    Summary The WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) drives the polymerisation of actin filaments located beneath the plasma membrane to generate lamellipodia that are pivotal to cell architecture and movement. By reconstituting WRC-dependent actin assembly at the membrane, we recently discovered that several classes of Arf family GTPases directly recruit and activate WRC in cell extracts, and that Arf cooperates with Rac1 to trigger actin polymerisation. Here, we demonstrate that the Class 1 Arf1 homologue Arf79F colocalises with the WRC at dynamic lamellipodia. We report that Arf79F is required for lamellipodium formation in Drosophila S2R+ cells, which only express one Arf isoform for each class. Impeding Arf function either by dominant-negative Arf expression or by Arf double-stranded RNA interference (dsRNAi)-mediated knockdown uncovered that Arf-dependent lamellipodium formation was specific to Arf79F, establishing that Class 1 Arfs, but not Class 2 or Class 3 Arfs, are crucial for lamellipodia. Lamellipodium formation in Arf79F-silenced cells was restored by expressing mammalian Arf1, but not by constitutively active Rac1, showing that Arf79F does not act via Rac1. Abolition of lamellipodium formation in Arf79F-silenced cells was not due to Golgi disruption. Blocking Arf79F activation with guanine nucleotide exchange factor inhibitors impaired WRC localisation to the plasma membrane and concomitant generation of lamellipodia. Our data indicate that the Class I Arf GTPase is a central component in WRC-driven lamellipodium formation. PMID:22992458

  14. Overlay control for nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuhara, Kazuya; Suzuki, Masato; Mitsuyasu, Masaki; Kono, Takuya; Nakasugi, Tetsuro; Lim, Yonghyun; Jung, Wooyung

    2017-04-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a promising technique for fine-patterning with a lower cost than other lithography techniques such as EUV or immersion with multi-patterning. NIL has the potential of "single" patterning for both line patterns and hole patterns with a half-pitch of less than 20nm. NIL tools for semiconductor manufacturing employ die-by-die alignment system with moiré fringe detection which gives alignment measurement accuracy of below 1nm. In this paper we describe the evaluation results of NIL the overlay performance using an up-to-date NIL tool for 300mm wafer. We show the progress of both "NIL-to-NIL" and "NIL-to-optical tool" distortion matching techniques. From these analyses based on actual NIL overlay data, we discuss the possibility of NIL overlay evolution to realize an on-product overlay accuracy to 3nm and beyond.

  15. A novel ARF-binding protein (LZAP) alters ARF regulation of HDM2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jialiang; He, Xiaping; Luo, Ying; Yarbrough, Wendell G

    2006-01-15

    The tumour suppressor ARF (alternative reading frame) is encoded by the INK4a (inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 4)/ARF locus, which is frequently altered in human tumours. ARF binds MDM2 (murine double minute 2) and releases p53 from inhibition by MDM2, resulting in stabilization, accumulation and activation of p53. Recently, ARF has been found to associate with other proteins, but, to date, little is known about ARF-associated proteins that are implicated in post-translational regulation of ARF activity. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we have identified a novel protein, LZAP (LXXLL/leucine-zipper-containing ARF-binding protein), that interacts with endogenous ARF in mammalian cells. In the present study, we show that LZAP reversed the ability of ARF to inhibit HDM2's ubiquitin ligase activity towards p53, but simultaneously co-operated with ARF, maintaining p53 stability and increasing p53 transcriptional activity. Expression of LZAP, in addition to ARF, increased the percentage of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Expression of LZAP also caused activation of p53 and a p53-dependent G1 cell-cycle arrest in the absence of ARF. Taken together, our data suggest that LZAP can regulate ARF biochemical and biological activity. Additionally, LZAP has p53-dependent cell-cycle effects that are independent of ARF.

  16. A novel ARF-binding protein (LZAP) alters ARF regulation of HDM2

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jialiang; He, Xiaping; Luo, Ying; Yarbrough, Wendell G.

    2005-01-01

    The tumour suppressor ARF (alternative reading frame) is encoded by the INK4a (inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 4)/ARF locus, which is frequently altered in human tumours. ARF binds MDM2 (murine double minute 2) and releases p53 from inhibition by MDM2, resulting in stabilization, accumulation and activation of p53. Recently, ARF has been found to associate with other proteins, but, to date, little is known about ARF-associated proteins that are implicated in post-translational regulation of ARF activity. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we have identified a novel protein, LZAP (LXXLL/leucine-zipper-containing ARF-binding protein), that interacts with endogenous ARF in mammalian cells. In the present study, we show that LZAP reversed the ability of ARF to inhibit HDM2's ubiquitin ligase activity towards p53, but simultaneously co-operated with ARF, maintaining p53 stability and increasing p53 transcriptional activity. Expression of LZAP, in addition to ARF, increased the percentage of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Expression of LZAP also caused activation of p53 and a p53-dependent G1 cell-cycle arrest in the absence of ARF. Taken together, our data suggest that LZAP can regulate ARF biochemical and biological activity. Additionally, LZAP has p53-dependent cell-cycle effects that are independent of ARF. PMID:16173922

  17. Implementation of assist features in EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Fan; Burkhardt, Martin; Raghunathan, Ananthan; Torres, Andres; Gupta, Rachit; Word, James

    2015-03-01

    The introduction of EUV lithography will happen at a critical feature pitch which corresponds to a k1 factor of roughly 0.45. While this number seems not very aggressive compared to recent ArF lithography nodes, the number is sufficiently low that the introduction of assist features has to be considered. While the small NA makes the k1 factor larger, the depth of focus still needs to be scaled down with wavelength. However the exposure tool's focus control is not greatly improved over the ArF tools, so other solutions to improve the depth of focus, e.g. SRAFs, are needed. On the other hand, sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs) require very small mask dimensions, which make masks more costly to write and inspect. Another disadvantage of SRAFs is the fact that they may cause pattern-dependent best focus shift due to thick mask effects. Those effects can be predicted, but the shift of best focus and the associated tilt of Bossung curves make the process more difficult to control. We investigate the impact of SRAFs on printing in EUV lithography and evaluate advantages and disadvantages. By using image quality parameters such as best focus (BF), and depth of focus (DOF), respectively with and without SRAFs, we will answer the question if we can gain a net benefit for 1D and 2D patterns by adding SRAFs. SRAFs will only be introduced if any net improvement in process variation (PV) outweighs the additional expense of assist patterning on the mask. In this paper, we investigate the difference in printing behavior of symmetric and asymmetric SRAF placement and whether through slit effect needs to be considered in SRAF placement for EUV lithography.

  18. Investigation of alternate mask absorbers in EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhardt, Martin

    2017-03-01

    In order to succeed with such low-k1 lithography at EUV wavelength, we need to be able to print a grating at high contrast similar to ArF immersion tools, where a contrast exceeding 0.95 is achieved routinely. All 2d printing is composed of interference of x and y-directed diffraction orders and high contrast in 2d thus depends on such 1d grating contrast. Any low-k1 imaging will use either dipole or some other sort of extreme off-axis illumination such as cross-quad (cQuad). The two relevant magnitudes for any high contrast are the intrinsic contrast due to a monopole, and the spatial shift of the two images that are generated by the two monopoles making up the dipole exposure. In EUV with current absorbers, high contrast can currently only be achieved using monopole illumination, a technique that does not lend itself to process integration due to removal of wafer side telecentricity and resulting overlay problems at all but preferred pitch. For dipole illumination at low-k1 pitches, we collect only 0th order light and only one 1st diffracted order for each pole. This means that for a dipole at the resolution limit, the final image for horizontal l/s patterns consists of only four incident waves, one TE and one TM wave for each of the poles. In this paper, we screen absorber by n and k values. In the process, we introduce phasor notation in order to gain insight into the behavior of the absorber and try to understand the metrics. We investigate intrinsic contrast and image blur due to monopole image shift.

  19. Coaxial lithography.

    PubMed

    Ozel, Tuncay; Bourret, Gilles R; Mirkin, Chad A

    2015-04-01

    The optical and electrical properties of heterogeneous nanowires are profoundly related to their composition and nanoscale architecture. However, the intrinsic constraints of conventional synthetic and lithographic techniques have limited the types of multi-compositional nanowire that can be created and studied in the laboratory. Here, we report a high-throughput technique that can be used to prepare coaxial nanowires with sub-10 nm control over the architectural parameters in both axial and radial dimensions. The method, termed coaxial lithography (COAL), relies on templated electrochemical synthesis and can create coaxial nanowires composed of combinations of metals, metal oxides, metal chalcogenides and conjugated polymers. To illustrate the possibilities of the technique, a core/shell semiconductor nanowire with an embedded plasmonic nanoring was synthesized--a structure that cannot be prepared by any previously known method--and its plasmon-excitation-dependent optoelectronic properties were characterized.

  20. Maskless lithography

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Stulen, Richard H.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for maskless lithography. A plurality of individually addressable and rotatable micromirrors together comprise a two-dimensional array of micromirrors. Each micromirror in the two-dimensional array can be envisioned as an individually addressable element in the picture that comprises the circuit pattern desired. As each micromirror is addressed it rotates so as to reflect light from a light source onto a portion of the photoresist coated wafer thereby forming a pixel within the circuit pattern. By electronically addressing a two-dimensional array of these micromirrors in the proper sequence a circuit pattern that is comprised of these individual pixels can be constructed on a microchip. The reflecting surface of the micromirror is configured in such a way as to overcome coherence and diffraction effects in order to produce circuit elements having straight sides.

  1. Maskless lithography

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, W.C.; Stulen, R.H.

    1999-02-09

    The present invention provides a method for maskless lithography. A plurality of individually addressable and rotatable micromirrors together comprise a two-dimensional array of micromirrors. Each micromirror in the two-dimensional array can be envisioned as an individually addressable element in the picture that comprises the circuit pattern desired. As each micromirror is addressed it rotates so as to reflect light from a light source onto a portion of the photoresist coated wafer thereby forming a pixel within the circuit pattern. By electronically addressing a two-dimensional array of these micromirrors in the proper sequence a circuit pattern that is comprised of these individual pixels can be constructed on a microchip. The reflecting surface of the micromirror is configured in such a way as to overcome coherence and diffraction effects in order to produce circuit elements having straight sides. 12 figs.

  2. VUV lithography

    DOEpatents

    George, Edward V.; Oster, Yale; Mundinger, David C.

    1990-01-01

    Deep UV projection lithography can be performed using an e-beam pumped solid excimer UV source, a mask, and a UV reduction camera. The UV source produces deep UV radiation in the range 1700-1300A using xenon, krypton or argon; shorter wavelengths of 850-650A can be obtained using neon or helium. A thin solid layer of the gas is formed on a cryogenically cooled plate and bombarded with an e-beam to cause fluorescence. The UV reduction camera utilizes multilayer mirrors having high reflectivity at the UV wavelength and images the mask onto a resist coated substrate at a preselected demagnification. The mask can be formed integrally with the source as an emitting mask.

  3. VUV lithography

    DOEpatents

    George, E.V.; Oster, Y.; Mundinger, D.C.

    1990-12-25

    Deep UV projection lithography can be performed using an e-beam pumped solid excimer UV source, a mask, and a UV reduction camera. The UV source produces deep UV radiation in the range 1,700--1,300A using xenon, krypton or argon; shorter wavelengths of 850--650A can be obtained using neon or helium. A thin solid layer of the gas is formed on a cryogenically cooled plate and bombarded with an e-beam to cause fluorescence. The UV reduction camera utilizes multilayer mirrors having high reflectivity at the UV wavelength and images the mask onto a resist coated substrate at a preselected demagnification. The mask can be formed integrally with the source as an emitting mask. 6 figs.

  4. Defect transfer from immersion exposure process to etching process using novel immersion exposure and track system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyahara, Osamu; Kosugi, Hitoshi; Dunn, Shannon; van Dommelen, Youri; Grouwstra, Cedric

    2008-11-01

    For lithography technology to support the scaling down of semiconductor devices, 193-nm immersion exposure processing is being introduced to mass-production at a rapid pace. At the same time, there are still many unclear areas and many concerns to be addressed with regards to defects in 193-nm immersion lithography. To make 193-nm immersion lithography technology practical for mass production, it is essential that the defect problems be solved. Importance must be attached to understanding the conditions that give rise to defects and their transference in the steps between lithography and etching processes. It is apparent that double patterning (DP) will be the mainstream technology below 40nm node. It can be assumed that the risk of the defect generation will rise, because the number of the litho processing steps will be increased in DP. Especially, in the case of Litho-Etch-Litho-Etch (LELE) process, the concept of defect transfer becomes more important because etch processing is placed between each litho processing step. In this paper, we use 193-nm immersion lithography processing to examine the defect transference from lithography through the etching process for a representative 45nm metal layer substrate stack for device manufacturing. It will be shown which types of defects transfer from litho to etch and become killer defects.

  5. Photomask cleaning process improvement to minimize ArF haze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Michael; McDonald, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    Growth of "haze" defects on photomasks exposed in ArF lithography is recognized as a serious problem. Haze defects that have grown to detectable sizes can be analysed in situ by techniques such as EDX or Raman, but to analyze at the photomask manufacturing stage requires extraction of residues by solution in DI water. The effect of extraction conditions, including surface area and material, water volume, time, and temperature, has been studied. A standard method to compare residual ion levels is proposed. Various methods for reducing residual ion levels from the photomask cleaning process have been published. These include SPM reduction, oxygen plasma, SC1 dilution, Megasonic agitation, hot rinse, UV exposure, thermal bake, ozone water, ozone gas, and hydrogenated water. Critical parameters for the cleaning process, besides residual ion levels and contamination removal efficiency, include CD shift, AR/chrome damage, scatter bar damage, and on phase shift masks, the change in phase and transmission. An optimized process combining conventional and novel techniques is described. Data is presented to show the importance of controlling all resist strip and clean processes, not just the final clean. It has achieved sulphate levels of 0.2ng/cm2 (well below the critical level for haze growth), as well as improved results for the other critical parameters. This process has been demonstrated to allow ArF exposure of large numbers of wafers without the appearance of haze defects.

  6. ARF7 and ARF19 Regulate Lateral Root Formation via Direct Activation of LBD/ASL Genes in Arabidopsis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lateral root formation in Arabidopsis thaliana is regulated by two related AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORs, ARF7 and ARF19, which are transcriptional activators of early auxin response genes. The arf7 arf19 double knockout mutant is severely impaired in lateral root formation. Target-gene analysis in arf7 ar...

  7. Built-in lens mask lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Naoki; Sasago, Masaru; Misaka, Akio; Kikuta, Hisao; Kawata, Hiroaki; Hirai, Yoshihiko

    2014-03-01

    Cost effective micro lithography tool is demanded for fine micro devices. However, resolution of a conventional proximity exposure system is not sufficient below several micron feature size for deep focus depth. On the other hand, a reduction projection system is sufficient to resolve it but the cost of the tool is too much high compared to proximity exposure systems. To enhance the resolution of photolithography, there has been proposed a number of novel methods beside shorting of wave length. Some of them are utilized in current advanced lithography systems, for example, the immersion lithography1 enhances effective NA and the phase shift mask2 improves optical transmittance function. However, those advanced technology is mainly focused on improvement for advanced projection exposure systems for ultra-fine lithography. On the other hand, coherence holography pattering is recently proposed and expected for 3-dimentional pattering3-5. Also, Talbot lithography6-8 is studied for periodical micro and nano pattering. Those novels pattering are based on wave propagation due to optical diffraction without using expensive optical lens systems. In this paper we newly propose novel optical lithography using built-in lens mask to enhance resolution and focus depth in conventional proximity exposure system for micro lithographic application without lens systems. The performance is confirmed by simulation and experimental works.

  8. Quantum state control interference lithography and trim double patterning for 32-16-nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, Robert D.; Smith, Bruce W.; Estroff, Andrew

    2007-03-01

    Double patterning has been proposed as a method to extend DUV lithography to 32nm and below. Here, a new form of double, or higher, multiple exposure technique is proposed. This new form of lithography uses a combination of Quantum State Control (QuSC) chemistry, Amplitude Modulation Optical Lithography (AMOL), and multiple micro-stepped exposures, without development between exposures. Further it is proposed to use this form of lithography (called QuSC-litho), to pattern a perfect grating grid, and to trim this grid with an earlier generation lithography tool. QuSC lithography uses short optical pulses to modulate a photochemical pathway while an intermediate is still in a defined vibrational excited state. This is a variation of Stimulated Emission Depletion Microscopy (STED) developed for fluorescence microscopy. With this approach immersion tools that produce 90 nm pitch and 45 nm features should be able to pattern levels with 22 nm features with a 1:1 line-space ratio. This approach is much less sensitive to misalignment than present double patterning approaches. Key to successful deployment of QuSC lithography is defining a resist photochemistry consistent with the QuSC process. There are several approaches to Photo Acid Generator (PAG) - matrix interaction that may be consistent with this approach.

  9. EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Kevin; Wurm, Stefan

    2006-10-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) technology and infrastructure development has made excellent progress over the past several years, and tool suppliers are delivering alpha tools to customers. However, requirements in source, mask, optics, and resist are very challenging, and significant development efforts are still needed to support beta and production-level performance. Some of the important advances in the past few years include increased source output power, tool and optics system development and integration, and mask blank defect reduction. For example, source power has increased to levels approaching specification, but reliable source operation at these power levels has yet to be fully demonstrated. Significant efforts are also needed to achieve the resolution, line width roughness, and photospeed requirements for EUV photoresists. Cost of ownership and extendibility to future nodes are key factors in determining the outlook for the manufacturing insertion of EUVL. Since wafer throughput is a critical cost factor, source power, resist sensitivity, and system design all need to be carefully considered. However, if the technical and business challenges can be met, then EUVL will be the likely technology of choice for semiconductor manufacturing at the 32, 22, 16 and 11 nm half-pitch nodes. To cite this article: K. Kemp, S. Wurm, C. R. Physique 7 (2006).

  10. Tobacco TTG2 regulates vegetative growth and seed production via the predominant role of ARF8 in cooperation with ARF17 and ARF19.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jun; Li, Baoyan; Shen, Dan; Xie, Junyi; Long, Juying; Dong, Hansong

    2016-06-02

    Plant TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA (TTG) proteins regulate various developmental activities via the auxin signaling pathway. Recently, we elucidated the developmental role of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) NtTTG2 in association with 12 genes that putatively encode AUXIN RESPONSIVE FACTOR (ARF) proteins, including NtARF8, NtARF17, and NtARF19. Here we show that NtTTG2 regulates tobacco growth and development by involving the NtARF8, NtARF17, and NtARF19 genes, with the NtARF8 gene playing a predominant contribution. Independent silencing of the NtARF8 gene more strongly repressed tobacco growth than silencing the NtARF17 or NtARF19 gene and more effectively eradicated the growth enhancement effect of NtTTG2 overexpression. In contrast, plant growth was not affected by silencing additional nine NtTTG2-regulated NtARF genes. In double and triple gene silencing combinations, silencing the NtARF8 gene was more effective than silencing the NtARF17 or NtARF19 gene to repress growth as well as nullify growth enhancement. Therefore, the NtARF8 predominantly cooperated with the NtARF17 and NtAFR19 of the NtTTG2 functional pathway. NtARF8 also contributed to NtTTG2-regulated seed production as concurrent NtTTG2 and NtARF8 overexpression played a synergistic role in seed production quantity, whereas concurrent silencing of both genes caused more severe seed abortion than single gene silencing. In plant cells, the NtTTG2 protein facilitated the nuclear import of NtARF8 as well as increased its function as a transcription activator. NtARF8 is an integral component of the NtTTG2 functional pathway, which regulates tobacco growth and development.

  11. Sparse nonlinear inverse imaging for shot count reduction in inverse lithography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaofei; Liu, Shiyuan; Lv, Wen; Lam, Edmund Y

    2015-10-19

    Inverse lithography technique (ILT) is significant to reduce the feature size of ArF optical lithography due to its strong ability to overcome the optical proximity effect. A critical issue for inverse lithography is the complex curvilinear patterns produced, which are very costly to write due to the large number of shots needed with the current variable shape beam (VSB) writers. In this paper, we devise an inverse lithography method to reduce the shot count by incorporating a model-based fracturing (MBF) in the optimization. The MBF is formulated as a sparse nonlinear inverse imaging problem based on representing the mask as a linear combination of shots followed by a threshold function. The problem is approached with a Gauss-Newton algorithm, which is adapted to promote sparsity of the solution, corresponding to the reduction of the shot count. Simulations of inverse lithography are performed on several test cases, and results demonstrate reduced shot count of the resulting mask.

  12. Metrology for Grayscale Lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Murali, Raghunath

    2007-09-26

    Three dimensional microstructures find applications in diffractive optical elements, photonic elements, etc. and can be efficiently fabricated by grayscale lithography. Good process control is important for achieving the desired structures. Metrology methods for grayscale lithography are discussed. Process optimization for grayscale e-beam lithography is explored and various process parameters that affect the grayscale process are discussed.

  13. Arf proteins in cancer cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Casalou, Cristina; Faustino, Alexandra; Barral, Duarte C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Members of the ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) family of small GTP-binding (G) proteins regulate several aspects of membrane trafficking, such as vesicle budding, tethering and cytoskeleton organization. Arf family members, including Arf-like (Arl) proteins have been implicated in several essential cellular functions, like cell spreading and migration. These functions are used by cancer cells to disseminate and invade the tissues surrounding the primary tumor, leading to the formation of metastases. Indeed, Arf and Arl proteins, as well as their guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) have been found to be abnormally expressed in different cancer cell types and human cancers. Here, we review the current evidence supporting the involvement of Arf family proteins and their GEFs and GAPs in cancer progression, focusing on 3 different mechanisms: cell-cell adhesion, integrin internalization and recycling, and actin cytoskeleton remodeling. PMID:27589148

  14. Development status of a 193-nm immersion exposure tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chibana, Takahito; Nakano, Hitoshi; Hata, Hideo; Kodachi, Nobuhiro; Sano, Naoto; Arakawa, Mikio; Matsuoka, Yoichi; Kawasaki, Youji; Mori, Sunao; Chiba, Keiko

    2006-03-01

    193-nm immersion lithography using water as the immersion fluid is the most promising technology candidate for achieving the 45nm HP node. We have been developing a high NA immersion exposure tool through collaboration with several companies in the industry. This paper presents the results we have obtained on various aspects of immersion exposure system development, and discusses the latest status on the issues that have been explored. In immersion lithography, leaching from resist raises concerns about lens contamination. Using a lens contamination test setup, we examined deposition that is formed on the lens surface when irradiated with a laser. It is estimated from the results that no contamination due to PAG will occur in the exposed area. The test results will be shown in detail. Using our immersion system, no defects have been found so far that are identified as bubble-induced. Therefore, we intentionally obtained bubble-induced defects by introducing micro bubbles into the immersion liquid. The findings will be discussed in this paper. Also, we established our "Immersion Evaluation Laboratory" to facilitate evaluation of all aspects of the immersion lithography process. The laboratory is equipped with (1) 193nm immersion scanner, FPA-6000AS4i with NA 0.85 and a 300mm wafer stage capable of 500mm/s scanning, (2) coater/developer, (3) defect inspection system and (4) SEM. We have performed full-wafer exposure tests using the AS4i, the result of which will be also presented.

  15. Evaluation of a novel photoacid generator for chemically amplified photoresist with ArF exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakura, Toshikage; Yamato, Hitoshi; Hintermann, Tobias; Ohwa, Masaki

    2005-05-01

    Recently we have developed a novel non-ionic photoacid generator (PAG), 2-[2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7-dodecafluoro-1-(nonafluorobutylsulfonyloxyimino)-heptyl]-fluorene (DNHF), which generates a strong acid (perfluorobutanesulfonic acid) by light irradiation and is applicable to chemically amplified ArF photoresist. The studies on quantum yield of the PAG under 193 nm exposure in an ArF model formulation and in a solution comparing with the ones of ionic PAGs, triphenylsulfonium perfluorobutanesulfonate (TPSPB) and Bis(4-tert-butylphenyl)iodonium perfluorobutanesulfonate (BPIPB) revealed that this compound is superior in photo efficiency to the others. PAG leaching into water from the resist during a model immersion process was investigated in detail. No leaching of DNHF was observed under the immersion process while significant amount of TPSBP was eluted. Dissolution rate of the resist prepared under a model condition of ArF immersion exposure was monitored. No clear difference against dry condition was observed.

  16. ARF1 and ARF4 regulate recycling endosomal morphology and retrograde transport from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Waka; Kondo, Yumika; Saitoh, Akina; Naito, Tomoki; Nakayama, Kazuhisa; Shin, Hye-Won

    2013-08-01

    Small GTPases of the ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) family, except for ARF6, mainly localize to the Golgi apparatus, where they trigger formation of coated carrier vesicles. We recently showed that class I ARFs (ARF1 and ARF3) localize to recycling endosomes, as well as to the Golgi, and are redundantly required for recycling of endocytosed transferrin. On the other hand, the roles of class II ARFs (ARF4 and ARF5) are not yet fully understood, and the complementary or overlapping functions of class I and class II ARFs have been poorly characterized. In this study, we find that simultaneous depletion of ARF1 and ARF4 induces extensive tubulation of recycling endosomes. Moreover, the depletion of ARF1 and ARF4 inhibits retrograde transport of TGN38 and mannose-6-phosphate receptor from early/recycling endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) but does not affect the endocytic/recycling pathway of transferrin receptor or inhibit retrograde transport of CD4-furin from late endosomes to the TGN. These observations indicate that the ARF1+ARF4 and ARF1+ARF3 pairs are both required for integrity of recycling endosomes but are involved in distinct transport pathways: the former pair regulates retrograde transport from endosomes to the TGN, whereas the latter is required for the transferrin recycling pathway from endosomes to the plasma membrane.

  17. Neon reduction program on Cymer ArF light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanawade, Dinesh; Roman, Yzzer; Cacouris, Ted; Thornes, Josh; O'Brien, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    In response to significant neon supply constraints, Cymer has responded with a multi-part plan to support its customers. Cymer's primary objective is to ensure that reliable system performance is maintained while minimizing gas consumption. Gas algorithms were optimized to ensure stable performance across all operating conditions. The Cymer neon support plan contains four elements: 1. Gas reduction program to reduce neon by >50% while maintaining existing performance levels and availability; 2. short-term containment solutions for immediate relief. 3. qualification of additional gas suppliers; and 4. long-term recycling/reclaim opportunity. The Cymer neon reduction program has shown excellent results as demonstrated through the comparison on standard gas use versus the new >50% reduced neon performance for ArF immersion light sources. Testing included stressful conditions such as repetition rate, duty cycle and energy target changes. No performance degradation has been observed over typical gas lives.

  18. Dynamics of ARF regulation that control senescence and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Aram; Han, Su Yeon; Song, Jaewhan

    2016-01-01

    ARF is an alternative reading frame product of the INK4a/ARF locus, inactivated in numerous human cancers. ARF is a key regulator of cellular senescence, an irreversible cell growth arrest that suppresses tumor cell growth. It functions by sequestering MDM2 (a p53 E3 ligase) in the nucleolus, thus activating p53. Besides MDM2, ARF has numerous other interacting partners that induce either cellular senescence or apoptosis in a p53-independent manner. This further complicates the dynamics of the ARF network. Expression of ARF is frequently disrupted in human cancers, mainly due to epigenetic and transcriptional regulation. Vigorous studies on various transcription factors that either positively or negatively regulate ARF transcription have been carried out. However, recent focus on posttranslational modifications, particularly ubiquitination, indicates wider dynamic controls of ARF than previously known. In this review, we discuss the role and dynamic regulation of ARF in senescence and cancer. PMID:27470213

  19. ARAP1 regulates the ring size of circular dorsal ruffles through Arf1 and Arf5

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Junya; Tsujita, Kazuya; Takenawa, Tadaomi; Itoh, Toshiki

    2012-01-01

    Small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) ADP-ribosylation factors (Arfs) regulate membrane traffic and actin reorganization under the strict control of GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). ARAP1 (Arf GAP with Rho GAP domain, ankyrin repeat, and PH domain 1) is an Arf GAP molecule with multiple PH domains that recognize phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate. We found that growth factor stimulation induced localization of ARAP1 to an area of the plasma membrane inside the ring structure of circular dorsal ruffles (CDRs). Moreover, expression of ARAP1 increased the size of the CDR filamentous-actin ring in an Arf GAP activity–dependent manner, whereas smaller CDRs were formed by ARAP1 knockdown. In addition, expression of a dominant-negative mutant of Arf1 and Arf5, the substrates of ARAP1, expanded the size of CDRs, suggesting that the two Arf isoforms regulate ring structure downstream of ARAP1. Therefore our results reveal a novel molecular mechanism of CDR ring size control through the ARAP1–Arf1/5 pathway. PMID:22573888

  20. Comparison of ArF bilayer resists for sub-90 nm L/S fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jin; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Sung-Ho; Woo, Sang-Gyun; Cho, Han-Ku; Han, Woo-Sung

    2003-06-01

    The advent of 193nm ArF lithography opened new era of sub-90nm patterning in DRAM industry. ArF lithography in single layer scheme, however, has limitation in the substrate fabrication of sub-90nm L/S due to the decreased physical thickness of resist less that 3000Å and soft chemical structure of resist. Bilayer scheme, composed of Si-containing top PR and thick organic bottom layer, is gaining attention for its capability of patterning and control of resist thickness as a substitute for single layer. Several resists were evaluated for bilayer process in terms of photo patterning, dry development, bottom PR durability and SEM shrinkage. Resolution down to 80nm was achieved with Si content in the range of 8-9%. Etch selectivity in the dry development was a strong function of Si content and chemical structure of tope PR with pitch size dependence based on O2/N2 gas chemistry in dual frequency plasma tool. Profile control after dry development was subject to change depending on the gas ration (O2/N2) and power. Resist structure was proved to be a key factor in bottom PR durability at the substrate etch condition. Best combination of top and bottom resists in bilayer scheme will be discussed.

  1. EFA6 controls Arf1 and Arf6 activation through a negative feedback loop.

    PubMed

    Padovani, Dominique; Folly-Klan, Marcia; Labarde, Audrey; Boulakirba, Sonia; Campanacci, Valérie; Franco, Michel; Zeghouf, Mahel; Cherfils, Jacqueline

    2014-08-26

    Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) of the exchange factor for Arf6 (EFA6), brefeldin A-resistant Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factor (BRAG), and cytohesin subfamilies activate small GTPases of the Arf family in endocytic events. These ArfGEFs carry a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain in tandem with their catalytic Sec7 domain, which is autoinhibitory and supports a positive feedback loop in cytohesins but not in BRAGs, and has an as-yet unknown role in EFA6 regulation. In this study, we analyzed how EFA6A is regulated by its PH and C terminus (Ct) domains by reconstituting its GDP/GTP exchange activity on membranes. We found that EFA6 has a previously unappreciated high efficiency toward Arf1 on membranes and that, similar to BRAGs, its PH domain is not autoinhibitory and strongly potentiates nucleotide exchange on anionic liposomes. However, in striking contrast to both cytohesins and BRAGs, EFA6 is regulated by a negative feedback loop, which is mediated by an allosteric interaction of Arf6-GTP with the PH-Ct domain of EFA6 and monitors the activation of Arf1 and Arf6 differentially. These observations reveal that EFA6, BRAG, and cytohesins have unanticipated commonalities associated with divergent regulatory regimes. An important implication is that EFA6 and cytohesins may combine in a mixed negative-positive feedback loop. By allowing EFA6 to sustain a pool of dormant Arf6-GTP, such a circuit would fulfill the absolute requirement of cytohesins for activation by Arf-GTP before amplification of their GEF activity by their positive feedback loop.

  2. EFA6 controls Arf1 and Arf6 activation through a negative feedback loop

    PubMed Central

    Padovani, Dominique; Folly-Klan, Marcia; Labarde, Audrey; Boulakirba, Sonia; Campanacci, Valérie; Franco, Michel; Zeghouf, Mahel; Cherfils, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) of the exchange factor for Arf6 (EFA6), brefeldin A-resistant Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factor (BRAG), and cytohesin subfamilies activate small GTPases of the Arf family in endocytic events. These ArfGEFs carry a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain in tandem with their catalytic Sec7 domain, which is autoinhibitory and supports a positive feedback loop in cytohesins but not in BRAGs, and has an as-yet unknown role in EFA6 regulation. In this study, we analyzed how EFA6A is regulated by its PH and C terminus (Ct) domains by reconstituting its GDP/GTP exchange activity on membranes. We found that EFA6 has a previously unappreciated high efficiency toward Arf1 on membranes and that, similar to BRAGs, its PH domain is not autoinhibitory and strongly potentiates nucleotide exchange on anionic liposomes. However, in striking contrast to both cytohesins and BRAGs, EFA6 is regulated by a negative feedback loop, which is mediated by an allosteric interaction of Arf6-GTP with the PH-Ct domain of EFA6 and monitors the activation of Arf1 and Arf6 differentially. These observations reveal that EFA6, BRAG, and cytohesins have unanticipated commonalities associated with divergent regulatory regimes. An important implication is that EFA6 and cytohesins may combine in a mixed negative-positive feedback loop. By allowing EFA6 to sustain a pool of dormant Arf6-GTP, such a circuit would fulfill the absolute requirement of cytohesins for activation by Arf-GTP before amplification of their GEF activity by their positive feedback loop. PMID:25114232

  3. Immersive video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moezzi, Saied; Katkere, Arun L.; Jain, Ramesh C.

    1996-03-01

    Interactive video and television viewers should have the power to control their viewing position. To make this a reality, we introduce the concept of Immersive Video, which employs computer vision and computer graphics technologies to provide remote users a sense of complete immersion when viewing an event. Immersive Video uses multiple videos of an event, captured from different perspectives, to generate a full 3D digital video of that event. That is accomplished by assimilating important information from each video stream into a comprehensive, dynamic, 3D model of the environment. Using this 3D digital video, interactive viewers can then move around the remote environment and observe the events taking place from any desired perspective. Our Immersive Video System currently provides interactive viewing and `walkthrus' of staged karate demonstrations, basketball games, dance performances, and typical campus scenes. In its full realization, Immersive Video will be a paradigm shift in visual communication which will revolutionize television and video media, and become an integral part of future telepresence and virtual reality systems.

  4. Immersive CAD

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, A.L.

    1999-02-01

    This paper documents development of a capability for performing shape-changing editing operations on solid model representations in an immersive environment. The capability includes part- and assembly-level operations, with part modeling supporting topology-invariant and topology-changing modifications. A discussion of various design considerations in developing an immersive capability is included, along with discussion of a prototype implementation we have developed and explored. The project investigated approaches to providing both topology-invariant and topology-changing editing. A prototype environment was developed to test the approaches and determine the usefulness of immersive editing. The prototype showed exciting potential in redefining the CAD interface. It is fun to use. Editing is much faster and friendlier than traditional feature-based CAD software. The prototype algorithms did not reliably provide a sufficient frame rate for complex geometries, but has provided the necessary roadmap for development of a production capability.

  5. Nanoimprint, DSA, and multi-beam lithography: patterning technologies with new integration challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landis, S.; Teyssedre, H.; Claveau, G.; Servin, I.; Delachat, F.; Pourteau, M. L.; Gharbi, A.; Pimenta Barros, P.; Tiron, R.; Nouri, L.; Possemé, N.; May, M.; Brianceau, P.; Barnola, S.; Blancquaert, Y.; Pradelles, J.; Essomba, P.; Bernadac, A.; Dal'zotto, B.; Bos, S.; Argoud, M.; Chamiot-Maitral, G.; Sarrazin, A.; Tallaron, C.; Lapeyre, C.; Pain, L.

    2017-04-01

    In the lithography landscape, EUV technology recovered some credibility recently. However, its large adoption remains uncertain. Meanwhile, 193nm immersion lithography, with multiple-patterning strategies, supports the industry preference for advanced-node developments. In this landscape, lithography alternatives maintain promise for continued R&D. Massively parallel electron-beam and nano-imprint lithography techniques remain highly attractive, as they can provide noteworthy cost-of-ownership benefits. Directed self-assembly lithography shows promising resolution capabilities and appears to be an option to reduce multi-patterning strategies. Even if large amount of efforts are dedicated to overcome the lithography side issues, these solutions introduce also new challenges and opportunities for the integration schemes.

  6. Arf1 and Arf6 Promote Ventral Actin Structures formed by acute Activation of Protein Kinase C and Src

    PubMed Central

    Caviston, Juliane P.; Cohen, Lee Ann; Donaldson, Julie G.

    2016-01-01

    Arf proteins regulate membrane traffic and organelle structure. Although Arf6 is known to initiate actin-based changes in cell surface architecture, Arf1 may also function at the plasma membrane. Here we show that acute activation of protein kinase C (PKC) induced by the phorbol ester PMA led to the formation of motile actin structures on the ventral surface of Beas-2b cells, a lung bronchial epithelial cell line. Ventral actin structures also formed in PMA-treated HeLa cells that had elevated levels of Arf activation. For both cell types, formation of the ventral actin structures was enhanced by expression of active forms of either Arf1 or Arf6, and by the expression of guanine nucleotide exchange factors that activate these Arfs. By contrast, formation of these structures was blocked by inhibitors of PKC and Src, and required phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate, Rac, Arf6 and Arf1. Furthermore, expression of ASAP1, an Arf1 GTPase activating protein (GAP) was more effective at inhibiting the ventral actin structures than was ACAP1, an Arf6 GAP. This study adds to the expanding role for Arf1 in the periphery and identifies a requirement for Arf1, a “Golgi Arf”, in the reorganization of the cortical actin cytoskeleton on ventral surfaces, against the substratum. PMID:24916416

  7. Tumor suppressor ARF: The new player of innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Través, Paqui G; Luque, Alfonso; Hortelano, Sonsoles

    2012-09-01

    ARF (alternative reading frame) is one of the most important tumor regulator playing critical roles in controlling tumor initiation and progression. Recently, we have demonstrated a novel and unexpected role for ARF as modulator of inflammatory responses.

  8. Controlled Scanning Probe Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruskell, Todd G.; Sarid, Dror; Workman, Richard K.; Pyle, Jason L.

    1997-03-01

    A method for real-time monitoring of the quality and quantity of silicon oxide grown on silicon using conducting-tip scanning probe lithography has been developed. The sub-picoampere tip-sample currents measured during lithography in ambient conditions are shown to be proportional to the amount of silicon oxide being grown. In addition, we have demonstrated the ability to control the composition of the grown material by altering the lithographic environment. Silicon nitride growth is shown to result from lithography on silicon samples in an environment of annhydrous ammonia.

  9. Nanomachining by colloidal lithography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung-Man; Jang, Se Gyu; Choi, Dae-Geun; Kim, Sarah; Yu, Hyung Kyun

    2006-04-01

    Colloidal lithography is a recently emerging field; the evolution of this simple technique is still in progress. Recent advances in this area have developed a variety of practical routes of colloidal lithography, which have great potential to replace, at least partially, complex and high-cost advanced lithographic techniques. This Review presents the state of the art of colloidal lithography and consists of three main parts, beginning with synthetic routes to monodisperse colloids and their self-assembly with low defect concentrations, which are used as lithographic masks. Then, we will introduce the modification of the colloidal masks using reactive ion etching (RIE), which produces a variety of nanoscopic features and multifaceted particles. Finally, a few prospective applications of colloidal lithography will be discussed.

  10. Superhydrophobic immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coux, Martin; Mathis, Adrien; Clanet, Christophe; Quere, David

    2016-11-01

    A superhydrophobic object is an object on which water doesn't spread. We can think conversely, such an object should be covered by air when immersed in water. The film of air that is formed in this case is visible at the naked eye owing to its brightness. Natural questions that arise from the observation of this phenomenon are how much air stays trapped between the liquid and the solid, ie what is the thickness of the film, and how this quantity can be modified. In this study, we describe an experimental setup that allows us to easily control the velocity of immersion of an object into a liquid bath and to access the volume of dragged air, from which we can deduce the thickness of the air film.

  11. Auxin-dependent compositional change in Mediator in ARF7- and ARF19-mediated transcription.

    PubMed

    Ito, Jun; Fukaki, Hidehiro; Onoda, Makoto; Li, Lin; Li, Chuanyou; Tasaka, Masao; Furutani, Masahiko

    2016-06-07

    Mediator is a multiprotein complex that integrates the signals from transcription factors binding to the promoter and transmits them to achieve gene transcription. The subunits of Mediator complex reside in four modules: the head, middle, tail, and dissociable CDK8 kinase module (CKM). The head, middle, and tail modules form the core Mediator complex, and the association of CKM can modify the function of Mediator in transcription. Here, we show genetic and biochemical evidence that CKM-associated Mediator transmits auxin-dependent transcriptional repression in lateral root (LR) formation. The AUXIN/INDOLE 3-ACETIC ACID 14 (Aux/IAA14) transcriptional repressor inhibits the transcriptional activity of its binding partners AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 7 (ARF7) and ARF19 by making a complex with the CKM-associated Mediator. In addition, TOPLESS (TPL), a transcriptional corepressor, forms a bridge between IAA14 and the CKM component MED13 through the physical interaction. ChIP assays show that auxin induces the dissociation of MED13 but not the tail module component MED25 from the ARF7 binding region upstream of its target gene. These findings indicate that auxin-induced degradation of IAA14 changes the module composition of Mediator interacting with ARF7 and ARF19 in the upstream region of their target genes involved in LR formation. We suggest that this regulation leads to a quick switch of signal transmission from ARFs to target gene expression in response to auxin.

  12. Auxin-dependent compositional change in Mediator in ARF7- and ARF19-mediated transcription

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Jun; Fukaki, Hidehiro; Onoda, Makoto; Li, Lin; Li, Chuanyou; Tasaka, Masao; Furutani, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Mediator is a multiprotein complex that integrates the signals from transcription factors binding to the promoter and transmits them to achieve gene transcription. The subunits of Mediator complex reside in four modules: the head, middle, tail, and dissociable CDK8 kinase module (CKM). The head, middle, and tail modules form the core Mediator complex, and the association of CKM can modify the function of Mediator in transcription. Here, we show genetic and biochemical evidence that CKM-associated Mediator transmits auxin-dependent transcriptional repression in lateral root (LR) formation. The AUXIN/INDOLE 3-ACETIC ACID 14 (Aux/IAA14) transcriptional repressor inhibits the transcriptional activity of its binding partners AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 7 (ARF7) and ARF19 by making a complex with the CKM-associated Mediator. In addition, TOPLESS (TPL), a transcriptional corepressor, forms a bridge between IAA14 and the CKM component MED13 through the physical interaction. ChIP assays show that auxin induces the dissociation of MED13 but not the tail module component MED25 from the ARF7 binding region upstream of its target gene. These findings indicate that auxin-induced degradation of IAA14 changes the module composition of Mediator interacting with ARF7 and ARF19 in the upstream region of their target genes involved in LR formation. We suggest that this regulation leads to a quick switch of signal transmission from ARFs to target gene expression in response to auxin. PMID:27217573

  13. Ion Implant Enabled 2x Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Patrick M.; Godet, Ludovic; Cheung, Andrew; de Cock, Gael; Hatem, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Ion implantation has many applications in microelectronics beyond doping. The broad range of species available combined with the ability to precisely control dose, angle, and energy offers compelling advantages for use in precision material modification. The application to lithography has been reported elsewhere. Integrating ion implantation into the lithography process enables scaling the feature size requirements beyond the 15 nm node with a simplified double patterning sequence. In addition, ion implant may be used to remove line edge roughness, providing tremendous advantages to meet extreme lithography imaging requirements and provide additional device stability. We examine several species (e.g. Si, Ar, etc.) and the effect of energy and impact angle on several commercially available 193 nm immersion photoresists using a Varian VIISta® single wafer high current ion implanter. The treated photoresist will be evaluated for stability in an integrated double patterning application with ion implant used to freeze the primary image. We report on critical dimension impact, pattern integrity, optical property modification, and adhesion. We analyze the impact of line edge roughness improvement beyond the work of C. Struck including the power spectral distribution. TGA and FTIR Spectroscopy results for the implanted photoresist materials will also be included.

  14. Immersion specific defect mechanisms: findings and recommendations for their control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocsis, Michael; Van Den Heuvel, Dieter; Gronheid, Roel; Maenhoudt, Mireille; Vangoidsenhoven, Dizana; Wells, Greg; Stepanenko, Nickolay; Benndorf, Michael; Kim, Hyun Woo; Kishimura, Shinji; Ercken, Monique; Van Roey, Frieda; O'Brien, S.; Fyen, Wim; Foubert, Philippe; Moerman, Richard; Streefkerk, Bob

    2006-03-01

    Defectivity has been one of the largest unknowns in immersion lithography. It is critical to understand if there are any immersion specific defect modes, and if so, what their underlying mechanisms are. Through this understanding, any identified defect modes can be reduced or eliminated to help advance immersion lithography to high yield manufacturing. Since February 2005, an ASML XT:1250Di immersion scanner has been operational at IMEC. A joint program was established to understand immersion defectivity by bringing together expertise from IMEC, ASML, resist vendors, IC manufactures, TEL, and KLA-Tencor. This paper will cover the results from these efforts. The new immersion specific defect modes that will be discussed are air bubbles in the immersion fluid, water marks, wafer edge film peeling, and particle transport. As part of the effort to understand the parameters that drive these defects, IMEC has also developed novel techniques for characterizing resist leaching and water uptake. The findings of our investigations into each immersion specific defect mechanism and their influencing factors will be given in this paper, and an attempt will be made to provide recommendations for a process space to operate in to limit these defects.

  15. Mask-induced best-focus shifts in deep ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, Andreas; Evanschitzky, Peter; Neumann, Jens Timo; Gräupner, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The mask plays a significant role as an active optical element in lithography, for both deep ultraviolet (DUV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. Mask-induced and feature-dependent shifts of the best-focus position and other aberration-like effects were reported both for DUV immersion and for EUV lithography. We employ rigorous computation of light diffraction from lithographic masks in combination with aerial image simulation to study the root causes of these effects and their dependencies from mask and optical system parameters. Special emphasis is put on the comparison of transmission masks for DUV lithography and reflective masks for EUV lithography, respectively. Several strategies to compensate the mask-induced phase effects are discussed.

  16. Optical force stamping lithography

    PubMed Central

    Nedev, Spas; Urban, Alexander S.; Lutich, Andrey A.; Feldmann, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Here we introduce a new paradigm of far-field optical lithography, optical force stamping lithography. The approach employs optical forces exerted by a spatially modulated light field on colloidal nanoparticles to rapidly stamp large arbitrary patterns comprised of single nanoparticles onto a substrate with a single-nanoparticle positioning accuracy well beyond the diffraction limit. Because the process is all-optical, the stamping pattern can be changed almost instantly and there is no constraint on the type of nanoparticle or substrates used. PMID:21992538

  17. Ion beam lithography system

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2005-08-02

    A maskless plasma-formed ion beam lithography tool provides for patterning of sub-50 nm features on large area flat or curved substrate surfaces. The system is very compact and does not require an accelerator column and electrostatic beam scanning components. The patterns are formed by switching beamlets on or off from a two electrode blanking system with the substrate being scanned mechanically in one dimension. This arrangement can provide a maskless nano-beam lithography tool for economic and high throughput processing.

  18. Predicting lithography costs: guidance for <= 32 nm patterning solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazelton, Andrew J.; Wüest, Andrea; Hughes, Greg; Lercel, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Extending lithography to 32 nm and 22 nm half pitch requires the introduction of new lithography technologies, such as EUVL or high-index immersion, or new techniques, such as double patterning. All of these techniques introduce large changes into the single exposure immersion lithography process as used for the 45 nm half pitch node. Therefore, cost per wafer is a concern. In this paper, total patterning costs are estimated for the 32 nm and 22 nm half pitch nodes through the application of cost-of-ownership models based on the tool, mask, and process costs. For all cases, the cost of patterning at 32 nm half pitch for critical layers will be more expensive than in prior generations. Mask costs are observed to be a significant component of lithography costs even up to a mask usage of 10,000 wafers/mask in most cases. The more simple structure of EUVL masks reduces the mask cost component and results in EUVL being the most cost-effective patterning solution under the assumptions of high throughput and good mask blank defect density.

  19. Role of the tumor suppressor ARF in macrophage polarization: Enhancement of the M2 phenotype in ARF-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Herranz, Sandra; Través, Paqui G; Luque, Alfonso; Hortelano, Sonsoles

    2012-11-01

    The ARF locus is frequently inactivated in human cancer. The oncosuppressor ARF has indeed been described as a general sensor for different situation of cellular stress. We have previously demonstrated that ARF deficiency severely impairs inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo, establishing a role for ARF in the regulation of innate immunity. The aim of the present work was to get further insights into the immune functions of ARF and to evaluate its possible contribution to the polarization of macrophages toward the M1 or M2 phenotype. Our results demonstrate that resting Arf(-/-) macrophages express high levels of Ym1 and Fizz-1, two typical markers of alternatively-activated macrophages (M2). Additionally, Arf(-/-) peritoneal macrophages showed an impaired response to lipopolysaccharide (a classical inducer of M1 polaryzation) and a reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. Moreover, upon stimulation with interleukin-4 (IL-4), an inducer of the M2 phenotype, well established M2 markers such as Fizz-1, Ym1 and arginase-1 were upregulated in Arf(-/-) as compared with wild type macrophages. Accordingly, the cytokine and chemokine profile associated with the M2 phenotype was significantly overexpressed in Arf(-/-) macrophages responding to IL-4. In addition, multiple pro-angiogenic factors such as VEGF and MMP-9 were also increased. In summary, these results indicate that ARF contributes to the polarization and functional plasticity of macrophages.

  20. High-index nanocomposite photoresist for 193-nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Woo Jin; Trikeriotis, Makros; Rodriguez, Robert; Zettel, Michael F.; Piscani, Emil; Ober, Christopher K.; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.; Zimmerman, Paul

    2009-03-01

    In immersion lithography, high index fluids are used to increase the numerical aperture (NA) of the imaging system and decrease the minimum printable feature size. Water has been used in first generation immersion lithography at 193 nm to reach the 45 nm node, but to reach the 38 and 32 nm nodes, fluids and resists with a higher index than water are needed. A critical issue hindering the implementation of 193i at the 32 nm node is the availability of high refractive index (n > 1.8) and low optical absorption fluids and resists. It is critical to note that high index resists are necessary only when a high refractive index fluid is in use. High index resist improves the depth of focus (DOF) even without high index fluids. In this study, high refractive index nanoparticles have been synthesized and introduced into a resist matrix to increase the overall refractive index. The strategy followed is to synthesize PGMEA-soluble nanoparticles and then disperse them into a 193 nm resist. High index nanoparticles 1-2 nm in diameter were synthesized by a combination of hydrolysis and sol-gel methods. A ligand exchange method was used, allowing the surface of the nanoparticles to be modified with photoresist-friendly moieties to help them disperse uniformly in the resist matrix. The refractive index and ultraviolet absorbance were measured to evaluate the quality of next generation immersion lithography resist materials.

  1. Thirty years of lithography simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, Chris A.

    2005-05-01

    Thirty years ago Rick Dill and his team at IBM published the first account of lithography simulation - the accurate description of semiconductor optical lithography by mathematical equations. Since then, lithography simulation has grown dramatically in importance in four important areas: as a research tool, as a development tool, as a manufacturing tool, and as a learning tool. In this paper, the history of lithography simulations is traced from its roots to today"s indispensable tools for lithographic technology development. Along the way, an attempt will be made to define the true value of lithography simulation to the semiconductor industry.

  2. Structure and Membrane Interaction of Myristoylated ARF1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yizhou; Kahn, Richard A.; Prestegard, James H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are small (21 kDa), monomeric GTPases that are important regulators of membrane traffic. When membrane bound, they recruit soluble adaptors to membranes and trigger the assembly of coating complexes involved in cargo selection and vesicular budding. N-myristoylation is a conserved feature of all ARF proteins that is required for its biological functions, though the mechanism(s) by which the myristate acts in ARF functions is not fully understood. Here, we present the first structure of a myristoylated ARF1 protein, determined by solution NMR methods, and an assessment of the influence of myristoylation on association of ARF1·GDP and ARF1·GTP with lipid bilayers. A model in which myristoylation contributes to both the regulation of guanine nucleotide exchange and stable membrane association is supported. PMID:19141284

  3. Beam pen lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Fengwei; Zheng, Gengfeng; Liao, Xing; Giam, Louise R.; Chai, Jinan; Chen, Xiaodong; Shim, Wooyoung; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2010-09-01

    Lithography techniques are currently being developed to fabricate nanoscale components for integrated circuits, medical diagnostics and optoelectronics. In conventional far-field optical lithography, lateral feature resolution is diffraction-limited. Approaches that overcome the diffraction limit have been developed, but these are difficult to implement or they preclude arbitrary pattern formation. Techniques based on near-field scanning optical microscopy can overcome the diffraction limit, but they suffer from inherently low throughput and restricted scan areas. Highly parallel two-dimensional, silicon-based, near-field scanning optical microscopy aperture arrays have been fabricated, but aligning a non-deformable aperture array to a large-area substrate with near-field proximity remains challenging. However, recent advances in lithographies based on scanning probe microscopy have made use of transparent two-dimensional arrays of pyramid-shaped elastomeric tips (or `pens') for large-area, high-throughput patterning of ink molecules. Here, we report a massively parallel scanning probe microscopy-based approach that can generate arbitrary patterns by passing 400-nm light through nanoscopic apertures at each tip in the array. The technique, termed beam pen lithography, can toggle between near- and far-field distances, allowing both sub-diffraction limit (100 nm) and larger features to be generated.

  4. The tumor suppressor ARF regulates innate immune responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Través, Paqui G; López-Fontal, Raquel; Luque, Alfonso; Hortelano, Sonsoles

    2011-12-15

    The innate immune system is the first line of defense against invading organisms, and TLRs are the main sensors of microbial components, initiating signaling pathways that induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines and type I IFNs. An antiviral action for the tumor suppressor alternative reading frame (ARF) has been reported; however, the precise role of ARF in innate immunity is unknown. In this study, we show that ARF plays an important role in regulation of inflammatory responses. In peritoneal macrophages and bone marrow-derived macrophages from ARF-deficient animals, the induction of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines by TLR ligands was severely impaired. The altered responses of ARF(-/-) cells to TLR ligands result from aberrant activation of intracellular signaling molecules including MAPKs, IκBα degradation, and NF-κB activation. Additionally, animals lacking ARF were resistant to LPS-induced endotoxic shock. This impaired activation of inflammation in ARF(-/-) mice was not restricted to TLRs, as it was also shown in response to non-TLR signaling pathways. Thus, ARF(-/-) mice were also unable to trigger a proper inflammatory response in experimental peritonitis or in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced edema. Overexpression of ARF, but not its downstream target p53, rescued the ARF-deficient phenotype, increasing TLR4 levels and restoring inflammatory reaction. An increase in the E2F1 protein levels observed in ARF(-/-) macrophages at basal condition and after LPS stimulation may be involved in the impaired response in this system, as E2F1 has been described as an inflammatory suppressor. These results indicate that tumor suppressor ARF is a new regulator of inflammatory cell signaling.

  5. Neutral particle lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craver, Barry Paul

    Neutral particle lithography (NPL) is a high resolution, proximity exposure technique where a broad beam of energetic neutral particles floods a stencil mask and transmitted beamlets transfer the mask pattern to resist on a substrate, such that each feature is printed in parallel, rather than in the serial manner of electron beam lithography. It preserves the advantages of ion beam lithography (IBL), including extremely large depth-of-field, sub-5 nm resist scattering, and the near absence of diffraction, yet is intrinsically immune to charge-related artifacts including line-edge roughness and pattern placement errors due to charge accumulation on the mask and substrate. In our experiments, a neutral particle beam is formed by passing an ion beam (e.g., 30 keV He+) through a high pressure helium gas cell (e.g., 100 mTorr) to convert the ions to energetic neutrals through charge transfer scattering. The resolution of NPL is generally superior to that of IBL for applications involving insulating substrates, large proximity gaps, and ultra-small features. High accuracy stepped exposures with energetic neutral particles, where magnetic or electrostatic deflection is impossible, have been obtained by clamping the mask to the wafer, setting the proximity gap with a suitable spacer, and mechanically inclining the mask/wafer stack relative to the beam. This approach is remarkably insensitive to vibration and thermal drift; nanometer scale image offsets have been obtained with +/-2 nm placement accuracy for experiments lasting over one hour. Using this nanostepping technique, linewidth versus dose curves were obtained, from which the NPL lithographic blur was determined as 4.4+/-1.4 nm (1sigma), which is 2-3 times smaller than the blur of electron beam lithography. Neutral particle lithography has the potential to form high density, periodic patterns with sub-10 nm resolution.

  6. Wedge immersed thermistor bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreyfus, M. G. (Inventor)

    1964-01-01

    An immersed thermistor bolometer for the detection of ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation is described. Two types of immersed bolometers are discussed. The immersion of thermistor flakes in a lens, or half immersed by optical contact on a lens, is examined. Lens materials are evaluated for optimum immersion including fused aluminum oxide, beryllium oxide, and germanium. The application of the bolometer to instruments in which the entrance pupil of the immersion optics has a high aspect ratio is considered.

  7. PH Domain-Arf G Protein Interactions Localize the Arf-GEF Steppke for Cleavage Furrow Regulation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Lee, Donghoon M; Rodrigues, Francisco F; Yu, Cao Guo; Swan, Michael; Harris, Tony J C

    2015-01-01

    The recruitment of GDP/GTP exchange factors (GEFs) to specific subcellular sites dictates where they activate small G proteins for the regulation of various cellular processes. Cytohesins are a conserved family of plasma membrane GEFs for Arf small G proteins that regulate endocytosis. Analyses of mammalian cytohesins have identified a number of recruitment mechanisms for these multi-domain proteins, but the conservation and developmental roles for these mechanisms are unclear. Here, we report how the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of the Drosophila cytohesin Steppke affects its localization and activity at cleavage furrows of the early embryo. We found that the PH domain is necessary for Steppke furrow localization, and for it to regulate furrow structure. However, the PH domain was not sufficient for the localization. Next, we examined the role of conserved PH domain amino acid residues that are required for mammalian cytohesins to bind PIP3 or GTP-bound Arf G proteins. We confirmed that the Steppke PH domain preferentially binds PIP3 in vitro through a conserved mechanism. However, disruption of residues for PIP3 binding had no apparent effect on GFP-Steppke localization and effects. Rather, residues for binding to GTP-bound Arf G proteins made major contributions to this Steppke localization and activity. By analyzing GFP-tagged Arf and Arf-like small G proteins, we found that Arf1-GFP, Arf6-GFP and Arl4-GFP, but not Arf4-GFP, localized to furrows. However, analyses of embryos depleted of Arf1, Arf6 or Arl4 revealed either earlier defects than occur in embryos depleted of Steppke, or no detectable furrow defects, possibly because of redundancies, and thus it was difficult to assess how individual Arf small G proteins affect Steppke. Nonetheless, our data show that the Steppke PH domain and its conserved residues for binding to GTP-bound Arf G proteins have substantial effects on Steppke localization and activity in early Drosophila embryos.

  8. The Arf GAP Asap promotes Arf1 function at the Golgi for cleavage furrow biosynthesis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Francisco F.; Shao, Wei; Harris, Tony J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Biosynthetic traffic from the Golgi drives plasma membrane growth. For Drosophila embryo cleavage, this growth is rapid but regulated for cycles of furrow ingression and regression. The highly conserved small G protein Arf1 organizes Golgi trafficking. Arf1 is activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors, but essential roles for Arf1 GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) are less clear. We report that the conserved Arf GAP Asap is required for cleavage furrow ingression in the early embryo. Because Asap can affect multiple subcellular processes, we used genetic approaches to dissect its primary effect. Our data argue against cytoskeletal or endocytic involvement and reveal a common role for Asap and Arf1 in Golgi organization. Although Asap lacked Golgi enrichment, it was necessary and sufficient for Arf1 accumulation at the Golgi, and a conserved Arf1-Asap binding site was required for Golgi organization and output. Of note, Asap relocalized to the nuclear region at metaphase, a shift that coincided with subtle Golgi reorganization preceding cleavage furrow regression. We conclude that Asap is essential for Arf1 to function at the Golgi for cleavage furrow biosynthesis. Asap may recycle Arf1 to the Golgi from post-Golgi membranes, providing optimal Golgi output for specific stages of the cell cycle. PMID:27535433

  9. The Opposing Roles of Nucleophosmin and the ARF Tumor Suppressor in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    interference of Arf in wild-type cells, further implicating basal ARF proteins in the regulation of nucleolar structure and function. Finally, Arf...resorptive functions, demonstrating a physiological function for ARF in maintaining proper basal protein synthesis in vivo. Taken together, these data...severe changes in nucleolar morphology • Osteoclasts lacking Arf exhibit amplified protein synthesis rates • Basal ARF proteins have a role in regulating

  10. Extreme ultraviolet Talbot interference lithography.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Marconi, Mario C

    2015-10-05

    Periodic nanopatterns can be generated using lithography based on the Talbot effect or optical interference. However, these techniques have restrictions that limit their performance. High resolution Talbot lithography is limited by the very small depth of focus and the demanding requirements in the fabrication of the master mask. Interference lithography, with large DOF and high resolution, is limited to simple periodic patterns. This paper describes a hybrid extreme ultraviolet lithography approach that combines Talbot lithography and interference lithography to render an interference pattern with a lattice determined by a Talbot image. As a result, the method enables filling the arbitrary shaped cells produced by the Talbot image with interference patterns. Detailed modeling, system design and experimental results using a tabletop EUV laser are presented.

  11. Decomposition of Plant Debris by the Nematophagous Fungus ARF

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kening; Riggs, R. D.; Crippen, Devany

    2004-01-01

    In the study of the biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes, knowledge of the saprophytic ability of a nematophagous fungus is necessary to understand its establishment and survival in the soil. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine if the nematophagous fungus ARF (Arkansas Fungus) shows differential use of plant residues; and (ii) to determine if ARF still existed in the soil of a field in which ARF was found originally and in which the population level of Heterodera glycines had remained very low, despite 15 years of continuous, susceptible soybean. Laboratory studies of the decomposition of wheat straw or soybean root by ARF were conducted in two separate experiments, using a CO₂ collection apparatus, where CO₂-free air was passed through sterilized cotton to remove the microorganisms in the air and then was passed over the samples, and evolved CO₂ was trapped by KOH. Milligrams of C as CO₂ was used to calculate the percentage decomposition of the plant debris by ARF. Data indicated ARF decomposed 11.7% of total organic carbon of the wheat straw and 20.1% of the soybean roots in 6 weeks. In the field soil study, 21 soil samples were taken randomly from the field. Only 3 months after the infestation of the soil with H. glycines, the percentage of parasitized eggs of H. glycines reached 64 ± 19%, and ARF was isolated from most parasitized eggs of H. glycines. Research results indicated ARF could use plant residues to survive. PMID:19262814

  12. The small GTPase Arf1 modulates mitochondrial morphology and function.

    PubMed

    Ackema, Karin B; Hench, Jürgen; Böckler, Stefan; Wang, Shyi Chyi; Sauder, Ursula; Mergentaler, Heidi; Westermann, Benedikt; Bard, Frédéric; Frank, Stephan; Spang, Anne

    2014-11-18

    The small GTPase Arf1 plays critical roles in membrane traffic by initiating the recruitment of coat proteins and by modulating the activity of lipid-modifying enzymes. Here, we report an unexpected but evolutionarily conserved role for Arf1 and the ArfGEF GBF1 at mitochondria. Loss of function of ARF-1 or GBF-1 impaired mitochondrial morphology and activity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Similarly, mitochondrial defects were observed in mammalian and yeast cells. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, aberrant clusters of the mitofusin Fzo1 accumulated in arf1-11 mutants and were resolved by overexpression of Cdc48, an AAA-ATPase involved in ER and mitochondria-associated degradation processes. Yeast Arf1 co-fractionated with ER and mitochondrial membranes and interacted genetically with the contact site component Gem1. Furthermore, similar mitochondrial abnormalities resulted from knockdown of either GBF-1 or contact site components in worms, suggesting that the role of Arf1 in mitochondrial functioning is linked to ER-mitochondrial contacts. Thus, Arf1 is involved in mitochondrial homeostasis and dynamics, independent of its role in vesicular traffic.

  13. Native Language Immersion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyhner, Jon

    This paper describes the benefits of indigenous mother tongue immersion programs, examining the Total Physical Response approach to immersion for beginning learners and focusing on the development of Maori and Hawaiian mother tongue language immersion programs. The paper discusses the importance of immersing students in a language-risk…

  14. Mask optimization approaches in optical lithography based on a vector imaging model.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xu; Li, Yanqiu; Dong, Lisong

    2012-07-01

    Recently, a set of gradient-based optical proximity correction (OPC) and phase-shifting mask (PSM) optimization methods has been developed to solve for the inverse lithography problem under scalar imaging models, which are only accurate for numerical apertures (NAs) of less than approximately 0.4. However, as lithography technology enters the 45 nm realm, immersion lithography systems with hyper-NA (NA>1) are now extensively used in the semiconductor industry. For the hyper-NA lithography systems, the vector nature of the electromagnetic field must be taken into account, leading to the vector imaging models. Thus, the OPC and PSM optimization approaches developed under the scalar imaging models are inadequate to enhance the resolution in immersion lithography systems. This paper focuses on developing pixelated gradient-based OPC and PSM optimization algorithms under a vector imaging model. We first formulate the mask optimization framework, in which the imaging process of the optical lithography system is represented by an integrative and analytic vector imaging model. A gradient-based algorithm is then used to optimize the mask iteratively. Subsequently, a generalized wavelet penalty is proposed to keep a balance between the mask complexity and convergence errors. Finally, a set of methods is exploited to speed up the proposed algorithms.

  15. Microfluidic Applications of Soft Lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K A; Krulevitch, P; Hamilton, J

    2001-04-10

    The soft lithography fabrication technique was applied to three microfluidic devices. The method was used to create an original micropump design and retrofit to existing designs for a DNA manipulation device and a counter biological warfare sample preparation device. Each device presented unique and original challenges to the soft lithography application. AI1 design constraints of the retrofit devices were satisfied using PDMS devices created through variation of soft lithography methods. The micropump utilized the versatility of PDMS, creating design options not available with other materials. In all cases, the rapid processing of soft lithography reduced the fabrication time, creating faster turnaround for design modifications.

  16. ARF1(2-17) does not specifically interact with ARF1-dependent pathways. Inhibition by peptide of phospholipases C beta, D and exocytosis in HL60 cells.

    PubMed

    Fensome, A; Cunningham, E; Troung, O; Cockcroft, S

    1994-07-25

    The small GTP-binding protein ARF has been shown recently to regulate phospholipase D (PLD). In order to investigate the role of ARF proteins in regulated exocytosis, we have used the N-terminal peptide ARF1(2-17) of the ARF1 protein. ARF1 reconstituted PLD activity in cytosol-depleted HL60 cells was inhibited by ARF1(2-17). In the presence of endogenous cytosol, ARF1(2-17) also inhibited GTP-gamma-S-stimulated PLD activity and exocytosis. Mastoparan Politses jadwagae and mastoparan Vespula lewisii which exhibit similar structural properties to ARF1(2-17) also inhibited GTP-gamma-S-stimulated PLD and exocytosis. GTP-gamma-S-stimulated phospholipase C-beta (PLC-beta) was also inhibited by ARF(2-17) and mastoparan. In cytosol-depleted HL60 cells, the ARF(2-17) inhibited the reconstitution of GTP-gamma-S-stimulated PLC-beta activity with exogenously-added PLC-beta 1 and phosphatidylinositol transfer protein. We conclude that the widely-used ARF1(2-17) peptide inhibits both ARF-independent (i.e. PLC-beta) and ARF-dependent pathways (i.e. PLD) and therefore cannot be regarded as a specific inhibitor of ARF function.

  17. Fundamental study of optical threshold layer approach towards double exposure lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xinyu; Berro, Adam J.; Cho, Younjin; Jen, Kane; Lee, Saul; Ngai, Tomoki; Ogata, Toshiyuki; Durand, William J.; Sundaresan, Arunkumar; Lancaster, Jeffrey R.; Jockusch, Steffen; Zimmerman, Paul; Turro, Nicholas J.; Willson, C. G.

    2009-03-01

    193 immersion lithography has reached its maximal achievable resolution. There are mainly two lithographic strategies that will enable continued increase in resolution. Those are being pursued in parallel. The first is extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography and the second is double patterning (exposure) lithography. EUV lithography is counted on to be available in 2013 time frame for 22 nm node. Unfortunately, this technology has suffered several delays due to fundamental problems with source power, mask infrastructure, metrology and overall reliability. The implementation of EUV lithography in the next five years is unlikely due to economic factors. Double patterning lithography (DPL) is a technology that has been implemented by the industry and has already shown the proof of concept for the 22nm node. This technique while expensive is the only current path forward for scaling with no fundamental showstoppers for the 32nm and 22nm nodes. Double exposure lithography (DEL) is being proposed as a cost mitigating approach to advanced lithography. Compared to DPL, DEL offers advantages in overlay and process time, thus reducing the cost-of-ownership (CoO). However, DEL requires new materials that have a non-linear photoresponse. So far, several approaches were proposed for double exposure lithography, from which Optical Threshold Layer (OTL) was found to give the best lithography performance according to the results of the simulation. This paper details the principle of the OTL approach. A photochromic polymer was designed and synthesized. The feasibility of the material for application of DEL was explored by a series of evaluations.

  18. Self-Collapse Lithography.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chuanzhen; Xu, Xiaobin; Yang, Qing; Man, Tianxing; Jonas, Steven J; Schwartz, Jeffrey J; Andrews, Anne M; Weiss, Paul S

    2017-08-09

    We report a facile, high-throughput soft lithography process that utilizes nanoscale channels formed naturally at the edges of microscale relief features on soft, elastomeric stamps. Upon contact with self-assembled monolayer (SAM) functionalized substrates, the roof of the stamp collapses, resulting in the selective removal of SAM molecules via a chemical lift-off process. With this technique, which we call self-collapse lithography (SCL), sub-30 nm patterns were achieved readily using masters with microscale features prepared by conventional photolithography. The feature sizes of the chemical patterns can be varied continuously from ∼2 μm to below 30 nm by decreasing stamp relief heights from 1 μm to 50 nm. Likewise, for fixed relief heights, reducing the stamp Young's modulus from ∼2.0 to ∼0.8 MPa resulted in shrinking the features of resulting patterns from ∼400 to ∼100 nm. The self-collapse mechanism was studied using finite element simulation methods to model the competition between adhesion and restoring stresses during patterning. These results correlate well with the experimental data and reveal the relationship between the line widths, channel heights, and Young's moduli of the stamps. In addition, SCL was applied to pattern two-dimensional arrays of circles and squares. These chemical patterns served as resists during etching processes to transfer patterns to the underlying materials (e.g., gold nanostructures). This work provides new insights into the natural propensity of elastomeric stamps to self-collapse and demonstrates a means of exploiting this behavior to achieve patterning via nanoscale chemical lift-off lithography.

  19. Patterning strategy for low-K1 lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, David H.; Cheng, Wen-Hao

    2004-08-01

    Moore's law has been guiding the semiconductor industry for four decades. Lithography is the key enabler to keep the industry on the technology treadmill. Lithographers have been facing unprecedented challenges during last five years to keep the technology on the technology treadmill by developing various kinds of resolution enhancement techniques (RETs). In low K1 regime, co-optimization of design, layout mask, OPC, lithography and etching is the primary strategy to deliver a production-worthy patterning solution. Optical shrink is not a trivial task anymore. Intel always pursues parallel patterning techniques based on the dual exposure wavelength patterning strategy. While EUVL is the preferred patterning solution for 32nm node, 193nm immersion lithography with super high NA illumination is one of the parallel patterning strategies. The effects of polarization at super high NA illumination on mask technology, such as lens reduction ratio, blank absorber thickness and image imbalance correction, and restriction on design layout are addressed in this paper. Contact patterning is extremely challenging at low K1. Contact shape factor (circularity) which impacts the design rule will be discussed in this paper. Explosion of data file size and mask write time, stringent mask CD control and mask defect disposition are direct consequences of low-K1/high-MEEF (Mask Error Enhancement Factor) lithography. Mask makers alone cannot resolve the challenges in a cost effective manner. A seamless integration solution is a must.

  20. Colloidal pen lithography.

    PubMed

    Xue, Mianqi; Cai, Xiaojing; Chen, Ghenfu

    2015-02-04

    Colloidal pen lithography, a low-cost, high-throughput scanning probe contact printing method, has been developed, which is based on self-assembled colloidal arrays embedded in a soft elastomeric stamp. Patterned protein arrays are demonstrated using this method, with a feature size ranging from 100 nm to several micrometers. A brief study into the specificity reorganization of protein gives evidence for the feasibility of this method for writing protein chips. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Nucleostemin stabilizes ARF by inhibiting the ubiquitin ligase ULF.

    PubMed

    Lo, D; Zhang, Y; Dai, M-S; Sun, X-X; Zeng, S X; Lu, H

    2015-03-26

    Upregulated expression of nucleolar GTPase nucleostemin (NS) has been associated with increased cellular proliferation potential and tumor malignancy during cancer development. Recent reports attribute the growth regulatory effects of NS protein to its role in facilitating ribosome production. However, the oncogenic potential of NS remains unclear, as imbalanced levels of NS have been reported to exert growth inhibitory effect by modulating p53 tumor-suppressor activity. It also remains in questions if aberrant NS levels might have a p53-independent role in regulation of cell proliferation and growth. In this study, we performed affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis to explore protein-protein interactions influencing NS growth regulatory properties independently of p53 tumor suppressor. We identified the alternative reading frame (ARF) protein as a key protein associating with NS and further verified the interaction through in vitro and in vivo assays. We demonstrated that NS is able to regulate cell cycle progression by regulating the stability of the ARF tumor suppressor. Furthermore, overexpression of NS suppressed ARF polyubiquitination by its E3 ligase Ubiquitin Ligase for ARF and elongated its half-life, whereas knockdown of NS led to the decrease of ARF levels. Also, we found that NS can enhance NPM stabilization of ARF. Thus, we propose that in the absence of p53, ARF can be stabilized by NS and nucleophosmin to serve as an alternative tumor-suppressor surveillance, preventing potential cellular transformation resulting from the growth-inducing effects of NS overexpression.

  2. Extension of 193 nm dry lithography to 45-nm half-pitch node: double exposure and double processing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Abani M.; Li, Jianliang; Hiserote, Jay A.; Melvin, Lawrence S., III

    2006-10-01

    Immersion lithography and multiple exposure techniques are the most promising methods to extend lithography manufacturing to the 45nm node. Although immersion lithography has attracted much attention recently as a promising optical lithography extension, it will not solve all the problems at the 45-nm node. The 'dry' option, (i.e. double exposure/etch) which can be realized with standard processing practice, will extend 193-nm lithography to the end of the current industry roadmap. Double exposure/etch lithography is expensive in terms of cost, throughput time, and overlay registration accuracy. However, it is less challenging compared to other possible alternatives and has the ability to break through the κ I barrier (0.25). This process, in combination with attenuated PSM (att-PSM) mask, is a good imaging solution that can reach, and most likely go beyond, the 45-nm node. Mask making requirements in a double exposure scheme will be reduced significantly. This can be appreciated by the fact that the separation of tightly-pitched mask into two less demanding pitch patterns will reduce the stringent specifications for each mask. In this study, modeling of double exposure lithography (DEL) with att-PSM masks to target 45-nm node is described. In addition, mask separation and implementation issues of optical proximity corrections (OPC) to improve process window are studied. To understand the impact of OPC on the process window, Fourier analysis of the masks has been carried out as well.

  3. High-repetition-rate ultranarrow-bandwidth 193-nm excimer lasers for DUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamm, Uwe; Paetzel, Rainer; Bragin, Igor; Kleinschmidt, Juergen; Lokai, Peter; Osmanov, Rustem; Schroeder, Thomas; Sprenger, Martin; Zschocke, Wolfgang

    2000-07-01

    Results on the feasibility of highest repetition rate ArF lithography excimer lasers with narrow spectral bandwidth of less than 0.4 pm are presented. The current 193 nm lithography laser product NovaLine A2010 delivers output power of 10W at 2 kHz repetition rate with energy dose stability of +/- 0.5 percent. A novel 193 nm absolute wavelength calibration technique has ben incorporated in the laser which gives absolute wavelength accuracy better than 0.5 pm. Long-term results of optical materials, coatings and laser components give insight into estimated cost of ownership developments for the laser operation over the next years. Progress in pulse stretching approaches to achieve lower stress of the wafer scanner illumination optics and lens allow optimistic estimates of total system CoO. Initial results on the laser operation at 4 kHz in order to reach 20W output power are discussed.

  4. Lithography, metrology and nanomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Liddle, J Alexander; Gallatin, Gregg M

    2011-07-01

    Semiconductor chip manufacturing is by far the predominant nanomanufacturing technology in the world today. Top-down lithography techniques are used for fabrication of logic and memory chips since, in order to function, these chips must essentially be perfect. Assuring perfection requires expensive metrology. Top of the line logic sells for several hundred thousand dollars per square metre and, even though the required metrology is expensive, it is a small percentage of the overall manufacturing cost. The level of stability and control afforded by current lithography tools means that much of this metrology can be online and statistical. In contrast, many of the novel types of nanomanufacturing currently being developed will produce products worth only a few dollars per square metre. To be cost effective, the required metrology must cost proportionately less. Fortunately many of these nanofabrication techniques, such as block copolymer self-assembly, colloidal self-assembly, DNA origami, roll-2-roll nano-imprint, etc., will not require the same level of perfection to meet specification. Given the variability of these self-assembly processes, in order to maintain process control, these techniques will require some level of real time online metrology. Hence we are led to the conclusion that future nanomanufacturing may well necessitate "cheap" nanometre scale metrology which functions real time and on-line, e.g. at GHz rates, in the production stream. In this paper we review top-down and bottom-up nanofabrication techniques and compare and contrast the various metrology requirements.

  5. Lithography, metrology and nanomanufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddle, J. Alexander; Gallatin, Gregg M.

    2011-07-01

    Semiconductor chip manufacturing is by far the predominant nanomanufacturing technology in the world today. Top-down lithography techniques are used for fabrication of logic and memory chips since, in order to function, these chips must essentially be perfect. Assuring perfection requires expensive metrology. Top of the line logic sells for several hundred thousand dollars per square metre and, even though the required metrology is expensive, it is a small percentage of the overall manufacturing cost. The level of stability and control afforded by current lithography tools means that much of this metrology can be online and statistical. In contrast, many of the novel types of nanomanufacturing currently being developed will produce products worth only a few dollars per square metre. To be cost effective, the required metrology must cost proportionately less. Fortunately many of these nanofabrication techniques, such as block copolymer self-assembly, colloidal self-assembly, DNA origami, roll-2-roll nano-imprint, etc., will not require the same level of perfection to meet specification. Given the variability of these self-assembly processes, in order to maintain process control, these techniques will require some level of real time online metrology. Hence we are led to the conclusion that future nanomanufacturing may well necessitate ``cheap'' nanometre scale metrology which functions real time and on-line, e.g. at GHz rates, in the production stream. In this paper we review top-down and bottom-up nanofabrication techniques and compare and contrast the various metrology requirements.

  6. Bubble-Pen Lithography.

    PubMed

    Lin, Linhan; Peng, Xiaolei; Mao, Zhangming; Li, Wei; Yogeesh, Maruthi N; Rajeeva, Bharath Bangalore; Perillo, Evan P; Dunn, Andrew K; Akinwande, Deji; Zheng, Yuebing

    2016-01-13

    Current lithography techniques, which employ photon, electron, or ion beams to induce chemical or physical reactions for micro/nano-fabrication, have remained challenging in patterning chemically synthesized colloidal particles, which are emerging as building blocks for functional devices. Herein, we develop a new technique - bubble-pen lithography (BPL) - to pattern colloidal particles on substrates using optically controlled microbubbles. Briefly, a single laser beam generates a microbubble at the interface of colloidal suspension and a plasmonic substrate via plasmon-enhanced photothermal effects. The microbubble captures and immobilizes the colloidal particles on the substrate through coordinated actions of Marangoni convection, surface tension, gas pressure, and substrate adhesion. Through directing the laser beam to move the microbubble, we create arbitrary single-particle patterns and particle assemblies with different resolutions and architectures. Furthermore, we have applied BPL to pattern CdSe/ZnS quantum dots on plasmonic substrates and polystyrene (PS) microparticles on two-dimensional (2D) atomic-layer materials. With the low-power operation, arbitrary patterning and applicability to general colloidal particles, BPL will find a wide range of applications in microelectronics, nanophotonics, and nanomedicine.

  7. Materials for and performance of multilayer lithography schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weimer, Marc; Wang, Yubao; Neef, Charles J.; Claypool, James; Edwards, Kevin; Zu, Zhimin

    2007-03-01

    The 45-nm node will require the use of thinner photoresists, which necessitates the use of multilayer pattern transfer schemes. One common multilayer approach is the use of a silicon-rich anti-reflective hardmask (Si BARC) with a carbon-rich pattern transfer underlayer (spin-on carbon, or SOC). The combination of the two layers provides a highly planar platform for a thin resist, and provides a route to etch substrates due to the alternating plasma etch selectivities of the organic resist, inorganic Si BARC, and organic SOC. Yet such schemes will need to be optimized both for pattern transfer and optics. Optimizing optics under hyper-NA immersion conditions is more complicated than with standard (that is, NA<1) lithography. A rigorous calculation technique is used to evaluate and compare standard lithography to a hyper-NA case using a multilayer stack. An example of such a stack is shown to have reasonable lithographic performance.

  8. The Opposing Roles of Nucleophosmin and the ARF Tumor Suppressor in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    interference of Arf in wild-type cells, further implicating basal ARF proteins in the regulation of nucleolar structure and function. Finally, Arf...differentiation and resorptive functions, demonstrating a physiological function for ARF in maintaining proper basal protein synthesis in vivo...synthesis rates • Basal ARF proteins have a role in regulating the homeostasis of the nucleolus • Identification of p68DDX5 as a new potential therapeutic

  9. ArfGAPs: key regulators for receptor sorting

    PubMed Central

    Shiba, Yoko; Randazzo, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian cells have many membranous organelles that require proper composition of proteins and lipids. Cargo sorting is a process required for transporting specific proteins and lipids to appropriate organelles, and if this process is disrupted, organelle function as well as cell function is disrupted. ArfGAP family proteins have been found to be critical for receptor sorting. In this review, we summarize our recent knowledge about the mechanism of cargo sorting that require function of ArfGAPs in promoting the formation of transport vesicles, and discuss the involvement of specific ArfGAPs for the sorting of a variety of receptors, such as MPR, EGFR, TfR, Glut4, TRAIL-R1/DR4, M5-muscarinic receptor, c-KIT, rhodopsin and β1-integrin. Given the importance of many of these receptors to human disease, the studies of ArfGAPs may provide novel therapeutic strategies in addition to providing mechanistic insight of receptor sorting. PMID:26046097

  10. Role of Arf GTPases in fungal morphogenesis and virulence

    PubMed Central

    Labbaoui, Hayet; Bogliolo, Stéphanie; Ghugtyal, Vikram; Solis, Norma V.

    2017-01-01

    Virulence of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans depends on the switch from budding to filamentous growth, which requires sustained membrane traffic and polarized growth. In many organisms, small GTPases of the Arf (ADP-ribosylation factor) family regulate membrane/protein trafficking, yet little is known about their role in fungal filamentous growth. To investigate these GTPases in C. albicans, we generated loss of function mutants in all 3 Arf proteins, Arf1-Arf3, and 2 Arf-like proteins, Arl1 and Arl3. Our results indicate that of these proteins, Arf2 is required for viability and sensitivity to antifungal drugs. Repressible ARF2 expression results in defects in filamentous growth, cell wall integrity and virulence, likely due to alteration of the Golgi. Arl1 is also required for invasive filamentous growth and, although arl1/arl1 cells can initiate hyphal growth, hyphae are substantially shorter than that of the wild-type, due to the inability of this mutant to maintain hyphal growth at a single site. We show that this defect does not result from an alteration of phospholipid distribution and is unlikely to result from the sole Golgin Imh1 mislocalization, as Imh1 is not required for invasive filamentous growth. Rather, our results suggest that the arl1/arl1 hyphal growth defect results from increased secretion in this mutant. Strikingly, the arl1/arl1 mutant is drastically reduced in virulence during oropharyngeal candidiasis. Together, our results highlight the importance of Arl1 and Arf2 as key regulators of hyphal growth and virulence in C. albicans and identify a unique function of Arl1 in secretion. PMID:28192532

  11. Off-axis illumination of lithography tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Han; Lin, Li; Bin, Ma

    2013-12-01

    Lithography tool is a necessary part for LSI and VLSI. The illumination system design is an important part in the lithography optical system design. Off-axis illumination technology is an effective way to reducing resolution of lithography. The paper introduction the basic components of lithography tool, the principle of off-axis illumination reducing the resolution of lithography and focus on the two implementations of OAI technology, finally point out advantages and disadvantage of the two implementations.

  12. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer activation sensor for Arf6.

    PubMed

    Hall, Brian; McLean, Mark A; Davis, Kathryn; Casanova, James E; Sligar, Steven G; Schwartz, Martin A

    2008-03-15

    The involvement of the small GTPase Arf6 in Rac activation, cell migration, and cancer invasiveness suggests that it is activated in a spatially and temporally regulated manner. Small GTPase activation has been imaged in cells using probes in which the GTPase and a fragment of a downstream effector protein are fused to fluorescent reporter proteins that constitute a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) donor/acceptor pair. Unlike other Ras family GTPases, the N terminus of Arf6 is critical for membrane targeting and, thus, cannot be modified by fusion to a fluorescent protein. We found that the previously described C-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP) derivative also shows diminished membrane targeting. Therefore, we inserted a fluorescent protein into an inert loop within the Arf6 sequence. This fusion showed normal membrane targeting, nucleotide-dependent interaction with the downstream effector GGA3, and normal regulation by a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) and a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). Using the recently developed CyPET/YPET fluorescent proteins as a FRET pair, we found that Arf6-CyPET underwent efficient energy transfer when bound to YPET-GGA3 effector domain in intact cells. The addition of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) to fibroblasts triggered a rapid and transient increase in FRET, indicative of Arf6 activation. These reagents should be useful for investigations of Arf6 activation and function.

  13. Role of the tumor suppressor ARF in macrophage polarization

    PubMed Central

    Herranz, Sandra; Través, Paqui G.; Luque, Alfonso; Hortelano, Sonsoles

    2012-01-01

    The ARF locus is frequently inactivated in human cancer. The oncosuppressor ARF has indeed been described as a general sensor for different situation of cellular stress. We have previously demonstrated that ARF deficiency severely impairs inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo, establishing a role for ARF in the regulation of innate immunity. The aim of the present work was to get further insights into the immune functions of ARF and to evaluate its possible contribution to the polarization of macrophages toward the M1 or M2 phenotype. Our results demonstrate that resting Arf−/− macrophages express high levels of Ym1 and Fizz-1, two typical markers of alternatively-activated macrophages (M2). Additionally, Arf−/− peritoneal macrophages showed an impaired response to lipopolysaccharide (a classical inducer of M1 polaryzation) and a reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. Moreover, upon stimulation with interleukin-4 (IL-4), an inducer of the M2 phenotype, well established M2 markers such as Fizz-1, Ym1 and arginase-1 were upregulated in Arf−/− as compared with wild type macrophages. Accordingly, the cytokine and chemokine profile associated with the M2 phenotype was significantly overexpressed in Arf−/− macrophages responding to IL-4. In addition, multiple pro-angiogenic factors such as VEGF and MMP-9 were also increased. In summary, these results indicate that ARF contributes to the polarization and functional plasticity of macrophages. PMID:23243586

  14. Programmable imprint lithography template

    DOEpatents

    Cardinale, Gregory F.; Talin, Albert A.

    2006-10-31

    A template for imprint lithography (IL) that reduces significantly template production costs by allowing the same template to be re-used for several technology generations. The template is composed of an array of spaced-apart moveable and individually addressable rods or plungers. Thus, the template can be configured to provide a desired pattern by programming the array of plungers such that certain of the plungers are in an "up" or actuated configuration. This arrangement of "up" and "down" plungers forms a pattern composed of protruding and recessed features which can then be impressed onto a polymer film coated substrate by applying a pressure to the template impressing the programmed configuration into the polymer film. The pattern impressed into the polymer film will be reproduced on the substrate by subsequent processing.

  15. Advances in Nanoimprint Lithography.

    PubMed

    Traub, Matthew C; Longsine, Whitney; Truskett, Van N

    2016-06-07

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL), a molding process, can replicate features <10 nm over large areas with long-range order. We describe the early development and fundamental principles underlying the two most commonly used types of NIL, thermal and UV, and contrast them with conventional photolithography methods used in the semiconductor industry. We then describe current advances toward full commercial industrialization of UV-curable NIL (UV-NIL) technology for integrated circuit production. We conclude with brief overviews of some emerging areas of research, from photonics to biotechnology, in which the ability of NIL to fabricate structures of arbitrary geometry is providing new paths for development. As with previous innovations, the increasing availability of tools and techniques from the semiconductor industry is poised to provide a path to bring these innovations from the lab to everyday life.

  16. Method for maskless lithography

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Stulen, Richard H.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for maskless lithography. A plurality of individually addressable and rotatable micromirrors together comprise a two-dimensional array of micromirrors. Each micromirror in the two-dimensional array can be envisioned as an individually addressable element in the picture that comprises the circuit pattern desired. As each micromirror is addressed it rotates so as to reflect light from a light source onto a portion of the photoresist coated wafer thereby forming a pixel within the circuit pattern. By electronically addressing a two-dimensional array of these micromirrors in the proper sequence a circuit pattern that is comprised of these individual pixels can be constructed on a microchip. The reflecting surface of the micromirror is configured in such a way as to overcome coherence and diffraction effects in order to produce circuit elements having straight sides.

  17. Exposure tool for 32-nm lithography: requirements and development progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazelton, Andrew J.; Ishikawa, Jun; Magome, Nobutaka

    2008-11-01

    Double patterning is recognized as the best candidate for 32 nm half-pitch lithography. Currently pitch splitting processes are being considered for logic processes and spacer processes are being considered for memory. In pitch splitting, errors in overlay between the first and second exposure become CD errors on the final pattern. For this reason, overlay requirements are severe for pitch splitting double patterning. Revised CD and overlay budgets are presented, as well as technical requirements to satisfy these budgets. Spacer processes do not have similar restrictions on overlay, so they can be achieved using current immersion tools. Exposure tool requirements for double patterning are discussed and modifications to current platforms are described.

  18. Recruitment of Arf1-GDP to Golgi by Glo3p-type ArfGAPs is crucial for golgi maintenance and plant growth.

    PubMed

    Min, Myung Ki; Jang, Mihue; Lee, Myounghui; Lee, Junho; Song, Kyungyoung; Lee, Yongjik; Choi, Kwan Yong; Robinson, David G; Hwang, Inhwan

    2013-02-01

    ADP-ribosylation factor1 (Arf1), a member of the small GTP-binding proteins, plays a pivotal role in protein trafficking to multiple organelles. In its GDP-bound form, Arf1 is recruited from the cytosol to organelle membranes, where it functions in vesicle-mediated protein trafficking. However, the mechanism of Arf1-GDP recruitment remains unknown. Here, we provide evidence that two Glo3p-type Arf GTPase-activating proteins (ArfGAPs), ArfGAP domain8 (AGD8) and AGD9, are involved in the recruitment of Arf1-GDP to the Golgi apparatus in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). RNA interference plants expressing low levels of AGD8 and AGD9 exhibited abnormal Golgi morphology, inhibition of protein trafficking, and arrest of plant growth and development. In RNA interference plants, Arf1 was poorly recruited to the Golgi apparatus. Conversely, high levels of AGD8 and AGD9 induced Arf1 accumulation at the Golgi and suppressed Golgi disruption and inhibition of vacuolar trafficking that was caused by overexpression of AGD7. Based on these results, we propose that the Glo3p-type ArfGAPs AGD8 and AGD9 recruit Arf1-GDP from the cytosol to the Golgi for Arf1-mediated protein trafficking, which is essential for plant development and growth.

  19. Role of the Arf6 GDP/GTP cycle and Arf6 GTPase-activating proteins in actin remodeling and intracellular transport.

    PubMed

    Klein, Stéphanie; Franco, Michel; Chardin, Pierre; Luton, Frédéric

    2006-05-05

    We have analyzed both biochemically and functionally a series of Arf6 mutants, providing new insights into the molecular mode of action of the small G protein Arf6. First, by comparing a fast-cycling mutant (Arf6(T157N)) and a GTPase-deficient mutant (Arf6(Q67L)), we established the necessity for completion of the Arf6 GDP/GTP cycle for recycling of major histocompatibility complex molecules to the plasma membrane. Second, we found that aluminum fluoride (AlF), known for inducing membrane protrusion in cells expressing exogenous wild-type Arf6, stabilized a functional wild-type Arf6.AlF(x) . GTPase-activating protein (GAP) complex in vitro and in vivo. We also found that the tandem mutation Q37E/S38I prevented the binding of two Arf GAPs, but not the effector ARHGAP10, and blocked the formation of membrane protrusion and actin reorganization. Together, our results with AlF(x) and Arf6(Q37E/S38I) demonstrate the critical role of the Arf6 GAPs as effectors for Arf6-regulated actin cytoskeleton remodeling. Finally, competition experiments conducted in vivo suggest the existence of a membrane receptor for GDP-bound Arf6.

  20. Recruitment of Arf1-GDP to Golgi by Glo3p-Type ArfGAPs Is Crucial for Golgi Maintenance and Plant Growth1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Min, Myung Ki; Jang, Mihue; Lee, Myounghui; Lee, Junho; Song, Kyungyoung; Lee, Yongjik; Choi, Kwan Yong; Robinson, David G.; Hwang, Inhwan

    2013-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation factor1 (Arf1), a member of the small GTP-binding proteins, plays a pivotal role in protein trafficking to multiple organelles. In its GDP-bound form, Arf1 is recruited from the cytosol to organelle membranes, where it functions in vesicle-mediated protein trafficking. However, the mechanism of Arf1-GDP recruitment remains unknown. Here, we provide evidence that two Glo3p-type Arf GTPase-activating proteins (ArfGAPs), ArfGAP domain8 (AGD8) and AGD9, are involved in the recruitment of Arf1-GDP to the Golgi apparatus in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). RNA interference plants expressing low levels of AGD8 and AGD9 exhibited abnormal Golgi morphology, inhibition of protein trafficking, and arrest of plant growth and development. In RNA interference plants, Arf1 was poorly recruited to the Golgi apparatus. Conversely, high levels of AGD8 and AGD9 induced Arf1 accumulation at the Golgi and suppressed Golgi disruption and inhibition of vacuolar trafficking that was caused by overexpression of AGD7. Based on these results, we propose that the Glo3p-type ArfGAPs AGD8 and AGD9 recruit Arf1-GDP from the cytosol to the Golgi for Arf1-mediated protein trafficking, which is essential for plant development and growth. PMID:23266962

  1. Vous avez dit "immersion?" (You Said "Immersion?").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gajo, Laurent, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Articles on immersion and bilingual education include these: "Terminological Considerations Regarding Content and Language Integrated Learning" (Tarja Nikula, David Marsh); "Educazione bilingue e multiculturale, istruzione bilingue, immersione totale: quattro nozioni da definire" ("Bilingual and Multicultural Education,…

  2. Nanoimprint lithography for nanodevice fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcelo, Steven; Li, Zhiyong

    2016-09-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a compelling technique for low cost nanoscale device fabrication. The precise and repeatable replication of nanoscale patterns from a single high resolution patterning step makes the NIL technique much more versatile than other expensive techniques such as e-beam or even helium ion beam lithography. Furthermore, the use of mechanical deformation during the NIL process enables grayscale lithography with only a single patterning step, not achievable with any other conventional lithography techniques. These strengths enable the fabrication of unique nanoscale devices by NIL for a variety of applications including optics, plasmonics and even biotechnology. Recent advances in throughput and yield in NIL processes demonstrate the potential of being adopted for mainstream semiconductor device fabrication as well.

  3. Nanoimprint lithography for nanodevice fabrication.

    PubMed

    Barcelo, Steven; Li, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a compelling technique for low cost nanoscale device fabrication. The precise and repeatable replication of nanoscale patterns from a single high resolution patterning step makes the NIL technique much more versatile than other expensive techniques such as e-beam or even helium ion beam lithography. Furthermore, the use of mechanical deformation during the NIL process enables grayscale lithography with only a single patterning step, not achievable with any other conventional lithography techniques. These strengths enable the fabrication of unique nanoscale devices by NIL for a variety of applications including optics, plasmonics and even biotechnology. Recent advances in throughput and yield in NIL processes demonstrate the potential of being adopted for mainstream semiconductor device fabrication as well.

  4. Light sources for high-volume manufacturing EUV lithography: technology, performance, and power scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomenkov, Igor; Brandt, David; Ershov, Alex; Schafgans, Alexander; Tao, Yezheng; Vaschenko, Georgiy; Rokitski, Slava; Kats, Michael; Vargas, Michael; Purvis, Michael; Rafac, Rob; La Fontaine, Bruno; De Dea, Silvia; LaForge, Andrew; Stewart, Jayson; Chang, Steven; Graham, Matthew; Riggs, Daniel; Taylor, Ted; Abraham, Mathew; Brown, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is expected to succeed in 193-nm immersion multi-patterning technology for sub-10-nm critical layer patterning. In order to be successful, EUV lithography has to demonstrate that it can satisfy the industry requirements in the following critical areas: power, dose stability, etendue, spectral content, and lifetime. Currently, development of second-generation laser-produced plasma (LPP) light sources for the ASML's NXE:3300B EUV scanner is complete, and first units are installed and operational at chipmaker customers. We describe different aspects and performance characteristics of the sources, dose stability results, power scaling, and availability data for EUV sources and also report new development results.

  5. Porphyrin-Based Photocatalytic Lithography

    PubMed Central

    Bearinger, Jane P.; Stone, Gary; Christian, Allen T.; Dugan, Lawrence; Hiddessen, Amy L.; Wu, Kuang Jen J.; Wu, Ligang; Hamilton, Julie; Stockton, Cheryl; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Photocatalytic lithography couples light with photoreactive coated mask materials to pattern surface chemistry. We excite porphyrins to create radical species that photocatalytically oxidize, and thereby pattern, chemistries in the local vicinity. The technique advantageously is suited for use with a wide variety of substrates. It is fast and robust, and the wavelength of light does not limit the resolution of patterned features. We have patterned proteins and cells to demonstrate the utility of photocatalytic lithography in life science applications. PMID:18380510

  6. Identification, isolation and expression analysis of auxin response factor (ARF) genes in Solanum lycopersicum.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Wang, Feiyan; Cheng, Lin; Kong, Fuling; Peng, Zhen; Liu, Songyu; Yu, Xiaolin; Lu, Gang

    2011-11-01

    Auxin response factors (ARFs) encode transcriptional factors that bind specifically to the TGTCTC-containing auxin response elements found in the promoters of primary/early auxin response genes that regulate plant development. In this study, investigation of the tomato genome revealed 21 putative functional ARF genes (SlARFs), a number comparable to that found in Arabidopsis (23) and rice (25). The full cDNA sequences of 15 novel SlARFs were isolated and delineated by sequencing of PCR products. A comprehensive genome-wide analysis of this gene family is presented, including the gene structures, chromosome locations, phylogeny, and conserved motifs. In addition, a comparative analysis between ARF family genes in tomato and maize was performed. A phylogenetic tree generated from alignments of the full-length protein sequences of 21 OsARFs, 23 AtARFs, 31 ZmARFs, and 21 SlARFs revealed that these ARFs were clustered into four major groups. However, we could not find homologous genes in rice, maize, or tomato with AtARF12-15 and AtARF20-23. The expression patterns of tomato ARF genes were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Our comparative analysis will help to define possible functions for many of these newly isolated ARF-family genes in plant development.

  7. LENS (lithography enhancement toward nano scale): a European project to support double exposure and double patterning technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantu, Pietro; Baldi, Livio; Piacentini, Paolo; Sytsma, Joost; Le Gratiet, Bertrand; Gaugiran, Stéphanie; Wong, Patrick; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Atzei, Luisa R.; Buch, Xavier; Verkleij, Dick; Toublan, Olivier; Perez-Murano, Francesco; Mecerreyes, David

    2010-04-01

    In 2009 a new European initiative on Double Patterning and Double Exposure lithography process development was started in the framework of the ENIAC Joint Undertaking. The project, named LENS (Lithography Enhancement Towards Nano Scale), involves twelve companies from five different European Countries (Italy, Netherlands, France, Belgium Spain; includes: IC makers (Numonyx and STMicroelectronics), a group of equipment and materials companies (ASML, Lam Research srl, JSR, FEI), a mask maker (Dai Nippon Photomask Europe), an EDA company (Mentor Graphics) and four research and development institutes (CEA-Leti, IMEC, Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica, CIDETEC). The LENS project aims to develop and integrate the overall infrastructure required to reach patterning resolutions required by 32nm and 22nm technology nodes through the double patterning and pitch doubling technologies on existing conventional immersion exposure tools, with the purpose to allow the timely development of 32nm and 22nm technology nodes for memories and logic devices, providing a safe alternative to EUV, Higher Refraction Index Fluids Immersion Lithography and maskless lithography, which appear to be still far from maturity. The project will cover the whole lithography supply chain including design, masks, materials, exposure tools, process integration, metrology and its final objective is the demonstration of 22nm node patterning on available 1.35 NA immersion tools on high complexity mask set.

  8. Cryogenic immersion microscope

    DOEpatents

    Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2010-12-14

    A cryogenic immersion microscope whose objective lens is at least partially in contact with a liquid reservoir of a cryogenic liquid, in which reservoir a sample of interest is immersed is disclosed. When the cryogenic liquid has an index of refraction that reduces refraction at interfaces between the lens and the sample, overall resolution and image quality are improved. A combination of an immersion microscope and x-ray microscope, suitable for imaging at cryogenic temperatures is also disclosed.

  9. Extreme ultraviolet lithography machine

    DOEpatents

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Haney, Steven J.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    2000-01-01

    An extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) machine or system for producing integrated circuit (IC) components, such as transistors, formed on a substrate. The EUVL machine utilizes a laser plasma point source directed via an optical arrangement onto a mask or reticle which is reflected by a multiple mirror system onto the substrate or target. The EUVL machine operates in the 10-14 nm wavelength soft x-ray photon. Basically the EUV machine includes an evacuated source chamber, an evacuated main or project chamber interconnected by a transport tube arrangement, wherein a laser beam is directed into a plasma generator which produces an illumination beam which is directed by optics from the source chamber through the connecting tube, into the projection chamber, and onto the reticle or mask, from which a patterned beam is reflected by optics in a projection optics (PO) box mounted in the main or projection chamber onto the substrate. In one embodiment of a EUVL machine, nine optical components are utilized, with four of the optical components located in the PO box. The main or projection chamber includes vibration isolators for the PO box and a vibration isolator mounting for the substrate, with the main or projection chamber being mounted on a support structure and being isolated.

  10. Decal transfer lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childs, William Robert

    A new soft-lithographic method for micropatterning polymeric resists, Decal Transfer Lithography (DTL), is described. This technique is based on the adhesive transfer of elastomeric decal patterns via the engineered adhesion and release properties of a compliant poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) patterning tool. This procedure is capable of transferring micron to sub-micron-sized features with high fidelity over large substrate areas in both open and closed forms, negative and positive image contrasts. Methods are introduced to promote adhesion of PDMS to noble metals using either of two methods: self-assembling monolayers (SAMs) or silicon dioxide capping layers. A novel UV/Ozone (UVO) mask was developed, which allows the photopatterning of UVO modifications of polymer surfaces. This modification in turn enables the direct photoinitiated patterning of resist patterns transferred by the soft-lithographic DTL method Photodefined-Cohesive Mechanical Failure (P-CMF), which fuses the design rules of the contact based adhesive transfer of PDMS in DTL with those of photolithography. The second, so-called Spartacus method, transfers the design rules of photolithography directly onto PDMS surfaces, enabling a photodefined adhesive transfer of PDMS films onto silicon oxide surfaces. The most significant advance embodied in the DTL method, however, is that is offers useful new capabilities for the design and fabrication of patterns of non-planar surfaces, 3D microfluidic assemblies, and microreactors.

  11. Lithography overlay controller formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bode, Christopher A.; Toprac, Anthony J.; Edwards, Richard D.; Edgar, Thomas F.

    2000-08-01

    Lithography overlay refers to the measurement of the alignment of successive patterns within the manufacture of semiconductor devices. Control of overlay has become of great importance in semiconductor manufacturing, as the tolerance for overlay error is continually shrinking in order to manufacture next-generation semiconductor products. Run-to-run control has become an attractive solution to many control problems within the industry, including overlay. The term run-to-run control refers to any automated procedure whereby recipe settings are updated between successive process runs in order to keep the process under control. The following discussion will present the formulation of such a controller by examining control of overlay. A brief introduction of overlay will be given, highlighting the control challenge overlay presents. A data management methodology that groups like processes together in order to improve controllability, referred to as control threads, will then be presented. Finally, a discussion of linear model predictive control will show its utility in feedback run-to-run control.

  12. The Role of ARF6 in Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Glessner, Joseph; Ashokkumar, Chethan; Ranganathan, Sarangarajan; Min, Jun; Higgs, Brandon W.; Sun, Qing; Haberman, Kimberly; Schmitt, Lori; Vilarinho, Silvia; Mistry, Pramod K.; Vockley, Gerard; Dhawan, Anil; Gittes, George K.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Jaffe, Ronald; Subramaniam, Shankar; Shin, Donghun; Sindhi, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Altered extrahepatic bile ducts, gut, and cardiovascular anomalies constitute the variable phenotype of biliary atresia (BA). Methods To identify potential susceptibility loci, Caucasian children, normal (controls) and with BA (cases) at two US centers were compared at >550000 SNP loci. Systems biology analysis was carried out on the data. In order to validate a key gene identified in the analysis, biliary morphogenesis was evaluated in 2-5-day post-fertilization zebrafish embryos after morpholino-antisense oligonucleotide knockdown of the candidate gene ADP ribosylation factor-6 (ARF6, Mo-arf6). Results Among 39 and 24 cases at centers 1 and 2, respectively, and 1907 controls, which clustered together on principal component analysis, the SNPs rs3126184 and rs10140366 in a 3’ flanking enhancer region for ARF6 demonstrated higher minor allele frequencies (MAF) in each cohort, and 63 combined cases, compared with controls (0.286 vs. 0.131, P = 5.94x10-7, OR 2.66; 0.286 vs. 0.13, P = 5.57x10-7, OR 2.66). Significance was enhanced in 77 total cases, which included 14 additional BA genotyped at rs3126184 only (p = 1.58x10-2, OR = 2.66). Pathway analysis of the 1000 top-ranked SNPs in CHP cases revealed enrichment of genes for EGF regulators (p<1 x10-7), ERK/MAPK and CREB canonical pathways (p<1 x10-34), and functional networks for cellular development and proliferation (p<1 x10-45), further supporting the role of EGFR-ARF6 signaling in BA. In zebrafish embryos, Mo-arf6 injection resulted in a sparse intrahepatic biliary network, several biliary epithelial cell defects, and poor bile excretion to the gall bladder compared with uninjected embryos. Biliary defects were reproduced with the EGFR-blocker AG1478 alone or with Mo-arf6 at lower doses of each agent and rescued with arf6 mRNA. Conclusions The BA-associated SNPs identify a chromosome 14q21.3 susceptibility locus encompassing the ARF6 gene. arf6 knockdown in zebrafish implicates early biliary

  13. Differential membrane association properties and regulation of class I and class II Arfs.

    PubMed

    Duijsings, Daniël; Lanke, Kjerstin H W; van Dooren, Sander H J; van Dommelen, Michiel M T; Wetzels, Roy; de Mattia, Fabrizio; Wessels, Els; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M

    2009-03-01

    ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) proteins are small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) that act as major regulators of intracellular vesicular trafficking and secretory organelle pathway integrity. Like all small monomeric GTPases, Arf proteins cycle between a GDP-bound and a GTP-bound state, and this cycling is catalysed by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins. While the class I Arfs, especially Arf1, have been studied extensively, little is known as yet about the function and regulation of class II Arfs, Arf4 and Arf5. In this study, we show that Arf proteins show class-specific dynamic behaviour. Moreover, unlike class I Arfs, membrane association of class II Arfs is resistant to inhibition of large Arf GEFs by Brefeldin A. Through the construction of Arf chimeric proteins, evidence is provided that the N-terminal amphipathic helix and a class-specific residue in the conserved interswitch domain determine the membrane-binding properties of class I and class II Arf proteins. Our results show that fundamental differences exist in behaviour and regulation of these small GTPases.

  14. Physical Limitations in Lithography for Microelectronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, P. G.

    1981-01-01

    Describes techniques being used in the production of microelectronics kits which have replaced traditional optical lithography, including contact and optical projection printing, and X-ray and electron beam lithography. Also includes limitations of each technique described. (SK)

  15. Physical Limitations in Lithography for Microelectronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, P. G.

    1981-01-01

    Describes techniques being used in the production of microelectronics kits which have replaced traditional optical lithography, including contact and optical projection printing, and X-ray and electron beam lithography. Also includes limitations of each technique described. (SK)

  16. Meeting report - Arf and Rab family G proteins.

    PubMed

    Casanova, James E; Hsu, Victor W; Jackson, Catherine L; Kahn, Richard A; Roy, Craig R; Stow, Jennifer L; Wandinger-Ness, Angela; Sztul, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    A FASEB Summer Research Conference entitled 'Arf and Rab family G proteins' was held in July 2013 at Snowmass Village, Snowmass, Colorado. Arfs and Rabs are two families of GTPases that control membrane trafficking in eukaryotic cells, and increasing evidence indicates that their functions are tightly coordinated. Because many workers in this field have focused on only one family, this meeting was designed to integrate our understanding of the two families. The conference was organized by Elizabeth Sztul (University of Alabama, Birmingham, USA) and Jim Casanova (University of Virginia, Charlottesville, USA), and provided an opportunity for approximately 90 scientists to communicate their work and discuss future directions for the field. The talks highlighted the structural, functional and regulatory properties of Arf and Rab GTPases and the need to develop coordinated approaches to investigate them. Here, we present the major themes that emerged from the meeting.

  17. Photoinhibition superresolution lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forman, Darren Lawrence

    While the prospect of nanoscale manufacturing has generated tremendous excitement, arbitrary patterning at nanometer length scales cannot be brought about with current photolithography---the technology that for decades has driven electronics miniaturization and enabled mass production of digital logic, memory, MEMS and flat-panel displays. This is due to the relatively long wavelength of light and diffraction, which imposes a physical not technological limit on the resolution of a far-field optical pattern. Photoinhibited superresolution (PInSR) lithography is a new scheme designed to beat the diffraction limit through two-color confinement of photopolymerization and, via efficient single-photon absorption kinetics, also be high-throughput capable. This thesis describes development of an integrated optical and materials system for investigating spatiotemporal dynamics of photoinhibited superresolution lithography, with a demonstrated 3x superresolution beyond the diffraction limit. The two-color response, arising from orthogonal photogeneration of species that participate in competing reactions, is shown to be highly complex. This is both a direct and indirect consequence of mobility. Interesting trade-offs arise: thin-film resins (necessitated by single-photon absorption kinetics) require high viscosity for film stability, but the photoinhibition effect is suppressed in viscous resins. Despite this apparent suppression, which can be overcome with high excitation of the photoinhibition system, the low mobility afforded by viscous materials is beneficial for confinement of active species. Diffusion-induced blurring of patterned photoinhibition is problematic in a resin with viscosity = 1,000 cP, and overcome in a resin with viscosity eta = 500,000 cP. Superresolution of factor 3x beyond the diffraction limit is demonstrated at 0.2 NA, with additional results indicating superresolution ability at 1.2 NA. Investigating the effect of diminished photoinhibition efficacy

  18. Localization and characterization of the human ADP-ribosylation factor 5 (ARF5) gene

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, R.E. |; Daiger, S.P.; Green, E.D.

    1997-05-01

    ADP-ribosylation factor 5 (ARF5) is a member of the ARF gene family. The ARF proteins stimulate the in vitro ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of cholera toxin and appear to play a role in vesicular trafficking in vivo. We have mapped ARF5, one of the six known mammalian ARF genes, to a well-defined yeast artificial chromosome contig on human chromosome 7q31.3. In addition, we have isolated and sequenced an {approximately}3.2-kb genomic segment that contains the entire ARF5 coding region, revealing the complete intron-exon structure of the gene. With six coding exons and five introns, the genomic structure of ARF5 is unique among the mammalian ARF genes and provides insight about the evolutionary history of this ancient gene family. 20 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Demonstration of EDA flow for massively parallel e-beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, P.; Belledent, J.; Tranquillin, C.; Figueiro, T.; Meunier, S.; Bayle, S.; Fay, A.; Milléquant, M.; Icard, B.; Wieland, M.

    2014-03-01

    Today's soaring complexity in pushing the limits of 193nm immersion lithography drives the development of other technologies. One of these alternatives is mask-less massively parallel electron beam lithography, (MP-EBL), a promising candidate in which future resolution needs can be fulfilled at competitive cost. MAPPER Lithography's MATRIX MP-EBL platform has currently entered an advanced stage of development. The first tool in this platform, the FLX 1200, will operate using more than 1,300 beams, each one writing a stripe 2.2μm wide. 0.2μm overlap from stripe to stripe is allocated for stitching. Each beam is composed of 49 individual sub-beams that can be blanked independently in order to write in a raster scan pixels onto the wafer.

  20. Immersion Meta-Lenses at Visible Wavelengths for Nanoscale Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei Ting; Zhu, Alexander Y; Khorasaninejad, Mohammadreza; Shi, Zhujun; Sanjeev, Vyshakh; Capasso, Federico

    2017-04-13

    Immersion objectives can focus light into a spot smaller than what is achievable in free space, thereby enhancing the spatial resolution for various applications such as microscopy, spectroscopy, and lithography. Despite the availability of advanced lens polishing techniques, hand-polishing is still required to manufacture the front lens of a high-end immersion objective, which poses major constraints for lens design. This limits the shape of the front lens to spherical. Therefore, several other lenses need to be cascaded to correct for spherical aberration, resulting in significant challenges for miniaturization and adding design complexity for different immersion liquids. Here, by using metasurfaces, we demonstrate liquid immersion meta-lenses free of spherical aberration at various design wavelengths in the visible spectrum. We report water and oil immersion meta-lenses of various numerical apertures (NA) up to 1.1 and show that their measured focal spot sizes are diffraction-limited with Strehl ratios of approximately 0.9 at 532 nm. By integrating the oil immersion meta-lens (NA = 1.1) into a commercial scanning confocal microscope, we achieve an imaging spatial resolution of approximately 200 nm. These meta-lenses can be easily adapted to focus light through multilayers of different refractive indices and mass-produced using modern industrial manufacturing or nanoimprint techniques, leading to cost-effective high-end optics.

  1. Human ARF4 expression rescues sec7 mutant yeast cells.

    PubMed Central

    Deitz, S B; Wu, C; Silve, S; Howell, K E; Melançon, P; Kahn, R A; Franzusoff, A

    1996-01-01

    Vesicle-mediated traffic between compartments of the yeast secretory pathway involves recruitment of multiple cytosolic proteins for budding, targeting, and membrane fusion events. The SEC7 gene product (Sec7p) is a constituent of coat structures on transport vesicles en route to the Golgi complex in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To identify mammalian homologs of Sec7p and its interacting proteins, we used a genetic selection strategy in which a human HepG2 cDNA library was transformed into conditional-lethal yeast sec7 mutants. We isolated several clones capable of rescuing sec7 mutant growth at the restrictive temperature. The cDNA encoding the most effective suppressor was identified as human ADP ribosylation factor 4 (hARF4), a member of the GTPase family proposed to regulate recruitment of vesicle coat proteins in mammalian cells. Having identified a Sec7p-interacting protein rather than the mammalian Sec7p homolog, we provide evidence that hARF4 suppressed the sec7 mutation by restoring secretory pathway function. Shifting sec7 strains to the restrictive temperature results in the disappearance of the mutant Sec7p cytosolic pool without apparent changes in the membrane-associated fraction. The introduction of hARF4 to the cells maintained the balance between cytosolic and membrane-associated Sec7p pools. These results suggest a requirement for Sec7p cycling on and off of the membranes for cell growth and vesicular traffic. In addition, overexpression of the yeast GTPase-encoding genes ARF1 and ARF2, but not that of YPT1, suppressed the sec7 mutant growth phenotype in an allele-specific manner. This allele specificity indicates that individual ARFs are recruited to perform two different Sec7p-related functions in vesicle coat dynamics. PMID:8668142

  2. Aspergillus nidulans ArfB Plays a Role in Endocytosis and Polarized Growth ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo Chan; Schmidtke, Sabrina N.; Dangott, Lawrence J.; Shaw, Brian D.

    2008-01-01

    Filamentous fungi undergo polarized growth throughout most of their life cycles. The Spitzenkörper is an apical organelle composed primarily of vesicles that is unique to filamentous fungi and is likely to act as a vesicle supply center for tip growth. Vesicle assembly and trafficking are therefore important for hyphal growth. ADP ribosylation factors (Arfs), a group of small GTPase proteins, play an important role in nucleating vesicle assembly. Little is known about the role of Arfs in filamentous hyphal growth. We found that Aspergillus nidulans is predicted to encode six Arf family proteins. Analysis of protein sequence alignments suggests that A. nidulans ArfB shares similarity with ARF6 of Homo sapiens and Arf3p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An arfB null allele (arfB disrupted by a transposon [arfB::Tn]) was characterized by extended isotropic growth of germinating conidia followed by cell lysis or multiple, random germ tube emergence, consistent with a failure to establish polarity. The mutant germ tubes and hyphae that do form initially meander abnormally off of the axis of polarity and frequently exhibit dichotomous branching at cell apices, consistent with a defect in polarity maintenance. FM4-64 staining of the arfB::Tn strain revealed that another phenotypic characteristic seen for arfB::Tn is a reduction and delay in endocytosis. ArfB is myristoylated at its N terminus. Green fluorescent protein-tagged ArfB (ArfB::GFP) localizes to the plasma membrane and endomembranes and mutation (ArfBG2A::GFP) of the N-terminal myristoylation motif disperses the protein to the cytoplasm rather than to the membranes. These results demonstrate that ArfB functions in endocytosis to play important roles in polarity establishment during isotropic growth and polarity maintenance during hyphal extension. PMID:18539885

  3. ARF inhibits the growth and malignant progression of non-small-cell lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Busch, S E; Moser, R D; Gurley, K E; Kelly-Spratt, K S; Liggitt, H D; Kemp, C J

    2014-05-15

    Non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is among the deadliest of human cancers. The CDKN2A locus, which houses the INK4a and ARF tumor suppressor genes, is frequently altered in NSCLC. However, the specific role of ARF in pulmonary tumorigenesis remains unclear. KRAS and other oncogenes induce the expression of ARF, thus stabilizing p53 activity and arresting cell proliferation. To address the role of ARF in Kras-driven NSCLC, we compared the susceptibility of NIH/Ola strain wild-type and Arf-knockout mice to urethane-induced lung carcinogenesis. Lung tumor size, malignancy and associated morbidity were significantly increased in Arf(-/-) compared with Arf(+/+) animals at 25 weeks after induction. Pulmonary tumors from Arf-knockout mice exhibited increased cell proliferation and DNA damage compared with wild-type mice. A subgroup of tumors in Arf(-/-) animals presented as dedifferentiated and metastatic, with many characteristics of pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma, a neoplasm previously undocumented in mouse models. Our finding of a role for ARF in NSCLC is consistent with the observation that benign adenomas from Arf(+/+) mice robustly expressed ARF, while ARF expression was markedly reduced in malignant adenocarcinomas. ARF expression also frequently colocalized with the expression of p21(CIP1), a transcriptional target of p53, arguing that ARF induces the p53 checkpoint to arrest cell proliferation in vivo. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that induction of ARF is an early response in lung tumorigenesis that mounts a strong barrier against tumor growth and malignant progression.

  4. The Opposing Roles of Nucleophosmin and the ARF Tumor Suppressor in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    demonstrated the physiological significance of the p53-independent ARF path- way through examination of relevant mouse model systems . Mice lacking ARF...In a corroborative study, wild-type and p53-null mice displayed normal development of the hyaloid vascular system in the eye, yet ARF-null and ARF/p53... system (Packard Biosciences, Meriden, Conn.). The extracted peptides were dried under vacuum, purified with Zip Plates (Millipore), resuspended in

  5. ARF1 and ARF6 regulate recycling of GRASP/Tamalin and the Rac1-GEF Dock180 during HGF-induced Rac1 activation.

    PubMed

    Koubek, Emily J; Santy, Lorraine C

    2016-08-12

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent signaling factor that acts on epithelial cells, causing them to dissociate and scatter. This migration is coordinated by a number of small GTPases, such as ARF6 and Rac1. Active ARF6 is required for HGF-stimulated migration and intracellular levels of ARF6-GTP and Rac1-GTP increase following HGF treatment. During migration, cross talk between ARF6 and Rac1 occurs through formation of a multi-protein complex containing the ARF-GEF cytohesin-2, the scaffolding protein GRASP/Tamalin, and the Rac1-GEF Dock180. Previously, the role of ARF6 in this process was unclear. We have now found that ARF6 and ARF1 regulate trafficking of GRASP and Dock180 to the plasma membrane following HGF treatment. Trafficking of GRASP and Dock180 is impaired by blocking ARF6-mediated recycling pathways and is required for HGF-stimulated Rac1 activation. Finally, HGF treatment stimulates association of GRASP and Dock180. Inhibition of ARF6 trafficking pathways traps GRASP and Dock180 as a complex in the cell.

  6. Polymer nanofibers by soft lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisignano, Dario; Maruccio, Giuseppe; Mele, Elisa; Persano, Luana; Di Benedetto, Francesca; Cingolani, Roberto

    2005-09-01

    The fabrication of polymeric fibers by soft lithography is demonstrated. Polyurethane, patterned by capillarity-induced molding with high-resolution elastomeric templates, forms mm-long fibers with a diameter below 0.3μm. The Young's modulus of the fabricated structures, evaluated by force-distance scanning probe spectroscopy, has a value of 0.8MPa. This is an excellent example of nanostructures feasible by the combination of soft nanopatterning and high-resolution fabrication approaches for master templates, and particularly electron-beam lithography.

  7. Porphyrin-Based Photocatalytic Lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Bearinger, J; Stone, G; Christian, A; Dugan, L; Hiddessen, A; Wu, K J; Wu, L; Hamilton, J; Stockton, C; Hubbell, J

    2007-10-15

    Photocatalytic lithography is an emerging technique that couples light with coated mask materials in order to pattern surface chemistry. We excite porphyrins to create radical species that photocatalytically oxidize, and thereby pattern, chemistries in the local vicinity. The technique advantageously does not necessitate mass transport or specified substrates, it is fast and robust and the wavelength of light does not limit the resolution of patterned features. We have patterned proteins and cells in order to demonstrate the utility of photocatalytic lithography in life science applications.

  8. Hydrolysis of bound GTP by ARF protein triggers uncoating of Golgi- derived COP-coated vesicles

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    The cycle of nucleotide exchange and hydrolysis by a small GTP-binding protein, ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF), helps to provide vectoriality to vesicle transport. Coat assembly is triggered when ARF binds GTP, initiating transport vesicle budding, and coat disassembly is triggered when ARF hydrolyzes GTP, allowing the uncoated vesicle to fuse. PMID:8253837

  9. Microfabrication using soft lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiao-Mei

    Soft Lithography is a group of non-photolithographic techniques currently being explored in our group. Four such techniques-microcontact printing (μCP), replica molding (REM), micromolding in capillaries (MIMIC), and microtransfer molding (μTM)-have been demonstrated for fabricating micro- and nanostructures of a variety of materials with dimension >=30 nm. Part I (Chapters 1-5) reviews several aspects of the three molding techniques REM, MIMIC, and μTM. Chapters 1-3 describe μTM and MIMIC, and the use of these techniques in the fabrication of functional devices. μTM is capable of generating μm-scale structures over large areas, on both planar and contoured surfaces, and is able to make 3-dimensional structures layer by layer. The capability of μTM and MIMIC has been demonstrated in the fabrication of single-mode waveguides, waveguide couplers and interferometers. The coupling between waveguides can be tailored by waveguide spacing or the differential in curing time between the waveguides and the cladding. Chapters 4-5 demonstrate the combination of REM and shrinkable polystyrene (PS) films to reduce the feature size of microstructures and to generate microstructures with high aspect ratios on both planar and curved surfaces. A shrinkable PS film is patterned with relief structures, and then heated and shrinks. Thermal shrinkage results in a 100-fold increase in the aspect ratio of the patterned microstructures in the PS film. The microstructures in the shrunken PS films can be transferred to many other materials by REM. Part II (Chapters 6-7) focuses on two issues in the microfabrication using self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) as ultrathin resists. Chapter 6 describes a selective etching solution for transferring patterns of SAMs of alkanethiolates into the underlying layers (e.g., gold, silver, and copper). This etching solution uses thiosulfate as the ligand that coordinates to the metal ions, and ferricyanide as the oxidant. It has been demonstrated to be

  10. Double patterning in lithography for 65nm node with oxidation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Eunsoo; Kim, Jeahee; Choi, Kwangsun; Lee, Minkon; Lee, Doosung; Kim, Myungsoo; Park, Chansik

    2008-03-01

    Recently, in order to increase the number of transistors in wafer by small feature size, optical lithography has been changed to low wavelength from 365nm to 193nm and high NA of 0.93. And further wavelength is aggressively shifting to 13.5nm for more small feature size, i.e., Extreme Ultra Violet Lithography(EUVL), a kind of Next Generation Lithography(NGL)1. And other technologies are developed such as water immersion(193nm) and photo resist Double Patterning(DP). Immersion lens system has high NA up to 1.3 due to high n of water(n=1.44 at 193nm), the parameter k1 is process constant, but 0.25 is a tough limit at a equal line and space, if we use immersion lens with 193nm wavelength than limit of resolution is 37nm. Especially, Double Exposure Technique(DET) process is widely studied because of the resolution enhancement ability using a same material and machine, despite of process complication. And SADP(Self Aligned Double Patten) is newly researched for overlay and LER(Line Edge Roughness) enhancement. In this paper, we illustrate the feasibility of the shift double pattern for 65nm-node flash using a 193nm light dipole source and the possibility of decrease minimum feature size using a property of silicon shrinkage during thermal oxidation process.

  11. ARF-GEP100, a guanine nucleotide-exchange protein for ADP-ribosylation factor 6

    PubMed Central

    Someya, Akimasa; Sata, Makoto; Takeda, Kazuyo; Pacheco-Rodriguez, Gustavo; Ferrans, Victor J.; Moss, Joel; Vaughan, Martha

    2001-01-01

    A human cDNA encoding an 841-aa guanine nucleotide-exchange protein (GEP) for ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs), named ARF-GEP100, which contains a Sec7 domain, a pleckstrin homology (PH)-like domain, and an incomplete IQ-motif, was identified. On Northern blot analysis of human tissues, a ≈8-kb mRNA that hybridized with an ARF-GEP100 cDNA was abundant in peripheral blood leukocytes, brain, and spleen. ARF-GEP100 accelerated [35S]GTPγS binding to ARF1 (class I) and ARF5 (class II) 2- to 3-fold, and to ARF6 (class III) ca. 12-fold. The ARF-GEP100 Sec7 domain contains Asp543 and Met555, corresponding to residues associated with sensitivity to the inhibitory effect of the fungal metabolite brefeldin A (BFA) in yeast Sec7, but also Phe535 and Ala536, associated with BFA-insensitivity. The PH-like domain differs greatly from those of other ARF GEPs in regions involved in phospholipid binding. Consistent with its structure, ARF-GEP100 activity was not affected by BFA or phospholipids. After subcellular fractionation of cultured T98G human glioblastoma cells, ARF6 was almost entirely in the crude membrane fraction, whereas ARF-GEP100, a 100-kDa protein detected with antipeptide antibodies, was cytosolic. On immunofluorescence microscopy, both proteins had a punctate pattern of distribution throughout the cells, with apparent colocalization only in peripheral areas. The coarse punctate distribution of EEA-1 in regions nearer the nucleus appeared to coincide with that of ARF-GEP100 in those areas. No similar coincidence of ARF-GEP100 with AP-1, AP-2, catenin, LAMP-1, or 58K was observed. The new human BFA-insensitive GEP may function with ARF6 in specific endocytic processes. PMID:11226253

  12. ACAPs are arf6 GTPase-activating proteins that function in the cell periphery.

    PubMed

    Jackson, T R; Brown, F D; Nie, Z; Miura, K; Foroni, L; Sun, J; Hsu, V W; Donaldson, J G; Randazzo, P A

    2000-10-30

    The GTP-binding protein ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) regulates endosomal membrane trafficking and the actin cytoskeleton in the cell periphery. GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) are critical regulators of Arf function, controlling the return of Arf to the inactive GDP-bound state. Here, we report the identification and characterization of two Arf6 GAPs, ACAP1 and ACAP2. Together with two previously described Arf GAPs, ASAP1 and PAP, they can be grouped into a protein family defined by several common structural motifs including coiled coil, pleckstrin homology, Arf GAP, and three complete ankyrin-repeat domains. All contain phosphoinositide-dependent GAP activity. ACAP1 and ACAP2 are widely expressed and occur together in the various cultured cell lines we examined. Similar to ASAP1, ACAP1 and ACAP2 were recruited to and, when overexpressed, inhibited the formation of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced dorsal membrane ruffles in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. However, in contrast with ASAP1, ACAP1 and ACAP2 functioned as Arf6 GAPs. In vitro, ACAP1 and ACAP2 preferred Arf6 as a substrate, rather than Arf1 and Arf5, more so than did ASAP1. In HeLa cells, overexpression of either ACAP blocked the formation of Arf6-dependent protrusions. In addition, ACAP1 and ACAP2 were recruited to peripheral, tubular membranes, where activation of Arf6 occurs to allow membrane recycling back to the plasma membrane. ASAP1 did not inhibit Arf6-dependent protrusions and was not recruited by Arf6 to tubular membranes. The additional effects of ASAP1 on PDGF-induced ruffling in fibroblasts suggest that multiple Arf GAPs function coordinately in the cell periphery.

  13. Maskless, reticle-free, lithography

    DOEpatents

    Ceglio, N.M.; Markle, D.A.

    1997-11-25

    A lithography system in which the mask or reticle, which usually carries the pattern to be printed onto a substrate, is replaced by a programmable array of binary (i.e. on/off) light valves or switches which can be programmed to replicate a portion of the pattern each time an illuminating light source is flashed. The pattern of light produced by the programmable array is imaged onto a lithographic substrate which is mounted on a scanning stage as is common in optical lithography. The stage motion and the pattern of light displayed by the programmable array are precisely synchronized with the flashing illumination system so that each flash accurately positions the image of the pattern on the substrate. This is achieved by advancing the pattern held in the programmable array by an amount which corresponds to the travel of the substrate stage each time the light source flashes. In this manner the image is built up of multiple flashes and an isolated defect in the array will only have a small effect on the printed pattern. The method includes projection lithographies using radiation other than optical or ultraviolet light. The programmable array of binary switches would be used to control extreme ultraviolet (EUV), x-ray, or electron, illumination systems, obviating the need for stable, defect free masks for projection EUV, x-ray, or electron, lithographies. 7 figs.

  14. Maskless, reticle-free, lithography

    DOEpatents

    Ceglio, Natale M.; Markle, David A.

    1997-11-25

    A lithography system in which the mask or reticle, which usually carries the pattern to be printed onto a substrate, is replaced by a programmable array of binary (i.e. on/off) light valves or switches which can be programmed to replicate a portion of the pattern each time an illuminating light source is flashed. The pattern of light produced by the programmable array is imaged onto a lithographic substrate which is mounted on a scanning stage as is common in optical lithography. The stage motion and the pattern of light displayed by the programmable array are precisely synchronized with the flashing illumination system so that each flash accurately positions the image of the pattern on the substrate. This is achieved by advancing the pattern held in the programmable array by an amount which corresponds to the travel of the substrate stage each time the light source flashes. In this manner the image is built up of multiple flashes and an isolated defect in the array will only have a small effect on the printed pattern. The method includes projection lithographies using radiation other than optical or ultraviolet light. The programmable array of binary switches would be used to control extreme ultraviolet (EUV), x-ray, or electron, illumination systems, obviating the need for stable, defect free masks for projection EUV, x-ray, or electron, lithographies.

  15. Graphic Arts/Offset Lithography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoisington, James; Metcalf, Joseph

    This revised curriculum for graphic arts is designed to provide secondary and postsecondary students with entry-level skills and an understanding of current printing technology. It contains lesson plans based on entry-level competencies for offset lithography as identified by educators and industry representatives. The guide is divided into 15…

  16. Biomolecular Patterning via Photocatalytic Lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Bearinger, J P; Hiddessen, A L; Wu, K J; Christian, A T; Dugan, L C; Stone, G; Camarero, J; Hinz, A K; Hubbell, J A

    2005-02-18

    We have developed a novel method for patterning surface chemistry: Photocatalytic Lithography. This technique relies on inexpensive stamp materials and light; it does not necessitate mass transport or specified substrates, and the wavelength of light should not limit feature resolution. We have demonstrated the utility of this technique through the patterning of proteins, single cells and bacteria.

  17. Graphic Arts/Offset Lithography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoisington, James; Metcalf, Joseph

    This revised curriculum for graphic arts is designed to provide secondary and postsecondary students with entry-level skills and an understanding of current printing technology. It contains lesson plans based on entry-level competencies for offset lithography as identified by educators and industry representatives. The guide is divided into 15…

  18. Advanced oxidation scanning probe lithography.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Yu K; Garcia, Ricardo

    2017-04-07

    Force microscopy enables a variety of approaches to manipulate and/or modify surfaces. Few of those methods have evolved into advanced probe-based lithographies. Oxidation scanning probe lithography (o-SPL) is the only lithography that enables the direct and resist-less nanoscale patterning of a large variety of materials, from metals to semiconductors; from self-assembled monolayers to biomolecules. Oxidation SPL has also been applied to develop sophisticated electronic and nanomechanical devices such as quantum dots, quantum point contacts, nanowire transistors or mechanical resonators. Here, we review the principles, instrumentation aspects and some device applications of o-SPL. Our focus is to provide a balanced view of the method that introduces the key steps in its evolution, provides some detailed explanations on its fundamentals and presents current trends and applications. To illustrate the capabilities and potential of o-SPL as an alternative lithography we have favored the most recent and updated contributions in nanopatterning and device fabrication.

  19. Advanced oxidation scanning probe lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Yu K.; Garcia, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    Force microscopy enables a variety of approaches to manipulate and/or modify surfaces. Few of those methods have evolved into advanced probe-based lithographies. Oxidation scanning probe lithography (o-SPL) is the only lithography that enables the direct and resist-less nanoscale patterning of a large variety of materials, from metals to semiconductors; from self-assembled monolayers to biomolecules. Oxidation SPL has also been applied to develop sophisticated electronic and nanomechanical devices such as quantum dots, quantum point contacts, nanowire transistors or mechanical resonators. Here, we review the principles, instrumentation aspects and some device applications of o-SPL. Our focus is to provide a balanced view of the method that introduces the key steps in its evolution, provides some detailed explanations on its fundamentals and presents current trends and applications. To illustrate the capabilities and potential of o-SPL as an alternative lithography we have favored the most recent and updated contributions in nanopatterning and device fabrication.

  20. Nanoscale lithography mediated by surface self-assembly of 16-[3,5-bis(mercaptomethyl)phenoxy]hexadecanoic acid on Au(111) investigated by scanning probe microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Xianglin; Lee, Han Ju; Tian, Tian; Lee, T Randall; Garno, Jayne C

    2014-08-25

    The solution-phase self-assembly of bidentate 16-[3,5-bis(mercapto-methyl)phenoxy]hexadecanoic acid (BMPHA) on Au(111) was studied using nano-fabrication protocols with scanning probe nanolithography and immersion particle lithography. Molecularly thin films of BMPHA prepared by surface self-assembly have potential application as spatially selective layers in sensor designs. Either monolayer or bilayer films of BMPHA can be formed under ambient conditions, depending on the parameters of concentration and immersion intervals. Experiments with scanning probe-based lithography (nanoshaving and nanografting) were applied to measure the thickness of BMPHA films. The thickness of a monolayer and bilayer film of BMPHA on Au(111) were measured in situ with atomic force microscopy using n-octadecanethiol as an internal reference. Scanning probe-based nanofabrication provides a way to insert nanopatterns of a reference molecule of known dimensions within a matrix film of unknown thickness to enable a direct comparison of heights and surface morphology. Immersion particle lithography was used to prepare a periodic arrangement of nanoholes within films of BMPHA. The nanoholes could be backfilled by immersion in a SAM solution to produce nanodots of n-octadecanethiol surrounded by a film of BMPHA. Test platforms prepared by immersion particle lithography enables control of the dimensions of surface sites to construct supramolecular assemblies.

  1. Plasmonic films based on colloidal lithography.

    PubMed

    Ai, Bin; Yu, Ye; Möhwald, Helmuth; Zhang, Gang; Yang, Bai

    2014-04-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in the field of plasmonic films fabricated by colloidal lithography. Compared with conventional lithography techniques such as electron beam lithography and focused ion beam lithography, the unconventional colloidal lithography technique with advantages of low-cost and high-throughput has made the fabrication process more efficient, and moreover brought out novel films that show remarkable surface plasmon features. These plasmonic films include those with nanohole arrays, nanovoid arrays and nanoshell arrays with precisely controlled shapes, sizes, and spacing. Based on these novel nanostructures, optical and sensing performances can be greatly enhanced. The introduction of colloidal lithography provides not only efficient fabrication processes but also plasmonic films with unique nanostructures, which are difficult to be fabricated by conventional lithography techniques. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Therapeutic Targets in the ARF Tumor Suppressor Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Saporita, Anthony J.; Maggi, Leonard B.; Apicelli, Anthony J.; Weber, Jason D.

    2008-01-01

    One of the outstanding fundamental questions in cancer cell biology concerns how cells coordinate cellular growth (or macromolecular synthesis) with cell cycle progression and mitosis. Intuitively, rapidly dividing cells must have some control over these processes; otherwise cells would continue to shrink in volume with every passing cycle, similar to the cytoreductive divisions seen in the very early stages of embryogenesis. The problem is easily solved in unicellular organisms, such as yeast, as their growth rates are entirely dependent on nutrient availability. Multicellular organisms such as mammals, however, must have acquired additional levels of control, as nutrient availability is seldom an issue and the organism has a prodigious capacity to store necessary metabolites in the form of glycogen, lipids, and protein. Furthermore, the specific needs and specialized architecture of tissues must constrain growth for growth’s sake; if not, the necessary function of the organ could be lost. While certainly a myriad of mechanisms for preventing this exist via initiating cell death (e.g. apoptosis, autophagy, necrosis), these all depend on some external cue, such as death signals, hypoxia, lack of nutrients or survival signals. However there must also be some cell autonomous method for surveying against inappropriate growth signals (such as oncogenic stress) that occur in a stochastic fashion, possibly as a result of random mutations. The ARF tumor suppressor seems to fulfill that role, as its expression is near undetectable in normal tissues, yet is potently induced by oncogenic stress (such as overexpression of oncogenic Ras or myc). As a result of induced expression of ARF, the tumor suppressor protein p53 is stabilized and promotes cell cycle arrest. Mutations or epigenetic alterations of the INK4a/Arf locus are second only to p53 mutations in cancer cells, and in some cancers, alterations in both Arf and p53 observed, suggesting that these two tumor

  3. CD and defect improvement challenges for immersion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehara, Keisuke; Ema, Tatsuhiko; Yamasaki, Toshinari; Nakagawa, Seiji; Ishitani, Seiji; Morita, Akihiko; Kim, Jeonghun; Kanaoka, Masashi; Yasuda, Shuichi; Asai, Masaya

    2009-03-01

    The intention of this study is to develop an immersion lithography process using advanced track solutions to achieve world class critical dimension (CD) and defectivity performance in a state of the art manufacturing facility. This study looks at three important topics for immersion lithography: defectivity, CD control, and wafer backside contamination. The topic of defectivity is addressed through optimization of coat, develop, and rinse processes as well as implementation of soak steps and bevel cleaning as part of a comprehensive defect solution. Develop and rinse processing techniques are especially important in the effort to achieve a zero defect solution. Improved CD control is achieved using a biased hot plate (BHP) equipped with an electrostatic chuck. This electrostatic chuck BHP (eBHP) is not only able to operate at a very uniform temperature, but it also allows the user to bias the post exposure bake (PEB) temperature profile to compensate for systematic within-wafer (WiW) CD non-uniformities. Optimized CD results, pre and post etch, are presented for production wafers. Wafer backside particles can cause focus spots on an individual wafer or migrate to the exposure tool's wafer stage and cause problems for a multitude of wafers. A basic evaluation of the cleaning efficiency of a backside scrubber unit located on the track was performed as a precursor to a future study examining the impact of wafer backside condition on scanner focus errors as well as defectivity in an immersion scanner.

  4. Simultaneous immersion Mirau interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Lyulko, Oleksandra V.; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Brenner, David J.

    2013-01-01

    A novel technique for label-free imaging of live biological cells in aqueous medium that is insensitive to ambient vibrations is presented. This technique is a spin-off from previously developed immersion Mirau interferometry. Both approaches utilize a modified Mirau interferometric attachment for a microscope objective that can be used both in air and in immersion mode, when the device is submerged in cell medium and has its internal space filled with liquid. While immersion Mirau interferometry involves first capturing a series of images, the resulting images are potentially distorted by ambient vibrations. Overcoming these serial-acquisition challenges, simultaneous immersion Mirau interferometry incorporates polarizing elements into the optics to allow simultaneous acquisition of two interferograms. The system design and production are described and images produced with the developed techniques are presented. PMID:23742552

  5. Hypergrowth mTORC1 Signals Translationally Activate the ARF Tumor Suppressor Checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Miceli, Alexander P.; Saporita, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    The ARF tumor suppressor is a potent sensor of hyperproliferative cues emanating from oncogenic signaling. ARF responds to these cues by eliciting a cell cycle arrest, effectively abating the tumorigenic potential of these stimuli. Prior reports have demonstrated that oncogenic RasV12 signaling induces ARF through a mechanism mediated by the Dmp1 transcription factor. However, we now show that ARF protein is still induced in response to RasV12 in the absence of Dmp1 through the enhanced translation of existing Arf mRNAs. Here, we report that the progrowth Ras/tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)/mTORC1 signaling pathway regulates ARF protein expression and triggers ARF-mediated tumor suppression through a novel translational mechanism. Hyperactivation of mTORC1 through Tsc1 loss resulted in a significant increase in ARF expression, activation of the p53 pathway, and a dramatic cell cycle arrest, which were completely reversed upon Arf deletion. ARF protein induced from RasV12 in the absence of Dmp1 repressed anchorage-independent colony formation in soft agar and tumor burden in an allograft model. Taken together, our data demonstrate the ability of the ARF tumor suppressor to respond to hypergrowth stimuli to prevent unwarranted tumor formation. PMID:22064482

  6. ARF regulates the stability of p16 protein via REGγ-dependent proteasome degradation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takashi; Wang, Jingqiang; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat; Abate-Shen, Cory

    2013-08-01

    The cell-cycle regulatory gene INK4A-ARF (CDKN2A) has two alternative transcripts that produce entirely different proteins, namely p14(ARF) and p16, which have complementary functions as regulators of p53 and pRB tumor suppressor pathways, respectively. The unusual organization of INK4A-ARF has long led to speculation of a need for coordinated regulation of p14(ARF) and p16. We now show that p14(ARF) (ARF) regulates the stability of p16 protein in human cancer cell lines, as well as in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). In particular, ARF promotes rapid degradation of p16 protein, which is mediated by the proteasome and, more specifically, by interaction of ARF with one of its subunits, REGγ. Furthermore, this ARF-dependent destabilization of p16 can be abrogated by knockdown of REGγ or by pharmacologic blockade of its nuclear export. Thus, our findings have uncovered a novel crosstalk of 2 key tumor suppressors mediated by a REGγ-dependent mechanism. The ability of ARF to control p16 stability may influence cell-cycle function. The ability of ARF to control p16 stability may influence cell cycle function. Visual Overview: http://mcr.aacrjournals.org/content/current. ©2013 AACR.

  7. The small G-protein Arf6GTP recruits the AP-2 adaptor complex to membranes.

    PubMed

    Paleotti, Olivia; Macia, Eric; Luton, Frederic; Klein, Stephanie; Partisani, Mariagrazia; Chardin, Pierre; Kirchhausen, Tom; Franco, Michel

    2005-06-03

    The small GTP-binding protein ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) is involved in plasma membrane/endosomes trafficking. However, precisely how the activation of Arf6 regulates vesicular transport is still unclear. Here, we show that, in vitro, recombinant Arf6GTP recruits purified clathrin-adaptor complex AP-2 (but not AP-1) onto phospholipid liposomes in the absence of phosphoinositides. We also show that phosphoinositides and Arf6 tightly cooperate to translocate AP-2 to the membrane. In vivo, Arf6GTP (but not Arf6GDP) was found associated to AP-2. The expression of the GTP-locked mutant of Arf6 leads to the plasma membrane redistribution of AP-2 in Arf6GTP-enriched areas. Finally, we demonstrated that the expression of the GTP-locked mutant of Arf6 inhibits transferrin receptor internalization without affecting its recycling. Altogether, our results demonstrated that Arf6GTP interacts specifically with AP-2 and promotes its membrane recruitment. These findings strongly suggest that Arf6 plays a major role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis by directly controlling the assembly of the AP-2/clathrin coat.

  8. The human ARF tumor suppressor senses blastema activity and suppresses epimorphic tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Robert G; Kouklis, Gayle K; Ahituv, Nadav; Pomerantz, Jason H

    2015-11-17

    The control of proliferation and differentiation by tumor suppressor genes suggests that evolution of divergent tumor suppressor repertoires could influence species' regenerative capacity. To directly test that premise, we humanized the zebrafish p53 pathway by introducing regulatory and coding sequences of the human tumor suppressor ARF into the zebrafish genome. ARF was dormant during development, in uninjured adult fins, and during wound healing, but was highly expressed in the blastema during epimorphic fin regeneration after amputation. Regenerative, but not developmental signals resulted in binding of zebrafish E2f to the human ARF promoter and activated conserved ARF-dependent Tp53 functions. The context-dependent activation of ARF did not affect growth and development but inhibited regeneration, an unexpected distinct tumor suppressor response to regenerative versus developmental environments. The antagonistic pleiotropic characteristics of ARF as both tumor and regeneration suppressor imply that inducing epimorphic regeneration clinically would require modulation of ARF -p53 axis activation.

  9. Multi-Push (MP) Acoustic Radiation Force (ARF) Ultrasound for Assessing Tissue Viscoelasticity, In Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Scola, Mallory R.; Baggesen, Leslie M.; Gallippi, Caterina M.

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic radiation force (ARF) ultrasound is a method of elastographic imaging in which micron-scale tissue displacements, induced and tracked by ultrasound, reflect clinically relevant tissue mechanical properties. Our laboratory has recently shown that tissue viscoelasticity is assessed using the novel Multi-Push (MP) ARF method. MP ARF applies the Voigt model for viscoelastic materials and compares the displacements achieved by successive ARF excitations to qualitatively or quantitatively represent the relaxation time for constant stress, which is a direct descriptor of the viscoelastic response of the tissue. We have demonstrated MP ARF in custom viscoelastic tissue mimicking materials and implemented the method in vivo in canine muscle and human renal allografts, with strong spatial correlation between MP ARF findings and histochemical features and previously reported mechanical changes with renal disease. These data support that noninvasive MP ARF is capable of clinically relevant assessment of tissue viscoelastic properties. PMID:23366389

  10. Lithography yield estimation model to predict layout pattern distortions with a reduced set of lithography simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Sergio; Moll, Francesc; Mauricio, Juan

    2014-03-01

    A yield estimation model to evaluate the lithography distortion in a printed layout is presented. The yield model relates the probability of non-failure of a lithography hotspot with the manufacturing yield loss. We define a lithography hotspot as a pattern construct with excessive variation under lithography printing using lithography simulations. Thereby, we propose a pattern construct classifier to reduce the set of lithography simulations necessary to estimate the litho-degradation. The application of the yield model is demonstrated for different layout configurations showing that a certain degree of layout regularity improves the manufacturing yield and increases the number of good dies per wafer.

  11. Expression of a dominant allele of human ARF1 inhibits membrane traffic in vivo

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) proteins and inhibitory peptides derived from ARFs have demonstrated activities in a number of in vitro assays that measure ER-to-Golgi and intra-Golgi transport and endosome fusion. To better understand the roles of ARF proteins in vivo, stable cell lines were obtained from normal rat kidney (NRK) cells transfected with either wild-type or a dominant activating allele ([Q71L]) of the human ARF1 gene under the control of the interferon-inducible mouse Mx1 promoter. Upon addition of interferon, expression of ARF1 proteins increased with a half-time of 7-8 h, as determined by immunoblot analysis. Induction of mutant ARF1, but not wild-type ARF1, led to an inhibition of protein secretion with kinetics similar to that observed for induction of protein expression. Examination of the Golgi apparatus and the ER by indirect immunofluorescence or transmission electron microscopy revealed that expression of low levels of mutant ARF1 protein correlated with a dramatic increase in vesiculation of the Golgi apparatus and expansion of the ER lumen, while expression of substantially higher levels of wild-type ARF1 had no discernible effect. Endocytosis was also inhibited by expression of mutant ARF1, but not by the wild-type protein. Finally, the expression of [Q71L]ARF1, but not wild-type ARF1, antagonized the actions of brefeldin A, as determined by the delayed loss of ARF and beta-COP from Golgi membranes and disruption of the Golgi apparatus. General models for the actions of ARF1 in membrane traffic events are discussed. PMID:8294513

  12. X-ray lithography source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, Melvin A.; Boyers, David G.; Pincus, Cary

    1991-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and elminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an exellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography.

  13. EUV Lithography: New Metrology Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Obert

    2007-09-26

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography is one of the most promising printing techniques for high volume semiconductor manufacturing at the 22 nm half-pitch device node and beyond. Because its imaging wavelength is approximately twenty times shorter than those currently in use (13.5 nm versus 193-248 nm) and because EUV optics and masks must be provided with highly-precise reflective multilayer coatings, EUV lithography presents a number of new and difficult metrology challenges. In this paper, the current status of the metrology tools being used to characterize the figure and finish of EUV mirror surfaces, the defectivity and flatness of EUV mask blanks and the outgassing rates of EUV resist materials are discussed.

  14. X-ray lithography source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.

    1991-12-31

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits is disclosed. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and eliminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an excellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography. 26 figures.

  15. Process optimization using lithography simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, Andreas

    2004-05-01

    Lithography simulation has become an indispensable tool for understanding and optimization of lithographic processes and for the development of new processes. Aerial image simulations are used to evaluate the imaging of designed photomasks by projection steppers or scanners and to explore the impact of optical parameters such as numerical aperture, spatial coherence, defocus, and wave aberrations on the imaging performance. Other simulation approaches are used to describe the impact of the photoresist thickness, of the post exposure (PEB) temperature, and of the development characteristics of the photoresist on the total process performance. This article reviews the most important modeling approaches which are used in lithography simulation. Several examples demonstrate the application of modern simulation tools for the optimization of lithographic mask and illumination geometries. This includes the application of genetic algorithms for global parameter optimization and the rigorous electromagnetic modeling of light diffraction from advanced lithographic masks.

  16. Immersive cyberspace system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Brian V. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An immersive cyberspace system is presented which provides visual, audible, and vibrational inputs to a subject remaining in neutral immersion, and also provides for subject control input. The immersive cyberspace system includes a relaxation chair and a neutral immersion display hood. The relaxation chair supports a subject positioned thereupon, and places the subject in position which merges a neutral body position, the position a body naturally assumes in zero gravity, with a savasana yoga position. The display hood, which covers the subject's head, is configured to produce light images and sounds. An image projection subsystem provides either external or internal image projection. The display hood includes a projection screen moveably attached to an opaque shroud. A motion base supports the relaxation chair and produces vibrational inputs over a range of about 0-30 Hz. The motion base also produces limited translation and rotational movements of the relaxation chair. These limited translational and rotational movements, when properly coordinated with visual stimuli, constitute motion cues which create sensations of pitch, yaw, and roll movements. Vibration transducers produce vibrational inputs from about 20 Hz to about 150 Hz. An external computer, coupled to various components of the immersive cyberspace system, executes a software program and creates the cyberspace environment. One or more neutral hand posture controllers may be coupled to the external computer system and used to control various aspects of the cyberspace environment, or to enter data during the cyberspace experience.

  17. IGF-1 drives chromogranin A secretion via activation of Arf1 in human neuroendocrine tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    Münzberg, Christin; Höhn, Katharina; Krndija, Denis; Maaß, Ulrike; Bartsch, Detlef K; Slater, Emily P; Oswald, Franz; Walther, Paul; Seufferlein, Thomas; von Wichert, Götz

    2015-01-01

    Hypersecretion is the major symptom of functional neuroendocrine tumours. The mechanisms that contribute to this excessive secretion of hormones are still elusive. A key event in secretion is the exit of secretory products from the Golgi apparatus. ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) GTPases are known to control vesicle budding and trafficking, and have a leading function in the regulation of formation of secretory granula at the Golgi. Here, we show that Arf1 is the predominant Arf protein family member expressed in the neuroendocrine pancreatic tumour cell lines BON and QGP-1. In BON cells Arf1 colocalizes with Golgi markers as well as chromogranin A, and shows significant basal activity. The inhibition of Arf1 activity or expression significantly impaired secretion of chromogranin A. Furthermore, we show that the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), a major regulator of growth and secretion in BON cells, induces Arf1 activity. We found that activation of Arf1 upon IGF-1 receptor stimulation is mediated by MEK/ERK signalling pathway in BON and QGP-1 cells. Moreover, the activity of Arf1 in BON cells is mediated by autocrinely secreted IGF-1, and concomitantly, autocrine IGF1 secretion is maintained by Arf1 activity. In summary, our data indicate an important regulatory role for Arf1 at the Golgi in hypersecretion in neuroendocrine cancer cells. PMID:25754106

  18. IGF-1 drives chromogranin A secretion via activation of Arf1 in human neuroendocrine tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Münzberg, Christin; Höhn, Katharina; Krndija, Denis; Maaß, Ulrike; Bartsch, Detlef K; Slater, Emily P; Oswald, Franz; Walther, Paul; Seufferlein, Thomas; von Wichert, Götz

    2015-05-01

    Hypersecretion is the major symptom of functional neuroendocrine tumours. The mechanisms that contribute to this excessive secretion of hormones are still elusive. A key event in secretion is the exit of secretory products from the Golgi apparatus. ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) GTPases are known to control vesicle budding and trafficking, and have a leading function in the regulation of formation of secretory granula at the Golgi. Here, we show that Arf1 is the predominant Arf protein family member expressed in the neuroendocrine pancreatic tumour cell lines BON and QGP-1. In BON cells Arf1 colocalizes with Golgi markers as well as chromogranin A, and shows significant basal activity. The inhibition of Arf1 activity or expression significantly impaired secretion of chromogranin A. Furthermore, we show that the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), a major regulator of growth and secretion in BON cells, induces Arf1 activity. We found that activation of Arf1 upon IGF-1 receptor stimulation is mediated by MEK/ERK signalling pathway in BON and QGP-1 cells. Moreover, the activity of Arf1 in BON cells is mediated by autocrinely secreted IGF-1, and concomitantly, autocrine IGF1 secretion is maintained by Arf1 activity. In summary, our data indicate an important regulatory role for Arf1 at the Golgi in hypersecretion in neuroendocrine cancer cells.

  19. Tumor suppressor ARF regulates tissue microenvironment and tumor growth through modulation of macrophage polarization.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-García, Lidia; Herranz, Sandra; Higueras, María Angeles; Luque, Alfonso; Hortelano, Sonsoles

    2016-10-11

    Tumor microenvironment has been described to play a key role in tumor growth, progression, and metastasis. Macrophages are a major cellular constituent of the tumor stroma, and particularly tumor associated macrophages (TAMs or M2-like macrophages) exert important immunosuppressive activity and a pro-tumoral role within the tumor microenvironment. Alternative-reading frame (ARF) gene is widely inactivated in human cancer. We have previously demonstrated that ARF deficiency severely impairs inflammatory response establishing a new role for ARF in the regulation of innate immunity. On the basis of these observations, we hypothesized that ARF may also regulates tumor growth through recruitment and modulation of the macrophage phenotype in the tumor microenvironment. Xenograft assays of B16F10 melanoma cells into ARF-deficient mice resulted in increased tumor growth compared to those implanted in WT control mice. Tumors from ARF-deficient mice exhibited significantly increased number of TAMs as well as microvascular density. Transwell assays showed crosstalk between tumor cells and macrophages. On the one hand, ARF-deficient macrophages modulate migratory ability of the tumor cells. And on the other, tumor cells promote the skewing of ARF-/- macrophages toward a M2-type polarization. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that ARF deficiency facilitates the infiltration of macrophages into the tumor mass and favors their polarization towards a M2 phenotype, thus promoting tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth. This work provides novel information about the critical role of ARF in the modulation of tumor microenvironment.

  20. SlARF2a plays a negative role in mediating axillary shoot formation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tao; Liu, Xin; Wang, Rong; Dong, Xiufen; Guan, Xiaoxi; Wang, Yanling; Jiang, Yun; Shi, Zihang; Qi, Mingfang; Li, Tianlai

    2016-01-01

    SlARF2a is expressed in most plant organs, including roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. A detailed expression study revealed that SlARF2a is mainly expressed in the leaf nodes and cross-sections of the nodes indicated that SlARF2a expression is restricted to vascular organs. Decapitation or the application of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) can initially promote axillary shoots, during which SlARF2a expression is significantly reduced. Down-regulation of SlARF2a expression results in an increased frequency of dicotyledons and significantly increased lateral organ development. Stem anatomy studies have revealed significantly altered cambia and phloem in tomato plants expressing down-regulated levels of ARF2a, which is associated with obvious alterations in auxin distribution. Further analysis has revealed that altered auxin transport may occur via altered pin expression. To identify the interactions of AUX/IAA and TPL with ARF2a, four axillary shoot development repressors that are down-regulated during axillary shoot development, IAA3, IAA9, SlTPL1 and SlTPL6, were tested for their direct interactions with ARF2a. Although none of these repressors are directly involved in ARF2a activity, similar expression patterns of IAA3, IAA9 and ARF2a implied they might work tightly in axillary shoot formation and other developmental processes. PMID:27645097

  1. Nanoimprint lithography for microfluidics manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreindl, Gerald; Matthias, Thorsten

    2013-12-01

    The history of imprint technology as lithography method for pattern replication can be traced back to 1970's but the most significant progress has been made by the research group of S. Chou in the 1990's. Since then, it has become a popular technique with a rapidly growing interest from both research and industrial sides and a variety of new approaches have been proposed along the mainstream scientific advances. Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a novel method for the fabrication of micro/nanometer scale patterns with low cost, high throughput and high resolution. Unlike traditional optical lithographic approaches, which create pattern through the use of photons or electrons to modify the chemical and physical properties of the resist, NIL relies on direct mechanical deformation of the resist and can therefore achieve resolutions beyond the limitations set by light diffraction or beam scattering that are encountered in conventional lithographic techniques. The ability to fabricate structures from the micro- to the nanoscale with high precision in a wide variety of materials is of crucial importance to the advancement of micro- and nanotechnology and the biotech- sciences as a whole and will be discussed in this paper. Nanoimprinting can not only create resist patterns, as in lithography, but can also imprint functional device structures in various polymers, which can lead to a wide range of applications in electronics, photonics, data storage, and biotechnology.

  2. X ray lithography in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemens, James T.; Hill, Robert W.; Cerrina, Franco; Fuller, Gene E.; Pease, R. F.

    1991-10-01

    Integrated circuits (semiconductors) are the key components of modern computers, communication systems, consumer electronics, and the new generations of smart machines and instruments. Japan's strong position and growing influence in the manufacture of semiconductors and systems based on them is well known and well documented. Microlithography is one the most critical elements of the semiconductor manufacturing process because it determines the minimum feature size and the functional capabilities of the semiconductor. Because it is used many times in the manufacturing sequence, the quality of the microlithography process (i.e., number of defects, control for feature size, etc.) is critical in determining the yield and cost of semiconductors and hence the competitiveness of the electronics industry. At present all volume semiconductor manufacturing is done with optical UV (ultraviolet) projection lithography, twenty-year-old photographic technology which has been and is still evolving. There are many issues that limit the technical capability and cost-effectiveness of UV lithography, and thus, alternate lithographic techniques are continuously being researched and developed. X-ray lithography, which was invented in the early 1970's, holds the promise of providing higher yields in manufacturing semiconductors by virtue of enhanced process latitude, process robustness, and resolution.

  3. ARF1 recruits RAC1 to leading edge in neutrophil chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Mazaki, Yuichi; Onodera, Yasuhito; Higashi, Tsunehito; Horinouchi, Takahiro; Oikawa, Tsukasa; Sabe, Hisataka

    2017-10-02

    The small GTPase ARF1 mediates membrane trafficking mostly from the Golgi, and is essential for the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated chemotaxis of neutrophils. In this process, ARF1 is activated by the guanine nucleotide exchanger GBF1, and is inactivated by the GTPase-activating protein GIT2. Neutrophils generate the Gβγ-PAK1-αPIX-GIT2 linear complex during GPCR-induced chemotaxis, in which αPIX activates RAC1/CDC42, which then employs PAK1. However, it has remained unclear as to why GIT2 is included in this complex. We investigated the association between ARF1 and RAC1/CDC42 during the fMLP-stimulated chemotaxis of HL60 cells. We found that the silencing of GBF1 significantly impaired the recruitment of RAC1 to the leading edges, but not PAK1, αPIX, RAC2, or CDC42. A significant population of RAC1 colocalized with ARF1 at the leading edges in stimulated cells, whereas fMLP activated both ARF1 and ARF5. Consistently, the silencing of ARF1, but not ARF5, impaired the recruitment of RAC1, whereas the silencing of RAC1 did not affect the recruitment of ARF1 to the leading edges. Our results indicated that the activation of ARF1 triggers the plasma membrane recruitment of RAC1 in GPCR-mediated chemotaxis, which is essential for cortical actin remodeling. Thus, membrane remodeling at the leading edges appears to precede actin remodeling in chemotaxis. Together with the fact that GIT2, which inactivates ARF1, is an integral component of the machinery activating RAC1, we proposed a model in which the ARF1-RAC1 linkage enables the regulation of ARF1 by repetitive on/off cycles during GPCR-mediated neutrophil chemotaxis.

  4. Allosteric properties of PH domains in Arf regulatory proteins.

    PubMed

    Roy, Neeladri Sekhar; Yohe, Marielle E; Randazzo, Paul A; Gruschus, James M

    2016-01-01

    Pleckstrin Homology (PH) domains bind phospholipids and proteins. They are critical regulatory elements of a number enzymes including guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) for Ras-superfamily guanine nucleotide binding proteins such as ADP-ribosylation factors (Arfs). Recent studies have indicated that many PH domains may bind more than one ligand cooperatively. Here we discuss the molecular basis of PH domain-dependent allosteric behavior of 2 ADP-ribosylation factor exchange factors, Grp1 and Brag2, cooperative binding of ligands to the PH domains of Grp1 and the Arf GTPase-activating protein, ASAP1, and the consequences for activity of the associated catalytic domains.

  5. Comparison of star and linear ArF resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forman, Drew C.; Wieberger, Florian; Gröschel, Andre; Müller, Axel H. E.; Schmidt, Hans-Werner; Ober, Christopher K.

    2010-04-01

    Linear and star-shaped ArF photoresists were prepared and preliminary lithographic comparison was performed using electron-beam exposure. An oligo-initiator based on saccharose forms the core of the star shaped photoresist from which three standard ArF photoresist monomers, α-gamma butyrolactone methacrylate (GBLMA), methyl adamantyl methacrylate (MAMA) and hydroxyl adamantyl methacrylate (HAMA) were polymerized. Conditions were adjusted to obtain a low polydispersity, 6 kg/mol star polymer with a degree of polymerization of approximately five mers per arm. For comparison, a linear photoresist control was prepared using the same scheme. The star resist architecture was found to improve roughness without reducing sensitivity or resolution.

  6. Role of the ARF Tumor Suppressor in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    as it is nearly identical from zebra fish to humans (Fig. 2D). Heterogeneous complexes containing NPM NES mutants and wild-type NPM fail to shuttle...independent mechanisms to regulate prostate cell proliferation. Table 1. Protein Expression in Prostate Adenocarcinomas Human prostate tissue samples...into why Arf-/- PEpC are not transformed. In addition, I have finally received a few samples from the Tissue Procurement Core at Washington

  7. Role of the ARF Tumor Suppressor in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    expression of TSC1 TSC1 regulates ribosome export through NPM 15 Pelletier et al. 2006 in Tsc1-/-/p53-/- cells reduced NPM protein expression below basal ... nucleo - lus. Moreover, using in vivo heterokaryon shuttling assays (50), we have previously shown that NPM readily shuttles between the nucleolus...hyperproliferative signals, nucleolar ARF directly binds NPM, effectively inhibiting NPM’s nucleo - cytoplasmic shuttling. Here, we have further explored

  8. Role of the ARF Tumor Suppressor in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    examined steady state ribosome output by measuring cytoplasmic levels of rRNA separated over sucrose gradients . As shown in Figure 9C, loss of p14ARF...rRNA transcript copy number. Results are means ± SD. C Cell were harvested, counted and cytoplasmic extracts separated on sucrose gradients . The... sucrose gradients . The gradients were fractionated with constant monitoring at 254 nm to measure rRNA content. The traces are representative of at

  9. Gasoline immersion injury

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, L.A.; Cruse, C.W.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical burns and pulmonary complications are the most common problems encountered in the patient immersed in gasoline. Our patient demonstrated a 46-percent total-body-surface area, partial-thickness chemical burn. Although he did not develop bronchitis or pneumonitis, he did display persistent atelectasis, laryngeal edema, and subsequent upper airway obstruction. This had not previously been reported in gasoline inhalation injuries. Hydrocarbon hepatitis secondary to the vascular endothelial damage is apparently a reversible lesion with no reported long-term sequelae. Gasoline immersion injuries may be a series multisystem injury and require the burn surgeon to take a multisystem approach to its diagnosis and treatment.

  10. ArfGAP1 is a GTPase Activating Protein for LRRK2: Reciprocal Regulation of ArfGAP1 by LRRK2

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yulan; Yuan, Changqing; Chen, Rong; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.

    2012-01-01

    Both sporadic and autosomal dominant forms of Parkinson’s disease (PD) have been causally linked to mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), a large protein with multiple domains. The kinase domain plays an important role in LRRK2 mediated toxicity. While a number of investigations have focused on LRRK2 kinase activity, less is known about the GTPase function of LRRK2. The activity of GTPases is regulated by GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) and GTP exchange factors (GEFs). Here, we identify ArfGAP1 as the first GAP for LRRK2. ArfGAP1 binds LRRK2 predominantly via the WD40 and kinase domain of LRRK2 and it increases LRRK2 GTPase activity and regulates LRRK2 toxicity both in vitro and in vivo in Drosophila melanogaster. Unexpectedly, ArfGAP1 is a LRRK2 kinase substrate whose GAP activity is inhibited by LRRK2, while wild type and G2019S LRRK2 autophosphorylation and kinase activity are significantly reduced in the presence of ArfGAP1. Overexpressed ArfGAP1 exhibits toxicity that is reduced by LRRK2 both in vitro and in vivo. Δ64-ArfGAP1, a dominant negative ArfGAP1, and shRNA knockdown of ArfGAP1 reduce LRRK2 toxicity. Thus, LRRK2 and ArfGAP1 reciprocally regulate the activity of each other. Our results provide insight into the basic pathobiology of LRRK2 and indicate an important role for the GTPase domain and ArfGAP1 in LRRK2 mediated toxicity. These data suggest that agents targeted towards regulation of LRRK2 GTP hydrolysis might be therapeutic agents for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:22423108

  11. Maskless, resistless ion beam lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Qing

    2003-01-01

    As the dimensions of semiconductor devices are scaled down, in order to achieve higher levels of integration, optical lithography will no longer be sufficient for the needs of the semiconductor industry. Alternative next-generation lithography (NGL) approaches, such as extreme ultra-violet (EUV), X-ray, electron-beam, and ion projection lithography face some challenging issues with complicated mask technology and low throughput. Among the four major alternative NGL approaches, ion beam lithography is the only one that can provide both maskless and resistless patterning. As such, it can potentially make nano-fabrication much simpler. This thesis investigates a focused ion beam system for maskless, resistless patterning that can be made practical for high-volume production. In order to achieve maskless, resistless patterning, the ion source must be able to produce a variety of ion species. The compact FIB system being developed uses a multicusp plasma ion source, which can generate ion beams of various elements, such as O2+, BF2+, P+ etc., for surface modification and doping applications. With optimized source condition, around 85% of BF2+, over 90% of O2+ and P+ have been achieved. The brightness of the multicusp-plasma ion source is a key issue for its application to maskless ion beam lithography. It can be substantially improved by optimizing the source configuration and extractor geometry. Measured brightness of 2 keV He+ beam is as high as 440 A/cm2 • Sr, which represents a 30x improvement over prior work. Direct patterning of Si thin film using a focused O2+ ion beam has been investigated. A thin surface oxide film can be selectively formed using 3 keV O2+ ions with the dose of 1015 cm-2. The oxide can then serve as a hard mask for patterning of the Si film. The

  12. Hierarchically Ordered Plasmonic Mask for Photo-lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woo Soo; Thomas, Edwin L.

    2008-03-01

    A new high density nanolithography method for the fabrication of a hierarchically ordered plasmonic mask employs silver (Ag) nano-particles (NPs) attached to the surface of an amine- functionalized two-dimensional (2D) pattern fabricated by laser interference lithography (IL). The bi-functional sol-gel hybrid material (BFHM) is a negative-tone resist and can be directly patterned by IL. Since the BFHM has both an amine-function and a methacryl function on each molecule, photopolymerization provides network formation and a set of binding sites for the Ag NPs. The Ag NPs were then attached onto the BFHM pillars by immersing the patterned sample in a solution. Hierarchically ordered arrays of Ag NPs could be made by a block copolymer comprised of 40nm diameter spherical P2VP domains having a spacing of 88nm, forming a hexagonal pattern covering the hexagonally arrayed BFHM pillars. Lithography experiments using 430 nm wavelength light demonstrate transfer of both a 350 nm periodic pattern and a 88nm patten to a positive-tone photoresist via plasmonic field enhancement arising from the collective and individual excitation of the closely spaced interacting Ag NPs on the hierarchically patterned BFHM.

  13. Block-based mask optimization for optical lithography.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xu; Song, Zhiyang; Li, Yanqiu; Arce, Gonzalo R

    2013-05-10

    Pixel-based optical proximity correction (PBOPC) methods have been developed as a leading-edge resolution enhancement technique (RET) for integrated circuit fabrication. PBOPC independently modulates each pixel on the reticle, which tremendously increases the mask's complexity and, at the same time, deteriorates its manufacturability. Most current PBOPC algorithms recur to regularization methods or a mask manufacturing rule check (MRC) to improve the mask manufacturability. Typically, these approaches either fail to satisfy manufacturing constraints on the practical product line, or lead to suboptimal mask patterns that may degrade the lithographic performance. This paper develops a block-based optical proximity correction (BBOPC) algorithm to pursue the optimal masks with manufacturability compliance, where the mask is shaped by a set of overlapped basis blocks rather than pixels. BBOPC optimization is formulated based on a vector imaging model, which is adequate for both dry lithography with lower numerical aperture (NA), and immersion lithography with hyper-NA. The BBOPC algorithm successively optimizes the main features (MF) and subresolution assist features (SRAF) based on a modified conjugate gradient method. It is effective at smoothing any unmanufacturable jogs along edges. A weight matrix is introduced in the cost function to preserve the edge fidelity of the printed images. Simulations show that the BBOPC algorithm can improve lithographic imaging performance while maintaining mask manufacturing constraints.

  14. [Basic principles for setting acute reference dose, ARfD in Japan].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Midori; Suzuki, Daisetsu; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shirota, Mariko; Inoue, Kaoru; Takahashi, Miwa; Morita, Takeshi; Ono, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Basic principles for simulation of acute reference dose (ARfD) setting were defined based on the work of Solecki et al. (2005). The principles are: (1) Appearance of acute toxicity within 24 h after oral administration. (2) Rationale for setting toxicity that appears or could appear after single oral administration. (3) ARfD setting is assumed to be necessary for all pesticides. (4) ARfD setting is not necessary when the value is at or above the cutoff level. (5) The setting basically applies to the general population. (6) ARfD is set based on the lowest NOAEL among all the available study data concerning endpoints for acute effects. (7) Effects of exposure during critical periods should be considered as endpoints for ARfD setting. (8) The approach for the safety coefficient is the same as that for acceptable daily intake. (9) If available, human data are acceptable as an endpoint for ARfD setting.

  15. Immersion and the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Gary; Matas, Cristina Poyatos

    1999-01-01

    Discusses a research project that aims to study the grammatical development of two groups of language immersion students, one that is participating in an Internet project involving collaboration with learners in France and Canada, and another that is exposed to the teaching of grammar that has been integrated with content area studies. (Author/VWL)

  16. The ARF Tumor Suppressor Regulates Bone Remodeling and Osteosarcoma Development in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Harding, John C.; Deng, Hongju; Shea, Lauren K.; Eagleton, Mark C.; Niewiesk, Stefan; Lairmore, Michael D.; Piwnica-Worms, David; Rosol, Thomas J.; Weber, Jason D.; Ratner, Lee; Weilbaecher, Katherine N.

    2010-01-01

    The ARF tumor suppressor regulates p53 as well as basic developmental processes independent of p53, including osteoclast activation, by controlling ribosomal biogenesis. Here we provide evidence that ARF is a master regulator of bone remodeling and osteosarcoma (OS) development in mice. Arf-/- mice displayed increased osteoblast (OB) and osteoclast (OC) activity with a significant net increase in trabecular bone volume. The long bones of Arf-/- mice had increased expression of OB genes while Arf-/- OB showed enhanced differentiation in vitro. Mice transgenic for the Tax oncogene develop lymphocytic tumors with associated osteolytic lesions, while Tax+Arf-/- mice uniformly developed spontaneous OS by 7 months of age. Tax+Arf-/- tumors were well differentiated OS characterized by an abundance of new bone with OC recruitment, expressed OB markers and displayed intact levels of p53 mRNA and reduced Rb transcript levels. Cell lines established from OS recapitulated characteristics of the primary tumor, including the expression of mature OB markers and ability to form mineralized tumors when transplanted. Loss of heterozygosity in OS tumors arising in Tax+Arf+/- mice emphasized the necessity of ARF-loss in OS development. Hypothesizing that inhibition of ARF-regulated bone remodeling would repress development of OS, we demonstrated that treatment of Tax+Arf-/- mice with zoledronic acid, a bisphosphonate inhibitor of OC activity and repressor of bone turnover, prevented or delayed the onset of OS. These data describe a novel role for ARF as a regulator of bone remodeling through effects on both OB and OC. Finally, these data underscore the potential of targeting bone remodeling as adjuvant therapy or in patients with genetic predispositions to prevent the development of OS. PMID:21209895

  17. P19ARF stabilizes p53 by blocking nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of Mdm2

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Weikang; Levine, Arnold J.

    1999-01-01

    The INK4a-ARF locus encodes two distinct tumor suppressors, p16INK4a and p19ARF. Whereas p16INK4a restrains cell growth through preventing phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein, p19ARF acts by attenuating Mdm2-mediated degradation of p53, thereby stabilizing p53. Recent data indicate that Mdm2 shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm and that nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of Mdm2 is essential for Mdm2’s ability to promote p53 degradation. Therefore, Mdm2 must export p53 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm where it targets p53 for degradation. We show here that coexpression of p19ARF blocks the nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of Mdm2. Moreover, subnuclear localization of Mdm2 changes from the nucleoplasm to the nucleolus in a shuttling time-dependent manner, whereas p19ARF is exclusively located in the nucleolus. In heterokaryons containing Mdm2 and p19ARF, the longer the Mdm2 shuttling is allowed, the more Mdm2 protein colocalizes with p19ARF in the nucleolus, implying that Mdm2 moves from the nucleoplasm to the nucleolus and then associates with p19ARF there. Furthermore, whether or not Mdm2 colocalizes with p19ARF in the nucleolus, p19ARF prevents Mdm2 shuttling. This observation suggests that Mdm2 might be exported through the nucleolus and p19ARF could inhibit the nuclear export of Mdm2 by tethering Mdm2 in the nucleolus. Taken together, p19ARF could stabilize p53 by inhibiting the nuclear export of Mdm2. PMID:10359817

  18. Substrate specificities and activities of AZAP family Arf GAPs in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cuthbert, Ellen J; Davis, Kathryn K; Casanova, James E

    2008-01-01

    The ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) GTPases are important regulators of vesicular transport in eukaryotic cells. Like other GTPases, the Arfs require guanine nucleotide exchange factors to facilitate GTP loading and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) to promote GTP hydrolysis. Whereas there are only six mammalian Arfs, the human genome encodes over 20 proteins containing Arf GAP domains. A subset of these, referred to as AZAPs (Randazzo PA, Hirsch DS. Cell Signal 16: 401-413, 2004), are characterized by the presence of at least one NH(2)-terminal pleckstrin homology domain and two or more ankyrin repeats following the GAP domain. The substrate specificities of these proteins have been previously characterized by using in vitro assay systems. However, a limitation of such assays is that they may not accurately represent intracellular conditions, including posttranslational modifications, or subcellular compartmentalization. Here we present a systematic analysis of the GAP activity of seven AZAPs in vivo, using an assay for measurement of cellular Arf-GTP (Santy LC, Casanova JE. J Cell Biol 154: 599-610, 2001). In agreement with previous in vitro results, we found that ACAP1 and ACAP2 have robust, constitutive Arf6 GAP activity in vivo, with little activity toward Arf1. In contrast, although ARAP1 was initially reported to be an Arf1 GAP, we found that it acts primarily on Arf6 in vivo. Moreover, this activity appears to be regulated through a mechanism involving the NH(2)-terminal sterile-alpha motif. AGAP1 is unique among the AZAPs in its specificity for Arf1, and this activity is dependent on its NH(2)-terminal GTPase-like domain. Finally, we found that expression of AGAP1 induces a surprising reciprocal activation of Arf6, which suggests that regulatory cross talk exists among Arf isoforms.

  19. Expression of p16INK4A and p14ARF in hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, T; Chikatsu, N; Takahashi, S; Fujita, A; Uchimaru, K; Asano, S; Fujita, T; Motokura, T

    1999-11-01

    The INK4A/ARF locus yields two tumor suppressors, p16INK4A and p14ARF, and is frequently deleted in human tumors. We studied their mRNA expressions in 41 hematopoietic cell lines and in 137 patients with hematological malignancies; we used a quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assay. Normal peripheral bloods, bone marrow and lymph nodes expressed little or undetectable p16INK4A and p14ARF mRNAs, which were readily detected in 12 and 17 of 41 cell lines, respectively. Patients with hematological malignancies frequently lacked p16INK4A expression (60/137) and lost p14ARF expression less frequently (19/137, 13.9%). Almost all patients without p14ARF expression lacked p16INK4A expression, which may correspond to deletions of the INK4A/ARF locus. Undetectable p16INK4A expression with p14ARF expression in 41 patients may correspond to p16INK4A promoter methylation or to normal expression status of the p16INK4A gene. All patients with follicular lymphoma (FL), myeloma or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) expressed p14ARF while nine of 23 patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) lost p14ARF expression. Patients with ALL, AML or blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia expressed abundant p16INK4A mRNAs more frequently than patients with other diseases (12/33 vs 6/104, P < 0.01). Patients with FL and high p14ARF expression had a significantly shorter survival time while survival for patients with DLBCL and increased p14ARF expression tended to be longer. These observations indicate that p16INK4A and p14ARF expression is differentially affected among hemato- logical malignancies and that not only inactivation but also increased expression may have clinical significance.

  20. The Arf GTPase-Activating Protein Family Is Exploited by Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium To Invade Nonphagocytic Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Anthony C.; Humphreys, Daniel; Brooks, Andrew B. E.; Hume, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT To establish intracellular infections, Salmonella bacteria trigger host cell membrane ruffling and invasion by subverting cellular Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that activate Arf1 and Arf6 GTPases by promoting GTP binding. A family of cellular Arf GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) can downregulate Arf signaling by stimulating GTP hydrolysis, but whether they do this during infection is unknown. Here, we uncovered a remarkable role for distinct Arf GAP family members in Salmonella invasion. The Arf6 GAPs ACAP1 and ADAP1 and the Arf1 GAP ASAP1 localized at Salmonella-induced ruffles, which was not the case for the plasma membrane-localized Arf6 GAPs ARAP3 and GIT1 or the Golgi-associated Arf1 GAP1. Surprisingly, we found that loss of ACAP1, ADAP1, or ASAP1 impaired Salmonella invasion, revealing that GAPs cannot be considered mere terminators of cytoskeleton remodeling. Salmonella invasion was restored in Arf GAP-depleted cells by expressing fast-cycling Arf derivatives, demonstrating that Arf GTP/GDP cycles facilitate Salmonella invasion. Consistent with this view, both constitutively active and dominant-negative Arf derivatives that cannot undergo GTP/GDP cycles inhibited invasion. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Arf GEFs and GAPs colocalize at invading Salmonella and collaborate to drive Arf1-dependent pathogen invasion. This study revealed that Salmonella bacteria exploit a remarkable interplay between Arf GEFs and GAPs to direct cycles of Arf GTPase activation and inactivation. These cycles drive Salmonella cytoskeleton remodeling and enable intracellular infections. PMID:25670778

  1. Extending single-exposure patterning towards 38-nm half-pitch using 1.35 NA immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchoms, Igor; Engelen, Andre; Mulkens, Jan; Boom, Herman; Moerman, Richard; Liebregts, Paul; de Graaf, Roelof; van Veen, Marieke; Thomassen, Patrick; Emer, Wolfgang; Sperling, Frank

    2009-03-01

    Immersion lithography started to become the main workhorse for volume production of 45-nm devices, and while waiting for EUV lithography, immersion will continue to be the main technology for further shrinks. In a first step single exposure can be stretched towards the 0.25 k1 limit, after which various double patterning methods are lining up to print 32-nm and even 22-nm devices. The immersion exposure system plays a key role here, and continuous improvement steps are required to support tighter CD and overlay budgets. Additionally cost of ownership (COO) needs to be reduced and one important way to achieve this is to increase the wafer productivity. In this paper we discuss the design and performance of a new improved immersion exposure system XT:1950i. This system will extend immersion towards 38-nm half pitch resolution using a 1.35 NA lens and extreme off axis illumination (e.g. dipole). The system improvements result in better CDU, more accurate overlay towards 4-nm and higher wafer productivity towards 148- wph. Last but not least a next step in immersion technology is implemented. A novel immersion hood is introduced giving more robust low and stable defects performance.

  2. Isolation and characterization of mammalian cells expressing the Arf promoter during eye development.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Nida S; Xu, Lin; Devitt, Caitlin C; Skapek, Stephen X

    2014-05-01

    Although many researchers have successfully uncovered novel functions of the tumor suppressor p19(Arf) utilizing various types of cultured cancer cells and immortalized fibroblasts, these systems do not accurately reflect the endogenous environment in which Arf is developmentally expressed. We addressed this by isolating perivascular cells (PVCs) from the primary vitreous of the mouse eye. This rare cell type normally expresses the p19(Arf) tumor suppressor in a non-pathological, developmental context. We utilized fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) to purify the cells by virtue of a GFP reporter driven by the native Arf promoter and then characterized their morphology and gene expression pattern. We further examined the effects of reintroduction of Arf expression in the Arf(GFP/GFP) PVCs to verify expected downstream effectors of p19(Arf) as well as uncover novel functions of Arf as a regulator of vasculogenesis. This methodology and cell culture model should serve as a useful tool to examine p19(Arf) biology.

  3. Tumor suppressor ARF regulates tissue microenvironment and tumor growth through modulation of macrophage polarization

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-García, Lidia; Herranz, Sandra; Higueras, María Angeles

    2016-01-01

    Tumor microenvironment has been described to play a key role in tumor growth, progression, and metastasis. Macrophages are a major cellular constituent of the tumor stroma, and particularly tumor associated macrophages (TAMs or M2-like macrophages) exert important immunosuppressive activity and a pro-tumoral role within the tumor microenvironment. Alternative-reading frame (ARF) gene is widely inactivated in human cancer. We have previously demonstrated that ARF deficiency severely impairs inflammatory response establishing a new role for ARF in the regulation of innate immunity. On the basis of these observations, we hypothesized that ARF may also regulates tumor growth through recruitment and modulation of the macrophage phenotype in the tumor microenvironment. Xenograft assays of B16F10 melanoma cells into ARF-deficient mice resulted in increased tumor growth compared to those implanted in WT control mice. Tumors from ARF-deficient mice exhibited significantly increased number of TAMs as well as microvascular density. Transwell assays showed crosstalk between tumor cells and macrophages. On the one hand, ARF-deficient macrophages modulate migratory ability of the tumor cells. And on the other, tumor cells promote the skewing of ARF−/− macrophages toward a M2-type polarization. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that ARF deficiency facilitates the infiltration of macrophages into the tumor mass and favors their polarization towards a M2 phenotype, thus promoting tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth. This work provides novel information about the critical role of ARF in the modulation of tumor microenvironment. PMID:27572316

  4. Arf6 regulates EGF-induced internalization of E-cadherin in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rui; Zhang, Yujie; Gu, Luo; Zheng, Jianchao; Cui, Jie; Dong, Jing; Du, Jun

    2015-01-01

    E-cadherin internalization facilitates dissolution of adherens junctions and promotes tumor cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migration. Our previous results have shown that Arf6 exerts pro-migratory action in breast cancer cells after EGF stimulation. Despite the fact that EGF signaling stimulates EMT of breast cancer cells, the effect of Arf6 on internalization of E-cadherin of breast cancer cells under EGF treatment remains to be determined. Here, we showed that EGF dose-dependently stimulated E-cadherin internalization by MCF-7 cells with the maximal effect at 50 ng/ml. Meanwhile, EGF treatment markedly increased Arf6 activation. Arf6 was involved in complexes of E-cadherin, and more E-cadherin was pulled down with Arf6 when the activity of the latter was increased. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence assays showed that transfection breast cancer cells with Arf6-T27N or Arf6 siRNA suppressed EGF-induced E-cadherin internalization. Taken together, our study demonstrated that Arf6 activation plays a potential role in EGF-induced E-cadherin internalization, providing new mechanism underlying the effect of Arf6 on promoting breast cancer cell metastasis.

  5. Discharge produced plasma source for EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, V.; Eltzov, A.; Ivanov, A.; Khristoforov, O.; Kirykhin, Yu.; Vinokhodov, A.; Vodchits, V.; Mishhenko, V.; Prokofiev, A.

    2007-04-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is seen as the most promising candidate for the next generation of lithography and semiconductor chip manufacturing for the 32 nm node and below. The paper describes experimental results obtained with discharge produced plasma (DPP) sources based on pinch effect in a Xe and Sn vapour as potential tool for the EUV lithography. Problems of DPP source development are discussed.

  6. High-Throughput Contact Flow Lithography.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, Gaelle C; Lee, Jiseok; Gupta, Ankur; Hill, William Adam; Doyle, Patrick S

    2015-10-01

    High-throughput fabrication of graphically encoded hydrogel microparticles is achieved by combining flow contact lithography in a multichannel microfluidic device and a high capacity 25 mm LED UV source. Production rates of chemically homogeneous particles are improved by two orders of magnitude. Additionally, the custom-built contact lithography instrument provides an affordable solution for patterning complex microstructures on surfaces.

  7. Sub-100-nm trackwidth development by e-beam lithography for advanced magnetic recording heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jei-Wei; Chen, Chao-Peng

    2006-03-01

    Although semiconductor industry ramps the products with 90 nm much quicker than anticipated [1], magnetic recording head manufacturers still have difficulties in producing sub-100 nm read/write trackwidth. Patterning for high-aspectratio writer requires much higher depth of focus (DOF) than most advanced optical lithography, including immersion technique developed recently [2]. Self-aligning reader with its stabilized bias requires a bi-layer lift-off structure where the underlayer is narrower than the top image layer. As the reader's trackwidth is below 100nm, the underlayer becomes very difficult to control. Among available approaches, e-beam lithography remains the most promising one to overcome the challenge of progressive miniaturization. In this communication, the authors discussed several approaches using ebeam lithography to achieve sub-100 nm read/write trackwidth. Our studies indicated the suspended resist bridge design can not only widen the process window for lift-off process but also makes 65 nm trackwidth feasible to manufacture. Necked dog-bone structure seems to be the best design in this application due to less proximity effects from adjacent structures and minimum blockages for ion beam etching. The trackwidth smaller than 65 nm can be fabricated via the combination of e-beam lithography with auxiliary slimming and/or trimming. However, deposit overspray through undercut becomes dominated in such a small dimension. To minimize the overspray, the effects of underlayer thickness need to be further studied.

  8. Kula Kaiapuni: Hawaiian Immersion Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kame'eleihiwa, Lilikala

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaii State Department of Education offers a growing number of Hawaiian language immersion schools for its students. The article presents the history of immersion schools in Hawaii, examining criticisms of immersion schools, discussing their benefits, and explaining necessary components for success. (SM)

  9. Situated Learning in Immersion Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Tove

    This paper looks at the nature of second language immersion learning and instruction through the lens of situated learning theory. This theory has strong relevance for language immersion practice and research. An emerging research program is introduced that is focused on the overlap of immersion learning and situated learning theory, and an…

  10. K-Ras resides on the Arf6-mediated CIE system and its active type interacted with Arf6T27N.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chuan-gao; Wei, Shu-mei; Cai, Jian-ting

    2012-02-01

    Ras is known as an oncogene transferring signals from the plasma membrane. Recent studies have demonstrated that plasma membrane was not the unique platform for Ras signaling. Ras could also be endocytosed and transported to different endomembrane compartments, evoking different signal pathways there. It is of great significance to exploit the unique intracellular trafficking features of different Ras isoforms to develop new anti-Ras drugs. ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) was known to mediate one of the clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) pathways. The role of Arf6 in K-Ras dynamic remains largely unknown. In this study, we showed that K-RasG12V co-localized with Arf6 at the plasma membrane, and entered the tubular endosomes or protrusions induced by cytochalasin D or aluminum fluoride in the same way as H-RasG12V does. A subcellular fractionation experiment demonstrated that Arf6 siRNA treatment reduced the plasma membrane presence of both endogenous Ras isoforms and inhibited the phosphorylation of Erk triggered by EGF. When co-expressed with Arf6Q67L, both isoforms were sequestered into the large phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]-enriched vacuoles. However, when co-expressed with Arf6T27N, K-RasG12V co-localized with Arf6T27N at the tubular endosomes significantly than H-RasG12V. Immunoprecipitation and GST fusion protein pull-down studies found out for the first time that K-RasG12V interacted with Arf6T27N. Swapping mutation study showed that the above difference was due to different C-termini. Our study indicated that Arf6 was involved in the dynamic regulation of both Ras isoforms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Three dimensional polymer waveguide using hybrid lithography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huanran; Liu, Yu; Jiang, Minghui; Chen, Changming; Wang, Xibin; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Daming; Yi, Yunji

    2015-10-01

    A three dimensional polymer waveguide with taper structure was demonstrated and fabricated by a reliable and effective hybrid lithography. The hybrid lithography consists of lithography to fabricate a polymer waveguide and gray scale lithography to fabricate a polymer taper structure. Laser ablation and shadow aluminum evaporation were designed for gray scale lithography. The length of the gray scale region ranging from 20 to 400 μm could be controlled by the laser power, the ablation speed, and the aluminum thickness. The slope angle was determined by the length of the gray scale region and the thickness of the photoresist. The waveguide taper structure could be transferred to the lower layer by the etching method. The taper structure can be used for integration of the waveguide with different dimensions.

  12. Lithography options for the 32nm half pitch node and their implications on resist and material technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronheid, Roel; Hendrickx, Eric; Wiaux, Vincent; Maenhoudt, Mireille; Goethals, Mieke; Vandenberghe, Geert; Ronse, Kurt

    2008-03-01

    There still remain three major technological lithography options for high volume manufacturing at the 32nm half pitch node: 193nm immersion lithography with high index materials, enabling NA>1.6 193nm double patterning and EUV lithography. In this paper the pros and cons of these three options will be discussed. Particular interest will be paid to the consequences of the final choice on the resist technology. High index 193nm immersion lithography also requires high index resist materials, which are under development but still far removed from the target refractive index and absorbance specifications not to mention lithographical performance. For double patterning the pitch may be relaxed, but the resists still need to be able to print very narrow lines and/or trenches. Moreover, it would be preferred for the resists to support pattern or image freezing techniques in order to step away from the litho-etch-litho-etch approach and make double patterning more cost effective. For EUV the resist materials need to meet very aggressive sensitivity specifications. In itself this is possible, but it is difficult to simultaneously maintain performance in terms of resolution and line width roughness. A new parameter (K LUP) for assessing resist performance in terms of these three performance criteria will be introduced.

  13. Moiré Nanosphere Lithography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Rajeeva, Bharath Bangalore; Wu, Zilong; Rukavina, Michael; Dao, Thang Duy; Ishii, Satoshi; Aono, Masakazu; Nagao, Tadaaki; Zheng, Yuebing

    2015-06-23

    We have developed moiré nanosphere lithography (M-NSL), which incorporates in-plane rotation between neighboring monolayers, to extend the patterning capability of conventional nanosphere lithography (NSL). NSL, which uses self-assembled layers of monodisperse micro/nanospheres as masks, is a low-cost, scalable nanofabrication technique and has been widely employed to fabricate various nanoparticle arrays. Combination with dry etching and/or angled deposition has greatly enriched the family of nanoparticles NSL can yield. In this work, we introduce a variant of this technique, which uses sequential stacking of polystyrene nanosphere monolayers to form a bilayer crystal instead of conventional spontaneous self-assembly. Sequential stacking leads to the formation of moiré patterns other than the usually observed thermodynamically stable configurations. Subsequent O2 plasma etching results in a variety of complex nanostructures. Using the etched moiré patterns as masks, we have fabricated complementary gold nanostructures and studied their optical properties. We believe this facile technique provides a strategy to fabricate complex nanostructures or metasurfaces.

  14. Scanning Probe Photonic Nanojet Lithography.

    PubMed

    Jacassi, Andrea; Tantussi, Francesco; Dipalo, Michele; Biagini, Claudio; Maccaferri, Nicolò; Bozzola, Angelo; De Angelis, Francesco

    2017-09-08

    The use of nano/microspheres or beads for optical nanolithography is a consolidated technique for achieving subwavelength structures using a cost-effective approach; this method exploits the capability of the beads to focus electromagnetic waves into subwavelength beams called photonic nanojets, which are used to expose the photoresist on which the beads are placed. However, this technique has only been used to produce regular patterns based on the spatial arrangement of the beads on the substrate, thus considerably limiting the pool of applications. Here, we present a novel microsphere-based optical lithography technique that offers high subwavelength resolution and the possibility of generating any arbitrary pattern. The presented method consists of a single microsphere embedded in an AFM cantilever, which can be controlled using the AFM motors to write arbitrary patterns with subwavelength resolution (down to 290 nm with a 405 nm laser). The performance of the proposed technique can compete with those of commercial high-resolution standard instruments, with the advantage of a one-order-of-magnitude reduction in costs. This approach paves the way for direct integration of cost-effective, high-resolution optical lithography capabilities into several existing AFM systems.

  15. Mask lithography for display manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandstrom, T.; Ekberg, P.

    2010-05-01

    The last ten years have seen flat displays conquer our briefcases, desktops, and living rooms. There has been an enormous development in production technology, not least in lithography and photomasks. Current masks for large displays are more than 2 m2 and make 4-6 1X prints on glass substrates that are 9 m2. One of the most challenging aspects of photomasks for displays is the so called mura, stripes or blemishes which cause visible defects in the finished display. For the future new and even tighter maskwriter specifications are driven by faster transistors and more complex pixel layouts made necessary by the market's wish for still better image quality, multi-touch panels, 3D TVs, and the next wave of e-book readers. Large OLED screens will pose new challenges. Many new types of displays will be lowcost and use simple lithography, but anything which can show video and high quality photographic images needs a transistor backplane and sophisticated masks for its production.

  16. Scanning probe block copolymer lithography

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jinan; Huo, Fengwei; Zheng, Zijian; Giam, Louise R.; Shim, Wooyoung; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2010-01-01

    Integration of individual nanoparticles into desired spatial arrangements over large areas is a prerequisite for exploiting their unique electrical, optical, and chemical properties. However, positioning single sub-10-nm nanoparticles in a specific location individually on a substrate remains challenging. Herein we have developed a unique approach, termed scanning probe block copolymer lithography, which enables one to control the growth and position of individual nanoparticles in situ. This technique relies on either dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) or polymer pen lithography (PPL) to transfer phase-separating block copolymer inks in the form of 100 or more nanometer features on an underlying substrate. Reduction of the metal ions via plasma results in the high-yield formation of single crystal nanoparticles per block copolymer feature. Because the size of each feature controls the number of metal atoms within it, the DPN or PPL step can be used to control precisely the size of each nanocrystal down to 4.8 ± 0.2 nm. PMID:21059942

  17. Ancient Complexity, Opisthokont Plasticity, and Discovery of the 11th Subfamily of Arf GAP Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Schlacht, Alexander; Mowbrey, Kevin; Elias, Marek; Kahn, Richard A.; Dacks, Joel B.

    2013-01-01

    The organelle paralogy hypothesis is one model for the acquisition of non-endosymbiotic organelles, generated from molecular evolutionary analyses of proteins encoding specificity in the membrane traffic system. GTPase Activating Proteins (GAPs) for the ADP-ribosylation factor (Arfs) GTPases are additional regulators of the kinetics and fidelity of membrane traffic. Here we describe molecular evolutionary analyses of Arf GAP protein family. Of the ten subfamilies previously defined in humans, we find that five were likely present in the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor (LECA). Of the three more recently derived subfamilies, one was likely present in the ancestor of opisthokonts (animals and fungi) and apusomonads (flagellates classified as the sister lineage to opisthokonts), while two arose in the holozoan lineage. We also propose to have identified a novel ancient subfamily (ArfGAPC2), present in diverse eukaryotes but which is lost frequently, including in the opisthokonts. Surprisingly few ancient domains accompanying the ArfGAP domain were identified, in marked contrast to the extensively decorated human Arf GAPs. Phylogenetic analyses of the subfamilies reveal patterns of single and multiple gene duplications specific to the Holozoa, to some degree mirroring evolution of Arf GAP targets, the Arfs. Conservation, and lack thereof, of various residues in the ArfGAP structure provide contextualization of previously identified functional amino acids and their application to Arf GAP biology in general. Overall, our results yield insights into current Arf GAP biology, reveal complexity in the ancient eukaryotic ancestor, and integrate the Arf GAP family into a proposed mechanism for the evolution of non-endosymbiotic organelles. PMID:23433073

  18. Chlamydia Hijacks ARF GTPases To Coordinate Microtubule Posttranslational Modifications and Golgi Complex Positioning.

    PubMed

    Wesolowski, Jordan; Weber, Mary M; Nawrotek, Agata; Dooley, Cheryl A; Calderon, Mike; St Croix, Claudette M; Hackstadt, Ted; Cherfils, Jacqueline; Paumet, Fabienne

    2017-05-02

    The intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis develops in a parasitic compartment called the inclusion. Posttranslationally modified microtubules encase the inclusion, controlling the positioning of Golgi complex fragments around the inclusion. The molecular mechanisms by which Chlamydia coopts the host cytoskeleton and the Golgi complex to sustain its infectious compartment are unknown. Here, using a genetically modified Chlamydia strain, we discovered that both posttranslationally modified microtubules and Golgi complex positioning around the inclusion are controlled by the chlamydial inclusion protein CT813/CTL0184/InaC and host ARF GTPases. CT813 recruits ARF1 and ARF4 to the inclusion membrane, where they induce posttranslationally modified microtubules. Similarly, both ARF isoforms are required for the repositioning of Golgi complex fragments around the inclusion. We demonstrate that CT813 directly recruits ARF GTPases on the inclusion membrane and plays a pivotal role in their activation. Together, these results reveal that Chlamydia uses CT813 to hijack ARF GTPases to couple posttranslationally modified microtubules and Golgi complex repositioning at the inclusion.IMPORTANCEChlamydia trachomatis is an important cause of morbidity and a significant economic burden in the world. However, how Chlamydia develops its intracellular compartment, the so-called inclusion, is poorly understood. Using genetically engineered Chlamydia mutants, we discovered that the effector protein CT813 recruits and activates host ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) and ARF4 to regulate microtubules. In this context, CT813 acts as a molecular platform that induces the posttranslational modification of microtubules around the inclusion. These cages are then used to reposition the Golgi complex during infection and promote the development of the inclusion. This study provides the first evidence that ARF1 and ARF4 play critical roles in controlling posttranslationally modified

  19. Immersive Learning Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-20

    Team  Games  James Xu  Virtual Worlds  Keysha Gamor  Mobile  Judy Brown  Web 2.0  Mark Friedman 3 … and It’s Not Just Games  “The smartest... Web 2.0 , Twitter 13 Questions or Comments? Peter Smith Team Lead, Immersive Learning Technologies peter.smith.ctr@adlnet.gov +1.407.384.5572

  20. Altered Perspectives: Immersive Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipman, J. S.; Webley, P. W.

    2016-12-01

    Immersive environments provide an exciting experiential technology to visualize the natural world. Given the increasing accessibility of 360o cameras and virtual reality headsets we are now able to visualize artistic principles and scientific concepts in a fully immersive environment. The technology has become popular for photographers as well as designers, industry, educational groups, and museums. Here we show a sci-art perspective on the use of optics and light in the capture and manipulation of 360o images and video of geologic phenomena and cultural heritage sites in Alaska, England, and France. Additionally, we will generate intentionally altered perspectives to lend a surrealistic quality to the landscapes. Locations include the Catacombs of Paris, the Palace of Versailles, and the Northern Lights over Fairbanks, Alaska. Some 360o view cameras now use small portable dual lens technology extending beyond the 180o fish eye lens previously used, providing better coverage and image quality. Virtual reality headsets range in level of sophistication and cost, with the most affordable versions using smart phones and Google Cardboard viewers. The equipment used in this presentation includes a Ricoh Theta S spherical imaging camera. Here we will demonstrate the use of 360o imaging with attendees being able to be part of the immersive environment and experience our locations as if they were visiting themselves.

  1. Performance overview and outlook of EUV lithography systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirati, Alberto; Peeters, Rudy; Smith, Daniel; Lok, Sjoerd; Minnaert, Arthur; van Noordenburg, Martijn; Mallmann, Jörg; Harned, Noreen; Stoeldraijer, Judon; Wagner, Christian; Zoldesi, Carmen; van Setten, Eelco; Finders, Jo; de Peuter, Koen; de Ruijter, Chris; Popadic, Milos; Huang, Roger; Lin, Martin; Chuang, Frank; van Es, Roderik; Beckers, Marcel; Brandt, David; Farrar, Nigel; Schafgans, Alex; Brown, Daniel; Boom, Herman; Meiling, Hans; Kool, Ron

    2015-03-01

    Multiple NXE:3300 are operational at customer sites. These systems, equipped with a Numerical Aperture (NA) of 0.33, are being used by semiconductor manufacturers to support device development. Full Wafer Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) of 1.0 nm for 16nm dense lines and 1.1 nm for 20nm isolated space and stable matched overlay performance with ArF immersion scanner of less than 4nm provide the required lithographic performance for these device development activities. Steady progresses in source power have been achieved in the last 12 months, with 100Watts (W) EUV power capability demonstrated on multiple machines. Power levels up to 90W have been achieved on a customer machine, while 110W capability has been demonstrated in the ASML factory. Most NXE:3300 installed at customers have demonstrated the capability to expose 500 wafers per day, and one field system upgraded to the 80W configuration has proven capable of exposing 1,000 wafers per day. Scanner defectivity keeps being reduced by a 10x factor each year, while the first exposures obtained with full size EUV pellicles show no appreciable difference in CDU when compared to exposures done without pellicle. The 4th generation EUV system, the NXE: 3350, is being qualified in the ASML factory.

  2. EUV lithography performance for manufacturing: status and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirati, Alberto; Peeters, Rudy; Smith, Daniel; Lok, Sjoerd; van Noordenburg, Martijn; van Es, Roderik; Verhoeven, Eric; Meijer, Henk; Minnaert, Arthur; van der Horst, Jan-Willem; Meiling, Hans; Mallmann, Joerg; Wagner, Christian; Stoeldraijer, Judon; Fisser, Geert; Finders, Jo; Zoldesi, Carmen; Stamm, Uwe; Boom, Herman; Brandt, David; Brown, Daniel; Fomenkov, Igor; Purvis, Michael

    2016-03-01

    NXE:3300B scanners have been operational at customer sites since almost two years, and the NXE:3350B, the 4th generation EUV system, has started shipping at the end of 2015. All these exposure tools operate using MOPA pre-pulse source technology, which enabled significant productivity scaling, demonstrated at customers and at ASML. Having achieved the required throughput to support device development, the main priority of the ASML EUV program has shifted towards improving stability and availability. Continuous progresses in defectivity reduction and in the realization of a reticle pellicle are taking place at increased speed. Today's overlay and imaging results are in line with the requirements of 7nm logic devices; Matched Machine overlay to ArF immersion below 2.5 nm and full wafer CDU performance of less than 1.0nm are regularly achieved. The realization of an intensity loss-less illuminator and improvements in resist formulation are significant progress towards enabling the use of EUV technology for 5nm logic devices at full productivity. This paper will present an overview of the status of the ASML EUV program and product roadmap by reviewing the current performance and on-going developments in productivity, imaging, overlay and mask defectivity reduction.

  3. Evaluation of a next generation EB mask writer for hp 32nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komagata, Tadashi; Hasegawa, Takahisa; Goto, Kazuya; Kono, Kenji; Yamamoto, Ryuuji; Nishida, Naoki; Nakagawa, Yasutoshi

    2010-05-01

    Lithography technologies promising for the half pitch (HP) 32 nm generation include 193 nm immersion with water, extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), and nano-imprint lithography (NIL). Among these, 193 nm immersion with water is considered a mainstream for hp 32 nm device fabrication in terms of performance and device production costs. Meanwhile, according to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) 2009, the optical masks for hp 32 nm devices need to meet extremely strict requirements; for example, an image placement accuracy of 3.8 nm (2.7 nm for double patterning), and CD uniformities of 1.5 nm (isolated lines) and 2.4 nm (dense lines). To meet these accuracy requirements, we have developed JBX-3200MV, a variable shaped beam mask writer featuring an accelerating voltage of 50 kV and a current density of 70 A/cm2. For this new writer, we developed a new digital-to-analog converter (DAC) amplifier designed to reduce noises input to electron beam optics components such as the main and sub positioning deflectors and the beam shaping deflectors. The stage and exposure chambers were enhanced in rigidity to reduce mechanical noises. The position of the stage is measured by laser devices with a finer resolution of 0.15 nm, and the measured results are fed back to the beam position. In addition, data transfer speed and proximity correction speed were improved to handle larger data volumes. Our exposure test results demonstrate that the new lithography system, installed at the leading-edge mask production facility, achieved the hp 32 nm mask accuracies required by the ITRS 2009.

  4. AKT regulates NPM dependent ARF localization and p53mut stability in tumors

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Jennifer; Sampson, Oliver; Pefani, Dafni E.; Khoronenkova, Svetlana; Grawenda, Anna; Papaspyropoulos, Angelos; Jamieson, Nigel; McKay, Colin; Sansom, Owen; Dianov, Grigory L.; O'Neill, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Nucleophosmin (NPM) is known to regulate ARF subcellular localization and MDM2 activity in response to oncogenic stress, though the precise mechanism has remained elusive. Here we describe how NPM and ARF associate in the nucleoplasm to form a MDM2 inhibitory complex. We find that oligomerization of NPM drives nucleolar accumulation of ARF. Moreover, the formation of NPM and ARF oligomers antagonizes MDM2 association with the inhibitory complex, leading to activation of MDM2 E3-ligase activity and targeting of p53. We find that AKT phosphorylation of NPM-Ser48 prevents oligomerization that results in nucleoplasmic localization of ARF, constitutive MDM2 inhibition and stabilization of p53. We also show that ARF promotes p53 mutant stability in tumors and suppresses p73 mediated p21 expression and senescence. We demonstrate that AKT and PI3K inhibitors may be effective in treatment of therapeutically resistant tumors with elevated AKT and carrying gain of function mutations in p53. Our results show that the clinical candidate AKT inhibitor MK-2206 promotes ARF nucleolar localization, reduced p53mut stability and increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation in a xenograft model of pancreatic cancer. Analysis of human tumors indicates that phospho-S48-NPM may be a useful biomarker for monitoring AKT activity and in vivo efficacy of AKT inhibitor treatment. Critically, we propose that combination therapy involving PI3K-AKT inhibitors would benefit from a patient stratification rationale based on ARF and p53mut status. PMID:25071014

  5. The ARF tumor suppressor controls Drosha translation to prevent Ras-driven transformation

    PubMed Central

    Kuchenreuther, Michael J.; Weber, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    ARF is a multifunctional tumor suppressor that acts as both a sensor of oncogenic stimuli and as a key regulator of ribosome biogenesis. Recently, our group established the DEAD-box RNA helicase and microRNA (miRNA) microprocessor accessory subunit, DDX5, as a critical target of basal ARF function. To identify other molecular targets of ARF, we focused on known interacting proteins of DDX5 in the microprocessor complex. Drosha, the catalytic core of the microprocessor complex, plays a critical role in the maturation of specific non-coding RNAs, including miRNAs and rRNAs. Here, we report that chronic or acute loss of Arf enhanced Drosha protein expression. This induction did not involve Drosha mRNA transcription or protein stability but rather relied on the increased translation of existing Drosha mRNAs. Enhanced Drosha expression did not alter global miRNA production, but rather modified expression of a subset of miRNAs in the absence of Arf. Elevated Drosha protein levels were required to maintain the increased rRNA synthesis and cellular proliferation observed in the absence of Arf. Arf-deficient cells transformed by oncogenic RasV12 were dependent on increased Drosha expression as Drosha knockdown was sufficient to inhibit Ras-dependent cellular transformation. Thus, we propose that ARF regulates Drosha mRNA translation to prevent aberrant cell proliferation and Ras-dependent transformation. PMID:23318441

  6. Rab35, acting through ACAP2 switching off Arf6, negatively regulates oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Yuki; Yamamori, Natsuki; Torii, Tomohiro; Tanoue, Akito; Yamauchi, Junji

    2014-01-01

    Oligodendrocyte precursor cells differentiate to produce myelin sheaths that insulate axons to ensure fast propagation of action potentials. Many aspects of differentiation are regulated by multiple extracellular signals. However, their intracellular signalings remain elusive. We show that Rab35 and its effector, ACAP2, a GTPase-activating protein that switches off Arf6 activity, negatively regulate oligodendrocyte morphological differentiation. Knockdown of Rab35 or ACAP2 with their respective small interfering RNAs promotes differentiation. As differentiation initiates, the activities of Rab35 and ACAP2 are down-regulated. The activity of Arf6, in contrast, is up-regulated. Arf6 knockdown inhibits differentiation, indicating that Rab35 and ACAP2 negatively regulate differentiation by down-regulating Arf6. Importantly, as differentiation proceeds, the activity of cytohesin-2, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that switches on Arf6 activity, is up-regulated. Pharmacological inhibition of cytohesin-2 inhibits differentiation, suggesting that cytohesin-2 promotes differentiation by activating Arf6. Furthermore, using oligodendrocyte-neuronal cocultures, we find that knockdown of Rab35 or ACAP2 promotes myelination, whereas inhibition of cytohesin-2 or knockdown of Arf6 inhibits myelination. Thus Rab35/ACAP2 and cytohesin-2 antagonistically control oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination through Arf6 regulation, presenting a unique small GTPase on/off switching mechanism. PMID:24600047

  7. Simulation of acute reference dose (ARfD) settings for pesticides in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Midori; Suzuki, Daisetsu; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shirota, Mariko; Inoue, Kaoru; Takahashi, Miwa; Morita, Takeshi; Ono, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    In order to develop guidelines for setting acute reference doses (ARfDs) for pesticides in Japan, we conducted simulations of ARfD settings based on evaluation reports for 201 pesticides assessed by the Food Safety Commission (FSC) in Japan over the last 8 years. Our conceptual principles were based on the concepts written by Solecki et al. (2005) and were adapted for toxicological data required in Japan. Through this process, we were able to set the ARfDs for over 90% of the 201 pesticides tested. The studies that provided the rationale for ARfD setting were primarily reproductive and developmental toxicity studies, acute neurotoxicity studies, and pharmacology studies. For approximately 30% of the pesticides simulated in the present study, it was not necessary to establish ARfDs. Some of the simulated ARfDs resulting from their endpoints may be conservative estimates, because the evaluation reports were written for acceptable daily intake settings. Thus, it was sometimes difficult to distinguish acute toxic alerts from repeated toxicities. We were unable to set an ARfD for 14 pesticides because of insufficient data on acute toxicities. This could be improved by more complete recordkeeping. Furthermore, we categorized the 201 pesticides by mechanism of action or chemical structure. Our simulation indicates that the conceptual framework presented here can be used as a basis for the development of guidelines on ARfD settings for pesticides in Japan.

  8. Ink4a/Arf expression is a biomarker of aging

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Janakiraman; Torrice, Chad; Ramsey, Matthew R.; Kovalev, Grigoriy I.; Al-Regaiey, Khalid; Su, Lishan; Sharpless, Norman E.

    2004-01-01

    The Ink4a/Arf locus encodes 2 tumor suppressor molecules, p16INK4a and Arf, which are principal mediators of cellular senescence. To study the links between senescence and aging in vivo, we examined Ink4a/Arf expression in rodent models of aging. We show that expression of p16INK4a and Arf markedly increases in almost all rodent tissues with advancing age, while there is little or no change in the expression of other related cell cycle inhibitors. The increase in expression is restricted to well-defined compartments within each organ studied and occurs in both epithelial and stromal cells of diverse lineages. The age-associated increase in expression of p16INK4a and Arf is attenuated in the kidney, ovary, and heart by caloric restriction, and this decrease correlates with diminished expression of an in vivo marker of senescence, as well as decreased pathology of those organs. Last, the age-related increase in Ink4a/Arf expression can be independently attributed to the expression of Ets-1, a known p16INK4a transcriptional activator, as well as unknown Ink4a/Arf coregulatory molecules. These data suggest that expression of the Ink4a/Arf tumor suppressor locus is a robust biomarker, and possible effector, of mammalian aging. PMID:15520862

  9. JSAP1 and JLP are required for ARF6 localization to the midbody in cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Tuvshintugs, Baljinnyam; Sato, Tokiharu; Enkhtuya, Radnaa; Yamashita, Katsumi; Yoshioka, Katsuji

    2014-09-01

    The ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) GTPase is important in cytokinesis and localizes to the midbody. However, the mechanism and regulation of ARF6's recruitment to the midbody are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the functions of two binding partners of active ARF6, c-Jun NH2 -terminal kinase (JNK)/stress-activated protein kinase-associated protein 1 (JSAP1) and JNK-associated leucine zipper protein (JLP), by gene knockout and rescue experiments in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Depleting both JSAP1 and JLP impaired ARF6's localization to the midbody and delayed cytokinesis. These defects were almost completely rescued by wild-type JSAP1 or JLP, but not by JSAP1 or JLP mutants that were unable to interact with active ARF6 or with the kinesin heavy chain (KHC) of kinesin-1. In transfected cells, a constitutively active form of ARF6 associated with KHC only when co-expressed with wild-type JSAP1 or JLP and not with a JSAP1 or JLP mutant. These findings suggest that JSAP1 and JLP, which might be paralogous to each other, are critical and functionally redundant in cytokinesis and control ARF6 localization to the midbody by forming a tripartite complex of JSAP1/JLP, active ARF6, and kinesin-1. © 2014 The Authors Genes to Cells © 2014 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. 20 CFR 228.16 - Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF... RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.16 Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF). Upon the attainment of retirement age, the previously-computed age reduction...

  11. 20 CFR 228.16 - Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF... RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.16 Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF). Upon the attainment of retirement age, the previously-computed age reduction...

  12. 20 CFR 228.16 - Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF... RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.16 Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF). Upon the attainment of retirement age, the previously-computed age reduction...

  13. 20 CFR 228.16 - Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF... RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.16 Adjustments in the age reduction factor (ARF). Upon the attainment of retirement age, the previously-computed age reduction...

  14. Structural basis for recruitment and activation of the AP-1 clathrin adaptor complex by Arf1.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xuefeng; Farías, Ginny G; Canagarajah, Bertram J; Bonifacino, Juan S; Hurley, James H

    2013-02-14

    AP-1 is a clathrin adaptor complex that sorts cargo between the trans-Golgi network and endosomes. AP-1 recruitment to these compartments requires Arf1-GTP. The crystal structure of the tetrameric core of AP-1 in complex with Arf1-GTP, together with biochemical analyses, shows that Arf1 activates cargo binding by unlocking AP-1. Unlocking is driven by two molecules of Arf1 that bridge two copies of AP-1 at two interaction sites. The GTP-dependent switch I and II regions of Arf1 bind to the N terminus of the β1 subunit of one AP-1 complex, while the back side of Arf1 binds to the central part of the γ subunit trunk of a second AP-1 complex. A third Arf1 interaction site near the N terminus of the γ subunit is important for recruitment, but not activation. These observations lead to a model for the recruitment and activation of AP-1 by Arf1.

  15. Chimeras of p14ARF and p16: Functional Hybrids with the Ability to Arrest Growth

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Richard T.; Barnhill, Lisa M.; Kuo, Huan-Hsien; Lin, Wen-Der; Batova, Ayse; Yu, Alice L.; Diccianni, Mitchell B.

    2014-01-01

    The INK4A locus codes for two independent tumor suppressors, p14ARF and p16/CDKN2A, and is frequently mutated in many cancers. Here we report a novel deletion/substitution from CC to T in the shared exon 2 of p14ARF/p16 in a melanoma cell line. This mutation aligns the reading frames of p14ARF and p16 mid-transcript, producing one protein which is half p14ARF and half p16, chimera ARF (chARF), and another which is half p16 and half non-p14ARF/non-p16 amino acids, p16-Alternate Carboxyl Terminal (p16-ACT). In an effort to understand the cellular impact of this novel mutation and others like it, we expressed the two protein products in a tumor cell line and analyzed common p14ARF and p16 pathways, including the p53/p21 and CDK4/cyclin D1 pathways, as well as the influence of the two proteins on growth and the cell cycle. We report that chARF mimicked wild-type p14ARF by inducing the p53/p21 pathway, inhibiting cell growth through G2/M arrest and maintaining a certain percentage of cells in G1 during nocodazole-induced G2 arrest. chARF also demonstrated p16 activity by binding CDK4. However, rather than preventing cyclin D1 from binding CDK4, chARF stabilized this interaction through p21 which bound CDK4. p16-ACT had no p16-related function as it was unable to inhibit cyclin D1/CDK4 complex formation and was unable to arrest the cell cycle, though it did inhibit colony formation. We conclude that these novel chimeric proteins, which are very similar to predicted p16/p14ARF chimeric proteins found in other primary cancers, result in maintained p14ARF-p53-p21 signaling while p16-dependent CDK4 inhibition is lost. PMID:24505435

  16. Chimeras of p14ARF and p16: functional hybrids with the ability to arrest growth.

    PubMed

    Williams, Richard T; Barnhill, Lisa M; Kuo, Huan-Hsien; Lin, Wen-Der; Batova, Ayse; Yu, Alice L; Diccianni, Mitchell B

    2014-01-01

    The INK4A locus codes for two independent tumor suppressors, p14ARF and p16/CDKN2A, and is frequently mutated in many cancers. Here we report a novel deletion/substitution from CC to T in the shared exon 2 of p14ARF/p16 in a melanoma cell line. This mutation aligns the reading frames of p14ARF and p16 mid-transcript, producing one protein which is half p14ARF and half p16, chimera ARF (chARF), and another which is half p16 and half non-p14ARF/non-p16 amino acids, p16-Alternate Carboxyl Terminal (p16-ACT). In an effort to understand the cellular impact of this novel mutation and others like it, we expressed the two protein products in a tumor cell line and analyzed common p14ARF and p16 pathways, including the p53/p21 and CDK4/cyclin D1 pathways, as well as the influence of the two proteins on growth and the cell cycle. We report that chARF mimicked wild-type p14ARF by inducing the p53/p21 pathway, inhibiting cell growth through G2/M arrest and maintaining a certain percentage of cells in G1 during nocodazole-induced G2 arrest. chARF also demonstrated p16 activity by binding CDK4. However, rather than preventing cyclin D1 from binding CDK4, chARF stabilized this interaction through p21 which bound CDK4. p16-ACT had no p16-related function as it was unable to inhibit cyclin D1/CDK4 complex formation and was unable to arrest the cell cycle, though it did inhibit colony formation. We conclude that these novel chimeric proteins, which are very similar to predicted p16/p14ARF chimeric proteins found in other primary cancers, result in maintained p14ARF-p53-p21 signaling while p16-dependent CDK4 inhibition is lost.

  17. Particle Lithography Enables Fabrication of Multicomponent Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-feng; Swartz, Logan A.; Li, Jie-Ren; Liu, Yang; Liu, Gang-yu

    2014-01-01

    Multicomponent nanostructures with individual geometries have attracted much attention because of their potential to carry out multiple functions synergistically. The current work reports a simple method using particle lithography to fabricate multicomponent nanostructures of metals, proteins, and organosiloxane molecules, each with its own geometry. Particle lithography is well-known for its capability to produce arrays of triangular-shaped nanostructures with novel optical properties. This paper extends the capability of particle lithography by combining a particle template in conjunction with surface chemistry to produce multicomponent nanostructures. The advantages and limitations of this approach will also be addressed. PMID:24707328

  18. Multi-shaped beam proof of lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slodowski, Matthias; Doering, Hans-Joachim; Dorl, Wolfgang; Stolberg, Ines A.

    2010-03-01

    In this paper a full package high throughput multi electron-beam approach, called Multi Shaped Beam (MSB), for applications in mask making as well as direct write will be presented including complex proof-of-lithography results. The basic concept enables a significant exposure shot count reduction for advanced patterns compared to standard Variable Shaped Beam (VSB) systems and allows full pattern flexibility by concurrently using MSB, VSB and Cell Projection (CP). Proof of lithography results will be presented, which have been performed using a fully operational electron-beam lithography system including data path and substrate scanning by x/y-stage movement.

  19. Genome-wide analysis of Aux/IAA and ARF gene families in Populus trichocarpa

    SciTech Connect

    Kalluri, Udaya C; DiFazio, Stephen P; Brunner, A.; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2007-01-01

    Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) and Auxin Response Factor (ARF) transcription factors are key regulators of auxin responses in plants. A total of 35 Aux/IAA and 39 ARF genes were identified in the Populus genome. Comparative phylogenetic analysis revealed that the subgroups PoptrARF2, 6, 9 and 16 and PoptrIAA3, 16, 27 and 29 have differentially expanded in Populus relative to Arabidopsis. Activator ARFs were found to be two fold-overrepresented in the Populus genome. PoptrIAA and PoptrARF gene families appear to have expanded due to high segmental and low tandem duplication events. Furthermore, expression studies showed that genes in the expanded PoptrIAA3 subgroup display differential expression. The gene-family analysis reported here will be useful in conducting future functional genomics studies to understand how the molecular roles of these large gene families translate into a diversity of biologically meaningful auxin effects.

  20. Mechanism of ribosome rescue by ArfA and RF2.

    PubMed

    Demo, Gabriel; Svidritskiy, Egor; Madireddy, Rohini; Diaz-Avalos, Ruben; Grant, Timothy; Grigorieff, Nikolaus; Sousa, Duncan; Korostelev, Andrei A

    2017-03-16

    ArfA rescues ribosomes stalled on truncated mRNAs by recruiting release factor RF2, which normally binds stop codons to catalyze peptide release. We report two 3.2 Å resolution cryo-EM structures - determined from a single sample - of the 70S ribosome with ArfA•RF2 in the A site. In both states, the ArfA C-terminus occupies the mRNA tunnel downstream of the A site. One state contains a compact inactive RF2 conformation. Ordering of the ArfA N-terminus in the second state rearranges RF2 into an extended conformation that docks the catalytic GGQ motif into the peptidyl-transferase center. Our work thus reveals the structural dynamics of ribosome rescue. The structures demonstrate how ArfA 'senses' the vacant mRNA tunnel and activates RF2 to mediate peptide release without a stop codon, allowing stalled ribosomes to be recycled.

  1. Maskless Electron-Beam Lithography for Trusted Microchip Production

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-31

    lithography has soared and continues to rise unabated. Multibeam has developed maskless electron-beam lithography ( EBL ) for producing advanced Rad-Hard...and other DoD microchips at lower cost. In addition to significant cost savings in mask and lithography equipment, Multibeam’s maskless EBL technology...maskless electron-beam lithography ( EBL ); e-beam direct write (EBDW); complementary e-beam lithography (CEBL); multiple patterning; cycle time

  2. Regulators and Effectors of Arf GTPases in Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Gamara, Jouda; Chouinard, François; Davis, Lynn; Aoudjit, Fawzi; Bourgoin, Sylvain G.

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are key innate immune cells that represent the first line of defence against infection. They are the first leukocytes to migrate from the blood to injured or infected sites. This process involves molecular mechanisms that coordinate cell polarization, delivery of receptors, and activation of integrins at the leading edge of migrating PMNs. These phagocytes actively engulf microorganisms or form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) to trap and kill pathogens with bactericidal compounds. Association of the NADPH oxidase complex at the phagosomal membrane for production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and delivery of proteolytic enzymes into the phagosome initiate pathogen killing and removal. G protein-dependent signalling pathways tightly control PMN functions. In this review, we will focus on the small monomeric GTPases of the Arf family and their guanine exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) as components of signalling cascades regulating PMN responses. GEFs and GAPs are multidomain proteins that control cellular events in time and space through interaction with other proteins and lipids inside the cells. The number of Arf GAPs identified in PMNs is expanding, and dissecting their functions will provide important insights into the role of these proteins in PMN physiology. PMID:26609537

  3. Regulators and Effectors of Arf GTPases in Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Gamara, Jouda; Chouinard, François; Davis, Lynn; Aoudjit, Fawzi; Bourgoin, Sylvain G

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are key innate immune cells that represent the first line of defence against infection. They are the first leukocytes to migrate from the blood to injured or infected sites. This process involves molecular mechanisms that coordinate cell polarization, delivery of receptors, and activation of integrins at the leading edge of migrating PMNs. These phagocytes actively engulf microorganisms or form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) to trap and kill pathogens with bactericidal compounds. Association of the NADPH oxidase complex at the phagosomal membrane for production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and delivery of proteolytic enzymes into the phagosome initiate pathogen killing and removal. G protein-dependent signalling pathways tightly control PMN functions. In this review, we will focus on the small monomeric GTPases of the Arf family and their guanine exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) as components of signalling cascades regulating PMN responses. GEFs and GAPs are multidomain proteins that control cellular events in time and space through interaction with other proteins and lipids inside the cells. The number of Arf GAPs identified in PMNs is expanding, and dissecting their functions will provide important insights into the role of these proteins in PMN physiology.

  4. Defect tolerant transmission lithography mask

    DOEpatents

    Vernon, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    A transmission lithography mask that utilizes a transparent substrate or a partially transparent membrane as the active region of the mask. A reflective single layer or multilayer coating is deposited on the membrane surface facing the illumination system. The coating is selectively patterned (removed) to form transmissive (bright) regions. Structural imperfections and defects in the coating have negligible effect on the aerial image of the mask master pattern since the coating is used to reflect radiation out of the entrance pupil of the imaging system. Similarly, structural imperfections in the clear regions of the membrane have little influence on the amplitude or phase of the transmitted electromagnetic fields. Since the mask "discards," rather than absorbs, unwanted radiation, it has reduced optical absorption and reduced thermal loading as compared to conventional designs. For EUV applications, the mask circumvents the phase defect problem, and is independent of the thermal load during exposure.

  5. Method for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOEpatents

    Felter, T. E.; Kubiak, G. D.

    2000-01-01

    A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces extreme ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods.

  6. Method for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOEpatents

    Felter, T. E.; Kubiak, Glenn D.

    1999-01-01

    A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces extreme ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods.

  7. Targeting of C-Terminal Binding Protein (CtBP) by ARF Results in p53-Independent Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Paliwal, Seema; Pande, Sandhya; Kovi, Ramesh C.; Sharpless, Norman E.; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Grossman, Steven R.

    2006-01-01

    ARF encodes a potent tumor suppressor that antagonizes MDM2, a negative regulator of p53. ARF also suppresses the proliferation of cells lacking p53, and loss of ARF in p53-null mice, compared with ARF or p53 singly null mice, results in a broadened tumor spectrum and decreased tumor latency. To investigate the mechanism of p53-independent tumor suppression by ARF, potential interacting proteins were identified by yeast two-hybrid screen. The antiapoptotic transcriptional corepressor C-terminal binding protein 2 (CtBP2) was identified, and ARF interactions with both CtBP1 and CtBP2 were confirmed in vitro and in vivo. Interaction with ARF resulted in proteasome-dependent CtBP degradation. Both ARF-induced CtBP degradation and CtBP small interfering RNA led to p53-independent apoptosis in colon cancer cells. ARF induction of apoptosis was dependent on its ability to interact with CtBP, and reversal of ARF-induced CtBP depletion by CtBP overexpression abrogated ARF-induced apoptosis. CtBP proteins represent putative targets for p53-independent tumor suppression by ARF. PMID:16508011

  8. Arf6 coordinates actin assembly through the WAVE complex, a mechanism usurped by Salmonella to invade host cells

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Daniel; Davidson, Anthony C.; Hume, Peter J.; Makin, Laura E.; Koronakis, Vassilis

    2013-01-01

    ADP ribosylation factor (Arf) 6 anchors to the plasma membrane, where it coordinates membrane trafficking and cytoskeleton remodelling, but how it assembles actin filaments is unknown. By reconstituting membrane-associated actin assembly mediated by the WASP family veroprolin homolog (WAVE) regulatory complex (WRC), we recapitulated an Arf6-driven actin polymerization pathway. We show that Arf6 is divergent from other Arf members, as it was incapable of directly recruiting WRC. We demonstrate that Arf6 triggers actin assembly at the membrane indirectly by recruiting the Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) ARNO that activates Arf1 to enable WRC-dependent actin assembly. The pathogen Salmonella usurped Arf6 for host cell invasion by recruiting its canonical GEFs EFA6 and BRAG2. Arf6 and its GEFs facilitated membrane ruffling and pathogen invasion via ARNO, and triggered actin assembly by generating an Arf1–WRC signaling hub at the membrane in vitro and in cells. This study reconstitutes Arf6-dependent actin assembly to reveal a mechanism by which related Arf GTPases orchestrate distinct steps in the WRC cytoskeleton remodelling pathway. PMID:24085844

  9. Mask requirements for advanced lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trybula, Walter J.; Engelstad, Roxann L.

    1998-06-01

    Within the n ext 10 years, sub-100 nm features will be required for state-of-the-industry devices. The tolerances for errors at 100 nm or less are substantially smaller than can be achieved today. A critical element of the error budget is the mask. For the 100 nm generation, the 4x mask image placement requirement is 20 nm with CD requirements as low as 9 nm. The challenge would be significant if the only improvement were to develop superior optical masks. There are multiple advanced technologies that are vying to be the successor to optical lithography. Each of these has a unique mask requirement. The leading contenders for the next generation are 1x x-ray, projection e-beam, ion beam, EUV and cell projection e-beam. The x-ray design is a proximity system that employs a 1x membrane mask. Projection e-beam uses a membrane mask with stabilizing struts. Ion beam lithography employs a stencil membrane mask with a carbon coating. EUV employs a 13 nm radiation source that requires a reflective mask. Cell projection e-beam has 25x or greater image masks that are stitched on the wafer. All the technologies indicated above. Once a total error budget for the mask is known, it is necessary to divide the total into the constituent parts. The major sources of distortion can be categorized into eight areas: mask blank processing, e- beam writing, pattern transfer, pellicle effects, mounting, thermal loadings, dynamic effects during exposure and radiation damage. The distortions introduced by each of these depend upon the type of mask; so, individual mask calculations must be made. The purpose of this paper is to review the modeling requirements of each of the categories and to highlight some results from each of the mask configurations.

  10. Stage Cylindrical Immersive Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramyan, Lucy; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Powell, Mark W.; Mittman, David S.; Shams, Khawaja S.

    2011-01-01

    Panoramic images with a wide field of view intend to provide a better understanding of an environment by placing objects of the environment on one seamless image. However, understanding the sizes and relative positions of the objects in a panorama is not intuitive and prone to errors because the field of view is unnatural to human perception. Scientists are often faced with the difficult task of interpreting the sizes and relative positions of objects in an environment when viewing an image of the environment on computer monitors or prints. A panorama can display an object that appears to be to the right of the viewer when it is, in fact, behind the viewer. This misinterpretation can be very costly, especially when the environment is remote and/or only accessible by unmanned vehicles. A 270 cylindrical display has been developed that surrounds the viewer with carefully calibrated panoramic imagery that correctly engages their natural kinesthetic senses and provides a more accurate awareness of the environment. The cylindrical immersive display offers a more natural window to the environment than a standard cubic CAVE (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment), and the geometry allows multiple collocated users to simultaneously view data and share important decision-making tasks. A CAVE is an immersive virtual reality environment that allows one or more users to absorb themselves in a virtual environment. A common CAVE setup is a room-sized cube where the cube sides act as projection planes. By nature, all cubic CAVEs face a problem with edge matching at edges and corners of the display. Modern immersive displays have found ways to minimize seams by creating very tight edges, and rely on the user to ignore the seam. One significant deficiency of flat-walled CAVEs is that the sense of orientation and perspective within the scene is broken across adjacent walls. On any single wall, parallel lines properly converge at their vanishing point as they should, and the sense of

  11. Gradient-based inverse extreme ultraviolet lithography.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xu; Wang, Jie; Chen, Xuanbo; Li, Yanqiu; Arce, Gonzalo R

    2015-08-20

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is the most promising successor of current deep ultraviolet (DUV) lithography. The very short wavelength, reflective optics, and nontelecentric structure of EUV lithography systems bring in different imaging phenomena into the lithographic image synthesis problem. This paper develops a gradient-based inverse algorithm for EUV lithography systems to effectively improve the image fidelity by comprehensively compensating the optical proximity effect, flare, photoresist, and mask shadowing effects. A block-based method is applied to iteratively optimize the main features and subresolution assist features (SRAFs) of mask patterns, while simultaneously preserving the mask manufacturability. The mask shadowing effect may be compensated by a retargeting method based on a calibrated shadowing model. Illustrative simulations at 22 and 16 nm technology nodes are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  12. From optical proximity correction to lithography-driven physical design (1996-2006): 10 years of resolution enhancement technology and the roadmap enablers for the next decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capodieci, Luigi

    2006-03-01

    The past decade has experienced a remarkable synergy between Resolution Enhancement Technologies (RET) in Optical Lithography and Optical Proximity Correction (OPC). This heterogeneous array of patterning solutions ranges from simple rule-based to more sophisticated model-based corrections, including sub-resolution assist features, partially transmitting masks and various dual mask approaches. A survey of the evolutionary development from the early introduction of the first OPC engines in 1996 to the debut of Immersion Lithography in 2006 reveals that the convergence of RET and OPC has also enabled a progressive selection and fine-tuning of Geometric Design Rules (GDR) at each technology node, based on systematic adoption of lithographic verification. This paper describes the use of "full-chip" lithography verification engines in current Design For Manufacturing (DFM) practices and extends the analysis to identify a set of key technologies and applications for the 45, 32 and 22 nm nodes. As OPC-derived tools enter the stage of maturity, from a software standpoint, their use-model is being greatly broadened from the back-end mask tape-out flow, upstream, directly integrated into physical design verification. Lithography awareness into the physical design environment, mediated by new DFM verification tools and flows, is driving various forms of manufacturable physical layout implementation: from Restricted Design Rules and Flexible Design Rules to Regular Circuit Fabrics. As new lithography solutions, such as immersion lithography and EUV, will have to be deployed within a complex technology framework, the paper also examines the trend towards "layout design regularization" and its implications for patterning and next generation lithographies.

  13. Secrets of subwavelength imaging and lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmer, Philip R.

    2011-08-01

    To understand the limits and tradeoffs of nearly all existing subwavelength imaging techniques it sufficient to understand magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its generalizations. In many cases, subwavelength optical lithography can be viewed as the inverse problem to imaging and so the same principles apply. A simple review of MRI is given which shows how the most popular subwavelength imaging and lithography techniques naturally arise as special cases.

  14. Immersive viewing engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonlau, William J.

    2006-05-01

    An immersive viewing engine providing basic telepresence functionality for a variety of application types is presented. Augmented reality, teleoperation and virtual reality applications all benefit from the use of head mounted display devices that present imagery appropriate to the user's head orientation at full frame rates. Our primary application is the viewing of remote environments, as with a camera equipped teleoperated vehicle. The conventional approach where imagery from a narrow field camera onboard the vehicle is presented to the user on a small rectangular screen is contrasted with an immersive viewing system where a cylindrical or spherical format image is received from a panoramic camera on the vehicle, resampled in response to sensed user head orientation and presented via wide field eyewear display, approaching 180 degrees of horizontal field. Of primary interest is the user's enhanced ability to perceive and understand image content, even when image resolution parameters are poor, due to the innate visual integration and 3-D model generation capabilities of the human visual system. A mathematical model for tracking user head position and resampling the panoramic image to attain distortion free viewing of the region appropriate to the user's current head pose is presented and consideration is given to providing the user with stereo viewing generated from depth map information derived using stereo from motion algorithms.

  15. Enabling immersive simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, Josh; Mateas, Michael; Hart, Derek H.; Whetzel, Jonathan; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Glickman, Matthew R.; Abbott, Robert G.

    2009-02-01

    The object of the 'Enabling Immersive Simulation for Complex Systems Analysis and Training' LDRD has been to research, design, and engineer a capability to develop simulations which (1) provide a rich, immersive interface for participation by real humans (exploiting existing high-performance game-engine technology wherever possible), and (2) can leverage Sandia's substantial investment in high-fidelity physical and cognitive models implemented in the Umbra simulation framework. We report here on these efforts. First, we describe the integration of Sandia's Umbra modular simulation framework with the open-source Delta3D game engine. Next, we report on Umbra's integration with Sandia's Cognitive Foundry, specifically to provide for learning behaviors for 'virtual teammates' directly from observed human behavior. Finally, we describe the integration of Delta3D with the ABL behavior engine, and report on research into establishing the theoretical framework that will be required to make use of tools like ABL to scale up to increasingly rich and realistic virtual characters.

  16. ArfGAP1 interacts with coat proteins through tryptophan-based motifs

    SciTech Connect

    Rawet, Moran; Levi-Tal, Sharon; Szafer-Glusman, Edith; Parnis, Anna; Cassel, Dan

    2010-04-09

    The Arf1 GTPase-activating protein ArfGAP1 regulates vesicular traffic through the COPI system. This protein consists of N-terminal catalytic domain, lipid packing sensors (the ALPS motifs) in the central region, and a carboxy part of unknown function. The carboxy part contains several diaromatic sequences that are reminiscent of motifs known to interact with clathrin adaptors. In pull-down experiments using GST-fused peptides from rat ArfGAP1, a peptide containing a {sup 329}WETF sequence interacted strongly with clathrin adaptors AP1 and AP2, whereas a major coatomer-binding determinant was identified within the extreme carboxy terminal peptide ({sup 405}AADEGWDNQNW). Mutagenesis and peptide competition experiments revealed that this determinant is required for coatomer binding to full-length ArfGAP1, and that interaction is mediated through the {delta}-subunit of the coatomer adaptor-like subcomplex. Evidence for a role of the carboxy motif in ArfGAP1-coatomer interaction in vivo is provided by means of a reporter fusion assay. Our findings point to mechanistic differences between ArfGAP1 and the other ArfGAPs known to function in the COPI system.

  17. The human ARF tumor suppressor senses blastema activity and suppresses epimorphic tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hesse, Robert G; Kouklis, Gayle K; Ahituv, Nadav; Pomerantz, Jason H

    2015-01-01

    The control of proliferation and differentiation by tumor suppressor genes suggests that evolution of divergent tumor suppressor repertoires could influence species’ regenerative capacity. To directly test that premise, we humanized the zebrafish p53 pathway by introducing regulatory and coding sequences of the human tumor suppressor ARF into the zebrafish genome. ARF was dormant during development, in uninjured adult fins, and during wound healing, but was highly expressed in the blastema during epimorphic fin regeneration after amputation. Regenerative, but not developmental signals resulted in binding of zebrafish E2f to the human ARF promoter and activated conserved ARF-dependent Tp53 functions. The context-dependent activation of ARF did not affect growth and development but inhibited regeneration, an unexpected distinct tumor suppressor response to regenerative versus developmental environments. The antagonistic pleiotropic characteristics of ARF as both tumor and regeneration suppressor imply that inducing epimorphic regeneration clinically would require modulation of ARF –p53 axis activation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07702.001 PMID:26575287

  18. Molecular analysis of ARF1 expression profiles during development of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.).

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiaobo; Lin, Fanrong; Lii, Yifan; Gou, Chunbao; Chen, Fang

    2011-03-01

    A cDNA clone designated arf1 was isolated from a physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) endosperm cDNA library which encodes a small GTP-binding protein and has significant homology to ADP-ribosylation factors (ARF) in plants, animals and microbes. The cDNA contains an open reading frame that encodes a polypeptide of 181 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 20.7 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high homology to known ARFs from other organisms. The products of the arf1 obtained by overexpression in E. coli revealed the specific binding activity toward GTP. The expression of arf1 was observed in flowers, roots, stems and leaves as analyzed by RT-PCR, and its transcriptional level was highest in flowers. In particular, the accumulation of arf1 transcripts was different under various environmental stresses in seedlings. The results suggest that arf1 plays distinct physiological roles in Jatropha curcas cells.

  19. Elimination of p19ARF-expressing cells enhances pulmonary function in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Michihiro; Asai, Azusa; Kawagishi, Hiroyuki; Mikawa, Ryuta; Iwashita, Yuji; Kanayama, Kazuki; Sugimoto, Kazushi; Sato, Tadashi; Maruyama, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Senescent cells accumulate in many tissues as animals age and are considered to underlie several aging-associated pathologies. The tumor suppressors p19ARF and p16INK4a, both of which are encoded in the CDKN2A locus, play critical roles in inducing and maintaining permanent cell cycle arrest during cellular senescence. Although the elimination of p16INK4a-expressing cells extends the life span of the mouse, it is unclear whether tissue function is restored by the elimination of senescent cells in aged animals and whether and how p19ARF contributes to tissue aging. The aging-associated decline in lung function is characterized by an increase in compliance as well as pathogenic susceptibility to pulmonary diseases. We herein demonstrated that pulmonary function in 12-month-old mice was reversibly restored by the elimination of p19ARF-expressing cells. The ablation of p19ARF-expressing cells using a toxin receptor-mediated cell knockout system ameliorated aging-associated lung hypofunction. Furthermore, the aging-associated gene expression profile was reversed after the elimination of p19ARF. Our results indicate that the aging-associated decline in lung function was, at least partly, attributed to p19ARF and was recovered by eliminating p19ARF-expressing cells. PMID:27699227

  20. ARF functions as a melanoma tumor suppressor by inducing p53-independent senescence

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Linan; Ichikawa, Takeshi; Anver, Miriam; Dickins, Ross; Lowe, Scott; Sharpless, Norman E.; Krimpenfort, Paul; DePinho, Ronald A.; Bennett, Dorothy C.; Sviderskaya, Elena V.; Merlino, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    Inactivation of the p53 pathway represents the most common molecular defect of human cancer. But in the setting of melanoma, a highly aggressive and invariably fatal malignancy in its advanced disseminated form, mutation/deletion of p53 is relatively rare, whereas its positive regulator ARF is often lost. Here, we show that genetic deficiency in Arf but not p53 facilitates rapid development of melanoma in a genetically engineered mouse model. This difference is accounted for, at least in part, by the unanticipated observation that, unlike fibroblasts, senescence control in melanocytes is strongly regulated by Arf and not p53. Moreover, oncogenic NRAS collaborates with deficiency in Arf, but not p53, to fully transform melanocytes. Our data demonstrate that ARF and p53, although linked in a common pathway, suppress tumorigenesis through distinct, lineage-dependent mechanisms and suggest that ARF helps restrict melanoma progression by executing the oncogene-induced senescence program in benign nevi. Thus, therapeutics designed to restore wild-type p53 function may be insufficient to counter melanoma and other malignancies in which ARF holds p53-independent tumor suppressor activity. PMID:17576930

  1. Molecular cloning and expression analyses of a novel swine gene--ARF4.

    PubMed

    Liu, G Y; Xiong, Y Z

    2009-03-01

    The mRNA differential display technique was performed to investigate the differences of gene expression in the longissimus muscle tissues from Meishan and Large White pigs. One novel gene that was differentially expressed was identified through semi-quantitative RT-PCR and the cDNA complete sequence was then obtained using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The nucleotide sequence of the gene is not homologous to any of the known porcine genes. The sequence prediction analysis revealed that the open reading frame of this gene encodes a protein of 180 amino acids that contains the putative conserved domain of ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) which has high homology with the ADP-ribosylation factor 4 (ARF4) of six species-bovine (98%), human and orangutan (96%), African clawed frog (96%), mouse and rat (98%)-so that it can be defined as swine ADP-ribosylation factor 4 (ARF4). This novel porcine gene was finally assigned to GeneID:595108. The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the swine ARF4 has a closer genetic relationship with the rat and mouse ARF4 than with those of human and African clawed frog. The tissue expression analysis indicated that the swine ARF4 gene is over expressed in muscle, fat, heart, spleen, liver, and ovary and moderately expressed in lung and kidney but weakly expressed in small intestine. Our experiment is the first to establish the primary foundation for further research on the swine ARF4 gene.

  2. p19Arf Inhibits the Invasion of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Binding to CtBP

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ya-Wen; Paliwal, Seema; Draheim, Kyle; Grossman, Steven R.; Lewis, Brian C.

    2008-01-01

    The INK4A/ARF tumor suppressor locus is frequently inactivated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), yet the consequences of this remain unknown. We recently described a HCC mouse model in which loss of the Ink4a/Arf locus accelerates the development of metastasis and enhances tumor cell migration and invasion in cell culture assays. We show here that knockdown of p19Arf in a HCC cell line increases invasion in cell culture assays. Further, reintroduction of p19Arf into HCC cell lines lacking Ink4a/Arf inhibits tumor cell invasion, without affecting cell proliferation, or cell transformation as measured by soft agar colony formation. Inhibition of cell invasion by p19Arf was dependent on its C-terminal binding protein (CtBP) interaction domain, but independent of Mdm2 binding and nucleolar localization. Indeed, RNAi-mediated knockdown of CtBP1 or CtBP2 decreased cell invasion, and ectopic expression of CtBP2 enhanced tumor cell migration and invasion. Thus, our data indicate a novel role for the Arf tumor suppressor protein in regulating phenotypes associated with tumor progression and metastasis in HCC cells. PMID:18199542

  3. Active ADP-ribosylation Factor-1 (ARF1) Is Required for Mitotic Golgi Fragmentation*S

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Yi; Seemann, Joachim; Bisel, Blaine; Punthambaker, Sukanya; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2012-01-01

    In mammalian cells the Golgi apparatus undergoes an extensive disassembly process at the onset of mitosis that is believed to facilitate equal partitioning of this organelle into the two daughter cells. However, the underlying mechanisms for this fragmentation process are so far unclear. Here we have investigated the role of the ADP-ribosylation factor-1 (ARF1) in this process to determine whether Golgi fragmentation in mitosis is mediated by vesicle budding. ARF1 is a small GTPase that is required for COPI vesicle formation from the Golgi membranes. Treatment of Golgi membranes with mitotic cytosol or with purified coatomer together with wild type ARF1 or its constitutive active form, but not the inactive mutant, converted the Golgi membranes into COPI vesicles. ARF1-depleted mitotic cytosol failed to fragment Golgi membranes. ARF1 is associated with Golgi vesicles generated in vitro and with vesicles in mitotic cells. In addition, microinjection of constitutive active ARF1 did not affect mitotic Golgi fragmentation or cell progression through mitosis. Our results show that ARF1 is active during mitosis and that this activity is required for mitotic Golgi fragmentation. PMID:17562717

  4. Active ADP-ribosylation factor-1 (ARF1) is required for mitotic Golgi fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yi; Seemann, Joachim; Bisel, Blaine; Punthambaker, Sukanya; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2007-07-27

    In mammalian cells the Golgi apparatus undergoes an extensive disassembly process at the onset of mitosis that is believed to facilitate equal partitioning of this organelle into the two daughter cells. However, the underlying mechanisms for this fragmentation process are so far unclear. Here we have investigated the role of the ADP-ribosylation factor-1 (ARF1) in this process to determine whether Golgi fragmentation in mitosis is mediated by vesicle budding. ARF1 is a small GTPase that is required for COPI vesicle formation from the Golgi membranes. Treatment of Golgi membranes with mitotic cytosol or with purified coatomer together with wild type ARF1 or its constitutive active form, but not the inactive mutant, converted the Golgi membranes into COPI vesicles. ARF1-depleted mitotic cytosol failed to fragment Golgi membranes. ARF1 is associated with Golgi vesicles generated in vitro and with vesicles in mitotic cells. In addition, microinjection of constitutive active ARF1 did not affect mitotic Golgi fragmentation or cell progression through mitosis. Our results show that ARF1 is active during mitosis and that this activity is required for mitotic Golgi fragmentation.

  5. A p53/ARF-dependent anticancer barrier activates senescence and blocks tumorigenesis without impacting apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Vidya C; Qin, Lan; Li, Yi

    2015-02-01

    In response to oncogene activation and oncogene-induced aberrant proliferation, mammalian cells activate apoptosis and senescence, usually via the p53-ARF tumor-suppressor pathway. Apoptosis is a known barrier to cancer and is usually downregulated before full malignancy, but senescence as an anticancer barrier is controversial due to its presence in the tumor environment. In addition, senescence may aid cancer progression via releasing senescence-associated factors that instigate neighboring tumor cells. Here, it is demonstrated that apoptosis unexpectedly remains robust in ErbB2 (ERBB2/HER2)-initiated mammary early lesions arising in adult mice null for either p53 or ARF. These early lesions, however, downregulate senescence significantly. This diminished senescence response is associated with accelerated progression to cancer in ARF-null mice compared with ARF-wild-type mice. Thus, the ARF-p53 pathway is dispensable for the apoptosis anticancer barrier in the initiation of ErbB2 breast cancer, the apoptosis barrier alone cannot halt mammary tumorigenesis, and senescence is a key barrier against carcinogenesis. Findings in this relevant mouse model of HER2-driven breast cancer suggest that effective prevention relies upon preserving both ARF/p53-independent apoptosis and ARF/p53-dependent senescence. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Genome-wide identification, isolation and expression analysis of auxin response factor (ARF) gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Si-Bei; OuYang, Wei-Zhi; Hou, Xiao-Jin; Xie, Liang-Liang; Hu, Chun-Gen; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Auxin response factors (ARFs) are an important family of proteins in auxin-mediated response, with key roles in various physiological and biochemical processes. To date, a genome-wide overview of the ARF gene family in citrus was not available. A systematic analysis of this gene family in citrus was begun by carrying out a genome-wide search for the homologs of ARFs. A total of 19 nonredundant ARF genes (CiARF) were found and validated from the sweet orange. A comprehensive overview of the CiARFs was undertaken, including the gene structures, phylogenetic analysis, chromosome locations, conserved motifs of proteins, and cis-elements in promoters of CiARF. Furthermore, expression profiling using real-time PCR revealed many CiARF genes, albeit with different patterns depending on types of tissues and/or developmental stages. Comprehensive expression analysis of these genes was also performed under two hormone treatments using real-time PCR. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and N-1-napthylphthalamic acid (NPA) treatment experiments revealed differential up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively, of the 19 citrus ARF genes in the callus of sweet orange. Our comprehensive analysis of ARF genes further elucidates the roles of CiARF family members during citrus growth and development process. PMID:25870601

  7. Genome-wide identification, isolation and expression analysis of auxin response factor (ARF) gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Li, Si-Bei; OuYang, Wei-Zhi; Hou, Xiao-Jin; Xie, Liang-Liang; Hu, Chun-Gen; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Auxin response factors (ARFs) are an important family of proteins in auxin-mediated response, with key roles in various physiological and biochemical processes. To date, a genome-wide overview of the ARF gene family in citrus was not available. A systematic analysis of this gene family in citrus was begun by carrying out a genome-wide search for the homologs of ARFs. A total of 19 nonredundant ARF genes (CiARF) were found and validated from the sweet orange. A comprehensive overview of the CiARFs was undertaken, including the gene structures, phylogenetic analysis, chromosome locations, conserved motifs of proteins, and cis-elements in promoters of CiARF. Furthermore, expression profiling using real-time PCR revealed many CiARF genes, albeit with different patterns depending on types of tissues and/or developmental stages. Comprehensive expression analysis of these genes was also performed under two hormone treatments using real-time PCR. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and N-1-napthylphthalamic acid (NPA) treatment experiments revealed differential up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively, of the 19 citrus ARF genes in the callus of sweet orange. Our comprehensive analysis of ARF genes further elucidates the roles of CiARF family members during citrus growth and development process.

  8. A distant, cis-acting enhancer drives induction of Arf by Tgfβ in the developing eye

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yanbin; Devitt, Caitlin; Liu, Jing; Mei, Jie; Skapek, Stephen X

    2015-01-01

    The Arf tumor suppressor represents one of several genes encoded at the Cdkn2a and Cdkn2b loci in the mouse. Beyond its role blunting the growth of incipient cancer cells, the Arf gene also plays an essential role in development: Its gene product, p19Arf, is induced by Tgfβ2 in the developing eye to dampen proliferative signals from Pdgfrβ, which effect ultimately fosters the vascular remodeling required for normal vision in the mouse. Mechanisms underlying Arf induction by Tgfβ2 are not fully understood. Using the chr4Δ70kb/Δ70kb mouse, we now show that deletion of the coronary artery disease (CAD) risk interval lying upstream of the Cdkn2a/b locus represses developmentally-timed induction of Arf resulting in eye disease mimicking the persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV) found in Arf-null mice and in children. Using mouse embryo fibroblasts, we demonstrate that Arf induction by Tgfβ is blocked in cis to the 70 kb deletion, but Arf induction by activated RAS and cell culture “shock” is not. Finally, we show that Arf induction by Tgfβ is derailed by preventing RNA polymerase II recruitment following Smad 2/3 binding to the promoter. These findings provide the first evidence that the CAD risk interval, located at a distance from Arf, acts as a cis enhancer of Tgfβ2-driven induction of Arf during development. PMID:23665474

  9. The BRAG/IQSec family of Arf GEFs.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Ryan S; Casanova, James E

    2016-10-01

    The IQSec/BRAG proteins are a subfamily of Arf-nucleotide exchange factors. Since their discovery almost 15 y ago, the BRAGs have been reported to be involved in diverse physiological processes from myoblast fusion, neuronal pathfinding and angiogenesis, to pathophysiological processes including X-linked intellectual disability and tumor metastasis. In this review we will address how, in each of these situations, the BRAGs are thought to regulate the surface levels of adhesive and signaling receptors. While in most cases BRAGs are thought to enhance the endocytosis of these receptors, how they achieve this remains unclear. Similarly, while all 3 BRAG proteins contain calmodulin-binding IQ motifs, little is known about how their activities might be regulated by calcium. These are some of the questions that are likely to form the basis of future research.

  10. The Solanum lycopersicum auxin response factor SlARF2 participates in regulating lateral root formation and flower organ senescence.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhenxin; Liu, Ruiyuan; Gu, Wenting; Dong, Xicun

    2017-03-01

    ARF2 as apleiotropic developmental regulator has been reported in Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The present study showed SlARF2 transcripts in all tomato plant tissues but with higher accumulation in flowers. During bud-anthesis stages, SlARF2 transcripts showed a dynamic expression pattern in sepal, stamen, ovary and petal. Hormone treatment analysis suggested that SlARF2 transcript accumulation was positively regulated by auxin and gibberellic acid, and negatively regulated by ethylene in tomato seedlings. Phenotypes and molecular analyses of SlARF2-upregulated transgenic tomato indicated that SlARF2 regulated tomato lateral root formation and flower organ senescence may be partially mediated by regulating the gene expression of auxin and ethylene response factors. The data enlarges the functional characterization of SlARF2 in tomato, and broadens our understanding of auxin signaling in regulating plant growth and development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Research development of thermal aberration in 193nm lithography exposure system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yueqiang; Liu, Yong

    2014-08-01

    Lithographic exposure is the key process in the manufacture of the integrated circuit, and the performance of exposure system decides the level of microelectronic manufacture technology. Nowadays, the 193nm ArF immersion exposure tool is widely used by the IC manufacturer. With the uniformity of critical dimension (CDU) and overlay become tighter and the requirement for throughput become higher, the thermal aberration caused by lens material and structure absorbing the laser energy cannot be neglected. In this paper, we introduce the efforts and methods that researcher on thermal aberration and its control. Further, these methods were compared to show their own pros and cons. Finally we investigated the challenges of thermal aberration control for state of the art technologies.

  12. Immersion echelle spectrograph

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Charles G.; Thomas, Norman L.

    2000-01-01

    A small spectrograph containing no moving components and capable of providing high resolution spectra of the mid-infrared region from 2 microns to 4 microns in wavelength. The resolving power of the spectrograph exceeds 20,000 throughout this region and at an optical throughput of about 10.sup.-5 cm.sup.2 sr. The spectrograph incorporates a silicon immersion echelle grating operating in high spectral order combined with a first order transmission grating in a cross-dispersing configuration to provide a two-dimensional (2-D) spectral format that is focused onto a two-dimensional infrared detector array. The spectrometer incorporates a common collimating and condensing lens assembly in a near aberration-free axially symmetric design. The spectrometer has wide use potential in addition to general research, such as monitoring atmospheric constituents for air quality, climate change, global warming, as well as monitoring exhaust fumes for smog sources or exhaust plumes for evidence of illicit drug manufacture.

  13. Broadcasting presence: immersive television

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, David; Lodge, Nicholas

    2000-06-01

    Being present at a live event is undeniably the most exciting way to experience any entertainment. This is true whether we are talking about a musical concert, a theatrical performance, a cricket match, or even a firework display. The ability to direct your gaze where you wish, to hear sounds from all around you, to experience the immediacy and expectation of an unscripted happening, to feel the buzz of the crowd and to smell the grass or smoke, are all sensory cues which contribute to the powerful experience of being there. This paper examines the ways in which entertainment media have attempted to recreate experiences which encourage the viewer to suspend disbelief and become part of a remote or recorded event. We introduce the concept of immersive television and look at some of the research, spanning many disciplines of science and art, which the ITC is conducting to explore the potential of this new medium.

  14. Selenium immersed thermistor bolometer study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rolls, W. H.

    1979-01-01

    The noise characteristics of thermistor bolometers immersed in layers of arsenic/selenium glass uniform in composition were examined. Using a controlled deposition technique, layers of glass were deposited, thermistor bolometers immersed, and their electrical characteristics measured after various thermal treatments. Markedly improved stability of the detector noise was observed using this new technique.

  15. Arf Induction by Tgfβ Is Influenced by Sp1 and C/ebpβ in Opposing Directions

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yanbin; Devitt, Caitlin; Liu, Jing; Iqbal, Nida; Skapek, Stephen X.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies show that Arf, a bona fide tumor suppressor, also plays an essential role during mouse eye development. Tgfβ is required for Arf promoter activation in developing mouse eyes, and its capacity to induce Arf depends on Smads 2/3 as well as p38 Mapk. Substantial delay between activation of these pathways and increased Arf transcription imply that changes in the binding of additional transcription factors help orchestrate changes in Arf expression. Focusing on proteins with putative DNA binding elements near the mouse Arf transcription start, we now show that Tgfβ induction of this gene correlated with decreased expression and DNA binding of C/ebpβ to the proximal Arf promoter. Ectopic expression of C/ebpβ in mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) blocked Arf induction by Tgfβ. Although basal levels of Arf mRNA were increased by C/ebpβ loss in MEFs and in the developing eye, Tgfβ was still able to increase Arf, indicating that derepression was not the sole factor. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay showed increased Sp1 binding to the Arf promotor at 24 and 48 hours after Tgfβ treatment, at which time points Arf expression was significantly induced by Tgfβ. Chemical inhibition of Sp1 and its knockdown by RNA interference blocked Arf induction by Tgfβ in MEFs. In summary, our results indicate that C/ebpβ and Sp1 are negative and positive Arf regulators that are influenced by Tgfβ. PMID:23940569

  16. Inverted hemispherical mask colloidal lithography.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haixia; Rao, Wenyuan; Meng, Jun; Shen, Yang; Jin, Chongjun; Wang, Xuehua

    2009-11-18

    This paper presents a cost-effective nanofabrication method for forming large area and high coverage two-dimensional metal nanostructures on flat and curved surfaces. This method starts with a periodic array of hemispherical dimples on polystyrene (PS) film prepared by colloidal lithography with a sacrificial layer of polyacrylic acid (PAA) underneath. After the removal of PAA in water solution, the PS layer is turned over and attached to the substrate to be patterned. An inverted hemispherical mask is formed after oxygen plasma etching. As the holes at the bottom are much larger than those on the surface, the mask is especially suitable for a standard lift-off process. Based on this mask, metal nano-disk and pair-disk arrays, as well as two-dimensional nanostructures on a curved surface, have been fabricated. Optical measurement shows that a surface plasmon resonance exists in a periodic disk array. This method is valuable for the fabrication of a magnifying metamaterial hyperlens in order to eliminate the limitation of optical diffraction.

  17. Array imaging system for lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirner, Raoul; Mueller, Kevin; Malaurie, Pauline; Vogler, Uwe; Noell, Wilfried; Scharf, Toralf; Voelkel, Reinhard

    2016-09-01

    We present an integrated array imaging system based on a stack of microlens arrays. The microlens arrays are manufactured by melting resist and reactive ion etching (RIE) technology on 8'' wafers (fused silica) and mounted by wafer-level packaging (WLP)1. The array imaging system is configured for 1X projection (magnification m = +1) of a mask pattern onto a planar wafer. The optical system is based on two symmetric telescopes, thus anti-symmetric wavefront aberrations like coma, distortion, lateral color are minimal. Spherical aberrations are reduced by using microlenses with aspherical lens profiles. In our system design approach, sub-images of individual imaging channels do not overlap to avoid interference. Image superposition is achieved by moving the array imaging system during the exposure time. A tandem Koehler integrator illumination system (MO Exposure Optics) is used for illumination. The angular spectrum of the illumination light underfills the pupils of the imaging channels to avoid crosstalk. We present and discuss results from simulation, mounting and testing of a first prototype of the investigated array imaging system for lithography.

  18. Extreme-UV lithography condenser

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Sweeney, Donald W.; Shafer, David; McGuire, James

    2001-01-01

    Condenser system for use with a ringfield camera in projection lithography where the condenser includes a series of segments of a parent aspheric mirror having one foci at a quasi-point source of radiation and the other foci at the radius of a ringfield have all but one or all of their beams translated and rotated by sets of mirrors such that all of the beams pass through the real entrance pupil of a ringfield camera about one of the beams and fall onto the ringfield radius as a coincident image as an arc of the ringfield. The condenser has a set of correcting mirrors with one of the correcting mirrors of each set, or a mirror that is common to said sets of mirrors, from which the radiation emanates, is a concave mirror that is positioned to shape a beam segment having a chord angle of about 25 to 85 degrees into a second beam segment having a chord angle of about 0 to 60 degrees.

  19. Proximity lithography membrane mask aeroelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huston, Dryver; Burns, Dylan; Boerger, Brent; Selzer, Robert

    2006-03-01

    Proximity lithography places a thin membrane mask into close proximity (5-100 micron) to a wafer for exposure to radiation and pattern placement. Efficient production practices require that the wafer be positioned relative to the mask as quickly as possible. The positioning maneuvers involve both a lateral motion and a closing of the mask-to-wafer gap. Gap closing requires forcing the exposure chamber gas (usually air or helium, possibly at a mild vacuum) between the mask and wafer out through the edges of the gap in a squeeze film process that can substantially deflect and damage the membrane mask. Moving laterally, i.e. stepping, would be more efficient if it were performed at the close proximity gap. The buildup of hydrodynamic pressures while stepping at gap can deform and possibly damage the mask. This paper discusses methods to model, measure and control aeroelastic effects due to gap closing and lateral stepping at gap. The analysis considers an aeroelastic model based on coupling Reynolds' hydrodynamic lubrication theory with membrane mechanics. A principal result of the analysis is the prediction that it is possible to step at gap and produce minimal aeroelastic out-of-plane deflections, if the wedge angle is zero, and both the membrane and mask have a flat profile. The aeroelastic models are confirmed with experiments that measure out-of-plane stepping of a membrane versus wedge angle, gap and speed. Non-flat mask profiles, such as buttes and mesas raise additional aeroelastic issues are also examined.

  20. Negative printing by soft lithography.

    PubMed

    Ong, Jason Kee Yang; Moore, David; Kane, Jennifer; Saraf, Ravi F

    2014-08-27

    In inkless microcontact printing (IμCP) by soft lithography, the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamp transfers uncured polymer to a substrate corresponding to its pattern. The spontaneous diffusion of PDMS oligomers to the surface of the stamp that gives rise to this deleterious side effect has been leveraged to fabricate a variety of devices, such as organic thin film transistors, single-electron devices, and biomolecular chips. Here we report an anomalous observation on a partially cured PDMS stamp where the transfer of oligomers onto Au occurred on regions that were not in contact with the stamp, while the surface in contact with the stamp was pristine with no polymer. On the SiO2 surface of the same chip, as expected, the transfer of PDMS occurred exclusively on regions in contact with the stamp. The printing on Au was quantified by a novel method where the submonolayer of PDMS transfer was measured by probing the local electrochemical passivation of the Au. The local transfer of polymer on SiO2 (and also Au) was measured by selective deposition of Au nanoparticle necklaces that exclusively deposited on PDMS at submonolayer sensitivity. It was discovered that the selectivity and sharpness of PDMS deposition on Au for inkless printing (i.e., negative) is significantly better than the traditional (positive) microcontact printing where the stamp is "inked" with low molecular weight PDMS.

  1. Semiconductor foundry, lithography, and partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Burn J.

    2002-07-01

    The semiconductor foundry took off in 1990 with an annual capacity of less than 0.1M 8-inch-equivalent wafers at the 2-mm node. In 2000, the annual capacity rose to more than 10M. Initially, the technology practiced at foundries was 1 to 2 generations behind that at integrated device manufacturers (IDMs). Presently, the progress in 0.13-mm manufacturing goes hand-in-hand with any of the IDMs. There is a two-order of magnitude rise in output and the progress of technology development outpaces IDMs. What are the reasons of the success? Is it possible to sustain the pace? This paper shows the quick rise of foundries in capacity, sales, and market share. It discusses the their uniqueness which gives rise to advantages in conjunction with challenges. It also shows the role foundries take with their customer partners and supplier partners, their mutual dependencies, as well as expectations. What role then does lithography play in the foundries? What are the lithographic challenges to sustain the pace of technology? The experience of technology development and transfer, at one of the major foundries, is used to illustrate the difficulties and progresses made. Looking into the future, as semiconductor manufacturing will become even more expensive and capital investment more prohibitive, we will make an attempt to suggest possible solutions.

  2. In die mask overlay control for 14nm double-patterning lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, William; Cheng, James; Tseng, Alex C. P.; Wu, J. K.; Chang, Chin Kuei; Cheng, Jeffrey; Lee, Adder; Huang, Chain Ting; Peng, N. T.; Hsu, Simon C. C.; Yu, Chun Chi; Lu, Colbert; Yu, Julia; Craig, Peter; Pollock, Chuck; Ham, Young; McMurran, Jeff

    2015-10-01

    According to the ITRS roadmap, semiconductor industry drives the 193nm lithography to its limits, using techniques like Double Pattern Technology (DPT), Source Mask Optimization (SMO) and Inverse Lithography Technology (ILT). In terms of considering the photomask metrology, full in-die measurement capability is required for registration and overlay control with challenging specifications for repeatability and accuracy. Double patterning using 193nm immersion lithography has been adapted as the solution to enable 14nm technology nodes. The overlay control is one of the key figures for the successful realization of this technology. In addition to the various error contributions from the wafer scanner, the reticles play an important role in terms of considering lithographic process contributed errors. Accurate pattern placement of the features on reticles with a registration error below 4nm is mandatory to keep overall photomask contributions to overlay of sub 20nm logic within the allowed error budget. In this paper, we show in-die registration errors using 14nm DPT product masks, by measuring in-die overlay patterns comparing with regular registration patterns. The mask measurements are used to obtain an accurate model to predict mask contribution on wafer overlay of double patterning technology.

  3. Lithography aware overlay metrology target design method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Myungjun; Smith, Mark D.; Lee, Joonseuk; Jung, Mirim; Lee, Honggoo; Kim, Youngsik; Han, Sangjun; Adel, Michael E.; Lee, Kangsan; Lee, Dohwa; Choi, Dongsub; Liu, Zephyr; Itzkovich, Tal; Levinski, Vladimir; Levy, Ady

    2016-03-01

    We present a metrology target design (MTD) framework based on co-optimizing lithography and metrology performance. The overlay metrology performance is strongly related to the target design and optimizing the target under different process variations in a high NA optical lithography tool and measurement conditions in a metrology tool becomes critical for sub-20nm nodes. The lithography performance can be quantified by device matching and printability metrics, while accuracy and precision metrics are used to quantify the metrology performance. Based on using these metrics, we demonstrate how the optimized target can improve target printability while maintaining the good metrology performance for rotated dipole illumination used for printing a sub-100nm diagonal feature in a memory active layer. The remaining challenges and the existing tradeoff between metrology and lithography performance are explored with the metrology target designer's perspective. The proposed target design framework is completely general and can be used to optimize targets for different lithography conditions. The results from our analysis are both physically sensible and in good agreement with experimental results.

  4. Cost of ownership for future lithography technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazelton, Andrew J.; Wüest, Andrea; Hughes, Greg; Litt, Lloyd C.; Goodwin, Frank

    2008-11-01

    The cost of ownership (COO) of candidate technologies for 32 nm and 22 nm half-pitch lithography is calculated. To more accurately compare technologies with different numbers of process steps, a model that includes deposition, etching, metrology, and other costs is created. Results show lithography COO for leading edge layers will increase by roughly 50% from the 45 nm to the 32 nm half-pitch nodes. Double patterning and extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) technologies have roughly the same COO under certain conditions. For 22 nm half-pitch nodes, EUVL has a significant cost advantage over other technologies under certain mask cost assumptions. Double patterning, however, may be competitive under worst case EUVL mask cost assumptions. Sensitivity studies of EUVL COO to throughput and uptime show EUVL may be cost-competitive at lower uptime and throughput conditions. In spite of these higher costs, total lithography costs for 32 nm and 22 nm half-pitches remain within reach of the Moore's Law trend. Finally, the COO of 450 mm lithography is calculated and shows the expected cost reduction is between 0% and 15%.

  5. ARF6, PI3-kinase and host cell actin cytoskeleton in Toxoplasma gondii cell invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira da Silva, Claudio; Alves da Silva, Erika; Costa Cruz, Mario; Chavrier, Philippe; Arruda Mortara, Renato

    2009-01-16

    Toxoplasma gondii infects a variety of different cell types in a range of different hosts. Host cell invasion by T. gondii occurs by active penetration of the host cell, a process previously described as independent of host actin polymerization. Also, the parasitophorous vacuole has been shown to resist fusion with endocytic and exocytic pathways of the host cell. ADP-ribosylation factor-6 (ARF6) belongs to the ARF family of small GTP-binding proteins. ARF6 regulates membrane trafficking and actin cytoskeleton rearrangements at the plasma membrane. Here, we have observed that ARF6 is recruited to the parasitophorous vacuole of tachyzoites of T. gondii RH strain and it also plays an important role in the parasite cell invasion with activation of PI3-kinase and recruitment of PIP{sub 2} and PIP{sub 3} to the parasitophorous vacuole of invading parasites. Moreover, it was verified that maintenance of host cell actin cytoskeleton integrity is important to parasite invasion.

  6. ARF1 and SAR1 GTPases in endomembrane trafficking in plants.

    PubMed

    Cevher-Keskin, Birsen

    2013-09-05

    Small GTPases largely control membrane traffic, which is essential for the survival of all eukaryotes. Among the small GTP-binding proteins, ARF1 (ADP-ribosylation factor 1) and SAR1 (Secretion-Associated RAS super family 1) are commonly conserved among all eukaryotes with respect to both their functional and sequential characteristics. The ARF1 and SAR1 GTP-binding proteins are involved in the formation and budding of vesicles throughout plant endomembrane systems. ARF1 has been shown to play a critical role in COPI (Coat Protein Complex I)-mediated retrograde trafficking in eukaryotic systems, whereas SAR1 GTPases are involved in intracellular COPII-mediated protein trafficking from the ER to the Golgi apparatus. This review offers a summary of vesicular trafficking with an emphasis on the ARF1 and SAR1 expression patterns at early growth stages and in the de-etiolation process.

  7. Increased Arf/p53 activity in stem cells, aging and cancer.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Garcia, Estefania; Moreno, Manuel; Moreno-Cugnon, Leire; Matheu, Ander

    2017-04-01

    Arf/p53 pathway protects the cells against DNA damage induced by acute stress. This characteristic is the responsible for its tumor suppressor activity. Moreover, it regulates the chronic type of stress associated with aging. This is the basis of its anti-aging activity. Indeed, increased gene dosage of Arf/p53 displays elongated longevity and delayed aging. At a cellular level, it has been recently shown that increased dosage of Arf/p53 delays age-associated stem cell exhaustion and the subsequent decline in tissue homeostasis and regeneration. However, p53 can also promote aging if constitutively activated. In this context, p53 reduces tissue regeneration, which correlates with premature exhaustion of stem cells. We discuss here the current evidence linking the Arf/p53 pathway to the processes of aging and cancer through stem cell regulation. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Process improvements in the production of silicon immersion gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Cynthia B.; Kidder, Benjamin; Grigas, Michelle; Griesmann, Ulf; Wilson, Daniel W.; Muller, Richard E.; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2016-07-01

    We have explored a number of lithographic techniques and improvements to produce the resist lines that then define the grating groove edges of silicon immersion gratings. In addition to our lithographic process using contact printing with photomasks, which is our primary technique for the production of immersion gratings, we explored two alternative fabrication methods, direct-write electron beam and photo-lithography. We have investigated the application of antireflection (AR) coatings during our contact printing lithography method to reduce the effect of Fizeau fringes produced by the contact of the photomask on the photoresist surface. This AR coating reduces the amplitude of the periodic errors by a factor of 1.5. Electron beam (e-beam) patterning allows us to manufacture gratings that can be used in first order, with groove spacing down to 0.5 micrometer or smaller (2,000 grooves/mm), but could require significant e-beam write times of up to one week to pattern a full-sized grating. The University of Texas at Austin silicon diffractive optics group is working with Jet Propulsion Laboratory to develop an alternate e-beam method that employs chromium liftoff to reduce the write time by a factor of 10. We are working with the National Institute of Standards and Technology using laser writing to explore the possibility of creating very high quality gratings without the errors introduced during the contact-printing step. Both e-beam and laser patterning bypass the contact photolithography step and directly write the lines in photoresist on our silicon substrates, but require increased cost, time, and process complexity.

  9. Functional association between Arf and RalA in active phospholipase D complex

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jing-Qing; Liu, Xin; Frankel, Paul; Rotunda, Thuy; Ramos, Miguel; Flom, Judith; Jiang, Hong; Feig, Larry A.; Morris, Andrew J.; Kahn, Richard A.; Foster, David A.

    1998-01-01

    Activation of phospholipase D1 (PLD1) by Arf has been implicated in vesicle transport and membrane trafficking. PLD1 has also been shown to be associated with the small GTPase RalA, which functions downstream from Ras in a Ras–RalA GTPase cascade that facilitates intracellular signal transduction. Although PLD1 associates directly with RalA, RalA has no effect upon the activity of PLD1. However, PLD1 precipitated from cell lysates with immobilized glutathione S-transferase–RalA fusion protein is active. This suggests the presence of an additional activating factor in the active RalA–PLD1 complexes. Because Arf stimulates PLD1, we looked for the presence of Arf in the active RalA–PLD1 complexes isolated from v-Src- and v-Ras-transformed cell lysates. Low levels of Arf protein were detected in RalA–PLD1 complexes; however, if guanosine 5′-[γ-thio]triphosphate was added to activate Arf and stimulate translocation to the membrane, high levels of Arf were precipitated by RalA from cell lysates. Interestingly, deletion of 11 amino-terminal amino acids unique to Ral GTPases, which abolished the ability of RalA to precipitate PLD activity, prevented the association between RalA and Arf. Brefeldin A, which inhibits Arf GDP–GTP exchange, inhibited PLD activity in v-Src- and v-Ras-transformed cells but not in the nontransformed cells, suggesting that the association of Arf with RalA is required for the increased PLD activity induced by v-Src and v-Ras. These data implicate Arf in the transduction of intracellular signals activated by v-Src and mediated by the Ras–RalA GTPase cascade. Because both Arf and PLD1 stimulate vesicle formation in the Golgi, these data raise the possibility that vesicle formation and trafficking may play a role in the transduction of intracellular signals. PMID:9520417

  10. Resolution improvement and pattern generator development for the maskless micro-ion-beam reduction lithography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ximan

    The shrinking of IC devices has followed the Moore's Law for over three decades, which states that the density of transistors on integrated circuits will double about every two years. This great achievement is obtained via continuous advance in lithography technology. With the adoption of complicated resolution enhancement technologies, such as the phase shifting mask (PSM), the optical proximity correction (OPC), optical lithography with wavelength of 193 nm has enabled 45 nm printing by immersion method. However, this achievement comes together with the skyrocketing cost of masks, which makes the production of low volume application-specific IC (ASIC) impractical. In order to provide an economical lithography approach for low to medium volume advanced IC fabrication, a maskless ion beam lithography method, called Maskless Micro-ion-beam Reduction Lithography (MMRL), has been developed in the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The development of the prototype MMRL system has been described by Dr. Vinh Van Ngo in his Ph.D. thesis. But the resolution realized on the prototype MMRL system was far from the design expectation. In order to improve the resolution of the MMRL system, the ion optical system has been investigated. By integrating a field-free limiting aperture into the optical column, reducing the electromagnetic interference and cleaning the RF plasma, the resolution has been improved to around 50 nm. Computational analysis indicates that the MMRL system can be operated with an exposure field size of 0.25 mm and a beam half angle of 1.0 mrad on the wafer plane. Ion-ion interactions have been studied with a two-particle physics model. The results are in excellent agreement with those published by the other research groups. The charge-interaction analysis of MMRL shows that the ion-ion interactions must be reduced in order to obtain a throughput higher than 10 wafers per hour on 300-mm wafers. In addition, two different maskless lithography strategies

  11. ACAP-A/B are ArfGAP homologs in dictyostelium involved in sporulation but not in chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Wen; Randazzo, Paul A; Parent, Carole A

    2010-01-07

    Arfs and Arf GTPase-activating proteins (ArfGAPs) are regulators of membrane trafficking and actin dynamics in mammalian cells. In this study, we identified a primordial Arf, ArfA, and two ArfGAPs (ACAP-A/B) containing BAR, PH, ArfGAP and Ankyrin repeat domains in the eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum. In vitro, ArfA has similar nucleotide binding properties as mammalian Arfs and, with GTP bound, is a substrate for ACAP-A and B. We also investigated the physiological functions of ACAP-A/B by characterizing cells lacking both ACAP-A and B. Although ACAP-A/B knockout cells showed no defects in cell growth, migration or chemotaxis, they exhibited abnormal actin protrusions and approximately 50% reduction in spore yield. We conclude that while ACAP-A/B have a conserved biochemical mechanism and effect on actin organization, their role in migration is not conserved. The absence of an effect on Dictyostelium migration may be due to a specific requirement for ACAPs in mesenchymal migration, which is observed in epithelial cancer cells where most studies of mammalian ArfGAPs were performed.

  12. Auxin Response Factor SlARF2 Is an Essential Component of the Regulatory Mechanism Controlling Fruit Ripening in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yanwei; Hu, Guojian; Breitel, Dario; Liu, Mingchun; Mila, Isabelle; Frasse, Pierre; Fu, Yongyao; Aharoni, Asaph; Bouzayen, Mondher; Zouine, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene is the main regulator of climacteric fruit ripening, by contrast the putative role of other phytohormones in this process remains poorly understood. The present study brings auxin signaling components into the mechanism regulating tomato fruit ripening through the functional characterization of Auxin Response Factor2 (SlARF2) which encodes a downstream component of auxin signaling. Two paralogs, SlARF2A and SlARF2B, are found in the tomato genome, both displaying a marked ripening-associated expression but distinct responsiveness to ethylene and auxin. Down-regulation of either SlARF2A or SlARF2B resulted in ripening defects while simultaneous silencing of both genes led to severe ripening inhibition suggesting a functional redundancy among the two ARFs. Tomato fruits under-expressing SlARF2 produced less climacteric ethylene and exhibited a dramatic down-regulation of the key ripening regulators RIN, CNR, NOR and TAGL1. Ethylene treatment failed to reverse the non-ripening phenotype and the expression of ethylene signaling and biosynthesis genes was strongly altered in SlARF2 down-regulated fruits. Although both SlARF proteins are transcriptional repressors the data indicate they work as positive regulators of tomato fruit ripening. Altogether, the study defines SlARF2 as a new component of the regulatory network controlling the ripening process in tomato. PMID:26716451

  13. Auxin Response Factor SlARF2 Is an Essential Component of the Regulatory Mechanism Controlling Fruit Ripening in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yanwei; Hu, Guojian; Breitel, Dario; Liu, Mingchun; Mila, Isabelle; Frasse, Pierre; Fu, Yongyao; Aharoni, Asaph; Bouzayen, Mondher; Zouine, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Ethylene is the main regulator of climacteric fruit ripening, by contrast the putative role of other phytohormones in this process remains poorly understood. The present study brings auxin signaling components into the mechanism regulating tomato fruit ripening through the functional characterization of Auxin Response Factor2 (SlARF2) which encodes a downstream component of auxin signaling. Two paralogs, SlARF2A and SlARF2B, are found in the tomato genome, both displaying a marked ripening-associated expression but distinct responsiveness to ethylene and auxin. Down-regulation of either SlARF2A or SlARF2B resulted in ripening defects while simultaneous silencing of both genes led to severe ripening inhibition suggesting a functional redundancy among the two ARFs. Tomato fruits under-expressing SlARF2 produced less climacteric ethylene and exhibited a dramatic down-regulation of the key ripening regulators RIN, CNR, NOR and TAGL1. Ethylene treatment failed to reverse the non-ripening phenotype and the expression of ethylene signaling and biosynthesis genes was strongly altered in SlARF2 down-regulated fruits. Although both SlARF proteins are transcriptional repressors the data indicate they work as positive regulators of tomato fruit ripening. Altogether, the study defines SlARF2 as a new component of the regulatory network controlling the ripening process in tomato.

  14. Changes in p19Arf Localization Accompany Apoptotic Crisis during Pre-B-Cell Transformation by Abelson Murine Leukemia Virus▿

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Rebekah Stackpole; Rosenberg, Naomi

    2008-01-01

    Transformation by Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MLV) is a multistep process in which growth-stimulatory signals from the v-Abl oncoprotein and growth-suppressive signals from the p19Arf-p53 tumor suppressor pathway oppose each other and influence the outcome of infection. The process involves a proliferative phase during which highly viable primary transformants expand, followed by a period of marked apoptosis (called “crisis”) that is dependent on the presence of p19Arf and p53; rare cells that survive this phase emerge as fully transformed and malignant. To understand the way in which v-Abl expression affects p19Arf expression, we examined changes in expression of Arf during all stages of Ab-MLV transformation process. As is consistent with the ability of v-Abl to stimulate Myc, a transcription factor known to induce p19Arf, Myc and Arf are induced soon after infection and p19Arf is expressed. At these early time points, the infected cells remain highly viable. The onset of crisis is marked by an increase in p19Arf expression and a change in localization of the protein from the nucleoplasm to the nucleolus. These data together suggest that the localization and expression levels of p19Arf modulate the effects of the protein during oncogenesis and reveal that the p19Arf-mediated response is subject to multiple layers of regulation that influence its function during Ab-MLV-mediated transformation. PMID:18579612

  15. Arf6 controls platelet spreading and clot retraction via integrin αIIbβ3 trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yunjie; Joshi, Smita; Xiang, Binggang; Kanaho, Yasunori; Li, Zhenyu; Bouchard, Beth A.; Moncman, Carole L.

    2016-01-01

    Platelet and megakaryocyte endocytosis is important for loading certain granule cargo (ie, fibrinogen [Fg] and vascular endothelial growth factor); however, the mechanisms of platelet endocytosis and its functional acute effects are understudied. Adenosine 5'-diphosphate–ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) is a small guanosine triphosphate–binding protein that regulates endocytic trafficking, especially of integrins. To study platelet endocytosis, we generated platelet-specific Arf6 knockout (KO) mice. Arf6 KO platelets had less associated Fg suggesting that Arf6 affects αIIbβ3-mediated Fg uptake and/or storage. Other cargo was unaffected. To measure Fg uptake, mice were injected with biotinylated- or fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)–labeled Fg. Platelets from the injected Arf6 KO mice showed lower accumulation of tagged Fg, suggesting an uptake defect. Ex vivo, Arf6 KO platelets were also defective in FITC-Fg uptake and storage. Immunofluorescence analysis showed initial trafficking of FITC-Fg to a Rab4-positive compartment followed by colocalization with Rab11-positive structures, suggesting that platelets contain and use both early and recycling endosomes. Resting and activated αIIbβ3 levels, as measured by flow cytometry, were unchanged; yet, Arf6 KO platelets exhibited enhanced spreading on Fg and faster clot retraction. This was not the result of alterations in αIIbβ3 signaling, because myosin light-chain phosphorylation and Rac1/RhoA activation were unaffected. Consistent with the enhanced clot retraction and spreading, Arf6 KO mice showed no deficits in tail bleeding or FeCl3-induced carotid injury assays. Our studies present the first mouse model for defining the functions of platelet endocytosis and suggest that altered integrin trafficking may affect the efficacy of platelet function. PMID:26738539

  16. HIV-1 requires Arf6-mediated membrane dynamics to efficiently enter and infect T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    García-Expósito, Laura; Barroso-González, Jonathan; Puigdomènech, Isabel; Machado, José-David; Blanco, Julià; Valenzuela-Fernández, Agustín

    2011-01-01

    As the initial barrier to viral entry, the plasma membrane along with the membrane trafficking machinery and cytoskeleton are of fundamental importance in the viral cycle. However, little is known about the contribution of plasma membrane dynamics during early human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Considering that ADP ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) regulates cellular invasion via several microorganisms by coordinating membrane trafficking, our aim was to study the function of Arf6-mediated membrane dynamics on HIV-1 entry and infection of T lymphocytes. We observed that an alteration of the Arf6–guanosine 5′-diphosphate/guanosine 5′-triphosphate (GTP/GDP) cycle, by GDP-bound or GTP-bound inactive mutants or by specific Arf6 silencing, inhibited HIV-1 envelope–induced membrane fusion, entry, and infection of T lymphocytes and permissive cells, regardless of viral tropism. Furthermore, cell-to-cell HIV-1 transmission of primary human CD4+ T lymphocytes was inhibited by Arf6 knockdown. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy showed that Arf6 mutants provoked the accumulation of phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-biphosphate–associated structures on the plasma membrane of permissive cells, without affecting CD4-viral attachment but impeding CD4-dependent HIV-1 entry. Arf6 silencing or its mutants did not affect fusion, entry, and infection of vesicular stomatitis virus G–pseudotyped viruses or ligand-induced CXCR4 or CCR5 endocytosis, both clathrin-dependent processes. Therefore we propose that efficient early HIV-1 infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes requires Arf6-coordinated plasma membrane dynamics that promote viral fusion and entry. PMID:21346189

  17. Lithography and design in partnership: a new roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahng, Andrew B.

    2008-10-01

    We discuss the notion of a 'shared technology roadmap' between lithography and design from several perspectives. First, we examine cultural gaps and other intrinsic barriers to a shared roadmap. Second, we discuss how lithography technology can change the design technology roadmap. Third, we discuss how design technology can change the lithography technology roadmap. We conclude with an example of the 'flavor' of technology roadmapping activity that can truly bridge lithography and design.

  18. Immersed interface methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    LeVeque, R.J.; Adams, L.M.; Bube, K.P.

    1996-11-01

    Cartesian grid methods encompass a wide variety of techniques used to solve partial differential equations in more than one space dimension on uniform Cartesian grids even when the underlying geometry is complex and not aligned with the grid. The authors` groups work on Immersed Interface Methods (IIM) was originally motivated by the desire to understand and improve the ``Immersed Boundary Method``, developed by Charles Peskin to solve incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in complicated geometries with moving elastic boundaries. This report briefly discusses the development of the Immersed Interface Methods and gives examples of application of the method in solving several partial differential equations.

  19. Thermal comfort following immersion.

    PubMed

    Guéritée, Julien; Redortier, Bernard; House, James R; Tipton, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Unlike thermal comfort in air, little research has been undertaken exploring thermal comfort around water sports. We investigated the impact of swimming and cooling in air after swimming on thermal comfort. After 10 min of swimming-and-resting cycles in 28°C water, volunteers wearing two types of garments or in swim briefs, faced winds in 24°C air, at rest or when stepping. Thermal comfort was significantly higher during swimming than resting. Post-immersion, following maximum discomfort, in 45 of 65 tests thermal comfort improved although mean skin temperature was still cooling (0.26 [SD 0.19] °C·min(-1) - max was 0.89°C·min(-1)). When thermal comfort was re-established mean skin temperature was lower than at maximal discomfort in 39 of 54 tests (0.81 [SD 0.58] °C - max difference was 2.68°C). The reduction in thermal discomfort in this scenario could be due to the adaptation of thermoreceptors, or to reductions in cooling rates to levels where discomfort was less stimulated. The relief from the recent discomfort may explain why, later, thermal comfort returned to initial levels in spite of poorer thermal profiles.

  20. Immersion echelle spectrograph

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, C.G.; Thomas, N.L.

    2000-06-20

    A small spectrograph is disclosed containing no moving components and capable of providing high resolution spectra of the mid-infrared region from 2 microns to 4 microns in wavelength. The resolving power of the spectrograph exceeds 20,000 throughout this region and at an optical throughput of about 10{sup {minus}5}cm{sup 2}sr. The spectrograph incorporates a silicon immersion echelle grating operating in high spectral order combined with a first order transmission grating in a cross-dispersing configuration to provide a two-dimensional (2-D) spectral format that is focused onto a two-dimensional infrared detector array. The spectrometer incorporates a common collimating and condensing lens assembly in a near aberration-free axially symmetric design. The spectrometer has wide use potential in addition to general research, such as monitoring atmospheric constituents for air quality, climate change, global warming, as well as monitoring exhaust fumes for smog sources or exhaust plumes for evidence of illicit drug manufacture.

  1. Force-controlled inorganic crystallization lithography.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chao-Min; LeDuc, Philip R

    2006-09-20

    Lithography plays a key role in integrated circuits, optics, information technology, biomedical applications, catalysis, and separation technologies. However, inorganic lithography techniques remain of limited utility for applications outside of the typical foci of integrated circuit manufacturing. In this communication, we have developed a novel stamping method that applies pressure on the upper surface of the stamp to regulate the dewetting process of the inorganic buffer and the evaporation rate of the solvent in this buffer between the substrate and the surface of the stamp. We focused on generating inorganic microstructures with specific locations and also on enabling the ability to pattern gradients during the crystallization of the inorganic salts. This approach utilized a combination of lithography with bottom-up growth and assembly of inorganic crystals. This work has potential applications in a variety of fields, including studying inorganic material patterning and small-scale fabrication technology.

  2. Increased gene dosage of Ink4a/Arf results in cancer resistance and normal aging

    PubMed Central

    Matheu, Ander; Pantoja, Cristina; Efeyan, Alejo; Criado, Luis M.; Martín-Caballero, Juan; Flores, Juana M.; Klatt, Peter; Serrano, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Mammalian genes frequently present allelic variants that differ in their expression levels and that, in the case of tumor suppressor genes, can be of relevance for cancer susceptibility and aging. We report here the characterization of a novel mouse model with increased activity for the Ink4a and Arf tumor suppressors. We have generated a “super Ink4a/Arf” mouse strain carrying a transgenic copy of the entire Ink4a/Arf locus. Cells derived from super Ink4a/Arf mice have increased resistance to in vitro immortalization and oncogenic transformation. Importantly, super Ink4a/Arf mice manifest higher resistance to cancer compared to normal, nontransgenic, mice. Finally, super Ink4a/Arf mice have normal aging and lifespan. Together, these results indicate that modest increases in the activity of the Ink4a/Arf tumor suppressor result in a beneficial cancer-resistant phenotype without affecting normal viability or aging. PMID:15520276

  3. The GDP-bound form of Arf6 is located at the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Macia, Eric; Luton, Frédéric; Partisani, Mariagrazia; Cherfils, Jacqueline; Chardin, Pierre; Franco, Michel

    2004-05-01

    The function of Arf6 has been investigated largely by using the T27N and the Q67L mutants, which are thought to be blocked in GDP- and GTP-bound states, respectively. However, these mutants have been poorly characterized biochemically. Here, we found that Arf6(T27N) is not an appropriate marker of the inactive GDP-bound form because it has a high tendency to lose its nucleotide in vitro and to denature. As a consequence, most of the protein is aggregated in vivo and localizes to detergent-insoluble structures. However, a small proportion of Arf6(T27N) is able to form a stable complex with its exchange factor EFA6 at the plasma membrane, accounting for its dominant-negative phenotype. To define the cellular localization of Arf6-GDP, we designed a new mutant, Arf6(T44N). In vitro, this mutant has a 30-fold decreased affinity for GTP. In vivo, it is mostly GDP bound and, in contrast to the wild type, does not switch to the active conformation when expressed with EFA6. This GDP-locked mutant is found at the plasma membrane, where it localizes with EFA6 and Ezrin in actin- and phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate-enriched domains. From these results, we conclude that the Arf6 GDP-GTP cycle takes place at the plasma membrane.

  4. A novel physiological role for ARF1 in the formation of bidirectional tubules from the Golgi

    PubMed Central

    Bottanelli, Francesca; Kilian, Nicole; Ernst, Andreas M.; Rivera-Molina, Felix; Schroeder, Lena K.; Kromann, Emil B.; Lessard, Mark D.; Erdmann, Roman S.; Schepartz, Alanna; Baddeley, David; Bewersdorf, Joerg; Toomre, Derek; Rothman, James E.

    2017-01-01

    Capitalizing on CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing techniques and super-resolution nanoscopy, we explore the role of the small GTPase ARF1 in mediating transport steps at the Golgi. Besides its well-established role in generating COPI vesicles, we find that ARF1 is also involved in the formation of long (∼3 µm), thin (∼110 nm diameter) tubular carriers. The anterograde and retrograde tubular carriers are both largely free of the classical Golgi coat proteins coatomer (COPI) and clathrin. Instead, they contain ARF1 along their entire length at a density estimated to be in the range of close packing. Experiments using a mutant form of ARF1 affecting GTP hydrolysis suggest that ARF1[GTP] is functionally required for the tubules to form. Dynamic confocal and stimulated emission depletion imaging shows that ARF1-rich tubular compartments fall into two distinct classes containing 1) anterograde cargoes and clathrin clusters or 2) retrograde cargoes and coatomer clusters. PMID:28428254

  5. Unregulated ARF6 Activation in Epithelial Cysts Generates Hyperactive Signaling Endosomes and Disrupts Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tushir, Jogender S.; Clancy, James; Warren, Andrew; Wrobel, Carolyn; Brugge, Joan S.

    2010-01-01

    Tumor development in glandular tissues is associated with structural alterations in the hollow ducts and spherical structures that comprise such tissues. We describe a signaling axis involving sustained activation of the GTP-binding protein, ARF6, that provokes dramatic changes in the organization of epithelial cysts, reminiscent of tumorigenic glandular phenotypes. In reconstituted basement membrane cultures of renal epithelial cysts, enhanced ARF6 activation induces the formation of cell-filled glandular structures with multiple lumens and disassembled cadherin-based cell–cell contacts. All of these alterations are accompanied by growth factor receptor internalization into signaling endosomes and reversed by blocking ARF6 activation or receptor endocytosis. Receptor localization in signaling endosomes results in hyperactive extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling leading to Bcl-2 stabilization and aberrant cysts. Similarly, formation of hyperproliferative and disorganized mammary acini induced by chronic stimulation of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor is coupled to endogenous ARF6 activation and constitutive receptor internalization and is reversed by ARF6 inhibition. These findings identify a previously unrecognized link between ARF6-regulated receptor internalization and events that drive dramatic alterations in cyst morphogenesis providing new mechanistic insight into the molecular processes that can promote epithelial glandular disruption. PMID:20462959

  6. Absence of p16INK4a and truncation of ARF tumor suppressors in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo-Hyun; Mitchell, Michael; Fujii, Hideta; Llanos, Susana; Peters, Gordon

    2003-01-01

    The INK4b-ARF-INK4a locus on human chromosome 9p21 (Human Genome Organization designation CDKN2B-CDKN2A), and the corresponding locus on mouse chromosome 4, encodes three distinct products: two members of the INK4 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor family and a completely unrelated protein, ARF, whose carboxyl-terminal half is specified by the second exon of INK4a but in an alternative reading frame. As INK4 proteins block the phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma gene product and ARF protects p53 from degradation, the locus plays a key role in tumor suppression and the control of cell proliferation. To gain further insights into the relative importance of INK4a and ARF in different settings, we have isolated and characterized the equivalent locus in chickens. Surprisingly, although we identified orthologues of INK4b and ARF, chickens do not encode an equivalent of INK4a. Moreover, the reading frame for chicken ARF does not extend into exon 2, because splicing occurs in a different register to that used in mammals. The resultant 60-aa product nevertheless shares functional attributes with its mammalian counterparts. As well as indicating that the locus has been subject to dynamic evolutionary pressures, these unexpected findings suggest that in chickens, the tumor-suppressor functions of INK4a have been compensated for by other genes. PMID:12506196

  7. Data sharing system for lithography APC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Eiichi; Teranishi, Yoshiharu; Shimabara, Masanori

    2007-03-01

    We have developed a simple and cost-effective data sharing system between fabs for lithography advanced process control (APC). Lithography APC requires process flow, inter-layer information, history information, mask information and so on. So, inter-APC data sharing system has become necessary when lots are to be processed in multiple fabs (usually two fabs). The development cost and maintenance cost also have to be taken into account. The system handles minimum information necessary to make trend prediction for the lots. Three types of data have to be shared for precise trend prediction. First one is device information of the lots, e.g., process flow of the device and inter-layer information. Second one is mask information from mask suppliers, e.g., pattern characteristics and pattern widths. Last one is history data of the lots. Device information is electronic file and easy to handle. The electronic file is common between APCs and uploaded into the database. As for mask information sharing, mask information described in common format is obtained via Wide Area Network (WAN) from mask-vender will be stored in the mask-information data server. This information is periodically transferred to one specific lithography-APC server and compiled into the database. This lithography-APC server periodically delivers the mask-information to every other lithography-APC server. Process-history data sharing system mainly consists of function of delivering process-history data. In shipping production lots to another fab, the product-related process-history data is delivered by the lithography-APC server from the shipping site. We have confirmed the function and effectiveness of data sharing systems.

  8. In-situ Mueller matrix polarimetry of projection lenses for 193-nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Hiroshi; Higashikawa, Iwao

    2010-04-01

    For immersion lithography with aggressive polarization illumination settings, it is important to newly construct two systems for diagnosing lithography tools; Stokes polarimetry of illumination and Mueller matrix polarimetry of projection lenses. At the SPIE conference on Optical Microlithography XXI in 2008, the authors had already reported on the former Stokes polarimetry. True polarization states of several illumination settings emerged. On the other hand, the latter Mueller matrix polarimetry is thought more complicated than the Stokes polarimetry. Therefore, the Mueller matrix polarimetry is reported separating into two papers. A theoretical approach to realizing the polarimetry has reported at the SPIE conference on Lithography Asia 2009. The test mask for the Mueller matrix polarimetry also comprises thin-plate polarizers and wide-view-angle quarter-waveplates, both which are developed by collaboration with Kogakugiken Corporation in Japan. Mueller matrices of the sample projecting optics are reconstructed by sixteen measurements of Stokes parameters of a light ray that reaches the wafer plane though the test mask and the projecting optics. The Stokes parameters are measured with a polarization measurement system already equipped on a side stage lying at the wafer plane. It took about seven hours to capture all the images at five image heights within the static exposure field. Stokes parameters are automatically calculated from the images and outputted from the lithography tools as a text file, and Mueller matrices are calculated by homebuilt software in a short time. All the images were captured under the identical illumination condition that the tool manufacturer calls "un-polarization".

  9. Nanostructures of functionalized gold nanoparticles prepared by particle lithography with organosilanes.

    PubMed

    Lusker, Kathie L; Li, Jie-Ren; Garno, Jayne C

    2011-11-01

    Periodic arrays of organosilane nanostructures were prepared with particle lithography to define sites for selective adsorption of functionalized gold nanoparticles. Essentially, the approach for nanoparticle lithography consists of procedures with two masks. First, latex mesospheres were used as a surface mask for deposition of an organosilane vapor, to produce an array of holes within a covalently bonded, organic thin film. The latex particles were readily removed with solvent rinses to expose discrete patterns of nanosized holes of uncovered substrate. The nanostructured film of organosilanes was then used as a surface mask for a second patterning step, with immersion in a solution of functionalized nanoparticles. Patterned substrates were fully submerged in a solution of surface-active gold nanoparticles coated with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane. Regularly shaped, nanoscopic areas of bare substrate produced by removal of the latex mask provided sites to bind silanol-terminated gold nanoparticles, and the methyl-terminated areas of the organosilane film served as an effective resist, preventing nonspecific adsorption on masked areas. Characterizations with atomic force microscopy demonstrate the steps for lithography with organosilanes and functionalized nanoparticles. Patterning was accomplished for both silicon and glass substrates, to generate nanostructures with periodicities of 200-300 nm that match the diameters of the latex mesospheres of the surface masks. Nanoparticles were shown to bind selectively to uncovered, exposed areas of the substrate and did not attach to the methyl-terminal groups of the organosilane mask. Billions of well-defined nanostructures of nanoparticles can be generated using this high-throughput approach of particle lithography, with exquisite control of surface density and periodicity at the nanoscale.

  10. Application specific ratings for lithography process filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, Toru; Tsuzuki, Shuichi

    2013-03-01

    The typical performance index of microelectronics-grade filter products is based upon mechanical sieving. However, adsorption also plays a critical role for reducing certain defects. To provide a more accurate metric, a complementary adsorption performance index is introduced for lithography process filters. In this study, heptylamine-substituted palladium nanoparticles were used to simulate the adsorptive characteristics of microbridge defect precursors. Adsorption kinetic parameters were calculated for Nylon 6,6 and HDPE filters that were challenged with the simulation particles. Nylon 6,6 media quantitatively demonstrated superior adsorptive retention characteristics. The new index is expected to guide both filter product development and filter recommendation for next generation lithography processes.

  11. Administrative Problems of Early Immersion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillivray, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    Administrative problems that have been solved or accepted during eight years of early immersion programs are discussed including choosing locations, staffing, costs, logistics, and the need for suitable pupil progress reporting. (JMF)

  12. System considerations for maskless lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnowski, Thomas; Joy, David; Allard, Larry; Clonts, Lloyd

    2004-05-01

    Lithographic processes for printing device structures on integrated circuits (ICs) are the fundamental technology behind Moore's law. Next-generation techniques like maskless lithography or ML2 have the advantage that the long, tedious and expensive process of fabricating a unique mask for the manufactured chip is not necessary. However, there are some rather daunting prblems with establishing ML2 as a viable commercial technology. The data rate necessary for ML2 to be competitive in manufacturing is not feasible with technology in the near future. There is also doubt that the competing technologies for the writing mechanisms and corresponding photoresist (or analogous medium) will be able to accurately produce the desired patterns necessary to produce multi-layer semiconductor devices. In this work, we model the maskless printing system from a signal processing point of view, utilizing image processing algorithms and concepts to study the effects of various real-world constraints and their implications for a ML2 system. The ML2 elements are discrete devices, and it is doubtful that their motion can be controlled to the level where a one-for-one element to exposed pixel relationship is allowable. Some level of sub-element resolution can be achieved with gray scale levels, but with the highly integrated manufacturing practices required to achieve massive parallelism, the most effective elements will be simple on-ofrf switches that fire a fixed level of energy at the target medium. Consequently gray-scale level devidces are likely not an option. Another problem with highly integrated manufacturing methods is device uniformity. Consequently, we analyze the redundant scanning array concept (RSA) conceived by Berglund et al. which can defeat many of these problems. We determine some basic equations governing its application and we focus on applying the technique to an array of low-energy electron emitters. Using the results of Monte Carlo simulations on electron beam

  13. SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONS FOR MASKLESS LITHOGRAPHY

    SciTech Connect

    Karnowski, Thomas Paul; Joy, David; Allard Jr, Lawrence Frederick; Clonts, Lloyd G

    2004-01-01

    Lithographic processes for printing device structures on integrated circuits (ICs) are the fundamental technology behind Moore's law. Next-generation techniques like maskless lithography or ML2 have the advantage that the long, tedious and expensive process of fabricating a unique mask for the manufactured chip is not necessary. However, there are some rather daunting problems with establishing ML2 as a viable commercial technology. The data rate necessary for ML2 to be competitive in manufacturing is not feasible with technology in the near future. There is also doubt that the competing technologies for the writing mechanisms and corresponding photoresist (or analogous medium) will be able to accurately produce the desired patterns necessary to produce multi-layer semiconductor devices. In this work, we model the maskless printing system from a signal processing point of view, utilizing image processing algorithms and concepts to study the effects of various real-world constraints and their implications for a ML2 system. The ML2 elements are discrete devices, and it is doubtful that their motion can be controlled to the level where a one-for-one element to exposed pixel relationship is allowable. Some level of sub-element resolution can be achieved with gray scale levels, but with the highly integrated manufacturing practices required to achieve massive parallelism, the most effective elements will be simple on-off switches that fire a fixed level of energy at the target medium. Consequently gray-scale level devices are likely not an option. Another problem with highly integrated manufacturing methods is device uniformity. Consequently, we analyze the redundant scanning array concept (RSA) conceived by Berglund et al. which can defeat many of these problems. We determine some basic equations governing its application and we focus on applying the technique to an array of low-energy electron emitters. Using the results of Monte Carlo simulations on electron beam

  14. Novel low-reflective index fluoropolymers-based top anti-reflective coatings (TARC) for 193-nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Tsuneo; Hayami, Takashi; Ishikawa, Takuji; Kanemura, Takashi; Aoyama, Hirokazu

    2007-03-01

    Implant lithography, which has up to now utilized 365-nm (i-line) and 248-nm (KrF) light sources, must now turn to 193-nm (ArF) sources. In implant lithography, an anti-reflective material is often used to coat the resist-film. The top anti-reflective coating (abbreviated to TARC) is most often used to reduce CD swing. TARC materials must have low refractive index and water solubility. The TARC materials for used 193-nm use must have very low reflective index and alternatives to perfluorooctylsulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) must be found. We synthesized some novel fluorinated amorphous polymers as 193-nm TARC candidates. Their fundamental properties were characterized, such as transparency and reflective index at 193-nm (wavelength) along with their solubility in water and a standard alkaline developer. High transparency, i.e., k value less than 0.01, and very low reflective index, i.e., lower than n=1.4 at 193-nm wavelength are confirmed. Their dissolution behaviors are studied using the Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) method. In surprise finding, we find that several of the polymers examined, those that have high fluorine content, dissolved in water. Test results show that the proposed polymers can be applied as top anti reflective coatings .

  15. ARF and p53 coordinate tumor suppression of an oncogenic IFN-β-STAT1-ISG15 signaling axis

    PubMed Central

    Forys, Jason T.; Kuzmicki, Catherine E.; Saporita, Anthony J.; Winkeler, Crystal L.; Maggi, Leonard B.; Weber, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The ARF and p53 tumor suppressors are thought to act in a linear pathway to prevent cellular transformation in response to various oncogenic signals. Here we show that loss of p53 function leads to an increase in ARF protein levels which function to limit the proliferation and tumorigenicity of p53-deficient cells by inhibiting an IFN-β-STAT1-ISG15 signaling axis. Human triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) tumor samples with co-inactivation of p53 and ARF exhibit high expression of both STAT1 and ISG15, and TNBC cell lines are sensitive to STAT1 depletion. We propose that loss of p53 function and subsequent ARF induction creates a selective pressure to inactivate ARF, and propose that tumors harboring co-inactivation of ARF and p53 would benefit from therapies targeted against STAT1 and ISG15 activation. PMID:24726362

  16. The Ink4/Arf locus is a barrier for iPS reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Li, Han; Collado, Manuel; Villasante, Aranzazu; Strati, Katerina; Ortega, Sagrario; Cañamero, Marta; Blasco, Maria A.; Serrano, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in the reprogramming of differentiated cells into induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) cells by Oct4, Klf4 and Sox2 (3F) remain poorly understood 1. The Ink4/Arf tumour suppressor locus encodes three potent inhibitors of proliferation, namely p16Ink4a, p15Ink4b and Arf, which are basally expressed in differentiated cells and upregulated by aberrant mitogenic signals 2-4. We show here that the locus is completely silenced in iPS cells, as well as in embryonic stem (ES) cells, acquiring the epigenetic marks of a bivalent chromatin domain, and retaining the ability to be reactivated upon differentiation. Cell culture conditions during reprogramming enhance the expression of the Ink4/Arf locus, further highlighting the importance of silencing the locus to allow proliferation and reprogramming. Indeed, the 3F together repress the Ink4/Arf locus soon after their expression and concomitant with the appearance of the first molecular markers of stemness. This downregulation also occurs in cells carrying the oncoprotein large-T, which functionally inactivates the pathways regulated by the Ink4/Arf locus, thus implying that the silencing of the locus is intrinsic to reprogramming and not the result of a selective process. Genetic inhibition of the Ink4/Arf locus has a profound positive impact on the efficiency of iPS generation, increasing both the kinetics of reprogramming and the number of emerging iPS colonies. In murine cells, Arf, rather than Ink4a, is the main barrier to reprogramming through activation of p53 and p21; whereas, in human fibroblasts, INK4a is more important than ARF. Finally, organismal aging upregulates the Ink4/Arf locus 2,5 and, accordingly, reprogramming is less efficient in cells from old organisms, but this defect can be rescued by inhibiting the locus with an shRNA. All together, we conclude that the silencing of Ink4/Arf locus is rate limiting for reprogramming, and its transient inhibition may significantly improve the

  17. The Ink4/Arf locus is a barrier for iPS cell reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Li, Han; Collado, Manuel; Villasante, Aranzazu; Strati, Katerina; Ortega, Sagrario; Cañamero, Marta; Blasco, Maria A; Serrano, Manuel

    2009-08-27

    The mechanisms involved in the reprogramming of differentiated cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells by the three transcription factors Oct4 (also known as Pou5f1), Klf4 and Sox2 remain poorly understood. The Ink4/Arf locus comprises the Cdkn2a-Cdkn2b genes encoding three potent tumour suppressors, namely p16(Ink4a), p19(Arf) and p15(Ink4b), which are basally expressed in differentiated cells and upregulated by aberrant mitogenic signals. Here we show that the locus is completely silenced in iPS cells, as well as in embryonic stem (ES) cells, acquiring the epigenetic marks of a bivalent chromatin domain, and retaining the ability to be reactivated after differentiation. Cell culture conditions during reprogramming enhance the expression of the Ink4/Arf locus, further highlighting the importance of silencing the locus to allow proliferation and reprogramming. Indeed, the three factors together repress the Ink4/Arf locus soon after their expression and concomitant with the appearance of the first molecular markers of 'stemness'. This downregulation also occurs in cells carrying the oncoprotein large-T, which functionally inactivates the pathways regulated by the Ink4/Arf locus, thus indicating that the silencing of the locus is intrinsic to reprogramming and not the result of a selective process. Genetic inhibition of the Ink4/Arf locus has a profound positive effect on the efficiency of iPS cell generation, increasing both the kinetics of reprogramming and the number of emerging iPS cell colonies. In murine cells, Arf, rather than Ink4a, is the main barrier to reprogramming by activation of p53 (encoded by Trp53) and p21 (encoded by Cdkn1a); whereas, in human fibroblasts, INK4a is more important than ARF. Furthermore, organismal ageing upregulates the Ink4/Arf locus and, accordingly, reprogramming is less efficient in cells from old organisms, but this defect can be rescued by inhibiting the locus with a short hairpin RNA. All together, we conclude that

  18. Significance of MDM2 and P14ARF polymorphisms in susceptibility to differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fenghua; Xu, Li; Wei, Qingyi; Song, Xicheng; Sturgis, Erich M.; Li, Guojun

    2012-01-01

    Background Murine double minute 2 (MDM2) oncoprotein and p14ARF tumor suppressor play pivotal roles in regulating p53 and function in the MAPK pathway, which is frequently mutated in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). We hypothesized that functional polymorphisms in the promoters of MDM2 and p14ARF contribute to the inter-individual difference in predisposition to DTC. Methods MDM2-rs2279744, MDM2-rs937283, p14ARF-rs3731217, and p14ARF-rs3088440 were genotyped in 303 patients with DTC and 511 cancer-free controls. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results MDM2-rs2279744 and p14ARF-rs3731217 were associated with a significantly increased risk of DTC (MDM2-rs2279744: TT vs. TG/GG, OR = 1.5, 95% CI, 1.1–2.0; p14ARF-rs3731217: TG/GG vs. TT, OR = 1.7, 95% CI, 1.2–2.3). No association was found for MDM2-rs937283 or p14ARF-rs3088440. Individuals carrying 3–4 risk genotypes of MDM2 and p14ARF had 2.2 times (95% CI, 1.4–3.5) the DTC risk of individuals carrying 0–1 risk genotypes (Ptrend = 0.021). The combined effect of MDM2 and p14ARF on DTC risk was confined to young subjects (≤45 years), non-smokers, non-drinkers, and subjects with a first-degree family history of cancer. These associations were quite similar in strength when cases were restricted to those with papillary thyroid cancer. Conclusion Our results suggest that polymorphisms of MDM2 and p14ARF contribute to the inter-individual difference in susceptibility to DTC, either alone or more likely jointly. The observed associations warrant further confirmation in independent studies. PMID:23218882

  19. Wafer surface pre-treatment study for micro bubble free of lithography process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaosong; Zhu, XiaoZheng; Cai, Spencer

    2014-04-01

    Photo resist micro bubble and void defect is reported as a typical and very puzzle defect type in photo lithography process, it becomes more and more significantly and severely with the IC technology drive towards 2× node. Introduced in this paper, we have studied the mechanism of photo resist micro bubble at different in-coming wafer surface condition and tested a series of pre treatment optimization method to resolve photo resist micro bubble defect on different wafer substrate, including in the standard flat and smooth wafer surface and also in special wafer surface with high density line/space micro-structure substrate as is in logic process FinFET tri-gate structure and Nor type flash memory cell area Floating Gate/ONO/Control Gate structure. As is discovered in our paper, in general flat and smooth wafer surface, the photo resist micro bubble is formed during resist RRC coating process (resist reduction coating) and will easy lead to Si concave defect after etch; while in the high density line/space micro-structure substrate as FinFET tri-gate, the photo resist void defect is always formed after lithography pattern formation and will final cause the gate line broken after the etching process or localized over dose effect at Ion IMP layers. The 2nd type of photo resist micro bubble is much more complicated and hard to be eliminated. We try to figure out the interfacial mechanism between different type of photo resist (ArF, KrF and I-line) and pre-wet solvent by systematic methods and DOE splits. And finally, we succeeded to dig out the best solution to eliminate the micro bubble defect in different wafer surface condition and implement in the photolithography process.

  20. Comparison between e-beam direct write and immersion lithography for 20nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Pieter; Sardana, Charu; Ibbotson, Dale; Wieland, Marco; Fay, Aurélien

    2015-03-01

    E-beam Direct Write (EBDW) process window simulations were performed on critical layers in Altera designs of the 20 nm node (minimum metal half-pitch 32 nm). For selected layout clips, a direct comparison is made with 193i simulation results. Local Interconnect and Via0 (single patterning) and Metal1 (Litho-Etch-Litho-Etch (LELE) double patterning) layers are considered. The EBDW dose latitude was found to exceed that of the 193i process by a factor 4. As the electron beam total spot size is of the order of the Critical Dimension (CD) for the considered node, interplay between neighboring features is low. This results in straightforward data preparation with typically 2 kernels and `clean' process windows. The latter are mainly limited by Edge Placement Errors of Line Ends. The curves for the various simulation sites roughly overlap, as opposed to the 193i case in which they differ significantly. In EBDW the performance of square vias equals that of rectangular vias, enabling a denser via packing.

  1. Comparison between e-beam direct write and immersion lithography for 20-nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Pieter; Sardana, Charu; Ibbotson, Dale; Wieland, Marco; Fay, Aurelien

    2015-07-01

    E-beam direct write (EBDW) process window (PW) simulations were performed on critical layers in Altera designs of the 20-nm node (minimum metal half-pitch 32 nm). For selected layout clips, a direct comparison is made with 193i simulation results. Local interconnect and Via0 (single patterning) and Metal1 (litho-etch-litho-etch double patterning) layers are considered. The EBDW dose latitude was found to exceed that of the 193i process by a factor of 4. As the electron beam total spot size is of the order of the critical dimension for the considered node, interplay between neighboring features is low. This results in straightforward data preparation with typically two kernels and "clean" PWs. The latter are mainly limited by edge placement errors of line ends. The curves for the various simulation sites roughly overlap, as opposed to the 193i case in which they significantly differ. In EBDW, the performance of square vias equals that of rectangular vias, enabling a denser via packing.

  2. NXT:1980Di immersion scanner for 7nm and 5nm production nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, Roelof; Weichselbaum, Stefan; Droste, Richard; McLaren, Matthew; Koek, Bert; de Boeij, Wim

    2016-03-01

    Immersion scanners remain the critical lithography workhorses in semiconductor device manufacturing. When progressing towards the 7nm device node for logic and D18 device node for DRAM production, pattern-placement and layer-to-layer overlay requirements keep progressively scaling down and consequently require system improvements in immersion scanners. The on-product-overlay requirements are approaching levels of only a few nanometers, imposing stringent requirements on the scanner tool design in terms of reproducibility, accuracy and stability. In this paper we report on the performance of the NXT:1980Di immersion scanner. The NXT:1980Di builds upon the NXT:1970Ci, that is widely used for 16nm, 14nm and 10nm high-volume manufacturing. We will discuss the NXT:1980Di system- and sub-system/module enhancements that drive the scanner overlay, focus and productivity performance. Overlay, imaging, focus, productivity and defectivity data will be presented for multiple tools. To further reduce the on-product overlay system performance, alignment sensor contrast improvements as well as active reticle temperature conditioning are implemented on the NXT:1980Di. Reticle temperature conditioning will reduce reticle heating overlay and the higher contrast alignment sensor will improve alignment robustness for processed alignment targets. Due to an increased usage of multiple patterning techniques, an increased number of immersion exposures is required. NXT:1980Di scanner design modifications raised productivity levels from 250wph to 275wph. This productivity enhancement provides lower cost of ownership (CoO) for customers using immersion technology.

  3. ACAP3 regulates neurite outgrowth through its GAP activity specific to Arf6 in mouse hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yuki; Hongu, Tsunaki; Yamauchi, Yohei; Funakoshi, Yuji; Katagiri, Naohiro; Ohbayashi, Norihiko; Kanaho, Yasunori

    2016-09-01

    ACAP3 (ArfGAP with coiled-coil, ankyrin repeat and pleckstrin homology domains 3) belongs to the ACAP family of GAPs (GTPase-activating proteins) for the small GTPase Arf (ADP-ribosylation factor). However, its specificity to Arf isoforms and physiological functions remain unclear. In the present study, we demonstrate that ACAP3 plays an important role in neurite outgrowth of mouse hippocampal neurons through its GAP activity specific to Arf6. In primary cultured mouse hippocampal neurons, knockdown of ACAP3 abrogated neurite outgrowth, which was rescued by ectopically expressed wild-type ACAP3, but not by its GAP activity-deficient mutant. Ectopically expressed ACAP3 in HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293T cells showed the GAP activity specific to Arf6. In support of this observation, the level of GTP-bound Arf6 was significantly increased by knockdown of ACAP3 in hippocampal neurons. In addition, knockdown and knockout of Arf6 in mouse hippocampal neurons suppressed neurite outgrowth. These results demonstrate that ACAP3 positively regulates neurite outgrowth through its GAP activity specific to Arf6. Furthermore, neurite outgrowth suppressed by ACAP3 knockdown was rescued by expression of a fast cycle mutant of Arf6 that spontaneously exchanges guanine nucleotides on Arf6, but not by that of wild-type, GTP- or GDP-locked mutant Arf6. Thus cycling between active and inactive forms of Arf6, which is precisely regulated by ACAP3 in concert with a guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor(s), seems to be required for neurite outgrowth of hippocampal neurons. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  4. Interference Lithography for Optical Devices and Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    fabricate self- healing coatings that use water from the environment to catalyze polymerization. Polymerization induced phase separation was used to... catalyzed by moisture in air; if the indices of the two polymers are matched, the coatings turn transparent after healing. Interference lithography...self- healing coatings that use water from the environment to catalyze polymerization. Polymerization induced phase separation was used to sequester

  5. Athermal Azobenzene-Based Nanoimprint Lithography.

    PubMed

    Probst, Christian; Meichner, Christoph; Kreger, Klaus; Kador, Lothar; Neuber, Christian; Schmidt, Hans-Werner

    2016-04-06

    A novel nanoimprint lithography technique based on the photofluidization effect of azobenzene materials is presented. The tunable process allows for imprinting under ambient conditions without crosslinking reactions, so that shrinkage of the resist is avoided. Patterning of surfaces in the regime from micrometers down to 100 nm is demonstrated. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Liquid-Phase Beam Pen Lithography.

    PubMed

    He, Shu; Xie, Zhuang; Park, Daniel J; Liao, Xing; Brown, Keith A; Chen, Peng-Cheng; Zhou, Yu; Schatz, George C; Mirkin, Chad A

    2016-02-24

    Beam pen lithography (BPL) in the liquid phase is evaluated. The effect of tip-substrate gap and aperture size on patterning performance is systematically investigated. As a proof-of-concept experiment, nanoarrays of nucleotides are synthesized using BPL in an organic medium, pointing toward the potential of using liquid phase BPL to perform localized photochemical reactions that require a liquid medium.

  7. In quest of predictive lithography simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalus, Christian K.; Buß, Hinderk M.; Brooker, Peter D.

    2006-03-01

    In its chapter "Modeling," the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductor 2005 edition stipulates the need for "Multi-generation lithography system models." Most lithographers would share this opinion that even if the equipment needs constant refurbishing, the software should survive at least a couple of technology generations. Fortunately, the table in which the statement appeared in the ITRS roadmap was accurately entitled "difficult challenges." This article will shed some light on the process of progressive modeling while making clear that, in all likelihood, formidable challenges will remain. The very core of simulation is a physical / chemical model of the real world. Lithographers need a sound model for the next technology node, not a short-sighted one, despite the fact that this is very difficult to achieve. This paper will use the parable of the ichthyologist as a starting point for the problem. It will translate the parable into the "deep waters" of lithography, showcasing lithography simulation as it has evolved over the years. Finally, it will present a small, yet decisive, recent step toward predictive lithography simulation. This example will include an improvement in the model for the post-exposure bake of chemically amplified resists, as well as a non-comprehensive list of foreseeable challenges.

  8. Process optimization for developer soluble immersion topcoat material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Hiroki; Goto, Kentarou; Shima, Motoyuki; Takahashi, Junichi; Shimokawa, Tsutomu; Ichino, Katsunori; Nagatani, Naohiko; Kyoda, Hideharu; Yoshihara, Kosuke

    2007-03-01

    The 193 nm immersion lithography has been increasingly applied to the semiconductor device mass production. Topcoat material would be used in many such cases. Topcoat film can maximize the scan speed during immersion exposure step and also prevent small molecules from leaching out of resist film. However, the use of the topcoat material in the mass production affects productivity including throughput and chemical cost. To manage this problem, we attempted to improve topcoat coating process to reduce the topcoat material consumption. Using JSR NFC TCX041, the developersoluble type topcoat material, as a model material, we examined a new coating process which introduces a pre-wet treatment using a solvent which was chosen to be appropriate for this purpose. With this new coating process, we achieved 65 percent (or more) reduction of the topcoat material consumption compared with the current standard coating process (dynamic coating). From the result of film surface observations and leaching tests, it was learned that the topcoat film properties by the new coating process are equivalent to those by the standard coating process. The process performance after development also indicated good results.

  9. Azidothymidine and cisplatin increase p14ARF expression in OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Vaskivuo, Liisa; Rysae, Jaana; Koivuperae, Johanna; Myllynen, Paeivi; Vaskivuo, Tommi; Chvalova, Katerina; Serpi, Raisa; Savolainen, Eeva-Riitta; Puistola, Ulla; Vaehaekangas, Kirsi . E-mail: kirsi.vahakangas@uku.fi

    2006-10-01

    p14{sup ARF} tumor suppressor protein regulates p53 by interfering with mdm2-p53 interaction. p14{sup ARF} is activated in response to oncogenic stimuli but little is known of the responses of endogenous p14{sup ARF} to different types of cellular stress or DNA damage. Azidothymidine (AZT) is being tested in several clinical trials as an enhancer of anticancer chemotherapy. However, the knowledge of the relationship between AZT and cellular pathways, e.g. p53 pathway, is very limited. In this study, we show that AZT, cisplatin (CDDP) and docetaxel (DTX) all induce unique molecular responses in OVCAR-3 ovarian carcinoma cells carrying a mutated p53, while in A2780, ovarian carcinoma and MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells with wild type p53, all of these drugs cause similar p53 responses. We found that endogenous p14{sup ARF} protein in OVCAR-3 cells is down-regulated by DTX but induced by AZT and a short CDDP pulse treatment. In HT-29 colon carcinoma cells with a mutated p53, all treatments down-regulated p14{sup ARF} protein. Both CDDP and AZT increased the expression of p14ARF mRNA in OVCAR-3 cells. Differences in cell death induced by these drugs did not explain the differences in protein and mRNA expressions. No increase in the level of either c-Myc or H-ras oncoproteins was seen in OVCAR-3 cells after AZT or CDDP-treatment. These results suggest that p14{sup ARF} can respond to DNA damage without oncogene activation in cell lines without functional p53.

  10. Genetic interactions in yeast between Ypt GTPases and Arf guanine nucleotide exchangers.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, S; Jedd, G; Kahn, R A; Franzusoff, A; Bartolini, F; Segev, N

    1999-01-01

    Two families of GTPases, Arfs and Ypt/rabs, are key regulators of vesicular transport. While Arf proteins are implicated in vesicle budding from the donor compartment, Ypt/rab proteins are involved in the targeting of vesicles to the acceptor compartment. Recently, we have shown a role for Ypt31/32p in exit from the yeast trans-Golgi, suggesting a possible function for Ypt/rab proteins in vesicle budding as well. Here we report the identification of a new member of the Sec7-domain family, SYT1, as a high-copy suppressor of a ypt31/32 mutation. Several proteins that belong to the Sec7-domain family, including the yeast Gea1p, have recently been shown to stimulate nucleotide exchange by Arf GTPases. Nucleotide exchange by Arf GTPases, the switch from the GDP- to the GTP-bound form, is thought to be crucial for their function. Sec7p itself has an important role in the yeast secretory pathway. However, its mechanism of action is not yet understood. We show that all members of the Sec7-domain family exhibit distinct genetic interactions with the YPT genes. Biochemical assays demonstrate that, although the homology between the members of the Sec7-domain family is relatively low (20-35%) and limited to a small domain, they all can act as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for Arf proteins, but not for Ypt GTPases. The Sec7-domain of Sec7p is sufficient for this activity. Interestingly, the Sec7 domain activity is inhibited by brefeldin A (BFA), a fungal metabolite that inhibits some of the Arf-GEFs, indicating that this domain is a target for BFA. These results demonstrate that the ability to act as Arf-GEFs is a general property of all Sec7-domain proteins in yeast. The genetic interactions observed between Arf GEFs and Ypt GTPases suggest the existence of a Ypt-Arf GTPase cascade in the secretory pathway. PMID:10430582

  11. Deblocking reaction of chemically amplified ArF positive resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamana, Mitsuharu; Itani, Toshiro; Yoshino, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Shuichi; Tanabe, Hiroyoshi; Kasama, Kunihiko

    1998-06-01

    Deblocking reaction mechanisms and lithographic performance in chemically amplified positive ArF resists were investigated by analyzing acid concentration and blocking level. The resists consisted of triphenylsulfonium triflate as a acid generator and either the copolymer, poly(carboxy- tetracyclododecyl methacrylate70-co- tetrahydropyranylcarboxy-tetracyclododecyl methacrylate30) or the terpolymer, poly(tricyclodecylacrylate60- co-tetrahydropyranylmethacrylate20-co-methacrylic acid20). The deblocking reaction mechanisms were evaluated from Arrhenius plots of the deblocking reaction rate constant. It was found that the deblocking reaction of both resists is ruled by two rate-determining steps, i.e., reaction-controlled in the low-temperature region and acid- diffusion-controlled in the high-temperature region. Furthermore, the copolymer resist had better post-exposure- delay (PED) stability. To clarify this result, acid loss caused by air-born contamination effect on deblocking reaction was investigated. The change of amount of blocking group by acid loss was small for the copolymer. Therefore the copolymer resist had better PED stability. Furthermore, the post-exposure bake (PEB) sensitivity of linewidth of the copolymer resist was smaller than that of the terpolymer resist. Both deblocking reaction rate constant and reverse reaction rate constant of the copolymer resist increased with PEB temperature. As a result, equilibrium constant of the copolymer was not valuable with temperature. This is the reason why the copolymer resist has low PEB sensitivity. It is concluded that small acid loss effect on deblocking reaction induces better PED stability. A resist with reverse reaction has an advantage for PEB temperature sensitivity.

  12. Development of high-performance negative-tone resists for 193-nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, Takashi; Yokoyama, Yoshiyuki; Kimura, Kaori; Yamanaka, Ryoko; Tanaka, Toshihiko; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2003-06-01

    We have been developing negative-tone resist systems utilizing an acid-catalyzed intramolecular esterification of γ- and δ-hydroxy acid for ArF phase-shifting lithography. In this paper, α-acryloyloxy-β, β-dimethyl-γ-butyrolactone (DBLA), adamantane lactone acrylate (AdLA), and norbornene lactone acrylate (NLA) were examined as a precursor of hydroxy acid. It was found that AdLA and NLA are not hydrolyzed intro hydroxy acid under an alkali hydrolysis condition. DBLA was found to produce γ-hydroxy acid, which is stable in the resist solution. The γ-hydroxy acid derived from DBLA becomes γ-lactone relatively easily by an acid-catalyzed reaction and can be used to make resists insoluble. Since the variation and the flexibility of the copolymer composition of the base polymer can be increased, the resist properties are controllable and the pattern quality can be improved by utilizing γ-hydroxy acid derived from DBLA.

  13. ARF6 controls post-endocytic recycling through its downstream exocyst complex effector

    PubMed Central

    Prigent, Magali; Dubois, Thierry; Raposo, Graça; Derrien, Valérie; Tenza, Danièle; Rossé, Carine; Camonis, Jacques; Chavrier, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    The small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)–binding protein ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) 6 regulates membrane recycling to regions of plasma membrane remodeling via the endocytic pathway. Here, we show that GTP–bound ARF6 interacts with Sec10, a subunit of the exocyst complex involved in docking of vesicles with the plasma membrane. We found that Sec10 localization in the perinuclear region is not restricted to the trans-Golgi network, but extends to recycling endosomes. In addition, we report that depletion of Sec5 exocyst subunit or dominant inhibition of Sec10 affects the function and the morphology of the recycling pathway. Sec10 is found to redistribute to ruffling areas of the plasma membrane in cells expressing GTP-ARF6, whereas dominant inhibition of Sec10 interferes with ARF6-induced cell spreading. Our paper suggests that ARF6 specifies delivery and insertion of recycling membranes to regions of dynamic reorganization of the plasma membrane through interaction with the vesicle-tethering exocyst complex. PMID:14662749

  14. ARF6 controls post-endocytic recycling through its downstream exocyst complex effector.

    PubMed

    Prigent, Magali; Dubois, Thierry; Raposo, Graça; Derrien, Valérie; Tenza, Danièle; Rossé, Carine; Camonis, Jacques; Chavrier, Philippe

    2003-12-08

    The small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) 6 regulates membrane recycling to regions of plasma membrane remodeling via the endocytic pathway. Here, we show that GTP-bound ARF6 interacts with Sec10, a subunit of the exocyst complex involved in docking of vesicles with the plasma membrane. We found that Sec10 localization in the perinuclear region is not restricted to the trans-Golgi network, but extends to recycling endosomes. In addition, we report that depletion of Sec5 exocyst subunit or dominant inhibition of Sec10 affects the function and the morphology of the recycling pathway. Sec10 is found to redistribute to ruffling areas of the plasma membrane in cells expressing GTP-ARF6, whereas dominant inhibition of Sec10 interferes with ARF6-induced cell spreading. Our paper suggests that ARF6 specifies delivery and insertion of recycling membranes to regions of dynamic reorganization of the plasma membrane through interaction with the vesicle-tethering exocyst complex.

  15. Mechanism of ribosome rescue by ArfA and RF2

    PubMed Central

    Demo, Gabriel; Svidritskiy, Egor; Madireddy, Rohini; Diaz-Avalos, Ruben; Grant, Timothy; Grigorieff, Nikolaus; Sousa, Duncan; Korostelev, Andrei A

    2017-01-01

    ArfA rescues ribosomes stalled on truncated mRNAs by recruiting release factor RF2, which normally binds stop codons to catalyze peptide release. We report two 3.2 Å resolution cryo-EM structures – determined from a single sample – of the 70S ribosome with ArfA•RF2 in the A site. In both states, the ArfA C-terminus occupies the mRNA tunnel downstream of the A site. One state contains a compact inactive RF2 conformation. Ordering of the ArfA N-terminus in the second state rearranges RF2 into an extended conformation that docks the catalytic GGQ motif into the peptidyl-transferase center. Our work thus reveals the structural dynamics of ribosome rescue. The structures demonstrate how ArfA ‘senses’ the vacant mRNA tunnel and activates RF2 to mediate peptide release without a stop codon, allowing stalled ribosomes to be recycled. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23687.001 PMID:28300532

  16. ArfB links protein lipidation and endocytosis to polarized growth of Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo Chan

    2008-01-01

    Aspergillus nidulans undergoes polarized hyphal growth during the majority of its life cycle. Regulatory mechanisms for hyphal polarity have been intensively investigated in a variety of filamentous fungi. Two important cellular processes, which have received recent attention, include protein myristoylation and endocytosis. It is clear that protein myristoylation is essential for polarity establishment because germinating A. nidulans conidia lost polarity in the presence of cerulenin, a lipid metabolism inhibitor and in an N-myristoyl transferase mutant background. Only 41 predicted proteins encoded by A. nidulans posses an N-myristoylation motif, one of which is ADP ribosylation factor B (ArfB). Disruption of ArfB leads to failure of polarity establishment and maintenance during early morphogenesis and in a delay in endocytosis. Therefore, ArfB connects N-myristoylation and endocytosis to polarized growth. Exocytotic vesicle trafficking through the Spitzenkörper may also require Arf proteins in their role in vesicle formation. Taken together, ArfB is one of the important key components for the fungal hyphal growth. PMID:19704790

  17. A human exchange factor for ARF contains Sec7- and pleckstrin-homology domains.

    PubMed

    Chardin, P; Paris, S; Antonny, B; Robineau, S; Béraud-Dufour, S; Jackson, C L; Chabre, M

    1996-12-05

    The small G protein ARF1 is involved in the coating of vesicles that bud from the Golgi compartments. Its activation is controlled by as-yet unidentified guanine-nucleotide exchange factors. Gea1, the first ARF exchange factor to be discovered in yeast, is a large protein containing a domain of homology with Sec7, another yeast protein that is also involved in secretion. Here we characterized a smaller human protein (relative molecular mass 47K) named ARNO, which contains a central Sec7 domain that promotes guanine-nucleotide exchange on ARF1. ARNO also contains an amino-terminal coiled-coil motif and a carboxy-terminal pleckstrin-homology (PH) domain. The PH domain mediates an enhancement of ARNO exchange activity by negatively charged phospholipid vesicles supplemented with phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate. The exchange activity of ARNO is not inhibited by brefeldin A, an agent known to block vesicular transport and inhibit the exchange activity on ARF1 in cell extracts. This suggests that a regulatory component which is sensitive to brefeldin A associates with ARNO in vivo, possibly through the amino-terminal coiled-coil. We propose that other proteins with a Sec7 domain regulate different members of the ARF family.

  18. Natural variation in ARF18 gene simultaneously affects seed weight and silique length in polyploid rapeseed

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Hua, Wei; Hu, Zhiyong; Yang, Hongli; Zhang, Liang; Li, Rongjun; Deng, Linbin; Sun, Xingchao; Wang, Xinfa; Wang, Hanzhong

    2015-01-01

    Seed weight (SW), which is one of the three major factors influencing grain yield, has been widely accepted as a complex trait that is controlled by polygenes, particularly in polyploid crops. Brassica napus L., which is the second leading crop source for vegetable oil around the world, is a tetraploid (4×) species. In the present study, we identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome A9 of rapeseed in which the genes for SW and silique length (SL) were colocated. By fine mapping and association analysis, we uncovered a 165-bp deletion in the auxin-response factor 18 (ARF18) gene associated with increased SW and SL. ARF18 encodes an auxin-response factor and shows inhibitory activity on downstream auxin genes. This 55-aa deletion prevents ARF18 from forming homodimers, in turn resulting in the loss of binding activity. Furthermore, reciprocal crossing has shown that this QTL affects SW by maternal effects. Transcription analysis has shown that ARF18 regulates cell growth in the silique wall by acting via an auxin-response pathway. Together, our results suggest that ARF18 regulates silique wall development and determines SW via maternal regulation. In addition, our study reveals the first (to our knowledge) QTL in rapeseed and may provide insights into gene cloning involving polyploid crops. PMID:26324896

  19. CDK5RAP3 is a novel repressor of p14ARF in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mak, Grace Wing-Yan; Lai, Wai-Lung; Zhou, Yuan; Li, Mingtao; Ng, Irene Oi-Lin; Ching, Yick-Pang

    2012-01-01

    CDK5 regulatory subunit associated protein 3 (CDK5RAP3) is a novel activator of PAK4 and processes important pro-metastatic function in hepatocarcinogenesis. However, it remains unclear if there are other mechanisms by which CDK5RAP3 promotes HCC metastasis. Here, we showed that in CDK5RAP3 stable knockdown SMMC-7721 HCC cells, p14(ARF) tumor suppressor was upregulated at protein and mRNA levels, and ectopic expression of CDK5RAP3 was found to repress the transcription of p14(ARF). Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we demonstrated that CDK5RAP3 bound to p14(ARF) promoter in vivo. Furthermore, knockdown of p14(ARF) in CDK5RAP3 stable knockdown HCC cells reversed the suppression of HCC cell invasiveness mediated by knockdown of CDK5RAP3. Taken together, our findings provide the new evidence that overexpression of CDK5RAP3 promotes HCC metastasis via downregulation of p14(ARF).

  20. CDK5RAP3 Is a Novel Repressor of p14ARF in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Grace Wing-Yan; Li, Mingtao; Ng, Irene Oi-Lin; Ching, Yick-Pang

    2012-01-01

    CDK5 regulatory subunit associated protein 3 (CDK5RAP3) is a novel activator of PAK4 and processes important pro-metastatic function in hepatocarcinogenesis. However, it remains unclear if there are other mechanisms by which CDK5RAP3 promotes HCC metastasis. Here, we showed that in CDK5RAP3 stable knockdown SMMC-7721 HCC cells, p14ARF tumor suppressor was upregulated at protein and mRNA levels, and ectopic expression of CDK5RAP3 was found to repress the transcription of p14ARF. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we demonstrated that CDK5RAP3 bound to p14ARF promoter in vivo. Furthermore, knockdown of p14ARF in CDK5RAP3 stable knockdown HCC cells reversed the suppression of HCC cell invasiveness mediated by knockdown of CDK5RAP3. Taken together, our findings provide the new evidence that overexpression of CDK5RAP3 promotes HCC metastasis via downregulation of p14ARF. PMID:22860085

  1. Structural basis for ArfA-RF2-mediated translation termination on mRNAs lacking stop codons.

    PubMed

    Huter, Paul; Müller, Claudia; Beckert, Bertrand; Arenz, Stefan; Berninghausen, Otto; Beckmann, Roland; Wilson, Daniel N

    2017-01-26

    In bacteria, ribosomes stalled on truncated mRNAs that lack a stop codon are rescued by the transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA), alternative rescue factor A (ArfA) or ArfB systems. Although tmRNA-ribosome and ArfB-ribosome structures have been determined, how ArfA recognizes the presence of truncated mRNAs and recruits the canonical termination release factor RF2 to rescue the stalled ribosomes is unclear. Here we present a cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of the Escherichia coli 70S ribosome stalled on a truncated mRNA in the presence of ArfA and RF2. The structure shows that the C terminus of ArfA binds within the mRNA entry channel on the small ribosomal subunit, and explains how ArfA distinguishes between ribosomes that bear truncated or full-length mRNAs. The N terminus of ArfA establishes several interactions with the decoding domain of RF2, and this finding illustrates how ArfA recruits RF2 to the stalled ribosome. Furthermore, ArfA is shown to stabilize a unique conformation of the switch loop of RF2, which mimics the canonical translation termination state by directing the catalytically important GGQ motif within domain 3 of RF2 towards the peptidyl-transferase centre of the ribosome. Thus, our structure reveals not only how ArfA recruits RF2 to the ribosome but also how it promotes an active conformation of RF2 to enable translation termination in the absence of a stop codon.

  2. ARF1 controls Rac1 signaling to regulate migration of MDA-MB-231 invasive breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Saravalli, Sebastian; Campbell, Shirley; Claing, Audrey

    2013-09-01

    ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are monomeric G proteins that regulate many cellular processes such as reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. We have previously shown that ARF1 is overexpressed in highly invasive breast cancer cells and contribute to their enhanced migration. In this study, we propose to define the molecular mechanism by which ARF1 regulates this complex cellular response by investigating the role of this ARF GTPase on the activation process of Rac1, a Rho GTPase, associated with lamellipodia formation during cell migration. Here, we first show that inhibition of ARF1 or Rac1 expression markedly impacts the ability of MDA-MB-231 cells to migrate upon EGF stimulation. However, the effect of ARF1 depletion can be reversed by overexpression of the Rac1 active mutant, Rac1 Q(61)L. Depletion of ARF1 also impairs the ability of EGF stimulation to promote GTP-loading of Rac1. To further investigate the possible cross-talk between ARF1 and Rac1, we next examined whether they could form a complex. We observed that the two GTPases could directly interact independently of the nature of the nucleotide bound to them. EGF treatment however resulted in the association of Rac1 with its effector IRSp53, which was completely abrogated in ARF1 depleted cells. We present evidences that this ARF isoform is responsible for the plasma membrane targeting of both Rac1 and IRSp53, a step essential for lamellipodia formation. In conclusion, this study provides a new mechanism by which ARF1 regulates cell migration and identifies this GTPase as a promising pharmacological target to reduce metastasis formation in breast cancer patients.

  3. Characterization of the Tomato ARF Gene Family Uncovers a Multi-Levels Post-Transcriptional Regulation Including Alternative Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Chateigner-Boutin, Anne-Laure; Mila, Isabelle; Frasse, Pierre; Wang, Hua; Audran, Corinne; Roustan, Jean-Paul; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    Background The phytohormone auxin is involved in a wide range of developmental processes and auxin signaling is known to modulate the expression of target genes via two types of transcriptional regulators, namely, Aux/IAA and Auxin Response Factors (ARF). ARFs play a major role in transcriptional activation or repression through direct binding to the promoter of auxin-responsive genes. The present study aims at gaining better insight on distinctive structural and functional features among ARF proteins. Results Building on the most updated tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) reference genome sequence, a comprehensive set of ARF genes was identified, extending the total number of family members to 22. Upon correction of structural annotation inconsistencies, renaming the tomato ARF family members provided a consensus nomenclature for all ARF genes across plant species. In silico search predicted the presence of putative target site for small interfering RNAs within twelve Sl-ARFs while sequence analysis of the 5′-leader sequences revealed the presence of potential small uORF regulatory elements. Functional characterization carried out by transactivation assay partitioned tomato ARFs into repressors and activators of auxin-dependent gene transcription. Expression studies identified tomato ARFs potentially involved in the fruit set process. Genome-wide expression profiling using RNA-seq revealed that at least one third of the gene family members display alternative splicing mode of regulation during the flower to fruit transition. Moreover, the regulation of several tomato ARF genes by both ethylene and auxin, suggests their potential contribution to the convergence mechanism between the signaling pathways of these two hormones. Conclusion All together, the data bring new insight on the complexity of the expression control of Sl-ARF genes at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels supporting the hypothesis that these transcriptional mediators might represent

  4. Characterization of the tomato ARF gene family uncovers a multi-levels post-transcriptional regulation including alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Zouine, Mohamed; Fu, Yongyao; Chateigner-Boutin, Anne-Laure; Mila, Isabelle; Frasse, Pierre; Wang, Hua; Audran, Corinne; Roustan, Jean-Paul; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin is involved in a wide range of developmental processes and auxin signaling is known to modulate the expression of target genes via two types of transcriptional regulators, namely, Aux/IAA and Auxin Response Factors (ARF). ARFs play a major role in transcriptional activation or repression through direct binding to the promoter of auxin-responsive genes. The present study aims at gaining better insight on distinctive structural and functional features among ARF proteins. Building on the most updated tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) reference genome sequence, a comprehensive set of ARF genes was identified, extending the total number of family members to 22. Upon correction of structural annotation inconsistencies, renaming the tomato ARF family members provided a consensus nomenclature for all ARF genes across plant species. In silico search predicted the presence of putative target site for small interfering RNAs within twelve Sl-ARFs while sequence analysis of the 5'-leader sequences revealed the presence of potential small uORF regulatory elements. Functional characterization carried out by transactivation assay partitioned tomato ARFs into repressors and activators of auxin-dependent gene transcription. Expression studies identified tomato ARFs potentially involved in the fruit set process. Genome-wide expression profiling using RNA-seq revealed that at least one third of the gene family members display alternative splicing mode of regulation during the flower to fruit transition. Moreover, the regulation of several tomato ARF genes by both ethylene and auxin, suggests their potential contribution to the convergence mechanism between the signaling pathways of these two hormones. All together, the data bring new insight on the complexity of the expression control of Sl-ARF genes at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels supporting the hypothesis that these transcriptional mediators might represent one of the main components that

  5. Improved therapeutic effectiveness by combining recombinant p14(ARF) with antisense complementary DNA of EGFR in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Du, JinTao; Xian, Junming; Liu, Yafeng; Liu, Shixi; Lin, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p14(ARF) and proto-oncogene epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) play important roles in the development of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). This study was aimed to determine whether combining recombinant p14(ARF) with antisense complementary DNA of EGFR could improve the therapeutic effectiveness in LSCC. After human larynx cancer cells (Hep-2) were infected with recombinant adenoviruses (Ad-p14(ARF) and Ad-antisense EGFR) together or alone in vitro, the proliferation and cell cycle distribution of Hep-2 cells were detected by MTT assay and flow cytometer analysis, respectively. Furthermore, the antitumor effects of recombinant adenoviruses together or alone on Hep-2 xenografts were examined in vivo. The levels of p14(ARF) and EGFR expressed in Hep-2 cells and xenografts were determined by western blot assay. Ad-p14(ARF) combining with Ad-antisense EGFR markedly inhibited the Hep-2 proliferation compared with alone (P=0.001, P=0.002 respectively). Combination of Ad-p14(ARF) and Ad-antisense EGFR led to the proportion of Hep-2 cells in G0/G1 phases increased by up to 86.9%. The down-expression of EGFR protein and overexpression of p14(ARF) protein were observed in vitro and in vivo, and this effect was preserved when Ad-p14(ARF) was combined with Ad-antisense EGFR. Besides, Ad-p14(ARF) plus Ad-antisense EGFR significantly (P<0.05) increased the antitumor activity against Hep-2 tumor xenografts comparing with Ad-p14(ARF) or Ad-antisense EGFR alone. Combination Ad-p14(ARF) with Ad-antisense EGFR significantly increased the antitumor responses in LSCC. An effectively potential gene therapy to prevent proliferation of LSCC was provided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of new high transmission eaPSM for Negative Tone Development process on wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Takashi; Tani, Ayako; Fujimura, Yukihiro; Yoshikawa, Shingo; Hayano, Katsuya; Morikawa, Yasutaka; Miura, Yoichi; Miyashita, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    The retardation of the development of NGL techniques causes the extension of ArF immersion lithography for 1x-nm node. We have been researching the new phase shift mask's (PSM) material for the next generation ArF lithography. In this reports, we developed the low-k, high transmission PSM and evaluate it. The developed new PSM shows good lithographic performance in wafer and high ArF excimer laser durability. The mask processability were confirmed such as the CD performance, the cross section image, the inspection sensitivity and repair accuracy.

  7. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1995-01-01

    An immersible solar heater comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  8. Immersion francaise precoce: Maternelle (Early French Immersion: Kindergarten).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Andy; And Others

    An extensive resource manual and teaching guide is presented for the kindergarten teacher in the early French immersion program. The first three chapters contain introductory material discussing the kindergarten child, this particular program, language development in kindergarten, and the role of the kindergarten teacher which is analagous to that…

  9. Immersion francaise precoce: Maternelle (Early French Immersion: Kindergarten).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Andy; And Others

    An extensive resource manual and teaching guide is presented for the kindergarten teacher in the early French immersion program. The first three chapters contain introductory material discussing the kindergarten child, this particular program, language development in kindergarten, and the role of the kindergarten teacher which is analagous to that…

  10. Arf nucleotide binding site opener [ARNO] promotes sequential activation of Arf6, Cdc42 and Rac1 and insulin secretion in INS 832/13 β-cells and rat islets

    PubMed Central

    Jayaram, Bhavaani; Syed, Ismail; Kyathanahalli, Chandrashekara N.; Rhodes, Christopher J.; Kowluru, Anjaneyulu

    2011-01-01

    Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion [GSIS] involves interplay between small G-proteins and their regulatory factors. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that Arf nucleotide binding site opener [ARNO], a guanine nucleotide exchange factor [GEF] for the small G-protein Arf6, mediates the functional activation of Arf6, and that ARNO/Arf6 signaling axis, in turn, controls the activation of Cdc42 and Rac1, which have been implicated in GSIS. Molecular biological [i.e., expression of inactive mutants or siRNA] and pharmacological approaches were employed to assess the roles for ARNO/Arf6 signaling pathway in insulin secretion in normal rat islets and INS 832/13 cells. Degrees of activation of Arf6 and Cdc42/Rac1 were quantitated by GST-GGA3 and PAK-1 kinase pull-down assays, respectively. ARNO is expressed in INS 832/13 cells, rat islets and human islets. Expression of inactive mutants of Arf6 [Arf6-T27N] or ARNO [ARNO-E156K] or siRNA-ARNO markedly reduced GSIS in isolated β-cells. secinH3, a selective inhibitor of ARNO/Arf6 signaling axis, also inhibited GSIS in INS 832/13 cells and rat islets. Stimulatory concentrations of glucose promoted Arf6 activation, which was inhibited by secinH3 or siRNA-ARNO, suggesting that ARNO/Arf6 signaling cascade is necessary for GSIS. secinH3 or siRNA-ARNO also inhibited glucose-induced activation of Cdc42 and Rac1 suggesting that ARNO/Arf6 might be upstream to Cdc42 and Rac1 activation steps, which are necessary for GSIS. Lastly, co-immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopic studies suggested increased association between Arf6 and ARNO in glucose-stimulated β-cells. These findings provide the first evidence to implicate ARNO in the sequential activation of Arf6, Cdc42 and Rac1 culminating in GSIS. PMID:21276423

  11. PML IV/ARF interaction enhances p53 SUMO-1 conjugation, activation, and senescence

    PubMed Central

    Ivanschitz, Lisa; Takahashi, Yuki; Jollivet, Florence; Ayrault, Olivier; Le Bras, Morgane; de Thé, Hugues

    2015-01-01

    Promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) nuclear bodies (NBs) recruit multiple partners, including p53 and many of its regulators. NBs are believed to facilitate several posttranslational modifications and are key regulators of senescence. PML, the organizer of NBs, is expressed as a number of splice variants that all efficiently recruit p53 partners. However, overexpression of only one of them, PML IV, triggers p53-driven senescence. Here, we show that PML IV specifically binds ARF, a key p53 regulator. Similar to ARF, PML IV enhances global SUMO-1 conjugation, particularly that of p53, resulting in p53 stabilization and activation. ARF interacts with and stabilizes the NB-associated UBC9 SUMO-conjugating enzyme, possibly explaining PML IV-enhanced SUMOylation. These results unexpectedly link two key tumor suppressors, highlighting their convergence for global control of SUMO conjugation, p53 activation, and senescence induction. PMID:26578773

  12. PML IV/ARF interaction enhances p53 SUMO-1 conjugation, activation, and senescence.

    PubMed

    Ivanschitz, Lisa; Takahashi, Yuki; Jollivet, Florence; Ayrault, Olivier; Le Bras, Morgane; de Thé, Hugues

    2015-11-17

    Promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) nuclear bodies (NBs) recruit multiple partners, including p53 and many of its regulators. NBs are believed to facilitate several posttranslational modifications and are key regulators of senescence. PML, the organizer of NBs, is expressed as a number of splice variants that all efficiently recruit p53 partners. However, overexpression of only one of them, PML IV, triggers p53-driven senescence. Here, we show that PML IV specifically binds ARF, a key p53 regulator. Similar to ARF, PML IV enhances global SUMO-1 conjugation, particularly that of p53, resulting in p53 stabilization and activation. ARF interacts with and stabilizes the NB-associated UBC9 SUMO-conjugating enzyme, possibly explaining PML IV-enhanced SUMOylation. These results unexpectedly link two key tumor suppressors, highlighting their convergence for global control of SUMO conjugation, p53 activation, and senescence induction.

  13. EGFR/ARF6 regulation of Hh signalling stimulates oncogenic Ras tumour overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Chabu, Chiswili; Li, Da-Ming; Xu, Tian

    2017-03-10

    Multiple signalling events interact in cancer cells. Oncogenic Ras cooperates with Egfr, which cannot be explained by the canonical signalling paradigm. In turn, Egfr cooperates with Hedgehog signalling. How oncogenic Ras elicits and integrates Egfr and Hedgehog signals to drive overgrowth remains unclear. Using a Drosophila tumour model, we show that Egfr cooperates with oncogenic Ras via Arf6, which functions as a novel regulator of Hh signalling. Oncogenic Ras induces the expression of Egfr ligands. Egfr then signals through Arf6, which regulates Hh transport to promote Hh signalling. Blocking any step of this signalling cascade inhibits Hh signalling and correspondingly suppresses the growth of both, fly and human cancer cells harbouring oncogenic Ras mutations. These findings highlight a non-canonical Egfr signalling mechanism, centered on Arf6 as a novel regulator of Hh signalling. This explains both, the puzzling requirement of Egfr in oncogenic Ras-mediated overgrowth and the cooperation between Egfr and Hedgehog.

  14. ARF and ATM/ATR cooperate in p53-mediated apoptosis upon oncogenic stress

    SciTech Connect

    Pauklin, Siim . E-mail: spauklin@ut.ee; Kristjuhan, Arnold; Maimets, Toivo; Jaks, Viljar

    2005-08-26

    Induction of apoptosis is pivotal for eliminating cells with damaged DNA or deregulated proliferation. We show that tumor suppressor ARF and ATM/ATR kinase pathways cooperate in the induction of apoptosis in response to elevated expression of c-myc, {beta}-catenin or human papilloma virus E7 oncogenes. Overexpression of oncogenes leads to the formation of phosphorylated H2AX foci, induction of Rad51 protein levels and ATM/ATR-dependent phosphorylation of p53. Inhibition of ATM/ATR kinases abolishes both induction of Rad51 and phosphorylation of p53, and remarkably reduces the level of apoptosis induced by co-expression of oncogenes and ARF. However, the induction of apoptosis is downregulated in p53-/- cells and does not depend on activities of ATM/ATR kinases, indicating that efficient induction of apoptosis by oncogene activation depends on coordinated action of ARF and ATM/ATR pathways in the regulation of p53.

  15. Hollow fiber delivery of ArF and KrF excimer laser light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Yuji; Miyagi, Mitsunobu

    1999-04-01

    For delivery of ArF and KrF excimer laser light, a hollow fiber composed of a glass capillary tube and an aluminum thin film on the inside was proposed. A thin aluminum film is deposited by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition employing dimethylethylamine alane as the source material. Measured loss spectra in vacuum-UV and UV regions and measured losses for ArF-excimer laser light show the low loss property of the aluminum-coated fiber at both of the ArF and KrF excimer laser light. The straight loss of 1-m long, 1-mm bore fiber was 1.0 dB for ArF and 0.4 dB for KrF excimer lasers.

  16. EGFR/ARF6 regulation of Hh signalling stimulates oncogenic Ras tumour overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Chabu, Chiswili; Li, Da-Ming; Xu, Tian

    2017-01-01

    Multiple signalling events interact in cancer cells. Oncogenic Ras cooperates with Egfr, which cannot be explained by the canonical signalling paradigm. In turn, Egfr cooperates with Hedgehog signalling. How oncogenic Ras elicits and integrates Egfr and Hedgehog signals to drive overgrowth remains unclear. Using a Drosophila tumour model, we show that Egfr cooperates with oncogenic Ras via Arf6, which functions as a novel regulator of Hh signalling. Oncogenic Ras induces the expression of Egfr ligands. Egfr then signals through Arf6, which regulates Hh transport to promote Hh signalling. Blocking any step of this signalling cascade inhibits Hh signalling and correspondingly suppresses the growth of both, fly and human cancer cells harbouring oncogenic Ras mutations. These findings highlight a non-canonical Egfr signalling mechanism, centered on Arf6 as a novel regulator of Hh signalling. This explains both, the puzzling requirement of Egfr in oncogenic Ras-mediated overgrowth and the cooperation between Egfr and Hedgehog. PMID:28281543

  17. Soft molding lithography of conjugated polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisignano, Dario; Persano, Luana; Cingolani, Roberto; Gigli, Giuseppe; Babudri, Francesco; Farinola, Gianluca M.; Naso, Francesco

    2004-02-01

    We report on the nanopatterning of conjugated polymers by soft molding, and exploit the glass transition of the organic compound in conformal contact with an elastomeric element. We succeeded in printing different compounds with resolution down to 300 nm at temperatures up to 300 °C in vacuum. No significant variation of the photoluminescence (PL) spectra nor heavy degradation of the PL quantum yield was observed after the lithography process. Based on the high resolution achieved and on the well-retained luminescence properties of the patterned compounds, we conclude that high-temperature soft lithography is a valid, flexible and straightforward technique for one-step realization of organic-based devices.

  18. Soft lithography for micro- and nanoscale patterning.

    PubMed

    Qin, Dong; Xia, Younan; Whitesides, George M

    2010-03-01

    This protocol provides an introduction to soft lithography--a collection of techniques based on printing, molding and embossing with an elastomeric stamp. Soft lithography provides access to three-dimensional and curved structures, tolerates a wide variety of materials, generates well-defined and controllable surface chemistries, and is generally compatible with biological applications. It is also low in cost, experimentally convenient and has emerged as a technology useful for a number of applications that include cell biology, microfluidics, lab-on-a-chip, microelectromechanical systems and flexible electronics/photonics. As examples, here we focus on three of the commonly used soft lithographic techniques: (i) microcontact printing of alkanethiols and proteins on gold-coated and glass substrates; (ii) replica molding for fabrication of microfluidic devices in poly(dimethyl siloxane), and of nanostructures in polyurethane or epoxy; and (iii) solvent-assisted micromolding of nanostructures in poly(methyl methacrylate).

  19. Photoresists in extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Simone, Danilo; Vesters, Yannick; Vandenberghe, Geert

    2017-06-01

    The evolutionary advances in photosensitive material technology, together with the shortening of the exposure wavelength in the photolithography process, have enabled and driven the transistor scaling dictated by Moore's law for the last 50 years. Today, the shortening wavelength trend continues to improve the chips' performance over time by feature size miniaturization. The next-generation lithography technology for high-volume manufacturing (HVM) is extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), using a light source with a wavelength of 13.5 nm. Here, we provide a brief introduction to EUVL and patterning requirements for sub-0-nm feature sizes from a photomaterial standpoint, discussing traditional and novel photoresists. Emphasis will be put on the novel class of metal-containing resists (MCRs) as well as their challenges from a manufacturing prospective.

  20. Comparison of Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS) and Plasma Carotenoid Concentrations: A Validation Study in Adults.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Lee; Williams, Rebecca; Wood, Lisa; Schumacher, Tracy; Burrows, Tracy; Rollo, Megan; Pezdirc, Kristine; Callister, Robin; Collins, Clare

    2017-08-17

    Diet quality indices can predict nutritional adequacy of usual intake, but validity should be determined. The aim was to assess the validity of total and sub-scale score within the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS), in relation to fasting plasma carotenoid concentrations. Diet quality and fasting plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed in 99 overweight and obese adults (49.5% female, aged 44.6 ± 9.9 years) at baseline and after three months (198 paired observations). Associations were assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficients and regression analysis, and agreement using weighted kappa (Kw). Small, significantly positive correlations were found between total ARFS and plasma concentrations of total carotenoids (r = 0.17, p < 0.05), β-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.18, p < 0.05), β-carotene (r = 0.20, p < 0.01), and α-carotene (r = 0.19, p < 0.01). Significant agreement between ARFS categories and plasma carotenoid concentrations was found for total carotenoids (Kw 0.12, p = 0.02), β-carotene (Kw 0.14, p < 0.01), and α-carotene (Kw 0.13, p < 0.01). In fully-adjusted regression models the only signification association with ARFS total score was for α-carotene (β = 0.19, p < 0.01), while ARFS meat and fruit sub-scales demonstrated significant relationships with α-carotene, β-carotene, and total carotenoids (p < 0.05). The weak associations highlight the issues with self-reporting dietary intakes in overweight and obese populations. Further research is required to evaluate the use of the ARFS in more diverse populations.

  1. An Automated Reference Frame Selection (ARFS) Algorithm for Cone Imaging with Adaptive Optics Scanning Light Ophthalmoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, Alexander E.; Cooper, Robert F.; Langlo, Christopher S.; Baghaie, Ahmadreza; Dubra, Alfredo; Carroll, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To develop an automated reference frame selection (ARFS) algorithm to replace the subjective approach of manually selecting reference frames for processing adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) videos of cone photoreceptors. Methods Relative distortion was measured within individual frames before conducting image-based motion tracking and sorting of frames into distinct spatial clusters. AOSLO images from nine healthy subjects were processed using ARFS and human-derived reference frames, then aligned to undistorted AO-flood images by nonlinear registration and the registration transformations were compared. The frequency at which humans selected reference frames that were rejected by ARFS was calculated in 35 datasets from healthy subjects, and subjects with achromatopsia, albinism, or retinitis pigmentosa. The level of distortion in this set of human-derived reference frames was assessed. Results The average transformation vector magnitude required for registration of AOSLO images to AO-flood images was significantly reduced from 3.33 ± 1.61 pixels when using manual reference frame selection to 2.75 ± 1.60 pixels (mean ± SD) when using ARFS (P = 0.0016). Between 5.16% and 39.22% of human-derived frames were rejected by ARFS. Only 2.71% to 7.73% of human-derived frames were ranked in the top 5% of least distorted frames. Conclusion ARFS outperforms expert observers in selecting minimally distorted reference frames in AOSLO image sequences. The low success rate in human frame choice illustrates the difficulty in subjectively assessing image distortion. Translational Relevance Manual reference frame selection represented a significant barrier to a fully automated image-processing pipeline (including montaging, cone identification, and metric extraction). The approach presented here will aid in the clinical translation of AOSLO imaging. PMID:28392976

  2. Interactions between Rab and Arf GTPases regulate endosomal phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate during endocytic recycling

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Anbing; Grant, Barth D.

    2013-01-01

    After endocytosis, a selective endocytic recycling process returns many endocytosed molecules back to the plasma membrane. The RAB-10/Rab10 GTPase is known to be a key recycling regulator for specific cargo molecules. New evidence, focused on C. elegans RAB-10 in polarized epithelia, points to a key role of RAB-10 in the regulation of endosomal phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) levels. In turn, PI(4,5)P2 levels strongly influence the recruitment of many peripheral membrane proteins, including those important for vesicle budding through their membrane bending activities. Part of the effect of RAB-10 on endosomal PI(4,5)P2 is through its newly identified effector CNT-1, a predicted GTPase activating protein (GAP) of the small GTPase ARF-6/Arf6. In mammals PI(4,5)P2 generating enzymes are known Arf6 effectors. In C. elegans we found that RAB-10, CNT-1 and ARF-6 are present on the same endosomes, that RAB-10 recruits CNT-1 to endosomes, and that loss of CNT-1 or RAB-10 leads to overaccumulation of endosomal PI(4,5)P2, presumably via hyperactivation of endosomal ARF-6. In turn this leads to over-recruitment of PI(4,5)P2-dependent membrane-bending proteins RME-1/Ehd and SDPN-1/Syndapin/PACSIN. Conversely, in arf-6 mutants, endosomal PI(4,5)P2 levels were reduced and endosomal recruitment of RME-1 and SDPN-1 failed. This work makes an unexpected link between distinct classes of small GTPases that control endocytic recycling, and provides insight into how this interaction affects endosome function at the level of lipid phosphorylation. PMID:23392104

  3. Interactions between Rab and Arf GTPases regulate endosomal phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate during endocytic recycling.

    PubMed

    Shi, Anbing; Grant, Barth D

    2013-01-01

    After endocytosis, a selective endocytic recycling process returns many endocytosed molecules back to the plasma membrane. The RAB-10/Rab10 GTPase is known to be a key recycling regulator for specific cargo molecules. New evidence, focused on C. elegans RAB-10 in polarized epithelia, points to a key role of RAB-10 in the regulation of endosomal phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) levels. In turn, PI(4,5)P2 levels strongly influence the recruitment of many peripheral membrane proteins, including those important for vesicle budding through their membrane bending activities. Part of the effect of RAB-10 on endosomal PI(4,5)P2 is through its newly identified effector CNT-1, a predicted GTPase activating protein (GAP) of the small GTPase ARF-6/Arf6. In mammals PI(4,5)P2 generating enzymes are known Arf6 effectors. In C. elegans we found that RAB-10, CNT-1 and ARF-6 are present on the same endosomes, that RAB-10 recruits CNT-1 to endosomes, and that loss of CNT-1 or RAB-10 leads to overaccumulation of endosomal PI(4,5)P2, presumably via hyperactivation of endosomal ARF-6. In turn this leads to over-recruitment of PI(4,5)P2-dependent membrane-bending proteins RME-1/Ehd and SDPN-1/Syndapin/PACSIN. Conversely, in arf-6 mutants, endosomal PI(4,5)P2 levels were reduced and endosomal recruitment of RME-1 and SDPN-1 failed. This work makes an unexpected link between distinct classes of small GTPases that control endocytic recycling, and provides insight into how this interaction affects endosome function at the level of lipid phosphorylation.

  4. Comparison of Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS) and Plasma Carotenoid Concentrations: A Validation Study in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ashton, Lee; Williams, Rebecca; Rollo, Megan; Pezdirc, Kristine; Collins, Clare

    2017-01-01

    Diet quality indices can predict nutritional adequacy of usual intake, but validity should be determined. The aim was to assess the validity of total and sub-scale score within the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS), in relation to fasting plasma carotenoid concentrations. Diet quality and fasting plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed in 99 overweight and obese adults (49.5% female, aged 44.6 ± 9.9 years) at baseline and after three months (198 paired observations). Associations were assessed using Spearman’s correlation coefficients and regression analysis, and agreement using weighted kappa (Kw). Small, significantly positive correlations were found between total ARFS and plasma concentrations of total carotenoids (r = 0.17, p < 0.05), β-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.18, p < 0.05), β-carotene (r = 0.20, p < 0.01), and α-carotene (r = 0.19, p < 0.01). Significant agreement between ARFS categories and plasma carotenoid concentrations was found for total carotenoids (Kw 0.12, p = 0.02), β-carotene (Kw 0.14, p < 0.01), and α-carotene (Kw 0.13, p < 0.01). In fully-adjusted regression models the only signification association with ARFS total score was for α-carotene (β = 0.19, p < 0.01), while ARFS meat and fruit sub-scales demonstrated significant relationships with α-carotene, β-carotene, and total carotenoids (p < 0.05). The weak associations highlight the issues with self-reporting dietary intakes in overweight and obese populations. Further research is required to evaluate the use of the ARFS in more diverse populations. PMID:28817083

  5. The Sec7 N-terminal regulatory domains facilitate membrane-proximal activation of the Arf1 GTPase

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Brian C; Halaby, Steve L; Gustafson, Margaret A; Fromme, J Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The Golgi complex is the central sorting compartment of eukaryotic cells. Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Arf-GEFs) regulate virtually all traffic through the Golgi by activating Arf GTPase trafficking pathways. The Golgi Arf-GEFs contain multiple autoregulatory domains, but the precise mechanisms underlying their function remain largely undefined. We report a crystal structure revealing that the N-terminal DCB and HUS regulatory domains of the Arf-GEF Sec7 form a single structural unit. We demonstrate that the established role of the N-terminal region in dimerization is not conserved; instead, a C-terminal autoinhibitory domain is responsible for dimerization of Sec7. We find that the DCB/HUS domain amplifies the ability of Sec7 to activate Arf1 on the membrane surface by facilitating membrane insertion of the Arf1 amphipathic helix. This enhancing function of the Sec7 N-terminal domains is consistent with the high rate of Arf1-dependent trafficking to the plasma membrane necessary for maximal cell growth. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12411.001 PMID:26765562

  6. The Solanum lycopersicum auxin response factor 7 (SlARF7) regulates auxin signaling during tomato fruit set and development.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Maaike; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Feron, Richard; Mariani, Celestina; Vriezen, Wim H

    2009-01-01

    Auxin response factors (ARFs) are encoded by a gene family of transcription factors that specifically control auxin-dependent developmental processes. A tomato ARF gene, homologous to Arabidopsis NPH4/ARF7 and therefore designated as Solanum lycopersicum ARF7 (SlARF7), was found to be expressed at a high level in unpollinated mature ovaries. More detailed analysis of tomato ovaries showed that the level of SlARF7 transcript increases during flower development, remains at a constant high level in mature flowers, and is down-regulated within 48 h after pollination. Transgenic plants with decreased SlARF7 mRNA levels formed seedless (parthenocarpic) fruits. These fruits were heart-shaped and had a rather thick pericarp due to increased cell expansion, compared with the pericarp of wild-type fruits. The expression analysis, together with the parthenocarpic fruit phenotype of the transgenic lines, suggests that, in tomato, SlARF7 acts as a negative regulator of fruit set until pollination and fertilization have taken place, and moderates the auxin response during fruit growth.

  7. Role of ARHGAP24 in ADP Ribosylation Factor 6 (ARF6)-dependent Pseudopod Formation in Human Breast Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Shota; Saito, Koji; Asami, Hisayo; Ohta, Yasutaka

    2017-09-01

    The small GTPase ADP ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) promotes carcinoma cell invasion and metastasis through remodeling of actin cytoskeleton and formation of pseudopod that is regulated by RAC. RHO GTPase activating protein 24 (ARHGAP24), a RAC-specific GTPase activating protein, binds to activated ARF6 and is recruited to the plasma membrane. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate if ARHGAP24 is involved in the ARF6-mediated formation of pseudopods in breast carcinoma cells. The formation of pseudopods induced by activated ARF6 was monitored using MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells. The effect of knockdown of endogenous ARHGAP24 by siRNA was examined. Knockdown of ARHGAP24 in MDA-MB-231 carcinoma cells increased the lifespan of pseudopods to retract, which resulted in increased length of pseudopods induced by activated ARF6. ARHGAP24 required a binding site of ARF6 to achieve ARF6-dependent actin remodeling. ARHGAP24 may regulate pseudopod formation downstream of activated ARF6 in MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  8. Protein-protein interaction and gene co-expression maps of ARFs and Aux/IAAs in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Piya, Sarbottam; Shrestha, Sandesh K.; Binder, Brad; Stewart, C. Neal; Hewezi, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin regulates nearly all aspects of plant growth and development. Based on the current model in Arabidopsis thaliana, Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins repress auxin-inducible genes by inhibiting auxin response transcription factors (ARFs). Experimental evidence suggests that heterodimerization between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins are related to their unique biological functions. The objective of this study was to generate the Aux/IAA-ARF protein-protein interaction map using full length sequences and locate the interacting protein pairs to specific gene co-expression networks in order to define tissue-specific responses of the Aux/IAA-ARF interactome. Pairwise interactions between 19 ARFs and 29 Aux/IAAs resulted in the identification of 213 specific interactions of which 79 interactions were previously unknown. The incorporation of co-expression profiles with protein-protein interaction data revealed a strong correlation of gene co-expression for 70% of the ARF-Aux/IAA interacting pairs in at least one tissue/organ, indicative of the biological significance of these interactions. Importantly, ARF4-8 and 19, which were found to interact with almost all Aux-Aux/IAA showed broad co-expression relationships with Aux/IAA genes, thus, formed the central hubs of the co-expression network. Our analyses provide new insights into the biological significance of ARF-Aux/IAA associations in the morphogenesis and development of various plant tissues and organs. PMID:25566309

  9. Patterning colloidal films via evaporative lithography.

    PubMed

    Harris, Daniel J; Hu, Hua; Conrad, Jacinta C; Lewis, Jennifer A

    2007-04-06

    We investigate evaporative lithography as a route for patterning colloidal films. Films are dried beneath a mask that induces periodic variations between regions of free and hindered evaporation. Direct imaging reveals that particles segregate laterally within the film, as fluid and entrained particles migrate towards regions of higher evaporative flux. The films exhibit remarkable pattern formation that can be regulated by tuning the initial suspension composition, separation distance between the mask and underlying film, and mask geometry.

  10. Genome-wide identification and characterization of auxin response factor (ARF) family genes related to flower and fruit development in papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Kaidong; Yuan, Changchun; Li, Haili; Lin, Wanhuang; Yang, Yanjun; Shen, Chenjia; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2015-11-05

    Auxin and auxin signaling are involved in a series of developmental processes in plants. Auxin Response Factors (ARFs) is reported to modulate the expression of target genes by binding to auxin response elements (AuxREs) and influence the transcriptional activation of down-stream target genes. However, how ARF genes function in flower development and fruit ripening of papaya (Carica papaya L.) is largely unknown. In this study, a comprehensive characterization and expression profiling analysis of 11 C. papaya ARF (CpARF) genes was performed using the newly updated papaya reference genome data. We analyzed CpARF expression patterns at different developmental stages. CpARF1, CpARF2, CpARF4, CpARF5, and CpARF10 showed the highest expression at the initial stage of flower development, but decreased during the following developmental stages. CpARF6 expression increased during the developmental process and reached its peak level at the final stage of flower development. The expression of CpARF1 increased significantly during the fruit ripening stages. Many AuxREs were included in the promoters of two ethylene signaling genes (CpETR1 and CpETR2) and three ethylene-synthesis-related genes (CpACS1, CpACS2, and CpACO1), suggesting that CpARFs might be involved in fruit ripening via the regulation of ethylene signaling. Our study provided comprehensive information on ARF family in papaya, including gene structures, chromosome locations, phylogenetic relationships, and expression patterns. The involvement of CpARF gene expression changes in flower and fruit development allowed us to understand the role of ARF-mediated auxin signaling in the maturation of reproductive organs in papaya.

  11. Annealing of induced absorption in quartz glasses by ArF laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sergeev, P B; Sergeev, A P

    2010-11-13

    Annealing of individual bands of electron-beam-induced absorption (IA) in the region of 150 - 400 nm in KS-4V, KU-1, and Corning 7980 (ArF Grade) quartz glasses by ArF laser radiation is studied. It is shown that the phototransformation of the IA spectra occurs mainly due to a significant decrease in the amplitudes of bands at {lambda} = 183.5, 213, and 260 nm. The role played by interstitial oxygen, hydrogen, and chlorine in the formation and relaxation of glass defects is considered. (effects of laser radiation on matter. laser plasma)

  12. Immersive Education, an Annotated Webliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pricer, Wayne F.

    2011-01-01

    In this second installment of a two-part feature on immersive education a webliography will provide resources discussing the use of various types of computer simulations including: (a) augmented reality, (b) virtual reality programs, (c) gaming resources for teaching with technology, (d) virtual reality lab resources, (e) virtual reality standards…

  13. Learning immersion without getting wet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Julieta C.

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the teaching of an immersive environments class on the Spring of 2011. The class had students from undergraduate as well as graduate art related majors. Their digital background and interests were also diverse. These variables were channeled as different approaches throughout the semester. Class components included fundamentals of stereoscopic computer graphics to explore spatial depth, 3D modeling and skeleton animation to in turn explore presence, exposure to formats like a stereo projection wall and dome environments to compare field of view across devices, and finally, interaction and tracking to explore issues of embodiment. All these components were supported by theoretical readings discussed in class. Guest artists presented their work in Virtual Reality, Dome Environments and other immersive formats. Museum professionals also introduced students to space science visualizations, which utilize immersive formats. Here I present the assignments and their outcome, together with insights as to how the creation of immersive environments can be learned through constraints that expose students to situations of embodied cognition.

  14. Immersive Education, an Annotated Webliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pricer, Wayne F.

    2011-01-01

    In this second installment of a two-part feature on immersive education a webliography will provide resources discussing the use of various types of computer simulations including: (a) augmented reality, (b) virtual reality programs, (c) gaming resources for teaching with technology, (d) virtual reality lab resources, (e) virtual reality standards…

  15. The Benefits of English Immersion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Rosalie Pedalino

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, California voters approved Initiative 227, requiring that all limited-English children be provided an English-immersion program for 1 year or longer as needed. Hispanic parents are leaders in the movement. Dire predictions that bilingual children in English-language classrooms would fall behind have not materialized. (Contains 18…

  16. Metallic resist for phase-change lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Bi Jian; Huang, Jun Zhu; Ni, Ri Wen; Yu, Nian Nian; Wei, Wei; Hu, Yang Zhi; Li, Zhen; Miao, Xiang Shui

    2014-06-01

    Currently, the most widely used photoresists in optical lithography are organic-based resists. The major limitations of such resists include the photon accumulation severely affects the quality of photolithography patterns and the size of the pattern is constrained by the diffraction limit. Phase-change lithography, which uses semiconductor-based resists such as chalcogenide Ge2Sb2Te5 films, was developed to overcome these limitations. Here, instead of chalcogenide, we propose a metallic resist composed of Mg58Cu29Y13 alloy films, which exhibits a considerable difference in etching rate between amorphous and crystalline states. Furthermore, the heat distribution in Mg58Cu29Y13 thin film is better and can be more easily controlled than that in Ge2Sb2Te5 during exposure. We succeeded in fabricating both continuous and discrete patterns on Mg58Cu29Y13 thin films via laser irradiation and wet etching. Our results demonstrate that a metallic resist of Mg58Cu29Y13 is suitable for phase change lithography, and this type of resist has potential due to its outstanding characteristics.

  17. Deep-UV microsphere projection lithography.

    PubMed

    Bonakdar, Alireza; Rezaei, Mohsen; Brown, Robert L; Fathipour, Vala; Dexheimer, Eric; Jang, Sung Jun; Mohseni, Hooman

    2015-06-01

    In this Letter, we present a single-exposure deep-UV projection lithography at 254-nm wavelength that produces nanopatterns in a scalable area with a feature size of 80 nm. In this method, a macroscopic lens projects a pixelated optical mask on a monolayer of hexagonally arranged microspheres that reside on the Fourier plane and image the mask's pattern into a photoresist film. Our macroscopic lens shrinks the size of the mask by providing an imaging magnification of ∼1.86×10(4), while enhancing the exposure power. On the other hand, microsphere lens produces a sub-diffraction limit focal point-a so-called photonic nanojet-based on the near-surface focusing effect, which ensures an excellent patterning accuracy against the presence of surface roughness. Ray-optics simulation is utilized to design the bulk optics part of the lithography system, while a wave-optics simulation is implemented to simulate the optical properties of the exposed regions beneath the microspheres. We characterize the lithography performance in terms of the proximity effect, lens aberration, and interference effect due to refractive index mismatch between photoresist and substrate.

  18. Stencil mask technology for ion beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrmann, Albrecht; Huber, Sabine; Kaesmaier, Rainer; Oelmann, Andreas B.; Struck, Thomas; Springer, Reinhard; Butschke, Joerg; Letzkus, Florian; Kragler, Karl; Loeschner, Hans; Rangelow, Ivo W.

    1998-12-01

    Ion beam lithography is one of the most promising future lithography technologies. A helium or hydrogen ion beam illuminates a stencil membrane mask and projects the image with 4X reduction to the wafer. The development of stencil masks is considered to be critical for the success of the new technology. Since 1997, within the European Ion Projection Lithography MEDEA (Microelectronic Devices for European Applications) project silicon stencil masks based on a wafer- flow process are developed. They are produced in a conventional wafer line. Six inch SOI (silicon-on-insulator) wafers are patterned with an e-beam wafer writing tool, then trenches are etched by plasma etching. Afterwards, the membrane is etched by wet etch using the SOI-oxide layer as an etch stop. The last step is to add a coating layer, which is sputtered onto the membrane. It protects the mask against ion irradiation damage. For metrology and inspection, methods used for conventional chromium masks as well as new techniques are investigated. Results from placement measurements on the Leica LMS IPRO tool will be presented. Finally, methods for CD measurement, defect inspection, repair and in-situ-cleaning in the stepper will be discussed, including experimental information of first tests.

  19. Metallic resist for phase-change lithography

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Bi Jian; Huang, Jun Zhu; Ni, Ri Wen; Yu, Nian Nian; Wei, Wei; Hu, Yang Zhi; Li, Zhen; Miao, Xiang Shui

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the most widely used photoresists in optical lithography are organic-based resists. The major limitations of such resists include the photon accumulation severely affects the quality of photolithography patterns and the size of the pattern is constrained by the diffraction limit. Phase-change lithography, which uses semiconductor-based resists such as chalcogenide Ge2Sb2Te5 films, was developed to overcome these limitations. Here, instead of chalcogenide, we propose a metallic resist composed of Mg58Cu29Y13 alloy films, which exhibits a considerable difference in etching rate between amorphous and crystalline states. Furthermore, the heat distribution in Mg58Cu29Y13 thin film is better and can be more easily controlled than that in Ge2Sb2Te5 during exposure. We succeeded in fabricating both continuous and discrete patterns on Mg58Cu29Y13 thin films via laser irradiation and wet etching. Our results demonstrate that a metallic resist of Mg58Cu29Y13 is suitable for phase change lithography, and this type of resist has potential due to its outstanding characteristics. PMID:24931505

  20. Formation of Magnetic Anisotropy by Lithography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Si Nyeon; Nam, Yoon Jae; Kim, Yang Doo; Choi, Jun Woo; Lee, Heon; Lim, Sang Ho

    2016-05-24

    Artificial interface anisotropy is demonstrated in alternating Co/Pt and Co/Pd stripe patterns, providing a means of forming magnetic anisotropy using lithography. In-plane hysteresis loops measured along two principal directions are explained in depth by two competing shape and interface anisotropies, thus confirming the formation of interface anisotropy at the Co/Pt and Co/Pd interfaces of the stripe patterns. The measured interface anisotropy energies, which are in the range of 0.2-0.3 erg/cm(2) for both stripes, are smaller than those observed in conventional multilayers, indicating a decrease in smoothness of the interfaces when formed by lithography. The demonstration of interface anisotropy in the Co/Pt and Co/Pd stripe patterns is of significant practical importance, because this setup makes it possible to form anisotropy using lithography and to modulate its strength by controlling the pattern width. Furthermore, this makes it possible to form more complex interface anisotropy by fabricating two-dimensional patterns. These artificial anisotropies are expected to open up new device applications such as multilevel bits using in-plane magnetoresistive thin-film structures.

  1. Stereomask lithography for multi-protein patterning.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Siwei; Chen, Arnold; Revzin, Alexander; Pan, Tingrui

    2014-01-01

    The advances of biologically-friendly micropatterning technologies have benefited many areas of biological and medical research, including quantitative biochemical assay, point-of-care devices, biosensing and regenerative medicine. Conventional micropatterning techniques, for example, photolithography and soft lithography, have seen encouraging adaptation to creating biological micropatterns in the last decades. However, they still have not completely addressed the major needs of constructing multi-object biological microarrays with single-cell resolution without requiring cleanroom access. In this chapter, we present a novel versatile biological lithography technique to achieve integrated multi-object patterning with high feature resolution and high adaptability to various biomaterials, referred to as stereomask lithography (SML). A novel three-dimensional stereomask has been developed for successive patterning of multiple objects. The stereomask consists of both patterned through holes, which layout new micropatterns and non-through recesses, which protect pre-existing features on the substrate. Furthermore, high-precision reversible alignment among multiple bio-objects is achieved by adopting a peg-in-hole design between the substrate and stereomasks. As demonstration, we have successfully used the SML technique to construct complex biological microenvironment with various bio-functional components at single-cell resolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Formation of Magnetic Anisotropy by Lithography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Si Nyeon; Nam, Yoon Jae; Kim, Yang Doo; Choi, Jun Woo; Lee, Heon; Lim, Sang Ho

    2016-01-01

    Artificial interface anisotropy is demonstrated in alternating Co/Pt and Co/Pd stripe patterns, providing a means of forming magnetic anisotropy using lithography. In-plane hysteresis loops measured along two principal directions are explained in depth by two competing shape and interface anisotropies, thus confirming the formation of interface anisotropy at the Co/Pt and Co/Pd interfaces of the stripe patterns. The measured interface anisotropy energies, which are in the range of 0.2–0.3 erg/cm2 for both stripes, are smaller than those observed in conventional multilayers, indicating a decrease in smoothness of the interfaces when formed by lithography. The demonstration of interface anisotropy in the Co/Pt and Co/Pd stripe patterns is of significant practical importance, because this setup makes it possible to form anisotropy using lithography and to modulate its strength by controlling the pattern width. Furthermore, this makes it possible to form more complex interface anisotropy by fabricating two-dimensional patterns. These artificial anisotropies are expected to open up new device applications such as multilevel bits using in-plane magnetoresistive thin-film structures. PMID:27216420

  3. Formation of Magnetic Anisotropy by Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Si Nyeon; Nam, Yoon Jae; Kim, Yang Doo; Choi, Jun Woo; Lee, Heon; Lim, Sang Ho

    2016-05-01

    Artificial interface anisotropy is demonstrated in alternating Co/Pt and Co/Pd stripe patterns, providing a means of forming magnetic anisotropy using lithography. In-plane hysteresis loops measured along two principal directions are explained in depth by two competing shape and interface anisotropies, thus confirming the formation of interface anisotropy at the Co/Pt and Co/Pd interfaces of the stripe patterns. The measured interface anisotropy energies, which are in the range of 0.2-0.3 erg/cm2 for both stripes, are smaller than those observed in conventional multilayers, indicating a decrease in smoothness of the interfaces when formed by lithography. The demonstration of interface anisotropy in the Co/Pt and Co/Pd stripe patterns is of significant practical importance, because this setup makes it possible to form anisotropy using lithography and to modulate its strength by controlling the pattern width. Furthermore, this makes it possible to form more complex interface anisotropy by fabricating two-dimensional patterns. These artificial anisotropies are expected to open up new device applications such as multilevel bits using in-plane magnetoresistive thin-film structures.

  4. The small GTPase ARF6 regulates protein trafficking to control cellular function during development and in disease.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Allie H; Zhao, Helong; Jenkins, Noah; Zhu, Weiquan; Richards, Jackson R; Yoo, Jae Hyuk; Winter, Jacob M; Rich, Bianca; Mleynek, Tara M; Li, Dean Y; Odelberg, Shannon J

    2016-12-21

    The activation of the small GTPase ARF6 has been implicated in promoting several pathological processes related to vascular instability and tumor formation, growth, and metastasis. ARF6 also plays a vital role during embryonic development. Recent studies have suggested that ARF6 carries out these disparate functions primarily by controlling protein trafficking within the cell. ARF6 helps direct proteins to intracellular or extracellular locations where they function in normal cellular responses during development and in pathological processes later in life. This transport of proteins is accomplished through a variety of mechanisms, including endocytosis and recycling, microvesicle release, and as yet uncharacterized processes. This Commentary will explore the functions of ARF6, while focusing on the role of this small GTPase in development and postnatal physiology, regulating barrier function and diseases associated with its loss, and tumor formation, growth, and metastasis.

  5. AlFx affects the formation of focal complexes by stabilizing the Arf-GAP ASAP1 in a complex with Arf1.

    PubMed

    Klein, Stéphanie; Franco, Michel; Chardin, Pierre; Luton, Frédéric

    2005-10-24

    Aluminum fluoride (AlFx) is known to activate directly the alpha subunit of G-proteins but not the homologous small GTP-binding proteins. However, AlFx can stabilize complexes formed between Ras, RhoA or Cdc42 and their corresponding GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). Here, we demonstrate that Arf1GDP can be converted into an active conformation by AlFx to form a complex with the Arf-GAP ASAP1 in vitro and in vivo. Within this complex ASAP1, which GAP activity is inoperative, can still alter the recruitment of paxillin to the focal complexes, thus indicating that ASAP1 interferes with focal complexes independently of its GAP activity.

  6. Overlay distortions in wafer-scale integration lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flack, Warren W.

    1993-08-01

    Wafer scale integration (WSI) lithography is the technique used to fabricate ultra large scale integration (ULSI) integrated circuits significantly greater in size than current products. Applications for WSI lithography include large solid state detector arrays, large area liquid crystal displays, high speed mainframe supercomputers, and large random access memories. The lithography technology required to manufacture these devices is particularly challenging, requiring stringent control of both submicron critical dimensions and accurate alignment of level to level device patterns over large chip areas.

  7. Polymeric waveguide Bragg grating filter using soft lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocabas, Askin; Aydinli, Atilla

    2006-10-01

    We use the soft lithography technique to fabricate a polymeric waveguide Bragg grating filter. Master grating structure is patterned by e-beam lithography. Using an elastomeric stamp and capillary action, uniform grating structures with very thin residual layers are transferred to the UV curable polymer without the use of an imprint machine. The waveguide layer based on BCB optical polymer is fabricated by conventional optical lithography. This approach provides processing simplicity to fabricate Bragg grating filters.

  8. The Arf6 GTPase-activating Proteins ARAP2 and ACAP1 Define Distinct Endosomal Compartments That Regulate Integrin α5β1 Traffic*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pei-Wen; Luo, Ruibai; Jian, Xiaoying; Randazzo, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Arf6 and the Arf6 GTPase-activating protein (GAP) ACAP1 are established regulators of integrin traffic important to cell adhesion and migration. However, the function of Arf6 with ACAP1 cannot explain the range of Arf6 effects on integrin-based structures. We propose that Arf6 has different functions determined, in part, by the associated Arf GAP. We tested this idea by comparing the Arf6 GAPs ARAP2 and ACAP1. We found that ARAP2 and ACAP1 had opposing effects on apparent integrin β1 internalization. ARAP2 knockdown slowed, whereas ACAP1 knockdown accelerated, integrin β1 internalization. Integrin β1 association with adaptor protein containing a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain, and leucine zipper motif (APPL)-positive endosomes and EEA1-positive endosomes was affected by ARAP2 knockdown and depended on ARAP2 GAP activity. ARAP2 formed a complex with APPL1 and colocalized with Arf6 and APPL in a compartment distinct from the Arf6/ACAP1 tubular recycling endosome. In addition, although ACAP1 and ARAP2 each colocalized with Arf6, they did not colocalize with each other and had opposing effects on focal adhesions (FAs). ARAP2 overexpression promoted large FAs, but ACAP1 overexpression reduced FAs. Taken together, the data support a model in which Arf6 has at least two sites of opposing action defined by distinct Arf6 GAPs. PMID:25225293

  9. Activation of Aplysia ARF6 induces neurite outgrowth and is sequestered by the overexpression of the PH domain of Aplysia Sec7 proteins.

    PubMed

    Jang, Deok-Jin; Jun, Yong-Woo; Shim, Jaehoon; Sim, Su-Eon; Lee, Jin-A; Lim, Chae-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2017-02-01

    ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are small guanosine triphosphatases of the Ras superfamily involved in membrane trafficking and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Aplysia Sec7 protein (ApSec7), a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for ARF1 and ARF6, induces neurite outgrowth and plays a key role in 5-hydroxyltryptamine-induced neurite growth and synaptic facilitation in Aplysia sensory-motor synapses. However, the specific role of ARF6 signaling on neurite outgrowth in Aplysia neurons has not been examined. In the present study, we cloned Aplysia ARF6 (ApARF6) and revealed that an overexpression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-fused constitutively active ApARF6 (ApARF6-Q67L-EGFP) could induce neurite outgrowth in Aplysia sensory neurons. Further, we observed that ApARF6-induced neurite outgrowth was inhibited by the co-expression of a Sec7 activity-deficient mutant of ApSec7 (ApSec7-E159K). The pleckstrin homology domain of ApSec7 may bind to active ApARF6 at the plasma membrane and prevent active ApARF6-induced functions, including intracellular vacuole formation in HEK293T cells. The results of the present study suggest that activation of ARF6 signaling could induce neurite outgrowth in Aplysia neurons and may be involved in downstream signaling of ApSec7-induced neurite outgrowth in Aplysia neurons.

  10. Pattern formation on silicon by laser-initiated liquid-assisted colloidal lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulmeanu, M.; Petkov, P.; Ursescu, D.; Maraloiu, V. A.; Jipa, F.; Brousseau, E.; Ashfold, M. N. R.

    2015-11-01

    We report sub-diffraction limited patterning of Si substrate surfaces by laser-initiated liquid-assisted colloidal lithography. The technique involves exposing a two-dimensional lattice of transparent colloidal particles spin coated on the substrate of interest (here Si) immersed in a liquid (e.g. methanol, acetone, carbon tetrachloride, toluene) to a single picosecond pulse of ultraviolet laser radiation. Surface patterns formed using colloidal particles with different radii in the range 195 nm ≤ R ≤ 1.5 μm and liquids with differing indices of refraction (nliquid) are demonstrated, the detailed topographies of which are sensitively dependent upon whether the index of refraction of the colloidal particle (ncolloid) is greater or smaller than nliquid (i.e. upon whether the incident light converges or diverges upon interaction with the particle). The spatial intensity modulation formed by diffraction of the single laser pulse by the colloidal particles is imprinted into the Si substrate.

  11. 46 CFR 199.273 - Immersion suits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (a) Each cargo vessel must carry an immersion suit approved under approval series 160.171 of an... on watch in, or assigned to, those locations at any time. (c) The immersion suits required under...

  12. Laser durability studies of high index immersion fluids: fluid degradation and optics contamination effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberman, V.; Rothschild, M.; Palmacci, S. T.; Zimmerman, P. A.; Grenville, A.

    2007-03-01

    An extension of water-based immersion lithography involves replacing water with a higher index transparent oil. Understandably, potential lens contamination is a major concern for an all-organic immersion fluid. We have constructed an experimental system for controlled irradiation of high index fluids, including capabilities for in-situ cleaning of potential deposits. We present results of laser-irradiation of several high index immersion fluid candidates. Using properly developed exposure metrics, we discuss implications for fluid lifetimes in an immersion system, with and without in-situ purification. Using our in-situ metrology, we are able to decouple bulk fluid degradation from window photocontamination for several fluids. We find a significant variation in optics contamination rate depending on the fluid tested. Even the slowest observed contamination rates would require some remediation strategies to remove the built-up deposit from the final element surface. We also present results of irradiation of model hydrocarbon compound fluids. Irradiation of these materials leads to fundamental understanding of underlying photochemistry, and also provides guidance in designing future generation high index fluids.

  13. 75 FR 44015 - Certain Semiconductor Products Made by Advanced Lithography Techniques and Products Containing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... COMMISSION Certain Semiconductor Products Made by Advanced Lithography Techniques and Products Containing... importation of certain semiconductor products made by advanced lithography techniques and products containing... certain semiconductor products made by advanced lithography techniques or products containing same...

  14. ADP Ribosylation Factor 6 (ARF6) Promotes Acrosomal Exocytosis by Modulating Lipid Turnover and Rab3A Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Pelletán, Leonardo E.; Suhaiman, Laila; Vaquer, Cintia C.; Bustos, Matías A.; De Blas, Gerardo A.; Vitale, Nicolas; Mayorga, Luis S.; Belmonte, Silvia A.

    2015-01-01

    Regulated secretion is a central issue for the specific function of many cells; for instance, mammalian sperm acrosomal exocytosis is essential for egg fertilization. ARF6 (ADP-ribosylation factor 6) is a small GTPase implicated in exocytosis, but its downstream effectors remain elusive in this process. We combined biochemical, functional, and microscopy-based methods to show that ARF6 is present in human sperm, localizes to the acrosomal region, and is required for calcium and diacylglycerol-induced exocytosis. Results from pulldown assays show that ARF6 exchanges GDP for GTP in sperm challenged with different exocytic stimuli. Myristoylated and guanosine 5′-3-O-(thio)triphosphate (GTPγS)-loaded ARF6 (active form) added to permeabilized sperm induces acrosome exocytosis even in the absence of extracellular calcium. We explore the ARF6 signaling cascade that promotes secretion. We demonstrate that ARF6 stimulates a sperm phospholipase D activity to produce phosphatidic acid and boosts the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. We present direct evidence showing that active ARF6 increases phospholipase C activity, causing phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent intra-acrosomal calcium release. We show that active ARF6 increases the exchange of GDP for GTP on Rab3A, a prerequisite for secretion. We propose that exocytic stimuli activate ARF6, which is required for acrosomal calcium efflux and the assembly of the membrane fusion machinery. This report highlights the physiological importance of ARF6 as a key factor for human sperm exocytosis and fertilization. PMID:25713146

  15. ARF2 coordinates with PLETHORAs and PINs to orchestrate ABA-mediated root meristem activity in Arabidopsis .

    PubMed

    Promchuea, Sujittra; Zhu, Yujuan; Chen, Zhizhong; Zhang, Jing; Gong, Zhizhong

    2017-01-01

    Multiple hormones, including abscisic acid (ABA) and auxin, regulate cell division and differentiation of Arabidopsis root meristems. AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2 (ARF2) functions as a negative regulator of ABA responses, as seed germination and primary root growth of arf2 mutants are hypersensitive to ABA. In this study, we found that ABA treatment reduced the expression levels of the PIN-FORMEDs (PIN) auxin efflux carriers, PIN1, PIN3, PIN4, and PIN7, to a greater extent in the root meristems of arf2-101 mutant than in the wild type. Also, arf2-101 pin1 and arf2-101 pin4 double mutants show less ABA-induced inhibition of root meristem activity than the arf2-101 mutants. Furthermore, ARF2 positively mediates the transcripts of transcription factor PLETHORA 1 (PLT1) gene but negatively mediates PLT2 at protein level in root meristems. Using a dexamethasone (DEX)-inducible transgenic line, Pro35S:PLT2-GR, we showed that PLT2 greatly promotes cell division and completely inhibits cell differentiation in root meristems of the arf2-101 mutant once PLT2 is induced by DEX, which can be partially reversed by ABA treatment, suggesting that ABA regulates root meristem activity in both ARF2-dependent and independent pathways. Our results uncover a complex regulatory architecture in which ARF2 coordinates with PLTs and PINs to orchestrate ABA-mediated regulation of root meristem activity in Arabidopsis. © 2016 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Nanosphere lithography from template-directed colloidal sphere assemblies.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qingfeng; Chen, Ao; Chua, Soo Jin; Zhao, X S

    2006-06-01

    Conventional nanosphere lithography holds the drawbacks of lacking precise control over the shape and architecture of the resultant nanostructures. In this work, nanoimprinting lithography was used to construct various desired patterns on a polymer film coated on a silicon substrate. The patterns were then used as templates to direct the self-assembly of silica colloidal spheres, forming colloidal assemblies with well-controlled sizes, shapes, and structures. Subsequent nanosphere lithography using template-directed colloidal sphere assemblies resulted in complex nanostructures that can not be obtained using the conventional nanosphere lithography method.

  17. Polarization manipulation in single refractive prism based holography lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Wenjie; Xu, Yi; Xiao, Yujian; Lv, Xiaoxu; Wu, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    We propose theoretically and demonstrate experimentally a simple but effective strategy for polarization manipulation in single refractive prism based holographic lithography. By tuning the polarization of a single laser beam, we can obtain the pill shape interference pattern with a high-contrast where a complex optical setup and multiple polarizers are needed in the conventional holography lithography. Fabrication of pill shape two-dimensional polymer photonic crystals using one beam and one shoot holography lithography is shown as an example to support our theoretical results. This integrated polarization manipulation technique can release the crucial stability restrictions imposed on the multiple beams holography lithography.

  18. Self-assembly of octadecyltrichlorosilane: Surface structures formed using different protocols of particle lithography

    PubMed Central

    Saner, ChaMarra K; Lusker, Kathie L; LeJeune, Zorabel M; Serem, Wilson K

    2012-01-01

    Summary Particle lithography offers generic capabilities for the high-throughput fabrication of nanopatterns from organosilane self-assembled monolayers, which offers the opportunity to study surface-based chemical reactions at the molecular level. Nanopatterns of octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) were prepared on surfaces of Si(111) using designed protocols of particle lithography combined with either vapor deposition, immersion, or contact printing. Changing the physical approaches for applying molecules to masked surfaces produced OTS nanostructures with different shapes and heights. Ring nanostructures, nanodots and uncovered pores of OTS were prepared using three protocols, with OTS surface coverage ranging from 10% to 85%. Thickness measurements from AFM cursor profiles were used to evaluate the orientation and density of the OTS nanostructures. Differences in the thickness and morphology of the OTS nanostructures are disclosed based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) images. Images of OTS nanostructures prepared on Si(111) that were generated by the different approaches provide insight into the self-assembly mechanism of OTS, and particularly into the role of water and solvents in hydrolysis and silanation. PMID:22428102

  19. 3-D patterning of silicon by laser-initiated, liquid-assisted colloidal (LILAC) lithography.

    PubMed

    Ulmeanu, M; Grubb, M P; Jipa, F; Quignon, B; Ashfold, M N R

    2015-06-01

    We report a comprehensive study of laser-initiated, liquid-assisted colloidal (LILAC) lithography, and illustrate its utility in patterning silicon substrates. The method combines single shot laser irradiation (frequency doubled Ti-sapphire laser, 50fs pulse duration, 400nm wavelength) and medium-tuned optical near-field effects around arrays of silica colloidal particles to achieve 3-D surface patterning of silicon. A monolayer (or multilayers) of hexagonal close packed silica colloidal particles act as a mask and offer a route to liquid-tuned optical near field enhancement effects. The resulting patterns are shown to depend on the difference in refractive index of the colloidal particles (ncolloid) and the liquid (nliquid) in which they are immersed. Two different topographies are demonstrated experimentally: (a) arrays of bumps, centred beneath the original colloidal particles, when using liquids with nliquidncolloid - and explained with the aid of complementary Mie scattering simulations. The LILAC lithography technique has potential for rapid, large area, organized 3-D patterning of silicon (and related) substrates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dual-layer dye-filled developer-soluble BARCs for 193-nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meador, James D.; Beaman, Carol; Stroud, Charlyn; Lowes, Joyce A.; Zhu, Zhimin; Guerrero, Douglas J.; Mercado, Ramil-Marcelo L.; Drain, David

    2008-03-01

    A family of dye-filled developer-soluble bottom anti-reflective coatings (BARCs) has been developed for use in 193-nm microlithography. This new dye-filled chemical platform easily provides products covering a wide range of optical properties. The light-sensitive and positive-working BARCs use a transparent polymeric binder and a polymeric dye in a thermally crosslinking formulation, with the cured products then being photochemically decrosslinked prior to development. The cured BARC films are imaged and removed with developer in the same steps as the covering photoresist. Two dye-filled BARCs with differing optical properties were developed via a series of DOEs and then used as a dual-layer BARC stack. Lithography with this BARC stack, using a 193-nm resist, gave 150-nm L/S (1:1). A 193-nm dual-layer BARC stack (gradient optical properties) from the well-established dye-attached family of light-sensitive BARCs also gave 150-nm L/S (1:1) with the same resist. However, the latter provided much improved line shape with no scumming. The targeted application for light-sensitive dual-layer BARCs is high-numerical aperture (NA) immersion lithography where a single-layer BARC will not afford the requisite reflection control.

  1. Hybrid immersed interface-immersed boundary methods for AC dielectrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Hossan, Mohammad Robiul; Dillon, Robert; Dutta, Prashanta

    2014-08-01

    Dielectrophoresis, a nonlinear electrokinetic transport mechanism, has become popular in many engineering applications including manipulation, characterization and actuation of biomaterials, particles and biological cells. In this paper, we present a hybrid immersed interface–immersed boundary method to study AC dielectrophoresis where an algorithm is developed to solve the complex Poisson equation using a real variable formulation. An immersed interface method is employed to obtain the AC electric field in a fluid media with suspended particles and an immersed boundary method is used for the fluid equations and particle transport. The convergence of the proposed algorithm as well as validation of the hybrid scheme with experimental results is presented. In this paper, the Maxwell stress tensor is used to calculate the dielectrophoretic force acting on particles by considering the physical effect of particles in the computational domain. Thus, this study eliminates the approximations used in point dipole methods for calculating dielectrophoretic force. A comparative study between Maxwell stress tensor and point dipole methods for computing dielectrophoretic forces are presented. The hybrid method is used to investigate the physics of dielectrophoresis in microfluidic devices using an AC electric field. The numerical results show that with proper design and appropriate selection of applied potential and frequency, global electric field minima can be obtained to facilitate multiple particle trapping by exploiting the mechanism of negative dielectrophoresis. Our numerical results also show that electrically neutral particles form a chain parallel to the applied electric field irrespective of their initial orientation when an AC electric field is applied. This proposed hybrid numerical scheme will help to better understand dielectrophoresis and to design and optimize microfluidic devices.

  2. Methodology for determining CD-SEM measurement condition of sub-20nm resist patterns for 0.33NA EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okai, Nobuhiro; Lavigne, Erin; Hitomi, Keiichiro; Halle, Scott; Hotta, Shoji; Koshihara, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Junichi; Bailey, Todd

    2015-03-01

    A novel methodology was established for determining critical dimension scanning electron microscope (CD-SEM) optimum measurement condition of sub-20 nm resist patterns for 0.33NA EUV lithography yielding both small shrinkage and high precision. To investigate dependency of resist shrinkage on pattern size and electron beam irradiation condition, shrinkage of 18, 32, and 45 nm EUV resist patterns was measured over a wide range of beam conditions. A shrinkage trend similar to that of ArF resist patterns was observed for 32 and 45 nm, but 18 nm pattern showed a different dependence on acceleration voltage. Conventional methodology developed for ArF resist pattern to predict shrinkage and precision using the Taguchi method was applied to EUV resist pattern to examine the extendibility of the method. Predicted shrinkage by Taguchi method for 32 and 45 nm patterns agreed with measurements. However, the prediction error increases considerably as the pattern size decreases from 32 to 18 nm because there is a significant interaction between acceleration voltage and irradiated electron dose in L18 array used in the Taguchi method. Thus, we proposed a new method that consists of separated prediction procedures of shrinkage and precision using both a shrinkage curve and the Taguchi method, respectively. The new method was applied to 18 nm EUV resist pattern, and the optimum measurement condition with shrinkage of 1.5 nm and precision of 0.12 nm was determined. Our new method is a versatile technique which is applicable not only to fine EUV resist pattern but also to ArF resist pattern.

  3. The Arf family G protein Arl1 is required for secretory granule biogenesis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Isabel L.; Rosa-Ferreira, Cláudia; Munro, Sean

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The small G protein Arf like 1 (Arl1) is found at the Golgi complex, and its GTP-bound form recruits several effectors to the Golgi including GRIP-domain-containing coiled-coil proteins, and the Arf1 exchange factors Big1 and Big2. To investigate the role of Arl1, we have characterised a loss-of-function mutant of the Drosophila Arl1 orthologue. The gene is essential, and examination of clones of cells lacking Arl1 shows that it is required for recruitment of three of the four GRIP domain golgins to the Golgi, with Drosophila GCC185 being less dependent on Arl1. At a functional level, Arl1 is essential for formation of secretory granules in the larval salivary gland. When Arl1 is missing, Golgi are still present but there is a dispersal of adaptor protein 1 (AP-1), a clathrin adaptor that requires Arf1 for its membrane recruitment and which is known to be required for secretory granule biogenesis. Arl1 does not appear to be required for AP-1 recruitment in all tissues, suggesting that it is crucially required to enhance Arf1 activation at the trans-Golgi in particular tissues. PMID:24610947

  4. The clathrin adaptor AP-1 complex and Arf1 regulate planar cell polarity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Meg; Dussert, Aurore; Collu, Giovanna; Roman, Angel-Carlos; Weber, Ursula; Ciruna, Brian; Mlodzik, Marek

    2015-01-01

    A key step in generating planar cell polarity (PCP) is the formation of restricted junctional domains containing Frizzled/Dishevelled/Diego (Fz/Dsh/Dgo) or Van Gogh/Prickle (Vang/Pk) complexes within the same cell, stabilized via Flamingo (Fmi) across cell membranes. Although models have been proposed for how these complexes acquire and maintain their polarized localization, the machinery involved in moving core PCP proteins around cells remains unknown. We describe the AP-1 adaptor complex and Arf1 as major regulators of PCP protein trafficking in vivo. AP-1 and Arf1 disruption affects the accumulation of Fz/Fmi and Vang/Fmi complexes in the proximo–distal axis, producing severe PCP phenotypes. Using novel tools, we demonstrate a direct and specific Arf1 involvement in Fz trafficking in vivo. Moreover, we uncover a conserved Arf1 PCP function in vertebrates. Our data support a model whereby the trafficking machinery plays an important part during PCP establishment, promoting formation of polarized PCP-core complexes in vivo. PMID:25849195

  5. Specific contribution of p19(ARF) to nitric oxide-dependent apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zeini, Miriam; Través, Paqui G; López-Fontal, Raquel; Pantoja, Cristina; Matheu, Ander; Serrano, Manuel; Boscá, Lisardo; Hortelano, Sonsoles

    2006-09-01

    NO is an important bioactive molecule involved in a variety of physio- and pathological processes, including apoptosis induction. The proapoptotic activity of NO involves the rise in the tumor suppressor p53 and the accumulation and targeting of proapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family, in particular Bax and the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. However, the exact mechanism by which NO induces p53 activation has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we describe that NO induces p19(ARF) through a transcriptional mechanism. This up-regulation of p19(ARF) activates p53, leading to apoptosis. The importance of p19(ARF) on NO-dependent apoptosis was revealed by the finding that various cell types from alternate reading frame-knockout mice exhibit a diminished response to NO-mediated apoptosis when compared with normal mice. Moreover, the biological relevance of alternative reading frame to p53 apoptosis was confirmed in in vivo models of apoptosis. Together, these results demonstrate that NO-dependent apoptosis requires, in part, the activation of p19(ARF).

  6. The Area Resource File (ARF). A Health Professions Planning and Research Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applied Management Sciences, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    This report presents a description and sample products of the Area Resource File (ARF), a computer-based county-specific health resources information system which consolidates U.S. data on the health professions, hospital and nursing home facilities, hospital utilization levels, health professions training, hospital expenditures, Medicare…

  7. Structure of the Sec7 domain of the Arf exchange factor ARNO.

    PubMed

    Cherfils, J; Ménétrey, J; Mathieu, M; Le Bras, G; Robineau, S; Béraud-Dufour, S; Antonny, B; Chardin, P

    1998-03-05

    Small G proteins switch from a resting, GDP-bound state to an active, GTP-bound state. As spontaneous GDP release is slow, guanine-nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs) are required to promote fast activation of small G proteins through replacement of GDP with GTP in vivo. Families of GEFs with no sequence similarity to other GEF families have now been assigned to most families of small G proteins. In the case of the small G protein Arf1, the exchange of bound GDP for GTP promotes the coating of secretory vesicles in Golgi traffic. An exchange factor for human Arf1, ARNO, and two closely related proteins, named cytohesin 1 and GPS1, have been identified. These three proteins are modular proteins with an amino-terminal coiled-coil, a central Sec7-like domain and a carboxy-terminal pleckstrin homology domain. The Sec7 domain contains the exchange-factor activity. It was first found in Sec7, a yeast protein involved in secretion, and is present in several other proteins, including the yeast exchange factors for Arf, Geal and Gea2. Here we report the crystal structure of the Sec7 domain of human ARNO at 2 A resolution and the identification of the site of interaction of ARNO with Arf.

  8. Mon2, a relative of large Arf exchange factors, recruits Dop1 to the Golgi apparatus.

    PubMed

    Gillingham, Alison K; Whyte, James R C; Panic, Bojana; Munro, Sean

    2006-01-27

    The protein Mon2 is distantly related to the guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that activate Arf1 on Golgi membranes. However, unlike these "large" Arf GEFs, Mon2 lacks the Sec7 domain that catalyzes nucleotide exchange on Arf1. Here we report that yeast Mon2 shares extensive homology with the noncatalytic parts of both the BIG and Golgi brefeldin A resistance factor subfamilies of Arf GEFs and is located to the trans-Golgi. Moreover, we find that Mon2 forms a complex with Dop1, a large cytoplasmic protein conserved in evolution from humans to protozoa. Deletion of Mon2 results in mislocalization of Dop1 from the Golgi and defects in cycling between endosomes and the Golgi. However, unlike Mon2, Dop1 is essential for yeast viability. A conditional allele of Dop1 shows that loss of Dop1 activity not only affects endosome to Golgi transport but also causes a severe perturbation of the organization of the endoplasmic reticulum. Thus, it appears that Dop1 plays a widespread role in membrane organization, and Mon2 acts as a scaffold to recruit the Golgi-localized pool of Dop1.

  9. The clathrin adaptor AP-1 complex and Arf1 regulate planar cell polarity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Gonzalez, Jose Maria; Balmer, Sophie; Mendoza, Meg; Dussert, Aurore; Collu, Giovanna; Roman, Angel-Carlos; Weber, Ursula; Ciruna, Brian; Mlodzik, Marek

    2015-04-07

    A key step in generating planar cell polarity (PCP) is the formation of restricted junctional domains containing Frizzled/Dishevelled/Diego (Fz/Dsh/Dgo) or Van Gogh/Prickle (Vang/Pk) complexes within the same cell, stabilized via Flamingo (Fmi) across cell membranes. Although models have been proposed for how these complexes acquire and maintain their polarized localization, the machinery involved in moving core PCP proteins around cells remains unknown. We describe the AP-1 adaptor complex and Arf1 as major regulators of PCP protein trafficking in vivo. AP-1 and Arf1 disruption affects the accumulation of Fz/Fmi and Vang/Fmi complexes in the proximo-distal axis, producing severe PCP phenotypes. Using novel tools, we demonstrate a direct and specific Arf1 involvement in Fz trafficking in vivo. Moreover, we uncover a conserved Arf1 PCP function in vertebrates. Our data support a model whereby the trafficking machinery plays an important part during PCP establishment, promoting formation of polarized PCP-core complexes in vivo.

  10. Rab, Arf, and Arl-Regulated Membrane Traffic in Cortical Neuron Migration.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bor Luen

    2016-07-01

    The migration of projection neurons from its birthplace in the subventricular zone to their final destination in the cortical plate is a complex process that requires a series of highly coordinated cellular events. Amongst the key factors involved in the processes are modulators of cytoskeletal dynamics, as well as cellular membrane traffic. Members of the small GTPases family responsible for the latter process, the Rabs and Arfs, have been recently implicated in cortical neuron migration. Rab5 and Rab11, which are key modulators of endocytosis and endocytic recycling respectively, ensure proper surface expression and distribution of N-cadherin, a key adhesion protein that tethers migrating neurons to the radial glia fiber tracts during pia-directed migration. Rab7, which is associated with lysosomal biogenesis and function, is important for the final step of terminal translocation when N-cadherin is downregulated by lysosomal degradation. Arf6 activity, which is known to be important in neuronal processes outgrowth, may negatively impact the multipolar-bipolar transition of cortical neurons undergoing radial migration, but the downstream effector of Arf6 in this regard is not yet known. In addition to the above, members of the Arl family which have been recently shown to be important in radial glia scaffold formation, would also be important for cortical neuron migration. In this short review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the importance of membrane traffic regulated by the Rab, Arf, and Arl family members in cortical neuron migration.

  11. HIV-1 Nef hijacks clathrin coats by stabilizing AP-1:Arf1 polygons.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qing-Tao; Ren, Xuefeng; Zhang, Rui; Lee, Il-Hyung; Hurley, James H

    2015-10-23

    The lentiviruses HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) subvert intracellular membrane traffic as part of their replication cycle. The lentiviral Nef protein helps viruses evade innate and adaptive immune defenses by hijacking the adaptor protein 1 (AP-1) and AP-2 clathrin adaptors. We found that HIV-1 Nef and the guanosine triphosphatase Arf1 induced trimerization and activation of AP-1. Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy structures of the Nef- and Arf1-bound AP-1 trimer in the active and inactive states. A central nucleus of three Arf1 molecules organizes the trimers. We combined the open trimer with a known dimer structure and thus predicted a hexagonal assembly with inner and outer faces that bind the membranes and clathrin, respectively. Hexagons were directly visualized and the model validated by reconstituting clathrin cage assembly. Arf1 and Nef thus play interconnected roles in allosteric activation, cargo recruitment, and coat assembly, revealing an unexpectedly intricate organization of the inner AP-1 layer of the clathrin coat.

  12. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-07-11

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater. 11 figs.

  13. Immersive Environments - A Connectivist Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loureiro, Ana; Bettencourt, Teresa

    We are conducting a research project with the aim of achieving better and more efficient ways to facilitate teaching and learning in Higher Level Education. We have chosen virtual environments, with particular emphasis to Second Life® platform augmented by web 2.0 tools, to develop the study. The Second Life® environment has some interesting characteristics that captured our attention, it is immersive; it is a real world simulator; it is a social network; it allows real time communication, cooperation, collaboration and interaction; it is a safe and controlled environment. We specifically chose tools from web 2.0 that enable sharing and collaborative way of learning. Through understanding the characteristics of this learning environment, we believe that immersive learning along with other virtual tools can be integrated in today's pedagogical practices.

  14. Authoring Immersive Mixed Reality Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misker, Jan M. V.; van der Ster, Jelle

    Creating a mixed reality experience is a complicated endeavour. From our practice as a media lab in the artistic domain we found that engineering is “only” a first step in creating a mixed reality experience. Designing the appearance and directing the user experience are equally important for creating an engaging, immersive experience. We found that mixed reality artworks provide a very good test bed for studying these topics. This chapter details three steps required for authoring mixed reality experiences: engineering, designing and directing. We will describe a platform (VGE) for creating mixed reality environments that incorporates these steps. A case study (EI4) is presented in which this platform was used to not only engineer the system, but in which an artist was given the freedom to explore the artistic merits of mixed reality as an artistic medium, which involved areas such as the look and feel, multimodal experience and interaction, immersion as a subjective emotion and game play scenarios.

  15. High Efficiency Germanium Immersion Gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzmenko, P J; Davis, P J; Little, S L; Little, L M; Bixler, J V

    2006-05-01

    We have fabricated several germanium immersion gratings by single crystal, single point diamond flycutting on an ultra-precision lathe. Use of a dead sharp tool produces groove corners less than 0.1 micron in radius and consequently high diffraction efficiency. We measured first order efficiencies in immersion of over 80% at 10.6 micron wavelength. Wavefront error was low averaging 0.06 wave rms (at 633 nm) across the full aperture. The grating spectral response was free of ghosts down to our detection limit of 1 part in 10{sup 4}. Scatter should be low based upon the surface roughness. Measurement of the spectral line profile of a CO{sub 2} laser sets an upper bound on total integrated scatter of 0.5%.

  16. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  17. Which Way In? The RalF Arf-GEF Orchestrates Rickettsia Host Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Rennoll-Bankert, Kristen E.; Rahman, M. Sayeedur; Gillespie, Joseph J.; Guillotte, Mark L.; Kaur, Simran J.; Lehman, Stephanie S.; Beier-Sexton, Magda; Azad, Abdu F.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial Sec7-domain-containing proteins (RalF) are known only from species of Legionella and Rickettsia, which have facultative and obligate intracellular lifestyles, respectively. L. pneumophila RalF, a type IV secretion system (T4SS) effector, is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) of ADP-ribosylation factors (Arfs), activating and recruiting host Arf1 to the Legionella-containing vacuole. In contrast, previous in vitro studies showed R. prowazekii (Typhus Group) RalF is a functional Arf-GEF that localizes to the host plasma membrane and interacts with the actin cytoskeleton via a unique C-terminal domain. As RalF is differentially encoded across Rickettsia species (e.g., pseudogenized in all Spotted Fever Group species), it may function in lineage-specific biology and pathogenicity. Herein, we demonstrate RalF of R. typhi (Typhus Group) interacts with the Rickettsia T4SS coupling protein (RvhD4) via its proximal C-terminal sequence. RalF is expressed early during infection, with its inactivation via antibody blocking significantly reducing R. typhi host cell invasion. For R. typhi and R. felis (Transitional Group), RalF ectopic expression revealed subcellular localization with the host plasma membrane and actin cytoskeleton. Remarkably, R. bellii (Ancestral Group) RalF showed perinuclear localization reminiscent of ectopically expressed Legionella RalF, for which it shares several structural features. For R. typhi, RalF co-localization with Arf6 and PI(4,5)P2 at entry foci on the host plasma membrane was determined to be critical for invasion. Thus, we propose recruitment of PI(4,5)P2 at entry foci, mediated by RalF activation of Arf6, initiates actin remodeling and ultimately facilitates bacterial invasion. Collectively, our characterization of RalF as an invasin suggests that, despite carrying a similar Arf-GEF unknown from other bacteria, different intracellular lifestyles across Rickettsia and Legionella species have driven divergent roles for Ral

  18. Compact Imaging Spectrometer Utilizing Immersed Gratings

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P.; Lerner, Scott A.; Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Bennett, Charles L.

    2006-03-21

    A compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, a system for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the system for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the system for receiving the light and the system for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light through an optical element to the detector array.

  19. Fabrication of metallic nanowires and nanoribbons using laser interference lithography and shadow lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Joong- Mok; Nalwa, Kanwar Singh; Leung, Wai; Constant, Kristen; Chaudhary, Sumit; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2010-04-30

    Ordered and free-standing metallic nanowires were fabricated by e-beam deposition on patterned polymer templates made by interference lithography. The dimensions of the nanowires can be controlled through adjustment of deposition conditions and polymer templates. Grain size, polarized optical transmission and electrical resistivity were measured with ordered and free-standing nanowires.

  20. Repression of ARF10 by microRNA160 plays an important role in the mediation of leaf water loss.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Dong, Xiufen; Liu, Zihan; Shi, Zihang; Jiang, Yun; Qi, Mingfang; Xu, Tao; Li, Tianlai

    2016-10-01

    Solanum lycopersicum auxin response factor 10 (SlARF10) is post-transcriptionally regulated by Sl-miR160. Overexpression of a Sl-miR160-resistant SlARF10 (mSlARF10) resulted in narrower leaflet blades with larger stomata but lower densities. 35S:mSlARF10-6 plants with narrower excised leaves had greater water loss, which was in contrast to the wild type (WT). Further analysis revealed that the actual water loss was not consistent with the calculated stomatal water loss in 35S:mSlARF10-6 and the WT under