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  1. Egypt.

    PubMed

    1987-12-01

    Attention in this discussion of Egypt is directed to the following: geography; the people; history; government and political conditions; the economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between Egypt and the US. The population totaled 50.5 million in 1986 with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate is 102/1000 (1986), and life expectancy is 58.3 years. Located in the northeastern corner of Africa, Egypt has a land area of about 1 million square kilometers and is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea, Libya, Sudan, the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aqaba, and Israel. Egypt is the most populous country in the Arab world. Egyptians are a fairly homogenous people of Hamitic origin. Mediterranean and Arab influences appear in the north, and there is some mixing in the south with the Nubians of northern Sudan. Egypt has been a unified state for over 5000 years, and archeological evidence indicates that a developed Egyptian society has existed for considerably longer. The constitution of Egypt provides for a strong executive with authority vested in an elected president who can appoint 1 or more vice presidents, a prime minister, and a cabinet. Egypt's legislative body has 458 members -- 448 popularly elected and 10 appointed by the president. Power is concentrated in the hands of the president and the National Democratic Party's majority in the People's Assembly, but opposition parties organize, publish their views, and represent their followers at various levels in the political system. The process of gradual political liberalization begun by Sadat has continued under Mubarak. In fiscal year 1987 the gross domestic product (GDP) reached about US$30 billion. Agriculture and services each contribute about 1/3 of GDP; the remainder comes from industry, petroleum, mining, electricity, and construction. At this time, the Egyptian economy faces several challenges. In 1986 the government of Egypt initiated a major review of economic policy and initiated an economic

  2. Argentina.

    PubMed

    1986-06-01

    This discussion of Argentina covers geography, the people, history and political conditions, government, economy, foreign relations, and relations between the US and Argentina. In 1985, the population of Argentina was estimated to be 30.6 million with an estimated annual growth rate of 1.5%. The infant mortality rate is 34.1/1000, and life expectancy is 70.2 years. Argentina, which shares land borders with Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay, is bounded by the Atlantic and the Antarctic Oceans. Descendants of Italian and Spanish immigrants predominate in Argentina, but many trace their origins to British and West and East European ancestors. In recent years, there has been a substantial influx of immigrants from neighboring Latin American countries. The native Indian population, estimated to be 50,000, is concentrated in the peripheral provinces of the north, northwest, and south. What is now Argentina was discovered in 1516 by the Spanish navigator Juan de Solia. The formal declaration of independence from Spain was made on July 9, 1816. In the late 19th century, 2 forces worked to create the modern Argentine nation: the introduction of modern agricultural techniques and the integration of Argentina into the world economy. Argentina has impressive human and natural resources, but political conflict and uneven economic performance since World War II have impeded full realization of its considerable potential. Yet, it is one of the wealthiest countries in Latin America. Among the reasons for the military coup of March 1976 was the deteriorating economy, caused by declining production and rampant inflation. Under the leadership of the Minister of the Economy, the military government focused attention on those immediate problems, and, in 1978, embarked on a new development strategy focusing on the establishment of a free market economy. There was little improvement in the economy, and a new economic plan was introduced in 1985 which has capped inflation by

  3. A new species of Neolasioptera (Diptera: Cecidomyiiidae) from Parkinsonia aculeata (Leguninosae) in Argentina for possible use in biological control in Australia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neolasioptera parkinsoniae Gagné (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is described as a new species from stem swellings on Parkinsonia aculeata L. (Leguminosae) in NW Argentina. The new species appears to be a good candidate for the biological control of its host in Australia, where the plant was accidentally i...

  4. "Democracy Will Not Fall from the Sky." A Comparative Study of Teacher Education Students' Perceptions of Democracy in Two Neo-Liberal Societies: Argentina and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zyngier, David; Traverso, María Delia; Murriello, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares and contrasts pre-service teachers' (PSTs) beliefs about democracy in Argentina and Australia. While there are many important studies of how school students understand democracy and democratic participation, few have studied what teachers, and especially pre-service teachers, think about democracy. This paper uses a mixed…

  5. Australia.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    The smallest continent and one of the largest countries, Australia is a country of diverse geographical conditions and differing cultures of people unified by one predominant language and political system. Mountains, desert and rivers are some of the varying landscape features of Australia, although the climate and condition for most of the country is tropical. Original Australians, a hunting-gathering people called Aborigines, came to Australia over 38,000 years ago. Today the Aborigines compose about 1% of the population and live in traditional tribal areas as well as cities. The 1st European settlement came in 1788 from Great Britain. After World War II, the population doubled. Although the population is primarily composed of British and Irish immigrants, immigrants from other European countries such as Italy and Greece as well as refugees from Indochina, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos are a significant factor to the growing Australian population. Australian and Aboriginal culture has took hold and took notice in the areas of opera, art, literature and film. The Australian Commonwealth is based on a constitution similar to that of the United States government. The National Parliament is bicameral with both the Senate and the House of Representatives having a select number of elected officials from each state and territory. The Australian economy is predominantly reliant on the sale of mineral and agricultural exports. History, economic changes, defense, international relations and notes to the traveler are also discussed in this overview of Australia.

  6. Argentina.

    PubMed

    1993-02-01

    Background notes on Argentina provide a profile of the geography, selected demographic features, government and economic conditions. Descriptive text includes a discussion of the people, their history and political conditions, the government and officials, the state of the economy, their defense, foreign relations, and relations with the US. The 1992 estimated population was about 33 million of whom 97% are European (mostly Spanish and Italian). Religions represented are Roman Catholic (92%), Protestant (2%), Jewish (2%), and other (4%). Adult literacy is 95%. 36% are engaged in industry and commerce, 20% in services, 19% in agriculture, 6% in transport and communications, and 19% other. Per capita gross domestic product was $4,500. There are only 50,000 native Indians remaining in peripheral provinces. The population enjoys a high standard of living and a low growth rate. The country was shaped by dominant forces: modern agricultural techniques and the integration of the country into the world economy. Foreign investment aided the economic revolution. Conservative and radical rule has swung the country back and forth politically since 1916. Colonel Juan Domingo Peron led a successful military coup in 1943 and was elected in 1946. Policies were instituted to give a greater voice to the working class, and with the influences of his wife, women's groups. In 1955, he was ousted by the military, which failed to revive the economy and quiet increasing terrorism. After a number of difficult elections, Peron was reinstated as president in 1973. Extremists on the left and right threatened public order; the military as a consequence imprisoned persons indefinitely. Peron's wife succeeded him after his death, but was removed from office in the military coup of 1976. Basic human rights were violated during this period. By 1983, a fair election was held and support increased for a democratic system. In 1989, Carlos Saul Menem, a Peronist candidate, won and established

  7. Dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea) parasitizing the gills of spinefoots (Teleostei: Siganidae): proposal of Glyphidohaptor n. gen., with two new species from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, and G. plectocirra n. comb. from Ras Mohammed National Park, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Galli, Paolo; Yang, Tingbao

    2007-02-01

    Nine species of Siganus (Perciformes: Siganidae) were examined for dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea) from the Red Sea, Egypt; the Great Barrier Reef, Australia; and the South China Sea, China. Species of Tetrancistrum were found on siganids from all 3 localities; Pseudohaliotrema spp. were restricted to siganids from the Great Barrier Reef; and species representing Glyphidohaptor n. gen. were found on siganids from the Red Sea and Great Barrier Reef. Siganus argenteus from the Red Sea and Siganus vulpinus from the Great Barrier Reef were negative for dactylogyrid parasites. Glyphidohaptor n. gen. is proposed for 3 species (2 species new to science) and the new species are described: Glyphidohaptor phractophallus n. sp. from Siganus fuscescens from the Great Barrier Reef; Glyphidohaptor sigani n. sp. from Siganus doliatus (type host), Siganus punctatus, Siganus corallinus, and Siganus lineatus from the Great Barrier Reef; and Glyphidohaptor plectocirra (Paperna, 1972) n. comb. (= Pseudohaliotrema plectocirra Paperna, 1972) from Siganus luridus and Siganus rivulatus from the Red Sea.

  8. Ancient Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Virginia

    This four-week fourth grade social studies unit dealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian culture was developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egypt by looking at the people, the culture, and the people's world view. The unit begins with outlines…

  9. Ancient Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  10. Napoleon in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Brian

    1989-01-01

    Recounts the 1798 Egyptian campaign of Napoleon Bonaparte, whose Scientific and Artistic Commission documented and described the glories of ancient Egypt. The expedition was a disaster by military standards, but the cultural legacies included the Rosetta Stone, and a chronicle entitled "Description de L'Egypte," which did much to…

  11. Ancient Egypt: History 380.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Laraine D.

    "Ancient Egypt," an upper-division, non-required history course covering Egypt from pre-dynastic time through the Roman domination is described. General descriptive information is presented first, including the method of grading, expectation of student success rate, long-range course objectives, procedures for revising the course, major…

  12. Education in Egypt, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youssef, Youssef Khalil, Ed.; Ibrahim, Fawzia El-Sayed, Ed.

    This publication of the National Center for Educational Research of Egypt describes the status of education in Egypt in 1978, with respect to administration, structure, the educational ladder including university education, as well as the quantitative side of education. It also briefly presents the historical background of Egyptian education, its…

  13. Education in Egypt, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youssef, Youssef Khalil, Ed.

    This publication of the National Center for Educational Research of Egypt describes the status of education in Egypt in 1979, with respect to administration, structure, the educational ladder including university education, as well as the quantitative side of education. It also briefly presents the historical background of Egyptian education, its…

  14. Schools' Television in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blezard, Dennis

    1980-01-01

    Chronicles the short (1970-77) and troubled history of instructional television in Egypt. Among the problems which led to the discontinuation of television programing for schools were production delays, inadequate repair service, and lack of training. (LLS)

  15. Egypt and Red Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A panaramic view of eastern Egypt, The Red Sea and Saudi Arabia beyond (24.0N, 33.0E). In this desert country, where water is life, the high Aswan Dam and the impounded waters of the Nile River in the foreground assure water availability into the next century. The Red Sea beyond, part of the Suez Canal seaway, serves as a commercial link to the world and separates Egypt from Saudi Arabia.

  16. Animal brucellosis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Wareth, Gamal; Hikal, Ahmed; Refai, Mohamed; Melzer, Falk; Roesler, Uwe; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2014-11-13

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis that affects the public health and economic performance of endemic as well as non-endemic countries. In developing nations, brucellosis is often a very common but neglected disease. The purpose of this review is to provide insight about brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt and help to understand the situation from 1986 to 2013. A total of 67 national and international scientific publications on serological investigations, isolation, and biotyping studies from 1986 to 2013 were reviewed to verify the current status of brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt. Serological investigations within the national surveillance program give indirect proof for the presence of brucellosis in cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, and camels in Egypt. Serologic testing for brucellosis is a well-established procedure in Egypt, but most of the corresponding studies do not follow the scientific standards. B. melitensis biovar (bv) 3, B. abortus bv 1, and B. suis bv 1 have been isolated from farm animals and Nile catfish. Brucellosis is prevalent nationwide in many farm animal species. There is an obvious discrepancy between official seroprevalence data and data from scientific publications. The need for a nationwide survey to genotype circulating Brucellae is obvious. The epidemiologic situation of brucellosis in Egypt is unresolved and needs clarification.

  17. Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Chahira

    2006-02-15

    Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities.

  18. Nile River Delta, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Nile River Delta of Egypt (30.0N, 31.0E) irrigated by the Nile River and its many distributaries, is some of the richest farm land in the world and home to some 45 million people, over half of Egypt's population. The capital city of Cairo is at the apex of the delta. Just across the river from Cairo can be seen the ancient three big pyramids and sphinx at Giza and the Suez Canal is just to the right of the delta.

  19. Surgery in Egypt.

    PubMed

    el-Zawahry, M D; Ramzy, A F; el-Sahwi, E; Bahnasy, A F; Khafaga, M; Rizk-Allah, M A; Abou el-Hoda, M F

    1997-07-01

    The history of medicine can never be complete without referral to ancient Egyptian medicine. Imhotep has been identified as the god of medicine. There are 13 faculties of medicine in Egypt; the oldest is the Kasr El Aini Faculty, which started in 1925. We review undergraduate and postgraduate education in Egypt. The Egyptian Society of Surgeons organizes the scientific surgical activities. Schistosomiasis is a national health problem. Health care is provided by many types of hospitals, including university, teaching, Ministry of Public Health, military, and private hospitals.

  20. Northern Australia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Tropical Northern Australia     View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of tropical northern Australia were acquired on June 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry ...

  1. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  2. Egypt's National Education Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Bradley James

    2000-01-01

    Examines the vigorous dialectic occurring among intellectuals, religious leaders, and politicians trying to define the appropriate role of Islam in Egyptian education. Discusses the call for the Islamization of education in contemporary Egypt, aspects of Islamic law, the position of the state on religious education, and the influence of a small…

  3. Mental health in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Okasha, Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    The concepts and management of mental health in Egypt are presented from the Pharaonic era through the Islamic Renaissance until today. Papyri from the Pharaonic period show that Soma and Psyche were not differentiated and mental disorders were described as symptoms of the heart and uterus. Although theories of causation were of a mystical nature, mental disorders were treated on a somatic basis. In the Islamic era, mental patients were neither maltreated nor tortured as a consequence of the belief that they may be possessed by a good Moslem genie. In the 14th century mental disorders was one of the four departments in Cairo's Kalawoon Hospital, a precursor of the place of psychiatry in general hospitals that was accepted in Europe six centuries later. The mental health services in Egypt today are described, and transcultural studies carried out in Egypt of the prevalence and phenomenology of anxiety, schizophrenia, depression, suicide, conversion and obsessive compulsive disorders are reviewed. The psychiatric services for children are in their infancy. Since 1983 the common and semi-accepted use of hashish has been joined by abuse by heroin and other substances.

  4. Modern Egypt: A Development Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Rosalind; And Others

    Egypt is a culture which combines the traditional with the modern. This text aims to foster an appreciation of Egypt as a changing culture facing the challenges of development. Topics included are: (1) Village Life; (2) Urban Life; (3) Nile; (4) Government; (5) Agriculture; (6) Economy; (7) Health/Games; (8) Education; (9) Religion; (10)…

  5. Argentina: spotlight.

    PubMed

    Patriquin, W

    1987-10-01

    In 1987 Argentina had a population of 31.5 million, with an annual rate of increase of 1.6%. The total fertility rate was 3.3, and the birth rate was 24/1000 population. Mortality stood at 8/1000 population, and the infant mortality rate was 35.3/1000 live births. Life expectancy at birth is 70 years. 84% of the population lives in Argentina's urban areas. Current government policies call for regional development to maintain and increase population in rural areas and control growth in urban centers. 90% of the population is of European descent, largely as a result of high rates of immigration during the 1880s-1930s from countries such as Spain and Italy. In 1985 the gross national product per capita was US$2130. Argentina is rich in resources and almost self-sufficient in terms of basic foodstuffs, power supply, and advanced communication networks. On the other hand, political conflicts and economic crises have hindered the realization of both human and natural resource potential. 80% of the value of export products is the amount due in interest on foreign debts.

  6. Especies del género Tamarix (Tamaricaceae) invadiendo ambientes naturales y seminaturales en Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tamarix species (Tamaricaceae) invading natural and seminatural habitats in Argentina. The genus Tamarix includes species behaving as aggressive invaders in the USA, México and Australia. Previous studies report a variable number of species of this genus cultivated in Argentina as ornamentals,wind-b...

  7. Organ transplantation in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Paris, Wayne; Nour, Bakr

    2010-09-01

    Concern has increasingly been expressed about the growing number of reports of medical personnel participating in the transplantation of human organs or tissues taken from the bodies of executed prisoners, handicapped patients, or poor persons who have agreed to part with their organs for commercial purposes. Such behavior has been universally considered as ethically and morally reprehensible, yet in some parts of the world the practice continues to flourish. The concept of justice demands that every person have an equal right to life, and to protect this right, society has an obligation to ensure that every person has equal access to medical care. Regrettably, the Egyptian system does not legally recognize brain death and continues to allow the buying and selling of organs. For more than 30 years in Egypt, the ability to pay has determined who receives an organ and economic need has determined who will be the donor. As transplant professionals, it is important that we advocate on behalf of all patients, potential recipients, and donors and for those who are left out and not likely to receive a donor organ in an economically based system. Current issues associated with this debate are reviewed and recommendations about how to address them in Egypt are discussed.

  8. The schistosomiasis problem in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mobarak, A B

    1982-01-01

    This report provides an overview of past and current efforts to control schistosomiasis in Egypt, describes recent trends, and analyzes factors responsible for changes in transmission. For the purpose of long-term planning and developing control strategies, the country has been divided into eight geographic zones: Suez Canal Zone, Sainai, Nile Delta, Guiza, Fayoum, Middle Egypt, Upper Egypt, and the High Dam Lake Zone. Overall control priorities are examined and the strategy for each zone is described. The most recent information on changes in epidemiologic patterns of schistosomiasis in Egypt is mentioned, as well as the introduction of newer therapeutic agents. Lastly, the role of outside funding agencies in supporting schistosomiasis control is examined.

  9. [The wild boar of Egypt].

    PubMed

    Manlius, N; Gautier, A

    1999-07-01

    The wild boar, Sus scrofa, is not a typical member of the Egyptian wild fauna, although it appears to have lived in the Nile Delta and other suitable regions in the north of the country. However, historic populations were probably of mixed origin, including feral domestic pigs. It is incorrect, as is sometimes still done, to include the wild boar in the iconographic bestiary of Ancient Egypt and assume that the domestic pigs of Ancient Egypt derive from local wild boars.

  10. Southeastern Australia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument onboard NASA's Terra satellite. The year 2002 was one of Australia's hottest and driest on record, ... These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 14999 and 16858. The panels cover an area ...

  11. Solar Energy for Rural Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelsalam, Tarek I.; Darwish, Ziad; Hatem, Tarek M.

    Egypt is currently experiencing the symptoms of an energy crisis, such as electricity outage and high deficit, due to increasing rates of fossil fuels consumption. Conversely, Egypt has a high solar availability of more than 18.5 MJ daily. Additionally, Egypt has large uninhabited deserts on both sides of the Nile valley and Sinai Peninsula, which both represent more than 96.5 % of the nation's total land area. Therefore, solar energy is one of the promising solutions for the energy shortage in Egypt. Furthermore, these vast lands are advantageous for commissioning large-scaled solar power projects, not only in terms of space availability, but also of availability of high quality silicon (sand) required for manufacturing silicon wafers used in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Also, rural Egypt is considered market a gap for investors, due to low local competition, and numerous remote areas that are not connected to the national electricity grid. Nevertheless, there are some obstacles that hinder the progress of solar energy in Egypt; for instance, the lack of local manufacturing capabilities, security, and turbulent market in addition to other challenges. This paper exhibits an experience of the authors designing and installing decentralized PV solar systems, with a total rated power of about 11 kW, installed at two rural villages in at the suburbs of Fayoum city, in addition to a conceptual design of a utility scale, 2 MW, PV power plant to be installed in Kuraymat. The outcomes of this experience asserted that solar PV systems can be a more technically and economically feasible solution for the energy problem in rural villages.

  12. Infectious diseases in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Brier, Bob

    2004-03-01

    Techniques for studying infectious disease in the ancient world are discussed. A brief survey of infectious diseases, such as schistosomiasis and malaria, in ancient Egypt is presented, and the physical traces of these diseases are examined. A discussion of the ancient Egyptian physician's response to infectious disease is included. There are two substantial sources of evidence for infectious diseases-physical remains and descriptions in Egyptian medical papyri. This preliminary survey suggests that ancient Egypt was far from the idyllic paradise on the Nile that some historians would like to imagine.

  13. Cryptogenic Tuberculosis - 1990 Cairo - Egypt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    AD-A269 664 i l•l lI ,iI I i h4Ji PUBLICATION REPORT 1753 SEP TE5195, 31/93EYP CRYPTOGENIC TUBERCULOSIS - 1990 CAIRO - EGYPT BY Z. Farid, M.E...FUNDING NUMBERS Cryptogenic Tuberculosis - 1990 Cairo - Egypt PE- 61102A WU- 3M161102BS13.AK.311 6. AUTHORjS) Farid, Z., Kilpatrick, M.E. and Kamal...is unlimited. 13- A8B TRACT %’ 4 , n ;.’ Please see attached. DTIC 7T-3 t A 2-d~~t (r’ oa Dist__ _._ .S pecial. Cryptogenic tuberculosis ; Prolonged

  14. Alexandria (Al Iskandariya), Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Alexandria was taken by astronauts on board the International Space Station in December 2000 using an Electronic Still Camera. A wider-angle view (STS088-739-90) taken from the Space Shuttle in December 1998 is available for context. Alexandria (Al Iskandariya) occupies a T-shaped peninsula and strip of land separating the Mediterranean from Lake Mariout. Originally the town was built upon a mole (stone breakwater) called Heptastadium, which joined the island of Pharos (see referenced website, below) to the mainland. Since then sedimentary deposits have widened the mole. Since 1905, when the 370,000 Alexandrians lived in an area of about 4 sq km between the two harbors, the city (population 4 million; see referenced website, below) has grown beyond its medieval walls and now occupies an area of about 300 sq km. The Mahmudiya Canal, connecting Alexandria with the Nile, runs to the south of the city and, by a series of locks, enters the harbor of the principal port of Egypt (note ships). The reddish and ochre polygons west of Lake Mariout are salt-evaporation, chemical-storage, and water-treatment ponds within the coastal lagoon. Reference Youssef Halim and Fatma Abou Shouk, 2000, Human impacts on Alexandria's marine environment: UNESCO, Coastal Regions and Small Islands Unit (CSI), Coastal Management Sourcebooks 2 (accessed December 20, 2000) Additional photographs taken by astronauts can be viewed at NASA-JSC's Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth. Image ISS001-ESC-5025 provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center.

  15. Team Egypt! Integrating the Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwald, Amanda Welsh

    2000-01-01

    Describes a unit on Egypt used in an interdisciplinary curriculum that involves activities in social studies, art, science, language (Latin), and computers. Explains that each discipline is assessed separately in order to reward students' strengths. Highlights the benefits of interdisciplinary curricula. (CMK)

  16. Skeletal dysplasia in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Chahira

    2008-12-01

    The ancient Egyptian civilization lasted for over 3000 years and ended in 30 BCE. Many aspects of ancient Egyptian culture, including the existence of skeletal dysplasias, and in particular achondroplasia, are well known through the monuments and records that survived until modern times. The hot and dry climate in Egypt allowed for the preservation of bodies and skeletal anomalies. The oldest dwarf skeleton, the Badarian skeleton (4500 BCE), possibly represents an epiphyseal disorder. Among the remains of dwarfs with achondroplasia from ancient Egypt (2686-2190 BCE), exists a skeleton of a pregnant female, believed to have died during delivery with a baby's remains in situ. British museums have partial skeletons of dwarfs with achondroplasia, humeri probably affected with mucopolysaccharidoses, and a skeleton of a child with osteogenesis imperfecta. Skeletal dysplasia is also found among royal remains. The mummy of the pharaoh Siptah (1342-1197 BCE) shows a deformity of the left leg and foot. A mummified fetus, believed to be the daughter of king Tutankhamun, has scoliosis, spina bifida, and Sprengel deformity. In 2006 I reviewed the previously existing knowledge of dwarfism in ancient Egypt. The purpose of this second historical review is to add to that knowledge with an expanded contribution. The artistic documentation of people with skeletal dysplasia from ancient Egypt is plentiful including hundreds of amulets, statues, and drawing on tomb and temple walls. Examination of artistic reliefs provides a glance of the role of people with skeletal dysplasia and the societal attitudes toward them. Both artistic evidence and moral teachings in ancient Egypt reveal wide integration of individuals with disabilities into the society.

  17. Southern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    South-central Australia is home to several deserts, including the Simpson Desert, whose reddish-orange sands are seen in the upper left quadrant of this Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from July 1, 2002. Several impermanent, salty, lakes stand whitely out against the arid terrain. The largest is North Lake Eyre, southwest of center. At bottom center, Spencer Gulf separates the triangular Eyre Peninsula from the Yorke Peninsula. The Gulf of St. Vincent separates Yorke Peninsula from the mainland. In Spencer Gulf, colorful blue-green swirls indicate the presence of a bloom of marine plants called phytoplankton, whose brightly colored photosynthetic pigments stain the water. Water quality in the Gulf is an ongoing problem for Australia, as irrigation projects have diverted the already small flow of freshwater that empties into the Gulf. Other problems include contamination with pesticides and agricultural and residential fertilizer. On both the Eyre Peninsula and in the Victoria Territory to the east of Spencer Gulf, dark-colored rectangles show the boundaries of parks and nature preserves where the natural, drought-tolerant vegetation thrives.

  18. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-13

    visited Egypt, promising to “help Egypt deal with its economic challenges, including meeting immediate financial concerns, providing debt relief...MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT ...negotiating with Egypt the terms for obligating funds that have already been appropriated by Congress, such as up to $1 billion in bilateral debt

  19. Safsaf Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    These images show two views of a region of south-central Egypt, each taken by a different type of spaceborne sensor. On the left is an optical image from the Landsat Thematic Mapper, and on the right is a radar image from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). This comparison shows that the visible and infrared wavelengths of Landsat are only sensitive to the materials on the surface, while the radar wavelengths of SIR-C/X-SAR can penetrate the thin sand cover in this arid region to reveal details hidden below the surface. Field studies in this area indicate that the L-band radar can penetrate as much as 2 meters (6.5 feet) of very dry sand to image buried rock structures. Ancient drainage channels, shown at the bottom of this image, are filled with sand more than 2 meters (6.5 feet) thick and therefore appear dark because the radar waves cannot penetrate them. Only the most recently active channels are visible in the Landsat scene. Some geologic structures at the surface are visible in both images. However, many buried features, such as rock fractures and the blue circular granite bodies in the upper center of the image on the right, are visible only to the radar. The Safsaf Oasis is located near the bright yellow feature in the lower left center of the Landsat image. Scientists are using the penetrating capabilities of radar imaging in desert areas to study structural geology, mineral exploration, ancient climates, water resources and archaeology. Each image is 30.8 kilometers by 25.6 kilometers (19.1 miles by 15.9 miles) and is centered at 22.7 degrees north latitude, 29.3 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. In the Landsat image, the colors are assigned as follows: red is Band 7 (mid-infrared); green is Band 4 (near infrared); and blue is Band 1 (visible blue light). The colors assigned to the radar frequencies and polarizations are as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green

  20. Regional geothermal exploration in Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P.; Boulos, F. K.; Swanberg, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    A study is presented of the evaluation of the potential geothermal resources of Egypt using a thermal gradient/heat flow technique and a groundwater temperature/chemistry technique. Existing oil well bottom-hole temperature data, as well as subsurface temperature measurements in existing boreholes, were employed for the thermal gradient/heat flow investigation before special thermal gradient holes were drilled. The geographic range of the direct subsurface thermal measurements was extended by employing groundwater temperature and chemistry data. Results show the presence of a regional thermal high along the eastern margin of Egypt with a local thermal anomaly in this zone. It is suggested that the sandstones of the Nubian Formation may be a suitable reservoir for geothermal fluids. These findings indicate that temperatures of 150 C or higher may be found in this reservoir in the Gulf of Suez and Red Sea coastal zones where it lies at a depth of 4 km and deeper.

  1. Cataract surgery in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-03-01

    Ophthalmology was one of the most important specialties in Egyptian medicine, and more specialists are known in this field than in any other. This specialization seems, however, to have been of a purely noninvasive nature. Even though it has been claimed that cataract surgery was performed in pharaonic Egypt, careful analysis of the sources does not support the claim. No example of cataract surgery or of any other invasive ophthalmologic procedure can be found in the original sources.

  2. Abdominal Tuberculosis in Cairo, Egypt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    COW 03 PUBLICATION REPORT 94-30227 * ABDOMINAL TUBERCULOSIS IN CAIRO, BY RWIavni 0. IHibbs6 M. Kuanmm ad Z. Fun .Y .~ ... W I Form ApprovedREPORT...Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED 8 April 1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Abdominal Tuberculosis in Cairo...abdominal tuberculosis patients seen at Abbassia Fever Hospital in Cairo, Egypt from January 1990 to August 1992 are described; their mean age was 21.5

  3. Orthopedic surgery in ancient Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-01-01

    Background — Ancient Egypt might be considered the cradle of medicine. The modern literature is, however, sometimes rather too enthusiastic regarding the procedures that are attributed an Egyptian origin. I briefly present and analyze the claims regarding orthopedic surgery in Egypt, what was actually done by the Egyptians, and what may have been incorrectly ascribed to them. Methods — I reviewed the original sources and also the modern literature regarding surgery in ancient Egypt, concentrating especially on orthopedic surgery. Results — As is well known, both literary sources and the archaeological/osteological material bear witness to treatment of various fractures. The Egyptian painting, often claimed to depict the reduction of a dislocated shoulder according to Kocher’s method, is, however, open to interpretation. Therapeutic amputations are never depicted or mentioned in the literary sources, while the specimens suggested to demonstrate such amputations are not convincing. Interpretation — The ancient Egyptians certainly treated fractures of various kinds, and with varying degrees of success. Concerning the reductions of dislocated joints and therapeutic amputations, there is no clear evidence for the existence of such procedures. It would, however, be surprising if dislocations were not treated, even though they have not left traces in the surviving sources. Concerning amputations, the general level of Egyptian surgery makes it unlikely that limb amputations were done, even if they may possibly have been performed under extraordinary circumstances. PMID:25140982

  4. Astronomy Education Challenges in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Fady Beshara Morcos, Abd

    2015-08-01

    One of the major challenges in Egypt is the quality of education. Egypt has made significant progress towards achieving the Education for All and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Many associations and committees as education reform program and education support programs did high efforts in supporting scientific thinking through the scientific clubs. The current state of astronomical education in Egypt has been developed. Astronomy became a part in both science and geography courses of primary, preparatory and secondary stages. Nowadays the Egyptian National Committee for Astronomy, put on its shoulders the responsibility of revising of astronomy parts in the education courses, beside preparation of some training programs for teachers of different stages of educations, in collaboration with ministry of education. General lectures program has been prepared and started in public places , schools and universities. Many TV and Radio programs aiming to spread astronomical culture were presented. In the university stage new astronomy departments are established and astrophysics courses are imbedded in physics courses even in some private universities.

  5. Egypt: Beyond Pharaohs, Feluccas and Fellahin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Evelyn R.

    In a random study of five middle school social studies textbooks available for adoption in the state of Indiana in 1984, great variation in the treatment of Egypt was noted. Coverage of contemporary history was incomplete in all cases. All texts dealt with Egypt's ancient history, but what was reported was questionable. Only one text addressed in…

  6. Women--Sex Objects in Ancient Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutimer, Brian T. P.

    Although it has been said that the women in Ancient Egypt enjoyed a reasonable state of social and professional equality with men, this paper presents an alternate theory--that women were second-class citizens whose physical prowess was secondary to their role as sex objects. It appears that men and women in Ancient Egypt often participated in the…

  7. Gender, Sibship Composition, and Education in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tfaily, Rania

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between gender, sibship, and education over time in Egypt, focusing on how the number, sex, and birth order configuration of siblings affected boys' and girls' education during 1991-2008, a period characterized by significant social and economic changes in Egypt. This study disaggregates schooling into…

  8. Inclusiveness in Higher Education in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cupito, Emily; Langsten, Ray

    2011-01-01

    In Egypt, before 1952, education, especially higher education, was the province of a privileged few. After the 1952 Revolution, in pursuit of social justice and economic development, Egypt's leaders eliminated fees, instituted a universal admission examination, promised government employment to all graduates of higher education, and expanded the…

  9. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-12

    smuggling of illegal workers, prostitutes, and even Palestinian brides for grooms inside Gaza. It is not uncommon for Palestinian smugglers to bribe security...Egypt in a difficult diplomatic position. On the one hand, Egypt has attempted to symbolically support international efforts to alleviate the

  10. 75 FR 58353 - Business Development Mission to Egypt and Morocco

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... International Trade Administration Business Development Mission to Egypt and Morocco Mission Description The U.S... Business Development Mission to explore ports and infrastructure development opportunities in Egypt (Cairo... Eastern and Southern European markets. Commercial Setting Egypt Egypt is strategically located at...

  11. Medical revolution in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ballarin, V L; Isoardi, R A

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses the major Argentineans contributors, medical physicists and scientists, in medical imaging and the development of medical imaging in Argentina. The following are presented: history of medical imaging in Argentina: the pioneers; medical imaging and medical revolution; nuclear medicine imaging; ultrasound imaging; and mathematics, physics, and electronics in medical image research: a multidisciplinary endeavor.

  12. [Urinary schistosomiasis in ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Ziskind, Bernard

    2009-12-01

    First described by Theodor Bilharz in 1851, Schistosoma haematobium, the worm responsible for urinary schistosomiasis, was a major health problem along the Nile Valley until the present days. Haematuria, the main symptom of this parasitic disease, was known and treated in Egyptian medical papyri since 1550 B.C. A relationship between haematuria and the god Seth was envisaged. Sir Marc Armand Ruffer, pioneer of paleopathology, found (1910) calcified Schistosoma eggs in Egyptian mummies of the xxth dynasty, establishing that bilharzia plagued ancient Egypt people. The ELISA method demonstrated the Schistosoma circulating anodic antigen in 45% of mummies studied.

  13. Serious fungal infections in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Zaki, S M; Denning, D W

    2017-02-17

    We aimed to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Egypt, currently unknown, based on the size of the populations at risk and available epidemiological data. Data were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO), the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), and published reports with clearcut denominators. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology. The population of Egypt in 2011 was ∼82,500,000; 31% children, and 8% women >60 years of age. Amongst about 21.8 million women aged 15-50 years, recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (≥4 episodes/year) is estimated to occur in 1.3 million (3,169/100,000 females). Using a low international average rate of 5/100,000, we estimate 4,127 cases of candidaemia, and 619 patients with intra-abdominal candidiasis. Amongst the survivors of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Egypt in 2012, 319 new cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) are likely, a prevalence of 1,005 post-TB and a total prevalence estimate of 3,015 CPA patients in all. Asthma is common in Egypt, affecting 9.4% of adults, 5.35 million, and so ABPA and SAFS were estimated in around 162/100,000 and 214/100,000 respectively. Invasive aspergillosis is estimated to affect 495 patients following leukaemia therapy, there are an estimated 37 cases in renal and liver transplant recipients, and an estimated 132 patients develop IA in the context of lung cancer. Amongst 641,000 COPD admissions to hospital each year, 8,337 patients develop IA. The total HIV-infected population is small, with an estimated 6,500 patients, 2,500 not on antiretroviral therapy. Amongst HIV-infected patients, 38 (0.6%) cases of cryptococcal meningitis and 125 (1.9%) cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia are estimated each year. Fungal keratitis is common, with 28-55% (mean 40%) of corneal infections being fungal, an estimated total of 11,550 cases. The present study indicates

  14. Impact of Geoethics in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AbdelMakosud, kholoud Mohamed; Ezzat, Nada

    2016-04-01

    Geoethics, is a new term that could be unknown in the Arab world,where its translation in Arabic language make some kind of problems,with special emphasis on Egypt; spreading this term and the importance of it to professionals and un professionals is not an easy task.Culture and awareness problems face us on dealing with it. In this working paper the researchers study two levels of educational samples, the first one is of young geo-scientists and the other one is of young people of different disciplines to make over view survey (monitoring the base level) about knowing geoethics and another survey after applying some lectures and workshops to the same samples to monitor the second level. The aim of the research is to find out how people will accept this term and its application and how we can spread it through community with different effective ways. In Egypt there are some kind of culture problems could affect on spreading of any new concept, these problems could be overcome by some scientific, social and culture recommendations, these recommendations could be applied in both Arab countries and African Countries with few modifications.

  15. Dental surgery in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2013-01-01

    Many different surgical procedures have over the years been attributed to the ancient Egyptians. This is also true regarding the field of dental surgery. The existence of dentists in ancient Egypt is documented and several recipes exist concerning dental conditions. However, no indications of dental surgery are found in the medical papyri or in the visual arts. Regarding the osteological material/mummies, the possible indications of dental surgery are few and weak. There is not a single example of a clear tooth extraction, nor of a filling or of an artificial tooth. The suggested examples of evacuation of apical abscesses can be more readily explained as outflow sinuses. Regarding the suggested bridges, these are constituted of one find likely dating to the Old Kingdom, and one possibly, but perhaps more likely, dating to the Ptolemaic era. Both seem to be too weak to have served any possible practical purpose in a living patient, and the most likely explanation would be to consider them as a restoration performed during the mummification process. Thus, while a form of dentistry did certainly exist in ancient Egypt, there is today no evidence of dental surgery.

  16. Dengue reemergence in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Avilés, G; Rangeón, G; Vorndam, V; Briones, A; Baroni, P; Enria, D; Sabattini, M S

    1999-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, eradicated from Argentina in 1963, has now reinfested the country as far south as Buenos Aires. In 1997, four persons with travel histories to Brazil, Ecuador, or Venezuela had confirmed dengue, and surveillance for indigenous transmission allowed the detection of 19 dengue cases in Salta Province. These cases of dengue are the first in Argentina since 1916 and represent a new southern extension of dengue virus.

  17. Dengue reemergence in Argentina.

    PubMed Central

    Avilés, G.; Rangeón, G.; Vorndam, V.; Briones, A.; Baroni, P.; Enria, D.; Sabattini, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, eradicated from Argentina in 1963, has now reinfested the country as far south as Buenos Aires. In 1997, four persons with travel histories to Brazil, Ecuador, or Venezuela had confirmed dengue, and surveillance for indigenous transmission allowed the detection of 19 dengue cases in Salta Province. These cases of dengue are the first in Argentina since 1916 and represent a new southern extension of dengue virus. PMID:10460181

  18. Area Handbook Series: Egypt: A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    has been unable to prevent young Coptic Christians from acting on their own to counter acts of violence against their religious centers and property...Party, and the Young Egypt (Misr al Fatah) Party became eligible to run for election. The Supreme Administrative Court rejected, however, the...state with an increase in the power of these provincial lords , particular- ly in Upper Egypt. The Old Kingdom ended when the central administration col

  19. 77 FR 71777 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait AGENCY: International Trade Administration... Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 33439, June 6, 2012 to revise... Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 33439, June 6, 2012. Due to...

  20. Children's Television in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, John P.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews developments in the television industry in Australia with specific reference to children's television. Advertising regulations and research and publications related to children's television are also noted. (RAO)

  1. Asbestos banned in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Eduardo J

    2004-01-01

    In 1997, Argentina gave priority to asbestos in its National Plan for the Sound Management of Chemicals, and it was the subject of a Technical Task Force on Occupational Cancer. After five years of public hearings in which government, workers, industry advocates, environmentalists, clinicians, scientists, and consumers participated, it was agreed that asbestos exposure is a risk factor for both workers and the general population, and that Argentina should provide to its people the same protections adopted by many developed countries. Pressure from asbestos industry groups initially delayed the inclusion of chrysotile asbestos in the proposed ban, but on January 1, 2003, the mining and import of all forms of asbestos were banned in Argentina.

  2. Photovoltaic development in Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrin, E.M.; Duran, J.C.; Frigerio, A.; Moragues, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    A critical assessment of the photovoltaic program in Argentina is presented. Research and development activities on photovoltaic cells as well as industrial and technological development are still in the initial stages. Activities accomplished by the Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) and the Institute of Technology Development for the Chemical industry (INTEC) are briefly described. The evolution of photovoltaic installations in Argentina is analyzed and accumulative data up to 1993 are given. A summary of the potential market for photovoltaic systems in the short and medium term is presented.

  3. Diphtheria immunity status in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Redwan, El-Rashdy M; El-Awady, Mostafa K

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine immune status to corynebacterium diphtheria by screening for protective antibodies in a sample of Egyptian population. The study population consisted of 709 healthy subjects aged from 2 months to 105 years, inhabitants of 6 regions of Egypt. The study utilized Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure serum levels IgG antibodies reactive with diphtheria toxoid. Levels of diphtheria toxoid antibody > or = 0.1 IU/ ml were defined as immune/protected, 23.9 % of the population were found to be susceptible to diphtheria (IgG level < 0.01 IU/ml), 43% had basic protection (0.01-0.09 IU/ml), and 33.1% were fully protected (0.1 IU/ml). The results revealed that serum levels of antitoxin antibodies decreased in old ages (< 60 y) with the females being more susceptible then males. These results recommend a booster immunization for the susceptible age groups.

  4. Northeast Egypt as seen from STS-58

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This oblique view, looking northeast from central Egypt, shows great expanses of the sand covered and rocky Western Desert in the foreground (bottom). The dark patches bottom right are the Dakhla Oases on the south side of an escarpment. The northern half of Egypt's Nile appears here, from about the latitude of Luxor to the delta. Green colors indicate the small area of crops which feed Egypt's population of 55 million. The Nile Delta is partly obscured by a band of clouds, but can be discerned at the coast as a flattened triangle of green. The smaller triangle close by is the Falyum Basin, a depression irrigated by water from the Nile. The coast of the Mediterranean Sea appears left.

  5. Women's position and family planning in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Govindasamy, P; Malhotra, A

    1996-01-01

    In this report, data from the 1988 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey are used to address some of the most frequently raised questions about the relationship between gender inequality and reproductive behavior. The findings from binomial and multinomial logit models show that while the relationship between women's position and fertility control in Egypt is complex, some clear, broad patterns exist that have important theoretical and policy implications. First, although women's status in Egypt is clearly multidimensional, the reproductive aspect of women's position has a strong connection with the nonreproductive dimensions. Second, the case of the continued use of education and employment as proxies of women's position, especially in relationship to fertility control, is considerably discredited by the results. Finally, the findings indicate that Egyptian culture supports gender equality in the form of interaction and negotiation rather than women's autonomy.

  6. Handbook on Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    A study unit on Australia for secondary students is divided into eight sections. Section 1 introduces students to the states, territories, and capitals of the country. Section two, land and people, discusses the size, location, geology, climate, flora and fauna, and population of Australia. Sections 3 and 4 outline Australian history and include…

  7. Australia's earliest planispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, W.

    2003-12-01

    Australia's earliest-known planispheres were made by a Sydney amateur astronomer named George Butterfield in 1870 and 1877, although a similar but more crudely-made 'noctural dial' was created by Philip Parker King in 1852. This paper discusses these pioneering endeavours, other nineteenth century attempts to popularise astronomy, and the prevailing astronomical climate in Australia at that time.

  8. Online Training in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzic, Joze

    2013-01-01

    On-line training is becoming an interesting phenomenon in Australia and has attracted a lot of interest across many industries and businesses (Chan and Ngai, 2007). The research reported here looks at the use of online training in corporations in Australia. It focuses on two aspects of online training, the factors that "warrant" its…

  9. Community Music in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a historical perspective to the development of community music in Australia. Finding political support in Australia's progressive arts policies of the late 1970s, community music is discussed as embracing the principles of access and equity and supporting the development of musical skills in the context of social change and…

  10. Tidal power in Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Aisiks, E.G.

    1993-03-01

    This presentation describes the tidal power potential of Argentina and the current status of its utilization. The topics of the presentation include tidal power potential, electric production of the region and the Argentine share of production and consumption, conventional hydroelectric potential, economic feasibility of tidal power production, and the general design and feasibility of a tidal power plant planned for the San Jose Gulf.

  11. Mathematics Education in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varsavsky, Cristina; Anaya, Marta

    2009-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the state of mathematics education in Argentina across all levels, in the regional and world contexts. Statistics are drawn from Mercosur and UNESCO data bases, World Education Indicators and various national time-series government reports. Mathematics results in national testing programmes, Programme for…

  12. New primate fossils from late Oligocene (Colhuehuapian) localities of Chubut Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Fleagle, J G; Bown, T M

    1983-01-01

    New primate fossils have been recovered from the late Oligocene (Colhuehuapian) localities of Gaiman and Sacanana in Patagonian Argentina. The new fossils are provisionally allocated to Dolichocebus gaimanensis and Tremacebus harringtoni, the only primates previously described from these localities. These new dental remains are more primitive than the teeth of any previously known platyrrhines, living or fossil, and conform extremely well with the hypothetical ancestral morphotype for New World monkeys suggested by several authors. They are also very similar to the teeth of Oligocene catarrhines from Egypt such as Aegyptopithecus zeuxis.

  13. English Teaching Profile: Arab Republic of Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This profile of the English language teaching situation in Egypt examines the role of English in society and in the educational system. The status of English as the main foreign language and as the medium of instruction in a small number of influential schools is discussed as well as the extent and content of the university English course. Also…

  14. Toward replacement fertility in Egypt and Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Eltigani, Eltigani E

    2009-09-01

    Egypt and Tunisia began their fertility transition at almost identical fertility levels and at roughly the same time period, yet the difference in the pace of decline has been such that the total fertility rate (TFR) in Tunisia reached replacement level by the year 2001, whereas the TFR in Egypt remains above three live births per woman. This article draws on the secondary literature and on several nationally representative surveys from the two countries between 1978 and 2005 to provide empirical evidence of the difference in the pace of fertility decline and to analyze the determinants of the differential. Findings include (a) variation across the two countries in the consistency of fertility decline among the segments of the population leading the transition; (b) that the success of each country's family planning program was influenced by the role of political leaders and the extent of the program's integration within socioeconomic development objectives; (c) that the impact of contraception on TFR decline became an important factor in the mid-1980s; and (d) that the greatest determinant of the discrepancy in the pace of fertility decline is the disparity in age at marriage, which rose more significantly in Tunisia than in Egypt. The latter finding indicates that reaching replacement fertility in Egypt hinges primarily on further declines in marital fertility, resulting from reduction of wanted fertility and from an expansion of family planning program coverage and improved efficiency of service delivery and use.

  15. Detection of Strawberry Viruses in Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of a USAID-MERC funded project, ‘Disease-indexing and mass propagation of superior strawberry cultivars’, an effort was made to evaluate the virus status of strawberries in Egypt. Diagnostic reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests for Strawberry mottle, Strawberry cri...

  16. Earth's motions in pharaonic Egypt: Religious interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jambon, Emmanuel

    This paper will deal with the representations of the earth's movements in pharaonic Egypt. At first, testimonies of an ancient literary pattern, the "sky and earth" figure, will be observed, and then, the pictures where earth is represented "alone". We will explore the different ways the Egyptians depicted and interpreted this phenomena through various texts.

  17. Women's "Justification" of Domestic Violence in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yount, Kathryn M.; Li, Li

    2009-01-01

    We explored the influences of women's social learning, marital resources and constraints, and exposure to norms about women's family roles on their views about wife hitting or beating among 5,450 participants in the 2005 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey. One half justified wife hitting or beating for some reason. Women from rural areas who were…

  18. Reading Habits of Adults in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Alice M.; Zikri, Lawrence B.

    Investigating the reading habits of adults in Egypt, East Africa, a study examined 294 Egyptians (233 males and 61 females) in post-secondary education in Cairo, and in the industrial cities of Shopra El-Khema, and Impapa, El-Giza. Marital status, sex, and occupation were used to group the subjects. Subjects completed a 29-item questionnaire…

  19. Multicenter study of brucellosis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Samaha, Hassan; Al-Rowaily, Meshref; Khoudair, Ramadan M; Ashour, Hossam M

    2008-12-01

    Brucellosis causes appreciable economic losses in livestock. Examination of milk and tissues from animals in Egypt for Brucella spp. showed increased prevalence rates of serologically reactive animals. All isolates were B. melitensis biovar 3. One Brucella sp. was isolated from milk of serologically nonreactive buffaloes.

  20. Journey to Egypt: A Board Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selvidge, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    This author describes how her elementary students first became interested in studying ancient Egypt. Her students' interest in the ancient Egyptian studies began when a student checked out a library book on Egyptology that contained colorful images and was soon swarmed by interested classmates. Many of her students began practicing writing…

  1. Censorship and Security Agents Pervade Egypt's Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a glimpse into one of the many ways in which the Egyptian government and the campus administrators it appoints are slowly and persistently squeezing the life out of universities in Cairo, Egypt. Classroom discussions are monitored, faculty appointments and academic research are scrutinized, and faculty participation in outside…

  2. Megaliths and Neolithic astronomy in southern Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malville, J. Mckim; Wendorf, Fred; Mazar, Ali A.; Schild, Romauld

    1998-04-01

    The Sahara west of the Nile in southern Egypt was hyperarid and unoccupied during most of the Late Pleistocene epoch. About 11,000 years ago the summer monsoons of central Africa moved into Egypt, and temporary lakes or playas were formed. The Nabta Playa depression, which is one of the largest in southern Egypt, is a kidney-shaped basin of roughly 10km by 7km in area. We report the discovery of megalithic alignments and stone circles next to locations of Middle and Late Neolithic communities at Nabta, which suggest the early development of a complex society. The southward shift of the monsoons in the Late Neolithic age rendered the area once again hyperarid and uninhabitable some 4,800 radiocarbon years before the present (years BP). This well-determined date establishes that the ceremonial complex of Nabta, which has alignments to cardinal and solstitial directions, was a very early megalithic expression of ideology and astronomy. Five megalithic alignments within the playa deposits radiate outwards from megalithic structures, which may have been funerary structures. The organization of the megaliths suggests a symbolic geometry that integrated death, water, and the Sun. An exodus from the Nubian Desert at ~4,800 years BP may have stimulated social differentiation and cultural complexity in predynastic Upper Egypt.

  3. Review of Parasitic Zoonoses in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Ahmed I.; Uga, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive picture of the zoonotic parasitic diseases in Egypt, with particular reference to their relative prevalence among humans, animal reservoirs of infection, and sources of human infection. A review of the available literature indicates that many parasitic zoonoses are endemic in Egypt. Intestinal infections of parasitic zoonoses are widespread and are the leading cause of diarrhea, particularly among children and residents of rural areas. Some parasitic zoonoses are confined to specific geographic areas in Egypt, such as cutaneous leishmaniasis and zoonotic babesiosis in the Sinai. Other areas have a past history of a certain parasitic zoonoses, such as visceral leishmaniasis in the El-Agamy area in Alexandria. As a result of the implementation of control programs, a marked decrease in the prevalence of other zoonoses, such as schistosomiasis and fascioliasis has been observed. Animal reservoirs of parasitic zoonoses have been identified in Egypt, especially in rodents, stray dogs and cats, as well as vectors, typically mosquitoes and ticks, which constitute potential risks for disease transmission. Prevention and control programs against sources and reservoirs of zoonoses should be planned by public health and veterinary officers based on reliable information from systematic surveillance. PMID:24808742

  4. Video Usage in Egypt: Limits and Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Fawal, Nagwa Amin

    A review of research conducted in Egypt to assess the impact of videocassette recorders (VCRs) on society and on other communication media indicates that the use of VCRs--a new phenomenon in mass communication in that country--has been accelerating over the past five years as more people have been gradually exposed to the advantages of unlimited…

  5. Special Education in Egypt: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghobrial, Talaat Mansour; Vance, H. Robert

    During the past three decades, there has been a growing concern for handicapped children and youth in Egypt. Current legislation recognizes the rights of the handicapped, and the Egyptian government supports the care, education, rehabilitation, and personal/social adjustment of handicapped citizens. The responsibility for the disabled is divided…

  6. Directory of Adult Education Agencies in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Bashary, Ahmed, Comp.

    The directory of Adult Education Agencies in Egypt is a listing of six different types of organizations: national bodies and central agencies; teachers' training institutes and research institutions; adult education institutions (governmental); adult education institutions (non-governmental); central libraries and documentation centers; and…

  7. Argentina: OGJ special

    SciTech Connect

    Aalund, L.R.

    1995-02-13

    The deregulation and privatization of major Argentine industries has set off a boom in the oil industry, which is now open from exploration and production through basic petrochemicals and beyond, to anyone from anywhere. The quest for greater efficiency and application of advanced technology is now the order of the day. The author reports that Argentina is like a new world compared to the country he visited during assignments there in 1987 and 1991. What hasn't changed, his following articles show, is that YPF, the former state company, is still the dominant player though it has sold off billions in assets. The three articles in this special report are: privatization of state company catalyzes Argentina oil industry; YPF refineries aiming for world class operations; and YPF launches diverse attack in pursuit of production. An additional brief report is given on YPF executives.

  8. Rickettsia parkeri Rickettsiosis, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Seijo, Alfredo C.; Crudo, Favio; Nicholson, William L.; Varela-Stokes, Andrea; Lash, R. Ryan; Paddock, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    Rickettsia parkeri, a recently identified cause of spotted fever rickettsiosis in the United States, has been found in Amblyomma triste ticks in several countries of South America, including Argentina, where it is believed to cause disease in humans. We describe the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of 2 patients in Argentina with confirmed R. parkeri infection and 7 additional patients with suspected R. parkeri rickettsiosis identified at 1 hospital during 2004–2009. The frequency and character of clinical signs and symptoms among these 9 patients closely resembled those described for patients in the United States (presence of an inoculation eschar, maculopapular rash often associated with pustules or vesicles, infrequent gastrointestinal manifestations, and relatively benign clinical course). Many R. parkeri infections in South America are likely to be misdiagnosed as other infectious diseases, including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, dengue, or leptospirosis. PMID:21762568

  9. MOBILESAT: Australia's own

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagg, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Australia will be introducing a dedicated Mobile Satellite Communications System following the launch of the AUSSAT-B satellites late in 1991. The Mobile Satellite System, MOBILESAT, will provide circuit switched voice/data services and packet-switched data services for land, aeronautical and maritime users. Here, an overview is given of the development program being undertaken within Australia to enable a fully commercial service to be introduced in 1992.

  10. Argentina corn yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate corn yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the corn-growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1965 to 1980 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

  11. Argentina wheat yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    Five models based on multiple regression were developed to estimate wheat yields for the five wheat growing provinces of Argentina. Meteorological data sets were obtained for each province by averaging data for stations within each province. Predictor variables for the models were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. Buenos Aires was the only province for which a trend variable was included because of increasing trend in yield due to technology from 1950 to 1963.

  12. Argentina soybean yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate soybean yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the soybean growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation and monthly average temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1969 to 1978 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

  13. Argentina: A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-17

    Forundizi stayed in office until March 29, 1962. Skillfully, Frondizi managed partially to revive the economy and set the country on the road toward... Frondizi could not win the support of all sections of the population for a concentrated effort of austerity to save Argentina’s economy from the chaos it...make sacrifices. Frondizi came to grief when the reinstated Peronist Party won control of several provinces and increased its membership in congress in

  14. Management of Disused Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt - 13512

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, Y.T.; Hasan, M.A.; Lasheen, Y.F.

    2013-07-01

    The future safe development of nuclear energy and progressive increasing use of sealed sources in medicine, research, industry and other fields in Egypt depends on the safe and secure management of disused radioactive sealed sources. In the past years have determined the necessity to formulate and apply the integrated management program for radioactive sealed sources to assure harmless and ecological rational management of disused sealed sources in Egypt. The waste management system in Egypt comprises operational and regulatory capabilities. Both of these activities are performed under legislations. The Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center HLWMC, is considered as a centralized radioactive waste management facility in Egypt by law 7/2010. (authors)

  15. Radiocarbon-based chronology for dynastic Egypt.

    PubMed

    Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Dee, Michael W; Rowland, Joanne M; Higham, Thomas F G; Harris, Stephen A; Brock, Fiona; Quiles, Anita; Wild, Eva M; Marcus, Ezra S; Shortland, Andrew J

    2010-06-18

    The historical chronologies for dynastic Egypt are based on reign lengths inferred from written and archaeological evidence. These floating chronologies are linked to the absolute calendar by a few ancient astronomical observations, which remain a source of debate. We used 211 radiocarbon measurements made on samples from short-lived plants, together with a Bayesian model incorporating historical information on reign lengths, to produce a chronology for dynastic Egypt. A small offset (19 radiocarbon years older) in radiocarbon levels in the Nile Valley is probably a growing-season effect. Our radiocarbon data indicate that the New Kingdom started between 1570 and 1544 B.C.E., and the reign of Djoser in the Old Kingdom started between 2691 and 2625 B.C.E.; both cases are earlier than some previous historical estimates.

  16. Ostrich (Struthio camelus) production in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R G; Mahrose, K M A; El-Shafei, M; Marai, I F M

    2008-06-01

    This review discusses the historical, developmental and practices of ostrich farming in Egypt. In the early 20th century, ostrich farming was very important for production of ostrich feathers and documents were produced to perfect the art of procuring the plumes from the birds and subsequently processing them. Pharaohs used ostrich feathers for adornment. Of 43 provinces, 12 were featured in 2003-2004 as farming ostriches: Alexandria, Al-Behera, Al-Dakahlia, Al-Wadi Al-Gadid, Aswan, Cairo, El-Sharkia, Geiza, Ismailia, Kafr-El-Sheikh, Matrouh and Nubaria. Abattoirs and tanneries specialising in ostrich handling are limited to two. Egypt has numerous strengths and opportunities to develop its ostrich sector. Rising meat prices suggest that fresh ostrich meat is unaffordable to many locals. Funds may be allocated to local advertising campaigns to promote ostrich meat; provision of incentives to farmers; and improving the capacity of abattoirs.

  17. Dental health and disease in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Forshaw, R J

    2009-04-25

    In ancient Egypt the exceptionally dry climate together with the unique burial customs has resulted in the survival of large numbers of well-preserved skeletal and mummified remains. Examinations of these remains together with an analysis of the surviving documentary, archaeological and ethnographic evidence has enabled a detailed picture of the dental health of these ancient people to be revealed, perhaps more so than for any other civilisation in antiquity. In this, the first of two articles, the dental pathological conditions that afflicted the ancient Egyptians is considered. The commonest finding is that of tooth wear, which was often so excessive that it resulted in pulpal exposure. Multiple abscesses were frequently seen, but caries was not a significant problem. Overall the findings indicate that the various pathological conditions and non-pathological abnormalities of teeth evident in dentitions in the twenty-first century were also manifest in ancient Egypt, although the incidences of these conditions varies considerably between the civilisations.

  18. [Concepts of the heart in Ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Ziskind, Bernard; Halioua, Bruno

    2004-03-01

    The heart was regarded in Ancient Egypt as the organic motor of the body and also the seat of intelligence, an important religious and spiritual symbol. It was considered as one of the eight parts of human body. Counter to other organs it had to be kept carefully intact in the mummy to ensure its eternal life. In Ancient Egypt, the concept of heart included three constituents: heart-haty, heart-ib, and the spiritual seat of intelligence, emotion and memory. The hieroglyphs representing the heart early in the first dynasty were drawn with eight vessels attached to it. Egyptian doctors have elaborated an original conception of cardiovascular physiology which endured 30 centuries.

  19. Benchmarking performance: Environmental impact statements in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Badr, El-Sayed A.; Zahran, Ashraf A.; Cashmore, Matthew

    2011-04-15

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) was formally introduced in Egypt in 1994. This short paper evaluates 'how well' the EIA process is working in practice in Egypt, by reviewing the quality of 45 environmental impact statements (EISs) produced between 2000 and 2007 for a variety of project types. The Lee and Colley review package was used to assess the quality of the selected EISs. About 69% of the EISs sampled were found to be of a satisfactory quality. An assessment of the performance of different elements of the EIA process indicates that descriptive tasks tend to be performed better than scientific tasks. The quality of core elements of EIA (e.g., impact prediction, significance evaluation, scoping and consideration of alternatives) appears to be particularly problematic. Variables that influence the quality of EISs are identified and a number of broad recommendations are made for improving the effectiveness of the EIA system.

  20. First evidence of enterobiasis in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Horne, P D

    2002-10-01

    The oldest and most common parasite for which we have direct evidence, in the New World, is Enterobius vernicularis. Numerous archaeological sites, especially in the arid American southwest, have yielded fecal samples positive for pinworm ova, some of these dating back 10,000 yr. Reports of pinworm from the Old World are scarce. This article reports the first evidence of pinworm infection from Roman-occupied (30 BC-AD 395) Egypt.

  1. Living donor liver transplantation in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Marwan, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt there is no doubt that chronic liver diseases are a major health concern. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence among the 15−59 years age group is estimated to be 14.7%. The high prevalence of chronic liver diseases has led to increasing numbers of Egyptian patients suffering from end stage liver disease (ESLD), necessitating liver transplantation (LT). We reviewed the evolution of LT in Egypt and the current status. A single center was chosen as an example to review the survival and mortality rates. To date, deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) has not been implemented in any program though Egyptian Parliament approved the law in 2010. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) seemed to be the only logical choice to save many patients who are in desperate need for LT. By that time, there was increase in number of centers doing LDLT (13 centers) and increase in number of LDLT cases [2,400] with improvement of the results. Donor mortality rate is 1.66 per 1,000 donors; this comprised four donors in the Egyptian series. The exact recipient survival is not accurately known however, and the one-year, three-year and five-year survival were 73.17%, 70.83% and 64.16% respectively in the International Medical Center (IMC) in a series of 145 adult to adult living donor liver transplantation (AALDLT) cases. There was no donor mortality in this series. LDLT are now routinely and successfully performed in Egypt with reasonable donor and recipient outcomes. Organ shortage remains the biggest hurdle facing the increasing need for LT. Although LDLT had reasonable outcomes, it carries considerable risks to healthy donors. For example, it lacks cadaveric back up, and is not feasible for all patients. The initial success in LDLT should drive efforts to increase the people awareness about deceased organ donation in Egypt. PMID:27115003

  2. Living donor liver transplantation in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Amer, Khaled E; Marwan, Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    In Egypt there is no doubt that chronic liver diseases are a major health concern. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence among the 15-59 years age group is estimated to be 14.7%. The high prevalence of chronic liver diseases has led to increasing numbers of Egyptian patients suffering from end stage liver disease (ESLD), necessitating liver transplantation (LT). We reviewed the evolution of LT in Egypt and the current status. A single center was chosen as an example to review the survival and mortality rates. To date, deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) has not been implemented in any program though Egyptian Parliament approved the law in 2010. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) seemed to be the only logical choice to save many patients who are in desperate need for LT. By that time, there was increase in number of centers doing LDLT (13 centers) and increase in number of LDLT cases [2,400] with improvement of the results. Donor mortality rate is 1.66 per 1,000 donors; this comprised four donors in the Egyptian series. The exact recipient survival is not accurately known however, and the one-year, three-year and five-year survival were 73.17%, 70.83% and 64.16% respectively in the International Medical Center (IMC) in a series of 145 adult to adult living donor liver transplantation (AALDLT) cases. There was no donor mortality in this series. LDLT are now routinely and successfully performed in Egypt with reasonable donor and recipient outcomes. Organ shortage remains the biggest hurdle facing the increasing need for LT. Although LDLT had reasonable outcomes, it carries considerable risks to healthy donors. For example, it lacks cadaveric back up, and is not feasible for all patients. The initial success in LDLT should drive efforts to increase the people awareness about deceased organ donation in Egypt.

  3. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-08

    December 6, 2005, U.S. State Department Deputy Spokesman Adam Ereli remarked that “We’ve also seen a number of developments over the past couple weeks...when Egypt hosted the signing of an Israeli-Palestinian agreement for implementing past commitments and meetings between then Secretary of State...Mubarak. Over the past several years, Mubarak’s forty-one year old son, Gamal, increasingly has become involved at the highest levels of the NDP, though

  4. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-27

    Egypt from sliding into a dark tunnel of conflict, internal fighting, criminality, accusations of treason, sectarian discord and the collapse of state...order to assist exports18 and tourism , the Central Bank has tried to manage the gradual devaluation of the currency (Egyptian Pound), which has slid...have the travel ban on the Americans who remained at the U.S. Embassy in Cairo lifted. Reportedly, U.S. officials and lawmakers threatened not only

  5. Nile River, Lake Nasser, Aswan Dam, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Egypt's High Aswan Dam on the Nile River at the first cataracts, Nile River, (24.0N, 33.0E) was completed in 1971 to provide cheap hydroelectric power and to regulate the historically uneven flow of the Nile River. The contrast between the largely base rock desert east of the Nile versus the sand covered desert west of the river and the ancient irrigated floodplain downstream from the damsite is clearly shown.

  6. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-19

    Saudi Arabia as countries that “have a great distance still to travel” in making democratic reforms. Egyptian Foreign Minister Ahmed Abul Gheit...Egypt’s Inshas reactor and providing them to agents of Israel’s Mossad intelligence service in return for $17,000. Earlier in the year, Egypt asked the...genocide,” and has denounced the U.S. imposition of sanctions on the Sudanese government. According to Egyptian Foreign Minister Ahmed Abul Gheit, “Sanctions

  7. Integrated Human Futures Modeling in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Passell, Howard D.; Aamir, Munaf Syed; Bernard, Michael Lewis; Beyeler, Walter E.; Fellner, Karen Marie; Hayden, Nancy Kay; Jeffers, Robert Fredric; Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Mitchell, Michael David; Silver, Emily; Tidwell, Vincent C.; Villa, Daniel; Vugrin, Eric D.; Engelke, Peter; Burrow, Mat; Keith, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Human Futures Project provides a set of analytical and quantitative modeling and simulation tools that help explore the links among human social, economic, and ecological conditions, human resilience, conflict, and peace, and allows users to simulate tradeoffs and consequences associated with different future development and mitigation scenarios. In the current study, we integrate five distinct modeling platforms to simulate the potential risk of social unrest in Egypt resulting from the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile in Ethiopia. The five platforms simulate hydrology, agriculture, economy, human ecology, and human psychology/behavior, and show how impacts derived from development initiatives in one sector (e.g., hydrology) might ripple through to affect other sectors and how development and security concerns may be triggered across the region. This approach evaluates potential consequences, intended and unintended, associated with strategic policy actions that span the development-security nexus at the national, regional, and international levels. Model results are not intended to provide explicit predictions, but rather to provide system-level insight for policy makers into the dynamics among these interacting sectors, and to demonstrate an approach to evaluating short- and long-term policy trade-offs across different policy domains and stakeholders. The GERD project is critical to government-planned development efforts in Ethiopia but is expected to reduce downstream freshwater availability in the Nile Basin, fueling fears of negative social and economic impacts that could threaten stability and security in Egypt. We tested these hypotheses and came to the following preliminary conclusions. First, the GERD will have an important short-term impact on water availability, food production, and hydropower production in Egypt, depending on the short- term reservoir fill rate. Second, the GERD will have a very small impact on

  8. Lyme borreliosis: A neglected zoonosis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elhelw, Rehab A; El-Enbaawy, Mona I; Samir, Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causal organism of Lyme borreliosis. In Egypt, available data about the occurrence of Lyme disease are scarce and no structured studies documented the presence of Lyme borreliosis in Egyptian animals and tick reservoirs verifying its zoonotic evidence. Besides, no successful trials to isolate B. burgdorferi from clinical samples have occurred. This study was conducted to investigate B. burgdorferi infection as an emerging zoonosis neglected in Egypt. A total number of 92 animals, tick and human companion specimens were collected and subjected for culture, PCR and/or serodetection. B. burgdorferi has been detected and isolated from Egyptian animal breeds. We also detected the presence of outer surface protein A gene of B. burgdorferi by PCR as well as anti-B. burgdorferi IgM by ELISA in human contacts who were suffering from fever of unknown origin. This report represents the first systematic study on animals associated with patients suffering from febrile illness to confirm the emerging of such neglected zoonosis in Egypt.

  9. Salmonella enteritidis in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Caffer, M I; Eiguer, T

    1994-01-01

    A significant increase in the number of isolations of Salmonella enteritidis has been observed in Argentina since 1986. Outbreaks of foodborne diseases in humans were associated with the consumption of raw or undercooked hens' eggs. Between 1986 and the first 6 months of 1993 there were 150 outbreaks reported, affecting more than 6000 persons. A total of 71.3% of these outbreaks were confirmed by stool cultures, and 47.3% by bacteriological study of the food implicated in the outbreak. A permanent surveillance of salmonellosis is imperative, taking into account the persistence of Salmonella enteritidis isolations in sporadic cases and in new outbreaks.

  10. Australia's polio risk.

    PubMed

    Martin, Nicolee; Paterson, Beverley J; Durrheim, David N

    2014-06-30

    Australia, like all polio-free countries and regions, remains at risk of a wild poliovirus importation until polio is eradicated globally. The most probable route of importation will be through a traveller arriving in Australia either by air or sea from a polio-endemic or re-infected country. While the overall risk of an imported wild poliovirus infection leading to transmission within Australia is assessed as being low, some areas of the country have been identified as at increased risk. Local areas with relatively high arrivals from polio endemic countries, areas of low vaccination coverage and the potential for transmission to occur when these 2 factors are combined, were identified by this review as Australia's main polio risk. The risk of an importation event leading to locally acquired cases is mitigated by generally high polio vaccination coverage in Australia. This high coverage extends to residents of the Torres Strait Islands who are in close proximity to Papua New Guinea, a country identified as at high risk of poliovirus transmission should an importation occur. In 2012, all states and territories had vaccination coverage of greater than 90% at 1 year of age and all exceeded 93% at 2 years of age. Population immunity to wild poliovirus type 1, which remains the major cause of paralysis globally, has been estimated at 82%. This is sufficient to prevent outbreaks of this type in Australia. Of the 211 eligible non-polio acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases classified between 2008 and 2011, 91% (193) were vaccinated against polio at least once. High quality surveillance for AFP, which is supplemented by sentinel enterovirus and environmental surveillance activities, gives confidence that an imported case would be detected and appropriate public health action would ensue.

  11. Cyclone Chris Hits Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This false-color image shows Cyclone Chris shortly after it hit Australia's northwestern coast on February 6, 2002. This scene was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. (Please note that this scene has not been reprojected.) Cyclone Chris is one of the most powerful storms ever to hit Australia. Initially, the storm contained wind gusts of up to 200 km per hour (125 mph), but shortly after making landfall it weakened to a Category 4 storm. Meteorologists expect the cyclone to weaken quickly as it moves further inland.

  12. Cultural Diversity or Cultural Imperialism: Liberal Education in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanks, David R.

    1998-01-01

    A faculty member's experience at the American University in Cairo (Egypt) reveals that pluralism and tolerance are western concepts, even within the college curriculum. National identity affords cultural stability: where the American melting-pot experience is reinforced by the notion of cultural diversity, the national identity of Egypt is…

  13. Integrate the Arts. The Art of Ancient Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Mary

    1996-01-01

    Presents three art projects that can bring to life the study of ancient Egypt for elementary students. After researching Egypt's history and culture, students can create King Tut masks, make Cleopatra headdresses, and craft cartouche pendants. The article describes the materials needed and steps required to complete each project. (SM)

  14. Power and Gender in Ancient Egypt: The Case of Hatshepsut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Kristina; Wurtzel, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Hatshepsut (1479-1458 B.C.E) ruled New Kingdom Egypt for roughly 20 years as one of the few female pharaohs in the history of ancient Egypt. Her rule began when her husband died and her stepson was too young to be pharaoh. To legitimize her role as pharaoh, Hatshepsut began a significant building campaign by constructing numerous images, temples,…

  15. Technologies Applied in the Toshka Project of Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahby, Wafeek S.

    2004-01-01

    The Toshka Project, located in Egypt, involves excavating a canal to carry about 380 billion ft[supercript 3] of water every year from Lake Nasser to the Toshka Depression, southwest of Aswan. This will eventually create a new valley to the River Nile in the western desert of Egypt in addition to the currently existing prehistoric river course.…

  16. Tech Talk for Social Studies Teachers: Ancient Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 10 Web sites concerning ancient Egypt that have materials appropriate for social studies classes. Includes virtual tours of Egypt and specific temples, explorations of the pyramids, archaeological and geographic information, and information on the Egyptian "Book of the Dead." (MJP)

  17. Resource Unit on Egypt for the Intermediate Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husbands, Kenneth; Taylor, Bob

    Resources for teaching about modern and ancient Egypt are provided in this guide for intermediate grade social studies teachers. Material includes: a detailed outline for a unit on Egypt which contains a geographic overview followed by sections on the Nile River Valley, agriculture, the pharaohs, religion, architecture, science, hieroglyphics,…

  18. A SURVEY OF CYST NEMATODES (HETERODERA SPP.) IN NORTHERN EGYPT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) in Egypt is important to assess their potential to cause economic damage to crop plants. A nematode survey was conducted in Alexandria and El-Behera Governorates in northern Egypt to identify the species of cy...

  19. Student Academic Freedom in Egypt: Perceptions of University Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zain-Al-Dien, Muhammad M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate student academic freedom from the university education students' point of view in Egypt. This study adopted a survey research design in which the questionnaire was the main data collection instrument. The study participants comprised 800 university education students in Egypt. The result of the…

  20. Separate but Equal: Segregated Religious Education in Egypt's Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, John

    2012-01-01

    The Arab Spring exposed the hidden secrets of Egyptian society to the global community. In spite of the insatiable media attention paid to the Mubarak regime and the toll it took on the entire country, Egypt's education system received little attention. For decades, Egypt's public schools have forced students to attend segregated classes, based on…

  1. Teaching about Australia. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Warren R.

    Many reasons can be offered for teaching about Australia. The field of Australian studies offers many opportunities for U.S. teachers and students to critically analyze aspects of their own culture, for there are many experiences in the history of Australia that parallel the U.S. experience. Australia and the United States have strong ongoing…

  2. Media Matters in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Kell

    1998-01-01

    Describes how a teacher helped transform a K-12 Christian school near Sydney, Australia, from a book-bound media studies program into a hands-on learning experience for students. Various projects allow students to operate advanced equipment, evaluate their own and their peers' work, present research results to the class, and produce live media…

  3. Career Development in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCowan, Colin; Mountain, Elizabeth

    Australia has a federal system, comprising the national Commonwealth government and eight state and territory governments. At the Commonwealth level, the ministries of Education, Training and Youth Affairs, and Employment, Workplace Relations and Small Business have primary roles in the career information and services field. Education and training…

  4. Australia's nuclear graveyard

    SciTech Connect

    Milliken, R.

    1987-04-01

    Britain and Australia have become locked in a battle of wills and wits over a nuclear legacy that is now more than 30 years old. At stake is the issue of who will pay to clean up a stretch of the central Australian outback where at least 23 kilograms of plutonium are buried in nuclear graveyards or scattered in fine particles on the ground. The plutonium was left there after a series of British nuclear weapons tests in the 1950s and 1960s. The cost of cleaning it up today, and rendering the ground safe the the Aborigines who claim it as their tribal homeland, has been estimated at up to $158 million. Australia's minister for resources, Senator Gareth Evans, went to London in October 1986 to try to involve the British in the cleanup. But Britain is still taking the stand that it had discharged any obligations on this score long ago. This question is at the heart of controversy that began mounting in the late 1970s over the British nuclear tests. It was then that Aborigines and test veterans from Britain and Australia started alleging that they had been exposed to unduly high doses of radiation. Clearly, the nuclear tests, which began as a political exercise between Britain and Australia more than 30 years ago, seem destined to remain the source of much legal, diplomatic, and financial fallout between the two countries for a long time to come.

  5. Australia's Regional Youth Exodus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines media coverage of youth outmigration from Tasmania in the context of Australia's regional crisis. Focuses on how young people are constructed by others and positioned in others' visions of their rural home towns. Discusses two recurring narratives: strategies to keep youth at home, and preoccupation with the "best and brightest"…

  6. Agricultural Education in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, R. N.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a comprehensive survey of education and training for agriculture in Australia. The present facilities are described, and then set against estimates of present and future needs. Constructive proposals are made as to how these needs can best be met by agricultural…

  7. Australia: Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin, Edward

    2004-01-01

    This new addition to the American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO) library of international publications is a guide for United States admissions officers to the structure and content of the education system of Australia together with a formal set of placement recommendations based upon the author's research.…

  8. Australia: a full house.

    PubMed

    Short, R

    1994-01-01

    Australia had a population of 17.6 million in 1991. In 1992, Australia's population grew at the rate of 1.06%, 0.8% due to natural increase and 0.26% from immigration. The recent Australian Bureau of Statistics Report estimates that it will grow to 18.9 million by the end of the century and 23.1 million by 2025, assuming fertility remains at current levels and net migration stabilizes at 70,000 per annum from the year 2000. The World Bank estimates that Australia's population will stabilize at 25 million some time in the future. Since Australia's politicians and economists fail to understand that the country already has a large enough population, no national population policy has been declared. The Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs, responsible for all population issues, gives no thought to the long-term environmental consequences of the rapidly growing population and determines the annual migrant intake simply on the basis of the nation's economic needs, demands from new immigrants for admission of their next of kin, and humanitarian considerations with regard to refugees. Population growth in Australia needs to be checked as soon as possible. Reducing the annual migrant intake to below 50,000, Australia could achieve a stable population of approximately 23 million by 2040; the annual intake of 150,000 immigrants will grow the population to 37 million. The total fertility rate (TFR) has been below replacement level since 1976, but the population's skewed age distribution will cause it to continue to grow through natural increase at the current rate of approximately 0.8% per year for some time to come. Improving educational opportunities for women and ensuring that all have ready access to modern contraception could help produce a further decline in TFR. Moreover, education about contraception must be made a part of every school curriculum. Steps taken now may avert any future flood of millions of ecological refugees from Southeast Asia, particularly

  9. Egypt site of first CSM marketing audit.

    PubMed

    1982-01-01

    The 1st application of the marketing audit concept to a CSM project was implemented in Egypt's Family of the Future (FOF) contraceptive social marketing program in 1982. The audit defined the basic mission of the FOF as one of assisting the government in achieving its long range family planning goals. The stated FOF objectives are as follows: to create an awareness or an increase in demand for family planning services, particularly among the lower socioeconomic strata in urban Egypt; to establish and maintain a reliable supply mechanism to make FOF products more readily acceptable and available from pharmacies; and to consolidate the CSM operations and services first in the greater Cairo area and then expand to other urban areas in Egypt. The core strategy of the FOF incorporates several elements, including intensive media based advertising and personal promotion to promote the concept of family planning and to educate the general public about contraceptive alternatives. FOF product prices are considerably lower than commercial prices. Dr. Alan R. Andreasen, who conducted the audit on behalf of the FOF technical assistance contractor, noted that the FOF is growing rapidly and stated that the audit recommendations were intended to help FOF management. Dr. Andreasen conducted interviews with all the senior personnel at FOF and met with various specialized staff members such as the Public Relations Manager. Dr. Andreasen noted that at the time of the audit the FOF could claim major accomplishments in creating an awareness of the need for family planning and in product sales. From the time products were launched in 1979 through 1981 condom sales increased 260%. Foaming tablet sales increased more than 320% and IUD sales increased nearly 330%. The introduction of the Copper 7 IUD accounted for 35% of the growth of IUD sales in 1981. Couple years of protection (CYP) provided by all products increased from 45,533 in 1979 to 190,831 in 1981, an increase over 300%. The

  10. Oedematous skin disease of buffalo in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Selim, S A

    2001-05-01

    This review covers a historical view and etiology of oedematous skin disease which affects buffalo in Egypt, the microbiology of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis causing the disease: its virulence; clinical signs; mechanism of pathogenesis; histopathology; mode of transmission; immunological aspects; treatment and control. It is concluded that C. pseudotuberculosis serotype II is the main cause of OSD and exotoxin phospholipase D and its lipid contents of the cell wall are the major causes of pathogenesis. After declaring the role of Hippobosca equina in transmission of the causative agent among buffaloes, control of OSD is now available.

  11. [The patients' view in Ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Although many medical texts are preserved from Ancient Egypt, these texts are giving only little information about the relationship between the Egyptian doctor and the patient. The aim of this article is to draw the reader's attention to personal documents such as letters between members of the royal court or private persons as well as to literary texts from the New Kingdom until the Roman Period. The article does also focus on Mesopotamian legal texts (Codex Hammurapi) and letters from the kingdom of Mari.

  12. Astronomy at Nabta Playa, Southern Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKim Malville, J.

    Nabta Playa may contain the oldest human-made features with astronomical alignments in Egypt. In the Late and Terminal Neolithic (7,500-5,400 BP), nomadic pastoralists built a ceremonial center on the western shore of Nabta Playa, consisting of some 30 complex megalithic structures, stone circles, and lines of megaliths crossing the playa. The megaliths may once have aligned with Arcturus, the Belt of Orion, Sirius, and α Cen. Reorientations of the northern set of megaliths suggest a response to precession. Elaborate burials at the nearby cemetery at Gebel Ramlah indicate the nomads consisted of Mediterranean and sub-Saharan populations with little social stratification.

  13. Lake Nasser and Toshka Lakes, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Nasser (center) and the Toshka Lakes (center left) glow emerald green and black in this MODIS true-color image acquired March 8, 2002. Located on and near the border of Egypt and Norther Sudan, these lakes are an oasis of water in between the Nubian (lower right) and Libyan Deserts (upper left). Also visible are the Red Sea (in the upper right) and the Nile River (running north from Lake Nasser). Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  14. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-12

    agricultural output, large domestic market , and strategic location between the Mediterranean and Red Seas. Most importantly, the British saw Egypt as vital to...the Fundación para las Relaciones Internacionales y el Diálogo Exterior (FRIDE), March 6, 2008. 17 Steven A. Cook, "Adrift on the Nile: The Limits of...widespread due to Israel’s total blockade of Gaza, Hamas’s demand for weapons, and the lack of viable economic alternatives to black market activity on

  15. Geothermal development in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, K. L.; Creelman, R. A.; Buckingham, N. W.; Harrington, H. J.

    In Australia, natural hot springs and hot artesian bores have been developed for recreational and therapeutic purposes. A district heating system at Portland, in the Otway Basin of western Victoria, has provided uninterrupted service for 12 Sears without significant problems, is servicing a building area of 18 990 sq m, and has prospects of expansion to manufacturing uses. A geothermal well has provided hot water for paper manufacture at Traralgon, in the Gippsland Basin of eastern Victoria. Power production from hot water aquifers was tested at Mulka in South Australia, and is undergoing a four-year production trial at Birdsville in Queensland. An important Hot Dry Rock resource has been confirmed in the Cooper Basin. It has been proposed to build an HDR experimental facility to test power production from deep conductive resources in the Sydney Basin near Muswellbrook.

  16. Geothermal development in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, K.L.; Creelman, R.A.; Buckingham, N.W.; Harrington, H.J. |

    1995-03-01

    In Australia, natural hot springs and hot artesian bores have been developed for recreational and therapeutic purposes. A district heating system at Portland, in the Otway Basin of western Victoria, has provided uninterrupted service for 12 Sears without significant problems, is servicing a building area of 18 990 m{sup 2}, and has prospects of expansion to manufacturing uses. A geothermal well has provided hot water for paper manufacture at Traralgon, in the Gippsland Basin of eastern Victoria. Power production from hot water aquifers was tested at Mulka in South Australia, and is undergoing a four-year production trial at Birdsville in Queensland. An important Hot Dry Rock resource has been confirmed in the Cooper Basin. It has been proposed to build an HDR experimental facility to test power production from deep conductive resources in the Sydney Basin near Muswellbrook.

  17. The regolith in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollier, C. D.

    1988-12-01

    Australian regolith materials are described, many of which are complex. Much Australian regolith dates back to the Tertiary, Mesozoic or earlier. There is a progressive change in the nature of alluvium through the Tertiary. Aridity, revealed through sand dunes and evaporites, is confined to the Quaternary. Ferricretes and silcretes are formed on lower slopes, often followed by inversion of relief. Tectonic isolation of Australia as well as climatic change is responsible for the change in the nature of terrestrial sediments since the Cretaceous.

  18. Preliminary correlation of palynological assemblages from Oman with the Granulatisporites confluens Oppel Zone of the grant formation (lower Permian), Canning Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, Michael H.

    1998-05-01

    The presence of Granulatisporites confluens Archangelsky and Gamerro indicates an Asselian-Tastubian (lowermost Permian) age for glaciogene sediments in the Amal-6 borehole, Oman. This suggests that the Al Khlata Formation is in part coeval with glaciogene sediments of the Canning Basin, Western Australia, and sediments of the Chacoparana Basin, Argentina.

  19. Chapter 3: neurology in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    York, George K; Steinberg, David A

    2010-01-01

    Neurology, in the modern sense, did not exist in ancient Egypt, where medicine was a compound of natural, magical and religious elements, with different practitioners for each form of healing. Nevertheless, Egyptian doctors made careful observations of illness and injury, some of which involved the nervous system. Modern scholars have three sources of information about Egyptian medicine: papyri, inscriptions, and mummified remains. These tell us that the Egyptians had words for the skull, brain, vertebrae, spinal fluid and meninges, though they do not say if they assigned any function to them. They described unconsciousness, quadriparesis, hemiparesis and dementia. We can recognize neurological injuries, such as traumatic hemiparesis and cervical dislocation with paraplegia, in the well known Edwin Smith surgical papyrus. Similarly recognizable in the Ebers papyrus is a description of migraine. An inscription from the tomb of the vizier Weshptah, dated c. 2455 BCE, seems to describe stroke, and Herodotus describes epilepsy in Hellenistic Egypt. We have very little understanding of how Egyptian physicians organized these observations, but we may learn something of Egyptian culture by examining them. At the same time, modern physicians feel some connection to Egyptian physicians and can plausibly claim to be filling a similar societal role.

  20. Transnasal excerebration surgery in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Fanous, Andrew A; Couldwell, William T

    2012-04-01

    Ancient Egyptians were pioneers in many fields, including medicine and surgery. Our modern knowledge of anatomy, pathology, and surgical techniques stems from discoveries and observations made by Egyptian physicians and embalmers. In the realm of neurosurgery, ancient Egyptians were the first to elucidate cerebral and cranial anatomy, the first to describe evidence for the role of the spinal cord in the transmission of information from the brain to the extremities, and the first to invent surgical techniques such as trepanning and stitching. In addition, the transnasal approach to skull base and intracranial structures was first devised by Egyptian embalmers to excerebrate the cranial vault during mummification. In this historical vignette, the authors examine paleoradiological and other evidence from ancient Egyptian skulls and mummies of all periods, from the Old Kingdom to Greco-Roman Egypt, to shed light on the development of transnasal surgery in this ancient civilization. The authors confirm earlier observations concerning the laterality of this technique, suggesting that ancient Egyptian excerebration techniques penetrated the skull base mostly on the left side. They also suggest that the original technique used to access the skull base in ancient Egypt was a transethmoidal one, which later evolved to follow a transsphenoidal route similar to the one used today to gain access to pituitary lesions.

  1. Risk factors for developing hepatocellular carcinoma in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Omar, Ashraf; Abou-Alfa, Ghassan K; Khairy, Ahmed; Omar, Heba

    2013-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common disorder worldwide and ranks 2nd and 6th most common cancer among men and women in Egypt. HCC has a rising incidence in Egypt mostly due to high prevalence of viral hepatitis and its complications. Proper management requires the interaction of multidisciplinary HCC clinic to choose the most appropriate plan. The different modalities of treatment include resection (surgery or transplantation), local ablation, chemoembolization, radioembolization and molecular targeted therapies. This paper summarizes both the environmental and host related risk factors of HCC in Egypt including well-established risk factors such as hepatitis virus infection, aflatoxin, as well as possible risk factors.

  2. Is Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Shanmugakumar, Sharanyaa; Playford, Denese; Burkitt, Tessa; Tennant, Marc; Bowles, Tom

    2016-03-31

    Objective Despite public interest in the rural workforce, there are few published data on the geographical distribution of Australia's rural surgeons, their practice skill set, career stage or work-life balance (on-call burden). Similarly, there has not been a peer-reviewed skills audit of rural training opportunities for surgical trainees. The present study undertook this baseline assessment for Western Australia (WA), which has some of the most remote practice areas in Australia.Methods Hospital staff from all WA Country Health Service hospitals with surgical service (20 of 89 rural health services) were contacted by telephone. A total of 18 of 20 provided complete data. The study questionnaire explored hospital and practice locations of practicing rural surgeons, on-call rosters, career stage, practice skill set and the availability of surgical training positions. Data were tabulated in excel and geographic information system geocoded. Descriptive statistics were calculated in Excel.Results Of the seven health regions for rural Western Australia, two (28.6%) were served by resident surgeons at a ratio consistent with Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) guidelines. General surgery was offered in 16 (89%) hospitals. In total, 16 (89%) hospitals were served by fly-in, fly-out (FIFO) surgical services. Two hospitals with resident surgeons did not use FIFO services, but all hospitals without resident surgeons were served by FIFO surgical specialists. The majority of resident surgeons (62.5%) and FIFO surgeons (43.2%) were perceived to be mid-career by hospital staff members. Three hospitals (16.7%) offered all eight of the identified surgical skill sets, but 16 (89%) offered general surgery.Conclusions Relatively few resident rural surgeons are servicing large areas of WA, assisted by the widespread provision of FIFO surgical services. The present audit demonstrates strength in general surgical skills throughout regional WA, and augers well for the training

  3. Argentina from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image over Argentina was acquired on April 24, 2000, and was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution 'true color' bands. This image was presented on June 13, 2000 as a GIFt to Argentinian President Fernando de la Rua by NASA Administrator Dan Goldin. Note the Parana River which runs due south from the top of the image before turning east to empty into the Atlantic Ocean. Note the yellowish sediment from the Parana River mixing with the redish sediment from the Uruguay River as it empties into the Rio de la Plata. The water level of the Parana seems high, which could explain the high sediment discharge. A variety of land surface features are visible in this image. To the north, the greenish pixels show forest regions, as well as characteristic clusters of rectangular patterns of agricultural fields. In the lower left of the image, the lighter green pixels show arable regions where there is grazing and farming. (Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Group, NASA GSFC)

  4. Mitigation options for the industrial sector in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Gelil, I.A.; El-Touny, S.; Korkor, H.

    1996-12-31

    Though its contribution to the global Greenhouse gases emission is relatively small, Egypt has signed and ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) and has been playing an active role in the international efforts to deal with such environmental challenges. Energy efficiency has been one of the main strategies that Egypt has adopted to improve environmental quality and enhance economic competitiveness. This paper highlights three initiatives currently underway to improve energy efficiency of the Egyptian industry. The first is a project that has been recently completed by OECP to assess potential GHG mitigation options available in Egypt`s oil refineries. The second initiative is an assessment of GHG mitigation potential in the Small and Medium size Enterprises (SME) in the Mediterranean city of Alexandria. The third one focuses on identifying demand side management options in some industrial electricity consumers in the same city.

  5. Australia and Gondwanaland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teichert, C.

    1959-01-01

    Along the western margin of the Australian continent there exist four major sedimentary basins, filled with predominantly marine rocks from Cambrian to Tertiary in age, and up to 40,000 feet thick. Seaward these basins continue into depressions recognizable in the continental shelf and even the continental slope. Their very presence, the nature of their sediments and the composition and relationships of their fossil faunas indicate the existence of an open ocean to the west of Australia since early Paleozoic time. Composition of the Australian fossil land vertebrate faunas suggests isolation of the Australian continent since at least Permian time. ?? 1959 Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart.

  6. Schistosomiasis and cancer in egypt: review.

    PubMed

    Khaled, Hussein

    2013-09-01

    Schistosomiasis is not known to be associated with any malignant disease other than bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is still the most common malignant tumor among males in Egypt and some African and Middle East countries. However, the frequency rate of bladder cancer has declined significantly during the last 25 years. This drop is mainly related to the control of Schistosomiasis. Many studies have elucidated the pathogenic events of Schistosomal-related bladder cancer with a suggested theory of pathogenesis. Furthermore, the disease presents with a distinct clinicopathologic profile that is quite different from bladder cancer elsewhere with younger age at presentation, more male predominance, more invasive stages, and occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma pathologic subtype. However, recent data suggest that this profile has been dramatically changed over the past 25 years leading to minimization of the differences between its features in Egypt and that in Western countries. Management of muscle-invasive localized disease is mainly surgery with 5-year survival rates of 30-50%. Although still a debatable issue, adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy have improved treatment outcomes including survival and bladder preservation rates in most studies. This controversy emphasizes the need of individualized treatment options based on a prognostic index or other factors that can define the higher risk groups where more aggressive therapy is needed. The treatment for locally advanced and/or metastatic disease has passed through a series of clinical trials since 1970s. These phase II and III trials have included the use of single agent and combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimens. The current standard of systemic chemotherapy of generally fit patients is now the gemcitabine-cisplatin combination. In conclusion, a changing pattern of bladder cancer in Egypt is clearly observed. This is mainly due to the success in the control of Schistosomiasis

  7. Nile River, Lake Nasser, Aswan High Dam, Egypt, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Lake Nasser, (24.0N, 33.0E) at the Aswan High Dam on the Nile River, in Egypt is the world's second largest artificial lake, extending 500 km, in length and about 5000 sq. km. in area. The lake has a storage capacity sufficient to irrigate farms in Egypt and Sudan year round allowing up to three harvests per year. Other benefits include year round river navagation, hydroelectric power, more fish harvests, reduced flooding and more industrial employment. opportunites.

  8. Argentina offers something for everyone

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart-Gordon, T.J.

    1980-02-01

    Argentina is actively seeking private capital and expertise from around the world. The objective is energy self-sufficiency by 1982 by bringing $5 billion of private investment to bear on exploration and production projects. This year, the government is launching a program aimed at medium-to-large independent US oil companies. Enhanced recovery technology from the US companies is to be coupled with Argentine capital and used on fields for which Argentina has neither the manpower nor the money to work. Onshore and offshore risk contracts are also available. The exploration results and production potential of 5 basins (San Jorge Gulf, Neuquen, Cuyana, Austral, and Northeast) are explained.

  9. Stratification and mobility in contemporary Egypt.

    PubMed

    Nagi, Saad Z; Nagi, Omar

    2011-01-01

    The objectives in this statement are to characterize and explain the patterns of change in stratification and mobility in Egypt, over the last half century, by placing them within conceptual, explanatory, and historical contexts. First, literature relevant to the primary concepts of "class" and "status", is reviewed. Second, four institutions whose influence is fundamental in shaping these patterns are identified to form an explanatory context: family, polity, economy, and education. And third, an historical account is presented to demonstrate the interplay of these institutions and their consequences for stratification and mobility. For this, four periods are identified that are marked by change in the dominance of institutions and their corresponding influence on stratification and mobility. In addition to data available in relevant literature, this analysis utilizes primary data generated through a national probability household survey.

  10. The practice of dentistry in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Forshaw, R J

    2009-05-09

    This paper addresses the questions of whether a dental profession existed in ancient Egypt and if it did then considers whether these practitioners were operative dental surgeons as we know them today or whether they were pharmacists. Evidence from hieroglyphic inscriptions, from the dentitions of the surviving mummified and skeletal remains, and from ancient documents and artefacts are examined. The conclusion would suggest that operative dental treatment if it did exist at all was extremely limited. The dental treatment that appears to have been provided was mainly restricted to pharmaceutical preparations that were either applied to the gingival and mucosal tissues or used as mouthwashes, and these at best may only have provided some short term relief. It seems apparent that many ancient Egyptians suffered from widespread and painful dental disease, which the available treatments can have done relatively little to alleviate.

  11. Vascular medicine and surgery in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Barr, Justin

    2014-07-01

    Lauded alike by ancient civilizations and modern society, pharaonic Egyptian medicine remains an object of fascination today. This article discusses its surprisingly sophisticated understanding of a cardiovascular system. The term "cardiovascular system," however, carries assumptions and meanings to a modern audience, especially readers of this journal, which simply do not apply when considering ancient conceptions of the heart and vessels. For lack of better language, this article will use "cardiovascular" and similar terms while recognizing the anachronistic inaccuracy. After briefly summarizing ancient Egyptian medicine generally, it will review the anatomy, pathology, and treatment of the vasculature. The practice of mummification in ancient Egypt provides a unique opportunity for paleopathology, and the conclusion will explore evidence of arterial disease from a modern scientific perspective.

  12. Environmental impact of pesticides in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Sameeh A

    2008-01-01

    The first use of petroleum-derived pesticides in Egyptian agriculture was initiated in 1950. Early applications consisted of distributing insecticidal dusts containing DDT/BHC/S onto cotton fields. This practice was followed by use of toxaphene until 1961. Carbamates, organophosphates, and synthetic pyrethroids were subsequently used, mainly for applications to cotton. In addition to the use of about 1 million metric tons (t) of pesticides in the agricultural sector over a 50-yr period, specific health and environmental problems are documented in this review. Major problems represented and discussed in this review are human poisoning, incidental toxicity to farm animals, insect pest resistance, destruction of beneficial parasites and predators, contamination of food by pesticide residues, and pollution of environmental ecosystems. Several reports reveal that chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide residues are still detectable in several environmental compartments; however, these residues are in decline. Since 1990, there is a growing movement toward reduced consumption of traditional pesticides and a tendency to expand use of biopesticides, including "Bt," and plant incorporated protectants (PIPs). On the other hand, DDT and lindane were used for indoor and hygienic purposes as early as 1952. Presently, indoor use of pesticides for pest control is widespread in Egypt. Accurate information concerning the types and amounts of Egyptian household pesticide use, or numbers of poisoning or contamination incidents, is unavailable. Generally, use of indoor pesticides is inadequately managed. The results of a survey of Egyptian farmers' attitudes toward pesticides and their behavior in using them garnered new insights as to how pesticides should be better controlled and regulated in Egypt.

  13. Dust Plume off the Coast of Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Dwarfing the Nile, a river of dust flowed out of the deserts of northern Egypt on May 19, 2007. As the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead at 12:05 p.m. local time in Cairo, the sensor captured this image of the dust spreading northward over the Mediterranean Sea from the sandy deserts that span the country. At the margins of the plume, ribbons and ripples of dust are translucent, allowing a glimpse of the desert and water beneath, but in the center, the cloud is opaque, revealing nothing of the surface below. The part of north-central Egypt hidden by the dust plume is the Qattara Depression, the country's lowest point. Dipping down to 133 meters below sea level (436 feet), the depression is home to sandy deserts and dry lake beds that occasionally flood. The sand and fine, lake bed sediments are easily lofted into the air by strong winds that scour the area in late winter and early spring. In the eastern (right-hand) part of the image, the Nile River is lined by narrow ribbons of dull green vegetation. The fan-shaped delta is dotted with tan-colored spots, marking the location of cities and towns. The Nile Valley and Delta make up only a small fraction of the country's total land area, yet they support almost the entire population. The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides this image in additional resolutions. The Earth Observatory also provides a 250-meter-resolution KMZ file of this image for use with Google Earth.

  14. The determinants of labor migration in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, M J

    1969-08-01

    The factors which affect individual decisions with regard to geographic movement in Egypt are examined and the magnitude in which each factor exerts its influence on aggregate geographic labor supply adjustments is estimated. The spatial unit used in the study is the administrative region, of which there are 25. No effort is made to esimate the impact which migration has had on the origin or destination region. The migrant will presumably choose that destination which, given his information, the migrant thinks will be best. The model which is employed attempts to explain gross interregional migration without the explicit introduction of an individual decision function. Rather, migration is related to certain aggregate proxy variables. Among the independent variables employed in the analysis are (origin and destination) income, education, urbanization, and population. The other explanatory variable used is the distance between region i and region j. The migration measure employed refers to cumulative male migration which occurred prior to 1960; the independent variables are defined for a given point in time (1960). The independent variables explain a reasonably large percentage of the variance in migration between regions in Egypt. All variables were significant at the 5% level or better. The findings indicate that distance acts as an important impediment to migration. Migration is away from low wage and toward high wage regions, which may have contributed to a narrowing of regional wage differentials. Migrants are attracted to regions which have large populations and to regions which have a large percentage of urban to total population. A tendency exists for migrants to come from regions with large populations. There is also some tendency for migrants to come from regions which have a relatively large urban population. Migrants do not appear to come from regions with high educational levels.

  15. Geodiversity assessment of the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torab, Magdy; Farghaly, Enas

    2015-04-01

    The Sinai Peninsula is a triangular plateau lies in NE corner of Egypt, its head in the south at Ras Mohammed and its other sides between the Gulf of Aqaba and Gulf of Suez and the triangle base on the Mediterranean Sea. Sinai Peninsula is the most attractive region from the geological, geomorphological and environmental stand points of view because it displays a variety of simple and complex structural and landforms, (Abu Al-Izz,1971). In general, Sinai Peninsula reflects all geologic column of Egypt. Geomorphologically, Sinai Peninsula comprises many geomorphologic units such as mountains blocks, cliffs, isolated hills, wadies, hogbacks, questas, sand ridges, muddy and marshy lands, lakes and shorelines. This paper aims to define and measure geodiversity assessment index of the Sinai Peninsula as the quantitative variety of geological, topographical, geomorphological, hydrological and soil features. Some geodiversity indices maps for the above features produced for Sinai Peninsula were based on the methodology presented by (Pereira et al, 2012), it depends upon calculate of some geodiversity elements for overlay grid of the study area, which divided topographic, geological maps of the Sinai Peninsula with scale 1:500000 and satellite image (landsat 8, 27th October 2014, 12 bands, 30m). It divided into 743 squares (10x10 km), and some partial geodiversity indices such as geological, topographical, geomorphological, hydrological and soil indices were calculated by counting the number of each element inside each square, then the overall geodiversity index map produced by calculate the total number of all indices inside each square, the geodiversity index map were classified into some gradual categories by using isolines: very low, low, medium, high and very high.

  16. Planning Australia’s Defense Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    Alexander, Australia Since Federation (Melbourne: Thomas Nelson (Australia) Ltd., 1976), p. 208-210. 5. Charles Wilson, Australia 1788-1988: The Creation...p. 2. 9. Hughes, p. 48. 10. Charles Wilson, Australia 1788-1988: The Creation of a Nation (Totowa, NJ: Barnes & Noble, 1988), p. 9. 11. Hughes, p. 52...Australia’s Defence Forces," Army Quarterly and Defence Journal," October 1986, p. 462. 15. Babbage , "Australia: Defence Palnning Patchy and Rudderless," 251

  17. Australia: The Dictation Test Redux?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Tim

    2009-01-01

    In its late colonial history and early years as an independent nation, Australia practised a policy of ruthless exclusion of immigrants on the basis of race by means of a language test: the notorious Dictation Test. In the 50 years following World War II, Australia adopted policies encouraging immigration with bipartisan political support.…

  18. 77 FR 76165 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Argentina-Measures Affecting the Importation of Goods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Argentina--Measures Affecting the... by Argentina on the importation of goods into Argentina. In particular, Argentina subjects the... Anticipada de Importaci n (``DJAI'') system. Argentina subjects the importation of certain categories...

  19. Australia's marine virtual laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, Roger; Gillibrand, Philip; Oke, Peter; Rosebrock, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    In all modelling studies of realistic scenarios, a researcher has to go through a number of steps to set up a model in order to produce a model simulation of value. The steps are generally the same, independent of the modelling system chosen. These steps include determining the time and space scales and processes of the required simulation; obtaining data for the initial set up and for input during the simulation time; obtaining observation data for validation or data assimilation; implementing scripts to run the simulation(s); and running utilities or custom-built software to extract results. These steps are time consuming and resource hungry, and have to be done every time irrespective of the simulation - the more complex the processes, the more effort is required to set up the simulation. The Australian Marine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) is a new development in modelling frameworks for researchers in Australia. MARVL uses the TRIKE framework, a java-based control system developed by CSIRO that allows a non-specialist user configure and run a model, to automate many of the modelling preparation steps needed to bring the researcher faster to the stage of simulation and analysis. The tool is seen as enhancing the efficiency of researchers and marine managers, and is being considered as an educational aid in teaching. In MARVL we are developing a web-based open source application which provides a number of model choices and provides search and recovery of relevant observations, allowing researchers to: a) efficiently configure a range of different community ocean and wave models for any region, for any historical time period, with model specifications of their choice, through a user-friendly web application, b) access data sets to force a model and nest a model into, c) discover and assemble ocean observations from the Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN, http://portal.aodn.org.au/webportal/) in a format that is suitable for model evaluation or data assimilation, and

  20. NREL technical assistance to Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Lilienthal, P.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes assistance to Argentina from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory which has touched on four programs: tariff analysis for rural concessions programs; wind/diesel hybrid retrofits in Patagonia; small hybrid systems designs for rural schools; an assessment of wind resources. The paper expands briefly on the first two points.

  1. MISR Views Northern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    MISR images of tropical northern Australia acquired on June 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry season. Left: color composite of vertical (nadir) camera blue, green, and red band data. Right: multi-angle composite of red band data only from the cameras viewing 60 degrees aft, 60 degrees forward, and nadir. Color and contrast have been enhanced to accentuate subtle details. In the left image, color variations indicate how different parts of the scene reflect light differently at blue, green, and red wavelengths; in the right image color variations show how these same scene elements reflect light differently at different angles of view. Water appears in blue shades in the right image, for example, because glitter makes the water look brighter at the aft camera's view angle. The prominent inland water body is Lake Argyle, the largest human-made lake in Australia, which supplies water for the Ord River Irrigation Area and the town of Kununurra (pop. 6500) just to the north. At the top is the southern edge of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf; the major inlet at the left is Cambridge Gulf, the location of the town of Wyndham (pop. 850), the port for this region. This area is sparsely populated, and is known for its remote, spectacular mountains and gorges. Visible along much of the coastline are intertidal mudflats of mangroves and low shrubs; to the south the terrain is covered by open woodland merging into open grassland in the lower half of the pictures.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  2. Australia's Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Great Barrier Reef extends for 2,000 kilometers along the northeastern coast of Australia. It is not a single reef, but a vast maze of reefs, passages, and coral cays (islands that are part of the reef). This nadir true-color image was acquired by the MISR instrument on August 26, 2000 (Terra orbit 3679), and shows part of the southern portion of the reef adjacent to the central Queensland coast. The width of the MISR swath is approximately 380 kilometers, with the reef clearly visible up to approximately 200 kilometers from the coast. It may be difficult to see the myriad details in the browse image, but if you retrieve the higher resolution version, a zoomed display reveals the spectacular structure of the many reefs.

    The more northerly coastal area in this image shows the vast extent of sugar cane cultivation, this being the largest sugar producing area in Australia, centered on the city of Mackay. Other industries in the area include coal, cattle, dairying, timber, grain, seafood, and fruit. The large island off the most northerly part of the coast visible in this image is Whitsunday Island, with smaller islands and reefs extending southeast, parallel to the coast. These include some of the better known resort islands such as Hayman, Lindeman, Hamilton, and Brampton Islands.

    Further south, just inland of the small semicircular bay near the right of the image, is Rockhampton, the largest city along the central Queensland coast, and the regional center for much of central Queensland. Rockhampton is just north of the Tropic of Capricorn. Its hinterland is a rich pastoral, agricultural, and mining region.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  3. Spanish Coastal Patrol Ships for Argentina and Mexico (Guardacostas Espanoles para Argentina y Mejico),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-22

    IN TRANS ATION ~TITLE: .SPANISH COASTAL PATROL SHIPS FOR ARGENTINA AND MEXICO GUARDACOSTAS EFPANOLES PARA ARGENTINA Y MEJICO AUTHOR: M; RAMIREZ...SHIPS FOR ARGENTINA AND MEXICO [Ramirez Gabarrus, M.; Guardacostas espaioles para Argentina y Mejico; Tecnologia Militar, No. 4, 1983; pP. 50, 53-54... Mexico , Mr. Alvarez de Vayo, signed a contract with the Mexican War Minister, General Cardenas, to build a series of 10 coastal patrol boats and five

  4. Views of Ancient Egypt. Teacher's Guide. School Arts: Looking/Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Linda; Brenner, Carla

    This teaching guide discusses ancient Egyptian culture, the lithographs made by Napoleon's scientists in 1798-99 to study and record every aspect of Egypt, the world's subsequent fascination with Egypt, ancient Egyptian architecture, Egyptian writing, and archeologists' illustrations of Egypt. The guide suggests activities for elementary school,…

  5. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program 1989. Egypt: Transition to the Modern World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of International Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    This document consists of four papers on various aspects of development in Egypt prepared by participants in the Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program in Egypt in 1989. Four of the papers are descriptive, one is a lesson plan. The papers included are: (1) "Egypt: Transition to Modern Times" (Katherine Jensen) focuses on the role of…

  6. Shari’a Law, Cult Violence and System Change in Egypt: The Dilemma Facing President Mubarak.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-05

    they appear to be oblivious to the widespread unease.’ How long will the masses tolerate a system that seemingly worm against them? Obviously no one...a French cheese popular in Egypt. See Mubarak’s Egypt, p. 20. 21. The Egypt of Nasser and Sadat, p. 221. 31 ...secondary and university education

  7. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  8. Ambient lead measurements in Cairo, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, J.E. Jr.; Labib, M.; Samaha, N.; Sabry, M.; Araby, H.E.

    1999-07-01

    The Cairo Air Improvement Project (CAIP) has established a network of 36 stations to monitor airborne lead levels in the Greater Cairo Area. Data obtained during the first 4 months of the monitoring program indicates that lead levels in ambient air significantly exceed the Government of Egypt's (GOE) Law Number 4 (1994) limit of 1 {micro} g/m{sup 3} (annual mean) in areas downwind of secondary lead smelters and in heavily trafficked areas. The highest mean and single sampling event lead levels were observed in the heavily industrialized areas of Shoubra el-Kheima and Tebbin. At two sites in Shoubra el-Kheima, mean and maximum lead levels were determined to be approximately 20 {micro} g/m{sup 3} and 79 {micro} g/m{sup 3}, respectively. At three sites located in areas of high motor vehicle traffic in the central part of the city, the mean lead level was about 4 {micro} g/m{sup 3} and the maximum levels ranged from approximately 10 x 20 {micro} g/m{sup 3}. Of the remainder of the sites, the mean lead concentrations were 2fd3 {micro} g/m{sup 3} at three sites, 1 P2 {mu} g/m{sup 3} at 16 sites, and below 1 {micro} g/m{sup 3} at eight sites. Lead levels in areas devoted primarily to residential use were generally less than 2 {micro} g/m{sup 3}. The maximum mean monthly PM{sub 10} lead value measured at fugitive emission monitoring sites near lead smelters was approximately 73 {micro} g/m{sup 3}. The maximum lead concentration measured during a single sampling event was 180 {micro} g/m{sup 3}. Generally lower lead levels were observed in December due to regulation action that resulted in some suspension of smelting operations and to approximately 180-degree wind direction shifts that typically occur during this period of the year. The GOE is working vigorously to eliminate the lead problem in Egypt through implementation of the Lead Exposure Action Plan (LEAP). A major component of LEAP is the Lead Smelter Action Plan (LSAP).

  9. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Diversity in Cephalosporium maydis from Egypt.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Amgad A; Zeller, Kurt A; Ismael, Abou-Serie M; Fahmy, Zeinab M; El-Assiuty, Elhamy M; Leslie, John F

    2003-07-01

    ABSTRACT Cephalosporium maydis, the causal agent of late wilt of maize, was first described in Egypt in the 1960s, where it can cause yield losses of up to 40% in susceptible plantings. We characterized 866 isolates of C. maydis collected from 14 governates in Egypt, 7 in the Nile River Delta and 7 in southern (Middle and Upper) Egypt, with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. The four AFLP primer-pair combinations generated 68 bands, 25 of which were polymorphic, resulting in 52 clonal haplotypes that clustered the 866 isolates into four phylogenetic lineages. Three lineages were found in both the Nile River Delta and southern Egypt. Lineage IV, the most diverse group (20 haplotypes), was recovered only from governates in the Nile River Delta. In some locations, one lineage dominated (up to 98% of the isolates recovered) and, from some fields, only a single haplotype was recovered. Under field conditions in Egypt, there is no evidence that C. maydis reproduces sexually. The nonuniform geographic distribution of the pathogen lineages within the country could be due to differences in climate or in the farming system, because host material differs in susceptibility and C. maydis lineages differ in pathogenicity.

  10. Recent temporal and spatial temperature changes in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domroes, Manfred; El-Tantawi, Attia

    2005-01-01

    In order to detect and to estimate trends of temperature change in Egypt, trend analyses applying the least-squares method and the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test for trends were carried out at six stations for the period 1941-2000 (60 years), and at nine stations for the period 1971-2000 (30 years).According to the trend computations for the period 1941-2000, variable temperature trends over time and space have been observed. Decreasing trends of the mean annual temperature were observed in northern Egypt and (weakly) increasing trends in southern Egypt. Seasonally, positive trends prevailed in summer compared with negative trends in winter. For the recent period, 1971-2000, positive trends were computed for the mean annual and mean minimum temperatures at all stations except Port Said in northern Egypt, where the annual trend was weakly negative. The mean maximum temperature trends were, however, negative at most stations. Seasonally, a definite trend of warming occurred in summer, in contrast to the observations of a global temperature increase in winter.A principal component analysis was applied to compute the all-Egypt temperature trends. For the observation period, 1941-2000, decreasing trends were shown for annual, maximum, winter and autumn temperatures and increasing trends for minimum, winter and spring temperatures. For the recent period, 1971-2000, all trends were positive except maximum temperature.

  11. "Breaking the bureaucracy": drug registration and neocolonial relations in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, R A

    1998-06-01

    According to the Egyptian Ministry of Health, the per capita use of prescription drugs in Egypt is amongst the highest in the world. Multinational pharmaceutical companies license their proprietary products for manufacture and sale in Egypt through their Egyptian subsidiaries. A Ministry of Health Committee reviews and approves for sale all drugs marketed in the country. Aside from being an extremely lucrative market itself, approval of a drug for sale and manufacture in Egypt also opens to the pharmaceutical companies other markets in the Arab world. The Egyptian drug approval process is thus both important for assuring the health of Egyptian nationals and a high-stakes activity for the pharmaceutical companies. This paper examines the social relations and interactions of multinational pharmaceutical representatives in Egypt with Egyptian researchers in relation to the Ministry of Health's drug approval process. From time-to-time events focus attention on the huge financial rewards reaped by multinational pharmaceutical companies from their activities in lesser developed countries. This attention not infrequently has revealed the "drugging of the Third World" as a result of actions by expatriate multinational pharmaceutical officials. Indigenous review procedures such as those established by the Egyptian Ministry of Health might guard against such external exploitation. This paper shows how in place of external exploitation, indigenous pharmaceutical company officials have manipulated local patterns of social interaction to construct a system of reciprocal obligations which may frustrate intended safeguards, and by reconstructing colonial institutional structures, creates a pattern of neocolonialism in Egypt.

  12. Anaglyph, Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This view of northern Patagonia, at Los Menucos, Argentina shows remnants of relatively young volcanoes built upon an eroded plain of much older and contorted volcanic, granitic, and sedimentary rocks. The large, dark 'butterfly' pattern is a single volcano that has been deeply eroded. Large holes on the volcano's flanks indicate that they may have collapsed soon after eruption, as fluid molten rock drained out from under its cooled and solidified outer shell. At the upper left, a more recent eruption occurred and produced a small volcanic cone and a long stream of lava, which flowed down a gully. At the top of the image, volcanic intrusions permeated the older rocks resulting in a chain of small dark volcanic peaks.

    At the top center of the image, two halves of a light ellipse pattern are offset from each other. This feature is an old igneous intrusion that has been split by a right-lateral fault. The apparent offset is about 6.6 kilometers (4 miles). Tonal and topographic discontinuities reveal the fault trace as it extends across the image to the lower left. However, young unbroken basalt flows show that the fault has not been active recently.

    This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat Thematic Mapper image over a topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, then producing the two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United

  13. Stereo Pair, Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This view of northern Patagonia, at Los Menucos, Argentina shows remnants of relatively young volcanoes built upon an eroded plain of much older and contorted volcanic, granitic, and sedimentary rocks. The large purple, brown, and green 'butterfly' pattern is a single volcano that has been deeply eroded. Large holes on the volcano's flanks indicate that they may have collapsed soon after eruption, as fluid molten rock drained out from under its cooled and solidified outer shell. At the upper left, a more recent eruption occurred and produced a small volcanic cone and a long stream of lava, which flowed down a gully. At the top of the image, volcanic intrusions permeated the older rocks resulting in a chain of small dark volcanic peaks. At the top center of the image, two halves of a tan ellipse pattern are offset from each other. This feature is an old igneous intrusion that has been split by a right-lateral fault. The apparent offset is about 6.6 kilometers (4 miles). Color, tonal, and topographic discontinuities reveal the fault trace as it extends across the image to the lower left. However, young unbroken basalt flows show that the fault has not been active recently.

    This cross-eyed stereoscopic image pair was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, combined with an enhanced Landsat 7satellite color image. The topography data are used to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. In doing so, each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive

  14. Stereo Pair: Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This view of northern Patagonia, near El Cain, Argentina shows complexly eroded volcanic terrain, with basalt mesas, sinkholes, landslide debris, playas, and relatively few integrated drainage channels. Surrounding this site (but also extending far to the east) is a broad plateau capped by basalt, the Meseta de Somuncura. Here, near the western edge of the plateau, erosion has broken through the basalt cap in a variety of ways. On the mesas, water-filled sinkholes (lower left) are most likely the result of the collapse of old lava tubes. Along the edges of the mesas (several locations) the basalt seems to be sliding away from the plateau in a series of slices. Water erosion by overland flow is also evident, particularly in canyons where vegetation blankets the drainage channels (green patterns, bottom of image). However, overland water flow does not extend very far at any location. This entire site drains to local playas, some of which are seen here (blue). While the water can reach the playas and then evaporate, what becomes of the eroded rock debris? Wind might excavate some of the finer eroded debris, but the fate of much of the missing bedrock remains mysterious.

    This cross-eyed stereoscopic image pair was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, combined with an enhanced Landsat 7 satellite color image. The topography data are used to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. In doing so, each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The

  15. Anaglyph: Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This view of northern Patagonia, near El Cain, Argentina shows complexly eroded volcanic terrain, with basalt mesas, sinkholes, landslide debris, playas, and relatively few integrated drainage channels. Surrounding this site (but also extending far to the east) is a broad plateau capped by basalt, the Meseta de Somuncura. Here, near the western edge of the plateau, erosion has broken through the basalt cap in a variety of ways. On the mesas, water-filled sinkholes (lower left) are most likely the result of the collapse of old lava tubes. Along the edges of the mesas (several locations) the basalt seems to be sliding away from the plateau in a series of slices. Water erosion by overland flow is also evident, particularly in canyons where vegetation blankets the drainage channels (bright patterns, bottom of image). However, overland water flow does not extend very far at any location. This entire site drains to local playas, some of which are seen here (dark lakes with bright shores). While the water can reach the playas and then evaporate, what becomes of the eroded rock debris? Wind might excavate some of the finer eroded debris, but the fate of much of the missing bedrock remains mysterious.

    This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat Thematic Mapper image over a topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, then producing the two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was

  16. Adult Learners' Week in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, John

    2002-01-01

    Promotional materials and activities for Australia's Adult Learners Week, which are shaped by a variety of stakeholders , include media strategies and a website. Activities are evaluated using a market research company and website and telephone hotline statistics. (SK)

  17. Australia's Next Top Fraction Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peter Gould suggests Australia's next top fraction model should be a linear model rather than an area model. He provides a convincing argument and gives examples of ways to introduce a linear model in primary classrooms.

  18. Seismic hazard assessments at Islamic Cairo, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, A. E.; Deif, A.; Abdel Hafiez, H. E.

    2015-12-01

    Islamic Cairo is one of the important Islamic monumental complexes in Egypt, near the center of present-day metropolitan Cairo. The age of these buildings is up to one thousand years. Unfortunately, many of the buildings are suffering from huge mishandling that may lead to mass damage. Many buildings and masjids were partially and totally collapsed because of 12th October 1992 Cairo earthquake that took place at some 25 km from the study area with a magnitude Mw = 5.8. Henceforth, potential damage assessments there are compulsory. The deterministic and probabilistic techniques were used to predict the expected future large earthquakes' strong-motion characteristics in the study area. The current study started with compiling the available studies concerned with the distribution of the seismogenic sources and earthquake catalogs. The deterministic method is used to provide a description of the largest earthquake effect on the area of interest, while the probabilistic method, on the other hand, is used to define the uniform hazard curves at three time periods 475, 950, 2475 years. Both deterministic and probabilistic results were obtained for bedrock conditions and the resulted hazard levels were deaggregated to identify the contribution of each seismic source to the total hazard. Moreover, the results obtained show that the expected seismic activities combined with the present situation of the buildings pose high alert to rescue both the cultural heritage and expected human losses.

  19. Implications of terrain movements in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassar, Mohamed M.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the causes of localized terrain movements in Egypt. The motivation behind this research has been the vast progress in constructing huge engineering structures (dams, bridge,, tall buildings, etc.) as well as extending the urban activities in many new cities. These must be properly studied to ensure their safety versus their cost and other economic factors. In addition, the recent tendency is towards building nuclear power stations whose locations must be carefully investigated against the hazard and danger of inevitable atomic leakage, especially in the case of seismically active regions. Also the discovery of new oil wells and mines and the effects of future depletion require considerable attention from qualified investigators. The relative tectonic movements of North Africa and Southern Europe, the seismic activities around the Alexandria region, the presence of faults related to the region of the High Dam and its reservoir in Aswan, the erosion of the banks of the River Nile and its islands as well as coastal lines along the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, and the deformation and damage to large buildings in the Cairo area are examined here as a few examples of the implications of the earth's deformations within Egyptian territory. Strong recommendations are made concerning the necessity of studying and monitoring the terrain movements in the areas where new cities, large engineering constructions and power plants are planned to be erected.

  20. Congenital hand anomalies in Upper Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abulezz, Tarek; Talaat, Mohamed; Elsani, Asem; Allam, Karam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Congenital hand anomalies are numerous and markedly variant. Their significance is attributed to the frequent occurrence and their serious social, psychological and functional impacts on patient's life. Patients and Methods: This is a follow-up study of 64 patients with hand anomalies of variable severity. All patients were presented to Plastic Surgery Department of Sohag University Hospital in a period of 24 months. Results: This study revealed that failure of differentiation and duplication deformities were the most frequent, with polydactyly was the most common anomaly encountered. The mean age of presentation was 6 years and female to male ratio was 1.46:1. Hand anomalies were either isolated, associated with other anomalies or part of a syndrome. Conclusion: Incidence of congenital hand anomalies in Upper Egypt is difficult to be estimated due to social and cultural concepts, lack of education, poor registration and deficient medical survey. Management of hand anomalies should be individualised, carefully planned and started as early as possible to achieve the best outcome. PMID:27833283

  1. Vector snail control in Qalyub, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    van der Schalie, Henry

    1958-01-01

    The author describes a pilot study in vector snail control carried out in 1953-54 by the Bilharziasis Control Project in Qalyub, Egypt. After giving a brief description of the site chosen for the Project—an area of some 5000 acres (2000 hectares) under perennial irrigation—he presents a detailed account of the various snail surveys of the irrigation canals and drains and of the molluscicidal treatment of infested channels. He points out that despite the thoroughness of the surveying and treatment the snails were not completely eliminated from the area and stresses that the high cost of the molluscicide used (copper sulfate) would prohibit its widespread and continual use. He considers, however, that pending the perfection of such long-term bilharziasis control measures as improved sanitation, better treatment facilities, and health education of the public, snail control is of the first importance and determined efforts should be made to find more efficient and cheaper methods of effecting it. PMID:13585074

  2. Familial aggregation of colorectal cancer in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Soliman, A S; Bondy, M L; Levin, B; El-Badawy, S; Khaled, H; Hablas, A; Ismail, S; Adly, M; Mahgoub, K G; McPherson, R S; Beasley, R P

    1998-09-11

    We have investigated the familial aggregation of colorectal cancer and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) in Egypt because of the high incidence of colorectal cancer in Egyptian children and young adults and the prevalence of consanguinity there. In a pilot study, we conducted detailed interviews with 111 Egyptian colorectal cancer patients and 111 healthy Egyptian controls about their family histories of colorectal cancer, and other cancers, consanguinity, age at diagnosis, symptoms and recurrence. Eight patients (7.2%) had one or more first- or second-degree relatives under age 40 with colorectal cancer, suggestive of HNPCC by the Amsterdam criteria. One of these families had a typical history of HNPCC, with 4 relatives having colorectal cancer in 3 generations; 3 of these relatives were younger than age 45 at colon cancer diagnosis, and other relatives had extracolonic tumors. Another 14 patients (12.6%) had a first- or second-degree relative with a family history of other neoplasms such as endometrial, urinary and hepatobiliary cancers that could also be related to HNPCC. Four patients with early-onset colon cancer and a family history of other HNPCC-related cancers reported that their parents were first-degree cousins.

  3. Probabilistic earthquake hazard analysis for Cairo, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Korrat, Ibrahim; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud; Gaber, Hanan

    2016-04-01

    Cairo is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the sixteenth largest metropolitan area in the world. It was founded in the tenth century (969 ad) and is 1046 years old. It has long been a center of the region's political and cultural life. Therefore, the earthquake risk assessment for Cairo has a great importance. The present work aims to analysis the earthquake hazard of Cairo as a key input's element for the risk assessment. The regional seismotectonics setting shows that Cairo could be affected by both far- and near-field seismic sources. The seismic hazard of Cairo has been estimated using the probabilistic seismic hazard approach. The logic tree frame work was used during the calculations. Epistemic uncertainties were considered into account by using alternative seismotectonics models and alternative ground motion prediction equations. Seismic hazard values have been estimated within a grid of 0.1° × 0.1 ° spacing for all of Cairo's districts at different spectral periods and four return periods (224, 615, 1230, and 4745 years). Moreover, the uniform hazard spectra have been calculated at the same return periods. The pattern of the contour maps show that the highest values of the peak ground acceleration is concentrated in the eastern zone's districts (e.g., El Nozha) and the lowest values at the northern and western zone's districts (e.g., El Sharabiya and El Khalifa).

  4. Neutron scattering in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, R.B.

    1994-12-31

    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains.

  5. Heron Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  6. Denuclearization in Argentina and Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Goldemberg, J.; Feiveson, H.A.

    1994-03-01

    The political process that led to the important agreements reached between Argentina and Brazil to guarantee that nuclear energy is used in both countries exclusively for peaceful purposes could prove to be a useful model. These achievements are due primarily to the return of democratic rule in both countries. While the political processes leading to fully integrated democratic institutions may not have taken hold as fully in other regions of proliferation concern, the Argentine-Brazilian agreements suggest that similar regional safeguards arrangements might be possible in South Asia, on the Korean Peninsula eventually, and perhaps in portions of the Middle East. These agreements include the creation of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) for the application of safeguards to both countries; and the Quadripartite Agreement between Brazil, Argentina, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and ABACC.

  7. Indigenous actinorhizal plants of Australia.

    PubMed

    Ganguli, Nishath K; Kennedy, Ivan R

    2013-11-01

    Indigenous species of actinorhizal plants of Casuarinaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae are found in specific regions of Australia. Most of these plants belong to Casuarinaceae, the dominant actinorhizal family in Australia. Many of them have significant environmental and economical value. The other two families with their indigenous actinorhizal plants have only a minor presence in Australia. Most Australian actinorhizal plants have their native range only in Australia, whereas two of these plants are also found indigenously elsewhere. The nitrogen-fixing ability of these plants varies between species. This ability needs to be investigated in some of these plants. Casuarinas form a distinctive but declining part of the Australian landscape. Their potential has rarely been applied in forestry in Australia despite their well-known uses, which are being judiciously exploited elsewhere. To remedy this oversight, a programme has been proposed for increasing and improving casuarinas that would aid in greening more regions of Australia, increasing the soil fertility and the area of wild life habitat (including endangered species). Whether these improved clones would be productive with local strains of Frankia or they need an external inoculum of Frankia should be determined and the influence of mycorrhizal fungi on these clones also should be investigated.

  8. African refugees in Egypt: trauma, loss, and cultural adjustment.

    PubMed

    Henry, Hani M

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the influence of pre-immigration trauma on the acculturation process of refugees, as reflected in the manifestations of their continuing bonds with native cultures. Six African refugees who sought refuge in Egypt because of wars and political persecution were interviewed about the circumstances of their departure from their home countries, as well as their life experiences in Egypt. All participants kept continuing bonds with their native cultures, but these bonds manifested differently depending on their ability to assimilate pre-immigration trauma and cultural losses. Participants who successfully assimilated both pre-immigration trauma and cultural losses developed continuing bonds with their native cultures that helped them (a) integrate the Egyptian culture into their life experiences and (b) tolerate difficult political conditions in Egypt. Participants who could not assimilate their pre-immigration trauma and cultural losses also developed continuing bonds with their native culture, but these bonds only provided them with solace.

  9. Meningeal preservation in a child mummy from Ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Isidro, Albert; Herrerin, Jesús

    2017-01-26

    Over many centuries, the ancient Egyptians developed a method of preserving bodies so they would remain lifelike. Mummification of bodies was originally a natural process in Egypt, which evolved to a sophisticated embalming system to preserve the individual for the afterlife. Afterwards, mummification continued to be practiced in Egypt for some three thousand years, lasting until the end of the Christian era In the Coptic necropolis of Qarara (Middle Egypt) a total of 17 mummified individuals were studied during the 2012 campaign. One of them was a 6 to 8 old-year male child, which damaged skull allowed us to see the meningeal structures covering the entire cranial vault, in absence of brain remains. This finding in a child mummy is very exceptional, as reflected in the specialized literature.

  10. No rheumatoid arthritis in ancient Egypt: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Kwiecinski, Jakub; Rothschild, Bruce M

    2016-06-01

    Antiquity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains controversial, and its origins in Americas or in the Old World are disputed. Proponents of the latter frequently refer to RA in ancient Egypt, but validity of those claims has never been examined. Review of all reported RA cases from ancient Egypt revealed that none of them represent real RA, instead being either examples of changing naming conventions or of imprecise diagnostic criteria. Most cases represented osteoarthritis or spondyloarthropathies. Also review of preserved ancient Egyptian medical writings revealed many descriptions of musculoskeletal disorders, but none of them resembled RA. This suggests that RA was absent in ancient Egypt and supports the hypothesis of the New World origin of RA and its subsequent global spread in the last several centuries.

  11. Television minidramas: social marketing and evaluation in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Lane, S D

    1997-06-01

    Television has been extensively used to communicate health messages for over a decade in Egypt. Viewers of the evening soap operas have been seeing six commercials for family planning, oral rehydration solution (ORS), and immunizations. People of all social classes can sing the jingles of the most popular ads. The producers of these health spots use increasingly sophisticated story lines, settings, and characters representing rural peasants, played by popular and well-liked actors. Evaluation of the content and impact of these messages has lagged behind the creative sophistication of their production. This article reviews the context and content of televised health messages in Egypt during the 1980s, critically assesses the evaluation of mass media health education, and suggests strategies for more effective evaluation. The author worked for some years with a private donor agency that funded the production of a number of televised health commercials in Egypt.

  12. Hepatitis C in Egypt – past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Elgharably, Ahmed; Gomaa, Asmaa I; Crossey, Mary ME; Norsworthy, Peter J; Waked, Imam; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis C viral infection is endemic in Egypt with the highest prevalence rate in the world. It is widely accepted that the implementation of mass population antischistosomal treatment involving administration of tartar emetic injections (from 1950s to 1980s) led to widespread infection. What is less well known, however, is that these schemes were implemented by the Egyptian Ministry of Health on the advice of the World Health Organization. There has been a spectrum of treatments to target the public health disaster represented by the hepatitis C problem in Egypt: from the use of PEGylated interferon to the recent use of direct acting antiviral drugs. Some new treatments have shown >90% efficacy. However, cost is a key barrier to access these new medicines. This is coupled with a growing population, limited resources, and a lack of infection control practices which means Egypt still faces significant disease control issues today. PMID:28053553

  13. Education in Egypt and Egyptian response to eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hady, A.

    2006-08-01

    Astronomy and space science educations started in Egypt at the university level since 1939 at Department of Astronomy and Meteorology, Cairo University. Undergraduate and graduate education in Egypt will be discussed in this work. About 15 students yearly obtain their PhD degrees in Astronomy from the Egyptian universities. Seven International groups under my supervision have done the total solar Eclipse observations that took place on 29 March 2006, in El-Saloum (Egypt). The results of observations and photos will be discussed. Egyptian-French group have done the total solar eclipse observations that took place on 25 February 1952 in Khartoum by using Worthington Camera. The research groups of Astrophysics in Cairo University and Helwan observatory are interested in the fields of solar physics, binary stars, celestial mechanics, interstellar matter and galaxies. Most of the researches have been published in national scientific journals, and some of them were published in International Journals.

  14. Argentina: Nationality, Demography and Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-22

    consciousness. This is where Argentina’s weakness lies, a weakness at the foundation of any political, economic or social plan with which we try to solve our...retained their idiom and customs unusually long; not effectively socialized as Argentines; lack of national identity. The present situation. Our...work force. They lack social coverage and earn minimum wages under the table. Some Paraguayans become "contractors", the peak of the immigrant’s

  15. Biomphalaria alexandrina in Egypt: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Abou-El-Naga, Iman F

    2013-09-01

    The African species of Biomphalaria appeared as a result of the relatively recent west-to-east trans-Atlantic dispersal of the Biomphalaria glabrata-like taxon. In Egypt, Biomphalaria alexandrina is the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni. Biomphalaria alexandrina originated in the area between Alexandria and Rosetta and has historically been confined to the Nile Delta. Schistosoma mansoni reached Egypt via infected slaves and baboons from the Land of Punt through migrations that occurred as early as the Vth Dynasty. The suggestion of the presence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Lower Egypt during Pharaonic times is discussed despite the fact that that there is no evidence of such infection in Egyptian mummies. It is only recently that Biomphalaria alexandrina colonized the Egyptian Nile from the Delta to Lake Nasser. This change was likely due to the construction of huge water projects, the development of new water resources essential for land reclamation projects and the movement of refugees from the Suez Canal zone to the Delta and vice versa. The situation with respect to Biomphalaria in Egypt has become complicated in recent years by the detection of Biomphalaria glabrata and a hybrid between both species; however, follow-up studies have demonstrated the disappearance of such species within Egypt. The National Schistosoma Control Program has made great strides with respect to the eradication of schistosoma; however, there has unfortunately been a reemergence of Schistosoma mansoni resistant to praziquantel. There are numerous factors that may influence the prevalence of snails in Egypt, including the construction of water projects, the increase in reclaimed areas, global climate change and pollution. Thus, continued field studies in addition to the cooperation of several scientists are needed to obtain an accurate representation of the status of this species. In addition, the determination of the genome sequence for Biomphalaria alexandrina and the

  16. The Essene's sister sect in Egypt: another medical site?

    PubMed

    Moss, G A

    2002-12-01

    The Essenes were, allegedly, the authors of the Dead Sea Scrolls and were settled by the Dead Sea. An ancient source locates their sister sect, The 'Therapeutae', as being by the shores of Lake Mareotis in Egypt. No scholar has previously sought to locate where exactly on Lake Mareotis they were settled. Using clues from Essene sites around the Dead Sea, an attempt is made to suggest a specific location for the Therapeutae. Since there are signs of medical activity at many of the Essene sites, a site with medical association is also sought for the location of the Essene's sister sect in Egypt. A suitable site is found at Canopus.

  17. Post-Revolution Egypt: The Roy Adaptation Model in Community.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Britton S; Buckner, Ellen B

    2015-10-01

    The 2011 Arab Spring swept across the Middle East creating profound instability in Egypt, a country already challenged with poverty and internal pressures. To respond to this crisis, Catholic Relief Services led a community-based program called "Egypt Works" that included community improvement projects and psychosocial support. Following implementation, program outcomes were analyzed using the middle-range theory of adaptation to situational life events, based on the Roy adaptation model. The comprehensive, community-based approach facilitated adaptation, serving as a model for applying theory in post-crisis environments.

  18. The Regional Environmental Impacts of Atmospheric Aerosols over Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakey, Ashraf; Ibrahim, Alaa

    2015-04-01

    Identifying the origin (natural versus anthropogenic) and the dynamics of aerosols over Egypt at varying temporal and spatial scales provide valuable knowledge on the regional climate impacts of aerosols and their ultimate connections to the Earth's regional climate system at the MENA region. At regional scale, Egypt is exposed to air pollution with levels exceeding typical air-quality standards. This is particularly true for the Nile Delta region, being at the crossroads of different aerosol species originating from local urban-industrial and biomass-burning activities, regional dust sources, and European pollution from the north. The Environmental Climate Model (EnvClimA) is used to investigate both of the biogenic and anthropogenic aerosols over Egypt. The dominant natural aerosols over Egypt are due to the sand and dust storms, which frequently occur during the transitional seasons (spring and autumn). In winter, the maximum frequency reaches 2 to 3 per day in the north, which decreases gradually southward with a frequency of 0.5-1 per day. Monitoring one of the most basic aerosol parameters, the aerosol optical depth (AOD), is a main experimental and modeling task in aerosol studies. We used the aerosol optical depth to quantify the amount and variability of aerosol loading in the atmospheric column over a certain areas. The aerosols optical depth from the model is higher in spring season due to the impacts of dust activity over Egypt as results of the westerly wind, which carries more dust particles from the Libyan Desert. The model result shows that the mass load of fine aerosols has a longer life-time than the coarse aerosols. In autumn season, the modelled aerosol optical depth tends to increase due to the biomass burning in the delta of Egypt. Natural aerosol from the model tends to scatter the solar radiation while most of the anthropogenic aerosols tend to absorb the longwave solar radiation. The overall results indicate that the AOD is lowest in winter

  19. The Radiometric Map of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minty, Brian; Franklin, Ross; Milligan, Peter; Richardson, Murray; Wilford, John

    2009-12-01

    Geoscience Australia and the Australian State and Territory Geological Surveys have systematically surveyed most of the Australian continent over the past 40 years using airborne gamma-ray spectrometry to map potassium, uranium and thorium elemental concentrations at the Earth's surface. However, the individual surveys that comprise the national gamma-ray spectrometric radioelement database are not all registered to the same datum. This limits the usefulness of the database as it is not possible to easily combine surveys into regional compilations or make accurate comparisons between radiometric signatures in different survey areas. To solve these problems, Geoscience Australia has undertaken an Australia-Wide Airborne Geophysical Survey (AWAGS), funded under the Australian Government's Onshore Energy Security Program, to serve as a radioelement baseline for all current and future airborne gamma-ray spectrometric surveys in Australia. The AWAGS survey has been back-calibrated to the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) radioelement datum. We have used the AWAGS data to level the national radioelement database by estimating survey correction factors that, once applied, minimise both the differences in radioelement estimates between surveys (where these surveys overlap) and the differences between the surveys and the AWAGS traverses. The database is thus effectively levelled to the IAEA datum. The levelled database has been used to produce the first `Radiometric Map of Australia' - levelled and merged composite potassium (% K), uranium (ppm eU) and thorium (ppm eTh) grids over Australia at 100m resolution. Interpreters can use the map to reliably compare the radiometric signatures observed over different parts of Australia. This enables the assessment of key mineralogical and geochemical properties of bedrock and regolith materials from different geological provinces and regions with contrasting landscape histories.

  20. Public University in Argentina: Subsidizing the Rich?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozada, Martin Gonzalez; Menendez, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    Investigates educational equity and efficiency of higher education in Argentina. Concludes that despite the fact that public universities are tuition-free, only students from the richest families in Argentina are able to attend universities. Suggests improving higher education equality and efficiency by charging tuition fees and offering selective…

  1. A new Batillipedidae (Tardigrada, Arthrotardigrada) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Menechella, Agustín G; Bulnes, Verónica N; Cazzaniga, Néstor J

    2015-10-16

    A new species of marine tardigrade, Batillipes acuticauda sp. n., has been found in midlittoral sand sediments collected at Monte Hermoso beach (Buenos Aires province, Argentina). The new species differs from all other members of Batillipedidae by its combination of caudal apparatus, lateral processes and toe patterns. It is the first description of an arthrotardigrade from Argentina.

  2. The Stenopodainae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) of Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Diez, Fernando; Coscarón, María del Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In Argentina, 10 genera and 33 species of Stenopodainae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) have been recorded. Diagnoses of the genera, subgenera and species are given, and an illustrated key to genera is provided. Six species are new records for Argentina and an additional seven species represent new records for provinces. PMID:25493054

  3. ASTER View of Sharm El Sheik, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Red Sea golf resort in Sharm El Sheik, Egypt, where President Clinton met with Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian Authority President Yasser Arafat, stands out against the desert landscape in this image acquired on August 25, 2000.

    This image of the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula shows an area about 30 by 40 kilometers (19 by 25 miles) in the visible and near infrared wavelength region. Vegetation appears in red. The blue areas in the water at the top and bottom of the image are coral reefs. The airport is visible just to the north of the golf resort.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology

  4. [Light and blindness in ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Maria Rosso, Ana

    2010-01-01

    In Ancient Egypt, light and fire, which were closely related to the Sun God Ra, were the sources of life and well-being, while the dark meant danger and death. Similar to death, darkness drops on human beings in deep sleep and they enter a space inhabited by shadows. Dreams were believed to reveal an unknown world, to give the sleeper a glimpse into the future. Vision attracts distant objects and their light, on the other hand, can hurt the eyes like a burning flame. Eyes were the most important organ in Egyptian thought, as they allowed perception of the real world. Their importance has been immortalised in the myth of the Eye of Horus that explains the role of either eye. One represents the moonlight, which disperses the darkness of the night, and the other represents the sunshine, which creates life, and both could also represents the power of human intellect. Blindness, in turn, congenital or disease-related, was considered a divine punishment. A man, thus handicapped, would sink in a state of uncertainty and darkness. To protect the eyes from blindness, people used drops and ointments, which were believed to chase away all kinds of insects and demons that threatened with a variety of eye infections. Egyptian eye doctors or physicians, carried a special kit that contained green chrysocolla and a black kohl makeup, highly appreciated as prophylaxis because they personified Osiris' humours or body fluids. These products were offered to Gods to restore the brightness of divine glance and incite sun and moon to spread their beneficial light.

  5. 72 FR 39445 - Honey From Argentina and China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2007-07-18

    ... COMMISSION Honey From Argentina and China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina and the antidumping duty orders on honey from Argentina and... Publication 3929 (June 2007), entitled Honey From Argentina and China: Investigation Nos. 701-TA-402 and...

  6. Review of Australia's polio surveillance.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Beverley J; Durrheim, David N

    2013-06-30

    With eradication almost within reach, the importance of detecting every poliomyelitis case has taken on additional significance. The selected surveillance strategy must be effective and efficient. A review of polio surveillance in Australia was conducted to consider whether current strategies were optimal. Document review and semi-structured key informant interviews were used to conduct the review. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. The review was an iterative process with feedback on the findings sought from interviewees. Since Western Pacific Regional polio-elimination status was certified, one imported adult case was detected in 2007 in Australia, with no evidence of further transmission, and no Australian paediatric cases identified. Respondents reported that: it was not possible to prevent importations; paediatric cases were more likely to be identified than adult cases; and there may be a low level of suspicion among clinicians. Case detection and outbreak mitigation were considered key reasons to undertake polio surveillance. While Australia has not achieved one of the key World Health Organization (WHO) surveillance targets, this did not compromise Australias polio-free status. Identified issues with polio surveillance were the potential for an importation with high attendant investigation and containment costs, low stool sample collection rates, and the opportunity to improve safeguards around the importation and laboratory storage of biological samples containing poliovirus. The review found strong support for ongoing polio surveillance, particularly to detect imported cases and to demonstrate commitment to maintaining a polio-free region. Existing polio surveillance strategies were considered appropriate for Australia.

  7. Tuberculosis notifications in Australia, 2011.

    PubMed

    Bareja, Christina; Waring, Justin; Stapledon, Richard; Toms, Cindy; Douglas, Paul

    2014-12-31

    The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System received 1,385 tuberculosis (TB) notifications in 2011, representing a rate of 6.2 cases per 100,000 population. While Australia has maintained a rate of 5 to 6 cases per 100,000 for TB since the mid-1980s, there has been a steady increase in incidence over the past decade. In 2011, Australia's overseas-born population continued to represent the majority of TB notifications (88%) with a notification rate of 20.2 per 100,000. The incidence of TB in the Australian-born Indigenous population has fluctuated over the last decade and showed no clear trend; however, in 2011 the notification rate was 4.9 per 100,000, which is a notable decrease from the 7.5 per 100,000 recorded in 2010. The incidence of TB in the Australian-born non-Indigenous population has continued to remain low at 0.9 per 100,000. Australia continued to record only a small number of multi-drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases nationally (n=25), all of which were identified in the overseas-born population. To ensure that Australia can retain its low TB rate and work toward reducing rates further, it is essential that Australia maintains good centralised national TB reporting to monitor trends and identify at-risk populations, and continues to contribute to global TB control initiatives.

  8. First ceratosaurian dinosaur from Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Carrano, Matthew T.; Holland, Timothy; Wagstaff, Barbara E.; Pickering, David; Rich, Thomas H.; Vickers-Rich, Patricia

    2012-05-01

    The basal theropod dinosaur clade Ceratosauria, and its subclade Abelisauroidea, is characteristic of late Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrate faunas in western Gondwana (South America, Africa, Madagascar, and India) and Europe. Yet unambiguous records of ceratosaurs have hitherto been absent from Australia, where the theropod assemblage appears to include several typically Laurasian clades. Here, we report the first evidence of ceratosaurs (and potentially abelisauroids) from eastern Gondwana--a diagnostic astragalocalcaneum from the Aptian (121-125 Ma) of Victoria, Australia. Ceratosauria thus occurred in both western and eastern Gondwana during the Early Cretaceous. This fossil adds to the poorly known dinosaur fauna of Australia, a major clade of basal theropods, emphasising that its mid-Cretaceous theropod diversity was surprisingly cosmopolitan despite relative geographic isolation, including clades that have been thought to be typical of both Gondwana and Laurasia--Ceratosauria, Spinosauridae, Carcharodontosauria, Tyrannosauroidea, and Deinonychosauria. Such a contemporaneous association of theropod clades is unknown from other Gondwanan continents and questions the views that the late Mesozoic dinosaur fauna of Australia was dominated by Gondwanan or Laurasian elements, extreme isolation, relictualism, and/or novelty as a `centre of origin'. The cosmopolitan theropod fauna of Australia probably reflects the global distribution of these clades early in their history, prior to significant continental breakup.

  9. First ceratosaurian dinosaur from Australia.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Carrano, Matthew T; Holland, Timothy; Wagstaff, Barbara E; Pickering, David; Rich, Thomas H; Vickers-Rich, Patricia

    2012-05-01

    The basal theropod dinosaur clade Ceratosauria, and its subclade Abelisauroidea, is characteristic of late Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrate faunas in western Gondwana (South America, Africa, Madagascar, and India) and Europe. Yet unambiguous records of ceratosaurs have hitherto been absent from Australia, where the theropod assemblage appears to include several typically Laurasian clades. Here, we report the first evidence of ceratosaurs (and potentially abelisauroids) from eastern Gondwana--a diagnostic astragalocalcaneum from the Aptian (121-125 Ma) of Victoria, Australia. Ceratosauria thus occurred in both western and eastern Gondwana during the Early Cretaceous. This fossil adds to the poorly known dinosaur fauna of Australia, a major clade of basal theropods, emphasising that its mid-Cretaceous theropod diversity was surprisingly cosmopolitan despite relative geographic isolation, including clades that have been thought to be typical of both Gondwana and Laurasia--Ceratosauria, Spinosauridae, Carcharodontosauria, Tyrannosauroidea, and Deinonychosauria. Such a contemporaneous association of theropod clades is unknown from other Gondwanan continents and questions the views that the late Mesozoic dinosaur fauna of Australia was dominated by Gondwanan or Laurasian elements, extreme isolation, relictualism, and/or novelty as a 'centre of origin'. The cosmopolitan theropod fauna of Australia probably reflects the global distribution of these clades early in their history, prior to significant continental breakup.

  10. Australia`s southeastern Bonaparte basin has plenty of potential

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, S.

    1997-04-21

    Situated in the Timor Sea and Joseph Bonaparte Gulf regions, the Bonaparte basin is one of the Phanerozoic basins of what is now called the North West Shelf of Australia. This basin consists of a number of Paleozoic and Mesozoic synclines and horsts. Drilling success rate for this basin is one of the highest in Australia in the last 5 years. New opportunities are available in the southeastern Bonaparte basin, where seven vacant tracts have just been released for application for exploration permits. The paper discusses the regional geology, previous exploration activities, and potentials of the southern Petrel sub-basin and Darwin shelf.

  11. The Great Pyramid Builders: An Integrated Theme on Ancient Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a themed classroom project designed to teach about the culture and civilization of ancient Egypt. In preparing the project, it is noted that teachers should remember that different learning styles, including activities that provide meaningful experiences, are appropriate in accommodating the various ways children learn.…

  12. [Egypt: Selected Readings, Egyptian Mummies, and the Egyptian Pyramid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.

    This resource packet presents information and resources on ancient Egypt. The bibliography includes readings divided into five sections: (1) "General Information" (46 items); (2) "Religion" (8 items); (3) "Art" (8 items); (4) "Hieroglyphics" (6 items); and (5) selections "For Young Readers" (11…

  13. 78 FR 14979 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... parliament, and has held a Presidential election. In the meantime, the United States remains committed to a... goods, as well as a key destination for American companies seeking to do business in the region. Egypt..., business luncheon with American Chamber of Commerce and U.S. Ambassador's networking reception. Monday...

  14. First report of NDM-1-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Zafer, Mai Mahmoud; Amin, Mady; El Mahallawy, Hadir; Ashour, Mohammed Seif El-Din; Al Agamy, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    This work reports the occurrence of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) in metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Egypt for the first time, and the presence of more than one blaMBL gene in carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa.

  15. Adaptations of International Standards on Educational Leadership Preparation in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purinton, Ted; Khalil, Dalia

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a case study of one leadership preparation program, utilizing US school leadership standards and practices, offered in Egypt. This case study illuminates how cultural and policy distinctions impact differing necessities of educational leadership, and how those necessities conflict or concur with the international standards and…

  16. Design a Book: A Quest in Ancient Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, David

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a classroom project that combines creative writing, basic book design, and social studies content. During this project, the authors' seventh grade students research a variety of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites while reviewing course material from a unit of study on ancient Egypt, practice project management skills…

  17. Islamic Law and Legal Education in Modern Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakissa, Aria Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the transmission of Islamic legal knowledge in modern Egypt. It is based on two years of ethnographic fieldwork in Cairo among formally trained Islamic scholars. With governmental permission, I was able to attend classes at both al-Azhar's Faculty of Shari'ah and Cairo University's Dar al-'Ulum. I also participated in…

  18. Political Culture and the Nature of Political Participation in Egypt.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    Nasser’s Egypt, Austin: Univ. of Texas Press, 1971. Meisel, J.H., The Myth of the Ruling Class: Gaetano Mosca and the Elite, Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan... Mosca called the "second strata of the ruling class" - the strata without which the leadership could not 27 rule (Meisel 1962, p. 217]. The clientage

  19. Angles of Elevation of the Pyramids of Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Arthur F.

    1982-01-01

    The nature and history of the construction of pyramids in Egypt is detailed. It is noted that one can only theorize about why the Egyptians used particular angles of elevation. It is thought, perhaps, that new clues will provide a clear solution to this mystery as additional artifacts and hieroglyphics are discovered. (MP)

  20. A Mediterranean Rio Grande. Regional report 1: Egypt.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    This document concerns the impact of environmental problems on the economic life of people in Egypt and North Africa. With only a quarter of arable land, Egypt is incapable of feeding a population of 59 million people, and at the same time the economic condition has deteriorated. It has been estimated that Egypt needs to create about 450,000 jobs annually to keep up with additions to the labor force. Population growth, on the other hand, was projected to reach 81 million by 2010. In addition, Egypt is facing ever-growing water shortages with an estimate that within the next 20 years the demand for water will exceed the country's allotted share of Nile water by nearly 60%. Likewise, food shortages will likely be exacerbated by a continuous sea level rise through permanent flooding of agricultural lands. People in Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco have migrated to Europe for several reasons: first, because of the steady population growth and unmet needs in family planning in these countries; second, because of the population pressures caused by the deterioration of the environment. Also, inadequate water supply has been affecting these countries. The prognosis for these countries must be cautious and conservative and their respective local governments must develop the programs that address these problems.

  1. Tackling Poverty-Migration Linkages: Evidence from Ghana and Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabates-Wheeler, Rachel; Sabates, Ricardo; Castaldo, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Are migrants able to use the migration experience to their benefit, that is to improve their livelihoods, and is this result nuanced by whether migrants are poor or non-poor? This paper explores these questions quantitatively using data on migrants and non-migrants from Ghana and Egypt. It describes the main challenges in the empirical literature…

  2. The northern lakes of Egypt: Encounters with a wetland environment

    SciTech Connect

    Parmenter, B.M.

    1991-01-01

    Five lakes fringe the northern coast of Egypt. Together they represent 25% of the remaining wetland habitat in the Mediterranean basin. Residents of these lakes traditionally exploited a wide variety of resources. Today these lakes face a number of threats to their existence, including large-scale reclamation and water pollution. Agricultural authorities, engineers, fishery managers, and conservationists in Egypt and abroad debate about how best to manage and develop the lake region's resources, but few of these groups understand or communicate with one another, or with residents of lake communities. This study explores how these various groups encounter the coastal lakes of Egypt, focusing particularly on Lakes Manzala and Burullus. Its purpose is to explore the ways in which the lakes, their resources and their inhabitants have been evaluated, and to analyze how underlying preconceptions, goals and structures of professional discourse influence such evaluations. The thesis is that environmental management is in reality not a rational plan but a process. Egypt is currently attempting to develop a coherent strategy to remedy its environmental problems without adversely affecting economic growth.

  3. Overview on health research ethics in Egypt and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, Diaa; Abd El Aal, Wafaa; Saleh, Azza; Sleem, Hany; Khyatti, Meriem; Mazini, Loubna; Hemminki, Kari; Anwar, Wagida A

    2014-08-01

    Developing countries, including Egypt and North African countries, need to improve their quality of research by enhancing international cooperation and exchanges of scientific information, as well as competing for obtaining international funds to support research activities. Research must comply with laws and other requirements for research that involves human subjects. The purpose of this article is to overview the status of health research ethics in Egypt and North African countries, with reference to other Middle Eastern countries. The EU and North African Migrants: Health and Health Systems project (EUNAM) has supported the revision of the status of health research ethics in Egypt and North African countries, by holding meetings and discussions to collect information about research ethics committees in Egypt, and revising the structure and guidelines of the committees, as well as reviewing the literature concerning ethics activities in the concerned countries. This overview has revealed that noticeable efforts have been made to regulate research ethics in certain countries in the Middle East. This can be seen in the new regulations, which contain the majority of protections mentioned in the international guidelines related to research ethics. For most of the internationally registered research ethics committees in North African countries, the composition and functionality reflect the international guidelines. There is growing awareness of research ethics in these countries, which extends to teaching efforts to undergraduate and postgraduate medical students.

  4. African Refugees in Egypt: Trauma, Loss, and Cultural Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Hani M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pre-immigration trauma on the acculturation process of refugees, as reflected in the manifestations of their continuing bonds with native cultures. Six African refugees who sought refuge in Egypt because of wars and political persecution were interviewed about the circumstances of their departure from their…

  5. The Politics of Educational Transfer and Policymaking in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Ali S.

    2010-01-01

    For the past two centuries, western modern education has informed education policies and practices in Egypt. However, few researchers have analyzed the historical or current politics of educational transfer in this country. This article investigates the ways in which foreign transfer has influenced Egyptian education, both historically and…

  6. Burden of stroke in Egypt: current status and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Abd-Allah, Foad; Moustafa, Ramez Reda

    2014-12-01

    Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries have a diversity of populations with similar life style, dietary habits, and vascular risk factors that may influence stroke risk, prevalence, types, and disease burden. Egypt is the most populated nation in the Middle East with an estimated 85.5 million people. In Egypt, according to recent estimates, the overall prevalence rate of stroke is high with a crude prevalence rate of 963/100,000 inhabitants. In spite of disease burden, yet there is a huge evidence practice gap. The recommended treatments for ischemic stroke that are guideline include systematic supportive care in a stroke unit or stroke center is still deficient. In addition, the frequency of thrombolysis in Egypt is very low for many reasons; the major one is that the health insurance system is not covering thrombolysis therapy in nonprivate sectors so patients must cover the costs using their own personal savings; otherwise, they will not receive treatment. Another important factor is the pronounced delay in prehospital and in hospital management of acute stroke. Improvement of stroke care in Egypt should be achieved through multi and interdisciplinary approach including public awareness, physicians' education, and synergistic approach to stroke care with Emergency Medical System.

  7. Arab Spring Impact on Executive Education in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wafa, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of the Arab Spring on public administration programs in Egypt, with a special focus on executive education programs. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study draws on stakeholder analysis, and uses both primary and secondary data. Findings: The author describes the impact of the Arab Spring…

  8. Using Social Studies Themes to Investigate Modern Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Janie

    2010-01-01

    Many elementary teachers explore the marvels of ancient Egypt with their students, as evidenced by the numerous available websites on this topic for teaching elementary history. The drama and mystery of ancient civilizations with treasures such as mummies, King Tut, and the Giza Pyramids are intriguing to children, yet there is another layer of…

  9. 78 FR 7752 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... government officials, chambers of commerce, and business groups; and networking receptions for companies and... increased pressure on Egypt's roads, bridges, railroads, power stations, water and sewage, hospitals, and... For Investment and Free Zones presentation on major public-private partnership projects; group...

  10. Scribing Work Songs at an Archeological Dig in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poppe, Donna

    2011-01-01

    This article reports research conducted in the northeastern corner of Egypt's Nile Delta during an excavation at the Mendes archeological dig site in July-August, 2007. Donald Redford, Professor at Pennsylvania State University, accepted the author as the only nonarcheologist that year. In addition to duties of measuring, registering, and storing…

  11. Developing & Innovating Education in Egypt: Policy & Plans. Implementation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Educational Research, Cairo (Egypt).

    Policies, plans, and programs for development and innovation in Egyptian education are discussed. Chapter 1 focuses on the fundamentals of general education in Egypt, examining fundamental traits of Egyptian society, local and international variables, general trends of educational development and innovation, traits and goals of future education,…

  12. Perfectionism and Self Concept among Primary School Children in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tofaha, Gamal Al Sayed; Ramon, Patricia Robledo

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to explore the correlation between dimensions of perfectionism and self-concepts among school aged students in Egypt. Method: Two hundred-eighty four children (fifth and sixth graders) participated in this study. The mean age of the participants was 144.37 months, SD 6.36. Pearson correlation…

  13. Space science education in Egypt and the 2006 solar eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hady, A. A.

    2008-12-01

    The space science research has been started in Egypt since 1910 by measuring the solar constant as indication of solar radiation at Helwan Observatory. The solar sunspot studies and its influence on the Nile flooding was erected and operated at Helwan as a first solar station in Egypt during 1957. Zeiss-Coude' refractor was installed in 1964. Astronomy and space science educations started in Egypt at the university level since 1936 at Department of Astronomy and Meteorology of Cairo University. Undergraduate and graduate education in Egypt will be discussed in this work. The total solar eclipse observations on 25th February, 1952 in Khartoum have been done by on Egyptian-French group by using the Worthington Camera. Several international groups observed the total solar eclipse on 29 March 2006, in El-Saloum (Egypt). A coordinated effort partly undertaken in the frame of the French-Egyptian scientific cooperation permitted joined simultaneous eclipse observations of the solar corona. Several Ground base instrumental set-up has been prepared. Spaceborne quasi-simultaneous EIT and Lasco observations of SoHO have been used as well as TRACE observations in Lyman-alpha of HI. W-L images taken with and without a radial filter are processed to show the magnetic structure of the corona. Polarization analysis is performed to study the F-corona in the outer corona. Several filters have been obtained to show the distribution of the emission measures of the inner and middle corona. Spectra were obtained over several emission lines.

  14. A Tour of Modern and Historic Egypt and Israel. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Egypt and Israel).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdren, Greg

    This curriculum unit supplement for middle school and secondary teachers helps students in grades 5-12 explore Egypt and Israel, in both ancient and modern contexts. The unit supplement begins with student objectives, such as practicing map and research skills and reviewing summary information concerning historic and current interests. It provides…

  15. An Experience Guide: Egypt and Israel 2000. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Egypt and Israel).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feijoo, Laura

    This "experience guide," developed by a teacher who traveled in the region, aims to provide information on the culture, history, society, geography, and political aspects of Egypt and Israel. Intended for teachers, the guide can enhance lessons in world history. Each segment summarizes a topic and provides questions designed to encourage…

  16. Space Radar Image of Safsaf Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This three-frequency space radar image of south-central Egypt demonstrates the unique capability of imaging radar to penetrate thin sand cover in arid regions to reveal hidden details below the surface. Nearly all of the structures seen in this image are invisible to the naked eye and to conventional optical satellite sensors. Features appear in various colors because the three separate radar wavelengths are able to penetrate the sand to different depths. Areas that appear red or orange are places that can be seen only by the longest wavelength, L-band, and they are the deepest of the buried structures. Field studies in this area indicate L-band can penetrate as much as 2 meters (6.5 feet) of very dry sand to image buried rock structures. Ancient drainage channels at the bottom of the image are filled with sand more than 2 meters (6.5 feet) thick and therefore appear dark because the radar waves cannot penetrate them. The fractured orange areas at the top of the image and the blue circular structures in the center of the image are granitic areas that may contain mineral ore deposits. Scientists are using the penetrating capabilities of radar imaging in desert areas in studies of structural geology, mineral exploration, ancient climates, water resources and archaeology. This image is 51.9 kilometers by 30.2 kilometers (32.2 miles by 18.7 miles) and is centered at 22.7 degrees north latitude, 29.3degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received; and blue is X-band, vertically transmitted and received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 16, 1994, on board the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission

  17. [The health system of Argentina].

    PubMed

    Belló, Mariana; Becerril-Montekio, Victor M

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the health system of Argentina.This system has three sectors: public, social security and private.The public sector includes the national and provincial ministries as well as the network of public hospitals and primary health care units which provide care to the poor and uninsured population. This sector is financed with taxes and payments made by social security beneficiaries that use public health care facilities. The social security sector or Obras Sociales (OS) covers all workers of the formal economy and their families. Most OS operate through contracts with private providers and are financed with payroll contributions of employers and employees. Finally, the private sector includes all those private providers offering services to individuals, OS beneficiaries and all those with private health insurance.This sector also includes private insurance agencies called Prepaid Medicine Enterprises, financed mostly through premiums paid by families and/or employers.This paper also discusses some of the recent innovations implemented in Argentina, including the program Remediar.

  18. Education in acoustics in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyara, Federico

    2002-11-01

    Over the last decades, education in acoustics (EA) in Argentina has experienced ups and downs due to economic and political issues interfering with long term projects. Unlike other countries, like Chile, where EA has reached maturity in spite of the acoustical industry having shown little development, Argentina has several well-established manufacturers of acoustic materials and equipment but no specific career with a major in acoustics. At the university level, acoustics is taught as a complementary--often elective--course for careers such as architecture, communication engineering, or music. In spite of this there are several research centers with programs covering environmental and community noise, effects of noise on man, acoustic signal processing, musical acoustics and acoustic emission, and several national and international meetings are held each year in which results are communicated and discussed. Several books on a variety of topics such as sound system, architectural acoustics, and noise control have been published as well. Another chapter in EA is technical and vocational education, ranging between secondary and postsecondary levels, with technical training on sound system operation or design. Over the last years there have been several attempts to implement master degrees in acoustics or audio engineering, with little or no success.

  19. High Technology in Australia: Rhetoric or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekhon, J. G.; Shannon, A. G.

    1985-01-01

    This paper outlines the imbalance in Australia's intellectual and high technology trade, and argues that if Australia is to move beyond being a high technology colony, a new attitude toward research and development needs to be engendered, particularly in the private sector of industry. It is noted that Australia supplies a small number of the…

  20. Contextualising Multilingualism in Australia Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    This paper will begin by looking at globalisation, education and transnationalism in the context of Australia's post-war immigration history leading to a brief examination of the international literature surrounding second and third generation immigration. A brief review of international educational trends in English language teaching in recent…

  1. Governing International Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, Ravinder

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses the international education sector in Australia as a case study to argue against understanding globalization as an exogenous force. It introduces the notion of globalization as a governmentality and discusses alternative interpretations which take into account notions of subjectivity, positionality and space/time. The paper…

  2. Education Policy Making in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, R. F., Ed.

    Thirteen papers and a speech address the theme of who makes education policy in Australia. Kwong Lee Dow's address assesses national planning in uncertain times and urges flexibility. John Steinle outlines the operation of Australian policy-making and recommends developing think tanks. Edward Holdaway analyzes the complex relationship between…

  3. Improving Reading in Australia's Outback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharratt, Lyn; Hayes, Peter; Coutts, James

    2015-01-01

    Ten years ago, six teachers established a program of literacy intervention and professional learning in remote northwestern Australia based on the Reading Recovery principles. This group of teachers was determined to learn what had to happen in order for them to make a difference with students and then to make it happen. Their work led to getting…

  4. The crustal thickness of Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clitheroe, G.; Gudmundsson, O.; Kennett, B.L.N.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the crustal structure of the Australian continent using the temporary broadband stations of the Skippy and Kimba projects and permanent broadband stations. We isolate near-receiver information, in the form of crustal P-to-S conversions, using the receiver function technique. Stacked receiver functions are inverted for S velocity structure using a Genetic Algorithm approach to Receiver Function Inversion (GARFI). From the resulting velocity models we are able to determine the Moho depth and to classify the width of the crust-mantle transition for 65 broadband stations. Using these results and 51 independent estimates of crustal thickness from refraction and reflection profiles, we present a new, improved, map of Moho depth for the Australian continent. The thinnest crust (25 km) occurs in the Archean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia; the thickest crust (61 km) occurs in Proterozoic central Australia. The average crustal thickness is 38.8 km (standard deviation 6.2 km). Interpolation error estimates are made using kriging and fall into the range 2.5-7.0 km. We find generally good agreement between the depth to the seismologically defined Moho and xenolith-derived estimates of crustal thickness beneath northeastern Australia. However, beneath the Lachlan Fold Belt the estimates are not in agreement, and it is possible that the two techniques are mapping differing parts of a broad Moho transition zone. The Archean cratons of Western Australia appear to have remained largely stable since cratonization, reflected in only slight variation of Moho depth. The largely Proterozoic center of Australia shows relatively thicker crust overall as well as major Moho offsets. We see evidence of the margin of the contact between the Precambrian craton and the Tasman Orogen, referred to as the Tasman Line. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Petroleum system of the Gippsland Basin, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, Michele G.

    2000-01-01

    The Gippsland Basin Province 3930, located on the southeastern coast of Australia, is formed from two successive failed rifts that developed into a passive margin during the Cretaceous. Formation of this basin is related to the break up of Gondwana, which resulted in the separation of Antarctica from Australia, and the separation of the New Zealand and Lord Howe Rise continental crust from Australia. Coals and coaly shales of Late Cretaceous through Eocene age are the source rocks for oil and gas that accumulated predominantly in anticlinal traps. The basin was Australia?s major producing basin until 1996 when daily oil/condensate production from the North West Shelf surpassed it.

  6. The genus Macroocula Panfilov in Egypt, with two new species (Hymenoptera: Bradynobaenidae: Apterogyninae).

    PubMed

    Gadallah, Neveen S; Soliman, Ahmed M; Al-Shahat, Ahmed M; Hossni, Mohammed T

    2015-09-16

    The genus Macroocula Panfilov in Egypt is reviewed. Seven species were previously recorded from Egypt: M. magna (Invrea, 1965), M. mahunkai Argaman, 1994, M. morawitzi (Radoszkowski, 1888), M. nigriventris (Invrea, 1960), M. nitida (Bischoff, 1920), M. savignyi (Klug, 1829) and M. sinaica (Invrea, 1963). Macroocula brothersi Gadallah & Soliman, sp. nov. (Egypt, Wadi Shab, Red Sea) and M. salehi Gadallah & Soliman, sp. nov. (Egypt, Wadi Shaghab, Aswan) are described and illustrated. The subspecies M. nitida nitida (Bischoff, 1920) and M. nitida patrizii (Invrea, 1932) are raised to species level. An illustrated key and a faunistic list of Macroocula species are given.

  7. The ochodaeidae of Argentina (coleoptera, scarabaeoidea).

    PubMed

    Paulsen, M J; Ocampo, Federico C

    2012-01-01

    The Ochodaeidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) of Argentina are revised. Previously, two species of Ochodaeinae were known from the country, both in the genus Parochodaeus Nikolajev: Parochodaeus campsognathus (Arrow) and Parochodaeus cornutus (Ohaus). An additional 7 species of Parochodaeus from Argentina are described here as new. In addition, Gauchodaeus patagonicus, new genus and new species in the subfamilyChaetocanthinae, is described. This is the first record of the subfamily Chaetocanthinae in South America. Redescriptions, diagnoses, and maps are provided for each species. We also provide a key to genera and a key to species of Parochodaeus of Argentina. With this work, the number of ochodaeid species known from Argentina is increased from 2 to 10.

  8. Argentina spectral-agronomic multitemporal data set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmer, D.; Kinzler, C.; Tomppkins, M. A.; Badhwar, G. D.

    1983-01-01

    A multitemporal LANDSAT spectral data set was created. The data set is over five 5 nm-by-6 nm areas over Argentina and contains by field, the spectral data, vegetation type and cloud cover information.

  9. The Ochodaeidae of Argentina (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, M.J.; Ocampo, Federico C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Ochodaeidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) of Argentina are revised. Previously, two species of Ochodaeinae were known from the country, both in the genus Parochodaeus Nikolajev: Parochodaeus campsognathus (Arrow) and Parochodaeus cornutus (Ohaus). An additional 7 species of Parochodaeus from Argentina are described here as new. In addition, Gauchodaeus patagonicus, new genus and new species in the subfamilyChaetocanthinae, is described. This is the first record of the subfamily Chaetocanthinae in South America. Redescriptions, diagnoses, and maps are provided for each species. We also provide a key to genera and a key to species of Parochodaeus of Argentina. With this work, the number of ochodaeid species known from Argentina is increased from 2 to 10. PMID:22451781

  10. Surveillance of Space in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newsam, G.

    Australia's geography and technology base got it off to a flying start in the early days of surveillance of space, starting with CSIRO's first radio telescope in the 1940's and climaxing in NASA's establishment of station 43 in the Deep Space Network at Tidbinbilla in 1965. But Britain's exit from space and the subsequent closure of the Woomera launch range and associated space tracking facilities in the early 1970's saw the start of a long draw-down of capability. Programs such as CSIRO's radio astronomy telescopes, Electro-Optic Systems' adoption of laser technology for satellite laser ranging and tracking system, and the exploration of the use of technology developed in Australia's over-the-horizon-radar program for surveillance of space, kept some interest in the problem alive, but there has been no serious national investment in the area for the last thirty years. Recently, however, increased awareness of the vulnerability of space systems and the need to include potential opponents' space capabilities in operations planning has led to a revival of interest in space situational awareness within the Australian Defence Organisation. While firm commitments to new systems must wait on the next Defence White Paper due out at the end of 2007 and the policy directions it formally endorses, discussions have already started with the US on participating in the Space Surveillance Network (SSN) and developing a comprehensive space situational awareness capability. In support of these initiatives the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) is drawing up an inventory of relevant Australian capabilities, technologies and activities: the paper will describe the findings of this inventory, and in particular local technologies and systems that might be deployed in Australia to contribute to the SSN. In the optical regime the available options are rather limited; they centre primarily on the satellite laser ranging technology developed by Electro-Optic Systems and

  11. Argentina: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-06

    Level Dialogue with Argentina to serve as a mechanism to ensure sustained engagement on bilateral issues and approaches toward regional and global...social unrest. In late 2001, as the banking system faltered and confidence in the government of President de la Rúa evaporated, widespread demonstrations...Deputies. Sources: International Monetary Fund (IMF); National Institute of Statistics and Census, INDEC (Argentina); World Bank (WB); and U.S

  12. Occurrence of Meloidogyne spp. in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Doucet, M. E.; Pinochet, J.

    1992-01-01

    A record of 84 plant species in 32 families that are hosts to the root-knot nematode species found in Argentina is presented. The genus Meloidogyne appears to be widely distributed in the country, with Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica the most frequently detected species. Other species found in Argentina include M. arenaria, M. cruciani, M. decalineata, M. hapla, and M. ottersoni. The present survey is supplemented with existing published information. PMID:19283059

  13. Implementation of the Regulatory Authority Information System in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, S.D.; Schetnan, R.; Hasan, A.; Mohamed, Y.T.

    2006-07-01

    As part of the implementation of a bar-code-based system to track radioactive sealed sources (RSS) in Egypt, the Regulatory Authority Information System Personal Digital Assistant (RAIS PDA) Application was developed to extend the functionality of the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) RAIS database by allowing users to download RSS data from the database to a portable PDA equipped with a bar-code scanner. [1, 4] The system allows users in the field to verify radioactive sealed source data, gather radioactive sealed source audit information, and upload that data to the RAIS database. This paper describes the development of the RAIS PDA Application, its features, and how it will be implemented in Egypt. (authors)

  14. Entropy of Egypt's virtual water trade gravity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Bierbach, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    The study investigates the entropy of Egypt's virtual water trade gravity distribution, in order to provide a chart of Egypt's embodied water balance in agricultural trade, in relation to distances with its major counterparties. Moreover, our calculations on the amount of the embodied water traded between Egypt and each of its partners take place according to a combination of available data on the blue, green and grey water footprints as well as the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) database of traded amounts per crop type. A study on the virtual water trade gravity, enables us to enrich former related studies (Fracasso 2014; Fracasso, Sartori and Schiavo 2014) via examining Egypt's water supply dependence on the Nile River and if comparative advantages -purely from the side of water quantities- can be identified via recognizing which water footprint categories are particularly high. Additionally, this methodology can comprise -from a fundamental level- a guide for revealing the importance of water footprint types for Egypt's agricultural sector; hence, Egypt's potential comparative advantages, as far as quantitative water endowments are exclusively concerned (without consideration of water or crop prices). Although it is pointed out very correctly by various authors (Antonelli and Sartori 2014) that the virtual water trade concept does not incorporate many important aspects of water supply -such as heavy water price subsidizing- to be used accurately for the identification of comparative advantages, we consider that the purely quantitative examination can provide strong fundamental indications -especially for green and grey water footprints, which are hypothesized to be less sensitive to subsidizing. In overall, this effect can very well provide a primary indication on the organization of the global alimentation trade network (Yang et al. 2006). The gravity equation used contains water footprint data for the 15 top traded crops and the distances for Egypt

  15. False color image of Safsaf Oasis in southern Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a false color image of the uninhabited Safsaf Oasis in southern Egypt near the Egypt/Sudan border. It was produced from data obtained from the L-band and C-band radars that are part of the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar onboard the Shuttle Endeavour on April 9, 1994. The image is centered at 22 degrees North latitude, 29 degrees East longitude. It shows detailed structures of bedrock, and the dark blue sinuous lines are braided channels that occupy part of an old broad river valley. Virtually everything visible on this radar composite image cannot be seen either when standing on the ground or when viewing photographs or satellite images such as Landsat. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43920.

  16. The practice and politics of archaeology in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Meskell, L

    2000-01-01

    Archaeologists working in Egypt have rarely considered the local/global ramifications and responsibilities of their field practices: many continue to operate under what might be termed the residual effects of colonialism. Taking an explicitly postcolonial stance I argue that there is much more at stake than the intellectual enterprise. This paper outlines the ways in which scholars could undertake a more engaged archaeology and how we might more closely be involved with the people and pasts of modern Egypt. The connected tensions of tourism and terrorism are foregrounded, demonstrating that heritage issues are salient to both spheres. Finally, I explore the nation's relationship to its pharaonic past over the past few centuries and include some contemporary articulations and representations.

  17. Restoration and Conservation of Islamic Monuments in Egypt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-15

    ENGINEERING CENTER for ARCHAEOLOGY and ENVIRONMENT, BACKGROUND THE PRESENT STRUCTURE of the EGYPTIAN ANTIQUITIES ORGANIZATION ABSTRACTS (AVAILABLE AS OF 8...serve as an outpost in Egypt for American institutions with archaeological programs. ARCE established a perma- nent office in Cairo to assist expedition...catalog of the Luxor Museum. The last decade saw ARCE grow tremendously, with the introduction of lectures, tours and symposia for the Egyptian and American

  18. An Ancient Egyptian Diagonal Star Table in Mallawi, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, Sarah; Cockcroft, Robert

    2013-11-01

    A coffin belonging to an Egyptian Middle Kingdom official Hor-em-hetepu, on public display in the Mallawi Monuments Museum, Egypt, contains a previously-unpublished diagonal star table (or "diagonal star clock"). This table adds to the other twenty-four examples of this type of astronomical record or calendar from around 2100 B.C. The table displays a regular diagonal pattern of decan (star or asterism) names, with some interesting points of content, epigraphy, and typology.

  19. New Political Realities and the Gulf; Egypt, Syria and Jordan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    populations, increasing unemployment, and growing stresses on infrastructures . In all three states, there is increasing resentment of the Gulf states...as societal needs are met, and essential repairs to the shaky Egyptian infrastructure may be again postponed. The annual population growth rate in...Egypt is 2.6 percent-one child every 27 seconds. The current social infrastructure is unable to handle the increasing load of one million new Egyptians

  20. Middle miocene trachypatagus (Echinodermata, Echinoidea),from Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, M. S. M.

    Two species of T rachypatagus, an echinoid restricted to the Mediterranean region: T. tuberculatus (Wright) and T. nehalae n. sp., are described from the Marmarica Limestone Formation (Langhian-Serravalhan) of Mediterranean Seacoast of Egypt. A third species of the same genus is considered to be new, but left in open nomenclature on account of the paucity of material. Stratigraphy of the studied sections, paleogeographic distribution and the habitat of the genus are discussed.

  1. JPRS Report Near East and South Asia: Egypt.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    8217 stress the need to establish a system to debts to Germany, estimated in total at nearly 870 million monitor weapons imports which is intimately linked...34Egypt Proposes ’Secu- against anticipated requirements of the next 20 years. Coop- rity Balance’ System With Israel, Defines Four Points for...his report, the deputy prime minister asserted that one of trative system , local government, and service and economic the significant mainstays of the

  2. Epidemiology of osteoarthritis in Australia.

    PubMed

    March, Lynette M; Bagga, Hanish

    2004-03-01

    Arthritis affects around 3 million people in Australia, representing about 15% of the population. Osteoarthritis is the leading cause of pain and disability among the elderly. Osteoarthritis is the third leading cause of life-years lost due to disability. Obesity and joint injury are important potentially modifiable risk factors for the development of osteoarthritis. Obesity is also an important predictor of progression of osteoarthritis. Currently, about 19000 hip and 20000 knee replacements are performed for osteoarthritis in Australia each year. Prevalence of osteoarthritis and the need for total joint replacement surgery are likely to increase because of a combination of increasing risk factors (age, obesity, injury), increasing expectations for improved quality of life, and improved surgical and anaesthetic techniques making surgery possible for more people. Services to provide these cost-effective procedures need to be increased. Primary and secondary prevention programs aimed at reducing obesity, preventing injury and improving rehabilitation and physical activity are urgently required.

  3. Observations on rift valley fever virus and vaccines in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV, genus: Phlebovirus, family: Bunyaviridae), is an arbovirus which causes significant morbidity and mortality in animals and humans. RVFV was introduced for the first time in Egypt in 1977. In endemic areas, the insect vector control and vaccination is considering appropriate measures if applied properly and the used vaccine is completely safe and the vaccination programs cover all the susceptible animals. Egypt is importing livestock and camels from the African Horn & the Sudan for human consumption. The imported livestock and camels were usually not vaccinated against RVFV. But in rare occasions, the imported livestock were vaccinated but with unknown date of vaccination and the unvaccinated control contacts were unavailable for laboratory investigations. Also, large number of the imported livestock and camels are often escaped slaughtering for breeding which led to the spread of new strains of FMD and the introduction of RVFV from the enzootic African countries. This article provide general picture about the present situation of RVFV in Egypt to help in controlling this important disease. PMID:22152149

  4. Prospects of effective microorganisms technology in wastes treatment in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Shalaby, Emad A

    2011-01-01

    Sludge dewatering and treatment may cost as much as the wastewater treatment. Usually large proportion of the pollutants in wastewater is organic. They are attacked by saprophytic microorganisms, i.e. organisms that feed upon dead organic matter. Activity of organisms causes decomposition of organic matter and destroys them, where the bacteria convert the organic matter or other constituents in the wastewater to new cells, water, gases and other products. Demolition activities, including renovation/remodeling works and complete or selective removal/demolishing of existing structures either by man-made processes or by natural disasters, create an extensive amount of wastes. These demolition wastes are characterized as heterogeneous mixtures of building materials that are usually contaminated with chemicals and dirt. In developing countries, it is estimated that demolition wastes comprise 20% to 30% of the total annual solid wastes. In Egypt, the daily quantity of construction and demolition (C&D) waste has been estimated as 10 000 tones. That is equivalent to one third of the total daily municipal solid wastes generated per day in Egypt. The zabbaliin have since expanded their activities and now take the waste they collect back to their garbage villages where it is sorted into recyclable components: paper, plastics, rags, glass, metal and food. The food waste is fed to pigs and the other items are sold to recycling centers. This paper summarizes the wastewater and solid wastes management in Egypt now and future. PMID:23569767

  5. A background to the feminist movement in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hoodfar, H

    1992-01-01

    The origins of the feminist movement in Egypt can be traced back to the social restructuring that occurred during the reign of Mohammed Ali (1805-48). At that time, a debate raged over whether female education was essential to national development. Reformers such as Kassim Amin argued in favor of education for all women and condemned polygamy, supporting their arguments with references to the Koran. Women from the upper classes used their wealth, over which Muslim law gives them full control, to found hospitals, schools, and training centers. By 1914, there were 14 magazines devoted to women's issues. Women participated in anticolonial movements and nationalist party activities while continuing to advocate improvements in women's status. In 1924, Egypt became the 1st Islamic country to deveil women without state intervention. The Egyptian Feminist Party was founded in 1923, and the Women's Political Party was established in 1942 to coordinate the fight for women's equality and the revision of family law. Women's full political rights gained recognition when Egypt won independence in 1956, and the 1st female Minister, Hekmat Abu-Zaid, was appointed in 1962. Ironically, the feminist movement stagnated in the 1st few decades after independence as women's organizations became coopted into the state. The movement has been revitalized, however, by Islamic attacks on women's rights.

  6. Active surveillance for avian influenza virus, Egypt, 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Kayali, Ghazi; Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S; Gomaa, Mokhtar M; Maatouq, Asmaa M; Shehata, Mahmoud M; Moatasim, Yassmin; Bagato, Ola; Cai, Zhipeng; Rubrum, Adam; Kutkat, Mohamed A; McKenzie, Pamela P; Webster, Robert G; Webby, Richard J; Ali, Mohamed A

    2014-04-01

    Continuous circulation of influenza A(H5N1) virus among poultry in Egypt has created an epicenter in which the viruses evolve into newer subclades and continue to cause disease in humans. To detect influenza viruses in Egypt, since 2009 we have actively surveyed various regions and poultry production sectors. From August 2010 through January 2013, >11,000 swab samples were collected; 10% were positive by matrix gene reverse transcription PCR. During this period, subtype H9N2 viruses emerged, cocirculated with subtype H5N1 viruses, and frequently co-infected the same avian host. Genetic and antigenic analyses of viruses revealed that influenza A(H5N1) clade 2.2.1 viruses are dominant and that all subtype H9N2 viruses are G1-like. Cocirculation of different subtypes poses concern for potential reassortment. Avian influenza continues to threaten public and animal health in Egypt, and continuous surveillance for avian influenza virus is needed.

  7. Measurement of Women's Agency in Egypt: A National Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Yount, Kathryn M; VanderEnde, Kristin E; Dodell, Sylvie; Cheong, Yuk Fai

    2016-09-01

    Despite widespread assumptions about women's empowerment and agency in the Arab Middle East, psychometric research of these constructs is limited. Using national data from 6214 married women ages 16-49 who took part in the 2006 Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey, we applied factor analysis to explore and then to test the factor structure of women's agency. We then used multiple indicator multiple cause structural equations models to test for differential item functioning (DIF) by women's age at first marriage, a potential resource for women's agency. Our results confirm that women's agency in Egypt is multi-dimensional and comprised of their (1) influence in family decisions, including those reserved for men, (2) freedom of movement in public spaces, and (3) attitudes about gender, specifically violence against wives. These dimensions confirm those explored previously in selected rural areas of Egypt and South Asia. Yet, three items showed significant uniform DIF by women's categorical age at first marriage, with and without a control for women's age in years. Models adjusting for DIF and women's age in years showed that women's older age at first marriage was positively associated with the factor means for family decision-making and gender-violence attitudes, but not freedom of movement. Our findings reveal the value of our analytical strategy for research on the dimensions and determinants of women's agency. Our approach offers a promising model to discern "hierarchies of evidence" for social policies and programs to enhance women's empowerment.

  8. Evolving telehealth reimbursement in Australia.

    PubMed

    Bursell, S-E; Zang, S; Keech, A C; Jenkins, A J

    2016-08-01

    Video-based consultation is the only telehealth service reimbursed by the Medicare Benefits Schedule in Australia, but the uptake of telehealth is still low and inconsistent. There is a clear need for the development of appropriate medical evidence to support implementation of telehealth services. With the ubiquitous use of mobile phones, mobile health becomes important in facilitating health services and impacting clinical outcomes anywhere.

  9. Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The oval shaped basin of the sedimentary rocks of the Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia (23.0S, 119.0E) dominates the center of this near nadir view. The Fortescue River is the remarkably straight, fault controlled feature bordering the Hammersley on the north. Sand dunes are the main surface features in the northeast and southwest. Many dry lakebeds can be seen to the east as light grey colored patches along the watercourses.

  10. Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Along the coast of Queensland, Australia (18.0S, 147.5E), timbered foothills of the Great Dividing Range separate the semi-arid interior of Queensland from the farmlands of the coastal plains. Prominent cleared areas in the forest indicate deforestation for farm and pasture lands. Offshore, islands and the Great Barrier Reef display sand banks along the southern sides of the structures indicating a dominant southerly wind and current direction.

  11. Education in Ancient and the Present Egypt: From 4000 B.C. to A.D. 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwan, Nour Eldin

    The discovery and deciphering of the Rosetta stone led to a rediscovery of Egypt's contribution to world culture and civilization. This document outlines the growth of knowledge and education in ancient Egypt and emphasizes the disciplines of science, medicine, art, philosophy, agriculture, and engineering. Ancient Egypt's decline and the…

  12. 76 FR 81468 - Notice of Decision to Authorize the Importation of Shredded Lettuce From Egypt Into the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... Lettuce From Egypt Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... into the continental United States of fresh shredded lettuce from Egypt. Based on the findings of a... importation of fresh shredded lettuce from Egypt. DATES: Effective Date: December 28, 2011. FOR...

  13. 77 FR 22557 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Strawberry Fruit From Egypt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... Analysis for the Importation of Strawberry Fruit From Egypt Into the Continental United States AGENCY... associated with the importation into the continental United States of fresh strawberry fruit from Egypt... via the importation of fresh strawberry fruit from Egypt. We are making the pest risk...

  14. 78 FR 13304 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Strawberry Fruit From Egypt Into the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... Strawberry Fruit From Egypt Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... permits for the importation into the continental United States of fresh strawberry fruit from Egypt. Based... weeds via the importation of fresh strawberry fruit from Egypt. DATES: Effective Date: February 27,...

  15. FAMILY SUPPORT FOR WOMEN’S HEALTH-SEEKING BEHAVIOR: A QUALITATIVE STUDY IN RURAL SOUTHERN EGYPT (UPPER EGYPT)

    PubMed Central

    OHASHI, AYUMI; HIGUCHI, MICHIYO; ADLY LABEEB, SHOKRIA; GHAREDS MOHAMED, ASMAA; CHIANG, CHIFA; AOYAMA, ATSUKO

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This qualitative study investigated the influence of family support on women’s health-seeking behavior in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt). We carried out separate focus group discussions (FGDs) with 3 groups (6 women with children under 5 years old, 6 men, and 4 elderly women, respectively) in a village in Assiut Governorate, an underprivileged region in Upper Egypt. The FGDs aimed to identify how different types of family support affected women’s health-seeking behavior in areas including maternal health and common illnesses of women and children. Our results showed that maternal health issues were often discussed by husbands and wives, while mothers-in-law had little apparent influence. We also found that women could access support resources more easily than expected through their extended families. Our study showed that husbands had an important role in encouraging women’s health in the family, while the effect of mothers-in-law on women’s health-seeking behavior was not substantial. The study indicated that women received considerable support from co-resident family members, their natal family, and their neighbors, which helped women in seeking health services. PMID:25129988

  16. Eternal Egypt: Masterworks of Ancient Art from the British Museum. Learning from Exhibitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the exhibition "Eternal Egypt: Masterworks of Ancient Art from the British Museum" that explores the four major periods of Egyptian history. Provides background information on ancient Egypt and describes the art that was present in each of the four kingdoms. (CMK)

  17. "Discourse on the Go": Thematic Analysis of Vehicle Graffiti on the Roads of Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Nashar, Mohamed; Nayef, Heba

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates graffiti drawn on vehicles in Egypt as an expression of their authors' social values, religious ideologies and political affiliations. Little research has been done in Egypt on these meaning-loaded messages. This paper gives further evidence that graffiti are a very powerful mode of expression for groups that feel…

  18. 78 FR 45285 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Egypt's Mysterious Book...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Egypt's Mysterious Book of the..., 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Egypt's Mysterious Book... custodians. I also determine that the exhibition or display of the exhibit objects at The Walters Art...

  19. Negotiating Sustainability: Reclaiming Ecological Pathways to Bio-Cultural Regeneration in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salem, Abeer Abdel Hamid

    2013-01-01

    What can an indigenous Egyptian paradigm for social evolution that represents the composite of bio-cultural diversities of Egypt and multiple bio-regions within it look like? With such exploratory inquiry in mind, this dissertation research focuses on analyzing the practice of development in Egypt through the lens of place, critiquing its…

  20. Arab Republic of Egypt: An Economic Analysis of Early Childhood Education/Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssens, Wendy; Van Der Gaag, Jacques; Tanaka, Shinichiro

    Within Egypt's national framework for improving access to and quality of education, the government has announced the intention of enlarging compulsory basic education with 1 or 2 years of preschool. This report to the World Bank examines early childhood development (ECD) in Egypt from an economic and financial perspective. Following an executive…

  1. Access to Higher Education in Egypt: Examining Trends by University Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckner, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Access to higher education in Egypt is expanding in both the public and private sectors. Using a nationally representative sample from the Survey of Young People in Egypt, this article is able to disaggregate patterns of access by both demographic group and university sector. Findings suggest that access in the public sector is governed strongly…

  2. Arab Republic of Egypt: Review of Early Childhood Education and Human Capital Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ushiogi, Morikazu; Tanaka, Shinichira; O'Gara, Chloe; Sprague, David

    This report submitted to the World Bank analyzes the early childhood development (ECD) policies, strategies, and programs in Egypt in 2001. Information was gathered from documents, observations in kindergartens and nurseries, interviews with more than 50 teachers and parents, and a survey of policymakers and program managers in Cairo, Egypt. The…

  3. Current status of phytoparasitic nematodes and their host plants in Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Egypt many phytoparasitic nematodes constitute a major constraint to agricultural production, especially in sandy soil and reclaimed desert lands. Nematological surveys were conducted to determine the genera and species of phytoparasitic nematodes on associated host plants in Egypt. The results i...

  4. E-Learning as an Alternative Strategy for Tourism Higher Education in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afifi, Galal M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research aims to be one of the earliest studies to investigate tourism e-learning in Egypt, thus, it will initially shed light on the current standing of e-learning in Egypt before proceeding to: identify the present status of e-learning in Egyptian tourism higher education; explore the potential advantages and drawbacks of using…

  5. School Psychology in Egypt: Results of the 2008 International School Psychology Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimerson, Shane R.; Alghorani, Mohammad Adnan; Darweish, Abdel-Hameed; Abdelaziz, Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    The International School Psychology Survey (ISPS) was used to gather information about the characteristics, training, roles, activities, preferences, research interests and the challenges experienced by school psychology specialists in Egypt. To the degree that the data are representative of the school psychology specialists Egypt, it appears that…

  6. Occurence of phytoparasitic nematodes associated with some crop plants in Northern Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of phytoparasitic nematodes in Egypt is very important for agricultural production. A nematode survey was conducted in northern Egypt to identify the genera and species of phytoparasitic nematodes associated with some crop plants. A total of 240...

  7. 78 FR 23625 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Egypt

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Egypt Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Egypt and I hereby waive this restriction....

  8. 76 FR 31673 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Arab Republic of Egypt

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Arab Republic of Egypt Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the... Act with respect to the Arab Republic of Egypt and I hereby waive such restriction. This...

  9. 78 FR 56768 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Egypt

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Egypt Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the... the Act and similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to Egypt and I hereby waive...

  10. 75 FR 3953 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Egypt

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Egypt Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the... section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to the Government of Egypt, and I hereby waive such...

  11. Community-Based Education in Egypt: Is It Achieving Its Stated Goals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langsten, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Egypt promises "education for all". Primary attendance and completion have increased substantially. Still, many children remain out of school. There remain questions about the quality of education. Since the early 1990s, community-based education (CBE) has been part of Egypt's educational programme. Community-based education is meant to…

  12. The Landing of CMS Missionaries to an Ottoman Dominion: Missionary Education in Egypt (1825-1862)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurdogan, Azru M.

    2016-01-01

    During the period under investigation (1825-1862), Egypt was a dominion of the Ottoman Empire and attracted the attention and interest of all European states that had been displaying their military and commercial superiority for a long time. In the nineteenth century, Egypt was not only destitute of schools, but had also entered a rapid…

  13. 77 FR 24555 - Determination on Foreign Military Financing Assistance for Egypt

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Determination on Foreign Military Financing Assistance for Egypt Pursuant to section 7041(a)(1)(C) of the... Foreign Military Financing for Egypt, and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination shall...

  14. English Language Teaching in Egypt. At the Crossroads of Global Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monem, Doaa Abdul; El-Sokkary, Wael; Haddaway, Carol; Bickel, Beverly

    2001-01-01

    Discusses English language teaching in Egypt, where students are required to study English beginning in the fourth grade. Describes the educational requirements of Egyptians pursuing careers as English teachers, inservice training opportunities, overseas training programs, and future directions of English teaching in Egypt.(Author/VWL)

  15. Importation of Films for Cinema and Television in Egypt. Communication and Society No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rachty, Gehan; Sabat, Khalil

    A study of the nature and sources of films imported into Egypt is examined in this report. The first section of the report explores the social effects of imported films. The second section provides an overview of the effect and distribution of foreign films in Egypt. The third section analyzes the specific foreign films projected in cinemas or…

  16. A Comparison between Rural Education in Egypt and the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Judith

    1990-01-01

    Compares Egypt and United States rural school systems. Countries share financial limitations, low salaries, and teacher turnover. Discusses Egypt's national curriculum, high student dropout rate, administrative problems, and possible solutions. Concludes that countries' rural education problems are similar but differ as to cause. (TES)

  17. Higher Education in Egypt. Policy Research Working Papers Series. Education and Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Alan

    This analytical report on higher education in Egypt argues that Egypt's policy must take account of the realities of declining government budgets and employment and the need to rely increasingly on the private sector, which must become more competitive internationally. Previous policy, which expanded higher education rapidly (despite a…

  18. 72 FR 6745 - Honey From Argentina and China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2007-02-13

    ... COMMISSION Honey From Argentina and China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of expedited five-year reviews concerning the countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina and the antidumping duty orders on honey from Argentina and China. SUMMARY: The Commission...

  19. 66 FR 31948 - Honey From Argentina and China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-06-13

    ... COMMISSION Investigations Nos. 701-TA-402 (Final) and 731-TA-892-893 (Final) Honey From Argentina and China... Argentina and less-than-fair-value imports from Argentina and China of honey, provided for in subheadings... honey, artificial honey containing more than 50 percent natural honey by weight, preparations of...

  20. 71 FR 64292 - Honey From Argentina and China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-11-01

    ... COMMISSION Honey From Argentina and China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of five-year reviews concerning the countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina and the antidumping duty orders on honey from Argentina and China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that...

  1. 65 FR 69573 - Honey From Argentina and China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-11-17

    ... COMMISSION Honey From Argentina and China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports from Argentina and China of honey... United States is materially injured by reason of imports from Argentina of honey that are alleged to...

  2. 77 FR 45653 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ...)] Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Institution of five-year reviews concerning the suspended investigations on lemon juice from Argentina and Mexico. AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... the suspended investigations on lemon juice from Argentina and Mexico would be likely to lead...

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of the long terminal repeat of feline immunodeficiency viruses from Japan, Argentina and Australia.

    PubMed

    Yamada, H; Miyazawa, T; Tomonaga, K; Kawaguchi, Y; Maeda, K; Castellano, M C; Kai, C; Tohya, Y; Mikami, T

    1995-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the long terminal repeat of five Japanese, five Argentine and three Australian isolates of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) were determined and compared with those of isolates previously described. The results revealed that the Japanese isolates were found to cluster with nucleotide sequence similarity of 95.6%-99.4%. The Australian isolates also clustered with nucleotide sequence similarity of 97.2%-99.4%. The Argentine isolates formed two groups; the LP9 isolate is closely related to the Japanese isolates, whereas the LP1, LP3, LP20 and LP24 isolates are distant from both the Japanese and Australian isolates. From these results, FIV can be divided into three groups, namely: (I) the Californian, Australian and British isolates; (II) the Japanese isolates and one Argentine LP9 isolate; (III) the other Argentine isolates.

  4. Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S.; Maatouq, Asmaa M.; Cai, Zhipeng; McKenzie, Pamela P.; Webby, Richard J.; El Refaey, Samir; Kandeel, Amr; Ali, Mohamed A.

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt, avian influenza A subtype H5N1 and H9N2 viruses are enzootic in poultry. The control plan devised by veterinary authorities in Egypt to prevent infections in poultry focused mainly on vaccination and ultimately failed. Recently, widespread H5N1 infections in poultry and a substantial increase in the number of human cases of H5N1 infection were observed. We summarize surveillance data from 2009 through 2014 and show that avian influenza viruses are established in poultry in Egypt and are continuously evolving genetically and antigenically. We also discuss the epidemiology of human infection with avian influenza in Egypt and describe how the true burden of disease is underestimated. We discuss the failures of relying on vaccinating poultry as the sole intervention tool. We conclude by highlighting the key components that need to be included in a new strategy to control avian influenza infections in poultry and humans in Egypt. PMID:26886164

  5. Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kayali, Ghazi; Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S; Maatouq, Asmaa M; Cai, Zhipeng; McKenzie, Pamela P; Webby, Richard J; El Refaey, Samir; Kandeel, Amr; Ali, Mohamed A

    2016-03-01

    In Egypt, avian influenza A subtype H5N1 and H9N2 viruses are enzootic in poultry. The control plan devised by veterinary authorities in Egypt to prevent infections in poultry focused mainly on vaccination and ultimately failed. Recently, widespread H5N1 infections in poultry and a substantial increase in the number of human cases of H5N1 infection were observed. We summarize surveillance data from 2009 through 2014 and show that avian influenza viruses are established in poultry in Egypt and are continuously evolving genetically and antigenically. We also discuss the epidemiology of human infection with avian influenza in Egypt and describe how the true burden of disease is underestimated. We discuss the failures of relying on vaccinating poultry as the sole intervention tool. We conclude by highlighting the key components that need to be included in a new strategy to control avian influenza infections in poultry and humans in Egypt.

  6. Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia and Germany. Australia Centre Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Gerald, Ed.; Reuling, Jochen, Ed.

    This document contains 17 papers on vocational training and lifelong learning in Australia and Germany. The following papers are included: "Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia and Germany: Background" (Gerald Burke); "Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia: Observations and Conclusions from a…

  7. International Travel by Congress: Legislation in the 111th Congress, Background, and Potential Policy Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-31

    16 Brazil 16 Czech Republic 16 El Salvador 16 Guatemala 16 Hungary 16 India 16 Ireland 16 Japan 16 Jordan 16 Peru 16 Poland 16 Russia 16...Africa, Republic of 17 44 Spain 16 43 India 16 42 Australia 16 41 Egypt 17 41 Czech Republic 16 40 Hong Kong 17 40 Hungary 16 40 Netherlands...Angola Dominican Republic Kyrgyzstan Qatar Antarctica East Timora Laos Romania Antigua and Barbuda Ecuador Latvia Russia Argentina Egypt Lebanon

  8. Historical Thermometer Exposures in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, Neville; Tapp, Roger; Burrows, Kevin; Richards, David

    1996-06-01

    There is ample contempory evidence that most meteorological themometers in Australia were not exposed in Stevenson screens until very late in the nineteenth century, and in many places not until well into the twentieth century. There is also evidence, from a long-running comparision at Adelaide, that mean temperatures in a Stevenson screen are lower than in an open stand in Australian conditions. Thus, there are strong grounds for expecting that ninteenth century, and some early twentieth century, Australian temperatures are biased warm, relative to modern exposures.

  9. History of exploration in Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, L.A. )

    1989-09-01

    The paper will review the exploration activities in Argentina, but slightly departing from the technical-geological viewpoints which have been dealt with in a number of previous congresses and symposiums. The talk will cover Argentine geological basins, exploration history in each of them, a brief outline of their stratigraphic columns and producing formations, highlighting their original and remaining hydrocarbon reserves. Based on the history of the exploratory discoveries, and what has been learned from them, a forecast will be made of the necessary effort to recover the reserves that is estimated will be consumed up to the year 2000. The results obtained from the four rounds of bids for the exploration of the 165 areas under the so-called Houston Plan, will be extensively discussed and its principal clauses will be underlined. A special emphasis will be given to the Gas Exploration issue, summarizing its short history and the essential role that this fluid will play in the Argentine energy balance of the future.

  10. Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Ray

    1993-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 25 items published by the Australian Government Publications Service in 1992-93 that deal with a wide variety of issues, including trade performance, indigenous Australians, multiculturalism, the environment, aging, privacy versus law enforcement, urban life, health, violence against women, cultural tourism,…

  11. Argentina's YPF hones in on privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    This paper reports on Argentina's push to privatize and attract more foreign investment to its petroleum sector which continues to gather momentum. The Argentine government plans by year end 1992 to sell unprofitable assets of Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales, then sell as much as 50% of the state oil company through an international stock offering. If privatization proceeds as expected, YPF Pres. Jose Estenssoro the, the company's stock will be offered to private investors early in 1993. The company was founded in 1922. By March 1992, Argentina also will begin selling all assets of state owned Gas del Estado (GDE) through an international bidding process expected to take about 18 months.

  12. A current view of oncology in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Huñis, Adrián Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Since 2010, with the creation of the National Cancer Institute, the Argentine Republic has been tackling the battle against cancer as a genuine public health problem. Today in Argentina, there is a “cancer policy” whose pillars are prevention, education, assistance, and research. In this article, we provide information about the incidence and mortality of the tumours most common in adults and children, and details of some epidemiological aspects and advances Argentina has achieved in the battle against cancer in the past decade. PMID:26913073

  13. Ticks infesting humans in Northern Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lamattina, Daniela; Nava, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This work presents records of ticks infesting humans in northern Misiones Province, Argentina. Also, notes on potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens are included. A total of 282 ticks attached to researchers were collected and identified by their morphological characters. Eight tick species were found: Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma incisum, Amblyomma ovale, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus. Some of these species as A. dubitatum, A. ovale and R. sanguineus have been found infected with spotted fever group rickettsiae pathogenic to humans in Brazil and Argentina. The potential role as vectors of humans pathogens of the ticks found attached to humans in this study is discussed.

  14. New Myzopodidae (Chiroptera) from the Late Paleogene of Egypt: Emended Family Diagnosis and Biogeographic Origins of Noctilionoidea

    PubMed Central

    Gunnell, Gregg F.; Simmons, Nancy B.; Seiffert, Erik R.

    2014-01-01

    Myzopodidae is a family of bats today represented by two extant species of the genus Myzopoda that are restricted to the island of Madagascar. These bats possess uniquely derived adhesive pads on their thumbs and ankles that they use for clinging to smooth roosting surfaces. Only one fossil myzopodid has been reported previously, a humerus from Pleistocene deposits at Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania that was tentatively referred to the genus Myzopoda. Here we describe a new genus and two new species of myzopodids based on dental remains from Paleogene deposits in the Fayum Depression in Egypt, and provide an emended diagnosis for the family Myzopodidae. Phasmatonycteris phiomensis n. sp. is represented by four specimens from the early Oligocene Jebel Qatrani Formation and P. butleri n. sp. is known from a single specimen from the late Eocene Birket Qarun Formation. Together these specimens extend the temporal range of Myzopodidae by 36+ million years, and the geographic range by nearly 4000 kilometers. The new myzopodids, along with previously described bats from the Fayum and Australia, suggest that eastern Gondwana played a critical role in the origin and diversification of several bats clades notably including the superfamily Noctilionoidea, the majority of which live in the Neotropics today. PMID:24504061

  15. The First Children's Cancer Hospital, Egypt International Scientific Conference.

    PubMed

    Zaghloul, Mohamed S

    2009-10-01

    A wide gathering of scientists, clinicians, pharmacists and nurses specialized in pediatric oncology practice met to celebrate the second anniversary of Children's Cancer Hospital, Egypt (CCHE). The celebration was in the form of high-brow teaching lectures and reports presented by international experts in the fields of pediatric CNS tumors, solid tumors (neuroblastoma, nephroblastoma, soft tissue and bone tumors, lymphoma, leukemia and pediatric oncology nursing. The conference extends its activities to hospital management, clinical pharmacy and telemedicine. Furthermore, CCHE experts presented the efforts performed to establish a state-of-the-art pediatric oncology hospital equipped with all needed facilities to raise the standard of care to the highest levels.

  16. Megaselia scalaris causing human intestinal myiasis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mazayad, Said A M; Rifaat, Manal M A

    2005-04-01

    Megaselia scalaris is a worldwide distributed insect of medical importance. In a laboratory-based study, stool samples with undefined maggot infestation were examined and the presence of M. scalaris maggots was confirmed. Binocular stereo-microscopy was used for identification of the maggots. Larvae were allowed to develop into adults onto a human stool culture. The larvae and the emerged flies were identified using standard keys. This may be the first report of M. scalaris as a causative agent of human myiasis in Egypt. Details of the third instar larva, pupa and adults were given.

  17. Management of Egypt's Surface and Groundwater Resources: Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, M.; Ahmed, M.; Yan, E.; Milewski, A.; Mohamed, L.; Farag, A. Z. A.

    2014-12-01

    The River Nile is the main source of fresh water in Egypt. Most of Egypt's River Nile water (>85%) originates as precipitation over the Ethiopian highlands and is channeled by the Blue Nile. The construction (years: 2011 to 2017) of the Renaissance Dam (reservoir capacity: 70 x 109m3) on the Blue Nile poses an extreme threat to Egypt's population. If the reservoir was to be filled in 7 years, Egypt will lose (during each of 7 years following dam completion) a minimum of 15 x 109m3 of its annual allocation (55 x 109m3) to reservoir filling (10 x 109m3), evaporation (3.5 x 109m3), and infiltration (1.5 x 109m3). Three solutions are proposed: Solution I takes advantage of the cyclicity of Nile floods and is based on findings from a calibrated (against temporal head data) unconfined 2-dimensional transient groundwater flow model for Lake Nasser and surroundings and a calibrated (against lake levels) surface water model. Models show with time: (1) losses to infiltration will decrease (1975-193: 58.4 109m3; 1993-2001: 43.6 x 109m3) due to silting of Lake bottom and encroachment of excess Lake Nasser water will increase (e.g., 1975-1993: none; 1993-2001: 17 x 109m3). We propose to develop sustainable agricultural in the Western Desert: (1) In high flood years, excess Lake Nasser water (e.g., 1993-2001: 17 x 109m3) is channeled across the plateau bounding (from west) the River Nile valley to artificially recharge the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS) that crops out west of the plateau and, (2) in low flood years, we extract the recharged groundwater. Solution II calls on mining the NSAS at reasonable rates. Using temporal (January 2003 - September 2012) Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data we estimate the annual depletion rates at 2 x 109m3 due to artificial extraction (1.5 x 109m3) and natural discharge (0.5 x 109m3). Assuming current GRACE depletion rates, the recoverable groundwater (5,180 x 109m3) will last for 2500 years; if we were to quadruple

  18. Ancient Egypt to modern ophthalmology: via Otago, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Coster, Douglas J

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the contribution of two New Zealanders, Barrie Jones and Rowland Wilson, to the development of modern ophthalmology. Their related contribution was made over a period of 80 years; it began in Egypt with Wilson, developed when they worked together in Dunedin and where they created the foundations for the brilliant career that Jones was to go on to in London. Their story emphasizes the impact of teaching and mentorship. It highlights the extended reach of teaching and the power of continuity in research.

  19. [A critical regard over the medicine in the Ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Ledermann, Walter

    2016-12-01

    Generally, writing about the medicine in the Ancient Egypt, historians adopt an approach rather benevolent than critical, giving to its practice merits that never had. Reading without prejudice the famous twelve papyri -and now one more- we can't less to pronounce a condemnatory sentence, because at the end this medicine looks like a patchwork of ignorance, superstition, magic believes and a pair of grains of knowledge. However, we can rescue its surgical practice, very useful, sometimes efficient, and quite necessary in those centuries of war, slavery and permanent abuse of the weak and the poor people by the high political rulers and priests.

  20. Circular feature among dunes of the Great Sand Sea, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Baz, F.

    1981-01-01

    A circular crater, about 4 kilometers in diameter and located at 24.2 deg N, 26.4 deg E, was discovered in Landsat images among the linear dunes of the Great Sand Sea, Egypt. The crater has a sharp and crenulated rim crest, a terraced wall, a discontinuous inner structure (approximately 1.6 kilometers in diameter), and a few rim blocks. Its morphological and morphometric characteristics are similar to those of meteorite impact craters and other circular structures on the moon and the terrestrial planets. Because of its interaction with windblown sand, it is particularly comparable with craters on Mars.

  1. Sexual attitudes, preferences and infections in Ancient Egypt.

    PubMed Central

    Morton, R S

    1995-01-01

    This socio-sexual review of Ancient Egyptian society aims to increase awareness that the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is largely determined by the way a society is structured and how that structure functions. The prevalence of STDs in Ancient Egypt has been found to be low. This state of affairs was maintained for centuries. Although the structure of their society was rigidly hierarchical, Egyptian people made it function in an acceptable way. What might be learned is concerned more with prevention than cure. Whether this has any relevance today is discussed. Images PMID:7635496

  2. Detection of crustal strains in Egypt using GPS networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, S. M.

    2003-04-01

    DETECTION OF CRUSTAL STRAINS IN EGYPT USING GPS NETWORKS S.M. Mahmoud National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG), Helwan, Cairo, Egypt. Fax: 202 554 80 20 Email: salahm55@yahoo.com Abstract. Studies of crustal deformation in Egypt started as early as 1983 following the occurrence of Aswan earthquake in 1981. Several publications were published and presented in local and international meetings. On November 14, 1981 an earthquake with magnitude 5.6 occurred at kalabsha fault, 70-Km southwest of Aswan City. This earthquake is considered as an important event as it is located not far from the Aswan High Dam. Therefore, the first program for monitoring crustal deformation has been started in Kalabsha area during the winter of 1983 with the cooperation between the National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG) and the Aswan &High Dam Authority. A local network of 18 terrestrial geodetic points was established at kalabsha area in 1983 in order to monitor the horizontal and vertical crustal movements along Kalabsha fault. The initial measurements were carried out in December 1984. These measurements were repeated twice a year till December 1994.An other terrestrial network were established at seiyal fault, 15 km to the north of kalabsha fault. The initial measurements of seiyal network were carried out in March 1989 and repeated twice a year till August 1992. Analysis of the terrestrial horizontal measurements from both networks for the epoch from December 1984 till December 1994 indicated significant deformations varying from 3x10-6 to 7x10-6. Since the year of 1994 till now, the geodetic observations by means of Space Techniques which known as Global Positioning System (GPS) were applied instead of the Terrestrial ones to cover some other regions of the country. Data adjustment and analysis of the reapted GPS campaigns from the different networks prevailed significant movements which helps in more understanding the geodynamics of

  3. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Andersen, S R

    1997-06-01

    Based on a study of mummies, skeletons, burial rites, medical instruments, medicaments, literature and objets d'art from Ancient Egypt before the Hellenistic Period, the understanding of the eye, its diseases and their treatment at that time is described. Magic spells, religious rites and medical treatments, especially with eye ointments, were probably used often complementary to one another. We must be very cautious about our conclusions in regard to the effectiveness of the treatments. Eye diseases have been depicted only exceptionally in Egyptian art, except for blindness and 'symbolic blindness'.

  4. A new species of Rhytidognathus (Carabidae, Migadopini) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Roig-Juñent, Sergio; Rouaux, Julia

    2012-01-01

    The Migadopini are a small tribe of Carabidae with 47 species that occur in South America, Australia, and New Zealand, in the sub-Antarctic areas. In South America, most of the genera inhabit areas related to sub-Antartic Nothofagus forest except two monogeneric genera, the Ecuadorian genus Aquilex Moret and the Pampean genus Rhytidognathus Chaudoir. These two genera are geographically isolated from the remaining five South American genera. New material of Rhytidognathus from the northeast of Buenos Aires province and from Entre Ríos province permits establishing that the previous records of Rhytidognathus ovalis (Dejean) for Argentina were erroneous and that it belongs to a new species. Based on external morphological characters and from male and female genitalia we describe Rhytidognathus platensis as a new species. In this contribution we provide illustrations, keys, habitat characteristics and some biogeographic considerations on the distribution of Rhytidognathus.

  5. A new species of Rhytidognathus (Carabidae, Migadopini) from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Roig-Juñent, Sergio; Rouaux, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Migadopini are a small tribe of Carabidae with 47 species that occur in South America, Australia, and New Zealand, in the sub-Antarctic areas. In South America, most of the genera inhabit areas related to sub-Antartic Nothofagus forest except two monogeneric genera, the Ecuadorian genus Aquilex Moret and the Pampean genus Rhytidognathus Chaudoir. These two genera are geographically isolated from the remaining five South American genera. New material of Rhytidognathus from the northeast of Buenos Aires province and from Entre Ríos province permits establishing that the previous records of Rhytidognathus ovalis (Dejean) for Argentina were erroneous and that it belongs to a new species. Based on external morphological characters and from male and female genitalia we describe Rhytidognathus platensis as a new species. In this contribution we provide illustrations, keys, habitat characteristics and some biogeographic considerations on the distribution of Rhytidognathus. PMID:23275755

  6. Favorable conditions noted for Australia shale oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    After brief descriptions of the Rundle, Condor, and Stuart/Kerosene Creek oil shale projects in Queensland, the competitive advantages of oil shale development and the state and federal governments' attitudes towards an oil shale industry in Australia are discussed. It is concluded that Australia is the ideal country in which to start an oil shale industry.

  7. Unity in Diversity: Multicultural Education in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Barbara, Ed.; Harris, Joy, Ed.

    Papers presented at two institutes held in Australia to discuss multicultural education are presented. Topics discussed include demographic background of Australia, principles of Australian pluralism, problems and issues for teachers making decisions on curriculum, the educational experience of children of migrant origin, the objectives and…

  8. Australia's First Public Private Partnership School Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The design and construction of nine schools has commenced in Australia using a Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) methodology. This is the first project in Australia where social infrastructure has been acquired in this way. The Australian project is being managed by the New South Wales (NSW) State Government through its Department of Education…

  9. Language Planning and Placenaming in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Flavia

    2007-01-01

    Before colonisation Australia was fully named by its Indigenous population, but that complex network of naming was largely overlooked as Europeans introduced their own names for features and settlements. Each of Australia's states and territories now has a nomenclature authority, whose activities are coordinated through the Committee for…

  10. Imported case of poliomyelitis, Melbourne, Australia, 2007.

    PubMed

    Stewardson, Andrew J; Roberts, Jason A; Beckett, Carolyn L; Prime, Hayden T; Loh, Poh-Sien; Thorley, Bruce R; Daffy, John R

    2009-01-01

    Wild poliovirus-associated paralytic poliomyelitis has not been reported in Australia since 1977. We report type 1 wild poliovirus infection in a man who had traveled from Pakistan to Australia in 2007. Poliomyelitis should be considered for patients with acute flaccid paralysis or unexplained fever who have been to poliomyelitis-endemic countries.

  11. Serum immunoglobulin levels in Australia antigen positive and Australia antigen negative hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Peters, C. J.; Johnson, K. M.

    1972-01-01

    Ig levels were determined by radial immunodiffusion in uncomplicated cases of acute hepatitis with or without Australia antigenaemia. Initial sera from Australia antigen negative cases showed a striking elevation in IgM levels when compared to Australia antigen positive cases (6·5 versus 1·9 mg/ml). None of twenty-four Australia antigen positive cases exceeded 3 mg/ml IgM, and only 3/58 Australia antigen negative cases exhibited values below 3 mg/ml. Intial sera from Australia antigen positive and Australia antigen negative subjects did not differ in concentration of IgG, IgA, or IgD. Serial determinations of IgG revealed a transient fall in patients with Australia antigen positive hepatitis, and a rise in Australia antigen negative cases. Asymptomatic, Australia antigen positive, Guaymi Indian subjects were compared to matched Australia antigen negative controls from the same indigenous group and no differences in the concentration of IgG, IgM, IgA or IgD were found, although elevations of IgG and IgM were common in both groups. No evidence of abnormal proteins was found when sera were tested by cellulose acetate electrophoresis or by immunoelectrophoresis versus immunoglobulin-specific antisera. Ultracentrifugal analysis failed to detect `7S' IgM. PMID:4625396

  12. Rates and characteristics of sleep paralysis in the general population of Denmark and Egypt.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Hinton, Devon E

    2013-09-01

    In the current research we report data from two studies that examined rates and characteristics of sleep paralysis (SP) in the general population of Denmark and Egypt. In Study I, individuals from Denmark and Egypt did not differ in age whereas there were more males in the Egyptian sample (47 vs. 64 %); in Study II, individuals from Denmark and Egypt were comparable in terms of age and gender distribution. In Study I we found that significantly fewer individuals had experienced SP in Denmark [25 % (56/223)] than in Egypt [44 % (207/470)] p < .001. In Study II we found that individuals who had experienced at least one lifetime episode of SP from Denmark (n = 58) as compared to those from Egypt (n = 143) reported significantly fewer SP episodes in a lifetime relative to SP experiencers from Egypt (M = 6.0 vs. M = 19.4, p < .001). SP in the Egyptian sample was characterized by high rates of SP (as compared to in Denmark), frequent occurrences (three times that in the Denmark sample), prolonged immobility during SP, and great fear of dying from the experience. In addition, in Egypt, believing SP to be precipitated by the supernatural was associated with fear of the experience and longer SP immobility. Findings are discussed in the context of cultural elaboration and salience theories of SP.

  13. Prevalence of dementia in Egypt: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Elshahidi, Mohamed H; Elhadidi, Muhammad A; Sharaqi, Ahmed A; Mostafa, Ahmed; Elzhery, Mohamed A

    2017-01-01

    Background With the growing prevalence of dementia worldwide, two-third of the people with dementia are projected to be from the developing countries by 2050. Aim This study reviews the literature regarding dementia prevalence in Egypt. Methods Six databases were systematically searched from their dates of inception till July 2016. Studies published in English and reporting dementia prevalence among nonhospitalized individuals after clinical examinations were considered eligible. References were screened independently by two reviewers in two steps: 1) abstract screening and 2) full-text reviewing. In addition, quality of the included studies was assessed using the Newcastle–Ottawa scale. Results Of the 1,630 references retrieved, six studies (n=28,029 participants) met our inclusion criteria. In all studies, dementia was ascertained using a three-phase survey (Phase I: screening, Phase II: clinical diagnosis, Phase III: laboratory investigations). The dementia prevalence ranged from 2.01% to 5.07%. Dementia increased with age, with the rapid increase among those aging ≥80. Also, its prevalence was higher among illiterate groups than among educated groups. Included studies were of low risk of bias. Conclusion Dementia prevalence in Egypt demands including people with dementia in the health care system and promoting the awareness of dementia among the public. Also, more epidemiological studies in this field are needed. PMID:28293113

  14. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A.; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A.

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt. PMID:26798844

  15. Optimization of municipal solid waste management in Port Said - Egypt.

    PubMed

    Badran, M F; El-Haggar, S M

    2006-01-01

    Optimization of solid waste management systems using operational research methodologies has not yet been applied in any Egyptian governorate. In this paper, a proposed model for a municipal solid waste management system in Port Said, Egypt is presented. It includes the use of the concept of collection stations, which have not yet been used in Egypt. Mixed integer programming is used to model the proposed system and its solution is performed using MPL software V4.2. The results show that the best model would include 27 collection stations of 15-ton daily capacity and 2 collection stations of 10 ton daily capacity. Any transfer of waste between the collection station and the landfill should not occur. Moreover, the flow of the district waste should not be confined to the district collection stations. The cost of the objective function for this solution is 10,122 LE/day (equivalent to 1716 US dollars). After further calculations, the profit generated by the proposed model is 49,655.8 LE/day (equivalent to 8418.23 US dollars).

  16. Modeling Solute Transport by DLA in Soils of Northeastern Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Hamed, Yasser Ahmed; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Persson, Magnus; Berndtsson, Ronny; Wang, Xin-ping

    2015-01-01

    Arid soils in Egypt display large variability in solute transport properties, causing problems in soil management. To characterize this variability, dye infiltration experiments were conducted on four plots representing three main soil types in northeastern Egypt. The plots represented both cultivated and uncultivated land use. The observed dye patterns displayed a large variability and especially the clay soils indicated a high degree of preferential flow. The loamy sand and sandy soils displayed a more uniform dye distribution indicating more homogeneous soil properties. The observed dye patterns were modeled using a diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) model. The DLA is a random walk model where model parameters can be optimized using genetic algorithms (GA). The DLA model reproduced the observed dye patterns for all soils in an excellent way. The best fit was obtained with a specific combination of directional random walk probabilities Pu, Pd, Pr, and Pl for each plot (correlation 0.97–0.99). To account for soil layers with different hydraulic properties a two layer DLA model was developed. For all plots the Pu (upward random walk probability) was higher for the upper more homogeneous soil layer. The overall results showed that spatial variability resulting from solute transport for the investigated soils can be modeled using a DLA approach. PMID:25790463

  17. [Cardiopulmonary resuscitation already in Egypt 5,000 years ago?].

    PubMed

    Ocklitz, A

    1997-06-06

    In light of the medically relevant features of the ancient Egyptian mouth-opening ceremony, the question of the effectiveness of medical practices in Egypt thousands of years ago is examined, whereby the religious and cultural framework also plays a significant role. In the Land on the Nile myth and reality clearly generated special conditions which favoured the systematic treatment of questions of resuscitation. Numerous examples show that this had practical consequences in the area of everyday medicine. In addition, rebirth and resurrection were central elements of the cult of the dead which had exact medical equivalents. These equivalents may demonstrate the advanced state of resuscitation practices in Egypt at that time. In this context, a reconstruction of an ancient Egyptian mouth-opening instrument is presented. In the cult of the dead, this instrument played a role which can be compared to the function of a modern laryngoscope. It appears possible that at the time of the pyramids the Egyptians already had an understanding of the technology required to perform instrument-aided artificial respiration. Whether or not they actually possessed a fundamental knowledge of the principles of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation remains unclear. Nevertheless, the astonishingly functional characteristics of the reconstructed mouth-opening instrument suggest that it was developed for more than purely symbolic purposes.

  18. On the Development and Evolution of Astronomy in ancient Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maravelias, S. E.

    In the present paper the development and evolution of astronomy in = Ancient Egypt are briefly examined. Emphasis is given to the = applications of astronomy on: (i) the orientation of temples and = pyramids, and the subsequent determination of the year; (ii) the = reorientation of temples --after the lapse of several centuries-- (due = to the fact that the priesthood was empirically aware of the precession = of equinoxes, and the subsequent use of this very fact in order to = estimate the archaeological age of temples, tombs and pyramids; (iii) = the heliacal rising of Sirius, which was used by ancient = priests-astronomers in order to fix the New Year's Day and determine the = seasons of the civil year, although the discre pancy of the Sothic cycle = in their calendrical system was not seriously taken into account. = Finally the conclusion put forward is that astronomy in Ancient Egypt = never reached the grounds of pure science (as in Ancient Greece), at = least before the Ptolemaic era, but always remained under the influence = of traditionalism and mythology pertaining more to the sphere of = religion and dogma.

  19. Eyewitness introduction to Egypt: "The gift of the Nile".

    PubMed

    Brown, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    Northeastern corner of Africa, lying at the crossroads between the two continents of Europe and Asia (in the Sinai Peninsula), while bordering Libya, Sudan, Israel and the Red Sea. Egypt is the most ancient tourist country in the world. Several health fact-finding missions in the last few years were made to this small country that is frequently defined by the Valley of the Nile. With the spreading deserts on either side, or a very rich heritage of ancient relics, these scenic vistas are without equal elsewhere in the world. Although there are significant cultural differences among the population, Egypt has a long history of ethnic and religious compassion. Among the many rarities, main tourist attractions include the three great Pyramids of Giza and the Sphinx, amazing ancient wonders of the world. These fact-finding missions included how health and medical care are defined, how people and culture are intertwined with its physical features, land use, and the economy and its resources.

  20. Mucormycosis in Cairo, Egypt: review of 10 reported cases.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Sherif M; Elkholy, Iman M; Elkady, Nadia A; Abdel-Ghany, Khayria

    2014-01-01

    We report on 10 cases of mucormycosis, as defined by The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) standards of invasive fungal diseases, among patients with a recent history of neutropenia, prolonged use of corticosteroids and treatment with immunosuppressants. They were all observed at the Ain Shams University Specialized Hospital in Cairo, Egypt, during the year 2010. These cases were categorized as 50% proven and 50% probable, with none considered to be possible mucormycosis. The median age of the patients discussed in this report was 50 years (range 22-68 years), of which 80% were male and 20% were female. Uncontrolled diabetes with ketoacidosis was noted in 60% of cases, while 40% of the patients had undergone liver transplantations. Pulmonary mucormycosis was the predominant presentation as it was noted in 80% of cases, but there was only 20% sinus involvement. Members of the genus Lichtheimia were the most common etiologic agents (40% of all cases), whereas Rhizopus ssp. were recovered from 30% of cases, Syncephalastrum spp. in 20%, and 10% of patients were infected with Rhizomucor. Liposomal formulation of amphotericin B (LAMB) was successfully used to treat all the cases described in this report. We concluded that the incidence of mucormycosis was relatively high during the study period in this one-center study and that additional studies looking into the diagnosis and the control of mucormycosis in Egypt are required.

  1. Schistosomiasis in Egypt: A never-ending story?

    PubMed

    Othman, Ahmad A; Soliman, Rasha H

    2015-08-01

    Schistosomiasis has plagued the Egyptian population since the antiquity. The disease is still a public health problem in Egypt, despite the tendency of being overlooked. In the first part of this review, the past and current trends of schistosomiasis in Egypt are reviewed, including history, epidemiology, morbidity, therapy, and control of the disease. Most of these aspects are more or less relevant to other schistosome-endemic regions all over the world. As only one drug is currently available for individual treatment and preventive mass chemotherapy, the quest for complementary measures is urgently warranted. Indeed, one promising approach is the discovery of a vaccine. Herein, we point out the efforts of the Egyptian scientists to develop an efficacious and affordable vaccine against schistosomiasis - a step forward in the battle of elimination of Schistosoma infection. Based on the candidate vaccine antigens, four types of vaccine formulations are discussed: purified antigen vaccines, DNA constructs, attenuated cercariae, and excretory-secretory antigen vaccines. Finally, this review provides insights into this ancient seemingly long-lasting parasitic disease.

  2. Stratigraphy of the Jurassic system in northern Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Keeley, M.L.; Shaw, D.; Forbes, G.A.

    1988-08-01

    A regional synthesis is presented of the stratigraphy of Jurassic strata in Egypt north of 30/degree/N, based on the study of about 80 wells and outcrops from northeastern Egypt. Almost all fossil groups have been investigated for biostratigraphic control. Published work on ammonite faunas from Gebel el Maghara (north Sinai) is integrated with extensive original work on palynofloras (and, to a lesser extent, ostracod/foraminiferal faunas) recovered from marine rocks in the subsurface. The recovery of rich dinocyst assemblages enables the recognition of a ten-fold zonation scheme, largely within the Middle-Late Jurassic sedimentary package. The upper limit of this package is marked by the Cimmerian erosional event; strata younger than Oxfordian are rarely preserved. Only east of 30/degree/E is significant sedimentation known to have occurred immediately prior to the major early Bajocian transgressive event. Thereafter mean sea level rose steadily. The Lower Triassic-Lower Jurassic sedimentary package is poorly understood, largely the result of scanty and ambiguous stratigraphic evidence. However, regional correlations suggest that only very thin earliest Jurassic (Hettangian ) clastic deposition succeeded a sequence of Upper Triassic carbonates and evaporites (Wadi en Natrun Formation) in the north. Arising from these studies is a standard lithostratigraphical scheme. The upper sedimentary package, the Gebel el Maghara Group, comprises three formations (Masajid, Khatatba, and Inmar) and seven members; new units are defined and old units redefined.

  3. A statistical model of Rift Valley fever activity in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Ali N.; Beier, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a viral disease of animals and humans and a global public health concern due to its ecological plasticity, adaptivity, and potential for spread to countries with a temperate climate. In many places, outbreaks are episodic and linked to climatic, hydrologic, and socioeconomic factors. Although outbreaks of RVF have occurred in Egypt since 1977, attempts to identify risk factors have been limited. Using a statistical learning approach (lasso-regularized generalized linear model), we tested the hypotheses that outbreaks in Egypt are linked to (1) River Nile conditions that create a mosquito vector habitat, (2) entomologic conditions favorable to transmission, (3) socio-economic factors (Islamic festival of Greater Bairam), and (4) recent history of transmission activity. Evidence was found for effects of rainfall and river discharge and recent history of transmission activity. There was no evidence for an effect of Greater Bairam. The model predicted RVF activity correctly in 351 of 358 months (98.0%). This is the first study to statistically identify risk factors for RVF outbreaks in a region of unstable transmission. PMID:24581353

  4. Nicotine dependance among adult male smokers in rural Egypt.

    PubMed

    Gad, Rita R; El-Setouhy, Maged; Haroun, Amany; Gadalla, Shahinaz; Abdel-Aziz, Fatma; Aboul-Fotouh, Aisha; Mohamed, Mostafa K; Mikhail, Nabiel; Israel, Ebenezer

    2003-12-01

    Nicotine dependence is a significant public health problem. This study describes the nicotine dependence status among male adults in rural communities in Egypt. A survey was carried out in five rural villages in Egypt to study the smoking prevalence. A total of 938 current smokers were identified and their nicotine dependence status was studied. About 9% of all smokers in the studied villages were found to have heavy dependence to nicotine. Heavy dependence was associated with younger age of smoking initiation (p<0.05) and more smoking in the first hours of the day (p<0.001). Heavy dependent smokers are less likely to quit smoking (p<0.001), lack the confidence to quit by themselves (p<0.001) and less likely to have tried to quit earlier (p<0.001). Dependent smokers are more likely to smoke in the presence of their children (p<0.001). Reasons for smoking included the habit of smoking helping them to keep them going when tired, to make them alert and not knowing what to do with their hands without a cigarette. The main reasons they identified for restarting smoking after quitting were the signs of withdrawal namely headaches, irritability and difficulty in concentration. Nicotine dependence status and attributes were comparable to studies reported in other countries around the world. Enhanced behavioral and medical intervention strategies are needed to motivate helping both low and heavy nicotine dependent smokers to increase the number and effectiveness of quit attempts.

  5. Seroprevalence of HCV among Cairo University students in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Esmat, Gamal; Raziky, Maissa El; Nabeel, Mohammed M; Maher, Rabab; Zakaria, Zeinab

    2016-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly prevalent in Egypt. This work aimed at determining the seroprevalence of HCV among Cairo University students. The present study included 3,000 students from Cairo University, Egypt. Blood sample was obtained from each participant to be tested for HCV seromarker. HCV RNA detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out for those with positive anti-HCV. Overall prevalence rate of HCV antibody (anti-HCV) was 4.6%. It showed that the prevalence was relatively higher among females (86/1660; 5.2%) while males (51/1340; 3.8%) with no significant difference. PCR for HCV RNA was detected in 31.4% of the HCV antibody positive subjects (43/137). Which showed statistical significant difference between males (29/51) and females (14/86) at P = 0.001. Despite the prevalence rate reported in the present study was similar to anti-HCV prevalence among persons in the same age group, confirmed that HCV infection is detected among Cairo University students. J. Med. Virol. 88:1384-1387, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Modeling solute transport by DLA in soils of northeastern Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Yasser Ahmed; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Persson, Magnus; Berndtsson, Ronny; Wang, Xin-ping

    2015-01-01

    Arid soils in Egypt display large variability in solute transport properties, causing problems in soil management. To characterize this variability, dye infiltration experiments were conducted on four plots representing three main soil types in northeastern Egypt. The plots represented both cultivated and uncultivated land use. The observed dye patterns displayed a large variability and especially the clay soils indicated a high degree of preferential flow. The loamy sand and sandy soils displayed a more uniform dye distribution indicating more homogeneous soil properties. The observed dye patterns were modeled using a diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) model. The DLA is a random walk model where model parameters can be optimized using genetic algorithms (GA). The DLA model reproduced the observed dye patterns for all soils in an excellent way. The best fit was obtained with a specific combination of directional random walk probabilities Pu, Pd, Pr, and Pl for each plot (correlation 0.97-0.99). To account for soil layers with different hydraulic properties a two layer DLA model was developed. For all plots the Pu (upward random walk probability) was higher for the upper more homogeneous soil layer. The overall results showed that spatial variability resulting from solute transport for the investigated soils can be modeled using a DLA approach.

  7. Myrrh and trematodoses in Egypt: an overview of safety, efficacy and effectiveness profiles.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Ghani, Rashad A; Loutfy, Naguiba; Hassan, Azza

    2009-09-01

    Myrrh is an herbal product that has been used since ancient ages for traditional medication and other purposes. The revolution of myrrh as an antiparasitic agent in Egypt began in the 1990s through scientific evidence-based research. The human trematode infections in Egypt were the main focus of research with stories of success and disagreement, at times. The present paper reviewed the antiparasitary activity of myrrh with stress on its possible mode of action, its safety, efficacy and effectiveness on trematode infections in experimental studies and clinical trials in Egypt as well as its molluscicidal effects on the intermediate hosts of trematodes.

  8. Reproduction concepts and practices in ancient Egypt mirrored by modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Haimov-Kochman, Ronit; Sciaky-Tamir, Yael; Hurwitz, Arye

    2005-11-01

    The treasured ancient papyri provide a glimpse into understanding of common concepts and practices in ancient Egypt. The Kahun gynecological papyrus and other texts unveil the traditions of reproduction, conception and delivery. This article addresses the rationale of beliefs and practices of that era. Frequently, the reason for common traditions exercised at the time is based on medical knowledge of female anatomy and physiology during pregnancy. Surprisingly some of the remedies commonly used in ancient Egypt were recently explored and found intriguing. This paper was aimed to look at the reflection of archaic practices and concepts of ancient Egypt by the modern mirror of evidence-based medicine.

  9. Isotopic Evidence for Early Trade in Animals between Old Kingdom Egypt and Canaan

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Haskel J.; Shai, Itzhaq; Babcock, Lindsay E.; Maeir, Aren M.

    2016-01-01

    Isotope data from a sacrificial ass and several ovicaprines (sheep/goat) from Early Bronze Age household deposits at Tell es-Safi/Gath, Israel provide direct evidence for the movement of domestic draught/draft and husbandry animals between Old Kingdom Egypt (during the time of the Pyramids) and Early Bronze Age III Canaan (ca. 2900–2500 BCE). Vacillating, bi-directional connections between Egypt and Canaan are known throughout the Early Bronze Age, but here we provide the first concrete evidence of early trade in animals from Egypt to Canaan. PMID:27322197

  10. Isotopic Evidence for Early Trade in Animals between Old Kingdom Egypt and Canaan.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Elizabeth R; Hartman, Gideon; Greenfield, Haskel J; Shai, Itzhaq; Babcock, Lindsay E; Maeir, Aren M

    2016-01-01

    Isotope data from a sacrificial ass and several ovicaprines (sheep/goat) from Early Bronze Age household deposits at Tell es-Safi/Gath, Israel provide direct evidence for the movement of domestic draught/draft and husbandry animals between Old Kingdom Egypt (during the time of the Pyramids) and Early Bronze Age III Canaan (ca. 2900-2500 BCE). Vacillating, bi-directional connections between Egypt and Canaan are known throughout the Early Bronze Age, but here we provide the first concrete evidence of early trade in animals from Egypt to Canaan.

  11. An absolute chronology for early Egypt using radiocarbon dating and Bayesian statistical modelling.

    PubMed

    Dee, Michael; Wengrow, David; Shortland, Andrew; Stevenson, Alice; Brock, Fiona; Girdland Flink, Linus; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher

    2013-11-08

    The Egyptian state was formed prior to the existence of verifiable historical records. Conventional dates for its formation are based on the relative ordering of artefacts. This approach is no longer considered sufficient for cogent historical analysis. Here, we produce an absolute chronology for Early Egypt by combining radiocarbon and archaeological evidence within a Bayesian paradigm. Our data cover the full trajectory of Egyptian state formation and indicate that the process occurred more rapidly than previously thought. We provide a timeline for the First Dynasty of Egypt of generational-scale resolution that concurs with prevailing archaeological analysis and produce a chronometric date for the foundation of Egypt that distinguishes between historical estimates.

  12. Registration of veterinary products in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Butler, E; Cané, B G

    1995-12-01

    A scheme for registering pharmaceutical and biological products for veterinary use was introduced in Argentina in 1994, as part of a joint scheme for countries of the Common Market of the South (Mercado Común del Sur: "Mercosur'). The authors describe the main features of these regulations, and the process which led to their development.

  13. Litigation in Argentina: challenging the tobacco industry

    PubMed Central

    Flores, M L; Barnoya, J; Mejia, R; Alderete, E; Pérez‐Stable, E J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the processes and outcomes of tobacco litigation in Argentina and to analyse the strategies of the tobacco industry to oppose litigation using tobacco industry documents. Methods A systematic search of tobacco industry documents on the internet dating from 1978 to 2002. Law library searches using Argentinean official and unofficial reports systems were combined with computerised online searches. Results There have been at least 15 failed litigation cases in Argentina and the tobacco industry presented a concerted defence in every claim regardless of cost. We categorised 11 cases as product liability and nicotine addiction, two as health care reimbursement, and two as criminal law and secondhand smoke. Industry strategies included hiring legal consultants from prestigious international and Argentinean law firms and developing litigation prevention programmes. Industry monitored legal academic meetings, controlled the development of new product liability legislation, obtained favourable opinions from experts, and closely observed the development of litigation in Argentina. Conclusion The strategies used by the industry have been successful in preventing recovery for tobacco injuries through litigation. Argentinean health advocates and lawyers need to be aware of the roles and strategies of the tobacco industry in order to develop effective litigation in Argentina. PMID:16565455

  14. Education Reform Brings New Challenges to Argentina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossetti, Mercedes

    1997-01-01

    A description of recent changes in Argentina's system of education looks at underlying policy, the redesigned schooling system, emphasis placed on English language instruction, the teacher training system, and problems in the process for assuring an adequate flow of qualified English teachers. (MSE)

  15. Argentina: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-05

    the Americas held in Mar del Plata . President Kirchner’s movement toward closer relations with Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez also was a source of... angered by Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice’s decision to skip Argentina during a March 2008 visit to neighboring Brazil and Chile, but a visit by U.S

  16. MASTER: bright PSN discovered in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkov, V.; Lipunov, V.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Vladimirov, V.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Chazov, V.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.; Pogrosheva, T.; Shurpakov, S.

    2016-10-01

    MASTER-OAFA (located in Argentina) auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., 2010, Advances in Astronomy, vol. 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 22h 01m 01.36s -40d 15m 26.7s on 2016-10-31.08091 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 16.9m (mlim=19.9m).

  17. Microsporidian isolates from mosquitoes of Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsporidia are among the most common and widely distributed microbial pathogens associated with mosquitoes in nature. Since 1980 studies of microsporidia in mosquitoes of Argentina were conducted at the Laboratory of Insect Vectors of CEPAVE. Eleven morphologically unique species of microsporidia...

  18. Pathogenic Hantaviruses, Northeastern Argentina and Eastern Paraguay

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Valeria P.; Bellomo, Carla; Maidana, Silvina; San Juan, Jorge; Tagliaferri, Paulina; Bargardi, Severino; Vazquez, Cynthia; Colucci, Norma; Estévez, Julio; Almiron, María

    2007-01-01

    We describe the first, to our knowledge, cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in northeastern Argentina and eastern Paraguay. Andes and Juquitiba (JUQ) viruses were characterized. JUQV was also confirmed in 5 Oligoryzomys nigripes reservoir species from Misiones. A novel Akodon-borne genetic hantavirus lineage was detected in 1 rodent from the Biologic Reserve of Limoy. PMID:17953094

  19. Night Sky Protection Initiatives in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Beatriz; Pérez Álvarez, Silvina; Bibé, Victor; Risi, Andrés; Gino, Lisandro

    2015-03-01

    Light Pollution is a global problem. Some local actions carried out by a network of professional and amateur astronomers in Argentina are changing the way to attack this problem, taking into account measurements, education, public activities, planetarium shows and legislation proposals.

  20. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the cause of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), from a tick vector, Amblyomma cajennense, and from a cluster of fatal spotted fever cases in Argentina. Questing A. cajennense ticks were collected at or near sites of presumed or...

  1. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cases of epidemic typhus have been documented in Argentina since 1919; however, no confirmed reports of spotted fever rickettsiosis were described in this country until 1999. We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (R...

  2. Contact dermatitis caused by dimethylfumarate in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lo Balbo, A; Gotelli, M J; Mac Cormack, W P; Kogan, N; Gotelli, C

    2011-07-01

    For the first time in Argentina, we describe an outbreak of contact dermatitis. New pairs of shoes caused intense pruritus, pain, and eruption, followed by edema, blisters, and a severe negative impact on the epidermal barrier of the feet. We identify dimethylfumarate as the causal agent and suggest an analytical method for its fast identification.

  3. The Case of Public Schools in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrogue, Cecilia; Orlicki, Maria Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    As Argentina presents problems of malnutrition, the federal in-school feeding program has become a key policy because it provides an important nutritional intervention during a relevant growth period. This paper estimates the effect of the program on academic performance--measured by standardized test scores--with a difference in difference model,…

  4. The New School Movement in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carli, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    This article aims to present some interpretations on the development of the new school movement in Argentina, with special focus on its relationship with the cultural modernization processes and with the political currents of the 1920s and 1930s, on its elements of continuity and differentiation with regard to the pedagogic tradition of normal…

  5. National space program in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, G. M.

    1992-11-01

    An overview of the Australian space activity history and present status is presented in the following aspects: (1) full-scale space activities since the establishment of the Australian Space Board in 1987 and the start of governmental budgetary support to national space program; (2) cooperation with NASA and ESA through satellite ground stations in satellite communication and ground support; (3) Australian private enterprises contract to provide launch support for INTERSAT and other satellites and schedule to start mobile satellite communication all over the country; and (4) supporting the second ground station construction to facilitate acquisition of the southern Pacific Ocean data of the wide area covering from the end of Antarctic continent to the eastern end of New Zealand. The remote sensing equipment development, launch service business plan, present status of supersonic technology in Australia and Australian space policy are outlined.

  6. Skin cancer prevention in Australia.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, C; Foley, P

    2009-11-01

    Australia has one of the highest skin cancer incidence and mortality rates in the world. The reason for these high rates is due in part to the high ambient UV radiation levels, combined with a predominantly susceptible fair-skinned population. To address this problem, since 1980 Australians have been exposed to social marketing campaigns to raise awareness of skin cancer prevention. These campaigns have used mass media alongside interventions in schools, workplaces, and in community and leisure settings to motivate sun protective behaviour. As a result of these interventions it can be demonstrated that social marketing campaigns can be a very effective method to not only motivate behaviour change, reduce sunburn, and increase awareness but more importantly, reduce melanoma rates and bring positive economic returns to government. However long term investment in this area is required otherwise any population gains in behaviour are very likely to be quickly eroded.

  7. The abortion debate in Australia.

    PubMed

    Read, Christine Margaret

    2006-09-01

    I recently watched a fascinating documentary about the crusade of Dr Bertram Wainer in the 1960s to bring the practice of illegal abortion in Victoria to an end. It documented the profound horror of the backyard abortion that so often ended in infection, sterility or death, and served as a potent reminder of a practice to which we must never return. Of course that cant happen again, abortion is legal now, isnt it? In Victoria in 1969 a Supreme Court judge ruled that an abortion is not unlawful if a doctor believed that: the abortion is necessary to preserve the woman from serious danger to her life or physical or mental health (Menhennit ruling). In Australia today however, abortion law remains conditional, unclear and inconsistent and, except in the ACT, is still part of criminal statutes.

  8. Religion and BMI in Australia.

    PubMed

    Kortt, Michael A; Dollery, Brian

    2014-02-01

    We estimated the relationship between religion and body mass index (BMI) for a general and representative sample of the Australia population. Data from the Household Income Labour Dynamics survey were analysed for 9,408 adults aged 18 and older. OLS regression analyses revealed that religious denomination was significantly related to higher BMI, after controlling for socio-demographic, health behaviours, and psychosocial variables. 'Baptist' men had, on average, a 1.3 higher BMI compared to those reporting no religious affiliation. Among women, 'Non-Christians' had, on average, a 1 unit lower BMI compared to those reporting no religious affiliation while 'Other Christian' women reported, on average, a 1 unit higher BMI. Our results also indicate that there was a negative relationship between religious importance and BMI among Australian women.

  9. Ageing Holocaust survivors in Australia.

    PubMed

    Paratz, Elizabeth D; Katz, Benny

    2011-02-21

    In recent years, a phenomenon of "late effects of the Holocaust" has emerged, with impacts on the psychological and physical health of ageing Holocaust survivors. As Holocaust survivors age, they may experience heightened anxiety around normal processes of ageing, worsened post-traumatic stress disorder with cognitive decline, and fear of the medical system. Holocaust survivors are at increased risk of osteoporosis, cardiometabolic disease due to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction, cancer, and sequelae of Nazi medical experiments. From existing medical literature on this topic, practical principles of management are derived to create a framework for sensitive medical management of Holocaust survivors in Australia. The issues discussed are also relevant to the wider geriatric refugee or prisoner-of-war experience.

  10. 77 FR 53959 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Argentina-Measures Affecting the Importation of Goods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ...-mentioned trade- restrictive commitments. Through these measures, Argentina appears to have acted... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Argentina--Measures Affecting the...'') concerning certain measures imposed by Argentina on the importation of goods. That request may be found...

  11. 70 FR 36563 - Honey from Argentina: Final Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2005-06-24

    ... International Trade Administration Honey from Argentina: Final Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative... its preliminary results of administrative review of the countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina for the period January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2003. Honey from Argentina:...

  12. SRTM Anaglyph: Near Zapala, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Topographic data provided by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission can provide many clues to geologic history and processes. This view of an area southwest of Zapala, Argentina, shows a wide diversity of geologic features. The highest peaks (left) appear to be massive (un-layered)crystalline rocks, perhaps granites. To their right (eastward) are tilted and eroded layered rocks, perhaps old lava flows, forming prominent ridges. Farther east and south, more subtle and curvilinear ridges show that the rock layers have not only been tilted but also folded. At the upper right, plateaus that cap the underlying geologic complexities are more recent lava flows -younger than the folding, but older than the current erosional pattern. Landforms in the southeast (lower right) and south-central areas appear partially wind sculpted.

    This anaglyph was produced by first shading a preliminary elevation model from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The stereoscopic effect was then created by generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National

  13. SRTM Anaglyph: Las Bayas, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The interplay of volcanism, stream erosion and landslides is evident in this Shuttle Radar Topography Mission view of the eastern flank of the Andes Mountains, southeast of San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina. Older lava flows emanating from the Andes once covered much of this area. Younger, local volcanoes (seen here as small peaks) then covered parts of the area with fresh, erosion resistant flows (seen here as very smooth surfaces). Subsequent erosion has created fine patterns on the older surfaces (bottom of the image) and bolder, irregular patterns through and around the younger surfaces (upper center and right center). Meanwhile, where a large stream immediately borders the resistant plateau (center of the image), lateral erosion has undercut the resistant plateau causing slivers of it to fall into the stream channel. This scene well illustrate show topographic data alone can reveal some aspects of recent geologic history.

    This anaglyph was produced by first shading a preliminary elevation model from data acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The stereoscopic effect was then created by generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved

  14. Mesozoic/Cenozoic tectonic events around Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, R. Dietmar; Gaina, Carmen; Tikku, Anahita; Mihut, Dona; Cande, Steven C.; Stock, Joann M.

    We use an absolute and relative plate motion model for the plates around Australia to identify major plate tectonic events, evaluate their causes, and investigate their effects on anomalous intraplate subsidence or uplift and on the history of oceanic crustal accretion. An event at ˜136 Ma is marked by the onset of sea floor spreading between Greater India and Australia. At about this time long-lived subduction east of Australia ceased, probably due to subduction of the Phoenix-Pacific spreading ridge, changing this plate boundary to a transform margin. Between 130 and 80 Ma, Australia and East Antarctica moved eastward in the Atlantic-Indian mantle hotspot reference frame. This can be plausibly linked to ridge push from the NW-SE oriented spreading center NW of Australia and to the inferred geometry and continued subduction of the Phoenix plate beneath the West Antarctic margin. A drastic change in spreading direction between the Indian and Australian plates from NE-SW to N-S occurred at about 99 Ma, possibly caused by a change in absolute motion of the Pacific Plate. Chron 27 (˜61 Ma) marks the onset of relative motion between East and West Antarctica, and a change in the relative motion between Australia and Antarctica. It may be linked to the subduction of a segment of the Neo-Tethyan Ridge. Both events caused anomalous subsidence on the Northwest Shelf of Australia. The almost stationary position of Australia w.r.t. the mantle from ˜80 Ma to ˜40 Ma may reflect the progressive subduction of the Pacific-Phoenix ridge to the east of New Zealand preceding 80 Ma, resulting in a diminished trench suction force east of Australia. Preliminary reconstructions to close the Pacific-Australian plate circuit based on recently collected geophysical data indicate that a tectonic event at 43 Ma may mark the onset of renewed subduction east of Australia. At the same time spreading in the Wharton Basin between India and Australia ceased, and tectonic reactivation is

  15. All Eyes on Egypt: Islam and the Medical Use of Dead Bodies Amidst Cairo's Political Unrest.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, Sherine

    2016-01-01

    Using dead bodies for medical purposes has long been considered taboo in Egypt. Public health campaigns, physicians' pleas, and the urgings of religious scholars all failed to alter public opinion regarding the donation of dead bodies either for instructional material or for therapeutic treatments. Yet in 2011, amid revolutionary turmoil in Egypt, a campaign was launched for people to donate their eyes upon death; this time, people readily signed up to be donors. Focusing on mass eye trauma that occurred in Egypt amid the political uprisings of 2011, I raise questions about when and why Islam can explain people's attitudes and behaviors, particularly toward death and medicine. The case of mass eye trauma in Egypt and citizens' reformulations of questions once jealously controlled by state-aligned doctors, politicians, and religious scholars unsettles the boundaries between 'religion' and 'secularism' in medical practice. [Formula: see text].

  16. [Migrations and economic and social change in Egypt].

    PubMed

    Ged, A

    1985-01-01

    The inexistence in the Arab world of institutions to facilitate development led Egypt to adopt the infitah, a policy of economic opening which is not a voluntarist economic strategy but rather is intended to create a climate favorable to a more capitalistic orientation for individuals with access to petroleum income. Egypt's gross national product grew by 4.6%/year in the dozen years through 1965, but thereafter growth was sluggish or even negative. After 1967 the choices of the dominant economic classes were oriented toward liberalism, and the arrival of Sadat allowed this orientation to prevail even before the infitah. The various measures of the infitah were designed to promote investment, reactivate the private sector, and reorganize the public sector. Most of the specific projects approved through 1978 were in the tertiary sector, they did little to stimulate further development, and the total number of jobs created was relatively insignificant. The transformation of the Egyptian economy is due not so much to the infitah as to 4 other elements: oil, income from the Suez canal, tourism, and emigration. At present petroleum represents 30% of Egypt's exports, the Suez canal will probably bring in $1.5 billion annually in coming years, and tourism brought in $1 billion in 1984, but in terms of economic and social impact on the total population emigration is much more important. The number of emigrants increased from 100,000 in 1973 to over 3 million in 1984 and the extent of their remittances increased from $184 million in 1973 to nearly $4 billion at present. Serious shortages of skilled and unskilled labor have been created by the departure of 10-15% of the overall labor force and a higher proportion for some skilled professions. The number of workers in construction more than doubled from 1971-79, while 10% of the agricultural labor force departed. Agricultural wages increased by an average of 7.1% in these years as agricultural workers were attracted to the

  17. The dawn of medicine: ancient egypt and Athotis, the king-physician.

    PubMed

    Kwiecinski, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    The earliest physician recorded in history is Athotis (Aha), one of the first rulers of ancient Egypt. While it is debatable whether the story of a king-physician is a fact or just a legend, it is clear that ancient Egyptian medicine developed around the time of his reign. The fortunate combination of earlier medical observations, the development of script, and favorable social conditions made the dawn of ancient Egypt also the dawn of medicine.

  18. Neurosurgery in Egypt: past, present, and future-from pyramids to radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    El Gindi, Sayed

    2002-09-01

    THE CONTEMPORARY DEVELOPMENT of neurosurgery in Egypt is described, with reference to the ancient past and recent American and European influences. This article traces the steps taken by several leading Egyptian pioneers. Egypt, one of the key countries in the Middle East, has led the development of the specialty in the region and has maintained close ties with the international body of neurological surgeons and surgical societies.

  19. Revolution in Egypt and the Potential for a New Suez Crisis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-06

    the long term. Egypt and the U.S. also participate in joint exercises fostering interoperability. Bright Star is a biannual, multinational training... energy of Arab armies is devoted to the task of regime preservation that it detracts gravely from their war-fighting capacity. He cites the defeats... Appliances ." National Public Radio. February 4, 2011. http://www.npr.org/blogs/money/2011/02/10/133501837/why-egypts- military-cares-about-home

  20. Coral reproduction in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, James; Speed, Conrad W; Babcock, Russ

    2016-01-01

    Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia's remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west). Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending on the timing of the

  1. What causes southeast Australia's worst droughts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ummenhofer, Caroline C.; England, Matthew H.; McIntosh, Peter C.; Meyers, Gary A.; Pook, Michael J.; Risbey, James S.; Gupta, Alexander Sen; Taschetto, Andréa S.

    2009-02-01

    Since 1995, a large region of Australia has been gripped by the most severe drought in living memory, the so-called ``Big Dry''. The ramifications for affected regions are dire, with acute water shortages for rural and metropolitan areas, record agricultural losses, the drying-out of two of Australia's major river systems and far-reaching ecosystem damage. Yet the drought's origins have remained elusive. For Southeast Australia, we show here that the ``Big Dry'' and other iconic 20th Century droughts, including the Federation Drought (1895-1902) and World War II drought (1937-1945), are driven by Indian Ocean variability, not Pacific Ocean conditions as traditionally assumed. Specifically, a conspicuous absence of Indian Ocean temperature conditions conducive to enhanced tropical moisture transport has deprived southeastern Australia of its normal rainfall quota. In the case of the ``Big Dry'', its unprecedented intensity is also related to recent higher temperatures.

  2. Total Solar Eclipse Australia - Nov. 13, 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Nov. 13, 2012, a narrow corridor in the southern hemisphere experienced a total solar eclipse. The corridor lay mostly over the ocean but also cut across the northern tip of Australia where both...

  3. Human Fascioliasis: A Re-emerging Disease in Upper Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Mekky, Mohamed A.; Tolba, Mohammed; Abdel-Malek, Mohamed O.; Abbas, Wael A.; Zidan, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the number of humans infected with Fasciola has risen rapidly. Diagnosis is based mainly on detection of eggs in stool analysis. The rate of infection in Egypt is unknown. In this retrospective study, we describe 23 cases of hepatic fascioliasis, and only 2 of these cases showed eggs in stools. The symptoms of infection, such as pyrexia of unknown origin, epigastric pain, and abdominal distension, were suggestive. Imaging techniques, including abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography, were very helpful in detecting hepatic changes. An indirect hemagglutination assay proved to be of value for diagnosis. Treatment using a 2-day triclabendazole regimen cured the infection and signs of hepatic involvement disappeared. Combining both imaging techniques and laboratory tests is essential for diagnosis of fascioliasis in the early stage. PMID:25870421

  4. Influence of circulation indices upon winter temperature variability in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmallah, E. S.; Elsharkawy, S. G.

    2011-03-01

    Trends of winter surface air temperature anomalies, WSATA, are investigated using data obtained from 13 monitoring stations. The analysis is performed in two steps; one deals with separate stations independently and the other deals with stations' groups. Groups' anomalies are correlated to circulation indices showing negative correlation between temperature with North Atlantic Oscillations and positive one with Mediterranean Oscillation Index. Both power analysis and frequency distribution analysis are applied. The results show existence of Schwabe, Hale and Gleissberg cycles and declare that there are no critical thermal changes of climate in Egypt. It is concluded that the temperature changes during the past three decades are not only because of the human activity but the extraterrestrial impacts as well.

  5. Highlighting the medical applications of 3D printing in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abdelghany, Khaled; Hamza, Hosamuddin

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted designing/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology has enabled medical practitioners to tailor physical models in a patient and purpose-specific fashion. It allows the designing and manufacturing of templates, appliances and devices with a high range of accuracy using biocompatible materials. The technique, nevertheless, relies on digital scanning (e.g., using intraoral scanners) and/or digital imaging (e.g., CT and MRI). In developing countries, there are some technical and financial limitations of implementing such advanced tools as an essential portion of medical applications. This paper focuses on the surgical and dental use of 3D printing technology in Egypt as a developing country. PMID:26807414

  6. Highlighting the medical applications of 3D printing in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Mahmoud A; Abdelghany, Khaled; Hamza, Hosamuddin

    2015-12-01

    Computer-assisted designing/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology has enabled medical practitioners to tailor physical models in a patient and purpose-specific fashion. It allows the designing and manufacturing of templates, appliances and devices with a high range of accuracy using biocompatible materials. The technique, nevertheless, relies on digital scanning (e.g., using intraoral scanners) and/or digital imaging (e.g., CT and MRI). In developing countries, there are some technical and financial limitations of implementing such advanced tools as an essential portion of medical applications. This paper focuses on the surgical and dental use of 3D printing technology in Egypt as a developing country.

  7. Sexual life in Pharaonic Egypt: towards a urological view.

    PubMed

    Shokeir, A A; Hussein, M I

    2004-10-01

    Sex is a basic human need, common to all people at all times. It is evident that the ancient Egyptians were real human beings, not only a people who built massive pyramids and made mummies of their dead. The ancient Egyptians had a rich and varied sexual life, which they found an opportunity to describe in words and pictures. As in the other early primitive civilizations, erotic matters were of prime importance and became an integral part of life. In Pharaonic times, the Egyptians described impotence and recorded several methods to increase the sexual power. In the present paper, we will shed light on some aspects of the sexual life in ancient Egypt that may be interesting to the urologists, including ancient Egyptian concepts of sex and erotic matters, their own way of treatment of impotence and Min, the Egyptian fertility God.

  8. 'Like a Virgin': Hymenoplasty and Secret Marriage in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Wynn, L L

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt, women seek hymenoplasty to disguise evidence of premarital sexual intercourse. Physicians hide the fact that they perform the procedure, and laypeople condemn it as against religion and morality, a way of cheating men of knowledge of their wives' sexual history. Yet high-ranking religious leaders have condoned hymenoplasty. Based on ethnographic fieldwork, archival research, and formal interviews with laypeople and physicians, in this article, I investigate this discrepancy between religious and lay opinions. Many Egyptians believe women resort to hymenoplasty after contracting secret `urfi (customary) marriages, and I examine the relationship between hymenoplasty and extramarital and paramarital sexuality. Egyptian debates around hymenoplasty and marriage are concerned with the notion that women's sexual status must be socially visible, believing that doctors and kin have the ability and obligation to read women's sexual history through physiological markers and social rituals. Hymenoplasty and secret marriage render women's sexual histories illegible to observers.

  9. Egypt's Popular Uprising and the Stakes of Medical Neutrality.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, Sherine F; Bayoumi, Soha

    2016-06-01

    Amidst the recent political uprisings in the Arab region, physicians and other healthcare workers have found themselves in the crossfire. This paper focuses on Egypt's doctors, paying special attention to how many have both appealed to and practiced medical neutrality as its own potent and contested political stance, particularly since the period of military rule following Mubarak's removal from power. Our paper draws on interviews with physicians who served as volunteers in the field hospitals in the days of unrest and violence, and with others who played a major role in documenting protesters' injuries, police brutality, and other forms of state violence against unarmed citizens. Based on interviews with doctors who belong to organizations such as "Tahrir Doctors" and "Doctors Without Rights," our paper reveals how these doctors' commitment to professional ethics put them at odds with the orders of military personnel, rendering their appeal to "medical neutrality" a weighty political act in and of itself.

  10. Molecular detection of Capillaria philippinensis: An emerging zoonosis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Dib, Nadia A; El-Badry, Ayman A; Ta-Tang, Thuy-Huong; Rubio, Jose M

    2015-07-01

    Human infection with Capillaria philippinensis is accidental; however, it may end fatally if not diagnosed and treated in the proper time. The first case was detected in the Philippines in 1963, but later reported in other countries around the world, including Egypt. In this report, molecular diagnosis using a specific nested PCR for detection of C. philippinensis in faeces is described based on the amplification of small ribosomal subunit. The test showed sensitivity and specificity, as it detected all the positive cases and gave no cross-reaction with human DNA and DNA of other tested parasites. This method can be very useful not only for improvement of diagnosis, but also to understand the different environmental routes of transmission by detection of C. philippinensis DNA-stages in the possible fish intermediate hosts and reservoir animal host, helping to improve strategies for surveillance and prevention of human disease.

  11. Human fascioliasis and anaemia in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Shazly, Atef M; El-Nahas, Hala A; Abdel-Mageed, A A; El Beshbishi, S N; Azab, M S; Abou El Hasan, M; Arafa, Wafaa A S; Morsy, Tosson A

    2005-08-01

    Fasciola infection (fascioliasis) appeared to be endemic in Egypt. Stool samples of fourty eight patients were coprologically diagnosed. According to Fasciola egg counting per gram stool, the severity of infection was divided into light infection in 60.5%, moderate in 27.1% and severe infection in 12.5%. No significant correlation was detected between severity of infection and patients' sex. Complete blood picture, reticylocytic count, serum iron, immunological assays as anti-nuclear, anti-smooth muscle antibody, anti-mitochondrial anti-body, anti-DNA tests and rheumatoid factor and occult blood in stool were investigated. Normocytic normochromic anaemia was detected in 62.5% of the fascioliasis patients, microcytic hypochromic anaemia in 31.3% and macrocytic one in 6.3%. Highly significant negative correlation (R = -0.68) was detected between haemoglobin concentration and egg count per gram faeces. Human fascioliasis was associated with normocytic normochromic anaemia and to a lesser extent microcytic hypochromic anemia.

  12. Preliminary analysis of shuttle multispectral radiometer data for Southern Egypt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, L.C.; Goetz, A.F.H.; Kingston, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Shuttle Multispectral Infrared Radiometer (SMIRR) is a spectroradiometer covering the region from 0.5 to 2.5 ??m in 10 channels that acquired data from spots 100 m in diameter along the subspacecraft ground track. It was flown aboard the second flight of the space shuttle Columbia, November 12-14, 1981. Data collected during orbit 16 over southern Egypt show that carbonate rocks, kaolinite, and possibly montmorillonite can be identified by their SMIRR spectral signatures and limited knowledge of the lithologic units present. Detailed analysis of SMIRR data for this area indicates that calcite, kaolinite, and montmorillonite rocks give rise to absorption features that result in characteristic 10 channel spectra. ?? 1983.

  13. Identification of Shigella flexneri Subserotype 1c in Rural Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El-Gendy, Atef; El-Ghorab, Nemat; Lane, Edward M.; Elyazeed, Remon Abu; Carlin, Nils I. A.; Mitry, Mary M.; Kay, Bradford A.; Savarino, Stephen J.; Peruski, Leonard F.

    1999-01-01

    In a population-based study of diarrhea in rural, northern Egypt, 60 Shigella flexneri strains were identified, of which 10 could not be definitively serotyped. Serological analysis with commercial reagents suggested that they were serotype 1, but the strains failed to react with subserotype 1a- or 1b-specific antibodies. All 10 strains reacted with MASF 1c, a monoclonal antibody specific for a provisional S. flexneri subserotype, 1c, first identified in Bangladesh and not previously detected outside of that region. Our results show that S. flexneri subserotype 1c is not unique to Bangladesh and that the inability to detect it may reflect both the limited use of suitable screening methods and the rarity of this subserotype. PMID:9986881

  14. Field trials in Egypt with acrolein herbicide-molluscicide*

    PubMed Central

    Unrau, G. O.; Farooq, M.; Dawood, Ismail K.; Miguel, Luis C.; Dazo, B. C.

    1965-01-01

    Acrolein is a dual-purpose chemical effective against both submersed weeds and snails, and it may therefore be of significance in bilharziasis control. During trials in the Egypt-49-project area in 1962, it was effective in clearing heavy mats of the major submersed aquatic weed Potamogeton crispus from irrigation canals. The resurgence of snails to pretreatment levels was delayed by 8-12 months, and submersed weeds did not reappear until 8 months after treatment. In phytotoxicity tests on local crops, it was found that the concentration of acrolein required for destroying submersed weeds (20-25 ppm) had no adverse effect on the crops. The field tests showed that it is important to have complete control of the water during the period of application. PMID:14310913

  15. A new species of Propliopithecus from the Fayum, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Simons, E L; Rasmussen, D T; Gebo, D L

    1987-06-01

    Propliopithecus ankeli is described as a new species of hominoid from the early Oligocene of Egypt. The new species occurs at a stratigraphic level 80 m below quarries yielding P. chirobates and Aegyptopithecus zeuxis. P. ankeli differs from other species of the genus in its large size, relatively robust canines, larger and proportionally broader premolars, and M1 that has as great or greater mesiodistal length than M2. Thus, P. ankeli is characterized by increased relative size and robustness of the antemolar dentition, which contrasts with the pattern observed in the Fayum's other large hominoid, A. zeuxis. P. ankeli probably represents a lineage not ancestral to other Fayum hominoids. Discovery of this new species emphasizes the diversity of anthropoid primates that had already evolved by the early Oligocene.

  16. Spectroscopic analyses of soil samples outside Nile Delta of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhry, Ahmed; Osman, Osama; Ezzat, Hend; Ibrahim, Medhat

    2016-11-01

    Soil in Egypt, especially around Delta is exposed to various pollutants which are affecting adversely soil fertility and stability. Humic Acids (HA) as a main part of soil organic matter (SOM) represent the heart of the interaction process of inorganic pollutants with soil. Consequently, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Nuclear magnetic resonances (NMR) were used to characterize soil, sediment and extracted HA. Resulting data confirmed that the HA was responsible for transporting inorganic pollutants from surface to subsurface reaching the ground water, which may represent a high risk on public health. The transport process is coming as carboxyl in surface soil changed into metal carboxylate then transferred into the carboxyl in bottom soil.

  17. Survey on coenurosis in sheep and goats in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Desouky, Enas A; Badawy, Ahmed I; Refaat, Refaat A

    2011-01-01

    A total of 75 sheep and goats from apparently healthy and from clinically affected flocks were examined for Coenurus cerebralis cysts from different localities in Egypt. Of 25 animals examined from clinically diseased sheep and goats, 25 (100%) revealed the presence of infestation with one to four coenuri in the brain. The sites of predilection were the left hemisphere (48%), followed by the right hemisphere (40%) and the cerebellum (12%). There was no apparent effect of the age of sheep and goats on susceptibility to infestation with C. cerebralis. Another 50 animals from apparently healthy sheep and goat herds presented no C. cerebralis cysts. The cysts from infested sheep could infest newborn puppies experimentally, with a prepatent period of 60 days post infestation. A total of 15 immature worms that were recovered from one puppy did not reach patency until 105 days post infestation with C. cerebralis cyst scolices. Pathological changes in C. cerebralis-infested sheep brain revealed parasitic elements, demyelinated nerve tracts, hyperaemic blood vessels with round cell infiltration, encephalomalacia with round cell infiltration and palisading macrophages and giant cells, as well as focal replacement of the brain parenchyma with caseated and calcified materials. The morphological characteristics of both the larval stage from sheep and goats and adult worms of Taenia multiceps from experimentally infested dogs are described. The results conclude that C. cerebralis is one of the principal causes of nervous manifestations of coenurosis in clinically diseased sheep and goats in Egypt.

  18. Development of practice guidelines for hemodialysis in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, A. M. A.; Allam, Mohd. F.; Habil, E. S.; Metwally, A. M.; Ibrahiem, N. A.; Radwan, M.; El-Gaafary, M. M.; Afifi, A.; Gadallah, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Although hemodialysis is the main modaility of treatment of end-stage renal disease, no practice guidelines are available in Egypt. Applying international guidelines for hemodialysis would not be suitable or feasible, because of different health system and lack of resources. The aim of this project was the development of evidence- and consensus-based clinical practice guidelines for hemodialysis in Egypt. The Egyptian guidelines were adopted from the standards developed by The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Alberta (Canada), The National Kidney Foundation (USA), The Clinical Standards Board for Scotland (Scotland), and The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario (Canada). In addition, the guidelines published in Oxford Handbook of Dialysis were reviewed. Thereafter, a panel of Egyptian experts in the field of nephrology and hemodialysis was selected and invited to participate in this project. The Delphi technique was applied to build up the consensus among the experts on the formulated guidelines. The final version of the Egyptian Hemodialysis Practice Guidelines included five main sections; personnel, patient care practices, infection prevention and control, facility, and documentation/records. A consensus on practice guidelines for hemodialysis has been successfully produced and is supported by levels of evidence. The 12 Egyptian experts who participated in the Delphi technique and the reviewers assured the completeness and acceptability of the developed practice guidelines. Also, including experts from the university hospitals together with the Directorates of Cairo and Giza Health Affairs of the Egyptian Ministry of Health (MOH) avoided conflicts between clinical recommendations and feasible application in the MOH hemodialysis facilities. PMID:21206681

  19. Problems of drinking water treatment along Ismailia Canal Province, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Geriesh, Mohamed H; Balke, Klaus-Dieter; El-Rayes, Ahmed E

    2008-03-01

    The present drinking water purification system in Egypt uses surface water as a raw water supply without a preliminary filtration process. On the other hand, chlorine gas is added as a disinfectant agent in two steps, pre- and post-chlorination. Due to these reasons most of water treatment plants suffer low filtering effectiveness and produce the trihalomethane (THM) species as a chlorination by-product. The Ismailia Canal represents the most distal downstream of the main Nile River. Thus its water contains all the proceeded pollutants discharged into the Nile. In addition, the downstream reaches of the canal act as an agricultural drain during the closing period of the High Dam gates in January and February every year. Moreover, the wide industrial zone along the upstream course of the canal enriches the canal water with high concentrations of heavy metals. The obtained results indicate that the canal gains up to 24.06x10(6) m3 of water from the surrounding shallow aquifer during the closing period of the High Dam gates, while during the rest of the year, the canal acts as an influent stream losing about 99.6x10(6) m3 of its water budget. The reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) and suspended particulate matters (SPMs) should be one of the central goals of any treatment plan to avoid the disinfectants by-products. The combination of sedimentation basins, gravel pre-filtration and slow sand filtration, and underground passage with microbiological oxidation-reduction and adsorption criteria showed good removal of parasites and bacteria and complete elimination of TOC, SPM and heavy metals. Moreover, it reduces the use of disinfectants chemicals and lowers the treatment costs. However, this purification system under the arid climate prevailing in Egypt should be tested and modified prior to application.

  20. The corrosive well waters of Egypt's western desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, Frank Eldridge

    1979-01-01

    The discovery that ground waters of Egypt's Western Desert are highly corrosive is lost in antiquity. Inhabitants of the oases have been aware of the troublesome property for many decades and early investigators mention it in their reports concerning the area. Introduction of modern well-drilling techniques and replacements of native wood casing with steel during the 20th century increased corrosion problems and, in what is called the New Valley Project, led to an intense search for causes and corrective treatments. This revealed that extreme corrosiveness results from combined effects of relatively acidic waters with significant concentrations of destructive sulfide ion; unfavorable ratios of sulfate and chloride to less aggressive ions; mineral equilibria and electrode potential which hinder formation of protective films; relative high chemical reaction rates because of abnormal temperatures, and high surface velocities related to well design. There is general agreement among investigators that conventional corrosion control methods such as coating metal surfaces, chemical treatment of the water, and electrolytic protection with impressed current and sacrificial electrodes are ineffective or impracticable for wells in the Western Desert's New Valley. Thus, control must be sought through the use of materials more resistant to corrosion than plain carbon steel wherever well screens and casings are necessary. Of the alternatives considered, stainless steel appears to. be the most promising where high strength and long-term services are required and the alloy's relatively high cost is acceptable. Epoxy resin-bonded fiberglass and wood appear to be practicable, relatively inexpensive alternatives for installations which do. not exceed their strength limitations. Other materials such as high strength aluminum and Monel Metal have shown sufficient promise to. merit their consideration in particular locations and uses. The limited experience with pumping in these desert

  1. Transport of dust and anthropogenic aerosols across Alexandria, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Askary, H.; Farouk, R.; Ichoku, C.; Kafatos, M.

    2009-07-01

    The flow of pollutants from Europe and desert dust to Europe from the Sahara desert both affects the air quality of the coastal regions of Egypt. As such, measurements from both ground and satellite observations assume great importance to ascertain the conditions and flow affecting the Nile Delta and the large city of Alexandria. We note that special weather conditions prevailing in the Mediterranean Sea result in a westerly wind flow pattern during spring and from North to South during the summer. Such flow patterns transport dust-loaded and polluted air masses from the Sahara desert and Europe, respectively, through Alexandria, and the Nile Delta in Egypt. We have carried out measurements acquired with a ground- based portable sun photometer (Microtops II) and the satellite-borne TERRA/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor during the periods of October 1999-August 2001 and July 2002-September 2003. These measurements show a seasonal variability in aerosol optical depth (AOD) following these flow patterns. Maximum aerosol loadings accompanied by total precipitable water vapor (W) enhancements are observed during the spring and summer seasons. Pronounced changes have been observed in the Ångström exponent (α) derived from ground-based measurements over Alexandria (31.14° N, 29.59° E) during both dust and pollution periods. We have followed up the observations with a 3-day back-trajectories model to trace the probable sources and pathways of the air masses causing the observed aerosol loadings. We have also used other NASA model outputs to estimate the sea salt, dust, sulfates and black carbon AOD spatial distributions during different seasons. Our results reveal the probable source regions of these aerosol types, showing agreement with the trajectory and Ångström exponent analysis results. It is confirmed that Alexandria is subjected to different atmospheric conditions involving dust, pollution, mixed aerosols and clean sky.

  2. Problems of drinking water treatment along Ismailia Canal Province, Egypt*

    PubMed Central

    Geriesh, Mohamed H.; Balke, Klaus-Dieter; El-Rayes, Ahmed E.

    2008-01-01

    The present drinking water purification system in Egypt uses surface water as a raw water supply without a preliminary filtration process. On the other hand, chlorine gas is added as a disinfectant agent in two steps, pre- and post-chlorination. Due to these reasons most of water treatment plants suffer low filtering effectiveness and produce the trihalomethane (THM) species as a chlorination by-product. The Ismailia Canal represents the most distal downstream of the main Nile River. Thus its water contains all the proceeded pollutants discharged into the Nile. In addition, the downstream reaches of the canal act as an agricultural drain during the closing period of the High Dam gates in January and February every year. Moreover, the wide industrial zone along the upstream course of the canal enriches the canal water with high concentrations of heavy metals. The obtained results indicate that the canal gains up to 24.06×106 m3 of water from the surrounding shallow aquifer during the closing period of the High Dam gates, while during the rest of the year, the canal acts as an influent stream losing about 99.6×106 m3 of its water budget. The reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) and suspended particulate matters (SPMs) should be one of the central goals of any treatment plan to avoid the disinfectants by-products. The combination of sedimentation basins, gravel pre-filtration and slow sand filtration, and underground passage with microbiological oxidation-reduction and adsorption criteria showed good removal of parasites and bacteria and complete elimination of TOC, SPM and heavy metals. Moreover, it reduces the use of disinfectants chemicals and lowers the treatment costs. However, this purification system under the arid climate prevailing in Egypt should be tested and modified prior to application. PMID:18357626

  3. [In search of puerperal madness in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Vaschetto, Emilio

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify cases and scientific works about "puerperal madness" between 1850 and 1940 in Buenos Aires. The gradual installation of the device of maternities in the Argentina, and especially in the city of Buenos Aires, was not exempt from difficulties, in the medical boarding of the pregnant woman and parturient as well as in the cultural conception of the mothers. This fact presupposes an increase of the phenomenon called "puerperal madness" in the moment where the displacement of the act of giving birth in the house to the hospital takes place. Certainly, the clinical fact of the "puerperal madness" exceeds to the historical social context, and in this way appear all the psychopathologies related to the pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperal fevers. We also must take in account the influence of the medical speech about the feminine body and his translation to a scientific and institutional speech never before experienced in Argentina.

  4. Vaccines in Argentina: a regulatory view.

    PubMed

    Pérez, A C; Diez, R A

    2003-07-28

    In Argentina, vaccines for immuno-preventable diseases are regulated by the national regulatory agency, the Administración Nacional de Medicamentos, Alimentos y Tecnología Médica (the National Administration of Drugs, Food and Medical Devices, or ANMAT) created in 1992 to ensure efficacy and safety of drugs, food and medical devices available in the country, according to Law 16,463 and Decree 150/92. ANMAT has licensed 84 out of 157 vaccines registered in Argentina. Since 1994, ANMAT evaluated, approved and inspected 20 clinical trials with vaccines (1.8% of the 1062 trials approved by the agency since that time). The National System of Pharmaco-vigilance has received 318 communications of eventual adverse post-vaccination events (0.3% of the total). In addition, ANMAT provides support to the National Immunisation Programme. The current procedure is to follow international guidelines in the field, to be prepared for new, rapidly changing scenarios.

  5. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Christopher D; Fernandez, Susana; Echenique, Gustavo A; Sumner, John W; Reeves, Will K; Zaki, Sherif R; Remondegui, Carlos E

    2008-04-01

    We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the cause of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), from a tick vector, Amblyomma cajennense, and from a cluster of fatal spotted fever cases in Argentina. Questing A. cajennense ticks were collected at or near sites of presumed or confirmed cases of spotted fever rickettsiosis in Jujuy Province and evaluated by polymerase chain reaction assays for spotted fever group rickettsiae. DNA of R. rickettsii was amplified from a pool of A. cajennense ticks and from tissues of one of four patients who died during 2003-2004 after illnesses characterized by high fever, severe headache, myalgias, and petechial rash. The diagnosis of spotted fever rickettsiosis was confirmed in the other patients by indirect immunofluorescence antibody and immunohistochemical staining techniques. These findings show the existence of RMSF in Argentina and emphasize the need for clinicians throughout the Americas to consider RMSF in patients with febrile rash illnesses.

  6. National Labor Administration and Democracy in Argentina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    years during the " Proceso " in voluntary exile in Spain. There he worked as legal advisor to the socialist labor federation, the Union General de...services, the provision of public goods in general , criminal justice, and interest group intermediation. In modern Argentina, one example of the latter...labor relations, for reasons that will become apparent shortly). This is because organized labor is generally considered to be the most important civilian

  7. MASTER: 2 OT discovered in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkov, V.; Pogrosheva, T.; Lipunov, V.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Vladimirov, V.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Chazov, V.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.

    2016-10-01

    MASTER-OAFA, located in Argentina, with auto-detection system (Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 03h 19m 42.92s -45d 30m 13.9s on 2016-10-27.27597 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 16.9m (mlim=20.8m).

  8. Counternarcotic Efforts in the Southern Cone: Argentina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-15

    in supporting international counter- narcotic actions. The epilogue stresses the need to change some aspects of the U.S. life-style to avoid losing the...Argentina is giving its best effort in supporting international countornarcotic actions. The epilogue in Chapter IV, stresses the need to change sono...International Narcotics Convention of 1961 which calls for the prohibition on coca chewing, but did not change its policy concerning the implemontation

  9. Acute intermittent porphyria in Argentina: an update.

    PubMed

    Cerbino, Gabriela Nora; Gerez, Esther Noemí; Varela, Laura Sabina; Melito, Viviana Alicia; Parera, Victoria Estela; Batlle, Alcira; Rossetti, María Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Porphyrias are a group of metabolic diseases that arise from deficiencies in the heme biosynthetic pathway. A partial deficiency in hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS) produces a hepatic disorder named Acute Intermittent Porphyria (AIP); the acute porphyria is more frequent in Argentina. In this paper we review the results obtained for 101 Argentinean AIP families and 6 AIP families from foreign neighbour countries studied at molecular level at Centro de Investigaciones sobre Porfirinas y Porfirias (CIPYP). Thirty-five different mutations were found, of which 14 were described for the first time in our population. The most prevalent type of mutations was the missense mutations (43%) followed by splice defects (26%) and small deletions (20%). An odd case of a double heterozygous presentation of AIP in a foreign family from Paraguay is discussed. Moreover, it can be noted that 38 new families were found carrying the most frequent mutation in Argentina (p.G111R), increasing to 55.66% the prevalence of this genetic change in our population and adding further support to our previous hypothesis of a founder effect for this mutation in Argentina. Identification of patients with an overt AIP is important because treatment depends on an accurate diagnosis, but more critical is the identification of asymptomatic relatives to avoid acute attacks which may progress to death.

  10. Acute Intermittent Porphyria in Argentina: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Cerbino, Gabriela Nora; Gerez, Esther Noemí; Varela, Laura Sabina; Melito, Viviana Alicia; Parera, Victoria Estela; Rossetti, María Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Porphyrias are a group of metabolic diseases that arise from deficiencies in the heme biosynthetic pathway. A partial deficiency in hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS) produces a hepatic disorder named Acute Intermittent Porphyria (AIP); the acute porphyria is more frequent in Argentina. In this paper we review the results obtained for 101 Argentinean AIP families and 6 AIP families from foreign neighbour countries studied at molecular level at Centro de Investigaciones sobre Porfirinas y Porfirias (CIPYP). Thirty-five different mutations were found, of which 14 were described for the first time in our population. The most prevalent type of mutations was the missense mutations (43%) followed by splice defects (26%) and small deletions (20%). An odd case of a double heterozygous presentation of AIP in a foreign family from Paraguay is discussed. Moreover, it can be noted that 38 new families were found carrying the most frequent mutation in Argentina (p.G111R), increasing to 55.66% the prevalence of this genetic change in our population and adding further support to our previous hypothesis of a founder effect for this mutation in Argentina. Identification of patients with an overt AIP is important because treatment depends on an accurate diagnosis, but more critical is the identification of asymptomatic relatives to avoid acute attacks which may progress to death. PMID:26075277

  11. Immigration in two federations: Canada and Australia.

    PubMed

    Atchison, J

    1988-03-01

    The need for increasingly widespread application of a policy or program, settlement, and multiculturalism is urgent in both Canada and Australia. For both countries there is a clear pattern of coalescence and divergence and the distinct growth of immigration as a federal function. While Australia has strengthened federal functions in a area of increasingly geo-political need, Canada is moving towards a looser model of federalism. By 1918 both countries were strengthening their federal functions in immigration as discussions within the British Empire on the recommendations of the 1917 Dominions Royal Commission took root. Both countries were interested in agricultural immigration and land settlement. The Great Depression caused a major reduction in population growth rates. From 1933-1948 Canada had a poor record of providing sanctuary for Jews. In Australia, however, Jewish voluntary agencies were aiding the reception of refugees by 1937. The 1st permanent embodiment of commonwealth jurisdiction over immigration was the establishment of an Immigration Branch within the Department of Interior around 1938. Australia needed extra population for defense. The major structural link between government and the immigrant communities was through the Good Neighbor Movement, which began on a nationwide basis in 1950. Both Canada and Australia are major receiving countries for refugees. In 1973 Australia reached the position of effective, practical nondiscrimination achieved by Canada in 1967. Prime Minister Trudeau's policy was multiculturalism within a framework of bilingualism. By 1978 Australia had a new federalism policy, which in all areas concerned with immigrants, refugees and ethnicity, rationalized resources allocation and imposed a political philosophy. The foci of multiculturalism in Australia are 1) community languages; 2) creation of a tolerant, non-discriminatory society; and 3) equity and participation. In 1978 Australia specified population replacement and

  12. Measles surveillance in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yung-Hsuan J.; Andrews, Ross M.; Lambert, Stephen B.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Many countries are implementing measles elimination strategies. In Australia, the State of Victoria has conducted enhanced measles surveillance since 1997 using case interviews and home-based specimen collection for laboratory confirmation. We attempted to identify features of notified cases that would better target surveillance resources. METHODS: We retrospectively classified notifications received from 1998 to 2003 as having been received in an epidemic (one or more laboratory-confirmed cases) or an interepidemic period (no laboratory-confirmed cases). We labelled the first case notified in any epidemic period that was not laboratory-confirmed at the time of notification as a "sentinel case". To maximize detection of sentinel cases while minimizing the follow-up of eventually discarded notifications, we generated algorithms using sentinel cases and interepidemic notifications. FINDINGS: We identified 10 sentinel cases with 422 interepidemic notifications from 1281 Victorian notifications. Sentinel cases were more likely to report fever at rash onset (odds ratio (OR) 15.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) CI: 2.1-688.9), cough (OR 10.4, 95% CI: 1.4-456.7), conjunctivitis (OR 7.9, 95% CI: 1.8-39.1), or year of birth between 1968 and 1981 (OR 31.8, 95% CI: 6.7-162.3). Prospective application of an algorithm consisting of fever at rash onset or born between 1968 and 1981 in the review period would have detected all sentinel cases and avoided the need for enhanced follow-up of 162 of the 422 eventually discarded notifications. CONCLUSION: Elimination strategies should be refined to suit regional and local priorities. The prospective application of an algorithm in Victoria is likely to reduce enhanced measles surveillance resource use in interepidemic periods, while still detecting early cases during measles outbreaks. PMID:16501727

  13. Unlocking Australia's Language Potential. Profiles of 9 Key Languages in Australia. Volume 7: Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marriott, Helen; And Others

    The report on the status of Japanese language teaching in Australia gives a broad view of Japanese study and discusses current educational issues in some detail. An introductory chapter offers a brief overview of the history, objectives, and issues of Japanese language instruction in Australia. The second chapter details features of instructional…

  14. ESO and Australia to Discuss Future Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-01-01

    For some time, the astronomical community in Australia has expressed interest in closer ties to ESO. One of the main reasons is the construction of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), of which the first 8.2 m unit telescope is scheduled for completion less than 2 years from now. The science of astronomy and astrophysics is highly developed in Australia and researchers in this country already have access to several excellent observational facilities, notably the 3.9 m optical telescope at the Siding Spring Observatory, the 64 m Parkes radio telescope and the Australia Telescope, one of the largest radio interferometric instruments in the world. On this important background, it is understandable that there is now an expressed desire among Australian scientists to participate in the VLT project and thus to partake in the front-line science and technology at the world's largest optical telescope. The related moves have been channelled through the Australian National Committee for Astronomy and the first formal contacts between Australia and ESO were made 1/2 year ago, cf. ESO Press Release 07/95 of 8 June 1995. ESO has welcomed the prospects of a closer, future collaboration with Australia, in particular because of the acknowledged expertise in that country within the important field of optical interferometry, a main feature of the VLT project. The Australian Government recently announced a new master plan 'Innovate Australia' which aims at updating and further development of science and technology in this country. It incorporates important support towards the modernization of the Australia Telescope, and certain funds are also foreseen for participation in international projects within the field of astronomy and astrophysics. At the request of the Australian Government, a high-ranking Australian delegation will visit the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) in order to explore with ESO in some detail possible modes of future collaboration. This visit will take place

  15. International Reports on Literacy Research: Argentina, Mexico, France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Mallozzi, Christine, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on Argentina, Mexico, and France. In the first report, Melina Porto reports on a new implementation of a teacher-education program currently underway in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, under the leadership of teacher-researcher…

  16. Prospect for Development of Open Access in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miguel, Sandra; Bongiovani, Paola C.; Gomez, Nancy D.; Bueno-de-la-Fuente, Gema

    2013-01-01

    This perspective article presents an overview of the Open Access movement in Argentina, from a global and regional (Latin American) context. The article describes the evolution and current state of initiatives by examining two principal approaches to Open Access in Argentina: "golden" and "green roads". The article will then…

  17. Computing and Education in Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadowsky, Manuel

    Although the report is specifically about Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, the considerations presented are valid for all of Latin America. In September, 1969, Argentina had approximately 200 electronic computers. The annual growth is estimated at 15-20% and the implementation of teleprocessing and time-sharing systems have made evident the…

  18. Pro-Market Educational Governance: Is Argentina a Black Swan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beech, Jason; Barrenechea, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    In this article we explore ways in which pro-market discourses have been interpreted in policy initiatives in Argentina since the 1970s. Our argument is that even though pro-market discourses have guided reforms in many aspects of public policies in Argentina, the arena of education has overall been resistant to taking them up. The first part of…

  19. Laboratory surveillance of dengue in Argentina, 1995-2001.

    PubMed

    Avilés, Gabriela; Paz, Maria Valeria; Rangeon, Griselda; Ranaivoarisoa, Marie Y; Verzeri, Nora; Roginski, Sandra; Baroni, Pablo; Enria, Delia

    2003-06-01

    Local transmission of dengue fever virus in Argentina is increased by the presence of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and dengue outbreaks in neighboring countries. From 1995 to 2001, a laboratory-based active surveillance program detected 922 dengue cases. Indigenous transmission involving dengue-1 and -2 serotypes was confirmed only in subtropical areas in northern Argentina.

  20. Intercultural Citizenship Education in an EFL Online Project in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porto, Melina

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I describe an online intercultural citizenship experience in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom in Argentina. An action research project on the Malvinas/Falklands war fought between Argentina and the UK in 1982 was carried out in 2012. Through a comparative methodology involving Argentine and English foreign language…

  1. 66 FR 59026 - Honey From Argentina and China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-11-26

    ... TRADE COMMISSION Honey From Argentina and China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... imports from Argentina and China of honey, provided for in subheadings 0409.00.00, 1702.90.00, and 2106.90... Commerce by the American Honey Producers Association, Bruce, South Dakota, and the Sioux Honey...

  2. 65 FR 59871 - Honey From Argentina and China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-10-06

    ... COMMISSION Honey From Argentina and China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... honey, provided for in subheadings 0409.00.00, 1702.90, and 2106.90.99 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule... by reason of imports from Argentina of honey, provided for in subheadings 0409.00.00, 1702.90,...

  3. 78 FR 46610 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... COMMISSION Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Argentina would be likely to lead to... investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  4. 78 FR 47006 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Argentina would be likely to lead to... investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  5. Does Lyme disease exist in Australia?

    PubMed

    Collignon, Peter J; Lum, Gary D; Robson, Jennifer Mb

    2016-11-07

    There is no convincing evidence that classic Lyme disease occurs in Australia, nor is there evidence that the causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, is found in Australian animals or ticks. Lyme disease, however, can be acquired overseas but diagnosed in Australia; most people presenting with laboratory-confirmed Lyme disease in Australia were infected in Europe. Despite the lack of evidence that Lyme disease can be acquired in Australia, growing numbers of patients, their supporters, and some politicians demand diagnoses and treatment according to the protocols of the "chronic Lyme disease" school of thought. Antibiotic therapy for chronic "Lyme disease-like illness" can cause harm to both the individual (eg, cannula-related intravenous sepsis) and the broader community (increased antimicrobial resistance rates). Until there is strong evidence from well performed clinical studies that bacteria present in Australia cause a chronic debilitating illness that responds to prolonged antibiotics, treating patients with "Lyme disease-like illness" with prolonged antibiotic therapy is unjustified, and is likely to do much more harm than good.

  6. 75 FR 23674 - Honey from Argentina: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and Determination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... International Trade Administration A-357-812 Honey from Argentina: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina. See Honey from Argentina: Preliminary Results of Antidumping... preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina for...

  7. Epidemiology, ecology and gene pool of influenza A virus in Egypt: Will Egypt be the epicentre of the next influenza pandemic?

    PubMed Central

    Abdelwhab, EM; Abdel-Moneim, Ahmed S

    2015-01-01

    Outside Asia, Egypt is considered to be an influenza H5N1 epicentre and presents a far greater pandemic risk than other countries. The long-term endemicity of H5N1 and the recent emergence of H9N2 in poultry call attention to the need for unravelling the epidemiology, ecology and highly diverse gene pool of influenza A virus (IAV) in Egypt which is the aim of this review. Isolation of a considerable number of IAV subtypes from several avian and mammalian hosts was described. Co-infections of poultry with H5N1 and H9N2 and subclinical infections of pigs and humans with H1N1 and H5N1 may raise the potential for the reassortment of these viruses. Moreover, the adjustment of IAV genomes, particularly H5N1, to optimize their evolution toward efficient transmission in human is progressing in Egypt. Understanding the present situation of influenza viruses in Egypt will help in the control of the disease and can potentially prevent a possible pandemic. PMID:25635701

  8. Epidemiology, ecology and gene pool of influenza A virus in Egypt: will Egypt be the epicentre of the next influenza pandemic?

    PubMed

    Abdelwhab, E M; Abdel-Moneim, Ahmed S

    2015-01-01

    Outside Asia, Egypt is considered to be an influenza H5N1 epicentre and presents a far greater pandemic risk than other countries. The long-term endemicity of H5N1 and the recent emergence of H9N2 in poultry call attention to the need for unravelling the epidemiology, ecology and highly diverse gene pool of influenza A virus (IAV) in Egypt which is the aim of this review. Isolation of a considerable number of IAV subtypes from several avian and mammalian hosts was described. Co-infections of poultry with H5N1 and H9N2 and subclinical infections of pigs and humans with H1N1 and H5N1 may raise the potential for the reassortment of these viruses. Moreover, the adjustment of IAV genomes, particularly H5N1, to optimize their evolution toward efficient transmission in human is progressing in Egypt. Understanding the present situation of influenza viruses in Egypt will help in the control of the disease and can potentially prevent a possible pandemic.

  9. Compendium of Curriculum Projects for 1991 Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program: Ancient and Modern Egypt and Israel, June 20-22, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of International Education, New York, NY.

    These curriculum projects were produced by teachers who traveled to Egypt and Israel as part of the Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program. The materials developed by the educators were: Activities and Bibliography of Resources to Promote Student Involvement in a Class Study of Egypt and Egyptian Culture (Edith Baxter); Egypt at the Crossroads of…

  10. Rediscovery of Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati) (Acari: Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae) parasitizing the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy) (Mammalia: Chiroptera), with a key to mites of bats in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Negm, Mohamed W; Fakeer, Mahmoud M

    2014-04-01

    Faunistic information about bat mites in Egypt is scarce. Collection records of parasitic mites, Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati, 1856) (Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae), are reported from the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy, 1810) (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Seven species of bat mites are recognized from Egypt to date. A host-parasite checklist and an identification key to these species are presented.

  11. Coral reproduction in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Speed, Conrad W.; Babcock, Russ

    2016-01-01

    Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia’s remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west). Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending on the timing of

  12. Bibliografia Bibliotecologica Argentina [Hasta 1967] (A Bibliography of Library Science in Argentina [to 1967]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matijevic, Nicolas, Comp.

    A guide to library services, management, and organization is offered to professionals in this comprehensive bibliography, written in Spanish, of approximately 2500 items. Published by the Universidad Nacional del Sur (The National University of the South) in Bahia Blanca, Argentina, the list covers books, articles, monographs, manuals, catalogs,…

  13. The Impact of Biogenic and Anthropogenic Atmospheric Aerosol on Climate in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, A. I.; Zakey, A.; Steiner, A. L.; Shokr, M. E.; El-Raey, M.; Ahmed, Y.; Al-Hadidi, A.; Zakey, A.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosols are indicators of air quality as they reduce visibility and adversely affect public health. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is a measure of the radiation extinction due to interaction of radiation with aerosol particles in the atmosphere. Using this optical measure of atmospheric aerosols we explore the seasonal and annual patterns of aerosols from both anthropogenic and biogenic sources over Egypt. Here, we use an integrated environment-climate-aerosol model in conjunction with inversion technique to identify the aerosol particle size distribution over different locations in Egypt. The online-integrated Environment-Climate-Aerosol model (EnvClimA), which is based on the International Center for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model (ICTP-RegCM), is used to study the emission of different aerosols and their impact on climate parameters for a long-term base line simulation run over Egypt and North Africa. The global emission inventory is downscaled and remapping them over Egypt using local factors such as population, traffic and industrial activities to identify the sources of anthropogenic and biogenic emission from local emission over Egypt. The results indicated that the dominant natural aerosols over Egypt are dust emissions that frequently occur during the transitional seasons (Spring and Autumn). From the local observation we identify the number of dust and sand storm occurrences over Egypt. The Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) is used to identify the optical characterizations of different types of aerosols over Egypt. Modeled aerosol optical depth and MISR observed (at 555 nm) are compared from March 2000 through November 2013. The results identify that the MISR AOD captures the maximum peaks of AOD in March/April that coincide with the Khamasin dust storms. However, peaks in May are either due to photochemical reactions or anthropogenic activities. Note: This presentation is for a Partnerships for Enhanced Engagement in Research (PEER

  14. Saving children's lives: a communication campaign in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hirschhorn, N

    1985-01-01

    There are 2 features of Egypt's National Control of Diarrheal Diseases Project (NCDDP) that are central to its effective management: the NCDDP enjoys a certain degree of autonomy to the extent that it can reach beyond the Ministry of Health to bring in specialists through grants and contracts, and it has the power to manage its own budget and personnel; and the NCDDP is not a group of separate program elements but an integration of elements -- training of health workers; production, distribution, and marketing of oral rehydration salts (ORS); monitoring and evaluation of the project; and education and promotion via television, radio, and other public media. These aspects are all concurrently active, and all are maintained and coordinated through the Secretariat, the technical arm of NCDDP. The goal of the communications element, the focus of this discussion, is to teach, persuade, and change the behaviors of all Egyptian mothers of children under 3 years and other specific target groups, especially health personnel, pharmacists, mass media reporters, and decisionmakers involved with the management of diarrhea and dehydration programs. Data acquired through target audience research provides program planners with the most useful and valid information upon which to build a communication campaign. This holds true whether the activity is to select an appropriate logo to call attention to the campaign or to determine the most effective channels through which to communicate social messages. Regarding the logo, 4 designs were selected from among 10 submitted by independent artists and advertising agencies. Focus groups and brief interviews in public places on these 4 logos were carried out to determine audience response. Questioning the mothers who participated in focus groups helped project staff determine what amount of fluid a mother would find believable to give to a child with diarrhea. In addition, surveys showed that a 200cc packet of salts would be the most

  15. Nile behaviour and Upper Palaeolithic humans in Upper Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeersch, Pierre M.

    2014-05-01

    There is evidence of a decreasing human occupation of the Upper Egyptian Nile valley during the MIS 5 to MIS 3 period. Whereas very large extraction sites of the Middle Stone Age have been recorded, only very few sites of the Upper Palaeolithic have been found. The best explanation of this fact is that during the Late Middle Stone Age and the Upper Palaeolithc there was nearly no need for raw materials because there was only a very restricted population present in Upper Egypt. From about 22 ka BP an important population increase is registered by the presence of numerous Late Palaeolithic sites. During the whole LGM there is abundant presence of humans along the Nile Valley in Upper Egypt. This population was mainly living from fishing. There seems to be an abrupt end of the Palaeolithic occupation after 12.8 ka BP. Until now, no sites were found in the Valley until some rare Epipaleolithic sites occur about 8.0 ka BP. It will be suggested that these population changes are influenced by the river Nile behaviour. The best interpretation of the observations in the Upper Egyptian Nile Valley is the hypothesis that at the same time that Nile flow was reduced because of the dryness in its source area, the impact of aeolian activity was increased over Northeast Africa. The increased aeolian activity by northern winds in the Fayum and Wadi Ryan during the LGM resulted in the accumulation of aeolian sand in the valley. That aeolian sand was transported along the western Nile valley cliffs until it was accumulated when the Nile Valley change it S-N direction, such as at Nag'Hammadi. At other places sand was invading the Nile valley, directly from the Western Desert, creating a damming of the Nile at several places such as Armant and Aswan. As Nile flow was quite reduced, the Nile was unable to erode all the incoming sand and the Nile water with its important clay content was dammed. At several places large lakes were created in the Nile Valley. Those lakes were an ideal

  16. Space Radar Image of Giza Egypt - with enlargement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image shows the area west of the Nile River near Cairo, Egypt. The Nile River is the dark band along the right side of the image and it flows approximately due North from the bottom to the right. The boundary between dense urbanization and the desert can be clearly seen between the bright and dark areas in the center of the image. This boundary represents the approximate extent of yearly Nile flooding which played an important part in determining where people lived in ancient Egypt. This land usage pattern persists to this day. The pyramids at Giza appear as three bright triangles aligned with the image top just at the boundary of the urbanized area. They are also shown enlarged in the inset box in the top left of the image. The Great Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops in Greek) is the northern most of the three Giza pyramids. The side-looking radar illuminates the scene from the top, the two sides of the pyramids facing the radar reflect most of the energy back to the antenna and appear radar bright; the two sides away from the radar reflect less energy back and appear dark Two additional pyramids can be seen left of center in the lower portion of the image. The modern development in the desert on the left side of the image is the Sixth of October City, an area of factories and residences started by Anwar Sadat to relieve urban crowding. The image was taken on April 19, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The image is centered on latitude 29.72 degrees North latitude and 30.83 degrees East longitude. The area shown is approximately 20 kilometers by 30 kilometers. The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is C

  17. The Cretaceous glauconitic sandstones of Abu Tartur, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestitschek, Brigitte; Gier, Susanne; Essa, Mahmoud; Kurzweil, Johannes

    2010-05-01

    The Abu Tartur mine is located in the Western Desert of Egypt, 50 km west of El Kharga City. Geologically, the Abu Tartur plateau is built by a sequence of Upper Cretaceous (Campanian - Maastrichtian) phosphorites, black shales and glauconitic sandstones. The phosphate deposits are of great economic importance and have been mined since their discovery in 1967. Outcrop sections were measured, sampled, sedimentologically characterized and described. One specific glaucony layer was investigated mineralogically and chemically in detail and compared to a subsurface sample from the mine. Two depositional regimes can be interpreted based on sedimentary architecture and structures: 1) a deeper-water hemipelagic environment, where phosphorites and organic carbon-rich shales were deposited and 2) a shallower, prograding higher energy shelf environment with glauconies. From a sequence stratigraphic perspective 1) was deposited during the transgressive systems tract and the early highstand while 2) was deposited during the remaining highstand and a lowstand prograding wedge (Glenn & Arthur, 1990). Petrographic and SEM investigations show that the glaucony grains are of authochtonous origin. XRF, EMPA and thin-section analyses show that the glaucony grains from the outcrop differ significantly in their chemical composition, morphology and color from the grains of the mine sample. The fresh glauconies are enriched in Fe2O3 and K2O compared to the surface samples. XRD analyses of the clay fraction of the six outcrop samples and the mine sample show that the grains consist of illite(glauconite)/smectite mixed-layers, with more illite layers (80 %) in the mine sample. The charge distribution diagram muscovite-pyrophyllite-celadonite shows a clear trend from smectitic glaucony to illitic glaucony, the mine sample plots exactly in the field for glauconites. All these features indicate that the surface samples are strongly altered by weathering and that glauconite progressively

  18. Emergence of neural angiostrongyliasis in eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Mahdis; Jones, Malcolm K; Aland, Kieran V; Reid, Simon A; Traub, Rebecca J; McCarthy, James S; Lee, Rogan

    2015-03-01

    Despite an apparent increase in cases of angiostrongyliasis in humans and animals in Australia, the epidemiology of infection with the two species of Angiostrongylus that co-exist in this country, namely A. cantonensis and A. mackerrasae, is poorly understood. This knowledge gap is particularly important with respect to A. mackerrasae, a species evidently native to Australia, as its ability to cause disease in humans is unknown. Likewise, there is little information on the roles of native and introduced species of rodents and molluscs as hosts of Angiostrongylus species in Australia. This review focuses on the gaps in the knowledge about the two species, highlighting the need for epidemiological and pathogenesis studies on the native lungworm A. mackerrasae.

  19. Children of the Nile: The Community Schools Project in Upper Egypt. Education for All: Making It Work. Innovation Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaalouk, Malak

    In 1992, UNICEF signed an agreement with the government of Egypt to develop and coordinate a community schools project in the deprived villages of rural upper Egypt. Four pilot sites were selected in the governorate of Assiut based on minimum numbers of out-of-school children, lack of a school nearby, and the eagerness of the community to…

  20. 76 FR 50992 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Shredded Lettuce From Egypt

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... Importation of Shredded Lettuce From Egypt AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... risks associated with the importation into the continental United States of fresh shredded lettuce from... weeds via the importation of fresh shredded lettuce from Egypt. We are making the pest risk...

  1. Education Finance in Egypt: Problems and a Possible Solution. Occasional Paper. RTI Press Publication OP-0017-1401

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, F. Henry; Crouch, Luis; Hanna, Rafik

    2014-01-01

    Egypt, currently in the throes of major political change, will likely undergo reforms of various sorts in the next few years. Some of these reforms are likely to give local entities, including schools, greater control over education finances. In 2007, the Government of Egypt began to decentralize some non-personnel recurrent finances from the…

  2. Implementation of Web-Based Education in Egypt through Cloud Computing Technologies and Its Effect on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Seoud, M. Samir Abou; El-Sofany, Hosam F.; Taj-Eddin, Islam A. T. F.; Nosseir, Ann; El-Khouly, Mahmoud M.

    2013-01-01

    The information technology educational programs at most universities in Egypt face many obstacles that can be overcome using technology enhanced learning. An open source Moodle eLearning platform has been implemented at many public and private universities in Egypt, as an aid to deliver e-content and to provide the institution with various…

  3. 76 FR 73759 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Ancient Egypt-Art and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Ancient Egypt--Art and Magic: Treasures From the Foundation Gandur pour L'Art, Geneva, Switzerland'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of... included in the exhibition ``Ancient Egypt--Art and Magic: Treasures from the Foundation Gandur pour...

  4. The Moho in Australia and New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, M.; Kennett, B. L. N.; Stern, T.; Aitken, A. R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Australia and New Zealand share in part a history in the Gondwana supercontinent. Australia has a long and complex tectonic history with the last major accretion in the early Paleozoic, whereas New Zealand is still undergoing major plate boundary processes. The Australian continent is relatively well covered with both active and passive seismic techniques. Multiple sources of information are therefore available for building a model of Moho depth. Results from on-shore and off-shore refraction experiments are supplemented by receiver functions from a large number of portable stations and the recently augmented set of permanent stations. Moho picks from more than 10 500 km of full-crustal reflection profiles provide valuable additional constraints. The composite data set provides good sampling of much of Australia, though coverage remains low in some remote desert areas. The various datasets provide multiple estimates of the depth to Moho in many regions, and the consistency between the different techniques is high. Some of the thinnest crust lies beneath the Archean craton in the Pilbara, and in the neighbourhood of the Simpson desert. Thick crust is encountered beneath parts of the Proterozoic in Central Australia, and beneath the Paleozoic Lachlan fold belt in southeastern Australia. There are a number of zones of sharp contrast in depth to Moho, notably in the southern part of Central Australia. Despite most of the continental material around New Zealand being submerged, Moho data for this region is mainly onshore concentrating on the Australia-Pacific plate boundary. Two major wide-angle reflection transects provide the bulk of the active source data with just a few traditional reflection profiles offshore. The plate boundary provides an abundance of local earthquakes for tomographic imaging and this data is supplemented with receiver functions from both portable and permanent networks. Onshore the combined coverage is as dense as that of Australia, although it

  5. The Moho in Australia and New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, Michelle; Kennett, Brian; Sambridge, Malcolm; Stern, Tim

    2013-04-01

    Australia and New Zealand share in part a history in the Gondwana supercontinent. Australia has a long and complex tectonic history with the last major accretion in the early Paleozoic, whereas New Zealand is still undergoing major plate boundary processes. The Australian continent is relatively well covered with both active and passive seismic techniques. Multiple sources of information are therefore available for building a model of Moho depth. Results from on-shore and off-shore refraction experiments are supplemented by receiver functions from a large number of portable stations and the recently augmented set of permanent stations. Moho picks from more than 10500 km of full-crustal reflection profiles provide valuable additional constraints. The composite data set provides good sampling of much of Australia, though coverage remains low in some remote desert areas. The various datasets provide multiple estimates of the depth to Moho in many regions, and the consistency between the different techniques is high. Some of the thinnest crust lies beneath the Archean craton in the Pilbara, and in the neighbourhood of the Simpson desert. Thick crust is encountered beneath parts of the Proterozoic in Central Australia, and beneath the Paleozoic Lachlan fold belt in southeastern Australia. There are a number of zones of sharp contrast in depth to Moho, notably in the southern part of Central Australia. Despite most of the continental material around New Zealand being submerged, Moho data for this region is mainly onshore concentrating on the Australia-Pacific plate boundary. Two major wide-angle reflection transects provide the bulk of the active source data with just a few traditional reflection profiles offshore. The plate bound- ary provides an abundance of local earthquakes for tomographic imaging and this data is supplemented with receiver functions from both portable and permanent networks.Onshore the combined coverage is as dense as that of Australia, although it

  6. Status of Women In Physics in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, C. P.

    2009-04-01

    The status of women in physics is Australia has remained mostly steady until recently, with the appointment of several eminent women in major government of public roles. Australia seems to maintain the same gender ratio for those studying and working in physics. There is no overall coordination of programs to assist women into the workplace but there is generally goodwill. Success in attracting and retaining women in the physics workforce appears to depend on the local culture, initiatives, and attitude of the most senior person in the organization.

  7. Studies on the Biology of Hypogeococcus pungens (sensu stricto) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Argentina to Aid the Identification of the Mealybug Pest of Cactaceae in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, M B; Diaz-Soltero, H; Claps, L E; Saracho Bottero, A; Triapitsyn, S; Hasson, E; Logarzo, G A

    2016-01-01

    Hypogeococcus pungens Granara de Willink, sensu stricto, is a serious pest of cacti in Puerto Rico threating many Caribbean islands. A classical biological control program for H. pungens was initiated for Puerto Rico in 2010 with a survey for natural enemies of H. pungens in its native range of Argentina. Biological differences were observed between populations of H. pungens sampled on Amaranthaceae and Cactaceae. Molecular studies suggested that H. pungens populations from different host plant families are likely a complex of species. Our objective was to study the biology of H. pungens sensu stricto on specimens collected in the same locality and host plant as the holotype [Tucumán Province, Argentina; Alternanthera pungens Kunth (Amaranthaceae)]. We were interested in the reproductive biology of females, longevity and survival of adults, the effect of temperature on the development, and nymph performance (survival and development) on five Cactaceae species. We found that H. pungens s.s showed marked biological differences from the populations collected on Cactaceae and exported to Australia for the biological control of the cactus Harrisia spp. The main differences were the presence of deuterotoky parthenogenesis and the fact that H. pungens did not attack Cactaceae in the laboratory. Our results provide biological evidence that H. pungens is a species complex. We propose that the population introduced to Australia is neither Hypogeococcus festerianus Lizer y Trelles nor H. pungens, but an undescribed species with three circuli, and that the Hypogeococcus pest of cacti in Puerto Rico is not H. pungens.

  8. Studies on the Biology of Hypogeococcus pungens (sensu stricto) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Argentina to Aid the Identification of the Mealybug Pest of Cactaceae in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, M. B.; Diaz-Soltero, H.; Claps, L. E.; Saracho Bottero, A.; Triapitsyn, S.; Hasson, E.; Logarzo, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    Hypogeococcus pungens Granara de Willink, sensu stricto, is a serious pest of cacti in Puerto Rico threating many Caribbean islands. A classical biological control program for H. pungens was initiated for Puerto Rico in 2010 with a survey for natural enemies of H. pungens in its native range of Argentina. Biological differences were observed between populations of H. pungens sampled on Amaranthaceae and Cactaceae. Molecular studies suggested that H. pungens populations from different host plant families are likely a complex of species. Our objective was to study the biology of H. pungens sensu stricto on specimens collected in the same locality and host plant as the holotype [Tucumán Province, Argentina; Alternanthera pungens Kunth (Amaranthaceae)]. We were interested in the reproductive biology of females, longevity and survival of adults, the effect of temperature on the development, and nymph performance (survival and development) on five Cactaceae species. We found that H. pungens s.s. showed marked biological differences from the populations collected on Cactaceae and exported to Australia for the biological control of the cactus Harrisia spp. The main differences were the presence of deuterotoky parthenogenesis and the fact that H. pungens did not attack Cactaceae in the laboratory. Our results provide biological evidence that H. pungens is a species complex. We propose that the population introduced to Australia is neither Hypogeococcus festerianus Lizer y Trelles nor H. pungens, but an undescribed species with three circuli, and that the Hypogeococcus pest of cacti in Puerto Rico is not H. pungens. PMID:27324585

  9. Tobacco industry targeting youth in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Braun, S; Mejia, R; Ling, P M; Pérez-Stable, E J

    2013-01-01

    Background/aim Argentina has one of the highest cigarette smoking rates among both men and women in the Americas and no legislated restrictions on tobacco industry advertising. The tobacco industry has traditionally expanded markets by targeting adolescents and young adults. The objective of this study was to determine whether and how the tobacco industry promotes cigarettes to adolescents in Argentina. Methods We conducted a systematic search of tobacco industry documents available through the internet dated between 1995 and 2004 using standard search terms to identify marketing strategies in Argentina. A selected review of the four leading newspapers and nine magazines with reported high readership among adolescents was completed. The selected print media were searched for tobacco images and these were classified as advertisements if associated with a commercial product or as a story if not. Results The tobacco industry used market segmentation as a strategy to target Argentinean consumers. British American Tobacco (BAT) undertook a young adult psychographic study and classified them as “progressives”, “Jurassics” or “conservatives” and “crudos” or “spoiled brats”. BAT marketed Lucky Strike to the “progressives” using Hollywood movies as a vehicle. The tobacco industry also targeted their national brands to the conservatives and linked these brands with “nationalistic values” in advertising campaigns. Philip Morris promoted Marlboro by sponsoring activities directed at young people and they launched the 10 cigarettes packet as a starter vehicle. Conclusions The tobacco industry used psychographic segmentation of the population and developed advertising strategies focused on youth. Tobacco control researchers and advocates must be able to address these strategies in counter-marketing interventions. PMID:18299308

  10. New records of mosquitoes from northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Dantur Juri, María J; Stein, Marina; Rossi, Gustavo C; Navarro, Juan Carlos; Zaidenberg, Mario; Sallum, María A Mureb

    2012-06-01

    Eleven mosquito species, namely Aedes hastatus, Ae. fulvus, Coquillettidia albicosta, Cq. juxtamansonia, Culex aliciae, Cx. delpontei, Cx. oedipus, Cx. pedroi, Mansonia flaveola, Uranotaenia leucoptera, and Wyeomyia oblita, are recorded for the first time from northwestern Argentina. In addition, 3 species, Cx. brethesi, Limatus durhami, and Ur. nataliae, are reported for the first time from Salta Province. These records extend the geographical distribution of these 3 species to Salta Province. This study also extends the geographical distributions of Cq. nigricans, Cx. chidesteri, and Ma. humeralis to Jujuy Province and of Ae. meprai, Ae. milleri, Ae. oligopistus, Cx. brethesi, Cx. fernandezi, and Cx. tatoi to Tucumán Province.

  11. Aedes aegypti resistance to temephos in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Seccacini, Emilia; Lucia, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo; Licastro, Susana; Masuh, Hector

    2008-12-01

    Monitoring of resistance of Aedes aegypti to temephos was implemented in the provinces of Formosa and Misiones, Argentina, as a response to the need to improve the vigilance for the dengue vector in areas of high risk of dengue. Eggs collected in each locality were reared, and susceptibility to temephos was assayed using larval bioassays. A weak decrease in susceptibility of larvae to temephos was observed in Clorinda and Puerto Iguazú, indicating an incipient resistance with a resistance ratio of 3. No control failures have been observed yet, and this program should allow the early detection of a real problem in our country.

  12. Mesozoic evolution of northeast African shelf margin, Libya and Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Aadland, R.K.; Schamel, S.

    1989-03-01

    The present tectonic features of the northeast African shelf margin between the Nile delta and the Gulf of Sirte are products of (1) precursory late Paleozoic basement arches, (2) early Mesozoic rifting and plate separation, and (3) Late Cretaceous structural inversion. The 250 km-wide and highly differentiated Mesozoic passive margin in the Western Desert region of Egypt is developed above a broad northwest-trending Late Carboniferous basement arch. In northeastern Libya, in contrast, the passive margin is restricted to just the northernmost Cyrenaica platform, where subsidence was extremely rapid in the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. The boundary between the Western Desert basin and the Cyrenaica platform is controlled by the western flank of the basement arch. In the middle Cretaceous (100-90 Ma), subsidence accelerated over large areas of the Western desert, further enhancing a pattern of east-west-trending subbasins. This phase of rapid subsidence was abruptly ended about 80 Ma by the onset of structural inversion that uplifted the northern Cyrenaica shelf margin and further differentiated the Western Desert subbasin along a northeasterly trend.

  13. Women's empowerment and generalized anxiety in Minya, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Yount, Kathryn M; Dijkerman, Sally; Zureick-Brown, Sarah; VanderEnde, Kristin E

    2014-04-01

    Gender disparities in mental health are global, with women experiencing higher rates than men of anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and attempted suicide. Women's low social status may partly explain these disparities, yet evidence from Arab and Middle Eastern settings is limited. We assessed whether women's empowerment - or acquisition of enabling resources, and in turn, enhanced agency - was associated with their lower generalized anxiety. For 539 ever-married women 22-65 years who participated in the 2005 Egypt Demographic Health Survey (EDHS) and a 2012 follow-up survey in rural Minya, we estimated linear reduced-form and mediation regression models to assess the associations of women's premarital enabling resources with their generalized anxiety in 2012, overall and through measures of their marital agency in 2005. Women's higher schooling attainment, premarital economic activity, later age at first marriage, and greater proximity to natal (or birth) family had significant, adjusted associations with lower generalized anxiety. Measures of women's agency in marriage had mixed associations with generalized anxiety, but their inclusion modestly reduced the coefficients for premarital resources. Parallel qualitative findings confirmed nuanced associations between women's exclusive decision-making and their mental health. Efforts to enhance women's education and premarital economic activity might be combined with efforts to delay first marriage and ensure women's extra-marital social support to maximize their empowerment and its mental-health benefits.

  14. Radon exhalation rate of some building materials used in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Maged, A F; Ashraf, F A

    2005-09-01

    Indoor radon has been recognized as one of the health hazards for mankind. Common building materials used for construction of houses, which are considered as one of the major sources of this gas in indoor environment, have been studied for exhalation rate of radon. Non-nuclear industries, such as coal fired power plants or fertilizer production facilities, generate large amounts of waste gypsum as by-products. Compared to other building materials waste gypsum from fertilizer production facilities (phosphogypsum) shows increased rates of radon exhalation. In the present, investigation solid state alpha track detectors, CR-39 plastic detectors, were used to measure the indoor radon concentration and the radon exhalation rates from some building materials used in Egypt. The indoor radon concentration and the radon exhalation rate ranges were found to be 24-55 Bq m(-3 )and 11-223 mBq m(-2) h(-1), respectively. The effective dose equivalent range for the indoor was found 0.6-1.4 mSv y(-1). The equilibrium factor between radon and its daughters increased with the increase of relative humidity.

  15. First known lenses originating in Egypt about 4600 years ago!

    PubMed

    Enoch, J

    2000-04-01

    The first lenses (ca. Vth Dynasties of the Old Kingdom of Egypt. These lenses are found in The Louvre Museum in Paris and the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. They were components of extraordinary eye constructs in statues which had unique qualities. Namely, the "eyes" appear to follow the viewer as he/she rotates about these statues in any direction. This effect can be photographed and reproduced 2620-2400 B.C., 4620-4400 Before Present=B.P.) appeared mainly during the IVth and optically. This effect has been modeled here. The lenses were ground from high quality (!) rock crystal (a form of quartz, n approximately 1.46). Each had a convex and highly polished front "corneal" surface. Thus, in a sense, these were multifocal lenses. The iris aperture may or may not have been open to a substantial posterior "vitreous" cavity formed largely by curved copper plates which extended forward to create the lid structures of these eyes. Were these a form of schematic eyes? Could such fine quality and complex (sophisticated) lenses be the first lenses? Clearly, the observer was intended to look at these eyes and follow their apparent movements. The total structure of these eyes indicated an advanced understanding of ocular anatomy and a surprising knowledge of optics. There are many questions.

  16. Physical restraints practice in adult intensive care units in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kandeel, Nahed Attia; Attia, Amal Kadry

    2013-03-01

    Physical restraints are commonly used in intensive care units to reduce the risk of injury and ensure patient safety. However, there is still controversy regarding the practice of physical restraints in such units. The purpose of this study was to investigate the practices of physical restraints among critical care nurses in El-Mansoura City, Egypt. The study involved a convenience sample of 275 critically ill adult patients, and 153 nurses. Data were collected from 11 intensive care units using a "physical restraint observation form" and a "structured questionnaire." The results revealed that physical restraint was commonly used to ensure patient safety. Assessment of physical restraint was mainly restricted to peripheral circulation. The most commonly reported physically restrained site complications included: redness, bruising, swelling, and edema. The results illustrated a lack of documentation on physical restraint and a lack of education of patients and their families about the rationale of physical restraint usage. The study shed light on the need for standard guidelines and policies for physical restraint practices in Egyptian intensive care units.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of some Clerodendrum species from Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abouzid, Sameh F; Wahba, Haytham M; Elshamy, Ali; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis; Apers, Sandra; Pieters, Luc; Shahat, Abdelaaty A

    2013-01-01

    Chloroformic and methanolic extracts of four Clerodendrum species cultivated in Egypt were screened for antimicrobial activities. Chloroformic extracts of the flowers of Clerodendrum chinense and Clerodendrum splendens were active against Plasmodium falciparum (IC50 < 10 µg mL(-1)). Chloroformic extracts of the stem and flowers of C. chinense were active against Trypanosoma cruzi (IC50 = 1.21 and 1.12 µg mL(-1), respectively) with marginal cytotoxicity. Chloroformic extracts of the leaves of C. chinense and C. splendens showed promising activities against T. cruzi (IC50 = 3.39 and 1.98 µg mL(-1), respectively) without cytotoxic effect on a human cell line. None of the selected plants showed significant activity against Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria or Candida albicans. Verbascoside, a phenyl propanoid glycoside isolated from the leaves of C. chinense, showed marginal activity against T. cruzi. Rengyolone, a cyclohexyl ethanoid isolated from the leaves of C. chinense, showed a broad but not specific activity against the tested organisms.

  18. Collapse of an ecological network in Ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Yeakel, Justin D; Pires, Mathias M; Rudolf, Lars; Dominy, Nathaniel J; Koch, Paul L; Guimarães, Paulo R; Gross, Thilo

    2014-10-07

    The dynamics of ecosystem collapse are fundamental to determining how and why biological communities change through time, as well as the potential effects of extinctions on ecosystems. Here, we integrate depictions of mammals from Egyptian antiquity with direct lines of paleontological and archeological evidence to infer local extinctions and community dynamics over a 6,000-y span. The unprecedented temporal resolution of this dataset enables examination of how the tandem effects of human population growth and climate change can disrupt mammalian communities. We show that the extinctions of mammals in Egypt were nonrandom and that destabilizing changes in community composition coincided with abrupt aridification events and the attendant collapses of some complex societies. We also show that the roles of species in a community can change over time and that persistence is predicted by measures of species sensitivity, a function of local dynamic stability. To our knowledge, our study is the first high-resolution analysis of the ecological impacts of environmental change on predator-prey networks over millennial timescales and sheds light on the historical events that have shaped modern animal communities.

  19. [Under the primacy of funerary cult? Surgery in Ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Schwarzmann-Schafhauser, Doris

    2005-01-01

    Rational, natural-philosophical disease theory places ancient Egyptian medicine above the magical-demonistic perceptions of other contemporary advanced cultures. The rational element emerges even more strongly in teaching about wounds--traumatology. It was this that gained Egyptian medical science such high regard in the ancient world. In both areas (internal medicine and traumatology), written sources provide us with a really useful picture. By contrast, details of an operative, elective surgery are almost completely lacking. Illustrative sources and anthropological finds do, nonetheless, feed the suspicion that elective surgery could have been measured in traumatology. However, this image is relativised by an anthology and discussion of all tangible finds, and their classification into the overall source context. Even if the technological capacity for elective surgery had been entirely available in ancient Egypt, it appears that ancient Egyptian physicians generally abstained from operative surgery--a voluntary abstention, the roots of which are to be found in the religio-cultural customs and in the religious obligation to keep the body intact for the afterlife. Even in their most rational form, ancient Egyptian medical science was, therefore, limited by beliefs about the after-life and funerary cult.

  20. Quaternary shoreline development: the northwestern coast of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Asmar, Hesham M.; Wood, Philip

    2000-07-01

    New age estimates for samples representing different sedimentary units of the coastal ridges along El-Omayid-Burg El-Arab, northwestern coast of Egypt reveal that the Coastal (first) ridge is related to Holocene high sea level, aminozone "A", with evidence of recent (0.6±0.1 ka) ooid contributions. The El-Max-Abu Sir (second) ridge appears to be associated with the Last Interglacial and related to Oxygen Isotope Substages (OIS) 5c/5a. Beach boulders at the bottom of the Gebel Maryut (third) ridge are related to the Last Interglacial high-stand (OIS 5e), while the molluscan and Cardium limestones are related to a Cardium beach of lagoonal to shallow marine environment. This beach represents a coastal barrier, which existed between 208±59 to 292±48 ka, and is related to aminozones F-G and OIS 7-9. Complex paleosols are developed on the northern flanks of both the second and the third ridges with an estimate age of 67±31 ka and aminozone "C". These appear related to interstadial conditions at the early Last Glacial Stage. The paleosols (Pink limestone) at the top of the Khashm El-Ish (fourth) ridge show a wide range of ages, giving age estimates between 360±140 and 584±317 ka indicating a Middle Pleistocene age.

  1. Menstrual hygiene among adolescent schoolgirls in Mansoura, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; Badawi, Karima; El-Fedawy, Sanaa

    2005-11-01

    Learning about menstrual hygiene is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. This study among 664 schoolgirls aged 14-18 in Mansoura, Egypt, asked about type of sanitary protection used, frequency of changing pads or cloths, means of disposal and bathing during menstruation. Girls were selected by cluster sampling technique in public secondary schools in urban and rural areas. Data were collected through an anonymous, self-administered, open-ended questionnaire during class time. The significant predictors of use of sanitary pads were availability of mass media at home, high and middle social class and urban residence. Use of sanitary pads may be increasing, but not among girls from rural and poor families, and other aspects of personal hygiene were generally found to be poor, such as not changing pads regularly or at night, and not bathing during menstruation. Lack of privacy was an important problem. Mass media were the main source of information about menstrual hygiene, followed by mothers, but a large majority of girls said they needed more information. Instruction in menstrual hygiene should be linked to an expanded programme of health education in schools. A supportive environment for menstrual hygiene has to be provided both at home and in school and sanitary pads made more affordable.

  2. Isolation and molecular characterization of bovine enteroviruses in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Sobhy, N M; Mor, S K; Mohammed, M E M; Bastawecy, I M; Fakhry, H M; Youssef, C R B; Abouzeid, N Z; Goyal, S M

    2015-12-01

    Enteroviruses belong to the Picornaviridae family and infect a wide range of mammals including cattle. Bovine enterovirus (BEV) has recently been reclassified into E and F serotypes. BEV was first isolated in Egypt in 1966 although it has been known in other countries since the 1950s. In this study, BEV-F2 was isolated from calves with severe diarrhea and the isolated viruses were subjected to molecular characterization. Illumina sequencing of one of the isolates revealed the presence of a complete BEV-F genome sequence. The phylogenetic analysis revealed nucleotide substitutions along the genome in comparison with other known strains of BEV-F (HQ663846, AY508697 and DQ092795). Two primer sets were designed from the 3D and 5'NTR regions and used for the examination of the remaining isolates, which were confirmed to be of the BEV-F2 serotype. The availability of the complete genome sequence of this virus adds to the sequence database of the members of Picornaviridae and should be useful in future molecular studies of BEV.

  3. Molecular detection of enteric viruses from diarrheic calves in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Fakry F; Mansour, Shimaa M G; El-Araby, Iman E; Mor, Sunil K; Goyal, Sagar M

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD) is a major cause of morbidity, mortality and economic losses in the beef and dairy industries. This study was conducted to investigate the existence of enteric viruses in two Egyptian farms with a history of recurrent diarrhea. Fecal samples were collected from 25 diarrheic calves. RNA was extracted and tested by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the presence of rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, torovirus, coronavirus and bovine viral diarrhea virus. Overall, 76 % (19/25) of samples tested positive for one or more viruses. Rota-, noro- and astroviruses were detected in 48 %, 24 % and 32 % of tested samples, respectively. About 37 % (7/19) of positive samples had two different viruses. One-month-old calves were the group most vulnerable to infections. Based on phylogenetic analysis, bovine rotaviruses were of genotypes G6 and G10, bovine noroviruses were in GIII.2, and bovine astroviruses were in the BAstV lineage 1. Astrovirus sequences showed a high level nucleotide sequence similarity with the Brazilian BAstV sequences available in GenBank. We believe this is the first report of bovine norovirus and bovine astrovirus circulating among calves in Egypt. Further epidemiological studies are recommended to investigate their presence on a wider scale, to predict their association with NCD, and to design appropriate diagnostic and control methods.

  4. Nutritional Correlates of Perceived Stress among University Students in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El Ansari, Walid; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-11-06

    Food intake choice and amount might change with stress. However, this has not been examined among Egyptian students. We examined students' stress levels, its correlation with their consumption of a range of food groups, and adherence to dietary guidelines. A cross sectional survey (N = 2810 undergraduates at 11 faculties at Assiut University, Egypt) assessed two composite food intake pattern scores (one unhealthy: sweets, cakes, snacks; and a healthy one: fruits and vegetables), and two indicators of healthy eating (subjective importance of healthy eating; and dietary guideline adherence index). Multiple linear regression tested the associations of stress with two food intake pattern scores and two indicators of healthy eating, controlling for six potential confounders for the sample and separately for males and females. Higher perceived stress score was significantly associated with less frequent food intake of fruit and vegetables in males and females. The association was more pronounced among males than in females. No significant association was observed between the sweets cakes and snacks score and stress. Of the two indicators of healthy eating, the dietary guideline adherence index was not associated with stress, while the subjective judgment of healthy eating was consistently negatively associated with stress. Stress related decreased-eating was present. Recent studies suggest that stress could be associated with either decreased or increased eating depending on the study population, food group, and type of stressor. Further research is necessary to understand stress related over- and undereating.

  5. Geochemical modeling of evaporation process in Lake Qarun, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel Wahed, Mahmoud S. M.; Mohamed, Essam A.; El-Sayed, Mohamed I.; M'nif, Adel; Sillanpää, Mika

    2014-09-01

    Lake Qarun is an inland closed saline lake. It lies within the Fayoum Depression in the Western Desert of Egypt. Evaporation modeling has been carried out using PHREEQC to simulate the geochemical evolution of surface drainage waters inflow towards lake water. In the case of Lake Qarun, it is the first attempt to carry out such kind of modeling. Performance of this model helped to address the different sources of dissolved major ions to Lake Qarun and to identify the mechanisms control the lake's water chemistry. The model demonstrated that evaporation-crystallization process is the main mechanism controlling the evolution of lake water chemistry where major ions Na+, Mg2+, Cl- and SO42- have been built up in the lake by evaporation while Ca2+ and HCO3- are depleted by calcite precipitation. Moreover, the simulated model reproduced the real data observed in Lake Qarun except in the case of SO42- which is in real more enriched in the lake than the model output. The additional source of SO42- is reported to be from groundwater. The models result agreed well with the modified evolutionary Hardie and Eugster's scheme (1970) in which the final major composition of Lake Qarun water is Na-Mg-SO4-Cl type. In future, the monitoring of Lake Qarun chemistry with detection of any other sources of elements and/or local reactions inside the lake can be detected by performing the simulated evaporation model reported by the present study.

  6. Returns on lifetime investments in children in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Solveig A; Yount, Kathryn M; Engelman, Michal; Agree, Emily

    2013-04-01

    Parental expectations about the companionship and assistance they will receive in later life from their children are key considerations in family formation decisions. We explore patterns of parents' investment and the support and contact they receive from adult children in Egypt, where fertility is falling and sources of support at all life stages are in flux. Using data from a survey of older adults in Ismailia governorate, we consider parents' past investments in childbearing, child survival, and children's education and marriage, as well as recent assistance to adult children via housing, care for grandchildren, gifts, and money. The returns from children considered include economic assistance, instrumental support, and visits. Most parental investments are associated with frequent visits from children. The assistance children provide to parents is gendered: sons tend to provide economic transfers, whereas daughters tend to provide instrumental help. A greater number of surviving children is most strongly associated with parents' receipt of multiple types of later-life returns. Investments in children's education and marriage are not associated with assistance, but recent assistance to children-especially economic transfers and provision of housing-is associated with receiving instrumental assistance from adult children.

  7. Water management in Egypt for facing the future challenges.

    PubMed

    Omar, Mohie El Din M; Moussa, Ahmed M A

    2016-05-01

    The current water shortage in Egypt is 13.5 Billion cubic meter per year (BCM/yr) and is expected to continuously increase. Currently, this water shortage is compensated by drainage reuse which consequently deteriorates the water quality. Therefore, this research was commenced with the objective of assessing different scenarios for 2025 using the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) model and by implementing different water sufficiency measures. Field data were assembled and analyzed, and different planning alternatives were proposed and tested in order to design three future scenarios. The findings indicated that water shortage in 2025 would be 26 BCM/yr in case of continuation of current policies. Planning alternatives were proposed to the irrigation canals, land irrigation timing, aquatic weeds in waterways and sugarcane areas in old agricultural lands. Other measures were suggested to pumping rates of deep groundwater, sprinkler and drip irrigation systems in new agricultural lands. Further measures were also suggested to automatic daily surveying for distribution leak and managing the pressure effectively in the domestic and industrial water distribution systems. Finally, extra measures for water supply were proposed including raising the permitted withdrawal limit from deep groundwater and the Nubian aquifer and developing the desalination resource. The proposed planning alternatives would completely eliminate the water shortage in 2025.

  8. Water management in Egypt for facing the future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Mohie El Din M.; Moussa, Ahmed M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The current water shortage in Egypt is 13.5 Billion cubic meter per year (BCM/yr) and is expected to continuously increase. Currently, this water shortage is compensated by drainage reuse which consequently deteriorates the water quality. Therefore, this research was commenced with the objective of assessing different scenarios for 2025 using the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) model and by implementing different water sufficiency measures. Field data were assembled and analyzed, and different planning alternatives were proposed and tested in order to design three future scenarios. The findings indicated that water shortage in 2025 would be 26 BCM/yr in case of continuation of current policies. Planning alternatives were proposed to the irrigation canals, land irrigation timing, aquatic weeds in waterways and sugarcane areas in old agricultural lands. Other measures were suggested to pumping rates of deep groundwater, sprinkler and drip irrigation systems in new agricultural lands. Further measures were also suggested to automatic daily surveying for distribution leak and managing the pressure effectively in the domestic and industrial water distribution systems. Finally, extra measures for water supply were proposed including raising the permitted withdrawal limit from deep groundwater and the Nubian aquifer and developing the desalination resource. The proposed planning alternatives would completely eliminate the water shortage in 2025. PMID:27222745

  9. Women's age at first marriage and postmarital agency in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Crandall, AliceAnn; VanderEnde, Kristin; Cheong, Yuk Fai; Dodell, Sylvie; Yount, Kathryn M

    2016-05-01

    Early - or child - marriage (before age 18) may diminish women's ability to exercise agency, or their capacity to act upon their goals. Using a propensity score adjustment approach, we analyzed data from 2394 married women ages 35-49 years who participated in the 2006 Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey (ELMPS). We examined whether women's first marriage at age 18 or older was associated with their post-marital agency, measured in terms of their influence in family decisions, freedom of movement in public spaces, and unfavorable views about intimate partner violence against wives. In bivariate analyses, women's age at first marriage was positively associated with their decision-making and more equitable gender attitudes. However, once we controlled for selection into age-at-first-marriage groups, there were no significant differences between the two age-at-first-marriage groups in any dimension of women's agency. We examined the sensitivity of the non-significant age-at-first-marriage effects to possible violations of the strong ignorability assumption and the results did not alter our conclusions. The assumption that women's age at first marriage is a proxy for their post-marital agency, as defined here, warrants further study.

  10. Origin and development of forensic medicine in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kharoshah, Magdy Abdel Azim; Zaki, Mamdouh Kamal; Galeb, Sherien Salah; Moulana, Ashraf Abdel Reheem; Elsebaay, Elsebaay Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Egyptians are one of the first civilisations to practice the removal and examination of internal organs of humans. Their practices ranged from embalming to faith healing to surgery and autopsy. Modern radiological studies, together with various forensic techniques, allowed scientists unique glimpses of the state of health in Egypt 4000 years ago and discovered one of the earliest applications of autopsy, the main element of forensic medicine practice today. The Egyptian Forensic Medicine Authority handles a relatively large number of cases annually and depends on different assisting laboratories (forensic histopathology, microbiology, serology unit, DNA laboratory, forensic chemistry laboratory) as well as the Counterfeiting and Forgery unit. Crime scene investigations are performed mainly through the criminal laboratory related to the Ministry of Interior. Forensic Medicine is studied thoroughly in the faculty of medicine (undergraduates), as well as by forensic medical examiners at postgraduate level (diploma, master's and doctorate). This review recommends more scientific cooperation with universities in the field of forensic medicine and related sciences to solve various crimes with meticulous detail.

  11. Anthropoid humeri from the late Eocene of Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Seiffert, Erik R.; Simons, Elwyn L.; Fleagle, John G.

    2000-01-01

    A number of recent studies have, by necessity, placed a great deal of emphasis on the dental evidence for Paleogene anthropoid interrelationships, but cladistic analyses of these data have led to the erection of phylogenetic hypotheses that appear to be at odds with biogeographic and stratigraphic considerations. Additional morphological data from the cranium and postcranium of certain poorly understood Paleogene primates are clearly needed to help test whether such hypotheses are tenable. Here we describe humeri attributable to Proteopithecus sylviae and Catopithecus browni, two anthropoids from late Eocene sediments of the Fayum Depression in Egypt. Qualitative and morphometric analyses of these elements indicate that humeri of the oligopithecine Catopithecus are more similar to early Oligocene propliopithecines than they are to any other Paleogene anthropoid taxon, and that Proteopithecus exhibits humeral similarities to parapithecids that may be symplesiomorphies of extant (or “crown”) Anthropoidea. The humeral morphology of Catopithecus is consistent with certain narrowly distributed dental apomorphies—such as the loss of the upper and lower second premolar and the development of a honing blade for the upper canine on the lower third premolar—which suggest that oligopithecines constitute the sister group of a clade containing propliopithecines and Miocene-Recent catarrhines and are not most closely related to Proteopithecus as has recently been proposed. PMID:10963669

  12. Collapse of an ecological network in Ancient Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Yeakel, Justin D.; Pires, Mathias M.; Rudolf, Lars; Koch, Paul L.; Guimarães, Paulo R.; Gross, Thilo

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of ecosystem collapse are fundamental to determining how and why biological communities change through time, as well as the potential effects of extinctions on ecosystems. Here, we integrate depictions of mammals from Egyptian antiquity with direct lines of paleontological and archeological evidence to infer local extinctions and community dynamics over a 6,000-y span. The unprecedented temporal resolution of this dataset enables examination of how the tandem effects of human population growth and climate change can disrupt mammalian communities. We show that the extinctions of mammals in Egypt were nonrandom and that destabilizing changes in community composition coincided with abrupt aridification events and the attendant collapses of some complex societies. We also show that the roles of species in a community can change over time and that persistence is predicted by measures of species sensitivity, a function of local dynamic stability. To our knowledge, our study is the first high-resolution analysis of the ecological impacts of environmental change on predator–prey networks over millennial timescales and sheds light on the historical events that have shaped modern animal communities. PMID:25201967

  13. Status of solid oxide fuel cell development in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Badwal, S.P.S.; Foger, K.

    1995-12-31

    Ceramic Fuel Cells Limited, owned by a consortium consisting of BHP -- Australia`s largest company; CSIRO -- Australia`s major R and D Organization; Energy Research and Development Corporation -- Federal Government agency; Strategic Industry Research Foundation -- Victorian State Government agency and five major main land electricity utilities Pacific Power (New South Wales), ETSA (South Australia), Generation Victoria (Victoria), QEC (Queensland), SECWA (Western Australia) has been established to provide a national focus for the development of SOFC technology in Australia with a number of universities and research organizations contributing to its program. In this paper the status of solid oxide fuel cell R and D in Australia and within Ceramic Fuel Cells Ltd has been described. The SOFC development effort, the R and D infrastructure and significant achievements made since the incorporation of the Company in manufacture of single cells and stacks and their performance has been discussed.

  14. 76 FR 65988 - Importation of Mangoes From Australia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ..., Mangifera indica L., from Australia into the Continental United States, A Pathway-Initiated Risk Analysis... (Mangifera indica) may be imported into the continental United States from Australia only under the...

  15. Preliminary Molecular Characterizations of Sarcoptes scaibiei (Acari: Sarcoptidae) from Farm Animals in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Said; Wahab, Taher Abd El; Metwaly, Abd El Naby; Ye, Jianbin; Roellig, Dawn; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the genetic diversity of Sarcoptes scabiei mites in farm animals in Egypt. In this study, we characterized S. scabiei in 25 skin scrapes from water buffalo, cattle, sheep, and rabbits at the nuclear marker ITS2 and mitochondrial markers COX1 and 16S rRNA. Sequences of the ITS2 showed no host segregation or geographical isolation, whereas those of the mitochondrial COX1 and 16S rRNA genes indicated the presence of both host-adapted and geographically segregated populations of S. scabiei. Host adaptation may limit inter-species transmission of. S. scabiei, thus restrict gene flow among S. scabiei from different hosts. This is the first report on the molecular characterization of sarcoptic mites in Egypt. Further genetic studies involving larger numbers of specimens, especially those from humans and companion animals, are needed to understand the molecular epidemiology of sarcoptic mange in Egypt. PMID:24728386

  16. Gold of the Pharaohs 6000 years of gold mining in Egypt and Nubia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemm, Dietrich; Klemm, Rosemarie; Murr, Andreas

    2001-08-01

    The legendary wealth in gold of ancient Egypt seems to correspond with an unexpected high number of gold production sites in the Eastern Desert of Egypt and Nubia. This contribution introduces briefly the general geology of these vast regions and discusses the geology of the different varieties of the primary gold occurrences (always related to auriferous quartz mineralization in veins or shear zones) as well as the variable physico-chemical genesis of the gold concentrations. The development of gold mining over time, from Predynastic (ca. 3000 BC) until the end of Arab gold production times (about 1350 AD), including the spectacular Pharaonic periods is outlined, with examples of its remaining artefacts, settlements and mining sites in remote regions of the Eastern Desert of Egypt and Nubia. Finally, some estimates on the scale of gold production are presented.

  17. The building stones of ancient Egypt a gift of its geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemm, Dietrich D.; Klemm, Rosemarie

    2001-08-01

    Building stones and clay-rich Nile mud were ancient Egypt's main raw construction materials. While the mud was easily accessible along the Nile river valley, the immense quantities of the different stone materials used for construction of the famous pyramids, precious temples and tombs needed a systematic quarrying organization, well arranged transport logistics over extreme distances and a high standard of stone masonry. The petrography, occurrence, and main applications of the 11 most popular stone types used in ancient Egypt are described in this contribution. Rough estimates of the scale of this mining activity, based on the volume of many different ancient quarry sites, all over Egypt, reveal that the monuments known today represent only a small fraction of the amount of building stones mined during the long, ancient Egyptian history.

  18. New records and new species of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) developing on Chenopodiaceae in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Ayman Khamis; Skuhravá, Marcela; Karam, Hedaya Hamza; Elminshawy, Abdelaziz; Al-Eryan, Mohamed Awad

    2015-01-05

    The Cecidomyiidae (Diptera: Bibionomorpha) fauna of Egypt is poorly known. Investigations in northern Egypt in 2013 revealed the presence of seven species of gall midges on three host plant species: Atriplex halimus L., Arthrocnemum macrostachyum (Moric.) and Suaeda pruniosa Lange (all Chenopodiaceae). Among the gall midges, Baldratia salicorniae  Kieffer and Stefaniella trinacriae De Stefani are reconfirmed records in Egypt; Houardiella gracilis Dorchin & Freidberg and Asphondylia punica Marchal are new records; and Baldratia karamae Elsayed & Skuhraván. sp. , Primofavilla aegyptiaca Elsayed n. sp. and Stefaniella skuhravae Elsayed n. sp. are new to science. Adult morphology of the latter three new species is described and illustrated, and their biology and geographic distribution are given. 

  19. Multiprocess evolution of landforms in the Kharga Region, Egypt: Applications to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breed, C. S.; Mccauley, J. F.; Grolier, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    In order to understand better the polygenetic evolution of landforms on the martian surface, field studies were conducted in and around the Kharga Depression, Egypt. The Kharga region, on the eastern edge of Egypt's Western Desert, was subject to erosion under mostly hyperarid climatic conditions, punctuated by brief pluvial episodes of lesser aridity, since early Pleistocene time. The region contains numerous landforms analogous to features on the martian surface: yardangs carved in layered surficial deposits and in bedrock, invasive dune trains, wind-modified channels and interfluves, and depressions bounded by steep scarps. Like many of the topographic depresions on Mars, the Kharga Depression was invaded by crescentic dunes. In Egypt, stratigraphic relations between dunes, yardangs, mass-wasting debris, and wind-eroded flash-flood deposits record shifts in the relative effectiveness of wind, water, and mass-wasting processes as a function of climate change.

  20. A review of the family Eulophidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) of Egypt, with thirty three new records.

    PubMed

    Gadallah, Neveen S; Yefremova, Zoya A; Yegorenkova, Ekaterina N; Soliman, Ahmed M; El-Ghiet, Usama M Abu; Edmardash, Yusuf A; Edmardash, Yusuf A

    2015-12-15

    A checklist of Eulophidae (excluding Entiinae) is presented based primarily on a total of 155 specimens collected from 23 localities in Egypt during the period of April 2012 to June 2014, mostly by sweep net. Altogether, 55 species in 22 genera and 3 subfamilies (Entedoninae, Eulophinae and Tetrastichinae) are recorded, of which 6 genera (Dicladocerus Westwood, Euplectrus Westwood, Entedon Dalman, Neotrichoporoides Girault, Sigmophora Rondani and Sympiesis Förster) and 33 species (60%) are newly reported for Egypt. The valid name and world distribution of each species are given; local distributions and host records for species previously recorded from Egypt are also given. Most of the species have a distribution characterized as Palaearctic, Afrotropical, or Indo-Malayan. About 4% are cosmopolitan in distribution.

  1. Geographic patterns of inversion polymorphism in the second chromosome of the cactophilic Drosophila buzzatii from northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Soto, Ignacio M; Soto, Eduardo M; Carreira, Valeria P; Hurtado, Juan; Fanara, Juan J; Hasson, Esteban

    2010-01-01

    The inversion polymorphisms of the cactophilic Drosophila buzzatti Patterson and Wheeler (Diptera: Drosophilidae) were studied in new areas of its distribution in Argentina. A total of thirty-eight natural populations, including 29 from previous studies, were analyzed using multiple regression analyses. The results showed that about 23% of total variation was accounted for by a multiple regression model in which only altitude contributed significantly to population variation, despite the fact that latitude and longitude were also included in the model. Also, inversion frequencies exhibited significant associations with mean annual temperature, precipitation, and atmospheric pressure. In addition, expected heterozygosity exhibited a negative association with temperature and precipitation and a positive association with atmospheric pressure. The close similarity of the patterns detected in this larger dataset to previous reports is an indication of the stability of the clines. Also, the concurrence of the clines detected in Argentina with those reported for colonizing populations of Australia suggests the involvement of natural selection as the main mechanism shaping inversion frequencies in D. buzzatii.

  2. The crustal structure of Egypt and the northern Red Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosny, Ahmed; Nyblade, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    P-wave receiver functions from 26 stations in the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) have been modeled using the H-k stacking method and in a joint inversion method with Rayleigh wave group velocities to investigate crustal structure across Egypt and the northern Red Sea region. The new estimates of crustal structure, when combined with previous results, show that along the rifted margins of the Red Sea, Gulf of Suez and Gulf of Aqaba crustal thickness ranges from 25 to 30 km, the average crustal Vp/Vs ratio is 1.77, and the average crustal shear-wave velocity is 3.6 km/s. Beneath northern and central Egypt, including the Sinai Peninsula, crustal thickness ranges from 32 to 38 km, the average crustal Vp/Vs ratio is 1.79, and the average crustal shear-wave velocity is 3.5 km/s. Beneath southern Egypt, crustal thickness ranges from 35 to 40 km, the average crustal Vp/Vs ratio is 1.76, and the average crustal shear-wave velocity is 3.7 km/s. In southern Egypt, the crust is also characterized by a 10-20 km thick mafic lower crust. These findings indicate that crust along the rifted margins of the northern Red Sea, and Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba have been thinned by about 5 to 10 km. The thick mafic lower crust in southern Egypt can be attributed to suturing during the Neoproterozoic collision of east Gondwana against the Sahara metacraton. Overall, the structure of the crust in Egypt away from the northern Red Sea region is similar to the structure of Precambrian crust in many other parts of Africa.

  3. 22 CFR 120.35 - Australia Implementing Arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Australia Implementing Arrangement. 120.35 Section 120.35 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.35 Australia Implementing Arrangement. Australia Implementing Arrangement means...

  4. Internationalization in Australia and Canada: Lessons for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the internationalization of postsecondary education in Australia and Canada. The author discusses the contextual similarities and differences between the two countries, the shifting rationale "from aid to trade" behind Australia's internationalization attempts and some of the reasons for Australia's success.…

  5. Biodiversity in Australia: What, Where, and for How Long?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panizzon, Debra; Boulton, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Australia's most serious environmental problem is the loss of biological diversity, or biodiversity. Australia harbors much of the world's species diversity and has remarkably high numbers of endemic species. Reviews current threats to biodiversity and efforts to protect and enhance it in Australia. (Contains 29 references.) (Author/ASK)

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-61 - Litchi from Australia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Litchi from Australia. 319.56-61 Section 319.56-61... from Australia. Litchi (Litchi chinensis) may be imported into the continental United States from Australia only under the following conditions and in accordance with all other applicable provisions of...

  7. Global Position and Position Taking: The Case of Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2007-01-01

    From 1990 to 2003, Australia's share of the global market in cross-border degrees grew from 1% to 9%. Full fee-paying foreign students now constitute one quarter of enrolments, and education is Australia's third largest services export. Positioned as an Anglo-American system on the edge of Asia, Australia has differentiated itself from the United…

  8. Sex Education in South Australia: The Past and the Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talukdar, Joy; Aspland, Tania; Datta, Poulomee

    2013-01-01

    In South Australia, sex education has been controversial since its inception. The Australasian White Cross league and the Family Planning Association of South Australia were the pioneers of sex education in South Australia. The framing of a national framework and the implementation of the SHARE (Sexual Health and Relationships Education) project…

  9. The Future of Nuclear Science in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Dillich, Jack

    2002-07-01

    The replacement of Australia's only nuclear reactor, the 44 year old HIFAR, with a state-of-the-art research facility represents an exciting development in nuclear science. The design for the replacement reactor incorporates many safety features, including extraordinary defence-in-depth. The facilities will include advanced capabilities in the areas of radiopharmaceutical production and neutron scattering research. (author)

  10. "Smartening Up": Ongoing Challenges for Australia's Outback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cradduck, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    As the international community moves inexorably towards a "smart" future, the position of Australia's non-urban areas in that future is less certain. The (re-elected) Australian federal government made a commitment to moving Australian cities forward as part of the international "smart city" movement. However, the effectiveness…

  11. Remote access laboratories in Australia and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, H.; Ahfock, T.; Yusaf, T.

    2011-06-01

    Remote access laboratories (RALs) were first developed in 1994 in Australia and Switzerland. The main purposes of developing them are to enable students to do their experiments at their own pace, time and locations and to enable students and teaching staff to get access to facilities beyond their institutions. Currently, most of the experiments carried out through RALs in Australia are heavily biased towards electrical, electronic and computer engineering disciplines. However, the experiments carried out through RALs in Europe had more variety, in addition to the traditional electrical, electronic and computer engineering disciplines, there were experiments in mechanical and mechatronic disciplines. It was found that RALs are now being developed aggressively in Australia and Europe and it can be argued that RALs will develop further and faster in the future with improving Internet technology. The rising costs of real experimental equipment will also speed up their development because by making the equipment remotely accessible, the cost can be shared by more universities or institutions and this will improve their cost-effectiveness. Their development would be particularly rapid in large countries with small populations such as Australia, Canada and Russia, because of the scale of economy. Reusability of software, interoperability in software implementation, computer supported collaborative learning and convergence with learning management systems are the required development of future RALs.

  12. International Higher Education in Australia: Unplanned Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Mahsood; Nair, Chenicheri Sid

    2011-01-01

    International education is the third largest export industry in Australia and is worth almost A$20 billion. The last ten years have witnessed significant growth in both onshore and offshore enrolments of international students in Australian universities. The offshore component of all Australian universities has been subject to scrutiny by the…

  13. Australia's Contribution to International School Librarianship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallein, Joe; And Others

    Australia has played a very active role in promoting and developing school librarianship on an international basis. Most aid projects in school library development have been in the Asia/Pacific region, but programs have been implemented in other areas as well. The largest school library development project that has been carried out by Australians…

  14. Language Planning and Language Policy in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddicoat, Anthony, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    A five-year period of particular activity in Australian language policy and language planning culminated with the 1991 publication of the White Paper called Australia's Language, which outlines proposed government programs in languages until 1994. Many of the papers in this theme issue of the journal of the Applied Linguistics Association of…

  15. Teaching about National Conservation Strategy for Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenall, Annette

    1986-01-01

    This article describes the development and content of the National Conservation Strategy for Australia (NCSA). The Australian Department of Arts, Heritage, and Environment has produced a teacher's guide designed to help teachers bring the content of the NCSA to their classroom. A description of the guide and ordering information are provided. (JDH)

  16. Tertiary Education in Australia: Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Edward Wilfrid; Berends, Willem

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the foundation and development of universities in Australia and New Zealand and demonstrates how these universities were established on a secular basis. Educators from other continents with a mainly Christian history are often surprised that there is so little evidence of Christian input into the university sector in…

  17. The First Suggestopedia German Course in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassner-Roberts, Sigrid

    An account of personal experiences and experiments with a suggestopedic German course taught at the University of Adelaide in Australia is presented. Summaries of the students' background and of their continuous achievements in the German class are provided. The class was conducted primarily according to the "Manual of Classroom Procedures…

  18. Worker Education in Australia and New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagglund, George

    The history of the recent development of worker education in Australia and New Zealand shows that, in just the past 15 years or so, very significant improvements have occurred in delivery of trade union education. To a very large degree these developments took place because of the existence of a close relationship between the union movement and…

  19. Public Engagement and Nanotechnology in Australia.

    PubMed

    Dalton-Brown, Sally

    2016-07-01

    Upstream engagement is commonly regarded as necessary for the smooth implementation of new technologies, particularly when there is an impact on health. Is the healthcare context in Australia geared toward such public engagement? There are established engagement practices for issues of healthcare resourcing, for example; however, the situation becomes more complex with the introduction of a new technology such as nanomedicine.

  20. Medical e-commerce for regional Australia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, D K; Mikelaitis, P

    2001-12-01

    The residents of rural and regional Australia have less access to health care services than in capital cities. There is a reluctance of General Practitioners to practice in the country. New information technology and government initiatives are now addressing this problem. High bandwidth videoconferencing is now being routinely used to provide psychiatric consultations to areas without this service. But this (like many other implementations of telecommunication technologies to health) has resulted in loss of revenue to regional Australia while benefiting capital cities. Thus, the current implementation of telecommunication technology to health has resulted in loss of revenue of the regions while increasing the bias towards the cities. Further, the system is not economically viable and requires the Government to inject funds for the smooth operation of the system. This paper proposes the use of telecommunication technology for enabling the communities of regional Australia to access health facilities via physical and virtual clinics. The proposed technique is self supporting and is based in the country with the intent to prevent the drain of resources from regional Australia. The technique attempts to eradicate the problem at the root level by providing a business opportunity that is based in and to cater for the needs of the remote communities. The proposed system would provide health services by physical and virtual clinics and while serving the communities would be profit centres- and thus attracting doctors and other resources to the remote communities.