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Sample records for argentina northeastern captive

  1. Pathogenic Hantaviruses, Northeastern Argentina and Eastern Paraguay

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Valeria P.; Bellomo, Carla; Maidana, Silvina; San Juan, Jorge; Tagliaferri, Paulina; Bargardi, Severino; Vazquez, Cynthia; Colucci, Norma; Estévez, Julio; Almiron, María

    2007-01-01

    We describe the first, to our knowledge, cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in northeastern Argentina and eastern Paraguay. Andes and Juquitiba (JUQ) viruses were characterized. JUQV was also confirmed in 5 Oligoryzomys nigripes reservoir species from Misiones. A novel Akodon-borne genetic hantavirus lineage was detected in 1 rodent from the Biologic Reserve of Limoy. PMID:17953094

  2. West Nile and st. Louis encephalitis viruses antibodies surveillance in captive and free-ranging birds of prey from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Quaglia, Agustin I; Diaz, Luis A; Argibay, Hernan; Contigiani, Marta S; Saggese, Miguel D

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the prevalence of WNV and SLEV neutralizing antibodies in captive and free-ranging raptors from Argentina by plaque-reduction neutralization test. Eighty plasma samples from 12 species were analyzed. Only one captive adult Crowned Eagle (Harpyhaliaetus coronatus) was WNV seropositive (prevalence: 1.25%; antibody titer of 1:80). Two captive Crowned Eagles were SLEV seropositive (prevalence: 2.50%; antibody titers: 1:80 and 1:40).These findings expand the geographic distribution of WNV and SLEV and confirm their activity in central and northeastern Argentina. West Nile virus activity in Argentina may represent a potential threat to Crowned Eagles and other endangered raptors in this country.

  3. Avian Malaria ( Plasmodium spp.) in Captive Magellanic Penguins ( Spheniscus magellanicus ) from Northern Argentina, 2010.

    PubMed

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Capellino, Félix; Silveira, Patricia; Braga, Érika M; Rodríguez-Heredia, Sergio Andres; Loureiro, Julio; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2016-07-01

    We report two cases of lethal avian malaria in Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) captive at San Clemente del Tuyú, Argentina, approximately 560 km north of Argentinean breeding colonies of Magellanic Penguins. Blood smears revealed both penguins were concurrently infected by Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) tejerai, Plasmodium (Huffia) sp., and Plasmodium (Novyella) sp.

  4. Gastrointestinal parasites of exotic birds living in captivity in the state of Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Victor Fernando Santana; Bezerra, Taynar Lima; Andrade, Alex Fonseca de; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Glória; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Meira-Santos, Patrícia Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Brazil has a wide diversity of exotic birds that were brought to this country during the European colonization. These animals are kept in captivity and, in some cases, in inadequate facilities, which may facilitate the introduction of pathogens, including gastrointestinal parasites. The purpose of this study was to identify the main gastrointestinal parasites that affect exotic birds living in captivity in the state of Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil. Fecal samples (n = 362) from exotic birds were analyzed by direct examination and by the Willis-Mollay technique. Eggs of Amidostomum sp., Ascaridia sp., Capillarinae, Heterakis sp., Trichostrongylidae, and oocysts of coccidians were identified in nine different bird species. This is the first report in Brazil of infection by Ascaridia sp. and Heterakis sp. in Nymphicus hollandicus; by Trichostrongylidae in Serinus canaria and Streptopelia risoria.

  5. Genetic diversity of Chlamydia among captive birds from central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Frutos, María C; Monetti, Marina S; Vaulet, Lucia Gallo; Cadario, María E; Fermepin, Marcelo Rodríguez; Ré, Viviana E; Cuffini, Cecilia G

    2015-01-01

    To study the occurrence of Chlamydia spp. and their genetic diversity, we analysed 793 cloacal swabs from 12 avian orders, including 76 genera, obtained from 80 species of asymptomatic wild and captive birds that were examined with conventional nested polymerase chain reaction and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Chlamydia spp. were not detected in wild birds; however, four species (Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia gallinacea) were identified among captive birds (Passeriformes, n = 20; Psittaciformes, n = 15; Rheiformes, n = 8; Falconiformes n = 2; Piciformes n = 2; Anseriformes n = 1; Galliformes n = 1; Strigiformes n = 1). Two pathogens (C. pneumoniae and C. pecorum) were identified simultaneously in samples obtained from captive birds. Based on nucleotide-sequence variations of the ompA gene, three C. psittaci-positive samples detected were grouped into a cluster with the genotype WC derived from mammalian hosts. A single positive sample was phylogenetically related to a new strain of C. gallinacea. This report contributes to our increasing understanding of the abundance of Chlamydia in the animal kingdom.

  6. Genetic characterization and clinical implications of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) variants from northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Badano, Inés; Totaro, Maria Elina; Culasso, Andrés Carlos Alberto; Sanabria, Daiana Jimena; Schurr, Theodore G; Balette, Ileana Cristina; Roisman, Alejandro; Basiletti, Jorge; Picconi, María Alejandra; Campos, Rodolfo Héctor; Liotta, Domingo Javier

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) plays a central role in the development of cervical cancer. Worldwide studies indicate the existence of HPV16 variants that show different geographic distributions and oncogenic potential. Our goal was to describe the genetic variation of HPV16 isolates identified in urban women with different grades of cervical lesions living in northeastern Argentina. We analyzed 116 HPV16-positive cervical samples (16 NLIM, 62 L-SIL, 16 H-SIL and 22 cervical cancer) from patients attending health centers in Misiones (Argentina) during 2006-13. HPV16 isolates were genetically characterized through PCR amplification and direct sequencing of 364 bp within the long control region, and the resulting sequences classified into variants based on phylogenetic analysis (lineages A, B, C and D). A potential association between HPV16 variants and lesion grade was evaluated through an odds ratio (OR) test. A temporal framework for the origin of HPV16 variants was assessed through coalescence analysis (BEAST v 1.7.5). Phylogenetic analysis of HPV16 sequences showed that 92.1% of the samples clustered with lineage A, and 6.9% to lineage D. HPV16 variants from lineage D were more frequently associated with high-grade lesions and cancer (HSIL+) than lineage A variants at an OR of 13.8 (1.6-117.0). The time to most common recent ancestor (tMCRA) of all variants was 119,103 years before present (HPD 95%=48,486-197,239), a date consistent with the time frame for modern human evolution. Our results suggest that HPV16 variants from lineage D may represent an additional risk factor for the development of cervical cancer in women living in northeastern Argentina. This study provides new information about viral isolates present in Argentina that will contribute to the monitoring of HPV16 infection in the vaccine era. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Growth pattern differences of captive born Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus) calves and those rescued in the Brazilian northeastern coast.

    PubMed

    Borges, João Carlos Gomes; Freire, Augusto Carlos da Bôaviagem; Attademo, Fernanda Loffler Niemeyer; Serrano, Inês de Lima; Anzolin, Daiane Garcia; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Martins; Vergara-Parente, Jociery Einhardt

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze whether there are differences between the development pattern of Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus) calves born in captivity and those rescued and kept under rehabilitation. Biometrics data were collected from 1990 to 2010 from 38 calves, 29 of which still had the remnants of the umbilical cord and had been rescued from the Brazilian northeastern coastline (Group I), and nine individuals that were born in captivity and remained with their mothers (Group II). Among the measures obtained through biometry, the total length and weight of the animal were recorded. Given that the breastfeeding of calves occurs approximately until the age of 2 yr, data obtained until the 24th month of life of each individual were evaluated. An average increase in weight of 53.50 +/- 38.54 kg (mean +/- standard deviation [SD]) was detected in Group I and a gain of 106.87 +/- 47.21 kg (mean +/- SD) in Group II. From months 13 to 24, no significant difference in the weight increment was observed. A similar pattern occurred with regard to the increase in the overall length during the first year, where animals from Group I grew 34.81 +/- 17.94 cm (mean +/- SD) and from Group II grew 83.83 +/- 28.21 cm, a statistically significant difference. The growth was not significantly different from 13 to 24 mo. The results found in this study identified the need for a review of the nutritional diet offered to orphaned calves rescued and kept in captivity. The results also support the need for a better adequacy of facilities for these animals as a way to encourage the management strategies adopted for manatee calves maintained in captivity.

  8. Abundance, diversity and community characterization of aquatic Coleoptera in a rice field of Northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gómez Lutz, María Constanza; Kehr, Arturo I; Fernández, Liliana A

    2015-09-01

    Rice fields occupy large areas in Northeastern Argentina, and in Corrientes this widespead activity has become a feature in the landscape, as it is one of the main producing provinces. The aquatic Coleoptera is part of the fauna inhabiting these artificial environments but little is known about this group in irrigated rice fields. The aims of this study were to determine the diversity and species richness of coleopterans in a typical rice field, and to characterize the community of water beetles through different abundance models. For this, samples were collected from an active rice field located in "El Sombrero" town, in Corrientes Province, between November 2011 and April 2012. An entomological net of 30 cm diameter was used, and species richness, diversity and equitability were calculated monthly; besides, the community composition was characterized by means of rank-abundance models. A total of 74 species of aquatic coleopterans were identified. January and February resulted the months with the highest diversity. The aquatic Coleoptera species found in most of the sampled months were adjusted to the logarithmic rank-abundance model. The data suggests that, if it is properly managed, rice cropping in Northeastern Argentina can support a diverse aquatic coleopteran fauna.

  9. Genetic relationships among populations of Aedes aegypti from Uruguay and northeastern Argentina inferred from ISSR-PCR data.

    PubMed

    Soliani, C; Rondan-Dueñas, J; Chiappero, M B; Martínez, M; Da Rosa, E García; Gardenal, C N

    2010-09-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), the main vector of yellow fever and dengue viruses, was eradicated from Argentina between 1955 and 1963, but reinvaded the country in 1986. In Uruguay, the species was reintroduced in 1997. In this study we used highly polymorphic inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers to analyse the genetic structure of Ae. aegypti populations from Uruguay and northeastern Argentina to identify possible colonization patterns of the vector. Overall genetic differentiation among populations was high (F(ST) = 0.106) and showed no correlation with geographic distance, which is consistent with the short time since the reintroduction of the species in the area. Differentiation between pairs of Argentine populations (F(ST) 0.072 to 0.221) was on average higher than between Uruguayan populations (F(ST)-0.044 to 0.116). Bayesian estimation of population structure defined four genetic clusters and most populations were admixtures of two of them: Mercedes and Treinta y Tres (Uruguay) were mixtures of clusters 1 and 3; Salto (Uruguay) and Paraná (Argentina) of clusters 1 and 4; Fray Bentos (Uruguay) of clusters 2 and 3, and Gualeguaychú (Argentina) of clusters 2 and 3. Posadas and Buenos Aires in Argentina were fairly genetically homogeneous. Our results suggest that Ae. aegypti recolonized Uruguay from bordering cities in Argentina via bridges over the Uruguay River and also from Brazil.

  10. Genetic and clinical characterization of canine leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Paola A; Nevot, M Cecilia; Hoyos, Carlos L; Locatelli, Fabricio M; Lauthier, Juan J; Ruybal, Paula; Cardozo, Rubén M; Russo, Pablo D; Vassiliades, Carola N; Mora, María C; Estévez, J Octavio; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Korenaga, Masataka; Basombrío, Miguel A; Marco, Jorge D

    2015-10-01

    Leishmaniases comprise zoonotic diseases caused by protozoan flagellates of the Leishmania genus. They are endemic to South America, and the visceral form has been recently reported in Argentina. Dogs can play different roles in the Leishmania transmission cycles, depending mainly on the species of parasite involved. Here we focused on the clinical characterization of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in Northeast Argentina and on the molecular typing of its etiological agent. The nested polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis of the Leishmania cytochrome b (cyt b) gene was performed on DNA templates purified from lymph nodes, bone marrow or spleen aspirates obtained from 48 dogs previously diagnosed by the observation of Leishmania amastigotes on smears from these aspirates. Their clinical and epidemiological data were also recorded. Systemic abnormalities were observed in 46 subjects (95.8%), most frequently lymphadenopathy, and emaciation (89.6 and 75%). Furthermore, 87% also presented tegumentary abnormalities, such as alopecia (54.2%) or secondary skin lesions (47.9%), among others. Twenty three dogs were positive for cyt b amplification. The sequence analysis showed the presence of two genotypes, LiA1 and LiA2, assigned to Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, with 99.9 and 100% homology with the reference strain MHOM/TN/80/IPT1 respectively. LiA1 was identified in 18 cases (78.3%) and LiA2 in five (21.7%). Two cyt b variants of L. (L.) infantum were incriminated as the causative agents of CanL cases from three cities: Posadas, Garupá, and Ituzaingó. All three cities are located in the northeastern area of the country, where these parasites seem to be spreading in urban areas.

  11. Daily rainfall variability over northeastern Argentina in the La Plata River basin.

    PubMed

    García, Norberto O; Pedraza, Raúl A

    2008-12-01

    We did a brief description of the climatic behavior and after this we analyzed the temporal variation in the total number of days a year with rainfall and the number of days a year with rainfall above the 100 mm threshold at the rain gauging stations in northeastern Argentina south of the La Plata River basin. The results show an increase both in the frequency of daily rainfall, especially during the winter season, and the frequency of days with heavy rainfall starting in the early 1970s. The increase in frequency of occurrence is more significant in the case of heavy rainfall. The annual maximum rainfall was calculated for periods of 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 consecutive days at regional rain gauging stations for the respective historical periods, and the rain intensity-duration-return period curves (IDT) were determined on a frequency analysis. The IDT curves were compared with rainfall intensity-duration data of critical storms occurring in the last decades. We noticed that the rain intensities of critical storms (mostly convective) widely exceeded the intensities given by the 100-year IDT curves, particularly for short durations. The increase in both the frequency of heavy rainfall occurrence and rain intensity from the 1970s onward shows an increase in frequency and intensity of the meso-scale convective systems in the region resulting from climatic change. These systems tend to produce rainfall of very high intensity that is spatially concentrated and which generally produces significant floods in the local rivers.

  12. Ticks on captive and free-living wild animals in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Ferreira, Débora R A; de Melo, Louise M; Lima, Polly-Ana C P; Siqueira, Daniel B; Rameh-de-Albuquerque, Luciana C; de Melo, Adriana V; Ramos, Janaina A C

    2010-02-01

    From 2005 to 2009, 147 ticks found on 32 wild animals from or referred to two zoobotanical parks (Parque Zoobotânico Arruda Câmara and Parque Estadual Dois Irmãos) located in northeastern Brazil were identified. Ticks found on two veterinarians working in one of the parks (i.e., Parque Estadual Dois Irmãos), after return from forested areas within the park's territory, were also identified. The following tick-host associations were recorded: Amblyomma fuscum Neumann on Boa constrictor L.; Amblyomma longirostre Koch on Ramphastos vitellinus ariel Vigors and Coendou prehensilis (L.); Amblyomma varium Koch on Bradypus variegates Schinz; Amblyomma rotundatum Koch on Chelonoidis carbonaria (Spix), Chelonoidis denticulata (L.), Micrurus ibiboboca (Merrem), Python molurus bivittatus Kuhl, Iguana iguana (L.) and B. variegatus; Amblyomma nodosum Neumann on Myrmecophaga tridactyla L. and Tamandua tetradactyla (L.); and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) on Nasua nasua (L.). The ticks found on the veterinarians were identified as nine Amblyomma larvae. The presence of Am. nodosum in Pernambuco and Am. rotundatum and Am. varium in Paraíba is recorded for the first time and the occurrence of Am. longirostre in Pernambuco is confirmed. Ramphastos vitellinus ariel is a new host record for Am. longirostre whereas M. ibiboboca and B. variegatus are new host records for Am. rotundatum. Finally, the human parasitism by Amblyomma ticks is reported for the first time in Pernambuco, highlighting the potential of tick-borne pathogen transmission in this state.

  13. Molecular characterization of trypanosomatid infections in wild howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) in northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Mariela Florencia; Kowalewski, Martín Miguel; Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Schijman, Alejandro Gabriel

    2016-08-01

    The transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi by vectors is confined to the Americas, and the infection circulates in at least two broadly defined transmission cycles occurring in domestic and sylvatic habitats. This study sought to detect and characterize infection by T. cruzi and other trypanosomes using PCR strategies in blood samples from free-ranging howler monkeys, Alouatta caraya, in the northeastern Argentina. Blood samples were collected at four sites with variable levels of habitat modification by human activity. PCR was conducted using primers for kinetoplast DNA, satellite DNA and ribosomal DNA of the trypanosomatid parasites. Ribosomal and satellite DNA fragments were sequenced to identify the trypanosomatid species and to characterize the discrete typing units (DTUs) of T. cruzi. Overall, 46% (50/109) of the howlers were positive according to the kDNA-PCR assay, but only 7 of the howlers were positive according to the SatDNA-PCR protocol. We sequenced the amplicons of the satellite DNA obtained from five specimens, and the sequences were 99% and 100% similar to T. cruzi. A sequence typical of DTU T. cruzi I was found in one howler monkey from the "remote" site, while sequences compatible with DTUs II, V, and VI were found in howlers from the "remote", "rural" and "village" sites. We detected 96% positive samples for RibDNA-PCR, 9 of which were sequenced and displayed 99% identity with Trypanosoma minasense, while none showed identity with T. cruzi. The results demonstrated the presence of T. cruzi and a species closely related to T. minasense in blood samples from free-ranging A. caraya, belonging to different T. cruzi DTUs circulating in these howler monkey populations. The results obtained in this study could help evaluate the role of A. caraya as a reservoir of T. cruzi in regions where Chagas disease is hyper-endemic and where the human-wildlife interface is increasing.

  14. Isolation and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from captive slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta) with fatal toxoplasmosis in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Basso, W; Moré, G; Quiroga, M A; Pardini, L; Bacigalupe, D; Venturini, L; Valenzuela, M C; Balducchi, D; Maksimov, P; Schares, G; Venturini, M C

    2009-05-12

    In this study, the diagnosis of fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in three captive slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta) in the zoo of La Plata, Argentina and the invitro isolation and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii are reported. The animals showed depression, dyspnea and hypothermia, and also ataxia in one case, and died within 1-5 days. The main histopathological lesions included interstitial pneumonia, non-suppurative inflammatory changes and focal necrosis in liver, spleen, kidney and brain. Tachyzoites or tissue cysts were present in lung, liver, spleen, brain, striated muscle, kidney, intestine and mesenteric lymph node sections, and stained strongly with T. gondii antiserum in immunohistochemical analysis. T. gondii was isolated in Swiss mice and in bovine monocytes cultures from tissues of one of the meerkats. The isolate was cryopreserved and it was named TG-Suricata-1. T. gondii DNA was demonstrated in tissues of all three animals and in tachyzoites isolated in cell cultures. The PCR-RFLP analysis of markers based in the loci 3'-SAG2, 5'-SAG2, BTUB, GRA6, SAG3, c22-8, L358, PK1, c29-2 and Apico of T. gondii produced patterns corresponding to the clonal type III. Type III strains of T. gondii possess no or only little virulence in the mouse model, however their association with virulence in other animal species is uncertain. In the present case, T. gondii of the clonal lineage III was responsible for fatal cases in S. suricatta. To our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation and genotyping of T. gondii from S. suricatta.

  15. Two new records of ceratocanthinae from northeastern Argentina (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea, Hybosoridae).

    PubMed

    Ballerio, Alberto; Carpaneto, Giuseppe M

    2009-01-01

    Germarostes (Haroldostes) rugiceps (Germar) and Germarostes (Haroldostes) diffundus (Petrovitz) (Ceratocanthinae) are recorded for the first time for Argentina from Misiones and Corrientes, respectively. This brings to thirteen the total number of the Ceratocanthinae species recorded for Argentina up to now. Some remarks on the type series of G. diffundus and on the collecting circumstances of the Argentine specimens in here discussed are included.

  16. Digenean fauna in raptors from northeastern Argentina, with the description of a new species of Strigea (Digenea: Strigeidae).

    PubMed

    Drago, Fabiana B; Lunaschi, Lía I; Draghi, Regina

    2014-04-03

    The digenean fauna of six species of falconiform birds from northeastern Argentina is reported and a new species and several new hosts and geographical records are presented. Strigea proteolytica n. sp. (Strigeidae) is described from Buteogallus urubitinga and distinguished from their congeners by the combination of the following characters: plump body, conspicuous proteolytic gland, forebody with scarce vitelline glands, copulatory bursa with a well developed muscular ring (Ringnapf), and absence of true neck region in hindbody. Six previously known species are breifly described: Strigea falconis brasiliana Szidat, 1929 (Strigeidae) from Milvago chimachima and Caracara plancus; Neodiplostomum travassosi Dubois, 1937 from Buteogallus meridionalis; Tylodelphys brevis Drago & Lunaschi, 2008 and Posthodiplostomum macrocotyle Dubois, 1937 (Diplostomidae) from Busarellus nigricollis; Spaniometra variolaris (Fuhrmann, 1904) (Cyclocoelidae) and Megalophallus deblocki Kostadinova, Vaucher & Gibson, 2006 (Microphallidae) from Rostrhamus sociabilis. Literature records and information on distribution and host-parasite relationships is presented.

  17. Evidences of the stability of magnetite in soil from Northeastern Argentina by Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetization measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Causevic, H.; Morrás, H.; Mijovilovich, A.; Saragovi, C.

    2004-12-01

    In red soils from southern Brazil magnetite was reported to be pedogenically unstable, weathering to maghemite. However, in similar soils from northeastern Argentina magnetite was found in all size fractions. This finding motivates the mineralogical study of an Ultisol at different depths in order to understand the influence of anthropic and natural factors in the weathering of the magnetic minerals of these subtropical soils. The sand fraction of the B t22 horizon (105-155 cm depth) of a clayey red Ultisol from the subtropical forest of Misiones, Argentina, was studied by X-ray diffraction, saturation magnetization σs, optical microscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Saturation magnetization for the whole sand fraction (wsf), the non-magnetic sand fraction (nmsf) and the magnetic sand fraction (msf) are 10.79, 1.50 and 16.92 JT -1 kg -1, respectively. Mainly quartz, ilmenite, Al-substituted hematite, goethite, maghemite and magnetite are found. Magnetite-maghemite contents are high, and magnetite is predominant in the msf. Results are compared with those from the upper B 1 horizon (10-35 cm depth) of the same soil in which a lower σs(wsf) value, and higher values of σs(msf) and of ( σs(msf)- σs(wsf)) were measured. These results confirm the stability of magnetite in this soil contrasting with other results on soils from neighbouring areas.

  18. Additional notes on biting midges from the subtropical forest of northeastern Argentina (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Ayala, Mahia M; Spinelli, Gustavo R; Funes, Amparo; Ronderos, María M

    2015-03-30

    Adult males and pupae of Culicoides guarani Ronderos & Spinelli and Parabezzia brasiliensis Spinelli & Grogan are fully described and illustrated with a modern criterium from material recently collected in the vicinities of the city of Posadas in Misiones province, Argentina. Both species are compared with their most similar congeners. Besides, Bezzia blantoni Spinelli & Wirth and B. brevicornis (Kieffer) are firstly recorded from Misiones province.

  19. A new species of Leposternon Wagler, 1824 (Squamata, Amphisbaenia) from northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Siria; Santos-Jr, Alfredo P; Zaher, Hussam

    2015-10-29

    A new species of Leposternon is described from the Humid Chaco biome in Argentina. The species is known only from its type locality, at El Bagual Ecological Reserve, a conservation unit located in the province of Formosa. The new species can be distinguished from all its congeners by the presence of rostral processes in the maxillae and nasals that contact each other on the facial portion of the skull. Additionally, we present a key for the species of Leposternon.

  20. A new lizard of the Phymaturus genus (Squamata: Liolaemidae) from Sierra Grande, northeastern Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Avila, Luciano Javier; Pérez, Cristian Hernán Fulvio; Minoli, Ignacio; Morando, Mariana

    2014-04-28

    A new species of lizard of the saxicolous and viviparous genus Phymaturus from Patagonia is described. The new species is a member of the Phymaturus patagonicus species group distributed on volcanic plateaus, mountains or rocky outcrops of southern Argentina. Phymaturus yachanana sp. nov. differs from the other members of the patagonicus group by a dorsal pattern of small and medium-sized white spots on a brown background, the number of scales around the midbody, genetic differences in mitochondrial and nuclear markers, and allopatric geographic distribution in an isolated group of hills. As other species of the group, the new species is viviparous and herbivorous. 

  1. Spatial and temporal changes in Lutzomyia longipalpis abundance, a Leishmania infantum vector in an urban area in northeastern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, María Soledad; Santini, María Soledad; Cavia, Regino; Sandoval, Adolfo Enrique; Pérez, Adriana Alicia; Acardi, Soraya; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse changes in the spatial distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Posadas, an urban area located in northeastern Argentina. Data were obtained during the summer of 2007 and 2009 through two entomological surveys of peridomiciles distributed around the city. The abundance distribution pattern for 2009 was computed and compared with the previous pattern obtained in 2007, when the first human visceral leishmaniasis cases were reported in the city. Vector abundance was also examined in relation to micro and macrohabitat characteristics. In 2007 and 2009, Lu. longipalpis was distributed among 41.5% and 31% of the households in the study area, respectively. In both years, the abundance rates at most of the trapping sites were below 30 Lu. longipalpis per trap per night; however, for areas exhibiting 30-60 Lu. longipalpis and more than 60 Lu. longipalpis, the areas increased in both size and number from 2007-2009. Lu. longipalpis was more abundant in areas with a higher tree and bush cover (a macrohabitat characteristic) and in peridomiciles with accumulated unused material (a microhabitat characteristic). These results will help to prioritise and focus control efforts by defining which peridomiciles display a potentially high abundance of Lu. longipalpis. PMID:24271040

  2. Late Quaternary continental and marine sediments of northeastern Buenos Aires province (Argentina): Fossil content and paleoenvironmental interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucks, Enrique; Aguirre, Marina; Deschamps, Cecilia M.

    2005-10-01

    Abundant invertebrate and vertebrate fossil remains that exhibit excellent preservation and were collected from deposits of both continental and marine origins at Pilar (Buenos Aires, Argentina) add paleoenvironmental data from the northeastern Buenos Aires province area linked to sea-level oscillations and climate variability since approximately 120 ka BP (marine oxygen isotope stage [MOIS] 5e). Two new fossiliferous localities discovered in the Luján River Valley allow for detailed geological studies and new dating of molluscan shells and bones. The studies suggest salinity changes during the Last Interglacial (8 m above m.s.l., min. 14C>40 ka) and the mid-Holocene transgression (5 m above m.s.l., 7-3 14C ka BP) compared with the modern pattern along the adjacent littoral (Río de la Plata). The marine sequences represent the innermost boundary of the sea-level transgression in that area and contain a biogenic record (bivalves, gastropods, forams, ostracods) that indicates marginal marine environments (higher salinity than at present). Vertebrates and molluscs from the continental sequence suggest a freshwater habitat in which remains of marine fish must be allochthonous, probably incorporated by postmortem fluvial transport to the final depositional environment.

  3. Diversity of tuco-tucos (Ctenomys, Rodentia) in the Northeastern wetlands from Argentina: mitochondrial phylogeny and chromosomal evolution.

    PubMed

    Caraballo, Diego A; Abruzzese, Giselle A; Rossi, María Susana

    2012-06-01

    Tuco-tucos (small subterranean rodents of the genus Ctenomys) that inhabit sandy soils of the area under the influence of the second largest wetland of South America, in Northeastern Argentina (Corrientes province), are a complex of species and forms whose taxonomic status were not defined, nor are the evolutionary relationships among them. The tuco-tuco populations of this area exhibit one of the most ample grades of chromosomal variability within the genus. In order to analyze evolutionary relationships within the Corrientes group and its chromosomal variability, we completed the missing karyotypic information and performed a phylogenetic analysis. We obtained partial sequences of three mitochondrial markers: D-loop, cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase I. The Corrientes group was monophyletic and split into three main clades that grouped related karyomorphs. The phylogeny suggested an ancestral condition of the karyomorph with diploid number (2n) 70 and fundamental number (FN) 84 that has evolved mainly via reductions of the FN although amplifications occurred in certain lineages. We discuss the relationship between patterns of chromosomal variability and species and groups boundaries. From the three main clades the one named iberá exhibited a remarkable karyotypic homogeneity, and could be considered as an independent and cohesive evolutionary lineage. On the contrary, the former recognized species C. dorbignyi is a polyphyletic lineage and hence its systematic classification should be reviewed.

  4. Spatial and temporal changes in Lutzomyia longipalpis abundance, a Leishmania infantum vector in an urban area in northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Fernández, María Soledad; Santini, María Soledad; Cavia, Regino; Sandoval, Adolfo Enrique; Pérez, Adriana Alicia; Acardi, Soraya; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to analyse changes in the spatial distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Posadas, an urban area located in northeastern Argentina. Data were obtained during the summer of 2007 and 2009 through two entomological surveys of peridomiciles distributed around the city. The abundance distribution pattern for 2009 was computed and compared with the previous pattern obtained in 2007, when the first human visceral leishmaniasis cases were reported in the city. Vector abundance was also examined in relation to micro and macrohabitat characteristics. In 2007 and 2009, Lu. longipalpis was distributed among 41.5% and 31% of the households in the study area, respectively. In both years, the abundance rates at most of the trapping sites were below 30 Lu. longipalpis per trap per night; however, for areas exhibiting 30-60 Lu. longipalpis and more than 60 Lu. longipalpis, the areas increased in both size and number from 2007-2009. Lu. longipalpis was more abundant in areas with a higher tree and bush cover (a macrohabitat characteristic) and in peridomiciles with accumulated unused material (a microhabitat characteristic). These results will help to prioritise and focus control efforts by defining which peridomiciles display a potentially high abundance of Lu. longipalpis.

  5. Argentina.

    PubMed

    1986-06-01

    This discussion of Argentina covers geography, the people, history and political conditions, government, economy, foreign relations, and relations between the US and Argentina. In 1985, the population of Argentina was estimated to be 30.6 million with an estimated annual growth rate of 1.5%. The infant mortality rate is 34.1/1000, and life expectancy is 70.2 years. Argentina, which shares land borders with Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay, is bounded by the Atlantic and the Antarctic Oceans. Descendants of Italian and Spanish immigrants predominate in Argentina, but many trace their origins to British and West and East European ancestors. In recent years, there has been a substantial influx of immigrants from neighboring Latin American countries. The native Indian population, estimated to be 50,000, is concentrated in the peripheral provinces of the north, northwest, and south. What is now Argentina was discovered in 1516 by the Spanish navigator Juan de Solia. The formal declaration of independence from Spain was made on July 9, 1816. In the late 19th century, 2 forces worked to create the modern Argentine nation: the introduction of modern agricultural techniques and the integration of Argentina into the world economy. Argentina has impressive human and natural resources, but political conflict and uneven economic performance since World War II have impeded full realization of its considerable potential. Yet, it is one of the wealthiest countries in Latin America. Among the reasons for the military coup of March 1976 was the deteriorating economy, caused by declining production and rampant inflation. Under the leadership of the Minister of the Economy, the military government focused attention on those immediate problems, and, in 1978, embarked on a new development strategy focusing on the establishment of a free market economy. There was little improvement in the economy, and a new economic plan was introduced in 1985 which has capped inflation by

  6. Cryptococcus gattii in urban trees from cities in North-eastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Mariana; Refojo, Nicolás; Bosco-Borgeat, María Eugenia; Taverna, Constanza Giselle; Trovero, Alicia Cristina; Rogé, Ariel; Davel, Graciela

    2013-11-01

    In the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, Cryptococcus gattii genotype AFLP4/VGI was found to be associated with decaying wood in hollows of different tree species. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of C. gattii in the environment of riverside cities of the river Paraná, and to describe its serotypes and molecular types. Five hundred samples were collected in 50 parks by swabbing tree hollows. The samples were inoculated on caffeic acid agar supplemented with chloramphenicol, and incubated at 28 °C for 1 week with a daily observation. The isolates were identified by conventional methods. The serotype was determined by slide agglutination with specific antisera. Molecular typing was carried out by PCR-RFLP of the URA5 gene. Four isolates of C. gattii were recovered: Cryptococcus gattii serotype B, genotype AFLP4/VGI, isolated from Eucalyptus sp. in the city of Rosario and from Grevillea robusta in the city of La Paz; and C. gattii serotype C, genotype AFLP5/VGIII, isolated from two different Tipuana tipu trees in the city of Resistencia. Here, we report for the first time the isolation of C. gattii serotype C, genotype AFLP5/VGIII, from environmental samples in Argentina.

  7. Snake Venomics and Antivenomics of Bothrops diporus, a Medically Important Pitviper in Northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gay, Carolina; Sanz, Libia; Calvete, Juan J; Pla, Davinia

    2015-12-25

    Snake species within genus Bothrops are responsible for more than 80% of the snakebites occurring in South America. The species that cause most envenomings in Argentina, B. diporus, is widely distributed throughout the country, but principally found in the Northeast, the region with the highest rates of snakebites. The venom proteome of this medically relevant snake was unveiled using a venomic approach. It comprises toxins belonging to fourteen protein families, being dominated by PI- and PIII-SVMPs, PLA₂ molecules, BPP-like peptides, L-amino acid oxidase and serine proteinases. This toxin profile largely explains the characteristic pathophysiological effects of bothropic snakebites observed in patients envenomed by B. diporus. Antivenomic analysis of the SAB antivenom (Instituto Vital Brazil) against the venom of B. diporus showed that this pentabothropic antivenom efficiently recognized all the venom proteins and exhibited poor affinity towards the small peptide (BPPs and tripeptide inhibitors of PIII-SVMPs) components of the venom.

  8. The karyotype of Adenomera diptyx (Boettger 1885) (Anura, Leptodactylidae) from northeastern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Zaracho, Víctor Hugo; Hernando, Alejandra Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    In this work we analyzed the karyotype of five populations of Adenomera diptyx from Argentina after conventional staining, Ag-NOR and C-banding. All specimens presented 2n = 26 and FN = 34. The karyotype was formed by three submetacentric, one metacentric and nine telocentric pairs. Silver staining revealed that the NOR was located on a secondary constriction in pair 7. C- banding evidenced constitutive heterochromatin at the pericentromeric region of all chromosomes. The karyotype of A. diptyx was similar to that of A. hylaedactyla (2n = 26, FN = 34) and different from that of A. andreae (2n = 26, FN = 40) in the fundamental number and secondary constriction position. It also differed from the karyotypes of A. marmorata (2n = 24, FN = 34 and 36) and of A. aff. bokermanni (2n = 23, FN = 34) in diploid number. Until a comprehensive cytogenetic analysis of all the species of the genus is performed, their chromosome evolution will remain poorly understood. PMID:21637549

  9. Surface and groundwater quality in the northeastern region of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo, G.; Sainato, C.; Dapeña, C.; Fernández-Turiel, J. L.; Gimeno, D.; Pomposiello, M. C.; Panarello, H. O.

    2007-04-01

    This work studies the water quality of the Pergamino-Arrecifes River zone in the Rolling Pampa, northeast Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Temperature, pH, specific conductivity, Na, K, Mg, Ca, SO42-, Cl -, HCO3-, NO3-, Si, Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Tl, U, V, Zn, and the environmental stable δ18O and δ2H isotope ratios were determined in 18 sampling stations. Natural and anthropogenic features influence surface and groundwater quality. Point pollution sources (septic wells and other domestic and farming effluents) increase the nitrate concentration. The values of pH, NO3-, Al, As, B, Fe, and Mn exceed the respective Argentine reference thresholds in different sampling stations for human drinking water; B, Mo, U, and V for irrigation; and V and Zn for cattle consumption.

  10. Snake Venomics and Antivenomics of Bothrops diporus, a Medically Important Pitviper in Northeastern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Carolina; Sanz, Libia; Calvete, Juan J.; Pla, Davinia

    2015-01-01

    Snake species within genus Bothrops are responsible for more than 80% of the snakebites occurring in South America. The species that cause most envenomings in Argentina, B. diporus, is widely distributed throughout the country, but principally found in the Northeast, the region with the highest rates of snakebites. The venom proteome of this medically relevant snake was unveiled using a venomic approach. It comprises toxins belonging to fourteen protein families, being dominated by PI- and PIII-SVMPs, PLA2 molecules, BPP-like peptides, L-amino acid oxidase and serine proteinases. This toxin profile largely explains the characteristic pathophysiological effects of bothropic snakebites observed in patients envenomed by B. diporus. Antivenomic analysis of the SAB antivenom (Instituto Vital Brazil) against the venom of B. diporus showed that this pentabothropic antivenom efficiently recognized all the venom proteins and exhibited poor affinity towards the small peptide (BPPs and tripeptide inhibitors of PIII-SVMPs) components of the venom. PMID:26712790

  11. Radiological and hyperfine characterization of soils from the Northeastern region of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, M. L.; Mercader, R. C.; Taylor, M. A.; Runco, J.; Imbellone, P.; Rivas, P. C.; Desimoni, J.

    2011-11-01

    The activity concentrations of both natural (238U and 232Th chains and 40K) and anthropogenic (137Cs) radionuclides down along the soil profile have been determined in soil samples collected from inland and coastal areas of the La Plata River, located in the Northeastern region of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. These studies were complemented with 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy characterization, pH, texture and organic carbon content measurements. From Mössbauer results, the sample compositions differ from one area to the other. Spectra from both soil samples are dominated by the Fe3+ paramagnetic signal. For soil samples from the coastal area, the α-Fe2O3 contribution is lower, Fe3O4 was not detected, and the relative areas of each spectral contribution are nearly constant with depth. For samples from the inland area, the Fe3+ paramagnetic fraction increases up to 82%, mainly at the expense of the magnetically ordered phase. The main observed activity originates from the decay of 40K (540-750 Bq/kg), followed by 238U (60-92 Bq/kg) and 232Th (37-46 Bq/kg) chains. The activity of 235U was in all the cases lower than the detection limit (LD = 0.02 Bq/kg). The only determined anthropogenic nuclide was 137Cs, arising from the fallout of the Southern Hemisphere nuclear weapon tests. Three of the observed differences in the depth distributions can be described by the dispersion-convection model. A correlation between the natural nuclide activities and the Mössbauer relative fractions was found, whereas no correlation was found between the 137Cs profile and the relative fraction of Fe3O4 or with other iron species.

  12. Determinants of daily path length in black and gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) in northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Raño, Mariana; Kowalewski, Martin M; Cerezo, Alexis M; Garber, Paul A

    2016-08-01

    Models used to explain the social organization of primates suggest that variation in daily path length (DPL) is a response to variation in resource distribution and the intensity of intragroup feeding competition. However, daily path length may be affected by a number of other factors including the availability and distribution of nutritionally complementary food items, temperature which can influence activity budget, patterns of subgrouping, and the frequency and function of intergroup encounters. In this 6-month study (total 495 hr of quantitative data), we examined daily path lengths in two neighboring groups of black and gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) inhabiting a semi-deciduous gallery forest in San Cayetano (27° 30'S, 58° 41'W), in the northwest province of Corrientes, Argentina. Both study groups were of similar size and composition. We identified relationships across groups between time spent feeding on fruits, leaves, and flowers, the number of trees visited, group spread, frequency of intergroup encounters, mean daily temperature, and DPL. Our results suggest that variation in food availability had a significant impact on howler ranging behavior by increasing DPL under conditions of high immature and mature fruit availability, and by decreasing DPL with increased availability and increased time invested in feeding on mature leaves. These results do not support the contention that a reduction in food availability or an increase in within-group feeding competition increased DPL in black and gold howler monkeys. DPL in black and gold howlers is influenced by several interrelated factors. In this regard we suggest that models of socio-ecology and ecological constraints need to reconsider how factors such as individual nutritional requirements, social tolerance and group cohesion, and the spatial and temporal availability of preferred and nearby food resources influence primate ranging behavior. Am. J. Primatol. 78:825-837, 2016. © 2016 Wiley

  13. Zoo-heleoplankton structure in three artificial ponds of North-eastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Frutos, S M; Carnevali, R

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the abundance and species richness of zoo-heleoplankton bigger than 53 microm in an annual cycle under similar climate conditions in three artificial ponds, in order to observe the changes during an annual cycle. Samples were taken monthly from June 1993 to July 1994 in Corrientes, Argentina. The first pond (A) was covered an 80% by Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.), the second one (B) with bloom of Microcystis aeruginosa (Kurtzing) and the last one (C) with organic matter deposited in the bottom. The water was more acidic at pond A, and the water at pond B contained more dissolved oxygen concentration than the water at the other two ponds. The zoo-heleoplankton densities varied between 20-1728 ind.l(-1) at pond A, 42-4082 ind.l(-1) at pond B and 148-2447 ind.l(-1) at pond C. The maximum zoo-heleoplankton abundance was found in the pond with cyanobacteria bloom during Autumn 1994 and the minimum abundance was found in the one with a predominance of E. crassipes. The rank of species richness was pond A > pond B > pond C. Rotifera was the most abundant group in pond A whereas the larval stages of Copepoda were abundant in the other two ponds. Anuraeopsis navicula Rousselt 1910 was the dominant population in the pond with macrophytes prevalence. Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas 1776 and larval stage of Copepoda had variable proportions in the pond with cyanobacteria bloom. Thermocyclops decipiens (Kiefer 1929) was present during the annual cycle only in the pond with organic matter deposited in the bottom. The succession of taxa was observed in the pond with coverage of aquatic macrophytes and with cyanobacteria bloom. Differences in species richness and low similarity in zoo-heleoplankton between ponds were determined by differences in the quality of the water in relation to the presence of macrophytes, cyanobacteria, organic matter deposited in the bottom and fish predation. Multiple regression analysis (stepwise) revealed that

  14. Argentina

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Acquisition Date: February 28, 1985 The Sierra de Velasco Mountains dominate this image in northern Argentina. The Catamarca province is in the northern part of the image, and the La Rioja province is to the south. The streams are fed by runoff from the snow in the Andes Mountains to the north. These intermittent streams can dry up rapidly. The larger urban area near the bottom of the image is La Rioja, the capital of the province of La Rioja. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Landsat/USGS To learn more about Landsat and to see the orginal high res file go to: landsat.usgs.gov/gallery_view.php?category=greenflag&...

  15. Argentina.

    PubMed

    1993-02-01

    Background notes on Argentina provide a profile of the geography, selected demographic features, government and economic conditions. Descriptive text includes a discussion of the people, their history and political conditions, the government and officials, the state of the economy, their defense, foreign relations, and relations with the US. The 1992 estimated population was about 33 million of whom 97% are European (mostly Spanish and Italian). Religions represented are Roman Catholic (92%), Protestant (2%), Jewish (2%), and other (4%). Adult literacy is 95%. 36% are engaged in industry and commerce, 20% in services, 19% in agriculture, 6% in transport and communications, and 19% other. Per capita gross domestic product was $4,500. There are only 50,000 native Indians remaining in peripheral provinces. The population enjoys a high standard of living and a low growth rate. The country was shaped by dominant forces: modern agricultural techniques and the integration of the country into the world economy. Foreign investment aided the economic revolution. Conservative and radical rule has swung the country back and forth politically since 1916. Colonel Juan Domingo Peron led a successful military coup in 1943 and was elected in 1946. Policies were instituted to give a greater voice to the working class, and with the influences of his wife, women's groups. In 1955, he was ousted by the military, which failed to revive the economy and quiet increasing terrorism. After a number of difficult elections, Peron was reinstated as president in 1973. Extremists on the left and right threatened public order; the military as a consequence imprisoned persons indefinitely. Peron's wife succeeded him after his death, but was removed from office in the military coup of 1976. Basic human rights were violated during this period. By 1983, a fair election was held and support increased for a democratic system. In 1989, Carlos Saul Menem, a Peronist candidate, won and established

  16. First report of geophilid centipedes of the genus Ribautia (Myriapoda: Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha) from the Atlantic Forest biome, with description of a new miniature species from Misiones Province, Northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Luis Alberto

    2014-03-18

    Ribautia paranaensis sp. nov. a new miniature species of geophilid centipede from the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest (the westernmost of the fifteen ecoregions comprising the Atlantic Forest biome sensu Di Bitetti et al. 2003), is herein described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by having the coxal organs grouped in clusters (one of these in each coxopleuron of the ultimate leg-bearing segment) and a claw-like pretarsus in the ultimate legs; these traits being shared by three other Neotropical members of the genus, i.e., R. combinata Pereira, Uliana & Minelli, 2006 (from the Amazonian rainforest of Peru), R. jakulicai Pereira, 2007 (from the Yungas rainforest of Northwestern Argentina), and R. lewisi Pereira, 2013 (collected in a gallery forest in the Mesopotamian region, Northeastern Argentina). R. paranaensis sp. nov. represents the first report of Ribautia Brölemann, 1909 in the entire Atlantic Forest biome, and the third confirmed record of the taxon from Argentina.

  17. First finding of Trypanosoma cruzi II in vampire bats from a district free of domestic vector-borne transmission in Northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Argibay, Hernán D; Orozco, M Marcela; Cardinal, M Victoria; Rinas, Miguel A; Arnaiz, María; Mena Segura, Carlos; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2016-09-01

    Establishing the putative links between sylvatic and domestic transmission cycles of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, is of public health relevance. We conducted three surveys to assess T. cruzi infection in wild mammals from a rural and a preserved area in Misiones Province, Northeastern Argentina, which had recently been declared free of vector- and blood-borne transmission of human T. cruzi infection. A total of 200 wild mammals were examined by xenodiagnosis (XD) and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the hyper-variable region of kinetoplast DNA minicircles of T. cruzi (kDNA-PCR). The overall prevalence of T. cruzi infection was 8%. Nine (16%) of 57 Didelphis albiventris opossums and two (7%) of 29 Desmodus rotundus vampire bats were positive by both XD and kDNA-PCR. Additionally, one D. rotundus positive for T. cruzi by kDNA-PCR tested positive by satellite-DNA-PCR (SAT-DNA-PCR). The T. cruzi-infected bats were captured indoors and in the yard of a vacant dwelling. All D. albiventris were infected with TcI and both XD-positive D. rotundus by TcII. Fifty-five opossum cubs within the marsupium were negative by XD. The mean infectiousness to the vector was 62% in D. albiventris and 50% in D. rotundus. Mice experimentally infected with a parasite isolate from a vampire bat displayed lesions typically caused by T. cruzi. Our study documents the presence of the genotype TcII in a sylvatic host for the first time in Argentina, and the occurrence of two transmission cycles of T. cruzi in a district free of domestic vector-borne transmission.

  18. Towards leprosy elimination by 2020: forecasts of epidemiological indicators of leprosy in Corrientes, a province of northeastern Argentina that is a pioneer in leprosy elimination.

    PubMed

    Odriozola, Elisa Petri de; Quintana, Ana María; González, Victor; Pasetto, Roque Antonio; Utgés, María Eugenia; Bruzzone, Octavio Augusto; Arnaiz, María Rosa

    2017-06-01

    Corrientes, a province of northeastern Argentina with endemic leprosy, has improved its epidemiological indicators, however, a study of the dynamics over time is lacking. We analysed data of 1308 leprosy patients between 1991 to 2014, and the forecast for 2020. Descriptive statistics and stepwise Bayesian model selection were performed. Forecasts were made using the median of 100,000 projections using the parameters calculated via Monte Carlo methods. We found a decreasing number of new leprosy cases (-2.04 cases/year); this decrease is expected to continue by an estimated 20.28 +/- 10.00 cases by 2020, evidenced by a sustained decline in detection rate (from 11 to 2.9/100,000 inhabitants). Age groups that were most affected were 15-44 (40.13%) and 45-64 (38.83%) year olds. Multibacillary forms (MB) predominated (70.35%) and while gradually declining, between 10 and 30% developed disability grade 2 (DG2) (0.175 (0.110 - 0.337) DG2/MB cases), with a time delay between 0 to 15 years (median = 0). The proportion of MB clinic forms and DG2 increased and will continuously increase in the short term (0.036 +/- 0.018 logit (MB/total of cases). Corrientes is on the way to eliminating leprosy by 2020, however the increased proportion of MB clinical forms and DG2 signals a warning for disease control efforts.

  19. [Ecological aspects between Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda, Anisakidae) and the host Serrasalmus spilopleura Kner, 1860 (Pisces, Characidae) in natural populations of northeastern Argentina].

    PubMed

    Hamann, M I

    1999-01-01

    From February 1987 to February 1989, the populational biology of Contraceacum sp. (larvae) in its paratenic host, the fish Serrasalmus spilopleura Kner, 1860, was studied in two ponds in a subtropical permanent habitat northeastern of Argentina. Fishes from Ramada Paso pond presented 80% of prevalence and 1 to 132 larvae per fish while fishes from Aeroclub pond presented 63% of prevalence and 1 to 184 larvae per fish. Fishes collected from Aeroclub pond have shown a high prevalence of infection during the first period of study (1987), diminishing the following year. In fishes from Ramada Paso pond the prevalence varied not significatively during the two years. Prevalence and mean intensity of infection increase with body length and weight of the hosts. Sex of hosts is not an influential factor in parasitic level. The lenitic "closed" environmental (Ramada Paso pond) evidenced the greatest larvae mean intensity and prevalence. Although, the lenitic "open" environmental (Aeroclub pond) showed the greatest parasitic number of individuals in an infrapopulation. The spatial dispersion in both ponds were aggregated and fit well a negative binomial model. Nevertheless, the Aeroclub pond presented the greatest overdispersion.

  20. Geographic patterns of inversion polymorphism in the second chromosome of the cactophilic Drosophila buzzatii from northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Soto, Ignacio M; Soto, Eduardo M; Carreira, Valeria P; Hurtado, Juan; Fanara, Juan J; Hasson, Esteban

    2010-01-01

    The inversion polymorphisms of the cactophilic Drosophila buzzatti Patterson and Wheeler (Diptera: Drosophilidae) were studied in new areas of its distribution in Argentina. A total of thirty-eight natural populations, including 29 from previous studies, were analyzed using multiple regression analyses. The results showed that about 23% of total variation was accounted for by a multiple regression model in which only altitude contributed significantly to population variation, despite the fact that latitude and longitude were also included in the model. Also, inversion frequencies exhibited significant associations with mean annual temperature, precipitation, and atmospheric pressure. In addition, expected heterozygosity exhibited a negative association with temperature and precipitation and a positive association with atmospheric pressure. The close similarity of the patterns detected in this larger dataset to previous reports is an indication of the stability of the clines. Also, the concurrence of the clines detected in Argentina with those reported for colonizing populations of Australia suggests the involvement of natural selection as the main mechanism shaping inversion frequencies in D. buzzatii.

  1. Geographic Patterns of Inversion Polymorphism in the Second Chromosome of the Cactophilic Drosophila buzzatii from Northeastern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Ignacio M.; Soto, Eduardo M.; Carreira, Valeria P.; Hurtado, Juan; Fanara, Juan J.; Hasson, Esteban

    2010-01-01

    The inversion polymorphisms of the cactophilic Drosophila buzzatti Patterson and Wheeler (Diptera: Drosophilidae) were studied in new areas of its distribution in Argentina. A total of thirty-eight natural populations, including 29 from previous studies, were analyzed using multiple regression analyses. The results showed that about 23% of total variation was accounted for by a multiple regression model in which only altitude contributed significantly to population variation, despite the fact that latitude and longitude were also included in the model. Also, inversion frequencies exhibited significant associations with mean annual temperature, precipitation, and atmospheric pressure. In addition, expected heterozygosity exhibited a negative association with temperature and precipitation and a positive association with atmospheric pressure. The close similarity of the patterns detected in this larger dataset to previous reports is an indication of the stability of the clines. Also, the concurrence of the clines detected in Argentina with those reported for colonizing populations of Australia suggests the involvement of natural selection as the main mechanism shaping inversion frequencies in D. buzzatii. PMID:21062144

  2. Genetic analysis of six communities of Mbyá-Guaraní inhabiting northeastern Argentina by means of nuclear and mitochondrial polymorphic markers.

    PubMed

    Sala, Andrea; Argüelles, Carina F; Marino, Miguel E; Bobillo, Cecilia; Fenocchio, Alberto; Corach, Daniel

    2010-08-01

    Autosomal STRs, Y-chromosome markers, and mitochondrial DNA sequences were investigated in six Mbyá-Guaraní villages (Fortín M'Bororé, Yryapu, Tabay, Kaaguy Poty, Jejy, and Yaboti), all of them settled within the province of Misiones, northeastern Argentina. One hundred twenty-one unrelated individuals were analyzed. The study involved typing fifteen autosomal STRs, nine Y-chromosome STRs, and four biallele loci in the nonrecombinant region of the Y chromosome, sequencing the mtDNA of hypervariable regions I and II, and detecting the 9-bp ins/del in region V of mtDNA. All autosomal STRs were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The four major native American mtDNA haplogroups were represented in the sample. Haplogroups A2 and D1 exhibited the highest frequencies (40.5% and 36.0%, respectively), and haplogroups B2 and C1 appeared to be less frequent (17.5% and 6.0%, respectively). The native American haplogroup Q1a3a was observed in a relevant proportion (88.8%). In addition, a nine-STR Y-chromosome haplo-type (DYS19*13, DYS389I*14, DYS389II*31, DYS390*24, DYS391*11, DYS392*14, DYS393*11, DYS385A*14, DYS385B*16) exhibited a frequency of more than 36%. Our results indicate that the analyzed Argentinean Guaraní individuals are genetically more closely related to Guaraní from Brazil [genetic distance (Δµ)(2) = 0.48] than to other related tribes that are geographically closer. Statistical approaches based on autosomal data do not support the hypothesis of genetic drift previously proposed; however, this apparent discrepancy might be due to the lack of sensitivity of the autosomal markers used here.

  3. Detection of the mosquito-borne flaviviruses, West Nile, Dengue, Saint Louis Encephalitis, Ilheus, Bussuquara, and Yellow Fever in free-ranging black howlers (Alouatta caraya) of Northeastern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Morales, María A.; Fabbri, Cintia M.; Zunino, Gabriel E.; Kowalewski, Martín M.; Luppo, Victoria C.; Enría, Delia A.; Levis, Silvana C.; Calderón, Gladys E.

    2017-01-01

    Several medically important mosquito-borne flaviviruses have been detected in Argentina in recent years: Dengue (DENV), St. Louis encephalitis (SLEV), West Nile (WNV) and Yellow Fever (YFV) viruses. Evidence of Bussuquara virus (BSQV) and Ilheus virus (ILHV) activity were found, but they have not been associated with human disease. Non-human primates can act as important hosts in the natural cycle of flaviviruses and serological studies can lead to improved understanding of virus circulation dynamics and host susceptibility. From July–August 2010, we conducted serological and molecular surveys in free–ranging black howlers (Alouatta caraya) captured in northeastern Argentina. We used 90% plaque-reduction neutralization tests (PRNT90) to analyze 108 serum samples for antibodies to WNV, SLEV, YFV, DENV (serotypes 1and 3), ILHV, and BSQV. Virus genome detection was performed using generic reverse transcription (RT)-nested PCR to identify flaviviruses in 51 antibody-negative animals. Seventy animals had antibodies for one or more flaviviruses for a total antibody prevalence of 64.8% (70/108). Monotypic (13/70, 19%) and heterotypic (27/70, 39%) patterns were differentiated. Specific neutralizing antibodies against WNV, SLEV, DENV-1, DENV-3, ILHV, and BSQV were found. Unexpectedly, the highest flavivirus antibody prevalence detected was to WNV with 9 (8.33%) monotypic responses. All samples tested by (RT)-nested PCR were negative for viral genome. This is the first detection of WNV-specific antibodies in black howlers from Argentina and the first report in free-ranging non-human primates from Latin-American countries. Given that no animals had specific neutralizing antibodies to YFV, our results suggest that the study population remains susceptible to YFV. Monitoring of these agents should be strengthened to detect the establishment of sylvatic cycles of flaviviruses in America and evaluate risks to wildlife and human health. PMID:28187130

  4. Detection of the mosquito-borne flaviviruses, West Nile, Dengue, Saint Louis Encephalitis, Ilheus, Bussuquara, and Yellow Fever in free-ranging black howlers (Alouatta caraya) of Northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Morales, María A; Fabbri, Cintia M; Zunino, Gabriel E; Kowalewski, Martín M; Luppo, Victoria C; Enría, Delia A; Levis, Silvana C; Calderón, Gladys E

    2017-02-01

    Several medically important mosquito-borne flaviviruses have been detected in Argentina in recent years: Dengue (DENV), St. Louis encephalitis (SLEV), West Nile (WNV) and Yellow Fever (YFV) viruses. Evidence of Bussuquara virus (BSQV) and Ilheus virus (ILHV) activity were found, but they have not been associated with human disease. Non-human primates can act as important hosts in the natural cycle of flaviviruses and serological studies can lead to improved understanding of virus circulation dynamics and host susceptibility. From July-August 2010, we conducted serological and molecular surveys in free-ranging black howlers (Alouatta caraya) captured in northeastern Argentina. We used 90% plaque-reduction neutralization tests (PRNT90) to analyze 108 serum samples for antibodies to WNV, SLEV, YFV, DENV (serotypes 1and 3), ILHV, and BSQV. Virus genome detection was performed using generic reverse transcription (RT)-nested PCR to identify flaviviruses in 51 antibody-negative animals. Seventy animals had antibodies for one or more flaviviruses for a total antibody prevalence of 64.8% (70/108). Monotypic (13/70, 19%) and heterotypic (27/70, 39%) patterns were differentiated. Specific neutralizing antibodies against WNV, SLEV, DENV-1, DENV-3, ILHV, and BSQV were found. Unexpectedly, the highest flavivirus antibody prevalence detected was to WNV with 9 (8.33%) monotypic responses. All samples tested by (RT)-nested PCR were negative for viral genome. This is the first detection of WNV-specific antibodies in black howlers from Argentina and the first report in free-ranging non-human primates from Latin-American countries. Given that no animals had specific neutralizing antibodies to YFV, our results suggest that the study population remains susceptible to YFV. Monitoring of these agents should be strengthened to detect the establishment of sylvatic cycles of flaviviruses in America and evaluate risks to wildlife and human health.

  5. Hydrogeochemical and isotopic characterisation of groundwater in a sand-dune phreatic aquifer on the northeastern coast of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Carretero, Silvina C; Dapeña, Cristina; Kruse, Eduardo E

    2013-01-01

    This contribution presents the hydrochemical and isotopic characterisation of the phreatic aquifer located in the Partido de la Costa, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. In the sand-dune barrier geomorphological environment, groundwater is mainly a low-salinity Ca-HCO3 and Na-HCO3-type, being in general suitable for drinking, whereas in the continental plain (silty clay sediments), groundwater is a Na-Cl type with high salinity and unsuitable for human consumption. The general isotopic composition of the area ranges from-6.8 to-4.3 ‰ for δ(18)O and from-39 to-21 ‰ for δ(2)H, showing that rainwater rapidly infiltrates into the sandy substrate and reaches the water table almost without significant modification in its isotopic composition. These analyses, combined with other chemical parameters, made it possible to corroborate that in the eastern area of the phreatic aquifer, there is no contamination from marine salt water.

  6. Infant hybrids in a newly formed mixed-species group of howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans and Alouatta caraya) in northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Ilaria; Holzmann, Ingrid; Di Bitetti, Mario S

    2008-10-01

    Natural hybridisation between species has been reported in several primate taxa. In the Neotropics, there is increasing evidence of this phenomenon in howler monkeys (genus Alouatta) in contact zones between species. We describe the first known case of formation of a mixed-species group, and two cases of putative infant hybrids between the brown howler (Alouatta guariba clamitans) and the black howler (A. caraya) in Misiones, Argentina. For 2 years, we followed a group consisting of one adult male and two adult female brown howlers and one adult female black howler. The adult female black howler was observed to copulate twice with brown howler males, and never with black howler males. In December 2006, this female was carrying an infant with a hybrid morphotype. This infant died at approximately 1.5 months of age. In November 2007, the same female had another putative hybrid newborn. This infant male died together with all members of his group during a yellow fever outbreak in early 2008. The lower frequency of mixed-species groups and hybrids at our site compared with other contact zones reported in the literature, suggests that the incidence of natural hybridisation between howler species differs depending on local factors such as population demography and landscape fragmentation.

  7. Effects of Post-Fire Plant Cover in the Performance of Two Cordilleran Cypress ( Austrocedrus chilensis) Seedling Stocktypes Planted in Burned Forests of Northeastern Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urretavizcaya, María F.; Gonda, Héctor E.; Defossé, Guillermo E.

    2017-03-01

    Cordilleran cypress ( Austrocedrus chilensis [D.Don] Pic. Serm. et Bizarri) forests occupy 140,000 ha along a sharp environmental gradient of central Andean-Patagonia in Argentina. Every summer, about 3200 ha of these forests are affected by wildfires, taking thereafter long time to recover. To accelerate forest recovery, we determined in xeric and mesic cypress stands burned 5 and 2 year before whether survival and growth of two planted cypress seedling stocktypes are affected by plant cover and contrasting precipitation conditions. Two experiments were conducted on each site, involving 100 replicates of two seedling stocktypes, having each significantly different morphological attributes. The experiments comprised a dry and humid growing season on each site. Both stocktypes performed similarly within stands, but differently between stands. In the xeric stand, plant cover had neutral effects on seedling survival, favored seedling height growth in the dry season, and was negative on collar diameter and stem growth. In the mesic site, high plant cover favored survival and height growth, but was inconsequential for collar diameter and stem growth. In this short-term post-fire period, and independent of precipitation received during both seasons (dry or humid), plant cover appears as playing a facilitative role, having neutral or even positive effects on survival and growth of planted seedlings. During the early post-fire successional stages, and besides seedling stocktype, there was a synergistic balance between light and soil moisture that seems to benefit planted seedling performance in burned cypress forests, and especially in mesic sites.

  8. Multivariate discrimination among cryptic mites of the genus Androlaelaps (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) parasitic of sympatric akodontine rodents (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) in northeastern Argentina: possible evidence of host switch followed by speciation, with the description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Lareschi, Marcela; Galliari, Carlos

    2014-12-01

    Laelapids are among the most common ectoparasites of rodents. Currently, it is under discussion whether there is a single polixenous species that parasites a variety of hosts, or whether there are cryptic species highly host specific. Herein, multivariate morphometric analyses of cryptic sympatric laelapids of the genus Androlaelaps allowed us to identify different species. These species are specific of their akodontine hosts, Akodon montensis and Thaptomys nigrita, in localities situated in northeastern Argentina. In addition, we analyzed similar laelapids associated with the akodontines Deltamys kempi and Akodon cursor. Using principle component analyses we differentiated four laelapid species, each one host specific, independent of sympatry of the hosts, and without geographical variation. From these four species, we described two new species (Androlaelaps navonae n. sp. and Androlaelaps wingei n. sp.). We determined the four species based on a range of variations in several characters, mainly size. These four laelapid species belong to the Androlaelaps rotundus species group, specific to akodontines. These species are very similar among them but differ from the remainder species of the group by their small size, distance between j6 setae similar to the distance between the z5 setae, strong ventral setae, opisthogaster with 13 pairs of strong setae (one close to the distal margin of epigynal shield), and anal shield wider than long. Further studies will elucidate whether they constitute a new laelapid genus. Phylogenetic and ecological factors influencing host-specificity are discussed, and we propose that host colonization could have taken place by host switching of a single laelapid species among rodent species, followed by speciation.

  9. Effects of Post-Fire Plant Cover in the Performance of Two Cordilleran Cypress (Austrocedrus chilensis) Seedling Stocktypes Planted in Burned Forests of Northeastern Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Urretavizcaya, María F; Gonda, Héctor E; Defossé, Guillermo E

    2017-03-01

    Cordilleran cypress (Austrocedrus chilensis [D.Don] Pic. Serm. et Bizarri) forests occupy 140,000 ha along a sharp environmental gradient of central Andean-Patagonia in Argentina. Every summer, about 3200 ha of these forests are affected by wildfires, taking thereafter long time to recover. To accelerate forest recovery, we determined in xeric and mesic cypress stands burned 5 and 2 year before whether survival and growth of two planted cypress seedling stocktypes are affected by plant cover and contrasting precipitation conditions. Two experiments were conducted on each site, involving 100 replicates of two seedling stocktypes, having each significantly different morphological attributes. The experiments comprised a dry and humid growing season on each site. Both stocktypes performed similarly within stands, but differently between stands. In the xeric stand, plant cover had neutral effects on seedling survival, favored seedling height growth in the dry season, and was negative on collar diameter and stem growth. In the mesic site, high plant cover favored survival and height growth, but was inconsequential for collar diameter and stem growth. In this short-term post-fire period, and independent of precipitation received during both seasons (dry or humid), plant cover appears as playing a facilitative role, having neutral or even positive effects on survival and growth of planted seedlings. During the early post-fire successional stages, and besides seedling stocktype, there was a synergistic balance between light and soil moisture that seems to benefit planted seedling performance in burned cypress forests, and especially in mesic sites.

  10. Averaging and Captive Wildlife.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRosa, Bill; Finch, Patty A.

    1985-01-01

    Offers a teaching technique that proposes to enliven instruction of statistics for mathematics students. This activity focuses on questions and associated calculations pertaining to wildlife in captivity. Directives for the lesson as well as a complete listing of questions and answers on captive wildlife are included. (ML)

  11. Averaging and Captive Wildlife.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRosa, Bill; Finch, Patty A.

    1985-01-01

    Offers a teaching technique that proposes to enliven instruction of statistics for mathematics students. This activity focuses on questions and associated calculations pertaining to wildlife in captivity. Directives for the lesson as well as a complete listing of questions and answers on captive wildlife are included. (ML)

  12. Captive raptor propagation.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Neil A

    2002-09-01

    "Raptor" is a collective term to describe both diurnal birds, mainly of the order Falconiformes and those which are generally nocturnal, the Strigiformes (owls). This article discusses the management of raptors in captivity for breeding.

  13. Captive insurance companies.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The landscape of the business world is changing; and now, more than ever, business owners are recognizing that life is filled with risks: known risk, calculated risk, and unexpected risk. Every day, businesses thrive or fail based on understanding the risk of owning and operating their business, and business owners are recognizing that there are alternative risk financing mechanisms other than simply taking out a basket of standard coverage as recommended by your friendly neighborhood agent. A captive insurance company is an insurance company established to provide a broad range of risk management capabilities to affiliated companies. The captive is owned by the business owner and can provide insurance to the business for potential future losses, whether or not the losses are already covered by a commercial carrier or are "self-insured." The premiums paid by your business are tax deductible. Meanwhile, the premiums that your captive collects are tax-free up to $1.2 million annually.

  14. Risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive Sapajus spp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive capuchin monkeys at a facility in the northeastern Brazil. Serum samples from 116 bearded capuchin (Sapajus libidinosus), nine blonde capuchin (Sapajus flavius), five black-capped ...

  15. Captive marsupial nutrition.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Delaney, Cathy A

    2014-09-01

    Marsupials comprise an interesting group of mammals, which are increasingly being kept as pets. Few actual feeding trials have been published, although many anecdotal diets have years of usage with good success. Marsupials have dental and digestive tract adaptations that allow them to use specific niches in their environments. Knowing the diet in the wild is instrumental in designing diets used in captivity.

  16. Reinsertable Captive Bolt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smallcombe, Richard D.

    1994-01-01

    Captive bolt installed, removed, and reinstalled easily, even with heavily gloved hands depriving technicians of feeling of engagement of threads. Has two threads with different diameters but same pitch. Engages either housing or mating part. Useful in construction in environments where visibility, tactility, and/or maneuverability poor.

  17. Universal Assembly for Captive Bolts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marke, M. L.; Hagopian, B.

    1982-01-01

    New method allows for virtually any bolt to be easily converted to "captive" bolt. Method eliminates need for separate design for each application. Cup-shaped washer that is flattened secures tap to bolt. Wire attached to tab holds bolt assembly captive. Flattening washer can also be done during installation of bolt. Wash, tab and spacer are all made of corrosion-resistant steel.

  18. Candidiasis in captive pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Dunn, J L; Buck, J D; Spotte, S

    1984-12-01

    Diagnosis, treatment, and possible pathogenesis of candidiasis were studied in 5 species of pinnipeds in captivity: gray seal (Halichoerus grypus), harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), and northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris). The animals were kept outdoors in a freshwater exhibit. Candidiasis was characterized by purulent nasal discharge, inflammation of the lips at the mucocutaneous junction, periocular alopecia, vaginitis, and dermatitis. Administration of ketoconazole at dosages of 5 mg/kg BID and 10 mg/kg SID controlled the disease. Wild gulls were suspected as vectors of Candida albicans.

  19. Chlamydiosis in captive raptors.

    PubMed

    Fowler, M E; Schulz, T; Ardans, A; Reynolds, B; Behymer, D

    1990-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci was isolated from four red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) that died suddenly and from seven birds that survived at a raptor rehabilitation center in California in 1983. One hundred captive raptors representing 14 species in five families were subsequently tested serologically and by direct cloacal culture. C. psittaci was isolated from seven clinically normal birds. Forty-four percent of the raptors were considered positive using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and 19% were suspects. The ELISA was repeated on 54 raptors in 1986. Forty-one percent of the birds were considered positive, and 35% were suspect, indicating that C. psittaci is endemic in the population.

  20. Performance of Loblolly Pine Seed Sources in Argentina

    Treesearch

    Timothy La Farge; Floyd E. Bridgwater; Mirta N. Baez

    1999-01-01

    Four test series of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) were evaluated to determine the performance in northeastern Argentina of seed sources from three breeding populations in the southeastern United States. Three half-sib progeny tests of seed sources from Florida and Louisiana demonstrated strong genetic gains for height, dbh, and volume growth....

  1. Argentina: spotlight.

    PubMed

    Patriquin, W

    1987-10-01

    In 1987 Argentina had a population of 31.5 million, with an annual rate of increase of 1.6%. The total fertility rate was 3.3, and the birth rate was 24/1000 population. Mortality stood at 8/1000 population, and the infant mortality rate was 35.3/1000 live births. Life expectancy at birth is 70 years. 84% of the population lives in Argentina's urban areas. Current government policies call for regional development to maintain and increase population in rural areas and control growth in urban centers. 90% of the population is of European descent, largely as a result of high rates of immigration during the 1880s-1930s from countries such as Spain and Italy. In 1985 the gross national product per capita was US$2130. Argentina is rich in resources and almost self-sufficient in terms of basic foodstuffs, power supply, and advanced communication networks. On the other hand, political conflicts and economic crises have hindered the realization of both human and natural resource potential. 80% of the value of export products is the amount due in interest on foreign debts.

  2. Captivity humanizes the primate microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Vangay, Pajau; Huang, Hu; Ward, Tonya; Hillmann, Benjamin M.; Al-Ghalith, Gabriel A.; Travis, Dominic A.; Long, Ha Thang; Tuan, Bui Van; Minh, Vo Van; Cabana, Francis; Nadler, Tilo; Toddes, Barbara; Murphy, Tami; Glander, Kenneth E.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Knights, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The primate gastrointestinal tract is home to trillions of bacteria, whose composition is associated with numerous metabolic, autoimmune, and infectious human diseases. Although there is increasing evidence that modern and Westernized societies are associated with dramatic loss of natural human gut microbiome diversity, the causes and consequences of such loss are challenging to study. Here we use nonhuman primates (NHPs) as a model system for studying the effects of emigration and lifestyle disruption on the human gut microbiome. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing in two model NHP species, we show that although different primate species have distinctive signature microbiota in the wild, in captivity they lose their native microbes and become colonized with Prevotella and Bacteroides, the dominant genera in the modern human gut microbiome. We confirm that captive individuals from eight other NHP species in a different zoo show the same pattern of convergence, and that semicaptive primates housed in a sanctuary represent an intermediate microbiome state between wild and captive. Using deep shotgun sequencing, chemical dietary analysis, and chloroplast relative abundance, we show that decreasing dietary fiber and plant content are associated with the captive primate microbiome. Finally, in a meta-analysis including published human data, we show that captivity has a parallel effect on the NHP gut microbiome to that of Westernization in humans. These results demonstrate that captivity and lifestyle disruption cause primates to lose native microbiota and converge along an axis toward the modern human microbiome. PMID:27573830

  3. Melioidosis, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rolim, Dionne Bezerra; Vilar, Dina Cortez Feitosa Lima; Sousa, Anastacio Queiroz; Miralles, Iracema Sampaio; Almeida de Oliveira, Diana Carmen; Harnett, Gerry; O'Reilly, Lyn; Howard, Kay; Sampson, Ian

    2005-01-01

    Melioidosis was first recognized in northeastern Brazil in 2003. Confirmation of additional cases from the 2003 cluster in Ceará, more recent cases in other districts, environmental isolation of Burkholderia pseudomallei, molecular confirmation and typing results, and positive serosurveillance specimens indicate that melioidosis is more widespread in northeastern Brazil than previously thought. PMID:16229782

  4. Saddle Clamp With Captive Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belrose, Charles R.

    1993-01-01

    Saddle clamp modified to prevent parts from falling off when installed or removed. Allows easy access for tightening or loosening bolts, and retains alignment with tube mounted in it when opened. All parts are held captive - bolts by retaining washers, floating nuts by pressing and swaging, and upper clamp band by tether. Upper and lower bolt flanges offset from each other to ensure access.

  5. Nutritional Physiology of Captive Fishes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Managing the health of captive fishes requires broad knowledge of environmental, physiological, and nutritional requirements for life in an aquatic realm, something no human being can fully appreciate. In spite of our lack of experience living in an aquatic environment, we can successfully manage th...

  6. Physical Education and Captive Wildlife.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Vicki

    1985-01-01

    Presents a simulation game that can be incorporated into physical education classes for intermediate and junior high school students. The lesson, titled "The Capture Game," focuses on the problems of capture, transportation, and captivity of wild animals. Background information, teacher preparation suggestions, student activity and…

  7. Physical Education and Captive Wildlife.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Vicki

    1985-01-01

    Presents a simulation game that can be incorporated into physical education classes for intermediate and junior high school students. The lesson, titled "The Capture Game," focuses on the problems of capture, transportation, and captivity of wild animals. Background information, teacher preparation suggestions, student activity and…

  8. Oral health correlates of captivity.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Varsha; Antonelli, Tyler; Parkinson, Jennifer A; Hartstone-Rose, Adam

    2016-08-01

    The predominant diet fed to captive carnivores in North America consists of ground meat formulated to provide full nutritional requirements. However, this ground meat diet completely lacks the mechanical properties (i.e., toughness and hardness) of the foods these animals would consume in the wild. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of captivity on oral health by comparing the prevalence of periodontal disease and dental calculus accumulation in wild and captive lions and tigers (Panthera leo and Panthera tigris), and to also correlate oral health with cranial morphology in these specimens. To achieve this, 34 adult lion and 29 adult tiger skulls were scored for the presence and extent of dental calculus and periodontal disease. These oral health scores were also compared to cranial deformations examined in a previous study. We found that the occurrence and severity of calculus buildup and periodontal disease was significantly higher in captive felids compared to their wild counterparts. Further, higher calculus accumulation occurred on the posterior teeth when compared to the anterior teeth, while an opposite trend for periodontal disease was observed. We also found a significant correlation between oral health and cranial morphology of lions and tigers. The results suggest that food mechanical properties are significant factors contributing to oral health in felids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. SEROPREVALENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN CAPTIVE ANTILLEAN MANATEE (TRICHECHUS MANATUS MANATUS) IN BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Attademo, Fernanda L N; Ribeiro, Vanessa O; Soares, Herbert S; Luna, Fábia O; Sousa, Glaucia P; Freire, Augusto C B; Gennari, Solange M; Alves, Leucio C; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Dubey, Jitender P; Silva, Jean C R

    2016-06-01

    Antillean manatees ( Trichechus manatus manatus) are aquatic mammals that inhabit marine waters from Central America to the northeastern region of Brazil, and they are an endangered species. Infection with Toxoplasma gondii through intake of water or food contaminated with oocysts has been reported among marine mammals. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii in West Indian manatees living in captivity in northeastern Brazil. Serum samples from 55 West Indian manatees from three different captive groups were tested for T. gondii antibodies by means of the modified agglutination test using a cutoff of 1:25. The samples were screened at dilutions of 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500, and positive samples were end-titrated using twofold serial dilutions; antibodies were found in six Antillean manatees (10.9%) with titers of 1:50 in three, 1:500 in one, 1:3,200 in one, and 1:51,200 in one manatee. This study is the first report of T. gondii antibodies in captive Antillean manatees in Brazil.

  10. Effect of captivity on genetic variance for five traits in the large milkweed bug (Oncopeltus fasciatus).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Clark, K M

    2004-07-01

    Understanding the changes in genetic variance which may occur as populations move from nature into captivity has been considered important when populations in captivity are used as models of wild ones. However, the inherent significance of these changes has not previously been appreciated in a conservation context: are the methods aimed at founding captive populations with gene diversity representative of natural populations likely also to capture representative quantitative genetic variation? Here, I investigate changes in heritability and a less traditional measure, evolvability, between nature and captivity for the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus, to address this question. Founders were collected from a 100-km transect across the north-eastern US, and five traits (wing colour, pronotum colour, wing length, early fecundity and later fecundity) were recorded for founders and for their offspring during two generations in captivity. Analyses reveal significant heritable variation for some life history and morphological traits in both environments, with comparable absolute levels of evolvability across all traits (0-30%). Randomization tests show that while changes in heritability and total phenotypic variance were highly variable, additive genetic variance and evolvability remained stable across the environmental transition in the three morphological traits (changing 1-2% or less), while they declined significantly in the two life-history traits (5-8%). Although it is unclear whether the declines were due to selection or gene-by-environment interactions (or both), such declines do not appear inevitable: captive populations with small numbers of founders may contain substantial amounts of the evolvability found in nature, at least for some traits.

  11. Rotary peening with captive shot

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    Roto Peen with captive shot removes coatings and surface contamination from concrete floors. The objective of treating radioactively contaminated concrete floors during the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D and D) process is to reduce the surface contamination levels to meet regulatory criteria for unrestricted use. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Chicago Operations office and DOE`s Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) jointly sponsored a Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) at the Chicago Pile-5 Research Reactor (CP-5) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL). The objective of the LSDP is to demonstrate potentially beneficial D and D technologies in comparison with current baseline technologies. As part of the LSDP, roto Peen with captive shot was demonstrated March 17--20, 1997, to treat a 20 x 25 ft area of radioactively contaminated concrete floor on the service level of the CP-5 building.

  12. Phylodynamics of vampire bat-transmitted rabies in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Torres, C; Lema, C; Dohmen, F Gury; Beltran, F; Novaro, L; Russo, S; Freire, M C; Velasco-Villa, A; Mbayed, V A; Cisterna, D M

    2014-05-01

    Common vampire bat populations distributed from Mexico to Argentina are important rabies reservoir hosts in Latin America. The aim of this work was to analyse the population structure of the rabies virus (RABV) variants associated with vampire bats in the Americas and to study their phylodynamic pattern within Argentina. The phylogenetic analysis based on all available vampire bat-related N gene sequences showed both a geographical and a temporal structure. The two largest groups of RABV variants from Argentina were isolated from northwestern Argentina and from the central western zone of northeastern Argentina, corresponding to livestock areas with different climatic, topographic and biogeographical conditions, which determined their dissemination and evolutionary patterns. In addition, multiple introductions of the infection into Argentina, possibly from Brazil, were detected. The phylodynamic analysis suggests that RABV transmission dynamics is characterized by initial epizootic waves followed by local enzootic cycles with variable persistence. Anthropogenic interventions in the ecosystem should be assessed taking into account not only the environmental impact but also the potential risk of disease spreading through dissemination of current RABV lineages or the emergence of novel ones associated with vampire bats. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Phylodynamics of vampire bat-transmitted rabies in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    DOHMEN, F. GURY; BELTRAN, F.; NOVARO, L.; RUSSO, S.; FREIRE, M. C.; VELASCO-VILLA, A.; MBAYED, V. A.; CISTERNA, D. M.

    2016-01-01

    Common vampire bat populations distributed from Mexico to Argentina are important rabies reservoir hosts in Latin America. The aim of this work was to analyse the population structure of the rabies virus (RABV) variants associated with vampire bats in the Americas and to study their phylodynamic pattern within Argentina. The phylogenetic analysis based on all available vampire bat-related N gene sequences showed both a geographical and a temporal structure. The two largest groups of RABV variants from Argentina were isolated from northwestern Argentina and from the central western zone of northeastern Argentina, corresponding to livestock areas with different climatic, topographic and biogeographical conditions, which determined their dissemination and evolutionary patterns. In addition, multiple introductions of the infection into Argentina, possibly from Brazil, were detected. The phylodynamic analysis suggests that RABV transmission dynamics is characterized by initial epizootic waves followed by local enzootic cycles with variable persistence. Anthropogenic interventions in the ecosystem should be assessed taking into account not only the environmental impact but also the potential risk of disease spreading through dissemination of current RABV lineages or the emergence of novel ones associated with vampire bats. PMID:24661865

  14. Captive Water Current Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Wuenscher, H. F.; Wuenscher, H. A.

    1984-01-31

    Current energy is converted into shaft power in two stages; First, buoyant power units with stationary hydrofoil wings reach faster than the current speed by sweeping out a captive path. Second, turbines at said power units convert the fast relative local current into shaft power. Power units sweeping along the water surface, using cycloidal turbine methods, as well as power units sweeping on a submerged path, using axial flow turbine methods, are described.

  15. Captive care and welfare considerations for beavers.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Palmer, Róisín; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Beavers (Castor spp.) tend not to be a commonly held species and little published material exists relating to their captive care. We review published material and discuss husbandry issues taking into account the requirements of wild beavers. As social mammals with complex chemical communication systems and with such an ability to modify their environments, studies of wild counterparts suggest the captive requirements of beavers may actually be more sophisticated than generally perceived. Common field techniques may have practical application in the captive setting. Their widespread utilisation in conservation, including reintroductions, translocations and habitat management, also requires components of captive care. As welfare science advances there is increasing pressure on captive collections to improve standards and justify the keeping of animals. Conservation science is increasingly challenged to address individual welfare standards. Further research focusing on the captive care of beavers is required.

  16. Northeastern Exterior, Northwestern Exterior, & Southwestern Exterior Elevations, Northeastern Interior, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northeastern Exterior, Northwestern Exterior, & Southwestern Exterior Elevations, Northeastern Interior, Southeastern Interior, & Southwestern Interior Elevations, Floor Plan, and Eastern Corner Detail - Manatoc Reservation, Vale Edge Adirondack, 1075 Truxell Road, Peninsula, Summit County, OH

  17. Reproductive management of captive parrots.

    PubMed

    Millam, J R

    1999-01-01

    Studies of the behavior of Amazon parrots throughout a reproductive trial indicate that activities such as food gathering, which may occupy large fractions of the activity budget of wild parrots, occupy little time in captivity. This may be one factor contributing to the large percentage of time during which Amazon parrots are generally inactive in typical captive conditions. The extent of inactivity in captive Amazons creates an open time niche wherein enrichment devices might play a role in improving their well being. Studies of the reproductive endocrinology and the behavior of parrots suggest that hand rearing may impair adult fertility and nest box use. Hand rearing may also cause adult Cockatiels to lay eggs on cage floors rather than in nest boxes. However, the use of nest boxes with oversized nest entrances can be very effective in alleviating chronic floor laying in Cockatiels. Another egg-laying problem in Cockatiels, unwanted egg laying, can be prevented by the use of long-acting formulations of the superactive GnRH agonist, leuprolide acetate, which presumably [figure: see text] acts in birds, as in mammals, by down-regulating pituitary GnRH receptors. Manipulations to limit the increases in prolactin normally seen during incubation in poultry can significantly increase egg production. As clutch size in Cockatiels may also be limited by rising prolactin levels, such manipulations may be effective in stimulating egg production in parrots. An alternative approach for increasing flock egg production is to place foster eggs in nests of Cockatiel pairs that are slow to lay. This technique stimulates males to increase their nest-oriented behavior and, subsequently, may stimulate egg laying in some females that might not otherwise have laid eggs. The parental phases of reproduction in Amazon parrots are often a time of heightened aggressiveness towards humans, but low levels of serum testosterone in males during that time suggest that this particular

  18. Habitat and Grazing Influence on Terrestrial Ants in Subtropical Grasslands and Savannas of Argentina

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The maintenance of species diversity in modified and natural habitats is a central focus of conservation biology. The Iberá Nature Reserve (INR) protects highly diverse ecosystems in northeastern Argentina, including one of the largest freshwater wetlands in South America. Livestock grazing is one o...

  19. [Genotyping of Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii complex clinical isolates from Hospital "Dr. Julio C. Perrando", Resistencia city (Chaco, Argentina)].

    PubMed

    Cattana, Maria E; Tracogna, Maria F; Fernández, Mariana S; Carol Rey, Mariana C; Sosa, Maria A; Giusiano, Gustavo E

    2013-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection caused by yeast species of Cryptococcus genus, particularly Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii species complex. The knowledge of the cryptococcosis casuistic in northeastern Argentina is scarce and there is no information about the molecular types circulating in this area. The aim of this study was to genotyping C. neoformans/C. gattii complex clinical isolates obtained at Hospital "Dr. Julio C. Perrando", Resistencia city (Chaco, Argentina), in order to determine species, variety and molecular type. During two years and one month 26 clinical isolates were studied. Using conventional and molecular methods one isolate was identified as C. gattii VGI type, and 25 isolates as C. neoformans var. grubii; 23 of these belonged to VNI type and two belonged to VNII type. This data is a contribution to the knowledge of cryptococcosis epidemiology in Argentina and the first report about C. neoformans/ C. gattii complex molecular types from clinical isolates in northeastern Argentina.

  20. Molecular detection of the human pathogenic Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest in Amblyomma dubitatum ticks from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Monje, Lucas D; Nava, Santiago; Eberhardt, Ayelen T; Correa, Ana I; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Beldomenico, Pablo M

    2015-02-01

    To date, three tick-borne pathogenic Rickettsia species have been reported in different regions of Argentina, namely, R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, and R. massiliae. However, there are no reports available for the presence of tick-borne pathogens from the northeastern region of Argentina. This study evaluated the infection with Rickettsia species of Amblyomma dubitatum ticks collected from vegetation and feeding from capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in northeastern Argentina. From a total of 374 A. dubitatum ticks collected and evaluated by PCR for the presence of rickettsial DNA, 19 were positive for the presence of Rickettsia bellii DNA, two were positive for Rickettsia sp. strain COOPERI, and one was positive for the pathogenic Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest. To our knowledge, this study is the first report of the presence of the human pathogen Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest and Rickettsia sp. strain COOPERI in Argentina. Moreover, our findings posit A. dubitatum as a potential vector for this pathogenic strain of Rickettsia.

  1. Stereo Pair: Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-06-29

    This view of northern Patagonia, near El Cain, Argentina shows complexly eroded volcanic terrain, with basalt mesas, sinkholes, landslide debris, playas, and relatively few integrated drainage channels.

  2. 76 FR 43107 - Captive Nations Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... July 19, 2011 Part IV The President Proclamation 8692--Captive Nations Week, 2011 #0; #0; #0... Nations Week, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation There are times in the... other achievements that have shaped our world. During Captive Nations Week, we remember the men and...

  3. 77 FR 42941 - Captive Nations Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... July 20, 2012 Part VI The President Proclamation 8841--Captive Nations Week, 2012 Memorandum of July 11... President ] Proclamation 8841 of July 16, 2012 Captive Nations Week, 2012 By the President of the United... Week amidst an escalating Cold War, he affirmed that ``the citizens of the United States are linked by...

  4. 78 FR 44867 - Captive Nations Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... July 24, 2013 Part VI The President Proclamation 8998--Captive Nations Week, 2013 #0; #0; #0... Nations Week, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation As citizens of the... privileged few. Captive Nations Week is an opportunity to reaffirm America's role in advancing human rights...

  5. 75 FR 42279 - Captive Nations Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8541 of July 16, 2010 Captive Nations Week... and requested the President to issue a proclamation designating the third week of July of each year as ``Captive Nations Week.'' NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, do...

  6. 63 FR 72104 - Tuberculosis in Captive Cervids

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1998-12-31

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 77 and 91 RIN 0579-AA53 Tuberculosis in Captive... amending the regulations concerning tuberculosis and the interstate movement of animals by adding... have tested negative for tuberculosis within 90 days prior to export. Captive cervids have...

  7. Hepadnavirus Infection in Captive Gibbons

    PubMed Central

    Lanford, Robert E.; Chavez, Deborah; Rico-Hesse, Rebeca; Mootnick, Alan

    2000-01-01

    The recent isolation of a nonhuman primate hepadnavirus from woolly monkeys prompted an examination of other primates for potentially new hepadnaviruses. A serological analysis of 30 captive gibbons revealed that 47% were positive for at least one marker of ongoing or previous infection with a hepatitis B virus (HBV). The amino acid sequences of the core and surface genes of human and gibbon virus isolates were very similar. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the gibbon isolates lie within the human HBV family, indicating that these HBV isolates most likely stem from infection of gibbons from a human source. PMID:10684318

  8. Northeastern plateaus bioregion

    Treesearch

    Gregg M. Riegel; Richard F. Miller; Carl N. Skinner; Sydney E. Smith

    2006-01-01

    Northeastern California landscape is a mixture of vast arid basins and uplands, and forested mountain ranges interspersed with both fresh water and alkaline wetlands. The entire bioregion is significantly influenced by the rain shadow effect of the Cascade Range to the west. Three ecological unit subsections are treated in this chapter: (1) Modoc Plateau Section (M261G...

  9. Captive-breeding of captive and wild-reared Gunnison sage-grouse.

    PubMed

    Apa, Anthony D; Wiechman, Lief A

    2016-01-01

    Gunnison sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus) distribution in North America has decreased over historical accounts and has received federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. We investigated captive-breeding of a captive-flock of Gunnison sage-grouse created from individuals reared in captivity from wild-collected eggs we artificially incubated. We also introduced wild-reared individuals into captivity. Our captive-flock successfully bred and produced fertile eggs. We controlled the timing and duration of male-female breeding interactions and facilitated a semi-natural mating regime. Males established a strutting ground in captivity that females attended for mate selection. In 2010, we allowed females to establish eight nests, incubate, and hatch eggs. Females in captivity were more successful incubating nests than raising broods. Although there are many technical, financial, and logistic issues associated with captive-breeding, we recommend that federal biologists and managers work collaboratively with state wildlife agencies and consider developing a captive-flock as part of a comprehensive conservation strategy for a conservation-reliant species like the Gunnison sage-grouse. The progeny produced from a captive-rearing program could assist in the recovery if innovative approaches to translocation are part of a comprehensive proactive conservation program.

  10. Medical revolution in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ballarin, V L; Isoardi, R A

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses the major Argentineans contributors, medical physicists and scientists, in medical imaging and the development of medical imaging in Argentina. The following are presented: history of medical imaging in Argentina: the pioneers; medical imaging and medical revolution; nuclear medicine imaging; ultrasound imaging; and mathematics, physics, and electronics in medical image research: a multidisciplinary endeavor.

  11. Observations of captive Rocky Mountain mule deer behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Halford, D.K.; Arthur, W.J. III; Alldredge, A.W.

    1987-01-31

    Observations were made near Fort Collins, Colorado on the behavior of a captive herd of Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus). Comparisons in general behavior patterns were made between captive and wild deer. Similar behavior was exhibited by captive and wild deer. Captive deer (as well as other species) may be useful for study of certain behavioral aspects of their wild counterparts.

  12. Reproductive patterns in captive American kestrels (sparrow hawks)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, Ron; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    1972-01-01

    Female kestrels acquired in Florida in winter as full-grown birds began laying eggs a month later than did those acquired as nestlings from northeastern United States. Egg laying dates of the two groups did not overlap in 1966 through 1968. The later nesting Florida-wintering females may have nested in captivity at a latitude farther south of their normal breeding range than did those from the Northeast. There was an apparent trend of earlier laying in successive years between 1965 and 1968 in our captive birds.....Time intervals between pairing of previously unpaired kestrels and initiation of their first clutches ranged from 8 to 17 days; time intervals between removal of first-clutch eggs and initiation of second clutches for kestrels whose first clutches failed to hatch ranged frosm 11 to 16 days, with the exception of an apparent anomaly of 40 days. Some females laid second clutches prior to fledging of first-clutch young. The egg laying interval averaged 2.4 days, and appeared to be greater between the first two and last two eggs of the clutch than between intervening eggs. Egg sizes differed only slightly between age groups, and no statistical correlation was evident between weights of female kestrels and the size of their eggs.....Although both sexes incubated the eggs, the female assumed a much greater role than the male. Incubation of clutches of five eggs usually began with the laying of the fourth egg. The incubation period (last egg laid to last egg hatched) averaged 27 days. The average interval between hatching of the first and last eggs of clutches containing five eggs was two days.....The average nestling period for the first young hatched in 29 nests was 28.4 days. An exact 1:l secondary sex ratio was recorded in 1967 for complete clutches in which all young fledged.

  13. Genetic analysis of captive proboscis monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Mitsuaki; Seino, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Information on the genetic relationships of captive founders is important for captive population management. In this study, we investigated DNA polymorphisms of four microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial control region sequence of five proboscis monkeys residing in a Japanese zoo as captive founders, to clarify their genetic relationship. We found that two of the five monkeys appeared to be genetically related. Furthermore, the haplotypes of the mitochondrial control region of the five monkeys were well differentiated from the haplotypes previously reported from wild populations from the northern area of Borneo, indicating a greater amount of genetic diversity in proboscis monkeys than previously reported.

  14. Propagation of barn owls in captivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maestrelli, J.R.

    1973-01-01

    Some aspects of the biology and life history of native birds often are more readily obtained in captivity than in the field. This is particularly true in evaluating the effects of pesticides or other pollutants on birds, because establishing cause-and-effect relationships requires experimental studies. Few wild species have been bred in captivity with sufficient success to permit the large-scale studies that are needed. This paper reports successful efforts to breed Barn Owls (Tyto alba prolinicola) in captivity and presents biological data concerning reproduction.

  15. Parasitism in captive and reintroduced red wolves.

    PubMed

    Phillips, M K; Scheck, J

    1991-07-01

    Fecal examinations revealed that at least 10 of 21 (48%) captive red wolves (Canis rufus) and eight of 12 (67%) free-ranging red wolves were infected with intestinal parasites. No captive wolves and only one of seven reintroduced wolves had dirofilariasis. Ticks were collected from 10 of 21 (48%) captive wolves and nine of 12 (75%) free-ranging animals. Ivermectin administered at a dosage of 50 micrograms/kg of estimated body weight every 30 to 60 days apparently prevented or ameliorated parasitism in red wolves.

  16. Pox infection among captive peacocks.

    PubMed

    Al Falluji, M M; Tantawi, H H; Al-Bana, A; Al-Sheikhly, S

    1979-10-01

    An outbreak of avian pox was detected among captive peacocks (Pavo cristatus) at Baghdad Zoological Park during spring, 1978. A total of 45 of the 60 birds in the aviary developed pox lesions around the beaks and eyes. Morbidity was 75% and mortality was 13%. A virus isolated from the skin lesions produced large plaques on the chorioallantoic membrane of developing chicken embryos and induced cytopathic effect characteristic for pox viruses in chicken embryo cell cultures. The virus neither haemagglutinated nor haemadsorbed to chicken erythrocytes. It was ether resistant and chloroform sensitive. Chickens inoculated with the virus by scarification developed localized pox-like lesions, while turkeys had only transient swelling of feather follicles at the site of inoculation. Virus partially purified with Genetron 113 was precipitated by antisera to fowlpox and pigeon pox viruses.

  17. CCP: Sierra Nevada Captive-Carry Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) Space System's Dream Chaser design passed one of its most complex tests to date with a successful captive-carry test conducted near the Rocky Mountain Metropolitan A...

  18. Genetic adaptation to captivity in species conservation programs.

    PubMed

    Frankham, Richard

    2008-01-01

    As wild environments are often inhospitable, many species have to be captive-bred to save them from extinction. In captivity, species adapt genetically to the captive environment and these genetic adaptations are overwhelmingly deleterious when populations are returned to wild environments. I review empirical evidence on (i) the genetic basis of adaptive changes in captivity, (ii) factors affecting the extent of genetic adaptation to captivity, and (iii) means for minimizing its deleterious impacts. Genetic adaptation to captivity is primarily due to rare alleles that in the wild were deleterious and partially recessive. The extent of adaptation to captivity depends upon selection intensity, genetic diversity, effective population size and number of generation in captivity, as predicted by quantitative genetic theory. Minimizing generations in captivity provides a highly effective means for minimizing genetic adaptation to captivity, but is not a practical option for most animal species. Population fragmentation and crossing replicate captive populations provide practical means for minimizing the deleterious effects of genetic adaptation to captivity upon populations reintroduced into the wild. Surprisingly, equalization of family sizes reduces the rate of genetic adaptation, but not the deleterious impacts upon reintroduced populations. Genetic adaptation to captivity is expected to have major effects on reintroduction success for species that have spent many generations in captivity. This issue deserves a much higher priority than it is currently receiving.

  19. Stereo Pair, Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-06-22

    This view of northern Patagonia, at Los Menucos, Argentina shows remnants of relatively young volcanoes built upon an eroded plain of much older and contorted volcanic, granitic, and sedimentary rocks.

  20. Dengue reemergence in Argentina.

    PubMed Central

    Avilés, G.; Rangeón, G.; Vorndam, V.; Briones, A.; Baroni, P.; Enria, D.; Sabattini, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, eradicated from Argentina in 1963, has now reinfested the country as far south as Buenos Aires. In 1997, four persons with travel histories to Brazil, Ecuador, or Venezuela had confirmed dengue, and surveillance for indigenous transmission allowed the detection of 19 dengue cases in Salta Province. These cases of dengue are the first in Argentina since 1916 and represent a new southern extension of dengue virus. PMID:10460181

  1. Dengue reemergence in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Avilés, G; Rangeón, G; Vorndam, V; Briones, A; Baroni, P; Enria, D; Sabattini, M S

    1999-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, eradicated from Argentina in 1963, has now reinfested the country as far south as Buenos Aires. In 1997, four persons with travel histories to Brazil, Ecuador, or Venezuela had confirmed dengue, and surveillance for indigenous transmission allowed the detection of 19 dengue cases in Salta Province. These cases of dengue are the first in Argentina since 1916 and represent a new southern extension of dengue virus.

  2. Genetic diversity and conservation status of managed vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) populations in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Anello, M; Daverio, M S; Romero, S R; Rigalt, F; Silbestro, M B; Vidal-Rioja, L; Di Rocco, F

    2016-02-01

    The vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) was indiscriminately hunted for more than 400 years and, by the end of 1960s, it was seriously endangered. At that time, a captive breeding program was initiated in Argentina by the National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA) with the aim of preserving the species. Nowadays, vicuñas are managed in captivity and in the wild to obtain their valuable fiber. The current genetic status of Argentinean vicuña populations is virtually unknown. Using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers, we assessed levels of genetic diversity of vicuña populations managed in the wild and compared it with a captive population from INTA. Furthermore, we examined levels of genetic structure and evidence for historical bottlenecks. Overall, all populations revealed high genetic variability with no signs of inbreeding. Levels of genetic diversity between captive and wild populations were not significantly different, although the captive population showed the lowest estimates of allelic richness, number of mitochondrial haplotypes, and haplotype diversity. Significant genetic differentiation at microsatellite markers was found between free-living populations from Jujuy and Catamarca provinces. Moreover, microsatellite data also revealed genetic structure within the Catamarca management area. Genetic signatures of past bottlenecks were detected in wild populations by the Garza Williamson test. Results from this study are discussed in relation to the conservation and management of the species.

  3. Propagation of captive American kestrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, Ron; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    1970-01-01

    A colony of kestrels (Palco sparverius) was established at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in 1964 in connection with work on pesticides. The kestrels were acquired from the wild, both as nestlings and as full-grown birds, and were housed in several rows of outdoor pens. Each 50 x 20 ft pen was covered with wire netting and had its long sides in common with adjacent pens. During the first two reproductive seasons, untreated parent birds (dosed birds are not included in this paper) ate eggs and young. Cannibalism virtually ceased after the diet was changed from ground beef or horsemeat supplemented with liver, vitamins, and minerals to one containing a finely ground mixture of laboratory rodents, chicken heads, skinned chicken necks, and supplements; hatching success thereafter generally equalled that of a wild population. In 1967, 16 pairs of untreated hawks (3-year-old females) laid clutches averaging 4.9 eggs, hatched 88 percent of their eggs, and fledged 88 percent of their young. In 1968, 10 pairs of this group (4-year-old females) laid clutches averaging 4.9 eggs, hatched 51 percent of their eggs, and fledged 85 percent of their young. Nine yearling pairs (hatched in captivity) laid clutches in 1968 averaging 5.1 eggs, hatched 87 percent of their eggs, and fledged all of their young.

  4. Captive Conditions of Pet Lemurs in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Kim E; Schaefer, Melissa S

    2016-01-01

    Live extraction of wildlife is a threat to biodiversity and can compromise animal welfare standards. Studies of the captive environments and welfare of pet primates are known, but none has focused on Madagascar. We aimed to expand knowledge about the captive conditions of pet lemurs in Madagascar. We hypothesized that captive lemurs would often be kept in restrictive settings, including small cages, would be fed foods inconsistent with their natural diets and, as a result, would be in bad physical or psychological health. Data were collected via a web-based survey (n = 253 reports) and from the websites and social media pages of 25 hotels. Most lemurs seen by respondents were either kept on a rope/leash/chain or in a cage (67%), though some lemurs were habituated and were not restrained (28%). Most of the time (72%) cages were considered small, and lemurs were rarely kept in captivity together with other lemurs (81% of lemurs were caged alone). Pet lemurs were often fed foods inconsistent with their natural diets, and most (53%) were described as being in bad health. These findings point to a need to undertake outreach to pet lemur owners in Madagascar about the captivity requirements of primates.

  5. First Shuttle/747 Captive Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Space Shuttle prototype Enterprise rides smoothly atop NASA's first Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA), NASA 905, during the first of the shuttle program's Approach and Landing Tests (ALT) at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in 1977. During the nearly one year-long series of tests, Enterprise was taken aloft on the SCA to study the aerodynamics of the mated vehicles and, in a series of five free flights, tested the glide and landing characteristics of the orbiter prototype. In this photo, the main engine area on the aft end of Enterprise is covered with a tail cone to reduce aerodynamic drag that affects the horizontal tail of the SCA, on which tip fins have been installed to increase stability when the aircraft carries an orbiter. The Space Shuttle Approach and Landings Tests (ALT) program allowed pilots and engineers to learn how the Space Shuttle and the modified Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) handled during low-speed flight and landing. The Enterprise, a prototype of the Space Shuttles, and the SCA were flown to conduct the approach and landing tests at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, from February to October 1977. The first flight of the program consisted of the Space Shuttle Enterprise attached to the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft. These flights were to determine how well the two vehicles flew together. Five 'captive-inactive' flights were flown during this first phase in which there was no crew in the Enterprise. The next series of captive flights was flown with a flight crew of two on board the prototype Space Shuttle. Only three such flights proved necessary. This led to the free-flight test series. The free-flight phase of the ALT program allowed pilots and engineers to learn how the Space Shuttle handled in low-speed flight and landing attitudes. For these landings, the Enterprise was flown by a crew of two after it was released from the top of the SCA. The vehicle was released at altitudes

  6. 22 CFR 192.42 - Applicable benefits for captives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applicable benefits for captives. 192.42 Section 192.42 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Educational Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.42 Applicable benefits for captives. (a) When authorized...

  7. 22 CFR 192.42 - Applicable benefits for captives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applicable benefits for captives. 192.42 Section 192.42 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Educational Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.42 Applicable benefits for captives. (a) When authorized...

  8. 22 CFR 192.42 - Applicable benefits for captives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applicable benefits for captives. 192.42 Section 192.42 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Educational Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.42 Applicable benefits for captives. (a) When authorized...

  9. 22 CFR 192.42 - Applicable benefits for captives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applicable benefits for captives. 192.42 Section 192.42 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Educational Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.42 Applicable benefits for captives. (a) When authorized...

  10. 22 CFR 192.42 - Applicable benefits for captives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicable benefits for captives. 192.42 Section 192.42 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Educational Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.42 Applicable benefits for captives. (a) When authorized...

  11. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection among Asian Elephants in Captivity

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Gary; Zimmerman, Ralph; Shashkina, Elena; Chen, Liang; Richard, Michael; Bradford, Carol M.; Dragoo, Gwen A.; Saiers, Rhonda L.; Peloquin, Charles A.; Daley, Charles L.; Planet, Paul; Narachenia, Apurva; Mathema, Barun

    2017-01-01

    Although awareness of tuberculosis among captive elephants is increasing, antituberculosis therapy for these animals is not standardized. We describe Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission between captive elephants based on whole genome analysis and report a successful combination treatment. Infection control protocols and careful monitoring of treatment of captive elephants with tuberculosis are warranted. PMID:28221115

  12. Genetic composition of captive panda population.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiandong; Shen, Fujun; Hou, Rong; Da, Yang

    2016-10-03

    A major function of the captive panda population is to preserve the genetic diversity of wild panda populations in their natural habitats. Understanding the genetic composition of the captive panda population in terms of genetic contributions from the wild panda populations provides necessary knowledge for breeding plans to preserve the genetic diversity of the wild panda populations. The genetic contributions from different wild populations to the captive panda population were highly unbalanced, with Qionglai accounting for 52.2 % of the captive panda gene pool, followed by Minshan with 21.5 %, Qinling with 10.6 %, Liangshan with 8.2 %, and Xiaoxiangling with 3.6 %, whereas Daxiangling, which had similar population size as Xiaoxiangling, had no genetic representation in the captive population. The current breeding recommendations may increase the contribution of some small wild populations at the expense of decreasing the contributions of other small wild populations, i.e., increasing the Xiaoxiangling contribution while decreasing the contribution of Liangshan, or sharply increasing the Qinling contribution while decreasing the contributions of Xiaoxiangling and Liangshan, which were two of the three smallest wild populations and were already severely under-represented in the captive population. We developed three habitat-controlled breeding plans that could increase the genetic contributions from the smallest wild populations to 6.7-11.2 % for Xiaoxiangling, 11.5-12.3 % for Liangshan and 12.9-20.0 % for Qinling among the offspring of one breeding season while reducing the risk of hidden inbreeding due to related founders from the same habitat undetectable by pedigree data. The three smallest wild panda populations of Daxiangling, Xiaoxiangling and Liangshan either had no representation or were severely unrepresented in the current captive panda population. By incorporating the breeding goal of increasing the genetic contributions from the smallest wild

  13. Asbestos banned in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Eduardo J

    2004-01-01

    In 1997, Argentina gave priority to asbestos in its National Plan for the Sound Management of Chemicals, and it was the subject of a Technical Task Force on Occupational Cancer. After five years of public hearings in which government, workers, industry advocates, environmentalists, clinicians, scientists, and consumers participated, it was agreed that asbestos exposure is a risk factor for both workers and the general population, and that Argentina should provide to its people the same protections adopted by many developed countries. Pressure from asbestos industry groups initially delayed the inclusion of chrysotile asbestos in the proposed ban, but on January 1, 2003, the mining and import of all forms of asbestos were banned in Argentina.

  14. Irrigation in northeastern Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lang, J.W.; Boswell, E.H.

    1957-01-01

    The phenomenal increase in the use of water for agriculture, industry, and public water supply in the past few years has been an important factor in bringing about the current accelerated inventory and appraisal of the water resources of Mississippi. As a result of severe droughts during the past several years, and of the favorable results of experiments, the water resources of northeastern Mississippi today are rapidly being developed for irrigation. Records have shown that even during years of normal rainfall the distribution of the rain usually is such that supplementary irrigation can be profitably practiced on almost any crop. Although in northeaster Mississippi the annual precipitation generally is enough to support crops and pasture, short periods of drought are common. Supplemental irrigation protects against the periods of drought during the growing season and increases the yield and quality of crops.

  15. Photovoltaic development in Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrin, E.M.; Duran, J.C.; Frigerio, A.; Moragues, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    A critical assessment of the photovoltaic program in Argentina is presented. Research and development activities on photovoltaic cells as well as industrial and technological development are still in the initial stages. Activities accomplished by the Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) and the Institute of Technology Development for the Chemical industry (INTEC) are briefly described. The evolution of photovoltaic installations in Argentina is analyzed and accumulative data up to 1993 are given. A summary of the potential market for photovoltaic systems in the short and medium term is presented.

  16. A Mycoplasma species of Emydidae turtles in the northeastern USA.

    PubMed

    Ossiboff, Robert J; Raphael, Bonnie L; Ammazzalorso, Alyssa D; Seimon, Tracie A; Niederriter, Holly; Zarate, Brian; Newton, Alisa L; McAloose, Denise

    2015-04-01

    Mycoplasma infections can cause significant morbidity and mortality in captive and wild chelonians. As part of a health assessment of endangered bog turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) in the northeastern US, choanal and cloacal swabs from these and other sympatric species, including spotted turtles (Clemmys guttata), eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina), wood turtles (Glyptemys insculpta), and common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from 10 sampling sites in the states (US) of Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, were tested by PCR for Mycoplasma. Of 108 turtles tested, 63 (58.3%) were PCR positive for Mycoplasma including 58 of 83 bog turtles (70%), three of three (100%) eastern box turtles, and two of 11 (18%) spotted turtles; all snapping turtles (n = 7) and wood turtles (n = 4) were negative. Sequence analysis of portions of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region and the 16S ribosomal RNA gene revealed a single, unclassified species of Mycoplasma that has been previously reported in eastern box turtles, ornate box turtles (Terrapene ornata ornata), western pond turtles (Emys marmorata), and red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans). We document a high incidence of Mycoplasma, in the absence of clinical disease, in wild emydid turtles. These findings, along with wide distribution of the identified Mycoplasma sp. across a broad geographic region, suggest this bacterium is likely a commensal inhabitant of bog turtles, and possibly other species of emydid turtles, in the northeastern US.

  17. Breeding red-winged blackbirds in captivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Know, C.J.; Stickley, A.R.

    1974-01-01

    Ability to establish and maintain self-sustaining breeding colonies of captive Red-winged Blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) would facilitate long-term studies designed to develop methods for alleviating blackbird depredations as well as provide basic life history data. To be most useful, the colonies should be established in pens near laboratory facilities; this frequently involves putting colonies in unnatural nesting habitat. This paper describes a 5-year effort at Gainesville, Florida, to induce captive Red-wings, most of them taken from the wild as nestlings and then hand-reared in our laboratory, to breed regularly under such conditions. Except for an undocumented report of two young fully reared at the London Zoo in 1913 (Prestwick per. comm.), captive Red-wings have not been induced to breed successfully under avicultural conditions. In 1969, captive Red-wings, wild-trapped as adults, were induced to breed and to rear young successfully in large pens over normal marsh and hayfield nesting habitat in Ohio (Jackson pers. comm.). Earlier, a pair of Red-wings that had been caught as adults and kept together for a year hatched two young in a 40- X 20- X 6-foot cage in Massachusetts (Wetherbee 1960, Wilson Bull. 74: 90), but the nestlings died soon after hatching.

  18. 64 FR 3340 - Tuberculosis in Captive Cervids

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 64, No. 13 / Thursday, January 21, 1999 / Corrections#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 50, 77 and 91 RIN 0579-AA53 Tuberculosis in Captive...

  19. Flight restraint techniques for captive cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Dein, F.J.; Harris, James

    1991-01-01

    Traditional techniques for preventing escape of captive cranes (i.e., tenotomy, tenectomy, wing clipping, confinement under nets, and amputation) are discussed briefly. Two additional techniques (i.e., brailing and vane trimming) are described in detail. The advantages and limitations of each technique are presented.

  20. 9 CFR 91.7 - Captive cervids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Captive cervids. 91.7 Section 91.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND HANDLING...

  1. 9 CFR 91.7 - Captive cervids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Captive cervids. 91.7 Section 91.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND HANDLING...

  2. 9 CFR 91.7 - Captive cervids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Captive cervids. 91.7 Section 91.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND HANDLING...

  3. 9 CFR 91.7 - Captive cervids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Captive cervids. 91.7 Section 91.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND HANDLING OF...

  4. 9 CFR 91.7 - Captive cervids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Captive cervids. 91.7 Section 91.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND HANDLING...

  5. Review of the Eulimnadia (Branchiopoda: Spinicaudata: Limnadiidae) from Argentina with the description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Marinone, María Cristina; Urcola, Juan Ignacio; Rabet, Nicolas

    2016-08-30

    A new spinicaudatan species, Eulimnadia pampa sp. nov., is described from Argentina mostly based on the differential egg morphology. This species was collected from rainwater pools from Buenos Aires City and the provinces of Buenos Aires and Entre Ríos, and compared to other Neotropical species. Previous Argentine record of E. brasiliensis is shown to belong to our new species, which represents the southernmost Neotropical Eulimnadia. We also present new records of the Paraguayan Eulimnadia ovisimilis Martin and Belk, 1989 from northeastern Argentina. Eulimnadia santiaguensis is treated as a species inquirenda, thus we recognize only three Eulimnadia species in Argentina: E. pampa sp. nov., E. ovilunata and E. ovisimilis, and we provide a brief indentification key. We present the first description and SEM images of the putative Eulimnadia spermatophore, which we found in the new species.

  6. Rickettsia parkeri in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Nava, Santiago; Elshenawy, Yasmin; Eremeeva, Marina E.; Sumner, John W.; Mastropaolo, Mariano

    2008-01-01

    Clinical reports of an eschar-associated rickettsiosis in the Paraná River Delta of Argentina prompted an evaluation of Amblyomma triste ticks in this region. When evaluated by PCR, 17 (7.6%) of 223 questing adult A. triste ticks, collected from 2 sites in the lower Paraná River Delta, contained DNA of Rickettsia parkeri. PMID:19046514

  7. English Teaching in Argentina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arazi, Blanca

    2002-01-01

    Examines the teaching of English in Argentina, a country that has had a myriad of English language teaching activities at all levels for many decades--mostly in British English. Looks at English in binational centers, in schools, and at the university level; methodological approach; language assessment; teacher training; and the current economic…

  8. Career Development in Argentina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aisenson, Diana B.; de Faletty, Raquel Migone; de Del Compare, Mercedes Garcia

    In Argentina, vocational guidance is used to identify psychological and educational resources to help people through transitions and changes, and to develop training, job-related projects, and strategies useful to acquire new competencies. Though public policies favoring the development of an integrated national counseling system do not exist,…

  9. A lab in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-06-01

    Mauricio Erben, a researcher at the National University of La Plata and the National Scientific and Technical Research Council, talks to Nature Chemistry about his experience of research in Argentina, and how it is inherently linked to the country's political climate.

  10. Mathematics Education in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varsavsky, Cristina; Anaya, Marta

    2009-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the state of mathematics education in Argentina across all levels, in the regional and world contexts. Statistics are drawn from Mercosur and UNESCO data bases, World Education Indicators and various national time-series government reports. Mathematics results in national testing programmes, Programme for…

  11. Tidal power in Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Aisiks, E.G.

    1993-03-01

    This presentation describes the tidal power potential of Argentina and the current status of its utilization. The topics of the presentation include tidal power potential, electric production of the region and the Argentine share of production and consumption, conventional hydroelectric potential, economic feasibility of tidal power production, and the general design and feasibility of a tidal power plant planned for the San Jose Gulf.

  12. Mathematics Education in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varsavsky, Cristina; Anaya, Marta

    2009-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the state of mathematics education in Argentina across all levels, in the regional and world contexts. Statistics are drawn from Mercosur and UNESCO data bases, World Education Indicators and various national time-series government reports. Mathematics results in national testing programmes, Programme for…

  13. Neotectonics in northeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezerra, Francisco Hilario Rego

    The thesis describes neotectonic deformation in the continental intraplate region of northeastern Brazil and explores its links with modern seismicity. The region, which is under E-W-oriented compression and N-S-oriented extension, shows shallow earthquake swarms which last for several years and include 5.0-5.2 mb events. Remote sensing, borehole and geophysical data, in conjunction with field structural information, indicate a continuous faulting process since the Miocene which has reactivated Cretaceous faults and Precambrian shear zones or in places generated new faults which cut across existing structures. Three main sets of faults are recognised across the area: a NE-striking set, a NW-striking set and a N-striking set. The first and the second sets are pervasive and their cross-cutting relationships show that they locally form a conjugate set and display both a strike-slip and a dip-slip component of movement. They have generated troughs filled by as much as 260 m of Cainozoic sediments. Radiocarbon dating shows that some of the faults slipped as recently as 4,041-3,689 cal. yr BP. Although the elevation of coastal deposits is consistent with the predictions of glacioisostatic models for the area, tectonic influence can be detected notably near the Carnaubais fault, where rapid emergence by at least 5 m to the east of Sao Bento occurred 4,080-2,780 cal. yr BP. Secondary ground failure, which includes hydroplastic deformation, liquefaction and landslides, can be seen in Quaternary alluvial sediments and is reported in the historical record. The present data show that the potential for large earthquakes in northeastern Brazil has been underestimated. Empirical relationships using liquefaction and surface rupture point to events of at least Ms=6.8 compared to a maximum mb = 5.2 recorded instrumentally. The finding that NE- and NW-trending faults are favourably orientated for reactivation in relation to the current stress field is of potential value for seismic

  14. Geology of northeastern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collier, Arthur J.

    1919-01-01

    A large region in northeastern Montana has never been thoroughly explored by geologists, owing to the fact that it is a part of the Great Plains and the belief that it is too monotonous and uninteresting to tempt anyone to turn aside from the pronounced geologic features a little farther west, for which Montana is noted. This region includes parts of Sheridan, Valley, Phillips, and Blaine counties. Its investigation was begun by Smith in 1908, when he made a geologic survey of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation. Beekly explored a strip of land along the Montana-North Dakota line from Missouri River to the international boundary, and Bauer examined the townships in which Plentywood and Scobey are situated. Their results are here included with those of the writer, who during the field seasons of 1915 and 1916 was engaged in an investigation of the lignite resources of the remainder of this region, which extends from a line within 12 miles of the Montana-North Dakota boundary westward about 200 miles.

  15. The influence of diet composition on egg and chick traits in captive Greater Rhea females.

    PubMed

    Lábaque, M C; Martella, M B; Maestri, D M; Navarro, J L

    2013-06-01

    1. This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of diet composition on egg number, physical and chemical characteristics of eggs and weight and survival of chicks throughout a breeding season in a captive-bred population of greater rheas (Rhea americana). 2. From August to December, individuals were offered two diets: processed feed for rheas and processed feed for chicken (which is the feed most commonly offered to farmed rheas in Argentina). Reproductive performance of 15 females was monitored and female body weight was recorded before egg-laying onset. Within each experimental group, the following variables were determined: egg morphometric variables and percentage of components, fatty acid composition, hatching success and initial weight of chicks and mortality during the first week of life. 3. Females that were fed on processed feed for rheas delayed onset of laying and reduced laying period and number of eggs produced. However, females of this group laid larger eggs, with higher percentages of yolk and yolk lipids, and exhibited higher hatching success and chick weight compared with those that received chicken diet. Survivorship of chicks in their first week of life was not affected by composition of the diet offered to parental female. 4. Some reproductive parameters of captive greater rhea females fed on processed feed for rheas were higher than those of individuals receiving processed feed for chicken.

  16. Serologic survey of brucellosis in captive neotropical wild carnivores in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Filho, Edmilson F; Pinheiro, José W Junior; Souza, Marcília M A; Santana, Vânia L A; Silva, Jean C R; Mota, Rinaldo A; Sá, Fabricio B

    2012-06-01

    Abstract. This study reports the detection of antibodies against Brucella abortus and B. canis in wild neotropical carnivores kept in captivity in three zoos in northeastern Brazil. A total of 42 serum samples were examined, 17 from coatis (Nasua nasua), eight from crab-eating raccoons (Procyon cancrivorus), three from crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), three from hoary foxes (Lycalopex vetulus), two from little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus), five from tayras (Eira barbara), two from greater grisons (Galictis vittata), and two from neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis). The Rose-Bengal test and complement fixation test (CFT) were performed to detect anti-Brucella spp. antibodies, whereas the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) was employed to detect anti-B. canis antibodies. The overall seroprevalence varied by species and by test; in addition, CFT and AGID seemed better able to detect antibodies against B. abortus and B. canis, respectively. This is the first study on the presence of anti-Brucella spp. antibodies in captive carnivores from Brazil, as well as the first report of antibodies to Brucella spp. in coatis, crab-eating raccoons, hoary foxes, little spotted cats, tayras, and greater grisons.

  17. First report of Lymnaea columella Say, 1817 (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae) naturally infected with Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus,1758) (Trematoda: Digenea) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Prepelitchi, Lucila; Kleiman, Florencia; Pietrokovsky, Silvia M; Moriena, Ricardo A; Racioppi, Oscar; Alvarez, José; Wisnivesky-Colli, Cristina

    2003-10-01

    We report the first evidence of natural infection of Lymnaea columella with Fasciola hepatica in Argentina. A sample of 601 snails was collected in May 2003 in northeastern Corrientes, a province bounded on the north by Paraguay, on the east by Brazil and on the southeast by Uruguay. Among 500 examined snails, 44 (8.8%) were exclusively infected with F. hepatica. Parasite identification was based on morphological features of cercariae from snails, and of eggs and adult flukes from Wistar rats. We discuss the events suggesting that an enzootic transmission cycle of F. hepatica has been recently established in northeastern Corrientes.

  18. MISR Images Northeastern Botswana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    MISR images of the Ntwetwe and Sua Pans in northeastern Botswana, acquired on August 18, 2000 (Terra orbit 3553). The left image is a color view from the vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. On the right is a composite of red band imagery in which the 45-degree aft camera data are displayed in blue, 45-degree forward as green, and vertical as red. This combination causes wet areas to appear blue because of the glint-like reflection from water and damp surfaces. Clouds are visible in the upper left corner and right center of each image. The clouds look peculiar in the multi-angle view because geometric parallax resulting from their elevation above the surface causes a misregistration of the individual images making up the composite. This stereoscopic effect provides a way of distinguishing clouds from bright surfaces.

    The images are approximately 250 kilometers across. Ntwetwe and Sua pans are closed interior basins that catch rainwater and surface runoff during the wet season. Seasonal lakes form that may reach several meters in depth. During the dry season the collected waters rapidly evaporate leaving behind dissolved salts that coat the surface and turn it bright ('sua' means salt). The mining town of Sowa is located where the Sua Spit (a finger of grassland extending into the pan) attaches to the shore. Sowa represents headquarters for a JPL contingent carrying out MISR field experiments using the evaporite surface and the grasslands as targets and for Botswana scientists studying migration of groundwaters beneath the pans and surrounding areas. These efforts support the Southern Africa Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI-2000), which is now underway.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

    For more information: http://www-misr.jpl.nasa.gov

  19. Rickettsia parkeri Rickettsiosis, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Romer, Yamila; Seijo, Alfredo C; Crudo, Favio; Nicholson, William L; Varela-Stokes, Andrea; Lash, R Ryan; Paddock, Christopher D

    2011-07-01

    Rickettsia parkeri, a recently identified cause of spotted fever rickettsiosis in the United States, has been found in Amblyomma triste ticks in several countries of South America, including Argentina, where it is believed to cause disease in humans. We describe the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of 2 patients in Argentina with confirmed R. parkeri infection and 7 additional patients with suspected R. parkeri rickettsiosis identified at 1 hospital during 2004-2009. The frequency and character of clinical signs and symptoms among these 9 patients closely resembled those described for patients in the United States (presence of an inoculation eschar, maculopapular rash often associated with pustules or vesicles, infrequent gastrointestinal manifestations, and relatively benign clinical course). Many R. parkeri infections in South America are likely to be misdiagnosed as other infectious diseases, including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, dengue, or leptospirosis.

  20. Rickettsia parkeri Rickettsiosis, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Seijo, Alfredo C.; Crudo, Favio; Nicholson, William L.; Varela-Stokes, Andrea; Lash, R. Ryan; Paddock, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    Rickettsia parkeri, a recently identified cause of spotted fever rickettsiosis in the United States, has been found in Amblyomma triste ticks in several countries of South America, including Argentina, where it is believed to cause disease in humans. We describe the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of 2 patients in Argentina with confirmed R. parkeri infection and 7 additional patients with suspected R. parkeri rickettsiosis identified at 1 hospital during 2004–2009. The frequency and character of clinical signs and symptoms among these 9 patients closely resembled those described for patients in the United States (presence of an inoculation eschar, maculopapular rash often associated with pustules or vesicles, infrequent gastrointestinal manifestations, and relatively benign clinical course). Many R. parkeri infections in South America are likely to be misdiagnosed as other infectious diseases, including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, dengue, or leptospirosis. PMID:21762568

  1. Argentina: OGJ special

    SciTech Connect

    Aalund, L.R.

    1995-02-13

    The deregulation and privatization of major Argentine industries has set off a boom in the oil industry, which is now open from exploration and production through basic petrochemicals and beyond, to anyone from anywhere. The quest for greater efficiency and application of advanced technology is now the order of the day. The author reports that Argentina is like a new world compared to the country he visited during assignments there in 1987 and 1991. What hasn't changed, his following articles show, is that YPF, the former state company, is still the dominant player though it has sold off billions in assets. The three articles in this special report are: privatization of state company catalyzes Argentina oil industry; YPF refineries aiming for world class operations; and YPF launches diverse attack in pursuit of production. An additional brief report is given on YPF executives.

  2. Asymptomatic Enterocytozoon bieneusi microsporidiosis in captive mammals.

    PubMed

    Slodkowicz-Kowalska, Anna; Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Tamang, Leena; Girouard, Autumn S; Majewska, Anna C

    2007-02-01

    Human microsporidiosis, a serious disease of immunocompetent and immunosuppressed people, can be due to zoonotic transmission of microsporidian spores. A survey utilizing chromotrope 2R stain and fluorescent in situ hybridization techniques for testing feces from 193 captive mammals demonstrated that 3 animals (1.6%) shed Encephalitozoon bieneusi spores. These include two critically endangered species (i.e., black lemurs, Eulemur macaco flavifrons; and Visayan warty pig, Sus cebifrons negrinus) and a threatened species (mongoose lemur, Eulemur mongoz). The concentration of spores varied from 2.7 x 10(5) to 5.7 x 10(5)/g of feces, and all infections were asymptomatic. The study demonstrates that E. bieneusi spores can originate from captive animals, which is of particular epidemiologic importance because the close containment of zoological gardens can facilitate pathogen spread to other animals and also to people such as zoo personnel and visitors.

  3. Argentina: A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-17

    Forundizi stayed in office until March 29, 1962. Skillfully, Frondizi managed partially to revive the economy and set the country on the road toward... Frondizi could not win the support of all sections of the population for a concentrated effort of austerity to save Argentina’s economy from the chaos it...make sacrifices. Frondizi came to grief when the reinstated Peronist Party won control of several provinces and increased its membership in congress in

  4. Argentina wheat yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    Five models based on multiple regression were developed to estimate wheat yields for the five wheat growing provinces of Argentina. Meteorological data sets were obtained for each province by averaging data for stations within each province. Predictor variables for the models were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. Buenos Aires was the only province for which a trend variable was included because of increasing trend in yield due to technology from 1950 to 1963.

  5. Argentina soybean yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate soybean yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the soybean growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation and monthly average temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1969 to 1978 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

  6. Argentina corn yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate corn yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the corn-growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1965 to 1980 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

  7. Oral myiasis in a captive hippopotamus.

    PubMed

    Rossi Júnior, João Luiz; Guião-Leite, Flaviana L; Gioso, Marco Antonio; Falqueiro, Léslie M Domingues; Fecchio, Roberto Silveira

    2009-01-01

    Causes of dental infections can be related to failed dental eruption, malocclusion, abrasion, fractures with or without exposure of the dental pulp, and periodontal disease. Reports of oral myiasis in megavertebrates in captivity are infrequent, perhaps due to the difficulty in observing the oral cavity in such species. This report describes a case of oral myiasis in an adult male hippopotamus in the gingival area and alveolar mucosa of the left mandibular canine tooth.

  8. Iatrogenic salt poisoning in captive sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L.; Fleming, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Salt poisoning developed in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) when sea salt was added to normal drinking water to produce a sodium chloride concentration of 1%. Two of 18 cranes died and 2 were euthanatized when moribund. Muscle weakness, paresis, dyspnea, and depression were observed. Brain and serum sodium, serum uric acid,:and plasma osmolality values were abnormally high. Lesions were those of visceral gout, renal tubular necrosis, nephrosis, and skeletal muscle.necrosis.

  9. A Snapshot of the Northeastern Forests

    Treesearch

    USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Area

    2005-01-01

    This publication offers an overview of the northeastern forests and some of the major challenges and opportunities for sustaining them, as identified by the Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry and the Northeastern Area Association of State Foresters. Our goal is to raise awareness of the condition of the forests as a starting point for landowner discussions...

  10. Glomerulosclerosis in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Bolton, L A; Munson, L

    1999-01-01

    The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is an endangered species with low fecundity and premature death in captivity. A previous survey determined that renal failure as a result of glomerulosclerosis was a major cause of death in captive populations. This study characterizes the morphologic, histochemical, and epidemiologic properties of glomerulosclerosis in this population. Kidneys from 87 cheetahs were examined by light microscopy; kidneys from six of those cheetahs were examined by electron and fluorescent microscopy using special stains specific for collagen, glycoproteins, reticulin, and fibrin. Immunohistochemistry for the advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs), pyrraline and pentosidine, also was performed on these cases. Glomerulosclerosis was present to some degree in 82% of the population, and in 30% of cheetahs the sclerosis was moderate to severe. Affected cheetah kidneys had thickened glomerular and tubular basement membranes, culminating in glomerulosclerosis. Thickened basement membranes were positive for collagen, glycoproteins, reticulin, and AGEs. Ultrastructurally, membrane material was homogeneous and fibrillar without electron-dense deposits. This glomerular lesion in cheetahs resembles diabetic glomerulopathy in humans and chronic progressive nephropathy in rats. No cheetahs had lesions of diabetes. However, adrenal cortical hyperplasia was prevalent and highly correlated with glomerulosclerosis in this population. If cheetahs with glomerulosclerosis had hypercorticoidism, then hyperglycemia and glomerular hypertension could lead to progressive AGE and plasma protein accumulations in membrane lesions. As in rats, daily feeding of high-protein diets and lack of genetic variation in the population may further contribute to the high prevalence of glomerulosclerosis in captive cheetahs.

  11. Determinants for the diet of captive agoutis (Dasyprocta spp.).

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Deborah A

    2009-05-01

    A critical factor affecting the dietary requirements of captive Dasyprocta species is their previous classification as a frugivore when there is evidence that supports classification as an omnivore. Other factors relevant to feeding captive Dasyprocta include the gastrointestinal tract anatomy, endogenous ascorbic acid, scatter-hoarding behavior, metabolic rate, apparent dietary requirements, life stage nutrition, diabetes, and dental caries and pathology. This article presents information currently available in the literature relevant to the dietary needs of captive Dasyprocta species.

  12. Haze in northeastern China

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Chinese authorities shut down much of Harbin – a city of more than 10 million people – as unusually high levels of pollution shrouded the city and the surrounding region in mid-October, 2013. Measurements taken on October 20, 2013 scored the air quality index in the city at 500, the highest possible reading. Levels above 300 are considered hazardous to human health. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite acquired this true-color image of northeastern China on October 21. The brightest areas are fog, which is tinged with gray or yellow due to the air pollution. Other cloud-free areas have a pall of gray and brown smog that blots out the city and surrounding towns. Harbin lies under the Y-shaped patch of fog and smog in the south-central section of the image, completely obscured from view. Some neighborhoods experienced concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) as high as 1,000 micrograms per cubic meter. For comparison the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s air quality standards state that PM 2.5 should remain below 35 micrograms per cubic meter. It is extremely rare for particulate levels to reach such high levels in the absence of a dust storm or forest fire. Chinese authorities grounded airplanes, shuttered thousands of schools and closed major roads in response to the surge in pollution. A few days after pollution levels started to rise, Harbin hospitals reported a 30 percent increase in admissions related to respiratory problems, and several Harbin pharmacies were sold out of pollution facemasks, according to media reports. Cold weather and lack of wind helped fuel the pollution outbreak, but human factors also played an important role. Wheat and corn farmers in the region light fires in the fall to burn off debris following the harvest. Also, city officials turned on Harbin’s city-wide, coal-powered heating system just prior to the pollution outbreak, according to China’s state-run Xinhua

  13. Northeastern Summer Electricity Market Alert

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    The National Weather Service declared an excessive-heat warning for much of the Mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States, including major electric markets covering Philadelphia, Boston, Washington, D.C., and New York City. This report highlights the wholesale electricity market activity occurring in response to the higher-than-normal electricity demand caused by the heat wave.

  14. Children's Literature from Northeastern Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Maurine V.; And Others

    This paper presents an overview of three countries, China, Japan, and Korea, in the northeastern Asia region and provides a bibliography of children's literature from the area in the appendix. The document advocates that the global interdependence of societies necessitates an understanding of the cultures with which people must interrelate.…

  15. Genetic adaptation to captivity can occur in a single generation

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Mark R.; Marine, Melanie L.; French, Rod A.; Blouin, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Captive breeding programs are widely used for the conservation and restoration of threatened and endangered species. Nevertheless, captive-born individuals frequently have reduced fitness when reintroduced into the wild. The mechanism for these fitness declines has remained elusive, but hypotheses include environmental effects of captive rearing, inbreeding among close relatives, relaxed natural selection, and unintentional domestication selection (adaptation to captivity). We used a multigenerational pedigree analysis to demonstrate that domestication selection can explain the precipitous decline in fitness observed in hatchery steelhead released into the Hood River in Oregon. After returning from the ocean, wild-born and first-generation hatchery fish were used as broodstock in the hatchery, and their offspring were released into the wild as smolts. First-generation hatchery fish had nearly double the lifetime reproductive success (measured as the number of returning adult offspring) when spawned in captivity compared with wild fish spawned under identical conditions, which is a clear demonstration of adaptation to captivity. We also documented a tradeoff among the wild-born broodstock: Those with the greatest fitness in a captive environment produced offspring that performed the worst in the wild. Specifically, captive-born individuals with five (the median) or more returning siblings (i.e., offspring of successful broodstock) averaged 0.62 returning offspring in the wild, whereas captive-born individuals with less than five siblings averaged 2.05 returning offspring in the wild. These results demonstrate that a single generation in captivity can result in a substantial response to selection on traits that are beneficial in captivity but severely maladaptive in the wild. PMID:22184236

  16. Genetic adaptation to captivity can occur in a single generation.

    PubMed

    Christie, Mark R; Marine, Melanie L; French, Rod A; Blouin, Michael S

    2012-01-03

    Captive breeding programs are widely used for the conservation and restoration of threatened and endangered species. Nevertheless, captive-born individuals frequently have reduced fitness when reintroduced into the wild. The mechanism for these fitness declines has remained elusive, but hypotheses include environmental effects of captive rearing, inbreeding among close relatives, relaxed natural selection, and unintentional domestication selection (adaptation to captivity). We used a multigenerational pedigree analysis to demonstrate that domestication selection can explain the precipitous decline in fitness observed in hatchery steelhead released into the Hood River in Oregon. After returning from the ocean, wild-born and first-generation hatchery fish were used as broodstock in the hatchery, and their offspring were released into the wild as smolts. First-generation hatchery fish had nearly double the lifetime reproductive success (measured as the number of returning adult offspring) when spawned in captivity compared with wild fish spawned under identical conditions, which is a clear demonstration of adaptation to captivity. We also documented a tradeoff among the wild-born broodstock: Those with the greatest fitness in a captive environment produced offspring that performed the worst in the wild. Specifically, captive-born individuals with five (the median) or more returning siblings (i.e., offspring of successful broodstock) averaged 0.62 returning offspring in the wild, whereas captive-born individuals with less than five siblings averaged 2.05 returning offspring in the wild. These results demonstrate that a single generation in captivity can result in a substantial response to selection on traits that are beneficial in captivity but severely maladaptive in the wild.

  17. Salmonella enteritidis in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Caffer, M I; Eiguer, T

    1994-01-01

    A significant increase in the number of isolations of Salmonella enteritidis has been observed in Argentina since 1986. Outbreaks of foodborne diseases in humans were associated with the consumption of raw or undercooked hens' eggs. Between 1986 and the first 6 months of 1993 there were 150 outbreaks reported, affecting more than 6000 persons. A total of 71.3% of these outbreaks were confirmed by stool cultures, and 47.3% by bacteriological study of the food implicated in the outbreak. A permanent surveillance of salmonellosis is imperative, taking into account the persistence of Salmonella enteritidis isolations in sporadic cases and in new outbreaks.

  18. The Captivity Narrative as Propaganda in the Black Hawk War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Darlene E.

    1987-01-01

    Shows how captivity stories acted as propaganda against the American Indians in the nineteenth century. Gives excerpts from a captivity narrative portraying Indians in a negative way and demonstrates its use as propaganda during the time of the Black Hawk War. (AEM)

  19. Stress Hormones and Their Regulation in a Captive Dolphin Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Stress Hormones and Their Regulation in a Captive Dolphin ...understanding of how the stress response operates in marine mammals by evaluating markers of stress in a captive dolphin population. This research effort will...determine baseline levels of putative stress hormones and evaluate the functional consequences of increased stress in the bottlenose dolphin

  20. Understanding Captive-Takers Motivations, Methods and Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larned, Jean Garner

    2011-01-01

    Understanding Captive-Takers Motivations, Methods and Targets is the ultimate goal in order to help those who train, manage and prevent hostage taking events which include police officers, negotiators, recovery personnel, academics and psychologists. The overall lack of literature relating to the topic of captive-taker motivations is another…

  1. Captive Ancestry Upwardly Biases Estimates of Relative Reproductive Success.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Janna R; Christie, Mark R

    2017-07-01

    Supplementation programs, which release captive-born individuals into the wild, are commonly used to demographically bolster declining populations. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs, the reproductive success of captive-born individuals released into the wild is often compared to the reproductive success of wild-born individuals in the recipient population (relative reproductive success, RRS). However, if there are heritable reductions in fitness associated with captive breeding, gene flow from captive-born individuals into the wild population can reduce the fitness of the wild population. Here, we show that when captive ancestry in the wild population reduces mean population fitness, estimates of RRS are upwardly biased, meaning that the relative fitness of captive-born individuals is over-estimated. Furthermore, the magnitude of this bias increases with the length of time that a supplementation program has been releasing captive-born individuals. This phenomenon has long-term conservation impacts since management decisions regarding the design of a supplementation program and the number of individuals to release can be based, at least in part, on RRS estimates. Therefore, we urge caution in the interpretation of relative fitness measures when the captive ancestry of the wild population cannot be precisely measured. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Biochemical responses to fibropapilloma and captivity in the green turtle.

    PubMed

    Swimmer, J Y

    2000-01-01

    Blood biochemical parameters were compared for green turtles (Chelonia mydas) with and without green turtle fibropapillomatosis (GTFP) from both captive and wild populations in Hawaii (USA) and from a captive population from California (USA), during the period between 1994 and 1996. Statistical analysis did not detect an influence of disease in any of the blood parameters for free-ranging turtles; however, captive turtles in Hawaii with GTFP had significantly higher levels of alkaline phosphatase and significantly lower levels of lactate compared to non-tumored captive turtles. Multivariate analysis found that biochemical profiles could be used to accurately predict if turtles were healthy or afflicted with GTFP. Discriminant function analysis correctly classified turtles as being with or without GTFP in 89% of cases, suggesting that diseased animals had a distinct signature of plasma biochemistries. Measurements of blood parameters identified numerous differences between captive and wild green turtles in Hawaii. Levels of corticosterone, lactate, triglyceride, glucose, and calcium were significantly higher in wild green turtles as compared to captive turtles, while uric acid levels were significantly lower in wild turtles as compared to captive turtles. Additionally, turtles from Sea World of California (San Diego, California, USA), which had been in captivity the longest, had higher levels of alanine aminotransferase and triglycerides as compared to nearly all other groups. Differences in diet, sampling methods, environmental conditions, and turtle size, help to interpret these results.

  3. The Captivity Narrative as Propaganda in the Black Hawk War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Darlene E.

    1987-01-01

    Shows how captivity stories acted as propaganda against the American Indians in the nineteenth century. Gives excerpts from a captivity narrative portraying Indians in a negative way and demonstrates its use as propaganda during the time of the Black Hawk War. (AEM)

  4. Understanding Captive-Takers Motivations, Methods and Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larned, Jean Garner

    2011-01-01

    Understanding Captive-Takers Motivations, Methods and Targets is the ultimate goal in order to help those who train, manage and prevent hostage taking events which include police officers, negotiators, recovery personnel, academics and psychologists. The overall lack of literature relating to the topic of captive-taker motivations is another…

  5. Mammary gland tumors in captive African hedgehogs.

    PubMed

    Raymond, J T; Gerner, M

    2000-04-01

    From December 1995 to July 1999, eight mammary gland tumors were diagnosed in eight adult captive female African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris). The tumors presented as single or multiple subcutaneous masses along the cranial or caudal abdomen that varied in size for each hedgehog. Histologically, seven of eight (88%) mammary gland tumors were malignant. Tumors were classified as solid (4 cases), tubular (2 cases), and papillary (2 cases). Seven tumors had infiltrated into the surrounding stroma and three tumors had histologic evidence of neoplastic vascular invasion. Three hedgehogs had concurrent neoplasms. These are believed to be the first reported cases of mammary gland tumors in African hedgehogs.

  6. Handedness in captive bonobos (Pan paniscus).

    PubMed

    Harrison, Rebecca M; Nystrom, Pia

    2008-01-01

    Species level right-handedness is often considered to be unique to humans. Handedness is held to be interrelated to our language ability and has been used as a means of tracing the evolution of language. Here we examine handedness in 3 captive groups of bonobos (Pan paniscus) comprising 22 individuals. We found no evidence for species level handedness. Conclusions that can be drawn from these findings are: (1) species level handedness evolved after the divergence of the Pan and Homo lineages; (2) inconsistent preferences may represent precursors to human handedness, and (3) Pan may have language abilities but these cannot be measured using handedness.

  7. Competitive sourcing: From captivity to competition

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    Eleven papers were presented at Elcon`s Annual Seminar on Electric Issues held on October 13-14, 1994 in Washington, DC. The theme of the conference was on competitive sourcing: From Captivity to Competition. The following topics were discussed: the FERC and competition in the electric power markets; the industrial role in the changing electric industry; commercials and residentials; the development of electricity futures; earthquakes in the states: Michigan experience; the loss of industrial load; competitive sourcing; municipalization; power marketing; and what is a non-sham wholesaler. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. Some diseases and parasites of captive woodcocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Stickel, W.H.; Geis, S.A.

    1965-01-01

    Observations were made concerning the diseases and parasites of a group of woodcocks (Philohela minor) caught in Massachusetts in the summer of 1960 and kept in captivity in Maryland, and of another group caught and kept in Louisiana in the winter of 1960-61. Bumblefoot, a granulomatous swelling of the foot caused by Micrococcus sp., is reported for woodcocks for the first time. Six of 31 woodcocks were infected with a renal coccidium of an undetermined species. Tetrameres sp. was found in 4 of 31 birds examined. Sarcocystis was found in one bird. Aerosaculitis was found in several.

  9. A new tether system for captive raptors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    Several types of jesses are used to restrain captive raptors. The Hollywood jess described here has been tested on six species during two decades. Like the Aylmeri jess now in common use in North America, the Hollywood jess consists of a removable rolled button jess and an anklet. Unlike the Aylmeri anklet, however, the Hollywood anklet can be removed and reattached without restraining the bird. This anklet makes the Hollywood jess the safest of all jesses. It can also be used repeatedly on different individuals and allows for the bird to be released in its pen or to the wild without encumbrances.

  10. QUBIC in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, B.; Harari, D.; Etchegoyen, A.; Medina, M. C.; Romero, G. E.; Qubic Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    QUBIC (QU Bolometric Interferometer for Cosmology) is an experimental cosmology project to measure the modes in the polarization of the cosmic background radiation (CBR), the fossil relic that reveals the properties at the Universe 380,000 years after the Planck Era. Discovery of the CBR in 1964 and measurement of tiny temperature anisotropies in 1992 were major breakthroughs in our understanding of the Universe. The next challenge is to measure the polarization of the CBR accurately enough to detect modes that would reveal the existence of primordial gravitational waves produced in the first stages of the Planck Era and probe inflation theory, that assumes an accelerated expansion during the first seconds. The mode signal is however extremely weak and its measurement requires complex instruments. The QUBIC collaboration has developed the concept of interferometric bolometry, that brings together the sensitivity of bolometric detectors with the control of systematic effects provided by interferometry. QUBIC is an international collaboration involving several universities and laboratories in France, Italy, United Kingdom and USA. Recently, Argentina has suggested Alto Chorrillo (Salta), as candidate site for the installation of the experiment, next to the LLAMA site. Here we describe the scientific objectives and the main features of the experiment and we detail the process through which the international collaboration decided to install in Argentina its first module as well as the challenges for our country in this project.

  11. Blood chemistry and hematocrit of captive and wild canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Obrecht, H.H.; Williams, B.K.; Kuenzel, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Blood chemistry and packed cell volume (PCV) did not vary among groups of captive canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) maintained ad libitum on 5 diets varying in metabolizable energy (ME) and protein. Ducks fed low quality diets increased their consumption so that all ducks were obtaining similar amounts of energy and protein. Some variables, including cholesterol, were found to differ between the sexes and ages of captive ducks. Seasonal differences were detected in the blood chemistry of captive canvasbacks. Four of the 5 enzyme values increased from October to January and then declined to April. PCV increased from 45 in October to 51 in April. Overall, blood chemistry values and PCV's were highly variable and did not appear to be good discriminators for age, sex, and diet of captive canvasbacks. Differences detected between captive and wild canvasbacks were attributed to increased stress of wild ducks during handling.

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF Leishmania infantum IN PUERTO IGUAZÚ, MISIONES, ARGENTINA

    PubMed Central

    ACOSTA, Lucrecia; DÍAZ, Ricardo; TORRES, Pedro; SILVA, Gustavo; RAMOS, Marina; FATTORE, Gladys; DESCHUTTER, Enrique J.; BORNAY-LLINARES, Fernando J.

    2015-01-01

     The emergence of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) in Latin America is a growing public health problem. The urbanization of ZVL has been observed in different countries around the world, and there are a growing number of reports drawing attention to the emergence of this infection in new locations, as well as its increase in previously established areas of endemicity. In the city of Posadas, Misiones province, Northeastern Argentina, the transmission of ZVL associated with canines and Lutzomyia longipalpis was first reported in 2006. In the city of Puerto Iguazú, also in Misiones province, the first human case of ZVL was reported in February 2014. From 209 surveyed dogs, 15 (7.17%) were identified as positive by serological and/or parasitological methods. Amplification was observed in 14 samples and in all cases the species implicated was Leishmania infantum. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first molecular characterization of L. infantum from dogs in this area. PMID:25923899

  13. The Three-Dimensional Morphological Effects of Captivity

    PubMed Central

    Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Selvey, Hannah; Villari, Joseph R.; Atwell, Madeline; Schmidt, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    Many captive animals are fed diets that are drastically different in mechanical properties than their wild diet. Most captive pantherines are fed a nutritionally supplemented diet consisting almost entirely of ground meat. While many zoos supplement this diet with bones, the fact remains that large captive felids are fed diets that require substantially less masticatory effort than those of their wild counterparts. The osteological effects of this dietary difference have not been fully evaluated. To this end, we compared linear measurements and 3D geometric morphometric landmarks of captive and wild lions and tigers. Using Principal Component (PC) analysis of the linear measurements, not only were the sexes and species statistically distinct, but so too was the population clearly divisible in terms of captivity status. The 3D analysis supported these findings: although the most influential variable in the sample (PC1, 21.5% of the variation) separates the two species, the second most influential contributor (PC2) to the overall skull shape is driven not by the sex differences in these highly dimorphic species, but rather by their captivity status. In fact, captivity status drives nearly twice as much of the 3D variation as sexual dimorphism (14.8% vs. 8.0% for PC2 vs. PC3). Thus the shape is influenced nearly twice as much by whether the animal was captive or wild than by whether it was male or female. If a causal relationship can be demonstrated between dietary mechanical properties and morphology, people who oversee the diets of captive carnivores should consider modifying these diets to account for not only nutritional but also the mechanical properties of a carcass-based diet as well. In addition to the husbandry implications, our analyses show the ways in which captive specimens are different than their wild counterparts – findings that have implications for morphologists when considering anatomical samples. PMID:25409498

  14. The three-dimensional morphological effects of captivity.

    PubMed

    Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Selvey, Hannah; Villari, Joseph R; Atwell, Madeline; Schmidt, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    Many captive animals are fed diets that are drastically different in mechanical properties than their wild diet. Most captive pantherines are fed a nutritionally supplemented diet consisting almost entirely of ground meat. While many zoos supplement this diet with bones, the fact remains that large captive felids are fed diets that require substantially less masticatory effort than those of their wild counterparts. The osteological effects of this dietary difference have not been fully evaluated. To this end, we compared linear measurements and 3D geometric morphometric landmarks of captive and wild lions and tigers. Using Principal Component (PC) analysis of the linear measurements, not only were the sexes and species statistically distinct, but so too was the population clearly divisible in terms of captivity status. The 3D analysis supported these findings: although the most influential variable in the sample (PC1, 21.5% of the variation) separates the two species, the second most influential contributor (PC2) to the overall skull shape is driven not by the sex differences in these highly dimorphic species, but rather by their captivity status. In fact, captivity status drives nearly twice as much of the 3D variation as sexual dimorphism (14.8% vs. 8.0% for PC2 vs. PC3). Thus the shape is influenced nearly twice as much by whether the animal was captive or wild than by whether it was male or female. If a causal relationship can be demonstrated between dietary mechanical properties and morphology, people who oversee the diets of captive carnivores should consider modifying these diets to account for not only nutritional but also the mechanical properties of a carcass-based diet as well. In addition to the husbandry implications, our analyses show the ways in which captive specimens are different than their wild counterparts--ndings that have implications for morphologists when considering anatomical samples.

  15. Evaluating the performance of captive breeding techniques for conservation hatcheries: a case study of the delta smelt captive breeding program.

    PubMed

    Fisch, Kathleen M; Ivy, Jamie A; Burton, Ronald S; May, Bernie

    2013-01-01

    The delta smelt, an endangered fish species endemic to the San Francisco Bay-Delta, California, United States, was recently brought into captivity for species preservation. This study retrospectively evaluates the implementation of a genetic management plan for the captive delta smelt population. The captive genetic management plan entails tagging fish, molecular data collection, pedigree reconstruction, relatedness estimation, and recommending fish crosses annually in an effort to minimize the average coancestry in the population and limit inbreeding. We employed 12 microsatellite DNA markers to examine temporal genetic diversity in consecutive, discrete generations to determine the effects of intensive genetic management on the population and to quantify the amount of wild genetic diversity present within each captive generation. Wild fish are incorporated into the captive population each generation to minimize genetic drift, and 91% of the original founders are still represented in the F(3) generation. The average mean kinship in the third generation in captivity was 0.0035. There was no evidence of significant genetic divergence of the captive population from the wild population. The results of this study yield management insights into the practical application of genetic management plans for captive populations and conservation hatcheries, in an attempt to preserve the genetic integrity of endangered species.

  16. Are captive tortoises a reservoir for conservation? An assessment of genealogical affiliation of captive Gopherus agassizii to local, wild populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berry, Kristin H.; Edwards, Taylor

    2013-01-01

    The conservation of tortoises poses a unique situation because several threatened species are commonly kept as pets within their native ranges. Thus, there is potential for captive populations to be a reservoir for repatriation efforts. We assess the utility of captive populations of the threatened Agassiz’s desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) for recovery efforts based on genetic affinity to local areas. We collected samples from 130 captive desert tortoises from three desert communities: two in California (Ridgecrest and Joshua Tree) and the Desert Tortoise Conservation Center (Las Vegas) in Nevada. We tested all samples for 25 short tandem repeats and sequenced 1,109 bp of the mitochondrial genome. We compared captive genotypes to a database of 1,258 Gopherus samples, including 657 wild caught G. agassizii spanning the full range of the species. We conducted population assignment tests to determine the genetic origins of the captive individuals. For our total sample set, only 44 % of captive individuals were assigned to local populations based on genetic units derived from the reference database. One individual from Joshua Tree, California, was identified as being a Morafka’s desert tortoise, G. morafkai, a cryptic species which is not native to the Mojave Desert. Our data suggest that captive desert tortoises kept within the native range of G. agassizii cannot be presumed to have a genealogical affiliation to wild tortoises in their geographic proximity. Precautions should be taken before considering the release of captive tortoises into the wild as a management tool for recovery.

  17. Study on reproduction of captive marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Katsumata, Etsuko

    2010-02-01

    The reproductive endocrinological characteristics of beluga, killer whale, spotted seal and bottlenose dolphin were evaluated and used in conjunction with applied reproductive research to enhance captive breeding programs. Results from 8 y of biweekly serum progesterone determination in a female beluga indicated that sexual maturity occured at approximately age 13, two to seven estrous cycles, lasting 37 +/- 3.9 days, per yr began in April-May every year. Rectal temperature was positively correlated with serum progesterone levels and negatively associated with behavioral estrus. In five cases of pregnancy of two female killer whale, positive relationship was found between serum progesterone concentration and temperature during the first period of 18 month-gestation. In the normal parturitions (n=4), rectal temperature decreased 0.8 C lower than average rectal temperature during pregnancy. Sexual maturity of female killer whales occurred at age nine. Yearly contraception in the mono-estrus captive spotted seals (n=10) using a single dose of the progestagen (proligestone(TM); 5 or 10 mg/kg s.c.) was achieved in 94% (33/35) of the attempts over 5 yr when the hormone was administered two months prior to the breeding season. Artificial insemination trials (n=4) were conducted in female bottlenose dolphin (n=3) using fresh and frozen-thawed semen. Estrus synchronization using regumate (27 days) resulted in ovulation occurring 19 to 24 days post withdrawal. Conception was confirmed in 75% of the attempts, with two females successfully delivering calves.

  18. Social Behaviour of Captive Belugas, Delphinapterus Leucas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recchia, Cheri Anne

    1994-01-01

    Focal-animal sampling techniques developed for investigating social behaviour of terrestrial animals were adapted for studying captive belugas, providing quantitative descriptions of social relationships among individuals. Five groups of captive belugas were observed, allowing a cross -sectional view of sociality in groups of diverse sizes and compositions. Inter-individual distances were used to quantify patterns of spatial association. A set of social behaviours for which actor and recipient could be identified was defined to characterize dyadic interactions. The mother-calf pair spent more time together, and interacted more often than adults. The calf maintained proximity with his mother; larger adults generally maintained proximity with smaller adults. Among adults, larger groups performed more kinds of behaviours and interacted at higher rates than smaller groups. Within dyads, the larger whale performed more aggressive behaviours and the smaller whale more submissive behaviours. Clear dominance relations existed in three groups, with larger whales dominant to smaller whales. Vocalizations of three groups were classified subjectively, based on aural impressions and visual inspection of spectrograms, but most signals appeared graded. Statistical analyses of measured acoustic features confirmed subjective impressions that vocalizations could not be classified into discrete and homogeneous categories. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-553-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.).

  19. Self-hypnosis training and captivity survival.

    PubMed

    Wood, D P; Sexton, J L

    1997-01-01

    In February and March, 1973, 566 U.S. military prisoners (POWs) were released from North Vietnam. These men had been POWs for a period of time between 2 months and 9 years, with a mean incarceration of 4.44 years. They had faced physical and psychological stress similar to that experienced by POWs from previous wars: starvation, disease, inadequate shelter, lack of medical care, interrogations and torture (Deaton, Burge, Richlin & Latrownik, 1977; Mitchell, 1991). By definition, such prison conditions constituted a traumatic experience (Deaton et al., 1977). However, a unique stress for our POWs in North Vietnam was the additional trauma of solitary confinement. This paper reviews the coping and "time killing" activities of U.S. Navy Vietnam POWs who experienced solitary confinement and tortuous interrogation. This paper also reports the physical and psychological adjustment of our POWs following their release from captivity. Suggestions are made regarding the revision of the curriculum for captivity survival training programs such as Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape (SERE) school.

  20. Factors affecting penetrating captive bolt gun performance.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Troy J; Mason, Charles W; Spence, Jade Y; Barker, Heather; Gregory, Neville G

    2015-01-01

    Captive bolt stunning is used for rendering livestock insensible at slaughter. The mechanical factors relating to performance of 6 penetrating captive bolt gun (CBG) models were examined. The Matador Super Sécurit 3000 and the .25 Cash Euro Stunner had the highest kinetic energy values (443 J and 412 J, respectively) of the CBGs tested. Ninety percent (27/30) of CBGs held at a government gun repository (United Kingdom) were found to have performed at a normal standard for the model, while 53% (10/19) of commercial contractor CBGs tested were found to underperform for the gun model. When the .22 Cash Special was fired 500 times at 4 shots per min, the gun reached a peak temperature of 88.8°C after 2.05 hr. Repeat firing during extended periods significantly reduced the performance of the CBG. When deciding on the appropriate CBG/cartridge combination, the kinetic energy delivered to the head of the nonhuman animal, bolt penetration depth, and species/animal type must be considered. It is recommended that CBGs are routinely checked for wear to the bolt and barrel if they are repeatedly fired in a session.

  1. Anaglyph: Basalt Cliffs, Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-07-13

    This anaglyph, from NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, shows basalt cliffs along the northwest edge of the Meseta de Somuncura plateau near Sierra Colorada, Argentina. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  2. Northeastern Pennsylvania Retrospective Case Study Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA conducted a retrospective case study in northeastern Pennsylvania to investigate reported instances of contaminated drinking water resources in areas where hydraulic fracturing activities occurred

  3. Student Opinion Surveys at Northeastern University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajdek, Anthony J.; Kim, Sungwoo

    1999-01-01

    Presents the 15-year story of the student affairs research operation at Northeastern University, covering the initial buildup, the demise due to institutional downsizing, and the resurrection. (Author)

  4. Husbandry of a pink fairy armadillo (Chlamyphorus truncatus): case study of a cryptic and little known species in captivity.

    PubMed

    Superina, Mariella

    2011-01-01

    Pink fairy armadillos, Chlamyphorus truncatus, are poorly known fossorial mammals that are endemic to central Argentina. These smallest of all extant armadillos are rarely observed in the field and extremely difficult to maintain under captive conditions. This case study describes the husbandry of a male pink fairy armadillo that was maintained in an artificial environment for 8 months. A stable, undisturbed environment consisting of abundant compact sand and hiding places on the surface was the key to its successful maintenance. The artificial diet consisted of a semiliquid mixture of ground cat food, insectivore diet, mashed banana, vitamins, and minerals. Any slight modification to its environment or diet triggered a stress response. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. NORM survey in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Canoba, A C

    2012-01-01

    A survey programme was initiated several years ago with the aim of estimating the incidence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) exposure for workers in the oil and gas industry, gold mining, spas, and a tourist cavern in Argentina. This work presents the procedures, methods employed, and results to date from the survey, including protection and remedial actions recommended when deemed necessary. Radium isotope concentrations measured in some samples were well above the exemption values established by IAEA Standards. Elevated radon levels (above the action level established for workplaces) were detected in the gas facilities, the gold mine, and the tourist cavern. The pertinent authorities and the facilities were informed of the detected values in order to take actions to reduce concentrations. In terms of the spas, almost all values for geothermal waters were below the corresponding guidance levels. Some regulatory aspects for the management of NORM are suggested. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Integrating evolution in the management of captive zoo populations

    PubMed Central

    Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I; Mastromonaco, Gabriela F

    2015-01-01

    Both natural animal populations and those in captivity are subject to evolutionary forces. Evolutionary changes to captive populations may be an important, but poorly understood, factor that can affect the sustainability of these populations. The importance of maintaining the evolutionary integrity of zoo populations, especially those that are used for conservation efforts including reintroductions, is critical for the conservation of biodiversity. Here, we propose that a greater appreciation for an evolutionary perspective may offer important insights that can enhance the reproductive success and health for the sustainability of captive populations. We provide four examples and associated strategies that highlight this approach, including minimizing domestication (i.e., genetic adaptation to captivity), integrating natural mating systems into captive breeding protocols, minimizing the effects of translocation on variation in photoperiodism, and understanding the interplay of parasites/pathogens and inflammation. There are a myriad of other issues that may be important for captive populations, and we conclude that these may often be species specific. Nonetheless, an evolutionary perspective may mitigate some of the challenges currently facing captive populations that are important from a conservation perspective, including their sustainability. PMID:26029256

  7. Integrating evolution in the management of captive zoo populations.

    PubMed

    Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I; Mastromonaco, Gabriela F

    2015-06-01

    Both natural animal populations and those in captivity are subject to evolutionary forces. Evolutionary changes to captive populations may be an important, but poorly understood, factor that can affect the sustainability of these populations. The importance of maintaining the evolutionary integrity of zoo populations, especially those that are used for conservation efforts including reintroductions, is critical for the conservation of biodiversity. Here, we propose that a greater appreciation for an evolutionary perspective may offer important insights that can enhance the reproductive success and health for the sustainability of captive populations. We provide four examples and associated strategies that highlight this approach, including minimizing domestication (i.e., genetic adaptation to captivity), integrating natural mating systems into captive breeding protocols, minimizing the effects of translocation on variation in photoperiodism, and understanding the interplay of parasites/pathogens and inflammation. There are a myriad of other issues that may be important for captive populations, and we conclude that these may often be species specific. Nonetheless, an evolutionary perspective may mitigate some of the challenges currently facing captive populations that are important from a conservation perspective, including their sustainability.

  8. Land flatworms of the genus Pasipha (Platyhelminthes, Geoplanidae) in Argentina, with description of three new species.

    PubMed

    Negrete, Lisandro; Brusa, Francisco

    2016-07-11

    The genus Pasipha Ogren & Kawakatsu, 1990 currently includes 22 species, most of them recorded in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Recently, Pasipha hauseri was documented in north-eastern Argentina, thus extending its distribution range. This paper reports new records of the genus Pasipha in the Interior Atlantic Forest ecoregion in Argentina, with the description of three new species: Pasipha atla sp. nov., Pasipha johnsoni sp. nov., and Pasipha mbya sp. nov. These new species exhibit similarities in internal anatomy, such as pharynx cylindrical, extrabulbar prostatic vesicle with folded walls and proximally forked, male atrium highly folded, being at least two times longer than the female atrium and with small folds in their proximal portion. However, they can be distinguished from each other mainly by the secretion types discharged into the prostatic vesicle as well as into the male and female atria. In addition, they have different colour patterns on the dorsal surface.

  9. Ribautia lewisi sp. nov., a new centipede from Argentina with unusual tentorial process (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha, Geophilidae).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Luis Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Ribautia lewisi sp. nov. (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha, Geophilidae) is herein described and illustrated after the holotype (male), paratypes (males and females), and additional non type specimens from Northeastern Argentina (Mesopotamian region). The new species is characterized by having a cluster of coxal organs in each coxopleuron of the ultimate leg-bearing segment and a claw-like pretarsus in the ultimate legs, bearing a very unusual feature, in that the internal limbs of tentorium have a conspicuous tooth-shaped sclerotized process directed inward. R. lewisi sp. nov. is only the second confirmed record of the genus Ribautia from Argentina, the other being R. jakulicai Pereira, 2007 from Northwestern region of the country (Yungas biogeographical province).

  10. [Soil transmitted helminthiasis in Argentina. A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Socías, M Eugenia; Fernández, Anabel; Gil, José F; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review of surveys performed between 1980 and 2011 (published in MEDLINE/Pubmed and/or LILACS indexed journals, available in the baseline data from a Mass Deworming National Program (MDNP, 2005) was used to identify the prevalence, distribution and detection of risk areas for soil transmitted helminth infections (STH) in Argentina. We found 310 publications in the database using the pre-defined key-words (medical subject headings) for research purposes. Only 24 articles with 26 surveillance sites in 8 provinces and a total of 5495 surveyed individuals fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Frequency rates for STH had a wide range: Ascaris lumbricoides: 0-67%, hookworms: 0-90%, Trichuris trichiura: 0-24.6 and Strongyloides stercoralis: 0-83%. The estimated combined incidence varied from 0.8% to 88.6%. Baseline surveys from the MDNP reporting on 1943 children from 12 provinces confirmed the heterogeneity, with combined STH frequency rates ranging from 0 to 42.7%. Surveys included in this review showed that the distribution of STH in Argentina is not homogeneous, with areas of high incidence (> 20%) in the northeastern and northwestern provinces where mass deworming activities would be highly beneficial. In several surveys, the high overall incidence was mostly due to hookworms and S. stercoralis, a situation to be considered when selecting diagnostic and therapeutic control strategies. The scarcity or absence of data from various provinces and the availability of less than 8000 surveyed individuals should be considered.

  11. Captive breeding, reintroduction, and the conservation of amphibians.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Richard A; Pavajeau, Lissette

    2008-08-01

    The global amphibian crisis has resulted in renewed interest in captive breeding as a conservation tool for amphibians. Although captive breeding and reintroduction are controversial management actions, amphibians possess a number of attributes that make them potentially good models for such programs. We reviewed the extent and effectiveness of captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians through an analysis of data from the Global Amphibian Assessment and other sources. Most captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians have focused on threatened species from industrialized countries with relatively low amphibian diversity. Out of 110 species in such programs, 52 were in programs with no plans for reintroduction that had conservation research or conservation education as their main purpose. A further 39 species were in programs that entailed captive breeding and reintroduction or combined captive breeding with relocations of wild animals. Nineteen species were in programs with relocations of wild animals only. Eighteen out of 58 reintroduced species have subsequently bred successfully in the wild, and 13 of these species have established self-sustaining populations. As with threatened amphibians generally, amphibians in captive breeding or reintroduction programs face multiple threats, with habitat loss being the most important. Nevertheless, only 18 out of 58 reintroduced species faced threats that are all potentially reversible. When selecting species for captive programs, dilemmas may emerge between choosing species that have a good chance of surviving after reintroduction because their threats are reversible and those that are doomed to extinction in the wild as a result of irreversible threats. Captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians require long-term commitments to ensure success, and different management strategies may be needed for species earmarked for reintroduction and species used for conservation

  12. Natural infection of the feline lungworm Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in the invasive snail Achatina fulica from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Valente, Romina; Diaz, Julia Ines; Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Navone, Graciela Teresa

    2017-02-15

    The giant African snail Achatina fulica is an invasive mollusk native to Africa, the first record in Argentina was in Puerto Iguazú, in northeastern Argentina in 2010. Recently it was reported in Corrientes Province. This snail can act as an intermediate host of Metastrongyloidea nematodes of importance in public health as: Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Angiostrongylus costaricensis and Angiostrongylus vasorum. Taking into account the presence of A. fulica in Argentina, the objectives of this study is to assess the presence of Metastrongyloidea nematodes in this mollusk species in Puerto Iguazú, Misiones, close to the international border with Brazil and Paraguay. A total of 451 samples were collected from February 2014 to November 2015. The snails were processed using a digestion technique to recover the parasites. A total of 206 nematodes larvae were founded in the digestion solution of 10 hosts (P=2%; MA=0.5; MI=21). Third larval stage (L3) nematodes identified as Aelurostrongylus abstrusus were founded parasitizing the snails. No other larval stage was observed. This species has veterinary importance because it causes 'aelurostrongilosis', also known as feline strongyloidosis. This study constitutes the first record of a Metastrongyloidea nematode in A. fulica in Argentina and also highlights the susceptibility of this mollusk as intermediate host of other helminthes of health importance. The present study suggests that there is a need to establish an epidemiological monitoring system in order to prevent the possible installation of an infected mollusks focus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Subspecies genetic assignments of worldwide captive tigers increase conservation value of captive populations.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shu-Jin; Johnson, Warren E; Martenson, Janice; Antunes, Agostinho; Martelli, Paolo; Uphyrkina, Olga; Traylor-Holzer, Kathy; Smith, James L D; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2008-04-22

    Tigers (Panthera tigris) are disappearing rapidly from the wild, from over 100,000 in the 1900s to as few as 3000. Javan (P.t. sondaica), Bali (P.t. balica), and Caspian (P.t. virgata) subspecies are extinct, whereas the South China tiger (P.t. amoyensis) persists only in zoos. By contrast, captive tigers are flourishing, with 15,000-20,000 individuals worldwide, outnumbering their wild relatives five to seven times. We assessed subspecies genetic ancestry of 105 captive tigers from 14 countries and regions by using Bayesian analysis and diagnostic genetic markers defined by a prior analysis of 134 voucher tigers of significant genetic distinctiveness. We assigned 49 tigers to one of five subspecies (Bengal P.t. tigris, Sumatran P.t. sumatrae, Indochinese P.t. corbetti, Amur P.t. altaica, and Malayan P.t. jacksoni tigers) and determined 52 had admixed subspecies origins. The tested captive tigers retain appreciable genomic diversity unobserved in their wild counterparts, perhaps a consequence of large population size, century-long introduction of new founders, and managed-breeding strategies to retain genetic variability. Assessment of verified subspecies ancestry offers a powerful tool that, if applied to tigers of uncertain background, may considerably increase the number of purebred tigers suitable for conservation management.

  14. Characterization of Salmonella isolates from captive lizards.

    PubMed

    Pasmans, Frank; Martel, An; Boyen, Filip; Vandekerchove, Dominique; Wybo, Ingrid; Immerseel, Filip Van; Heyndrickx, Marc; Collard, Jean Marc; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2005-10-31

    Reptile-associated salmonellosis in humans is an increasing public health issue. This study aimed at characterizing Salmonella isolates from captive lizards and to compare them to human isolates. Salmonella was isolated from 25 of 33 cloacal and 47 of 79 faecal samples from captive lizards (75.8 and 59.5%, respectively). The strains belonged to 44 serotypes of subspecies I (27 serotypes), II (9), IIIb (3) and IV (5). Two strains, one of serotype Enteritidis and one of serotype Amsterdam, were resistant to nitrofurantoin. Invasion assays in Caco-2 cells were performed with 40 saurian isolates of subspecies I, 15 isolates of subspecies II, 4 strains of subspecies IIIb, 6 subspecies IV isolates and 17 human isolates of corresponding serotypes of subspecies I. Saurian isolates belonging to subspecies I invaded the Caco-2 cells to a higher extent than those from the other subspecies. The human isolates invaded the Caco-2 cells to a lesser degree compared to their saurian counterparts. In the same strains, the presence of virulence genes agfA, shdA, spvR, pefA and sopE was determined using PCR. Whereas agfA was detected in all strains, pefA was only detected in one saurian and in the human serotype Enteritidis strains. The spvR gene was detected in the same serotype Enteritidis strains and in 33% of the subspecies IV strains. The shdA gene was present in all the human isolates and in 86% of subspecies I saurian isolates. SopE was found in 17% of the human isolates, in 24% of the saurian subspecies I strains and in all of the subspecies IV strains.

  15. Do captive mandrills invent new gestures?

    PubMed

    Laidre, Mark E

    2008-04-01

    Studies of intraspecific behavioral variability have documented cases where behaviors are present in some populations or groups but are absent in others. In some cases these differences cannot be explained by recourse to environmental or genetic variation, and may instead represent "traditions". Despite many examples of animal traditions in acoustic communication, relatively few examples exist of gestural traditions. Here I report on a study of communication across eight captive groups of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) in which a prominent gesture (Hand extension) was unique to two groups. Habitat variability, genetic differences, and sampling bias were not sufficient to account for the gesture's limited distribution across the study groups. Within the two groups where the gesture did occur only the juveniles in the group performed it, consistently directing it toward adults. Quantitative analysis of the contexts and responses associated with the gesture suggested that juveniles utilized it to provoke adults. Moreover, the gesture appeared to minimize the risk juveniles incurred while inciting adults, suggesting that repeated social interactions shaped the gesture's form. Interestingly, both the groups where the gesture emerged contained few juveniles. With limited play partners, these juveniles may have resorted to harassing adults as an alternative social play outlet. The creation of this novel gesture may thus be due to the combined influence of a shortage of play partners and of the increased free time for playful social exploration afforded by captivity. Although juveniles frequently "eavesdropped" on dyadic interactions involving the gesture and would subsequently initiate an interaction with the recipient of the gesture, there was no definitive evidence for social transmission; the gesture could instead have been independently invented by each juvenile.

  16. Captivity, citizenship, and the ethics of otherwise in the society-of-captives thesis: a commentary on Arrigo.

    PubMed

    Brown, Michelle

    2013-06-01

    In this engagement with Professor Bruce Arrigo's psychological jurisprudence model, I explore his critique of captivity and risk management. I am particularly interested in his claims that incarceration culminates in society's own captivity, that the most destructive aspect of captivity is its foreclosing of human difference and potentiality, and that a praxis that is both clinical and mindful might point a way out. By way of a case anecdote, I interrogate several of the key terms in Arrigo's formulation-citizenship, reform, revolution, and praxis-in an effort to further conjugate from the ground up such an innovative and important set of possibilities.

  17. Pasture plants of the Northeastern United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Temperate humid grazing lands are an important component of the landscape of the northeastern Unites States, as well as of the economy of this region, yet unlike their European counterparts, little is known about their basic ecology. During an eight-year survey of 44 farms across the northeastern Un...

  18. Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Hua, Liushuai; Gong, Shiping; Wang, Fumin; Li, Weiye; Ge, Yan; Li, Xiaonan; Hou, Fanghui

    2015-01-01

    Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin's specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins.

  19. Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Liushuai; Gong, Shiping; Wang, Fumin; Li, Weiye; Ge, Yan; Li, Xiaonan; Hou, Fanghui

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin’s specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins. PMID:26155072

  20. Cholangiocarcinoma with metastasis in a captive Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae).

    PubMed

    Renner, M S; Zaias, J; Bossart, G D

    2001-09-01

    A captive male Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), wild caught in 1976, died unexpectedly. Necropsy revealed cholangiocarcinoma with metastases to lung, pancreas, mesentery, and cloaca, the first known case of a penguin hepatic tumor.

  1. 6. VIEW OF FLAME DEFLECTOR DIRECTLY UNDER CAPTIVE TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF FLAME DEFLECTOR DIRECTLY UNDER CAPTIVE TEST STAND WITH MOBILE SERVICE STRUCTURE IN BACKGROUND; VIEW TO WEST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28501, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  2. 24. Photocopy of engineering drawing. CAPTIVE TEST STANDS AT PADS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photocopy of engineering drawing. CAPTIVE TEST STANDS AT PADS 17A AND 17B-FLAME DEFLECTOR PIPING, MAY 1956. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28501, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  3. Limitations of captive breeding in endangered species recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, N.F.R.; Derrickson, S.R.; Beissenger, S.R.; Wiley, J.W.; Smith, T.B.; Toone, W.D.; Miller, B.

    1996-01-01

    The use of captive breeding in species recovery has grown enormously in recent years, but without a concurrent growth in appreciation of its limitations. Problems with (1) establishing self-sufficient captive populations, (2) poor success in reintroductions, (3.) high costs, (4) domestication, (5) preemption of other recovery techniques, (6) disease outbreaks, and (7) maintaining administrative continuity have all been significant. The technique has often been invoked prematurely and should not normally be employed before a careful field evaluation of costs and benefits of all conservation alternatives has been accomplished and a determination made that captive breeding is essential for species survival. Merely demonstrating that a species population is declining or bas fallen below what may be a minimum viable size does not constitute enough analysis to justify captive breeding as a recovery measure. Captive breeding should be reviewed as a last resort in species recovery and not a prophylactic or long-term solution because of the inexorable genetic and phenotypic changes that occur in captive environments. Captive breeding can play a crucial role in recovery of some species for witch effective alternatives are unavailable in the short term. However, it should not displace habitat and ecosystem protection nor should it be invoked in the absence of comprehensive efforts to maintain or restore populations in wild habitats. Zoological institutions with captive breeding programs should operate under carefully defined conditions of disease prevention and genetic/behavioral management. More important, these institutions should help preserve biodiversity through their capacities for public education, professional training, research, and support of in situ conservation efforts.

  4. Training captive chimpanzees to cooperate for an anesthetic injection.

    PubMed

    Videan, Elaine N; Fritz, Jo; Murphy, James; Borman, Rachel; Smith, Heather F; Howell, Sue

    2005-05-01

    Captive animals trained to cooperate with routine medical procedures, such as injections, may experience less aggression and anxiety than those forced to comply through the use of restraints. The authors used positive reinforcement training to teach captive chimpanzees to present a body part for anesthetic injection and determined the time investment necessary for initial training and duration of maintenance of the behavior after completion of the training.

  5. Captive tiger attack: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Henry J; Cullinane, Daniel C; Sawyer, Mark D; Zietlow, Scott P

    2007-05-01

    Tigers, as well as other large predators, are being held in private settings with increasing frequency. Unregulated private "zoos" are cropping up in many rural and suburban settings across the country. The number of attacks from captive predators also is on the rise. This case highlights the potentially violent and aggressive nature of wild animals held in captivity. Treatment principals and wounding patterns of large cat attacks are emphasized.

  6. Update on common nutritional disorders of captive reptiles.

    PubMed

    Mans, Christoph; Braun, Jana

    2014-09-01

    Nutritional disorders of captive reptiles remain very common despite the increasing knowledge about reptile husbandry and nutrition. Many nutritional disorders are diagnosed late in the disease process; often secondary complications, such as pathologic fractures in reptiles suffering from nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism have occurred. Therefore, every attempt should be made to educate reptile owners and keepers about the proper care and dietary needs of reptiles under their care because all nutritional disorders seen in captive reptiles are preventable.

  7. Contrasting responses to novelty by wild and captive orangutans.

    PubMed

    Forss, Sofia I F; Schuppli, Caroline; Haiden, Dominique; Zweifel, Nicole; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-10-01

    Several studies have suggested that wild primates tend to behave with caution toward novelty, whereas captive primates are thought to be less neophobic, more exploratory, and more innovative. However, few studies have systematically compared captive and wild individuals of the same species to document this "captivity effect" in greater detail. Here we report the responses of both wild and captive orangutans to the same novel items. Novel objects were presented to wild orangutans on multiple platforms placed in the canopy and equipped with motion-triggered video cameras. The same and different novel objects were also presented to orangutans in two different zoos. The results demonstrate extreme conservatism in both Bornean and Sumatran wild orangutans, who gradually approached the novel objects more closely as they became familiar, but avoided contact with them over many encounters spanning several months. Their zoo-living conspecifics, in contrast, showed an immediate neophilic response. Our results thus confirm the "captivity effect." To the various ecological explanations proposed before (reduced risk and increased time and energy balance for captive individuals relative to wild ones), we add the social information hypothesis, which claims that individuals confronted with novel items preferentially rely on social cues whenever possible. This caution toward novelty disappears when human caretakers become additional role models and can also be eroded when all experience with novelty is positive.

  8. Captive breeding and reintroduction of the endangered masked bobwhite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.W.; Gabel, R.R.; Goodwin, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    Efforts to restore the endangered masked bobwhite (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi) to its former range have required 1) habitat acquisition, restoration, and preservation; 2) captive propagation; and 3) reintroduction .bf captive-bred stock. In its role to recover the masked bobwhite, the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (U.S. Fish and Wildli e Service) has refined captive breeding techniques; provided captive-produced stock for release; conducted field research on the distribution, limiting factors, and habitat characteristics of this species; and developed release methods. Techniques for the husbandry and captive management, breeding, artificial incubation and hatching of eggs, and rearing of young of the masked bobwhite have been developed. Successful reintroduction techniques for the masked bobwhite have included prerelease conditioning and/or cross-fostering of captive-reared masked bobwhite chicks to a wild-caught, related, vasectomized bobwhite species and their release to the wild as family units. In addition, the establishment by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service of the Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge in 1985 has further enhanced the potential for establishing a self-sustaining population of the masked bobwhite in the U. S. Through continued releases and active management of habitat, therefore, it is believed that the masked bobwhite can become permanently established at the refuge to ensure its continued survival in the wild.

  9. Captive breeding and the reintroduction of Mexican and red wolves.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, P W; Fredrickson, R J

    2008-01-01

    Mexican and red wolves were both faced with extinction in the wild until captive populations were established more than two decades ago. These captive populations have been successfully managed genetically to minimize mean kinship and retain genetic variation. Descendants of these animals were subsequently used to start reintroduced populations, which now number about 40-50 Mexican wolves in Arizona and New Mexico and about 100 red wolves in North Carolina. The original captive Mexican wolf population was descended from three founders. Merging this lineage with two other captive lineages, each with two founders, has been successfully carried out in the captive population and is in progress in the reintroduced population. This effort has resulted in increased fitness of cross-lineage wolves, or genetic rescue, in both the captive and reintroduced populations. A number of coyote-red wolf hybrid litters were observed in the late 1990s in the reintroduced red wolf population. Intensive identification and management efforts appear to have resulted in the elimination of this threat. However, population reintroductions of both Mexican and red wolves appear to have reached numbers well below the generally recommended number for recovery and there is no current effort to re-establish other populations.

  10. Antebrachial fractures in four captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    Lin, Rebecca C; Engeli, Emmanuel; Prowten, Allan W; Erb, Hollis N; Ducharme, Norm G; Goodrich, Laurie R

    2005-01-01

    To identify common risk factors for antebrachial fractures of captive polar bears and to evaluate outcome after fracture repair. Retrospective study. Four captive polar bears. United States zoological collections were surveyed to determine the prevalence of fractures in captive polar bears. Medical records of captive polar bears that had antebrachial fractures were reviewed for signalment, history, physical and radiographic findings, fracture management, postoperative care, and outcome. Serum samples from healthy bears and bears with antebrachial fractures were assayed for 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) concentrations. Nineteen fractures (12 polar bears) occurred from 1974 to 2002; 12 fractures involved the antebrachium. Management of 4 antebrachial fractures was reviewed; 3 were repaired by internal fixation and 1 by external coaptation. Fractures healed and bears were returned to exhibit on average 3 months postfracture. Of 11 serum samples assayed for 25-OHD concentrations, 6 were below normal, 1 was low normal and 4 were within normal reference intervals. The 7 bears with subnormal or low normal values were housed in 2 zoos. Subnormal vitamin D concentrations were identified in 2 of 3 bears with fractures. Fracture disease is not uncommon in captive polar bears. Additional research is necessary to explore the role of nutrition in polar bear fracture disease. Internal fixation of antebrachial fractures is feasible and reasonably well tolerated in captive polar bears.

  11. Argentina from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image over Argentina was acquired on April 24, 2000, and was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution 'true color' bands. This image was presented on June 13, 2000 as a GIFt to Argentinian President Fernando de la Rua by NASA Administrator Dan Goldin. Note the Parana River which runs due south from the top of the image before turning east to empty into the Atlantic Ocean. Note the yellowish sediment from the Parana River mixing with the redish sediment from the Uruguay River as it empties into the Rio de la Plata. The water level of the Parana seems high, which could explain the high sediment discharge. A variety of land surface features are visible in this image. To the north, the greenish pixels show forest regions, as well as characteristic clusters of rectangular patterns of agricultural fields. In the lower left of the image, the lighter green pixels show arable regions where there is grazing and farming. (Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Group, NASA GSFC)

  12. Argentina from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image over Argentina was acquired on April 24, 2000, and was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution 'true color' bands. This image was presented on June 13, 2000 as a GIFt to Argentinian President Fernando de la Rua by NASA Administrator Dan Goldin. Note the Parana River which runs due south from the top of the image before turning east to empty into the Atlantic Ocean. Note the yellowish sediment from the Parana River mixing with the redish sediment from the Uruguay River as it empties into the Rio de la Plata. The water level of the Parana seems high, which could explain the high sediment discharge. A variety of land surface features are visible in this image. To the north, the greenish pixels show forest regions, as well as characteristic clusters of rectangular patterns of agricultural fields. In the lower left of the image, the lighter green pixels show arable regions where there is grazing and farming. (Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Group, NASA GSFC)

  13. Multiple approaches to understanding the taxonomic status of an enigmatic new scorpion species of the genus Tityus (Buthidae) from the biogeographic island of Paraje Tres Cerros (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Ojanguren-Affilastro, Andrés A; Adilardi, Renzo S; Cajade, Rodrigo; Ramírez, Martín J; Ceccarelli, F Sara; Mola, Liliana M

    2017-01-01

    Tityus curupi n. sp., belonging to the bolivianus complex, is described from the biogeographically distinct area of Paraje Tres Cerros in north-eastern Argentina. We also present a molecular species delimitation analysis between Tityus curupi n. sp. and its sister species Tityus uruguayensis Borelli 1901 to confirm species integrity. Furthermore, a cytogenetic analysis is presented for these two species which contain different multivalent associations in meiosis, as a consequence of chromosome rearrangements, and the highest chromosome numbers in the genus.

  14. Multiple approaches to understanding the taxonomic status of an enigmatic new scorpion species of the genus Tityus (Buthidae) from the biogeographic island of Paraje Tres Cerros (Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Adilardi, Renzo S.; Cajade, Rodrigo; Ramírez, Martín J.; Ceccarelli, F. Sara; Mola, Liliana M.

    2017-01-01

    Tityus curupi n. sp., belonging to the bolivianus complex, is described from the biogeographically distinct area of Paraje Tres Cerros in north-eastern Argentina. We also present a molecular species delimitation analysis between Tityus curupi n. sp. and its sister species Tityus uruguayensis Borelli 1901 to confirm species integrity. Furthermore, a cytogenetic analysis is presented for these two species which contain different multivalent associations in meiosis, as a consequence of chromosome rearrangements, and the highest chromosome numbers in the genus. PMID:28746406

  15. Social grooming network in captive chimpanzees: does the wild or captive origin of group members affect sociality?

    PubMed

    Levé, Marine; Sueur, Cédric; Petit, Odile; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Hirata, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Many chimpanzees throughout the world are housed in captivity, and there is an increasing effort to recreate social groups by mixing individuals with captive origins with those with wild origins. Captive origins may entail restricted rearing conditions during early infant life, including, for example, no maternal rearing and a limited social life. Early rearing conditions have been linked with differences in tool-use behavior between captive- and wild-born chimpanzees. If physical cognition can be impaired by non-natural rearing, what might be the consequences for social capacities? This study describes the results of network analysis based on grooming interactions in chimpanzees with wild and captive origins living in the Kumamoto Sanctuary in Kumamoto, Japan. Grooming is a complex social activity occupying up to 25% of chimpanzees' waking hours and plays a role in the emergence and maintenance of social relationships. We assessed whether the social centralities and roles of chimpanzees might be affected by their origin (captive vs wild). We found that captive- and wild-origin chimpanzees did not differ in their grooming behavior, but that theoretical removal of individuals from the network had differing impacts depending on the origin of the individual. Contrary to findings that non-natural early rearing has long-term effects on physical cognition, living in social groups seems to compensate for the negative effects of non-natural early rearing. Social network analysis (SNA) and, in particular, theoretical removal analysis, were able to highlight differences between individuals that would have been impossible to show using classical methods. The social environment of captive animals is important to their well-being, and we are only beginning to understand how SNA might help to enhance animal welfare.

  16. Argentina offers something for everyone

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart-Gordon, T.J.

    1980-02-01

    Argentina is actively seeking private capital and expertise from around the world. The objective is energy self-sufficiency by 1982 by bringing $5 billion of private investment to bear on exploration and production projects. This year, the government is launching a program aimed at medium-to-large independent US oil companies. Enhanced recovery technology from the US companies is to be coupled with Argentine capital and used on fields for which Argentina has neither the manpower nor the money to work. Onshore and offshore risk contracts are also available. The exploration results and production potential of 5 basins (San Jorge Gulf, Neuquen, Cuyana, Austral, and Northeast) are explained.

  17. Genomic resources and genetic diversity of captive lesser kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis).

    PubMed

    Bock, Friederike; Gallus, Susanne; Janke, Axel; Hailer, Frank; Steck, Beatrice L; Kumar, Vikas; Nilsson, Maria A

    2014-01-01

    The lesser kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis) is a spiral-horned antelope native to northeastern Africa. Individuals kept in zoological gardens are suspected to be highly inbred due to few founder individuals and a small breeding stock. A morphological study suggested two distinct subspecies of the lesser kudu. However, subspecies designation and population structure in zoological gardens has not been analyzed using molecular markers. We analyzed one mitochondrial marker and two nuclear intron loci (total: 2,239 nucleotides) in 52 lesser kudu individuals. Of these, 48 individuals were bred in captivity and sampled from seven different zoos. The four remaining individuals were recently captured in Somalia and are currently held in the Maktoum zoo. Maternally inherited mitochondrial sequences indicate substantial amounts of genetic variation in the zoo populations, while the biparentally inherited intron sequences are, as expected, less variable. The analyzed individuals show 10 mitochondrial haplotypes with a maximal distance of 10 mutational steps. No prominent subspecies structure is detectable in this study. For further studies of the lesser kudu population genetics, we present microsatellite markers from a low-coverage genome survey using 454 sequencing technology. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Cardiomyopathy in captive African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris).

    PubMed

    Raymond, J T; Garner, M M

    2000-09-01

    From 1994 to 1999, 16 captive African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris), from among 42 necropsy cases, were diagnosed with cardiomyopathy. The incidence of cardiomyopathy in this study population was 38%. Fourteen of 16 hedgehogs with cardiomyopathy were males and all hedgehogs were adult (>1 year old). Nine hedgehogs exhibited 1 or more of the following clinical signs before death: heart murmur, lethargy, icterus, moist rales, anorexia, dyspnea, dehydration, and weight loss. The remaining 7 hedgehogs died without premonitory clinical signs. Gross findings were cardiomegaly (6 cases), hepatomegaly (5 cases), pulmonary edema (5 cases), pulmonary congestion (4 cases), hydrothorax (3 cases), pulmonary infarct (1 case), renal infarcts (1 case), ascites (1 case), and 5 cases showed no changes. Histologic lesions were found mainly within the left ventricular myocardium and consisted primarily of myodegeneration, myonecrosis, atrophy, hypertrophy, and disarray of myofibers. All hedgehogs with cardiomyopathy had myocardial fibrosis, myocardial edema, or both. Other common histopathologic findings were acute and chronic passive congestion of the lungs, acute passive congestion of the liver, renal tubular necrosis, vascular thrombosis, splenic extramedullary hematopoiesis, and hepatic lipidosis. This is the first report of cardiomyopathy in African hedgehogs.

  19. Multimodal communication by captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Jamie L.; Hopkins, William D.

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have shown that apes and monkeys are adept at cross-modal matching tasks requiring the subject to identify objects in one modality when information regarding those objects has been presented in a different modality. However, much less is known about non-human primates’ production of multimodal signaling in communicative contexts. Here, we present evidence from a study of 110 chimpanzees demonstrating that they select the modality of communication in accordance with variations in the attentional focus of a human interactant, which is consistent with previous research. In each trial, we presented desirable food to one of two chimpanzees, turning mid-way through the trial from facing one chimpanzee to facing the other chimpanzee, and documented their communicative displays, as the experimenter turned towards or away from the subjects. These chimpanzees varied their signals within a context-appropriate modality, displaying a range of different visual signals when a human experimenter was facing them and a range of different auditory or tactile (attention-getting) signals when the human was facing away from them; this finding extends previous research on multimodal signaling in this species. Thus, in the impoverished circumstances characteristic of captivity, complex signaling tactics are nevertheless exhibited by chimpanzees, suggesting continuity in intersubjective psychological processes in humans and apes. PMID:19504272

  20. Hand preferences in captive orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    O'malley, Robert C; McGrew, W C

    2006-07-01

    The strength of the evidence for population-level handedness in the great apes is a topic of considerable debate, yet there have been few studies of handedness in orangutans. We conducted a study of manual lateralization in a captive group of eight orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) ranking the degrees of manual preference according to a defined framework. We analyzed five behavioral patterns: eat (one- and two-handed), make/modify tool, oral tool-use, and manual tool-use. Although some individuals showed significant manual preferences for one or more tasks, at the group-level both one-handed and two-handed eating, oral tool-use, and make/modify tool were ranked at level 1 (unlateralized). Manual tool-use was ranked at level 2, with four subjects demonstrating significant hand preferences, but no group-level bias to the right or left. Four subjects also showed hand specialization to the right or left across several tasks. These results are consistent with most previous studies of manual preference in orangutans. The emergence of manual lateralization in orangutans may relate to more complex manipulative tasks. We hypothesize that more challenging manual tasks elicit stronger hand preferences.

  1. Response of captive skunks to microencapsulated tetracycline.

    PubMed

    Schmit, Brandon S; Primus, Thomas M; Hurley, Jerome C; Kohler, Dennis J; Graves, Shawna F

    2010-07-01

    A captive striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) study was conducted between February and June 2004 at the United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. The main objective was to determine the percentage of adult striped skunks that were marked after consuming placebo oral rabies vaccine (ORV) baits containing 100 mg of an experimental microencapsulated (coated microparticle) tetracycline hydrochloride biomarker. Biomarkers were identified in the canine teeth and mandibles of five of five skunks that consumed an ORV bait. A second objective was to determine if the microencapsulated tetracycline was resistant to photochemical conversion from tetracycline to epitetracycline. After 15 days of exposure, conversion from tetracycline to epitetracycline concentration in the microencapsulated product (mean 1.9% conversion, SD=1.24) was significantly less (P=0.006) than the pure-grade tetracycline powder (mean 7.5% conversion, SD=1.37). Results support the use of microencapsulated tetracycline hydrochloride as a biomarker in circumstances where the use of conventional powdered tetracycline hydrochloride is not feasible due to ORV bait design constraints.

  2. Geothermal reconnaissance of northeastern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Urbani, F. )

    1989-01-01

    About 60% of Venezuela has been covered by a reconnaissance geothermal survey that includes geologic and water geochemical studies. The information is stored in a computerized data bank that holds data from 361 geothermal localities. The subsurface reservoir temperatures of the geothermal systems have been estimated using chemical geothermometry and mixing models and in many cases conceptual geothermal modes have been postulated. Preliminary assessments of the northeastern Venezuelan geothermal systems indicate that the most promising system is Las Minas near El Pilar in the state of Sucre, with an estimated deep reservoir temperature of 200-220{sup 0}C. Further studies are intended to evaluate its potential for electricity generation. Based on present data, other medium and low temperature systems in Venezuela appear useful for direct applications.

  3. Developments in amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction programs.

    PubMed

    Harding, Gemma; Griffiths, Richard A; Pavajeau, Lissette

    2016-04-01

    Captive breeding and reintroduction remain high profile but controversial conservation interventions. It is important to understand how such programs develop and respond to strategic conservation initiatives. We analyzed the contribution to conservation made by amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction since the launch of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Amphibian Conservation Action Plan (ACAP) in 2007. We assembled data on amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction from a variety of sources including the Amphibian Ark database and the IUCN Red List. We also carried out systematic searches of Web of Science, JSTOR, and Google Scholar for relevant literature. Relative to data collected from 1966 to 2006, the number of species involved in captive breeding and reintroduction projects increased by 57% in the 7 years since release of the ACAP. However, there have been relatively few new reintroductions over this period; most programs have focused on securing captive-assurance populations (i.e., species taken into captivity as a precaution against extinctions in the wild) and conservation-related research. There has been a shift to a broader representation of frogs, salamanders, and caecilians within programs and an increasing emphasis on threatened species. There has been a relative increase of species in programs from Central and South America and the Caribbean, where amphibian biodiversity is high. About half of the programs involve zoos and aquaria with a similar proportion represented in specialist facilities run by governmental or nongovernmental agencies. Despite successful reintroduction often being regarded as the ultimate milestone for such programs, the irreversibility of many current threats to amphibians may make this an impractical goal. Instead, research on captive assurance populations may be needed to develop imaginative solutions to enable amphibians to survive alongside current, emerging, and future threats.

  4. Initial transference of wild birds to captivity alters stress physiology.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Molly J; Earle, Kristen A; Romero, L Michael

    2009-01-01

    Maintaining wild animals in captivity has long been used for conservation and research. While often suggested that captivity causes chronic stress, impacts on the underlying stress physiology are poorly understood. We used wild-caught chukar (Alectoris chukar) as a model avian species to assess how the initial 10 days of captivity alters the corticosterone (CORT) secretory pathway. In the first few days of captivity, birds lost weight, had lower hematocrit and demonstrated changes in CORT concentrations. Both baseline and restraint-stress-induced CORT concentrations decreased by days 3-5 of captivity and remained significantly lower throughout the 10 days although stress-induced concentrations began to recover by day 9. To delineate potential mechanisms underlying these CORT changes, we evaluated alterations to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Although chukar appear to be resistant to arginine vasotocin's (AVT) effects on CORT release, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) stimulated CORT release; however, ACTH stimulation did not differ during the 10 days of captivity. In contrast, negative feedback axis sensitivity, as determined by both dexamethasone suppression as well as endogenous negative feedback, decreased by day 5 but was regained by day 9. In addition, the combined stressors of capture and long distance transport eliminated the animals' ability to mount an acute CORT response on the day following the move. Therefore, introduction into captivity appeared to shift the chukar into a temporary state of chronic stress that began to recover within 9days. The duration of these alterations likely varies due to differences in capture techniques, transport distance, and species studied.

  5. Snow in northeastern United States

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Snow covered the northeastern United States on last day of meteorological winter, 2014. Climatologists and meteorologists break seasons down into three-month groups, based on annual temperature and our calendar. This method is helpful for weather observing and forecasting, and for planning consistent agricultural dates, such as expected first frosts or best planting date. Meteorological winter – the season where temperatures are, on average, coldest and when snow is most likely to fall – runs from December 1 to February 28 in the United States and Canada. Winter can also be defined by the astronomical calendar, which is based on the rotation of the Earth around the sun. In this method, the seasons are defined by two solstices (times when the sun’s path is furthest from the Earth’s equator) and two equinoxes (the times when the sun passes directly above the equator). In the Northern Hemisphere, winter begins on the winter solstice, which falls on or around December 22 and ends on or around March 21, at the vernal (spring) equinox. On February 28, 2014, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite captured this true-color image of a sunny winter day in the northeastern United States. Snow stretches from Maine west to Indiana and south along the ridges of the Appalachian Mountains well into West Virginia. In Canada, the landscape appears greener, primarily because snow lies on conifers (evergreen) trees in the boreal forest regions. The Great Lakes, with the exception of Lake Ontario, are almost completely covered with ice. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on

  6. 77 FR 76165 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Argentina-Measures Affecting the Importation of Goods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Argentina--Measures Affecting the... by Argentina on the importation of goods into Argentina. In particular, Argentina subjects the... Anticipada de Importaci n (``DJAI'') system. Argentina subjects the importation of certain categories...

  7. NREL technical assistance to Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Lilienthal, P.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes assistance to Argentina from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory which has touched on four programs: tariff analysis for rural concessions programs; wind/diesel hybrid retrofits in Patagonia; small hybrid systems designs for rural schools; an assessment of wind resources. The paper expands briefly on the first two points.

  8. Biomass in conifer plantations of northeastern Minnesota.

    Treesearch

    Lewis F. Ohmann

    1984-01-01

    Provides biomass (pounds/acre) estimates for vegetative strata and herb-low shrub species for 53 conifer plantations in Northeastern Minnesota. The estimates are analyzed by plantation age and silvicultural practices used to establish and release the plantations.

  9. A net volume equation for Northeastern Minnesota.

    Treesearch

    Gerhard K. Raile

    1980-01-01

    Describes a net volume equation for northeastern Minnesota developed as part of the 1977 Minnesota Forest Inventory. Equation coefficients are presented by species groupings for both cubic foot and board foot volumes for five tree classes.

  10. Resource partitioning among woodpeckers in northeastern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Bull Evelyn L.; Steven R. Peterson; Jack Ward. Thomas

    1986-01-01

    Eight species of woodpeckers coexist in conifer forests in northeastern Oregon: northern flicker (Colaptes auratus); yellow-bellied (Sphyrapicus varius) and Williamson's (S. thyroideus) sapsuckers; and pileated (Dryocopus pileatus), hairy (Picoides villosus),...

  11. Missile Captive Carry Monitoring using a Capacitive MEMS Accelerometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hatchell, Brian K.; Mauss, Fredrick J.; Santiago-Rojas, Emiliano; Amaya, Ivan A.; Skorpik, James R.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Marotta, Steve

    2010-04-08

    Military missiles are exposed to many sources of mechanical vibration that can affect system reliability, safety, and mission effectiveness. One of the most significant exposures to vibration occurs when the missile is being carried by an aviation platform, which is a condition known as captive carry. If the duration of captive carry exposure could be recorded during the missile’s service life, several advantages could be realized. Missiles that have been exposed to durations outside the design envelop could be flagged or screened for maintenance or inspection; lightly exposed missiles could be selected for critical mission applications; and missile allocation to missions could be based on prior use to avoid overuse. The U. S. Army Aviation and Missile Research Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) has been developing health monitoring systems to assess and improve reliability of missiles during storage and field exposures. Under the direction of AMRDEC staff, engineers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a Captive Carry Health Monitor (CCHM) for the HELLFIRE II missile. The CCHM is an embedded usage monitoring device installed on the outer skin of the HELLFIRE II missile to record the cumulative hours the host missile has been in captive carry mode and thereby assess the overall health of the missile. This paper provides an overview of the CCHM electrical and package design, describes field testing and data analysis techniques used to identify captive carry, and discusses the potential application of missile health and usage data for real-time reliability analysis and fleet management.

  12. Missile captive carry monitoring using a capacitive MEMS accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatchell, Brian; Mauss, Fred; Santiago-Rojas, Emiliano; Amaya, Ivan; Skorpik, Jim; Silvers, Kurt; Marotta, Steve

    2010-03-01

    Military missiles are exposed to many sources of mechanical vibration that can affect system reliability, safety, and mission effectiveness. One of the most significant exposures to vibration occurs when the missile is being carried by an aviation platform, which is a condition known as captive carry. If the duration of captive carry exposure could be recorded during the missile's service life, several advantages could be realized. Missiles that have been exposed to durations outside the design envelop could be flagged or screened for maintenance or inspection; lightly exposed missiles could be selected for critical mission applications; and missile allocation to missions could be based on prior use to avoid overuse. The U. S. Army Aviation and Missile Research Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) has been developing health monitoring systems to assess and improve reliability of missiles during storage and field exposures. Under the direction of AMRDEC staff, engineers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a Captive Carry Health Monitor (CCHM) for the HELLFIRE II missile. The CCHM is an embedded usage monitoring device installed on the outer skin of the HELLFIRE II missile to record the cumulative hours the host missile has been in captive carry mode and thereby assess the overall health of the missile. This paper provides an overview of the CCHM electrical and package design, describes field testing and data analysis techniques used to identify captive carry, and discusses the potential application of missile health and usage data for real-time reliability analysis and fleet management.

  13. Thermal characteristics of wild and captive Micronesian Kingfisher nesting habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kesler, Dylan C.; Haig, Susan M.

    2004-01-01

    To provide information for managing the captive population of endangered Guam Micronesian kingfishers (Halcyon cinnamomina cinnamomina), four biologically relevant thermal metrics were compared among captive facilities on the United States mainland and habitats used by wild Micronesian kingfishers on the island of Pohnpei (H. c. reichenbachii), Federated States of Micronesia. Additionally, aviaries where kingfishers laid eggs were compared to those in which birds did not attempt to breed. Compared to aviaries, habitats used by wild Pohnpei kingfishers had 3.2A?C higher daily maximum and minimum temperatures and the proportion of time when temperatures were in the birds' thermoneutral zone was 45% greater. No differences were found in the magnitude of temperature fluctuation in captive and wild environments. In captive environments in which birds bred, daily maximum temperatures were 2.1A?C higher and temperatures were within the thermoneutral zone 25% more often than in the aviaries where the kingfishers did not breed. No differences were found in the magnitude of temperature fluctuation or the daily minimum temperature. Results suggest that the thermal environment has the potential to influence reproduction, and that consideration should be given to increasing temperatures in captive breeding facilities to improve propagation of the endangered Micronesian kingfisher.

  14. Captive breeding does not alter brain volume in a marsupial over a few generations.

    PubMed

    Guay, P-J; Parrott, M; Selwood, L

    2012-01-01

    Captive breeding followed by reintroduction to the wild is a common component of conservation management plans for various taxa. Although it is commonly used, captive breeding can result in morphological changes, including brain size decrease. Brain size reduction has been associated with behavioral changes in domestic animals, and such changes may negatively influence reintroduction success of captive-bred animals. Many marsupials are currently bred in captivity for reintroduction, yet the impacts of captive breeding on brain size have never been studied in this taxa. We investigated the impacts of a few generations (2-7) of captive breeding on brain volume in the stripe-faced dunnart (Sminthopsis macroura), and found that captive breeding in a relatively enriched environment did not cause any changes in brain volume. Nonetheless, we advocate that great care be taken to provide suitable husbandry conditions and to minimize the number of captive generations if marsupial reintroduction programs are to be successful. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Prevalence and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in donkeys in northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Nian-Zhang; Shi, Kun; Li, Jian-Ming; Xu, Peng; Zhao, Quan; Du, Rui

    2017-10-01

    Toxolasma gondii is one of the most important obligate intracellular protozoan parasites. Recently, toxoplasmosis is of increasing concerns because T. gondii not only has a worldwide distribution but also can infect virtually all warm-blooded hosts including donkeys. However, limited information is available concerning the genetic characterization of T. gondii in donkeys in northeastern China. In this study, a total of 302 brain tissue samples collected from donkeys from Jilin (n=108) and Liaoning (n=194) provinces, northeastern China, were examined for T. gondii infection by semi-nested PCR of B1 gene. The positive samples were genotyped at 11 loci (i.e., SAG1, alternative SAG2, 5'-and 3'-SAG2, SAG3, L358, BTUB, c22-8, GRA6, c29-2, PK1 and Apico) using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technology. Of 302 brain tissue samples, 19 (6.29%) were PCR-positive for T. gondii. The prevalence rates of T. gondii were 6.48% (7/108) and 6.19% (12/194) in Jilin Province and Liaoning Province, respectively. The prevalence of T. gondii in different season groups varied from 5.56% to 7.41%. The prevalence of T. gondii in "Cage-free" donkeys was higher than that in "Captive" donkeys. Of the 19 positive samples, only two isolates were successfully genotyped at all loci, three were genotyped at 9 loci. In total, four samples belong to ToxoDB genotype #9, one belong to ToxoDB genotype #10. This is firstly characterized the T. gondii isolates from donkeys in northeastern China. The results of the present study will improve the information of the distribution of T. gondii genotypes in China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Spanish Coastal Patrol Ships for Argentina and Mexico (Guardacostas Espanoles para Argentina y Mejico),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-22

    IN TRANS ATION ~TITLE: .SPANISH COASTAL PATROL SHIPS FOR ARGENTINA AND MEXICO GUARDACOSTAS EFPANOLES PARA ARGENTINA Y MEJICO AUTHOR: M; RAMIREZ...SHIPS FOR ARGENTINA AND MEXICO [Ramirez Gabarrus, M.; Guardacostas espaioles para Argentina y Mejico; Tecnologia Militar, No. 4, 1983; pP. 50, 53-54... Mexico , Mr. Alvarez de Vayo, signed a contract with the Mexican War Minister, General Cardenas, to build a series of 10 coastal patrol boats and five

  17. Pathophysiology of penetrating captive bolt stunning in Alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Gibson, Troy J; Whitehead, Claire; Taylor, Rebecca; Sykes, Olivia; Chancellor, Natalie M; Limon, Georgina

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the behavioural and cranial/spinal responses of alpacas culled by captive bolt shooting and the resulting pathophysiology of captive bolt injury. Ninety-six alpacas were shot (103 shots) in a range of locations with a penetrating captive bolt gun (CBG). Ten (9.8%) alpacas were incompletely concussed following the first shot. No animals required more than two shots. Incorrectly placed shots accounted for all of the animals that displayed signs of sensibility. Damage to the thalamus, hypothalamus, midbrain, medulla, cerebellum, parietal and occipital lobes were significantly associated with decreasing odds of incomplete concussion. In conclusion, the study confirmed that CBG stunning can induce insensibility in alpacas and suggests that the top of the head (crown) position maximises damage to structures of the thalamus and brainstem.

  18. Artificial insemination in captive Whooping Cranes: Results from genetic analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, K.L.; Nicolich, Jane M.

    2001-01-01

    Artificial insemination has been used frequently in the captive whooping crane (Grus americana) population. In the 1980s, it was necessary at times to inseminate females with semen from several males during the breeding season or with semen from multiple males simultaneously due to unknown sperm viability of the breeding males. The goals of this study were to apply microsatellite DNA profiles to resolve uncertain paternities and to use these results to evaluate the current paternity assignment assumptions used by captive managers. Microsatellite DNA profiles were successful in resolving 20 of 23 paternity questions. When resolved paternities were coupled with data on insemination timing, substantial information was revealed on fertilization timing in captive whooping cranes. Delayed fertilization from inseminations 6+ days pre-oviposition suggests capability of sperm storage.

  19. Isolation of yellow fever virus from mosquitoes in Misiones province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Goenaga, Silvina; Fabbri, Cintia; Dueñas, Juan Climaco Rondan; Gardenal, Cristina Noemí; Rossi, Gustavo Carlos; Calderon, Gladys; Morales, Maria Alejandra; Garcia, Jorge Braulio; Enria, Delia Alcira; Levis, Silvana

    2012-11-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is a viral hemorrhagic fever endemic to tropical regions of South America and Africa. From 2007 to 2009 an important epidemic/epizootic of YF was detected in different populations of howler monkeys (Alouatta species) in Misiones, a northeastern Argentinian province. Yellow fever virus (YFV) infection was researched and documented by laboratory tests in humans and in dead Alouatta carayá. The objective of that research was to investigate the circulation of YFV in mosquitoes, which could be implicated in the sylvatic transmission of YF in Argentina. The above-mentioned mosquitoes were captured in the same geographical region where the epizootic took place. A YFV strain was isolated in cell culture from pools of Sabethes albiprivus. This study is not only the first isolation of YFV from mosquitoes in Argentina, but it is also the first YFV isolation reported in the species Sabethes albiprivus, suggesting that this species might be playing a key role in sylvatic YF in Argentina.

  20. Intrathecal antibody production in two cases of yellow fever vaccine associated neurotropic disease in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Pires-Marczeski, Fanny Clara; Martinez, Valeria Paula; Nemirovsky, Corina; Padula, Paula Julieta

    2011-12-01

    During the period 2007-2008 several epizootics of Yellow fever with dead of monkeys occurred in southeastern Brasil, Paraguay, and northeastern Argentina. In 2008 after a Yellow fever outbreak an exhaustive prevention campaign took place in Argentina using 17D live attenuated Yellow fever vaccine. This vaccine is considered one of the safest live virus vaccines, although serious adverse reactions may occur after vaccination, and vaccine-associated neurotropic disease are reported rarely. The aim of this study was to confirm two serious adverse events associated to Yellow fever vaccine in Argentina, and to describe the analysis performed to assess the origin of specific IgM against Yellow fever virus (YFV) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Both cases coincided with the Yellow fever vaccine-associated neurotropic disease case definition, being clinical diagnosis longitudinal myelitis (case 1) and meningoencephalitis (case 2). Specific YFV antibodies were detected in CSF and serum samples in both cases by IgM antibody-capture ELISA. No other cause of neurological disease was identified. In order to obtain a conclusive diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) infection the IgM antibody index (AI(IgM) ) was calculated. High AI(IgM) values were found in both cases indicating intrathecal production of antibodies and, therefore, CNS post-vaccinal YFV infection could be definitively associated to YFV vaccination. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Yellow fever vaccine-associated adverse events following extensive immunization in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Biscayart, Cristián; Carrega, María Eugenia Pérez; Sagradini, Sandra; Gentile, Angela; Stecher, Daniel; Orduna, Tomás; Bentancourt, Silvia; Jiménez, Salvador García; Flynn, Luis Pedro; Arce, Gabriel Pirán; Uboldi, María Andrea; Bugna, Laura; Morales, María Alejandra; Digilio, Clara; Fabbri, Cintia; Enría, Delia; Diosque, Máximo; Vizzotti, Carla

    2014-03-05

    As a consequence of YF outbreaks that hit Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay in 2008-2009, a significant demand for YF vaccination was subsequently observed in Argentina, a country where the usual vaccine recommendations are restricted to provinces that border Brazil, Paraguay, and Bolivia. The goal of this paper is to describe the adverse events following immunization (AEFI) against YF in Argentina during the outbreak in the northeastern province of Misiones, which occurred from January 2008 to January 2009. During this time, a total of nine cases were reported, almost two million doses of vaccine were administered, and a total of 165 AEFI were reported from different provinces. Case study analyses were performed using two AEFI classifications. Forty-nine events were classified as related to the YF vaccine (24 serious and 1 fatal case), and 12 events were classified as inconclusive. As the use of the YF 17D vaccine can be a challenge to health systems of countries with different endemicity patterns, a careful clinical and epidemiological evaluation should be performed before its prescription to minimize serious adverse events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Captivate Your Audience by Turning Powerpoint Presentations into Interactive E-Learning Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Montessa; Hirnyck, Ronda; Agenbroad, Ariel; Bechinski, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Adobe® Captivate software provides educators with a tool to create interactive distance learning modules. This article describes how Adobe® Captivate was used to increase engagement of volunteer learners. An Adobe® Captivate module was created for the University of Idaho Master Gardener program to educate and test new Master Gardener volunteers on…

  3. Captivate Your Audience by Turning Powerpoint Presentations into Interactive E-Learning Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Montessa; Hirnyck, Ronda; Agenbroad, Ariel; Bechinski, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Adobe® Captivate software provides educators with a tool to create interactive distance learning modules. This article describes how Adobe® Captivate was used to increase engagement of volunteer learners. An Adobe® Captivate module was created for the University of Idaho Master Gardener program to educate and test new Master Gardener volunteers on…

  4. Malocclusion in the jaws of captive bred Arctic wolves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Federoff, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    Similar abnormalities in the skulls of captive Arctic Wolves (Canis lupus arctos) and a wild Arctic wolf found dead on Ellesmere Island, Canada, in 1986 are described. The malocclusion is likely to be recessively inherited and would be expressed more frequently in association with increased levels of inbreeding. A re-shaping of the skulls may have occurred due to the effects of the malocclusive trait. The Ellesmere skull was short and wide in comparison to the captive skulls which were long and narrow. The focus of effect was in a foreshortening of the rostrum and the resulting shortened toothrow.

  5. History and dietary husbandry of pangolins in captivity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ci Wen; Chen, Suming; Chang, Chi-Yen; Lin, Mei Fong; Block, Erik; Lorentsen, Ronald; Chin, Jason S C; Dierenfeld, Ellen S

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a history of feeding and dietary husbandry of pangolin in captivity. Over the past 150 years, several zoos have attempted to maintain pangolins (Manis spp). Most of these zoos have not succeeded in maintaining these animals for long periods, associated largely with dietary problems. This study reviews the historic records of captive pangolins. The dietary husbandry of pangolins in Taipei Zoo is discussed in detail. Zoo Biol 0:1-8, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Reproduction of the owl monkey (Aotus spp.) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Málaga, C A; Weller, R E; Buschbom, R L; Baer, J F; Kimsey, B B

    1997-06-01

    The reproduction performance of captive owl monkeys, a breed used extensively in biomedical research, was observed at the Battelle Primate Facility (BPF). The colony grew through captive breeding, imports from the Peruvian Primatological Project, and others to a peak size of 730. It included seven karyotypes of Aotus sp. Results showed that owl monkeys can breed successfully in a laboratory in numbers sufficient to sustain modest research programs. Reproductive success increases when pairs are compatible, of the same karyotype, and stabilized; however, mated pairs of different karyotype are also productive. Under conditions of controlled lighting and heating, owl monkeys at BPF showed no birth peak nor birth season.

  7. Radiographic kidney measurements in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Hackendahl, Nicole C; Citino, Scott B

    2005-06-01

    The prevalence of chronic renal disease is substantial among captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). The purpose of this study was to determine kidney measurements from radiographs of captive cheetahs (n = 15) with normal renal function. The ratio of kidney length to length of the body of the second lumbar vertebrae has been established for domestic cats with normal renal function. The mean ratio of renal length to length of the second lumbar vertebra was 1.81 +/- 0.14 in cheetahs. This baseline data may allow an objective evaluation of radiographic kidney size in cheetahs. However, evaluation of a small number of cheetahs with confirmed renal failure resulted in a similar ratio.

  8. Stereo Pair: Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This view of northern Patagonia, near El Cain, Argentina shows complexly eroded volcanic terrain, with basalt mesas, sinkholes, landslide debris, playas, and relatively few integrated drainage channels. Surrounding this site (but also extending far to the east) is a broad plateau capped by basalt, the Meseta de Somuncura. Here, near the western edge of the plateau, erosion has broken through the basalt cap in a variety of ways. On the mesas, water-filled sinkholes (lower left) are most likely the result of the collapse of old lava tubes. Along the edges of the mesas (several locations) the basalt seems to be sliding away from the plateau in a series of slices. Water erosion by overland flow is also evident, particularly in canyons where vegetation blankets the drainage channels (green patterns, bottom of image). However, overland water flow does not extend very far at any location. This entire site drains to local playas, some of which are seen here (blue). While the water can reach the playas and then evaporate, what becomes of the eroded rock debris? Wind might excavate some of the finer eroded debris, but the fate of much of the missing bedrock remains mysterious.

    This cross-eyed stereoscopic image pair was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, combined with an enhanced Landsat 7 satellite color image. The topography data are used to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. In doing so, each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The

  9. Anaglyph: Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This view of northern Patagonia, near El Cain, Argentina shows complexly eroded volcanic terrain, with basalt mesas, sinkholes, landslide debris, playas, and relatively few integrated drainage channels. Surrounding this site (but also extending far to the east) is a broad plateau capped by basalt, the Meseta de Somuncura. Here, near the western edge of the plateau, erosion has broken through the basalt cap in a variety of ways. On the mesas, water-filled sinkholes (lower left) are most likely the result of the collapse of old lava tubes. Along the edges of the mesas (several locations) the basalt seems to be sliding away from the plateau in a series of slices. Water erosion by overland flow is also evident, particularly in canyons where vegetation blankets the drainage channels (bright patterns, bottom of image). However, overland water flow does not extend very far at any location. This entire site drains to local playas, some of which are seen here (dark lakes with bright shores). While the water can reach the playas and then evaporate, what becomes of the eroded rock debris? Wind might excavate some of the finer eroded debris, but the fate of much of the missing bedrock remains mysterious.

    This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat Thematic Mapper image over a topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, then producing the two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was

  10. Stereo Pair: Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This view of northern Patagonia, near El Cain, Argentina shows complexly eroded volcanic terrain, with basalt mesas, sinkholes, landslide debris, playas, and relatively few integrated drainage channels. Surrounding this site (but also extending far to the east) is a broad plateau capped by basalt, the Meseta de Somuncura. Here, near the western edge of the plateau, erosion has broken through the basalt cap in a variety of ways. On the mesas, water-filled sinkholes (lower left) are most likely the result of the collapse of old lava tubes. Along the edges of the mesas (several locations) the basalt seems to be sliding away from the plateau in a series of slices. Water erosion by overland flow is also evident, particularly in canyons where vegetation blankets the drainage channels (green patterns, bottom of image). However, overland water flow does not extend very far at any location. This entire site drains to local playas, some of which are seen here (blue). While the water can reach the playas and then evaporate, what becomes of the eroded rock debris? Wind might excavate some of the finer eroded debris, but the fate of much of the missing bedrock remains mysterious.

    This cross-eyed stereoscopic image pair was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, combined with an enhanced Landsat 7 satellite color image. The topography data are used to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. In doing so, each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The

  11. Anaglyph: Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This view of northern Patagonia, near El Cain, Argentina shows complexly eroded volcanic terrain, with basalt mesas, sinkholes, landslide debris, playas, and relatively few integrated drainage channels. Surrounding this site (but also extending far to the east) is a broad plateau capped by basalt, the Meseta de Somuncura. Here, near the western edge of the plateau, erosion has broken through the basalt cap in a variety of ways. On the mesas, water-filled sinkholes (lower left) are most likely the result of the collapse of old lava tubes. Along the edges of the mesas (several locations) the basalt seems to be sliding away from the plateau in a series of slices. Water erosion by overland flow is also evident, particularly in canyons where vegetation blankets the drainage channels (bright patterns, bottom of image). However, overland water flow does not extend very far at any location. This entire site drains to local playas, some of which are seen here (dark lakes with bright shores). While the water can reach the playas and then evaporate, what becomes of the eroded rock debris? Wind might excavate some of the finer eroded debris, but the fate of much of the missing bedrock remains mysterious.

    This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat Thematic Mapper image over a topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, then producing the two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was

  12. Stereo Pair, Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This view of northern Patagonia, at Los Menucos, Argentina shows remnants of relatively young volcanoes built upon an eroded plain of much older and contorted volcanic, granitic, and sedimentary rocks. The large purple, brown, and green 'butterfly' pattern is a single volcano that has been deeply eroded. Large holes on the volcano's flanks indicate that they may have collapsed soon after eruption, as fluid molten rock drained out from under its cooled and solidified outer shell. At the upper left, a more recent eruption occurred and produced a small volcanic cone and a long stream of lava, which flowed down a gully. At the top of the image, volcanic intrusions permeated the older rocks resulting in a chain of small dark volcanic peaks. At the top center of the image, two halves of a tan ellipse pattern are offset from each other. This feature is an old igneous intrusion that has been split by a right-lateral fault. The apparent offset is about 6.6 kilometers (4 miles). Color, tonal, and topographic discontinuities reveal the fault trace as it extends across the image to the lower left. However, young unbroken basalt flows show that the fault has not been active recently.

    This cross-eyed stereoscopic image pair was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, combined with an enhanced Landsat 7satellite color image. The topography data are used to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. In doing so, each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive

  13. Anaglyph, Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This view of northern Patagonia, at Los Menucos, Argentina shows remnants of relatively young volcanoes built upon an eroded plain of much older and contorted volcanic, granitic, and sedimentary rocks. The large, dark 'butterfly' pattern is a single volcano that has been deeply eroded. Large holes on the volcano's flanks indicate that they may have collapsed soon after eruption, as fluid molten rock drained out from under its cooled and solidified outer shell. At the upper left, a more recent eruption occurred and produced a small volcanic cone and a long stream of lava, which flowed down a gully. At the top of the image, volcanic intrusions permeated the older rocks resulting in a chain of small dark volcanic peaks.

    At the top center of the image, two halves of a light ellipse pattern are offset from each other. This feature is an old igneous intrusion that has been split by a right-lateral fault. The apparent offset is about 6.6 kilometers (4 miles). Tonal and topographic discontinuities reveal the fault trace as it extends across the image to the lower left. However, young unbroken basalt flows show that the fault has not been active recently.

    This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat Thematic Mapper image over a topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, then producing the two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United

  14. Crustal Deformation In Northeastern Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerbini, S.; Romagnoli, C.; Richter, B.; Lago, L.; Domenichini, F.; Simon, D.

    Four permanent GPS stations have been installed in northeastern Italy starting mid 1996. Three stations: Bologna, Medicina and Porto Corsini are located in the south- eastern Po Plain, while the fourth one was set up in the Trieste harbor. The network was installed to monitor vertical crustal movements at tide gauge sites and in sub- siding areas of the Po Plain. At Medicina, since October 1996, it is also operative a superconducting gravimeter periodically controlled by means of absolute gravity mea- surements. The stations, which are distributed around the northern edge of the Adria plate, provide information on vertical and horizontal displacements related to crustal deformation. The temporal behavior of the Adria plate, in response to the convergence of the surrounding regions, has been presumably more complex than a simple horizon- tal displacement and, most likely, involved flexural bending processes. The GPS and the continuous gravity data have been analyzed and interpreted to estimate vertical and horizontal rates at the four sites. The presence of relevant seasonal signals has been identified in the series of station coordinates as well as in the gravity data. These fluc- tuations, if not accounted for, may corrupt the high precision estimate of the long-term trends.

  15. Denuclearization in Argentina and Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Goldemberg, J.; Feiveson, H.A.

    1994-03-01

    The political process that led to the important agreements reached between Argentina and Brazil to guarantee that nuclear energy is used in both countries exclusively for peaceful purposes could prove to be a useful model. These achievements are due primarily to the return of democratic rule in both countries. While the political processes leading to fully integrated democratic institutions may not have taken hold as fully in other regions of proliferation concern, the Argentine-Brazilian agreements suggest that similar regional safeguards arrangements might be possible in South Asia, on the Korean Peninsula eventually, and perhaps in portions of the Middle East. These agreements include the creation of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) for the application of safeguards to both countries; and the Quadripartite Agreement between Brazil, Argentina, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and ABACC.

  16. Thunderstorms, Andean Mountains Ridgeline, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In this scenic view of thunderstorms skirting the eastern ridgeline of the Andeas Mountains in northern Argentina (approximate coordinates 28.0S, 57.0W), the confluence of the Rio Salado and Rio Saladillo where they merge with the Rio Parana can be seen in sunglint. Thunderstorms along the eastern Andes are typical at this time of year (Southern Hemisphere summer) with anvils moving to the east from the core of the storm.

  17. Argentina: Nationality, Demography and Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-22

    consciousness. This is where Argentina’s weakness lies, a weakness at the foundation of any political, economic or social plan with which we try to solve our...retained their idiom and customs unusually long; not effectively socialized as Argentines; lack of national identity. The present situation. Our...work force. They lack social coverage and earn minimum wages under the table. Some Paraguayans become "contractors", the peak of the immigrant’s

  18. Thunderstorms, Andean Mountains Ridgeline, Argentina

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-01-19

    STS054-151-150 (13-19 Jan 1993) --- View west into sun glint off the Rio Salado, Saladillo, and Parana Rivers in Argentina. The Space Shuttle nadir is about 28 degrees north latitude and 57 degrees west longitude. The Andes Mountains are barely visible on Earth's limb. Thunderstorms along the eastern edge of the Andes are typical of this time of year (Southern Hemisphere summer), with anvils moving to the east from the core of the storm.

  19. 50 CFR 15.31 - Criteria for including species in the approved list for captive-bred species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... approved list for captive-bred species. 15.31 Section 15.31 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND... captive-bred species. The Director will periodically review the list of captive-bred exotic bird species...) All specimens of the species known to be in trade (legal or illegal) are captive-bred; (b)...

  20. 50 CFR 15.31 - Criteria for including species in the approved list for captive-bred species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... approved list for captive-bred species. 15.31 Section 15.31 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND... captive-bred species. The Director will periodically review the list of captive-bred exotic bird species...) All specimens of the species known to be in trade (legal or illegal) are captive-bred; (b)...

  1. 50 CFR 15.31 - Criteria for including species in the approved list for captive-bred species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... approved list for captive-bred species. 15.31 Section 15.31 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND... captive-bred species. The Director will periodically review the list of captive-bred exotic bird species...) All specimens of the species known to be in trade (legal or illegal) are captive-bred; (b)...

  2. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in captive cheetah.

    PubMed

    Crossley, Beate; Hietala, Sharon; Hunt, Tania; Benjamin, Glenn; Martinez, Marie; Darnell, Daniel; Rubrum, Adam; Webby, Richard

    2012-02-01

    We describe virus isolation, full genome sequence analysis, and clinical pathology in ferrets experimentally inoculated with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus recovered from a clinically ill captive cheetah that had minimal human contact. Evidence of reverse zoonotic transmission by fomites underscores the substantial animal and human health implications of this virus.

  3. Serum vitamin A concentrations in captive sea otters (Enhydra lutris).

    PubMed

    Righton, Alison L; St Leger, Judy A; Schmitt, Todd; Murray, Michael J; Adams, Lance; Fascetti, Andrea J

    2011-03-01

    Individual dietary preferences and difficulty with animal training create challenges and nutritional concerns when evaluating a captive sea otter (Enhydra lutris) diet. The importance of vitamin A within the body reflects the necessity that it be ingested in adequate amounts to ensure optimal health. To compare levels of serum vitamin A concentrations from captive sea otters on daily oral vitamin A supplementation, serum samples from eight adult sea otters from three institutions were evaluated for serum vitamin A concentrations. The eight animals were fed a total of four different diets and received oral supplementation via three different methods. Multiple diet items were analyzed for vitamin A content and were found to have low to nondetectable levels of vitamin A. Oral vitamin A supplementation, as a slurry with dietary items, was shown to be effective and a mean serum concentration of approximately 170 +/- 51 microg/L was obtained for serum vitamin A concentrations in captive sea otters. Captive diets can be modified to increase vitamin A concentration and supplementation and, if accepted, can be used as a means to ensure adequate vitamin A intake.

  4. 9 CFR 313.15 - Mechanical; captive bolt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...; operator. (i) Acceptable captive bolt stunning instruments may be either skull penetrating or... instruments on detonation deliver bolts of varying diameters and lengths through the skull and into the brain... require skull penetration to produce immediate unconsciousness. Charges suitable for smaller kinds...

  5. 9 CFR 313.15 - Mechanical; captive bolt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...; operator. (i) Acceptable captive bolt stunning instruments may be either skull penetrating or... instruments on detonation deliver bolts of varying diameters and lengths through the skull and into the brain... require skull penetration to produce immediate unconsciousness. Charges suitable for smaller kinds...

  6. 9 CFR 313.15 - Mechanical; captive bolt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...; operator. (i) Acceptable captive bolt stunning instruments may be either skull penetrating or... instruments on detonation deliver bolts of varying diameters and lengths through the skull and into the brain... require skull penetration to produce immediate unconsciousness. Charges suitable for smaller kinds...

  7. Dolphin Morbillivirus Infection in a Captive Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina)

    PubMed Central

    Peletto, Simone; Mondin, Alessandra; Centelleghe, Cinzia; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Di Francesco, Cristina Esmeralda; Casalone, Cristina; Acutis, Pier Luigi

    2013-01-01

    During the second morbillivirus epidemic (2007 to 2011) in cetaceans along the Italian coastline, dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) was detected by molecular analyses in a captive harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), with pathological findings consistent with morbillivirus infection. This report confirms interspecies DMV transmission from cetaceans to pinnipeds. PMID:23224101

  8. Dolphin morbillivirus infection in a captive harbor seal (Phoca vitulina).

    PubMed

    Mazzariol, Sandro; Peletto, Simone; Mondin, Alessandra; Centelleghe, Cinzia; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Di Francesco, Cristina Esmeralda; Casalone, Cristina; Acutis, Pier Luigi

    2013-02-01

    During the second morbillivirus epidemic (2007 to 2011) in cetaceans along the Italian coastline, dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) was detected by molecular analyses in a captive harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), with pathological findings consistent with morbillivirus infection. This report confirms interspecies DMV transmission from cetaceans to pinnipeds.

  9. TOXOPLASMOSIS IN CAPTIVE DOLPHINS (TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS) AND WALRUS (ODOBENUS ROSMRUS)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is intriguing and indicative of contamination of the ocean environment and coastal waters with oocysts. Toxoplasma gondii infection was detected in captive marine mammals at a seaquarium in Canada. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in all 7 bottlenose ...

  10. Life as a Captive of the Job Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Eunice

    2013-01-01

    The academic job market is an exercise in captivity, and the author thinks that she is still its prisoner. A Ph.D. in history, the author is learning the rules of the game, and finding that search committees could do with a few lessons, too. In this article, the author shares how she found a way out.

  11. Hemorrhagic enteritis in captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.; Graham, D.L.; Domermuth, C.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Pattee, O.H.

    1983-01-01

    Hemorrhagic enteritis and hepatitis of suspected adenovirus etiology were the apparent cause of death of nine captive American kestrels. Cloacal hemorrhage was the only prominent gross lesion: disseminated hepatocellular necrosis, and intranuclear inclusion bodies were evident microscopically. Electron microscopy revealed numerous adenovirus-like particles associated with the hepatic lesions. Attempts to serologically identify the agent were unsuccessful.

  12. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection in a captive bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Galbreath, Elizabeth J.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Abell, John M.

    1994-01-01

    An adult bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) kept in captivity for nearly 7 yr at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, died suddenly with gross and microscopic lesions characteristic of septicemia. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae was isolated from the liver. Fish comprised part of the bird's diet and may have been the source of the organism.

  13. Pulmonary Tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in Captive Siberian Tiger

    PubMed Central

    Lantos, Ákos; Niemann, Stefan; Mezősi, László; Sós, Endre; Erdélyi, Károly; Dávid, Sándor; Parsons, Linda M.; Kubica, Tanja; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine

    2003-01-01

    We report the first case of pulmonary tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae in a captive Siberian tiger, an endangered feline. The pathogen was isolated from a tracheal aspirate obtained by bronchoscopy. This procedure provided a reliable in vivo diagnostic method in conjunction with conventional and molecular tests for the detection of mycobacteria. PMID:14718093

  14. Patterns of aggression among captive American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber).

    PubMed

    Hinton, Mitchell G; Bendelow, Annie; Lantz, Samantha; Wey, Tina W; Schoen, Lee; Brockett, Robin; Karubian, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Many species of flamingo are endangered in the wild but common in zoos, where successful captive breeding programs are a management priority. Unlike their counterparts in the wild, captive flamingo individuals are easy to mark and follow, facilitating longitudinal data collection on social dynamics that may affect reproduction. We studied a captive group of American Flamingos at the Audubon Zoo in New Orleans, LA to document patterns of aggression between individuals during the onset of breeding. We used a social network approach to test whether overall aggression would be higher during courtship or following establishment of pair bonds. Aggression was higher following pair bond establishment than during courtship, suggesting that individuals in our study population may compete more intensely for resources such as nesting sites than for mates. We also found that males were more aggressive than females during all stages of the study period and that there was a positive relationship between age and aggression in males during the pair-bond stage. We discuss these findings in light of management practices for captive populations of flamingos and general patterns of aggression in social animals.

  15. 13. DETAIL VIEW OF DELUGE JETS DIRECTED TOWARDS CAPTIVE TEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL VIEW OF DELUGE JETS DIRECTED TOWARDS CAPTIVE TEST STAND BEHIND PROTECTIVE BLAST WALL. NOTE FLAME RETARDENT PUTTY (FONDUE FYRE) ON WALL; VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28402, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  16. Controllability in environmental enrichment for captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Videan, Elaine N; Fritz, Jo; Schwandt, Melanie L; Smith, Heather F; Howell, Sue

    2005-01-01

    This study considers the use of nonsocial environmental enrichment by captive chimpanzees at the Primate Foundation of Arizona. The goal was to determine whether a relationship existed between controllability of enrichment items by captive chimpanzees and frequency of use. The study measured controllability, the ability of nonhuman animals to alter aspects of their environment by the potential destructibility of the enrichment item. This study examined additional factors that may affect enrichment use: individual age, sex, rearing history, social group composition, and availability of outdoor access. The chimpanzees in the study used destructible items--the enrichment category with the highest level of controllability--more than indestructible items across all age, sex, and rearing classes. Thus, controllability seems to be an important factor in chimpanzee enrichment. Younger individuals and groups with outdoor access used enrichment more than did older individuals and groups with indoor-only access. Individual sex, rearing history, and social group composition had minimal effects on enrichment use. These results support the importance of control to captive chimpanzees and further enable captive management to customize enrichment programs to the needs of particular animals.

  17. Excellent Educators: ISTE's Award Winners Inspire, Captivate, and Motivate!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingal, Diana

    2012-01-01

    In the impassioned debate about school reform, there is one point that all sides agree on: Classroom teachers have a huge impact on student success. Great teachers don't just teach. They inspire, they captivate, and they motivate their students to create, investigate, solve, and continue learning long after their school years are over. This…

  18. Stress Hormones and their Regulation in a Captive Dolphin Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    stimulation experiments, an animal’s hormonal and physiological response to a simulated stressor can be evaluated. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Stress Hormones and Their Regulation in a Captive...will determine baseline levels of putative stress hormones and evaluate the functional consequences of increased stress in the bottlenose dolphin

  19. Drought Analysis in Northeastern Argentine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, N. O.

    2005-12-01

    The objetive of the present work was analyze the occurrence of droughts in the context of the climatic variability, in a wide region of the Argentinean territory that encompass the six provinces of the northeastern (Misiones, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Santa Fe, Chaco and Formosa). In order to define the droughts a decilic analysis of the monthly precipitation records was used, and the temporal and spatial variability were analyzed with Spectral Analysis of the composite dry year (From January of the year of droughts onset until December of the following year), this period contain the complete hydrologic dry-year. It was observed that the occurrence of annual droughts change along the last century, verifying an average of one drought each three years up to 1969 and one drought each five year from 1970. From the point of view of the relative amount of fallen water, it was observed that the extreme dry periods take place in autumn, winter and spring and weak dry period during the summer or to along the complete hydrologic year. The spatial and temporal behavior of the dry periods showed that the composite dry-years are more significant in amplitude and phase than composite LA NIÑA years. So much the rains of summer like the winters droughts accentuate the second harmonic amplitude, that contains information of the amount of fallen water and also represent the annual cycle of the precipitations, while the droughts of summer attenuate it. The harmonic dials in the analyzed region showed that the second spectral component is the most significant, while the first component indicates their relationship with the region EL NIÑO, in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean. The results indicate a regional homogeneous characterization regarding the first harmonic in the north, the same as the area center-eastern, while the southwest and south area has a behavior with characteristic very particular characteristics during the dry events (second harmonic not significant).

  20. The Northeastern Research Station Strategic Framework: Regional Focus, Global Perspective

    Treesearch

    Northeastern Research Station

    2000-01-01

    The Northeastern Research Station Strategic Framework sets forth the strategic goals to provide information and technology required to ensure the sustainability of Northeastern forests and the goods and services they provide.

  1. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2001 : Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, Deborah A.; McAuley, W. Carlin; Maynard, Desmond J.

    2002-04-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstock and captive rearing programs to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock and captive rearing programs are a form of artificial propagation that are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations that are at critically low numbers. Captive broodstocks, reared in captivity for the entire life cycle, couple the salmon's high fecundity with potentially high survival in protective culture to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from 1 September 2000 to 31 August 2001 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock and captive rearing program. NMFS currently has broodstock in culture from year classes 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000 in both the captive broodstock and captive rearing programs. Offspring from these programs are being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  2. Spatial and seasonal trends of a natural population of Biomphalaria occidentalis in northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rumi, A; Hamann, M I

    1992-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the age structure of a population of Biomphalaria occidentalis on a pond of Riachuelo river basin, which is one of the three most important Middle Paraná river affluents in Corrientes province. Samples were drawn from three stations, where spatial and temporal numerical variations of the snail, as well as its relation with different environmental parameters, mainly temperature, rainfall, pH and conductivity, were analyzed. Snail abundance is given in number of individuals/hour. The differences between the three sampling stations, estimated by nonparametric tests, was nonsignificant. A relative scale to the greatest shell diameter was employed to build the age pyramids. Temporal fluctuations of snail abundance correlated negatively with the highest monthly accumulated temperatures (P < 0.05). Although different floristic compositions were observed at the three stations, no significant numerical variations were detected in B. occidentalis spatial distribution. Reproductive activity took place between March-April and November with overlapping cohort system. During summer (December-February) mortality increased along with temperature and reproductive activity was not evident.

  3. Abnormalities in amphibian populations inhabiting agroecosystems in Northeastern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Agostini, M G; Kacoliris, F; Demetrio, P; Natale, G S; Bonetto, C; Ronco, A E

    2013-05-27

    The occurrence of abnormalities in amphibians has been reported in many populations, and its increase could be related to environmental pollution and habitat degradation. We evaluated the type and prevalence of abnormalities in 5 amphibian populations from agroecosystems with different degrees of agricultural disturbance (cultivated and reference areas). We detected 9 types of abnormalities, of which the most frequent were those occurring in limbs. The observed prevalence of abnormality in assessed populations from cultivated and reference areas was as follows: Rhinella fernandezae (37.1 and 10.2%, respectively), Leptodactylus latrans adults (28.1 and 9.2%) and juveniles (32.9 and 15.3%), and Hypsiboas pulchellus (11.6 and 2.8%). Scinax granulatus populations did not show abnormalities. Pseudis minuta, which was only detected in the reference area, exhibited a prevalence of 13.3%. For R. fernandezae, L. latrans, and H. pulchellus, generalized linear mixed models showed that prevalence of abnormalities was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in cultivated than in reference areas. L. latrans juveniles were more vulnerable to abnormalities than adults (p < 0.05). The presence of abnormalities in some species inhabiting different agroecosystems suggests that environmental stress factors might be responsible for their occurrence. While we detected pesticides (endosulfan, cypermethrin, and chlorpyrifos) and lower dissolved oxygen levels in ponds of the cultivated area, no data are currently available on how other factors, such as injuries from predators and parasite infections, vary by land use. Further research will be necessary to evaluate possible causes of abnormalities detected in the present study mainly in the context of factor interactions.

  4. Bionomics of Aedes aegypti subpopulations (Diptera: Culicidae) from Misiones Province, northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Tejerina, Edmundo Fabricio; Almeida, Francisco Felipe Ludueña; Almirón, Walter Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Life statistics of four Aedes aegypti subpopulations from the subtropical province of Misiones were studied during autumn and winter, under semi-natural conditions, coming from the localities of Posadas (SW), San Javier (SE), Bernardo de Irigoyen (NE) and Puerto Libertad (NW). The eastern subpopulations are geographically separated by the central mountain system of the province from the western subpopulations. High percentages of larval and pupal survival (97-100%) were recorded, and no significant differences were detected among the four subpopulations. Larvae and pupae lasted approximately 8 days to complete their development, no significant differences being detected among the four subpopulations studied. Sex ratio recorded did not differ significantly from 1:1. Male longevity did not show difference among the different subpopulations, but female longevity was remarkably different among the four subpopulations (F=16.27; d.f.=(3;8); P=0.0009), ranging among 11.45 days for San Javier and 57.87 days for Posadas. Fecundity also varied considerably among subpopulations, the greatest number (307.44 eggs/female) being recorded for Posadas (F=4.13; d.f.=(3;8); P=0.04). Ae. aegypti females of the western subpopulations lived longer than the eastern subpopulations studied, therefore, the risk of dengue outbreak would be greater on the Misiones Province border with Paraguay.

  5. A new Batillipedidae (Tardigrada, Arthrotardigrada) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Menechella, Agustín G; Bulnes, Verónica N; Cazzaniga, Néstor J

    2015-10-16

    A new species of marine tardigrade, Batillipes acuticauda sp. n., has been found in midlittoral sand sediments collected at Monte Hermoso beach (Buenos Aires province, Argentina). The new species differs from all other members of Batillipedidae by its combination of caudal apparatus, lateral processes and toe patterns. It is the first description of an arthrotardigrade from Argentina.

  6. The Stenopodainae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) of Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Diez, Fernando; Coscarón, María del Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In Argentina, 10 genera and 33 species of Stenopodainae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) have been recorded. Diagnoses of the genera, subgenera and species are given, and an illustrated key to genera is provided. Six species are new records for Argentina and an additional seven species represent new records for provinces. PMID:25493054

  7. Public University in Argentina: Subsidizing the Rich?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozada, Martin Gonzalez; Menendez, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    Investigates educational equity and efficiency of higher education in Argentina. Concludes that despite the fact that public universities are tuition-free, only students from the richest families in Argentina are able to attend universities. Suggests improving higher education equality and efficiency by charging tuition fees and offering selective…

  8. Public University in Argentina: Subsidizing the Rich?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozada, Martin Gonzalez; Menendez, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    Investigates educational equity and efficiency of higher education in Argentina. Concludes that despite the fact that public universities are tuition-free, only students from the richest families in Argentina are able to attend universities. Suggests improving higher education equality and efficiency by charging tuition fees and offering selective…

  9. Boll weevil invasion process in Argentina

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, is the most destructive cotton pest in the Western Hemisphere. In 1993, the pest was reported in Argentina, and in 1994 boll weevils were captured in cotton fields in the Formosa Province on the border between Argentina and Paraguay. The pest ha...

  10. English in Argentina: A Sociolinguistic Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Paul Maersk

    2003-01-01

    Provides insight into the dimensions and dynamics of English in Argentina by drawing a sociolinguistic profile of this language in a South American setting. Begins with an overview of the languages and cultures represented in Argentina and the historical presence, contact, and availability of English from the eighteenth century on. (VWL)

  11. Blood values in wild and captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis).

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Don; Frye, Frederic L.; Stockham, Steven L.; Fredeking, Terry

    2000-01-01

    The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) is the largest living lizard and occupies a range smaller than that of any other large carnivore in the world. Samples from 33 free-ranging animals at five localities in Komodo National Park, Indonesia were evaluated to assess underlying health problems. To build a comparative database, samples from 44 Komodo dragons in both Indonesian and U.S. zoos were also analyzed. Tests performed included complete blood counts, clinical chemistry profiles, vitamin A, D(3), and E analyses, mineral levels, and screening for chlorinated pesticides or other toxins in wild specimens. Blood samples from wild dragons were positive for hemogregarines, whereas captive specimens were all negative. Total white blood cell counts were consistently higher in captive Komodo dragons than in wild specimens. Reference intervals were established for some chemistry analytes, and values obtained from different groups were compared. Vitamin A and E ranges were established. Vitamin D(3) levels were significantly different in Komodo dragons kept in captive, indoor exhibits versus those with daily ultraviolet-B exposure, whether captive or wild specimens. Corrective measures such as ultraviolet-permeable skylights, direct sunlight exposure, and self-ballasted mercury vapor ultraviolet lamps increased vitamin D(3) concentrations in four dragons to levels comparable with wild specimens. Toxicology results were negative except for background-level chlorinated pesticide residues. The results indicate no notable medical, nutritional, or toxic problems in the wild Komodo dragon population. Problems in captive specimens may relate to, and can be corrected by, husbandry measures such as regular ultraviolet-B exposure. Zoo Biol 19:495-509, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Aerobic salivary bacteria in wild and captive Komodo dragons.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Joel M; Gillespie, Don; Sastrawan, Putra; Fredeking, Terry M; Stewart, George L

    2002-07-01

    During the months of November 1996, August 1997, and March 1998, saliva and plasma samples were collected for isolation of aerobic bacteria from 26 wild and 13 captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis). Twenty-eight Gram-negative and 29 Gram-positive species of bacteria were isolated from the saliva of the 39 Komodo dragons. A greater number of wild than captive dragons were positive for both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The average number of bacterial species within the saliva of wild dragons was 46% greater than for captive dragons. While Escherichia coli was the most common bacterium isolated from the saliva of wild dragons, this species was not present in captive dragons. The most common bacteria isolated from the saliva of captive dragons were Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus caseolyticus, neither of which were found in wild dragons. High mortality was seen among mice injected with saliva from wild dragons and the only bacterium isolated from the blood of dying mice was Pasteurella multocida. A competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed the presence of anti-Pasteurella antibody in the plasma of Komodo dragons. Four species of bacteria isolated from dragon saliva showed resistance to one or more of 16 antimicrobics tested. The wide variety of bacteria demonstrated in the saliva of the Komodo dragon in this study, at least one species of which was highly lethal in mice and 54 species of which are known pathogens, support the observation that wounds inflicted by this animal are often associated with sepsis and subsequent bacteremia in prey animals.

  13. 72 FR 39445 - Honey From Argentina and China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2007-07-18

    ... COMMISSION Honey From Argentina and China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina and the antidumping duty orders on honey from Argentina and... Publication 3929 (June 2007), entitled Honey From Argentina and China: Investigation Nos. 701-TA-402 and...

  14. Crustal structure of northeastern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucca, John J.; Fuis, Gary S.; Milkereit, Bernd; Mooney, Walter D.; Catchings, Rufus D.

    1986-06-01

    In 1981, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a seismic refraction survey of northeastern California designed to characterize the structure in four geologic provinces: the Klamath Mountains, Cascade Range, Modoc Plateau, and Basin and Range provinces. The survey consisted of north-south lines in the Klamath Mountains and Modoc Plateau provinces, northwest-southeast lines centered on Mount Shasta and Medicine Lake volcano, and an east-west line linking all the profiles. All lines except the east-west line ranged in length from 125 to 140 km, contained three shot points, and were recorded by 100 instruments. The east-west line was 260 km long, contained six shot points, and was recorded by 200 instruments. The Klamath and Modoc lines yielded the simplest models. The Klamath model is finely layered from the surface to at least 14-km depth, consisting of a series of high-velocity layers (6.1-6.7 km/s), ranging in thickness from 1 to 4 km, with alternating positive and negative velocity gradients. A layer with an unreversed velocity of 7.0 km/s extends from 14 km downward to an unknown depth. The Modoc model, in contrast, is thickly layered and has lower velocity at all depths down to 25 km. The uppermost layer, 4.5 km thick, consists of low-velocity material (2-4.5 km/s). Velocity beneath this layer is much higher (6.2 km/s) and increases slowly with depth. A small velocity step (to 6.4 km/s) is seen at 11 km, and a larger step (to 7.0 km/s) is seen at 25 km depth. Moho is probably 38-45 km deep under the Modoc Plateau, but its depth is unknown under the Klamath Mountains. Models for the Shasta and Medicine Lake lines show special features including low velocity (less than 3.5 km/s) in the edifice of Mount Shasta but high velocity (5.6 km/s) at shallow depth (1-2 km) under the summit of Medicine Lake volcano. The model for the east-west line consists of a western part similar to the Klamath model, an eastern part similar to the Modoc model, and laterally changing

  15. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, Deborah; McAuley, W.; Maynard, Desmond

    2003-04-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstock programs to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock and captive rearing programs are a form of artificial propagation that are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations that are at critically low numbers. Captive broodstocks, reared in captivity for the entire life cycle, couple the salmon's high fecundity with potentially high survival in protective culture to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS activities from 1 September 2001 to 31 August 2002 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock and captive rearing program. NMFS currently has broodstocks in culture from year classes 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 in both the captive breeding and captive rearing programs. Offspring from these programs are being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  16. Captivity influences immune responses, stress endocrinology, and organ size in house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    PubMed

    Love, Ashley C; Lovern, Matthew B; DuRant, Sarah E

    2017-10-01

    Studies using wild animals in laboratory-based research require bringing wild-captured organisms into a novel setting, which can have long-lasting impacts on physiology and behavior. In several species, captivity stimulates stress hormone production and can alter immune function. Despite this, there is little consensus on how captivity influences stress hormone regulation, or if captivity-induced changes in stress hormone production and regulation mediate changes in immune function. In this study, we investigate the influence of captivity on the physiology of a wild bird commonly-used in laboratory-based research, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus). We tested how captivity influences stress endocrinology, immune responses, and organ mass, and also investigated if the production or regulation of corticosterone, the main stress hormone in birds, correlated with changes in immunity. We found that baseline corticosterone concentrations and maximum capacity of the adrenals to secrete corticosterone increase following captivity and remain elevated after 9weeks of captivity. A measure of innate immune function, the bactericidal ability of plasma, also increased with time spent in captivity. Wound healing was also influenced by time spent in captivity, with birds taking almost 2days longer to heal if they were wounded after 3weeks in captivity when compared with birds that were wounded immediately upon capture. Additionally, captivity caused notable reductions in spleen and liver mass. Together, these results imply that captivity can have long-lasting effects on house sparrow corticosterone release and immune function, and suggest that even after 9weeks house sparrows do not acclimate physiologically to life in captivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pesticide exposure on sloths (Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni) in an agricultural landscape of Northeastern Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Pinnock Branford, Margaret Verónica; de la Cruz, Elba; Solano, Karla; Ramírez, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Between 2005 and 2008, wild Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni inhabiting an agricultural landscape and captive animals from a rescue center in Northeastern Costa Rica were studied to assess exposure to pesticides. A total of 54 animals were sampled: 42 wild sloths captured at an agricultural landscape and 12 captive animals from a rescue center. Pesticides' active ingredients were determined in three sample matrices: hair, aqueous mixture (paws' wash) and cotton gauze (mouth clean) based on multi-residue gas chromatography methods. Recoveries tests ranged from 73 to 146% and relative standard deviations were less than 20% throughout all the recovery tests. Active ingredients detected in sloths samples were ametryn, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, difenoconazole, ethoprophos and thiabendazole. These active ingredients were used in intensive agricultural production for bananas, pineapples and other crops. Blood plasma cholinesterase activity (PChE) was determined by the Ellman method modified for micro plates. Enzyme activity determination was normalized to protein content in the samples according to Bradford method. Wild sloth PChE activity was similar for both species while sloths in captivity showed differences between species. Enzyme activity was significantly lower for two-toed sloths. This study showed that sloths were exposed to pesticides that caused acute and chronic effect in mammals and can also be a threat to other wildlife species. There is a need to better understand the potential effects of exposure to pesticides in sloths and other wild mammal populations, especially those threatened or endangered. More studies in this field must be carried out on the wildlife fauna inhabiting the agricultural landscape and its surroundings.

  18. Brief communication: Morphological effects of captivity: A geometric morphometric analysis of the dorsal side of the scapula in captive-bred and wild-caught Hominoidea.

    PubMed

    Bello-Hellegouarch, Gaëlle; Potau, Josep Maria; Arias-Martorell, Julia; Pastor, Juan Francisco; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

    2013-10-01

    Many osteological collections from museums and research institutions consist mainly of remains from captive-bred animals. The restrictions related to the space of their enclosures and the nature of its substrate are likely to affect the locomotor and postural behaviors of captive-bred animals, which are widely considered uninformative regarding bone morphology and anatomical adaptations of wild animals, especially so in the case of extant great apes. We made a landmark-based geometric morphometrics analysis of the dorsal side of the scapular bone of both wild-caught and captive-bred great apes to clarify the effect of captivity on the morphology of a bone greatly involved in locomotion. The comparison suggested that captivity did not have a significant effect on the landmark configuration used, neither on average scapular shape nor shape variability, being impossible to distinguish the scapulae of a captive-bred animal from that of a wild-caught one. This indicates that the analyzed scapulae from captive Hominoidea specimens may be used in morphological or taxonomic analyses since they show no atypical morphological traits caused by living conditions in captivity. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Survivorship of Pileated Woodpeckers in northeastern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Evelyn L. Bull

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of the survival of the Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus) is essential in managing viable populations of the species. In eight study areas in northeastern Oregon, survivorship of adult Pileated Woodpeckers was 0.60 after 6 mo, 0.47 after 12 me, and 0.35 after 18 mo. Of three juveniles radio-tagged in late summer or fall, two...

  20. CHARCOAL-PRODUCING INDUSTRIES IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Charcoal workers in northeastern Brazil: Occupational risks and effects of exposure to wood smoke
    ABSTRACT
    Brazil has the largest production of charcoal in the world, which is used mostly in the iron and steel industries. In most of the production sites, the process is ba...

  1. CHARCOAL-PRODUCING INDUSTRIES IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Charcoal workers in northeastern Brazil: Occupational risks and effects of exposure to wood smoke
    ABSTRACT
    Brazil has the largest production of charcoal in the world, which is used mostly in the iron and steel industries. In most of the production sites, the process is ba...

  2. Superintendent Communication Patterns in Northeastern Indiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clendening, David Earl

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative study was to examine the communication patterns of superintendents in Northeastern Indiana. The demand for accountability, transparency, and student achievement calls for today's superintendent to increase communication strategies and support the needs of the varied stakeholders. Today's public school leaders are…

  3. Northeastern Quadrant of the Caloris Basin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-01-14

    This image, from NASA Mariner 10 spacecraft which launched in 1974, is of the northeastern quadrant of the Caloris basin and shows the smooth hills and domes between the inner and outer scarps and the well-developed radial system east of the outer scarp

  4. Dengue Virus Serotype 4, Northeastern Peru, 2008

    PubMed Central

    Forshey, Brett M.; Morrison, Amy C.; Cruz, Cristhopher; Rocha, Claudio; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Guevara, Carolina; Camacho, Daria E.; Alava, Araceli; Madrid, César; Beingolea, Luis; Suarez, Víctor; Comach, Guillermo

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, dengue virus serotype 4 (DENV-4) emerged in northeastern Peru, causing a large outbreak and displacing DENV-3, which had predominated for the previous 6 years. Phylogenetic analysis of 2008 and 2009 isolates support their inclusion into DENV-4 genotype II, forming a lineage distinct from strains that had previously circulated in the region. PMID:19891873

  5. Chemical Dependency Regional Needs Assessment: Northeastern Minnesota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Marylee

    The Minnesota Model of Chemical Dependency Treatment, which evolved from a combination of the grassroots Alcoholics Anonymous movement and the State Mental Health Services in the 1960s has made Minnesota an international leader in chemical dependency treatment efforts. Northeastern Minnesota has shared this reputation with the state. In spite of…

  6. Dengue virus serotype 4, northeastern Peru, 2008.

    PubMed

    Forshey, Brett M; Morrison, Amy C; Cruz, Cristhopher; Rocha, Claudio; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Guevara, Carolina; Camacho, Daria E; Alava, Araceli; Madrid, César; Beingolea, Luis; Suarez, Victor; Comach, Guillermo; Kochel, Tadeusz J

    2009-11-01

    In 2008, dengue virus serotype 4 (DENV-4) emerged in northeastern Peru, causing a large outbreak and displacing DENV-3, which had predominated for the previous 6 years. Phylogenetic analysis of 2008 and 2009 isolates support their inclusion into DENV-4 genotype II, forming a lineage distinct from strains that had previously circulated in the region.

  7. [The health system of Argentina].

    PubMed

    Belló, Mariana; Becerril-Montekio, Victor M

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the health system of Argentina.This system has three sectors: public, social security and private.The public sector includes the national and provincial ministries as well as the network of public hospitals and primary health care units which provide care to the poor and uninsured population. This sector is financed with taxes and payments made by social security beneficiaries that use public health care facilities. The social security sector or Obras Sociales (OS) covers all workers of the formal economy and their families. Most OS operate through contracts with private providers and are financed with payroll contributions of employers and employees. Finally, the private sector includes all those private providers offering services to individuals, OS beneficiaries and all those with private health insurance.This sector also includes private insurance agencies called Prepaid Medicine Enterprises, financed mostly through premiums paid by families and/or employers.This paper also discusses some of the recent innovations implemented in Argentina, including the program Remediar.

  8. Education in acoustics in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyara, Federico

    2002-11-01

    Over the last decades, education in acoustics (EA) in Argentina has experienced ups and downs due to economic and political issues interfering with long term projects. Unlike other countries, like Chile, where EA has reached maturity in spite of the acoustical industry having shown little development, Argentina has several well-established manufacturers of acoustic materials and equipment but no specific career with a major in acoustics. At the university level, acoustics is taught as a complementary--often elective--course for careers such as architecture, communication engineering, or music. In spite of this there are several research centers with programs covering environmental and community noise, effects of noise on man, acoustic signal processing, musical acoustics and acoustic emission, and several national and international meetings are held each year in which results are communicated and discussed. Several books on a variety of topics such as sound system, architectural acoustics, and noise control have been published as well. Another chapter in EA is technical and vocational education, ranging between secondary and postsecondary levels, with technical training on sound system operation or design. Over the last years there have been several attempts to implement master degrees in acoustics or audio engineering, with little or no success.

  9. Birth of common shovelnose rays (Glaucostegus typus) under captive conditions.

    PubMed

    Timm, Lori L; Carter, Joshua E; Frey, Joshua; Prappas, James; Wells, R J David

    2014-01-01

    The common shovelnose ray (Glaucostegus typus) is a poorly studied species of the Rhinobatidae family that occurs throughout the Indo-West Pacific. Although common in aquariums throughout the United States, there are currently no records of captive birth events. In 2013, a female common shovelnose ray housed at the Downtown Aquarium in Houston, Texas, USA gave birth to eleven pups. Although all pups were stillborn, this event demonstrates that it is possible to breed common shovelnose rays in a controlled environment. The single female and two male common shovelnose rays at the aquarium are of sexually mature size (between 206 and 240 cm total length, TL), demonstrate mating behaviors, and provide an excellent opportunity to investigate the reproductive biology of this species. Captive environmental conditions of the birth enclosure may be useful in replicating the birthing event in order to develop a breeding program that could potentially relieve collection pressures on wild populations of guitarfish given their vulnerable status.

  10. Gastric Helicobacter Spp. Infection in Captive Neotropical Brazilian Feline

    PubMed Central

    Luiz de Camargo, Pedro; Akemi Uenaka, Simone; Bette Motta, Maitê; Harumi Adania, Cristina; Yamasaki, Letícia; Alfieri, Amauri A.; Bracarense, Ana Paula F. R. L.

    2011-01-01

    Ten captive neotropical Brazilian feline were submitted to gastroscopic examination and samples of gastric mucosa from fundus, corpus and pyloric antrum were evaluated for the presence of Helicobacter species. Warthin-Starry (WS) staining and PCR assay with species-specific primers and enzymatic cleavage were applied for bacterial detection and identification. Histological lesions were evaluated by haematoxylin and eosin staining. All animals showed normal gross aspect of gastric mucosa. Helicobacter heilmannii was confirmed in 100% of the samples by WS and PCR assay. Mild lymphocytic infiltrate in the lamina propria was observed in eight animals, mainly in the fundus region. Small lymphoid follicles were seen in three animals. No significant association between Helicobacter infection and histological findings was verified. These observations suggest that gastric Helicobacter spp. could be a commensal or a eventual pathogen to captive neotropical feline, and that procedures, way life, and stress level on the shelter apparently had no negative repercussion over the integrity of the stomach. PMID:24031634

  11. Reproduction in captive female Cape porcupines (Hystrix africaeaustralis).

    PubMed

    van Aarde, R J

    1985-11-01

    Captive females attained sexual maturity at an age of 9-16 months and conceived for the first time when 10-25 months old. Adult females were polyoestrous but did not cycle while lactating or when isolated from males. The length of the cycle varied from 17 to 42 days (mean +/- s.d. 31.2 +/- 6.5 days; n = 43) and females experienced 3-7 sterile cycles before conceiving. Pregnancy lasted for 93-94 days (93.5 +/- 0.6 days; N = 4) and litter intervals varied from 296 to 500 days (385 +/- 60.4; n = 10). Litter size varied from 1 to 3 (1.5 +/- 0.66; n = 165) and the well-developed precocial young weighed 300-440 g (351 +/- 47.4 g; n = 19) at birth. Captive females reproduced throughout the year with most litters (78.7%; n = 165) being produced between August and March.

  12. Serratospiculosis in Captive Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Inês B; Schediwy, Marion; Hentrich, Brigitte; Frey, Caroline F; Marreros, Nelson; Stokar-Regenscheit, Nadine

    2017-09-01

    Infection with Serratospiculum species was identified in a captive peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) in Switzerland. Pathologic and parasitologic examination results revealed generalized severe granulomatous airsacculitis, with intralesional adults, larvae, and eggs of Serratospiculum species. Subsequently, an individual coprological analysis of the remaining 15 falcons (peregrine falcons and gyrfalcons [Falco rusticolus]) from the same owner was performed. Eggs of Serratospiculum species (4 birds) and Capillaria species (11 birds), and oocysts of Caryospora species (1 bird) were detected. Treatment with ivermection (2 mg/kg SC) was effective, as none of the falcons excreted Serratospiculum species eggs 10 days after one dose. To our knowledge, this is the first report of infection with Serratospiculum species in captive falcons in Europe.

  13. Captive and field-tested radio attachments for bald eagles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buehler, D.A.; Fraser, J.D.; Fuller, M.R.; McAllister, L.S.; Seegar, J.K.D.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of two radio transmitter attachment techniques on captive and one attachment technique on wild Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were studied. A Y-attachment method with a 160-g dummy transmitter was less apt to cause tissue damage on captive birds than an X-attachment method, and loosely fit transmitters caused less damage than tightly fit transmitters Annual survival of wild birds fitted with 65-g transmitters via an X attachment was estimated at 90-95%. As a result of high survival, only five wild birds marked as nestlings were recovered.Two of these birds had superficial pressure sores from tight-fitting harnesses It is recommended that a 1.3-cm space be left between the transmitter and the bird's b ack when radio-tagging post-fiedging Bald Eagles. Additional space, perhaps up to 2.5 cm, is required for nestlings to allow for added growth and development.

  14. Tear production in three captive wild herbivores in Israel.

    PubMed

    Ofri, R; Horowitz, I; Kass, P H

    1999-01-01

    The Schirmer tear test (STT) I was performed to evaluate tear production in 12 captive Nubian ibex (Capra ibex nubiana), 10 captive Burchell's zebras (Equus burchelli) and five Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) at the Tel-Aviv Ramat-Gan Zoological Center (Israel). Mean (+/- standard deviation) STT values were 13.2 +/- 5.1 mm/min in the ibex, 23.4 +/- 3.4 mm/min in the zebra and 12.7 +/- 4.8 mm/min in the oryx. There were no significant effects of gender, age, weight, or side of the eye. There were no significant differences in STT values between ibex and oryx, but tear production in both species was significantly lower than in zebras. Knowledge of normal tear production values is important for the differential diagnosis of conjunctivitis and keratitis in these species.

  15. Pododermatitis in captive-reared black stilts (Himantopus novaezelandiae).

    PubMed

    Reissig, Elizabeth Chang; Tompkins, Daniel M; Maloney, Richard F; Sancha, Emily; Wharton, David A

    2011-09-01

    A potential cause of pododermatitis ("bumblefoot") was investigated in captive-reared juvenile black stilts at the Department of Conservation "Kaki Recovery Program" at Twizel, New Zealand. To address the importance of substrate, the development of clinical signs in individuals was compared among aviaries that contained rubber matting and/or salt footbaths, and controls. No effect of either experimental manipulation of the environment was apparent on pododermatitis development. With the substrate appearing not to be an initiating factor, and a previous study that indicated that the birds' diet fulfills the nutritional requirements for rearing black stilts in captivity, results of this study suggest that insufficient space for exercise may instead be the cause.

  16. Cerebrovascular Accident (Stroke) in Captive, Group-Housed, Female Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Jean, Sherrie M; Preuss, Todd M; Sharma, Prachi; Anderson, Daniel C; Provenzale, James M; Strobert, Elizabeth; Ross, Stephen R; Stroud, Fawn C

    2012-01-01

    Over a 5-y period, 3 chimpanzees at our institution experienced cerebrovascular accidents (strokes). In light of the increasing population of aged captive chimpanzees and lack of literature documenting the prevalence and effectiveness of various treatments for stroke in chimpanzees, we performed a retrospective review of the medical records and necropsy reports from our institution. A survey was sent to other facilities housing chimpanzees that participate in the Chimpanzee Species Survival Plan to inquire about their experience with diagnosing and treating stroke. This case report describes the presentation, clinical signs, and diagnosis of stroke in 3 recent cases and in historical cases at our institution. Predisposing factors, diagnosis, and treatment options of cerebral vascular accident in the captive chimpanzee population are discussed also. PMID:23043787

  17. Skin mycoflora of Cebus primates kept in captivity and semicaptivity.

    PubMed

    Fedullo, José Daniel L; Rossi, Claudio N; Gambale, Walderez; Germano, Pedro Manuel L; Larsson, Carlos Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    This study was performed to determine the fungal mycoflora in healthy tufted capuchins primates (Cebus sp) kept in captivity and semicaptivity to allow a more realistic interpretation on the basis of fungi isolated from their skin. Furthermore, we aimed at evaluating the potential risk of infection to humans by fungi perpetuated in the tegument of monkeys of this genus. For the collection of skin material, the carpet method was used, followed by seeding in Sabouraud dextrose agar culture media, Mycosel agar, Dermatophyte Test Medium and Sabouraud agar supplemented with olive oil. Seventeen genera of fungi were detected, being three of them isolated only in the captivity animals (Acremonium - Cephalosporium, Phoma and Trichosporon). The genera of fungi with the higher frequencies were identified in the semicaptivity capuchins (Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium). Many of the genera of fungi identified are potential pathogens for immune-compromised monkeys and humans. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. CLINICOPATHOLOGIC FEATURES OF MAMMARY MASSES IN CAPTIVE LIONS (PANTHERA LEO).

    PubMed

    Sadler, Ryan A; Craig, Linden E; Ramsay, Edward C; Helmick, Kelly; Collins, Darin; Garner, Michael M

    2016-03-01

    A multi-institutional retrospective analysis of 330 pathology accessions from 285 different lions found 15 captive, female African lions (Panthera leo) with confirmed mammary masses. Aside from the presence of a mammary mass, the most common initial clinical sign was inappetence. Histologic diagnoses were predominantly adenocarcinoma (n = 12), though two benign masses (mammary hyperplasia and a mammary cyst) and one squamous cell carcinoma were identified. Nine of 13 malignant tumors had metastasized to lymph nodes or viscera at the time of necropsy. Six lions with adenocarcinoma and two lions with benign mammary masses had received hormonal contraception, though little evidence of mammary lobular hyperplasia was seen in association with the adenocarcinomas. The most common concurrent disease processes found at necropsy were chronic urinary tract disease and other malignancies. These cases demonstrate that mammary malignancies occur in captive lions and frequently metastasize.

  19. Cerebrovascular accident (stroke) in captive, group-housed, female chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Jean, Sherrie M; Preuss, Todd M; Sharma, Prachi; Anderson, Daniel C; Provenzale, James M; Strobert, Elizabeth; Ross, Stephen R; Stroud, Fawn C

    2012-08-01

    Over a 5-y period, 3 chimpanzees at our institution experienced cerebrovascular accidents (strokes). In light of the increasing population of aged captive chimpanzees and lack of literature documenting the prevalence and effectiveness of various treatments for stroke in chimpanzees, we performed a retrospective review of the medical records and necropsy reports from our institution. A survey was sent to other facilities housing chimpanzees that participate in the Chimpanzee Species Survival Plan to inquire about their experience with diagnosing and treating stroke. This case report describes the presentation, clinical signs, and diagnosis of stroke in 3 recent cases and in historical cases at our institution. Predisposing factors, diagnosis, and treatment options of cerebral vascular accident in the captive chimpanzee population are discussed also.

  20. 23. "A CAPTIVE ATLAS MISSILE EXPLODED DURING THE TEST ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. "A CAPTIVE ATLAS MISSILE EXPLODED DURING THE TEST ON TEST STAND 1-A, 27 MARCH 1959, PUTTING THAT TEST STAND OUT-OF-COMMISSION. STAND WAS NOT REPAIRED FOR THE ATLAS PROGRAM BUT TRANSFERRED TO ROCKETDYNE AND MODIFIED FOR THE F-l ENGINE PROGRAM." - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. Oxidative stress, activity behaviour and body mass in captive parrots.

    PubMed

    Larcombe, S D; Tregaskes, C A; Coffey, J; Stevenson, A E; Alexander, L G; Arnold, K E

    2015-01-01

    Many parrot species are kept in captivity for conservation, but often show poor reproduction, health and survival. These traits are known to be influenced by oxidative stress, the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ability of antioxidant defences to ameliorate ROS damage. In humans, oxidative stress is linked with obesity, lack of exercise and poor nutrition, all of which are common in captive animals. Here, we tested whether small parrots (budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus) maintained in typical pet cages and on ad libitum food varied in oxidative profile, behaviour and body mass. Importantly, as with many birds held in captivity, they did not have enough space to engage in extensive free flight. Four types of oxidative damage, single-stranded DNA breaks (low-pH comet assay), alkali-labile sites in DNA (high-pH comet assay), sensitivity of DNA to ROS (H2O2-treated comet assay) and malondialdehyde (a byproduct of lipid peroxidation), were uncorrelated with each other and with plasma concentrations of dietary antioxidants. Without strenuous exercise over 28 days in a relatively small cage, more naturally 'active' individuals had more single-stranded DNA breaks than sedentary birds. High body mass at the start or end of the experiment, coupled with substantial mass gain, were all associated with raised sensitivity of DNA to ROS. Thus, high body mass in these captive birds was associated with oxidative damage. These birds were not lacking dietary antioxidants, because final body mass was positively related to plasma levels of retinol, zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol. Individuals varied widely in activity levels, feeding behaviour, mass gain and oxidative profile despite standardized living conditions. DNA damage is often associated with poor immunocompetence, low fertility and faster ageing. Thus, we have candidate mechanisms for the limited lifespan and fecundity common to many birds kept for conservation purposes.

  2. Survival on the ark: life history trends in captive parrots

    PubMed Central

    Young, Anna M.; Hobson, Elizabeth A.; Lackey, Laurie Bingaman; Wright, Timothy F.

    2011-01-01

    Members of the order Psittaciformes (parrots and cockatoos) are among the most long-lived and endangered avian species. Comprehensive data on lifespan and breeding are critical to setting conservation priorities, parameterizing population viability models, and managing captive and wild populations. To meet these needs, we analyzed 83, 212 life history records of captive birds from the International Species Information System and calculated lifespan and breeding parameters for 260 species of parrots (71% of extant species). Species varied widely in lifespan, with larger species generally living longer than smaller ones. The highest maximum lifespan recorded was 92 years in Cacatua moluccensis, but only 11 other species had a maximum lifespan over 50 years. Our data indicate that while some captive individuals are capable of reaching extraordinary ages, median lifespans are generally shorter than widely assumed, albeit with some increase seen in birds presently held in zoos. Species that lived longer and bred later in life tended to be more threatened according to IUCN classifications. We documented several individuals of multiple species that were able to breed for more than two decades, but the majority of clades examined had much shorter active reproduction periods. Post-breeding periods were surprisingly long and in many cases surpassed the duration of active breeding. Our results demonstrate the value of the ISIS database to estimate life history data for an at-risk taxon that is difficult to study in the wild, and provide life history data that is crucial for predictive modeling of future species endangerment and proactively managing captive populations of parrots. PMID:22389582

  3. Mycobacterium infection in a captive-reared capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus).

    PubMed

    Marco, I; Domingo, M; Lavin, S

    2000-01-01

    One captive male capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) was found dead on December 1993 at the breeding center of capercaillie in Catalonia, Spain. The bird was emaciated and, at necropsy, had numerous nodules of various sizes subcutaneously in the cervical region, pleura, lungs, liver, spleen, and mesentery. Microscopic examination revealed granulomatous lesions with central caseous necrosis, epithelioid cells, giant cells, and few lymphocytes in all affected organs. Numerous acid-fast bacilli were demonstrated in the tubercles with Ziehl-Nielsen stain.

  4. Encephalomyocarditis virus in a captive Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    PubMed

    Vercammen, Francis; Bosseler, Leslie; Tignon, Marylène; Cay, Ann Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    A 5-month-old female captive Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) died suddenly without preceding symptoms. Gross necropsy revealed numerous white circular and linear foci in the myocard. Differential diagnosis all turned out negative, except for encephalomyocarditis virus. Histopathology revealed mineralisation of myocardial cells and interstitial infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells and less neutrophils. Encephalomyocarditis virus was detected by PCR. Although encephalomyocarditis virus occurs in many mammals, this is the first published description of this virus in a Malayan tapir.

  5. Encephalomyocarditis virus in a captive Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus)

    PubMed Central

    Vercammen, Francis; Bosseler, Leslie; Tignon, Marylène; Cay, Ann Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    A 5-month-old female captive Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) died suddenly without preceding symptoms. Gross necropsy revealed numerous white circular and linear foci in the myocard. Differential diagnosis all turned out negative, except for encephalomyocarditis virus. Histopathology revealed mineralisation of myocardial cells and interstitial infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells and less neutrophils. Encephalomyocarditis virus was detected by PCR. Although encephalomyocarditis virus occurs in many mammals, this is the first published description of this virus in a Malayan tapir. PMID:28616390

  6. Socialization of adult owl monkeys (Aotus sp.) in Captivity.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lawrence E; Coke, C S; Weed, J L

    2017-01-01

    Social housing has often been recommended as one-way to address the psychological well-being of captive non-human primates. Published reports have examined methods to socialize compatible animals by forming pairs or groups. Successful socialization rates vary depending on the species, gender, and environment. This study presents a retrospective look at pairing attempts in two species of owl monkeys, Aotus nancymaae and A. azarae, which live in monogamous pairs in the wild. The results of 477 pairing attempt conducted with captive, laboratory housed owl monkeys and 61 hr of behavioral observations are reported here. The greatest success pairing these owl monkeys occurred with opposite sex pairs, with an 82% success rate. Opposite sex pairs were more successful when females were older than males. Female-female pairs were more successful than male-male (MM) pairs (62% vs 40%). Successful pairs stayed together between 3 and 7 years before the animals were separated due to social incompatibility. Vigilance, eating, and sleeping during introductions significantly predicted success, as did the performance of the same behavior in both animals. The results of this analysis show that it is possible to give captive owl monkeys a social alternative even if species appropriate social partners (i.e., opposite sex partners) are not available. The focus of this report is a description of one potential way to enhance the welfare of a specific new world primate, the owl monkey, under laboratory conditions. More important is how the species typical social structure of owl monkeys in nature affects the captive management of this genus. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22521, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Oxidative stress, activity behaviour and body mass in captive parrots

    PubMed Central

    Larcombe, S. D.; Tregaskes, C. A.; Coffey, J.; Stevenson, A. E.; Alexander, L. G.; Arnold, K. E.

    2015-01-01

    Many parrot species are kept in captivity for conservation, but often show poor reproduction, health and survival. These traits are known to be influenced by oxidative stress, the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ability of antioxidant defences to ameliorate ROS damage. In humans, oxidative stress is linked with obesity, lack of exercise and poor nutrition, all of which are common in captive animals. Here, we tested whether small parrots (budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus) maintained in typical pet cages and on ad libitum food varied in oxidative profile, behaviour and body mass. Importantly, as with many birds held in captivity, they did not have enough space to engage in extensive free flight. Four types of oxidative damage, single-stranded DNA breaks (low-pH comet assay), alkali-labile sites in DNA (high-pH comet assay), sensitivity of DNA to ROS (H2O2-treated comet assay) and malondialdehyde (a byproduct of lipid peroxidation), were uncorrelated with each other and with plasma concentrations of dietary antioxidants. Without strenuous exercise over 28 days in a relatively small cage, more naturally ‘active’ individuals had more single-stranded DNA breaks than sedentary birds. High body mass at the start or end of the experiment, coupled with substantial mass gain, were all associated with raised sensitivity of DNA to ROS. Thus, high body mass in these captive birds was associated with oxidative damage. These birds were not lacking dietary antioxidants, because final body mass was positively related to plasma levels of retinol, zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol. Individuals varied widely in activity levels, feeding behaviour, mass gain and oxidative profile despite standardized living conditions. DNA damage is often associated with poor immunocompetence, low fertility and faster ageing. Thus, we have candidate mechanisms for the limited lifespan and fecundity common to many birds kept for conservation purposes. PMID

  8. Bilateral eyelid agenesis repair in a captive Texas cougar.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Tim J

    2002-09-01

    Bilateral eyelid agenesis was presented with multiple ocular anomalies in a captive Texas cougar (Felis concolor). Corneal exposure resulted in substantial keratoconjunctivitis and blepharospasm. Bilateral inferopapillary fundic colobomas, persistent pupillary membranes, and an atypical iris coloboma OD were present. Surgical repair with a rotational pedicle flap resulted in functionally effective eyelids. Trichiasis was later treated with cryotherapy. Eyelid agenesis is reported infrequently in domestic cats and among large felids has only been reported in the snow leopard.

  9. Ileocecocolic strictures in two captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus).

    PubMed

    Travis, Erika K; Duncan, Mary; Weber, Martha; Adkesson, Michael J; Junge, Randall E

    2007-12-01

    Intestinal strictures were diagnosed in two captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus). The cheetahs presented with lethargy, anorexia, diarrhea, and weight loss. The first cheetah had a stricture of the ileocecocolic junction diagnosed at necropsy. The second had an ileocecocolic stricture causing obstruction that was diagnosed at surgery. After resection and anastomosis, the cheetah recovered well. The etiology of the strictures remains undetermined. Intestinal stricture, particularly of the ileocecocolic junction, should be considered as a differential diagnosis for cheetahs with nonspecific gastrointestinal signs.

  10. Osmoregulation in wild and captive West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus).

    PubMed

    Ortiz, R M; Worthy, G A; MacKenzie, D S

    1998-01-01

    The ability of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris and Trichechus manatus manatus) to inhabit both freshwater and marine habitats presents an interesting model to study osmoregulation in sirenians. Blood samples were analyzed from manatees held in fresh- and saltwater and from wild animals captured in fresh-, brackish, and saltwater for concentrations of aldosterone, arginine vasopressin, plasma renin activity, Na+, K+, Cl-, and osmolality. Two separate experiments were also conducted on captive animals to evaluate osmoregulatory responses to acute saltwater exposure and freshwater deprivation. Spurious differences were observed in plasma electrolyte and osmolality among the captive and wild groups. Wild brackish water animals exhibited the highest vasopressin concentrations, while wild freshwater manatees had the highest aldosterone levels. A significant correlation between mean vasopressin and osmolality was demonstrated for captive and wild animals. When freshwater animals were acutely exposed to saltwater, osmolality, Na+, and Cl- increased 5.5%, 8.0%, and 14%, respectively, while aldosterone decreased 82.6%. Saltwater animals deprived of freshwater exhibited an almost twofold increase in aldosterone during the deprivation period and a fourfold decrease when freshwater was again provided. Within this group, osmolality increased significantly by 3.4% over the course of the study; however, electrolytes did not change. The lack of consistent differences in electrolyte and osmolality among wild and captive groups suggests that manatees are good osmoregulators regardless of the environment. The high aldosterone levels in wild freshwater animals may indicate a need to conserve Na+, while the high vasopressin levels in wild brackish-water manatees suggest an antidiuretic state to conserve water. Vasopressin levels appear to be osmotically mediated in manatees as in other mammals.

  11. Identification of Leishmania infantum in Puerto Iguazú, Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Lucrecia; Díaz, Ricardo; Torres, Pedro; Silva, Gustavo; Ramos, Marina; Fattore, Gladys; Deschutter, Enrique J; Bornay-Llinares, Fernando J

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) in Latin America is a growing public health problem. The urbanization of ZVL has been observed in different countries around the world, and there are a growing number of reports drawing attention to the emergence of this infection in new locations, as well as its increase in previously established areas of endemicity. In the city of Posadas, Misiones province, Northeastern Argentina, the transmission of ZVL associated with canines and Lutzomyia longipalpis was first reported in 2006. In the city of Puerto Iguazú, also in Misiones province, the first human case of ZVL was reported in February 2014. From 209 surveyed dogs, 15 (7.17%) were identified as positive by serological and/or parasitological methods. Amplification was observed in 14 samples and in all cases the species implicated was Leishmania infantum. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first molecular characterization of L. infantum from dogs in this area.

  12. Detection of two atypical rotaviruses in the province of Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Basnec, S N; Giordano, M O; Bennun, F R; Nates, S V; Vergara, M; Depetris, A R

    1991-09-01

    Out of 317 human gastroenteritis cases studied between August 1988-August 1989, two atypical antigenically distinct rotaviruses (pararotaviruses) were detected in faecal samples among 19 rotaviruses shedding children from Misiones province, North-Eastern Argentina. A 1 3/4 year old girl a 3 years old boy, both with vomiting and normal temperature, shed these atypical rotaviruses. Their morphology by electron microscopy was identical to other rotaviruses; they contained 11 double-stranded RNA segments detected by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and failed to react with the antibody directed against the rotavirus group specific antigen (Rotazyme II ELISA). The electrophoretic migration of these RNAs (electropherotype) in polyacrylamide gels did not coincide with the typical pattern of distinct size classes observed in most human rotaviruses reported, instead, they appeared to be related to patterns of rotaviruses group C.

  13. Captive and wild orangutan (Pongo sp.) survivorship: a comparison and the influence of management.

    PubMed

    Wich, S A; Shumaker, R W; Perkins, L; de Vries, H

    2009-08-01

    For managers of captive populations it is important to know whether their management provides a species with the physical and social environment that maximizes its survivorship. To determine this, survivorship comparisons with wild populations and long-term evaluations of captive populations are important. Here we provide both for orangutans. We show that survivorship has increased during the past 60 years for captive orangutan populations in zoos. In addition, we show that survivorship of captive orangutans in the past used to be lower than for wild orangutans, but that for recently born (1986-2005) orangutans survivorship is not significantly different from the wild. This indicates that captive management in the past was suboptimal for orangutan survivorship, but that modern management of captive orangutans has increased their survivorship. We discuss the possible factors of modern management that could have influenced this.

  14. Prevalence of Baylisascaris Roundworm in Captive Kinkajous in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, T; Sugiyama, H; Taira, K; Yoshikawa, Y; Une, Y

    2016-04-01

    Baylisascaris potosis causes larva migrans in animals. The present study evaluated the prevalence of B. potosis in captive kinkajous ( Potos flavus ) and the ability of milbemycin to treat natural infections of B. potosis in 2 female wild-caught kinkajous. In 2012, fecal samples were collected from 16 kinkajous in 6 zoological gardens and 29 imported captive kinkajous from 4 pet traders in Japan. Although all samples from zoological gardens were negative, 8 kinkajous from traders were positive for Baylisascaris eggs, at least 4 of which were wild caught in the Republic of Guyana. No associated human illness was reported from any of the facilities. The 2 infected kinkajous received a single oral administration of Milbemycin® A Tablets, which delivers 0.69-0.89 mg/kg milbemycin oxime. Fecal examinations on days 14 and 30 were negative for Baylisascaris eggs. These results demonstrated that milbemycin oxime has possible anthelmintic efficacy against Baylisascaris roundworms in captive kinkajous. We conclude that Baylisascaris infections are highly prevalent in wild-caught kinkajous in Japan and that most of the infected kinkajous were imported from the Republic of Guyana.

  15. NEPHROPATHIES IN THE EUROPEAN CAPTIVE CHEETAH (ACINONYX JUBATUS) POPULATION.

    PubMed

    Url, Angelika; Krutak, Verena; Kübber-Heiss, Anna; Chvala-Mannsberger, Sonja; Robert, Nadia; Dinhopl, Nora; Schmidt, Peter; Walzer, Chris

    2016-09-01

    According to previous studies in captive cheetah ( Acinonyx jubatus ) populations, one of the most threatening diseases besides amyloidosis, myelopathy, veno occlusive disease, and gastritis, is renal failure. Contrary to captive cheetahs in North America and South Africa, morphological data concerning renal lesions in the cheetah European Endangered Species Program (EEP) are lacking. This study details the histological characterization as well as immunohistochemical and morphometrical analysis of nephropathies in 35 captive cheetahs from the EEP, which were necropsied between 1985 and 2003. Examination of paraffin- and glycolmethacrylate-methylmethacrylate (GMA-MMA) embedded kidney samples by light microscopy revealed glomerulonephritis in 91%, with a high prevalence for glomerulosclerosis and glomerulonephritis with the histologic pattern of membranous glomerulonephritis (77%). Besides these predominating glomerulopathies, a wide range of other renal lesions, like acute tubular necrosis, interstitial nephritis, calcinosis, and amyloidosis, were present. Pathological expression of collagen type IV, complement C3, fibronectin, and IgG was demonstrated in the glomeruli of the cheetah kidneys with the use of the avidin-biotin complex method. Morphometrical analysis was performed on GMA-MMA embedded kidney samples to obtain glomerulosclerosis index and glomerulosclerosis incidence.

  16. Leptospirosis on captive wild animals in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Anahi S; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2017-08-04

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide bacterial infection, being more prevalent in tropical regions. Human beings, domestic animals and wildlife species are susceptible to a wide variety of serovars. Zoos have a great importance in keeping endangered species, increasing populations and accumulating knowledge on these species. Although some studies describe the occurrence of leptospirosis in captivity animals, a systematic review regarding the infection in these animals in tropical areas has never been conducted. Thus, the objective of this study was to systematically gather and analyze data regarding leptospirosis among captive wild animals in Latin America. A total of 141 species were studied, 93 genus, 44 families and 15 orders from three classes. Median seroprevalence ranged from 0 to 52% and predominant serogroups were Canicola and Icterohaemorrhagiae for mammalian, and Sejroe for reptiles. One important outcome is that, when kept on zoos, wildlife is more frequently infected by incidental strains instead of adapted strains. Preventive measures should consider periodic serosurvey of all animal species in captivity, as well as the use of commercial vaccines to reduce leptospiral infection and its hazards. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Drug delivery to captive Asian elephants - treating Goliath.

    PubMed

    Isaza, Ramiro; Hunter, Robert P

    2004-07-01

    Captive Asian elephants have been maintained in captivity by humans for over 4000 years. Despite this association, there is little published literature on the treatment of elephant diseases or methods of drug administration to these animals. Elephants in captivity are generally healthy and require few therapeutic interventions over the course of their lifetime. However, when they become acutely ill, treatment becomes a serious issue. The successful and consistent administration of therapeutics to elephants is formidable in an animal that presents significant limitations in drug delivery options. The single most important factor in administering drugs to an elephant is the animal's cooperation in accepting the medication. Working around elephants can be very dangerous and this is magnified when working around sick or injured animals where the elephant is subject to increased stress, pain, and unusual situations associated with treatment. The large body size of the Asian elephant produces a separate set of issues. In this paper, methods of drug administration and their associated limitations will be reviewed. Considerations of medicating such large animals can serve to highlight the problems and principles of treatment that are inherent in these species.

  18. Clinical disorders in armadillos (Dasypodidae, Edentata) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Diniz, L S; Costa, E O; Oliveira, P M

    1997-12-01

    The major health problems found in 113 armadillos are presented and correlated with management in captivity. The most common of 217 recorded clinical disorders involved injury (28.5%), digestive system (17.9%), respiratory system (15.2%), nutritional deficiency (13.3%), skin problems (3.6%), septicaemia (1.8%), nervous system (1.3%), urinary system (0.9%) and effects of environmental (0.9%), with 14.7% of the cases inconclusive. Internal parasites were identified in 42.0% of faeces samples, mainly eggs of helminths (66.6%), of which the commonest were Ancylostoma sp. (33.3%), Strongyloides sp. (30.5%), Ascaris sp. (25.0%), Trichuris sp. (11.1%), and also protozoa (13.0%). Enterobacteriaceae were the bacteria most frequently isolated, with Escherichia coli the most prevalent, followed by Salmonella sp. and Enterobacter aerogenes. The most successful treatments are listed. The influence of some captive factors on the onset of the diseases was also analysed: donated animals 91.1% and zoo born 8.8%; quarantine enclosure 84.0% and exhibition 15.0%; and related to time in captivity, 92.2% occurred with animals in the first 6 months in the zoo and 7.8% with animals more than 6 months.

  19. Classification and prevalence of foot lesions in captive flamingos (Phoenicopteridae).

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Adriana M W; Nielsen, Søren S; King, Catherine E; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2010-03-01

    Foot lesions can compromise the health and welfare of captive birds. In this study, we estimated the prevalence of foot lesions in captive flamingos (Phoenicopteridae). The study was based on photos of 1,495 pairs of foot soles from 854 flamingos in 18 European and two Texan (USA) zoological collections. Methodology for evaluating flamingo feet lesions was developed for this project because no suitable method had been reported in the literature. Four types of foot lesions were identified: hyperkeratoses, fissures, nodular lesions, and papillomatous growths. Seven areas on each foot received a severity score from 0 to 2 for each type of lesion (0 = no lesion, 1 = mild to moderate lesion, 2 = severe lesion). The prevalence of birds with lesions (scores 1 or 2) were 100%, 87%, 17%, and 46% for hyperkeratosis, fissures, nodular lesions, and papillomatous growths, respectively. Birds with severe lesions (score 2) constituted 67%, 46%, 4%, and 12% for hyperkeratosis, fissures, nodular lesions, and papillomatous growths, respectively. Hyperkeratosis and nodular lesions were most prevalent on the base of the foot and the proximal portion of the digits, likely reflecting those areas bearing the most weight. The second and fourth digits were most affected with fissures and papillomatous lesions; these areas of the foot appear to be where the most flexion occurs during ambulation. The study demonstrates that foot lesions are highly prevalent and widely distributed in the study population, indicating that they are an extensive problem in captive flamingos.

  20. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    PubMed

    Lopez, Ignacio; Pineda, Carmen; Muñoz, Luis; Raya, Ana; Lopez, Guillermo; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico

    2016-01-01

    To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose) vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta) were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28), and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL), hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL), increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL) and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL). Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets.

  1. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus)

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Luis; Raya, Ana; Lopez, Guillermo; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico

    2016-01-01

    To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose) vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta) were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28), and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL), hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL), increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL) and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL). Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets. PMID:27243456

  2. Reproductive behaviour of captive Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis).

    PubMed

    Zainal Zahari, Z; Rosnina, Y; Wahid, H; Yap, K C; Jainudeen, M R

    2005-02-01

    The Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) is on the verge of extinction in Malaysia. At the Sumatran rhinoceros Conservation Centre in Sungai Dusun, the reproductive behaviour of two female and two male rhinoceroses were studied for 8-10 months during attempts to breed them in captivity. Due to the paucity of scientific information on the reproductive biology of the Sumatran rhinoceros, this study was conducted to obtain information on the reproductive behaviour of this species. The male rhino was introduced to a female rhino in the morning for 1-2 h daily in order to observe for behavioural oestrus. Observations were made on the signs of oestrus and mating behaviour. Oestrus was determined by receptivity towards the male and lasted about 24 h. Common signs of oestrus were an increase in frequency of urine spraying, tail raising or swinging, anogenital and other contacts. Although the males exhibited mounting, the inability of the male to achieve intromission was poor. The study demonstrated that the pattern of courtship and copulation of the captive Sumatran rhinos were comparable with those of other rhino species, reported previously by other scientists and flehmen reflex was also exhibited by the male Sumatran rhinos. In a captive breeding programme, it is recommended that only an oestral female is introduced into a male enclosure due to the male solitary behaviour and to avoid serious injuries inflicted onto the females.

  3. Urolithiasis in a captive group of Tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii).

    PubMed

    Liptovszky, Mátyás; Sós, Endre; Bende, Balázs; Perge, Edina; Molnár, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Urolithiasis is a well-known disease of the urogenital system in domestic animals, and it has also been described in captive and free-ranging wildlife. This article reports 15 cases of urolithiasis in a captive group of Tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii) between 2004 and 2011. The analyzed stones were composed of pure calcium carbonate (n = 5), calcium carbonate with traces of calcium phosphate (n = 6), carbonate apatite (n = 2), and carbonate apatite mixed with calcium oxalate (n = 2). In 12 out of 15 cases uroliths were situated only in the renal pelvis; in two cases they were found in the renal pelvis and the ureter; while in one case in the ureter only. No common infectious agents were identified either by microbiological or histopathological methods. Although the exact cause remains unknown, the repetitive occurrence of calcium carbonate urolithiasis suggests husbandry-related causes. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on recurrent appearance of urolithiasis in a captive group of Tammar wallabies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Limits to captive breeding of mammals in zoos.

    PubMed

    Alroy, John

    2015-06-01

    Captive breeding of mammals in zoos is the last hope for many of the best-known endangered species and has succeeded in saving some from certain extinction. However, the number of managed species selected is relatively small and focused on large-bodied, charismatic mammals that are not necessarily under strong threat and not always good candidates for reintroduction into the wild. Two interrelated and more fundamental questions go unanswered: have the major breeding programs succeeded at the basic level of maintaining and expanding populations, and is there room to expand them? I used published counts of births and deaths from 1970 to 2011 to quantify rates of growth of 118 captive-bred mammalian populations. These rates did not vary with body mass, contrary to strong predictions made in the ecological literature. Most of the larger managed mammalian populations expanded consistently and very few programs failed. However, growth rates have declined dramatically. The decline was predicted by changes in the ratio of the number of individuals within programs to the number of mammal populations held in major zoos. Rates decreased as the ratio of individuals in programs to populations increased. In other words, most of the programs that could exist already do exist. It therefore appears that debates over the general need for captive-breeding programs and the best selection of species are moot. Only a concerted effort could create room to manage a substantially larger number of endangered mammals. © 2015, Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Active use of coyotes (Canis latrans) to detect Bovine Tuberculosis in northeastern Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Berentsen, A R; Dunbar, M R; Johnson, S R; Robbe-Austerman, S; Martinez, L; Jones, R L

    2011-07-05

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is endemic in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Michigan, USA, and research suggests transmission to cattle. Prevalence of the disease in deer is estimated at 1.8%, but as prevalence decreases the difficulty of detection increases. Research suggests coyotes (Canis latrans) have a higher prevalence of bTB in Michigan than deer and sampling coyotes may be a more efficient surveillance tool to detect presence or spread of the disease. Coyotes possess suitable ecological characteristics to serve as a sentinel species, assuming transmission between coyotes is not significant. The question of whether free-ranging coyotes shed Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bTB, has not been previously addressed. We actively used coyotes as a sentinel to detect bTB in infected and uninfected counties in Michigan's Northeastern Lower Peninsula. We determined whether bTB infection was present through bacteriologic culture of lymph nodes and tissues containing lesions and cultured oral/nasal swabs and feces to establish shedding. Seventeen of 171 coyotes were M. bovis culture positive, one of which was from a previously uninfected county. All oral, nasal secretions and feces were culture negative suggesting minimal, if any, shedding of M. bovis. Thus, infection of coyotes is likely to occur through ingestion of infected deer carcasses and not from interaction with conspecifics. These findings support previous research suggesting that coyotes are useful sentinels for bTB. The use of coyotes as a sentinel, may allow wildlife managers to detect the spread of bTB into naïve counties. With earlier detection managers may be able to take proactive surveillance measures to detect the disease in deer and reduce the potential risk to domestic livestock and captive deer herds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative Skull Analysis Suggests Species-Specific Captivity-Related Malformation in Lions (Panthera leo)

    PubMed Central

    Saragusty, Joseph; Shavit-Meyrav, Anat; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Nadler, Rona; Bdolah-Abram, Tali; Gibeon, Laura; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.; Shamir, Merav H.

    2014-01-01

    Lion (Panthera leo) populations have dramatically decreased worldwide with a surviving population estimated at 32,000 across the African savannah. Lions have been kept in captivity for centuries and, although they reproduce well, high rates of stillbirths as well as morbidity and mortality of neonate and young lions are reported. Many of these cases are associated with bone malformations, including foramen magnum (FM) stenosis and thickened tentorium cerebelli. The precise causes of these malformations and whether they are unique to captive lions remain unclear. To test whether captivity is associated with FM stenosis, we evaluated 575 lion skulls of wild (N = 512) and captive (N = 63) origin. Tiger skulls (N = 276; 56 captive, 220 wild) were measured for comparison. While no differences were found between males and females or between subadults and adults in FM height (FMH), FMH of captive lions (17.36±3.20 mm) was significantly smaller and with greater variability when compared to that in wild lions (19.77±2.11 mm). There was no difference between wild (18.47±1.26 mm) and captive (18.56±1.64 mm) tigers in FMH. Birth origin (wild vs. captive) as a factor for FMH remained significant in lions even after controlling for age and sex. Whereas only 20/473 wild lions (4.2%) had FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile of the wild population (16.60 mm), this was evident in 40.4% (23/57) of captive lion skulls. Similar comparison for tigers found no differences between the captive and wild populations. Lions with FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile had wider skulls with smaller cranial volume. Cranial volume remained smaller in both male and female captive lions when controlled for skull size. These findings suggest species- and captivity-related predisposition for the pathology in lions. PMID:24718586

  7. Comparative skull analysis suggests species-specific captivity-related malformation in lions (Panthera leo).

    PubMed

    Saragusty, Joseph; Shavit-Meyrav, Anat; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Nadler, Rona; Bdolah-Abram, Tali; Gibeon, Laura; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Shamir, Merav H

    2014-01-01

    Lion (Panthera leo) populations have dramatically decreased worldwide with a surviving population estimated at 32,000 across the African savannah. Lions have been kept in captivity for centuries and, although they reproduce well, high rates of stillbirths as well as morbidity and mortality of neonate and young lions are reported. Many of these cases are associated with bone malformations, including foramen magnum (FM) stenosis and thickened tentorium cerebelli. The precise causes of these malformations and whether they are unique to captive lions remain unclear. To test whether captivity is associated with FM stenosis, we evaluated 575 lion skulls of wild (N = 512) and captive (N = 63) origin. Tiger skulls (N = 276; 56 captive, 220 wild) were measured for comparison. While no differences were found between males and females or between subadults and adults in FM height (FMH), FMH of captive lions (17.36±3.20 mm) was significantly smaller and with greater variability when compared to that in wild lions (19.77±2.11 mm). There was no difference between wild (18.47±1.26 mm) and captive (18.56±1.64 mm) tigers in FMH. Birth origin (wild vs. captive) as a factor for FMH remained significant in lions even after controlling for age and sex. Whereas only 20/473 wild lions (4.2%) had FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile of the wild population (16.60 mm), this was evident in 40.4% (23/57) of captive lion skulls. Similar comparison for tigers found no differences between the captive and wild populations. Lions with FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile had wider skulls with smaller cranial volume. Cranial volume remained smaller in both male and female captive lions when controlled for skull size. These findings suggest species- and captivity-related predisposition for the pathology in lions.

  8. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon; Assessment of Captive Broodstock Technologies, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry

    2004-01-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish

  9. Shaded relief, color as height Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-02-20

    This topographic image acquired by NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission SRTM from data collected on February 15, 2000, of Patagonia, Argentina shows a spectacular landscape formed by volcanoes, rivers, and wind.

  10. SRTM Anaglyph: Corral de Piedra, Argentina

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-07-26

    This anaglyph, from NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, shows the eastern flank of the Andes Mountains, southeast of San Martin de Los Andes, Argentina. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  11. The Ochodaeidae of Argentina (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, M.J.; Ocampo, Federico C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Ochodaeidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) of Argentina are revised. Previously, two species of Ochodaeinae were known from the country, both in the genus Parochodaeus Nikolajev: Parochodaeus campsognathus (Arrow) and Parochodaeus cornutus (Ohaus). An additional 7 species of Parochodaeus from Argentina are described here as new. In addition, Gauchodaeus patagonicus, new genus and new species in the subfamilyChaetocanthinae, is described. This is the first record of the subfamily Chaetocanthinae in South America. Redescriptions, diagnoses, and maps are provided for each species. We also provide a key to genera and a key to species of Parochodaeus of Argentina. With this work, the number of ochodaeid species known from Argentina is increased from 2 to 10. PMID:22451781

  12. Argentina spectral-agronomic multitemporal data set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmer, D.; Kinzler, C.; Tomppkins, M. A.; Badhwar, G. D.

    1983-01-01

    A multitemporal LANDSAT spectral data set was created. The data set is over five 5 nm-by-6 nm areas over Argentina and contains by field, the spectral data, vegetation type and cloud cover information.

  13. [Substance use disorder. Forensic issues in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Toro Martínez, Esteban

    2008-01-01

    This article is a review of the main legal issues in illegal drug traffic in Argentina. The penal law includes corrective punishment, educational activities and forced treatment. Forensic issues and legal controversies are discussed.

  14. NASA Spacecraft Eyes Severe Flooding in Argentina

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-05

    NASA Terra spacecraft captured this view of severe flooding in La Plata, Argentina, on April 4, 2013. Torrential rains and record flash flooding has killed more than 50 and left thousands homeless, according to news reports.

  15. The ochodaeidae of Argentina (coleoptera, scarabaeoidea).

    PubMed

    Paulsen, M J; Ocampo, Federico C

    2012-01-01

    The Ochodaeidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) of Argentina are revised. Previously, two species of Ochodaeinae were known from the country, both in the genus Parochodaeus Nikolajev: Parochodaeus campsognathus (Arrow) and Parochodaeus cornutus (Ohaus). An additional 7 species of Parochodaeus from Argentina are described here as new. In addition, Gauchodaeus patagonicus, new genus and new species in the subfamilyChaetocanthinae, is described. This is the first record of the subfamily Chaetocanthinae in South America. Redescriptions, diagnoses, and maps are provided for each species. We also provide a key to genera and a key to species of Parochodaeus of Argentina. With this work, the number of ochodaeid species known from Argentina is increased from 2 to 10.

  16. Activation of southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) estrogen receptors by phytoestrogens and their potential role in thereproductive failure of captive-born females

    EPA Science Inventory

    The captive southern white rhinoceros (SWR; Ceratotherium simum simum) population serves as an important genetic reservoir critical to the conservation of this vulnerable species. Unfortunately, captive populations are declining due to the poor reproductive success of captive-bor...

  17. Activation of southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) estrogen receptors by phytoestrogens and their potential role in thereproductive failure of captive-born females

    EPA Science Inventory

    The captive southern white rhinoceros (SWR; Ceratotherium simum simum) population serves as an important genetic reservoir critical to the conservation of this vulnerable species. Unfortunately, captive populations are declining due to the poor reproductive success of captive-bor...

  18. Use of fluoxetine for the treatment of stereotypical pacing behavior in a captive polar bear.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, E M; Honeyman, V; Valentine, P A; Teskey, G C

    1996-10-15

    Stereotypical behaviors are common in captive animals, particularly captive polar bears. Effects of oral administration of fluoxetine on chronic stereotypical and typical behaviors in a captive polar bear were monitored. Fluoxetine treatment terminated stereotypic pacing behavior, facial tic, and huffing/coughing activity. The expression of typical polar bear behaviors was not affected by fluoxetine treatment, although the proportion of time spent engaged in typical behaviors changed during the course of the observation period. Response of the bear to fluoxetine treatment indicated that pharmacologic manipulation of the serotonergic system can safely eliminate stereotypical behaviors in captive polar bears.

  19. Causes of Mississippi sandhill crane mortality in captivity 1984-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.; Gee, G.F.; Urbanek, R.P.; Stahlecker, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    During 1984-95, 111 deaths were documented in the captive flock of Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla) housed at the Paluxent Wildlife Research Center. Trauma was the leading cause of death (37%), followed by infectious/parasitic diseases (25%), anatomic abnormalities (15%), and miscellaneous (8%). No positive diagnosis of cause of death was found in 19% of the necropsies. Chicks < 2 months old suffered 76% of captive deaths. Trauma, the greatest cause of deaths of captive juveniles anti adults, is likely Iimited to collisions in the wild. lnfectious/parasitic diseases and anatomic abnormalities could affect wild chick survival at similar rates to those of captive chicks.

  20. Molecular findings of disseminated histoplasmosis in two captive snow leopards (Uncia uncia).

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Avilés, David; Taylor, Maria Lucia; del Rocio Reyes-Montes, Maria; Pérez-Torrez, Armando

    2008-09-01

    This paper reports two cases of disseminated histoplasmosis in captive snow leopards (Uncia uncia). Histoplasmosis was diagnosed based on histopathology, immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and molecular findings.

  1. Comparison of Serum Protein Electrophoresis Values in Wild and Captive Whooping Cranes ( Grus americana ).

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Jennifer C; Cray, Carolyn; Hartup, Barry K

    2015-09-01

    Protein electrophoresis of serum samples from endangered, wild whooping cranes ( Grus americana ) was performed to help assess the health of the only self-sustaining, migratory population in North America. Serum samples from wild adult cranes (n = 22) were taken at Aransas National Wildlife Refuge, Texas, USA during winter. Wild juvenile cranes (n = 26) were sampled at Wood Buffalo National Park, Northwest Territories, Canada, in midsummer. All captive crane samples were acquired from the International Crane Foundation, Baraboo, WI, USA. Captive adult cranes (n = 30) were sampled during annual examinations, and archived serum samples from captive juvenile cranes (n = 19) were selected to match the estimated age of wild juveniles. Wild juveniles had significantly lower concentrations of all protein fractions than wild adults, except for prealbumin and γ globulins. All protein fraction concentrations for wild juveniles were significantly lower compared with captive juveniles, except for prealbumin and γ globulins, which were higher. Wild adults had significantly greater γ globulin concentrations than captive adults. Captive juveniles had significantly lower prealbumin and albumin concentrations and albumin : globulin ratios than captive adults. The higher γ globulin concentrations in wild versus captive cranes are likely because of increased antigenic exposure and immune stimulation. Protein fraction concentrations vary significantly with age and natural history in this species. Reference intervals for serum protein electrophoresis results from captive adult whooping cranes are provided in this study.

  2. Wild-caught rodents retain a majority of their natural gut microbiota upon entrance into captivity.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Kevin D; Dearing, M Denise

    2014-04-01

    Experiments conducted on captive animals allow scientists to control many variables; however, these settings are highly unnatural. Previous research has documented a large difference in microbial communities between wild animals and captive-bred individuals. However, wild-caught animals brought into captivity might retain their natural microbiota and thus provide a better study system in which to investigate the ecology of the gut microbiome. We collected individuals of the desert woodrat (Neotoma lepida) from nature and investigated changes in the microbial community over 6 months in captivity. Additionally, we inventoried potential environmental sources of microbes (food, bedding) from the wild and captivity. We found that environmental sources do not make large contributions to the woodrat gut microbial community. We documented a slight decrease in several biodiversity metrics over 6 months in captivity, yet the magnitude of change was small compared with other studies. Wild and captive animals shared 64% of their microbial species, almost twice that observed in other studies of wild and captive-bred individuals (≤ 37% shared). We conclude that wild-caught animals brought into captivity retain a substantial proportion of their natural microbiota and represent an acceptable system in which to study the gut microbiome. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Occurrence of Meloidogyne spp. in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Doucet, M. E.; Pinochet, J.

    1992-01-01

    A record of 84 plant species in 32 families that are hosts to the root-knot nematode species found in Argentina is presented. The genus Meloidogyne appears to be widely distributed in the country, with Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica the most frequently detected species. Other species found in Argentina include M. arenaria, M. cruciani, M. decalineata, M. hapla, and M. ottersoni. The present survey is supplemented with existing published information. PMID:19283059

  4. Update on women in physics in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brudny, Vera; Lagorio, Cecilia; Frechero, Marisa; Tamarit, Francisco

    2013-03-01

    Data collected 10 years ago in Argentina concluded that women in physics were underrepresented in many instances and that a "crystal ceiling" was firmly in place. We have collected updated data for several indicators and compared them with those obtained 10 years ago. Although there is not a clear conclusion to be drawn from this comparison, we try to explain the results within the framework of the changes in scientific policies in Argentina.

  5. Toxic plants of the Northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Karyn; Smith, Mary C

    2011-07-01

    This article lists commonly encountered toxic plants that affect ruminants in the Northeastern United States. Livestock are at risk for ingestion of a large variety of toxic plants. Plant poisonings are likely to be underdiagnosed because tests for most plant toxins are not routinely available at veterinary diagnostic laboratories. Prevention of access to poisonous plants is usually more effective and economical than treatment of plant poisonings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Epidemiology of Meningococcal Disease in Northeastern Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    meningococcal meningits in Bamako, Mali: epidemiological features and analysis of vaccine efficacy, Lancet, ii, 315, 1982. 17. Kilpatrickt, MW. E., Maill. 1. A...r LIE) DTIC , . [iE LE CTE ili D PUBLICATION REPORT 1514 33/88 EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MENINGOCOCCAL DISEASE IN NORTHEASTERN AFRICA BY John E. Sippel, and...to the southern regions of the Sudan. Like the disease in the sub-Siaharan region, meningococcal meningitis in the Nile Valley is seaso- nal and most

  7. Early Triassic geologic history of northeastern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Paull, R.K.; Paull, R.A.

    1986-08-01

    Conodont biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic studies of Lower Triassic rocks in northeastern Elko County, Nevada, and adjacent parts of Idaho and Utah provide new information about regional geologic history. A sequential summary of Early Triassic events in this area follows: (1) rapid transgression of the Griesbachian sea to limiting barriers on the south (Oquirrh-Uinta axis) and west (Humboldt highland.). (2) Although the initial Triassic transgression may have persisted farther south and west than present-day evidence indicates, a period of progradation during the Dienerian limited marine sedimentation to northeastern-most Nevada and adjacent states. (3) In Smithian time, a widespread transgression spilled south and west over the earliest Triassic basin margin. (4) The southward flood is characterized by locally spectacular basal conglomerates followed by shallow marine deposits of the Thaynes Formation. (5) The transgression to the west was facilitated by tectonic removal of the restrictive barrier during the Smithian. This resulted in a slope-basin environment that accumulated a thick sequence of shale and calcareous siltstone with interbeds of turbidite conglomerates, olistostromes, and exotic blocks derived from Permian formations in northern Nevada or adjacent Idaho. (6) During a regional progradation in early Spathian time, marine conditions persisted in northeastern Nevada. (7) A final depositional episode is documented by the progressive westward spread of carbonate rocks of the Thaynes Formation. (8) Withdrawal of Triassic seas from northeast Nevada occurred post-latest Early Triassic, since a carbonate sequence of more than 300 m overlies the youngest dated interval.

  8. Human papillomavirus detection in Corrientes, Argentina: High prevalence of type 58 and its phylodynamics.

    PubMed

    Marín, Héctor M; Torres, Carolina; Deluca, Gerardo D; Mbayed, Viviana A

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has the highest mortality rate due to cervical cancer in Northeastern Argentina. The aim of this work was to detect and characterize HPV in samples from the Province of Corrientes, Argentina. HPV detection and typing was performed using PCR-RFLP on samples with different cervical lesions (n=255). Seventeen viruses typified as HPV-58 were sequenced (E6 and E7 genes) and mutations were analyzed. HPV DNA was detected in 56.1% of the cervical lesions (143/255). Twenty-two different HPV types were detected. The type most frequently found among the total number of samples and HPV-positive samples was HPV-16 (14.5% and 25.9%, respectively), followed by HPV-58 (8.2%/14.7%, respectively), which is also considered a high-risk viral type. Increased severity of the cytological status was associated with greater rates of HPV detection and, especially, with the detection of greater rates of high-risk types. In addition, the evolutionary dynamics of the alpha-9 species group and HPV-58 was studied. All HPV-58 viruses reported in this work belonged to lineage A, sublineage A2. The phylodynamic analysis indicated that diversification of main groups within lineage A might have accompanied or preceded human migrations across the globe. Given that the most prevalent viruses found belonged to high-risk HPV types, some concerns might arise about the extent of cross protection of the vaccines against the types not included in their design. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Contextual view showing northeastern eucalyptus windbreak and portion of citrus ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view showing northeastern eucalyptus windbreak and portion of citrus orchard. Camera facing 118" east-southeast. - Goerlitz House, 9893 Highland Avenue, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino County, CA

  10. Development of hyperglycemia and diabetes in captive Polish bank voles.

    PubMed

    Bartelik, Aleksandra; Ciesla, Maciej; Kotlinowski, Jerzy; Bartelik, Stanislaw; Czaplicki, Dominik; Grochot-Przeczek, Anna; Kurowski, Krzysztof; Koteja, Paweł; Dulak, Jozef; Józkowicz, Alicja

    2013-03-01

    Diabetes has been detected in Danish and Swedish bank voles (Myodes glareolus). There are no data, however, concerning the prevalence of diabetes in populations from other geographic regions. We investigated the frequency and physiological effects of glucose metabolism disorders in captive bank voles from Poland. Single measurement of fasting blood glucose concentration performed in the 3-4month old captive-born bank Polish voles without any disease symptoms showed that 8% of individuals (22/284) displayed an impaired fasting glucose (IFG, blood glucose (BG) ≥100mg/dL) and 1% (4/284) showed hyperglycemia (BG ≥126mg/dL) which could suggest diabetes. Next, we analyzed blood glucose in samples taken once a month from an additional cohort of bank voles with (FHD), or without (H), a family history of diabetes. The prevalence of IFG at age six months was 26% (16/62) among bank voles from the H group. In the FHD group the prevalence increased to 49% (43/88), and additional 12% (11/88) became diabetic (DB, BG ≥126mg/dL at two time points). Postnatal stress (three maternal deprivations before weaning) did not affect the risk of developing IFG or DB in H voles, but significantly reduced the frequency of glucose metabolism disorders (IFG and DB combined) in FHD voles. IFG was associated with hyperinsulinemia, but not with other biochemical disturbances. Diabetic animals displayed a progressive malformation and vacuolization of β-cells in the pancreas, without visible leukocytic infiltrations. In summary, our results indicate that Polish captive bank voles can develop diabetes, which shows features of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes in humans. Risk of diabetes is higher in animal with FHD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Contrafreeloading in grizzly bears: implications for captive foraging enrichment.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Ragen T S; Robbins, Charles T; Alldredge, J Richard; Newberry, Ruth C

    2010-01-01

    Although traditional feeding regimens for captive animals were focused on meeting physiological needs to assure good health, more recently emphasis has also been placed on non-nutritive aspects of feeding. The provision of foraging materials to diversify feeding behavior is a common practice in zoos but selective consumption of foraging enrichment items over more balanced "chow" diets could lead to nutrient imbalance. One alternative is to provide balanced diets in a contrafreeloading paradigm. Contrafreeloading occurs when animals choose resources that require effort to exploit when identical resources are freely available. To investigate contrafreeloading and its potential as a theoretical foundation for foraging enrichment, we conducted two experiments with captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). In Experiment 1, bears were presented with five foraging choices simultaneously: apples, apples in ice, salmon, salmon in ice, and plain ice under two levels of food restriction. Two measures of contrafreeloading were considered: weight of earned food consumed and time spent working for earned food. More free than earned food was eaten, with only two bears consuming food extracted from ice, but all bears spent more time manipulating ice containing salmon or apples than plain ice regardless of level of food restriction. In Experiment 2, food-restricted bears were presented with three foraging choices simultaneously: apples, apples inside a box, and an empty box. Although they ate more free than earned food, five bears consumed food from boxes and all spent more time manipulating boxes containing apples than empty boxes. Our findings support the provision of contrafreeloading opportunities as a foraging enrichment strategy for captive wildlife. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Pendular motion in the brachiation of captive Lagothrix and Ateles.

    PubMed

    Turnquist, J E; Schmitt, D; Rose, M D; Cant, J G

    1999-01-01

    Pendular motion during brachiation of captive Lagothrix lagothricha lugens and Ateles fusciceps robustus was analyzed to demonstrate similarities, and differences, between these two closely related large bodied atelines. This is the first captive study of the kinematics of brachiation in Lagothrix. Videorecordings of one adult male of each species were made in a specially designed cage constructed at the DuMond Conservancy/Monkey Jungle, Miami, FL. Java software (Jandel Scientific Inc., San Rafael, CA) was used for frame-by-frame kinematic analysis of individual strides/steps. Results demonstrate that the sequence of hand and tail contacts differ significantly between the two species with Lagothrix using a new tail hold with every hand hold, while Ateles generally utilizes a new tail hold with only every other hand hold. Stride length and stride frequency, even after adjusting for limb length, also differ significantly between the two species. Lagothrix brachiation utilizes short, choppy strides with quick hand holds, while Ateles uses long, fluid strides with longer hand holds. During brachiation not only is Lagothrix's body significantly less horizontal than that of Ateles but also, within Ateles, there are significant differences between steps depending on tail use. Because of the unique nature of tail use in Ateles, many aspects of body positioning in Lagothrix more closely resemble Ateles steps without a simultaneous tail hold rather than those with one. Overall pendulum length in Lagothrix is shorter than in Ateles. Tail use in Ateles has a significant effect on maximum pendulum length during a step. Although neither species achieves the extreme pendulum effect and long period of free-flight of hylobatids in fast ricochetal brachiation, in captivity both consistently demonstrate effective brachiation with brief periods of free-flight and pendular motion. Morphological similarities between ateline brachiators and hylobatids are fewer and less pronounced in

  13. Quantifying realized inbreeding in wild and captive animal populations.

    PubMed

    Knief, U; Hemmrich-Stanisak, G; Wittig, M; Franke, A; Griffith, S C; Kempenaers, B; Forstmeier, W

    2015-04-01

    Most molecular measures of inbreeding do not measure inbreeding at the scale that is most relevant for understanding inbreeding depression-namely the proportion of the genome that is identical-by-descent (IBD). The inbreeding coefficient FPed obtained from pedigrees is a valuable estimator of IBD, but pedigrees are not always available, and cannot capture inbreeding loops that reach back in time further than the pedigree. We here propose a molecular approach to quantify the realized proportion of the genome that is IBD (propIBD), and we apply this method to a wild and a captive population of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). In each of 948 wild and 1057 captive individuals we analyzed available single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data (260 SNPs) spread over four different genomic regions in each population. This allowed us to determine whether any of these four regions was completely homozygous within an individual, which indicates IBD with high confidence. In the highly nomadic wild population, we did not find a single case of IBD, implying that inbreeding must be extremely rare (propIBD=0-0.00094, 95% CI). In the captive population, a five-generation pedigree strongly underestimated the average amount of realized inbreeding (FPed=0.013

  14. Effects of satellite transmitters on captive and wild mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kesler, Dylan C.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Foggia, Jennifer R.; Beatty, William S.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Humburg, Dale D.; Naylor, Luke W.

    2014-01-01

    Satellite telemetry has become a leading method for studying large-scale movements and survival in birds, yet few have addressed potential effects of the larger and heavier tracking equipment on study subjects. We simultaneously evaluated effects of satellite telemetry equipment on captive and wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to assess impacts on behavior, body mass, and movement. We randomly assigned 55 captive ducks to one of 3 treatment groups, including a standard body harness group, a modified harness group, and a control group. Ducks in the control group were not fitted with equipment, whereas individuals in the other 2 groups were fitted with dummy transmitters attached with a Teflon ribbon harness or with a similar harness constructed of nylon cord. At the conclusion of the 14-week captive study, mean body mass of birds in the control group was 40–105 g (95% CI) greater than birds with standard harnesses, and 28–99 g (95% CI) greater than birds with modified harnesses. Further, results of focal behavior observations indicated ducks with transmitters were less likely to be in water than control birds. We also tested whether movements of wild birds marked with a similar Teflon harness satellite transmitter aligned with population movements reported by on-the-ground observers who indexed local abundances of mid-continent mallards throughout the non-breeding period. Results indicated birds marked with satellite transmitters moved concurrently with the larger unmarked population. Our results have broad implications for field research and suggest that investigators should consider potential for physiological and behavioral effects brought about by tracking equipment. Nonetheless, results from wild ducks indicate satellite telemetry has the potential to provide useful movement data.

  15. Seroprevalence of retrovirus in North American captive macropodidae.

    PubMed

    Georoff, Timothy A; Joyner, Priscilla H; Hoover, John P; Payton, Mark E; Pogranichniy, Roman M

    2008-09-01

    Laboratory records of serology results from captive macropodidae sampled between 1997 and 2005 were reviewed to assess the seroprevalence of retrovirus exposure. Serum samples from 269 individuals (136 males, 133 females) representing 10 species of macropods housed in 31 North American captive collections were analyzed for retrovirus antibody using an indirect immunofluorescent assay. The prevalence of positive antibody titers comparing male versus female, between species, between age groups, and among animals with identified parentage was examined by nonparametric statistical analyses. Median age of animals at time of sample collection was 36 mo (range 2-201 mo). Total percentage seropositive was 20.4%. Serum antibody was detected in 31 of 47 (66.0%) tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), nine of 24 (37.5%) yellow-footed rock wallaby (Petrogale xanthopus), four of 11 (36.4%) swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor), 10 of 80 (12.5%) red-necked wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus), and one of 54 (1.9%) parma wallaby (Macropus parma). No individuals of western gray kangaroo (n=3) (Macropus fuliginosus), eastern gray kangaroo (n=19) (Macropus giganteus), common wallaroo (n=6) (Macropus robustus), red kangaroo (n=11) (Macropus rufus), or Matschie's tree kangaroo (n=14) (Dendrolagus matschiei) were positive for retrovirus antibody. These results demonstrate that five species of captive macropods have a history of exposure to retrovirus, with the highest percentage seropositive and highest statistical correlation in M. eugenii (pair-wise Fisher's exact test, alpha = 0.05). Additionally, one wild-caught M. eugenii was confirmed seropositive during quarantine period, indicating that retrovirus exposure may exist in wild populations.

  16. 9 CFR 55.3 - Appraisal and destruction of captive cervids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraisal and destruction of captive cervids. 55.3 Section 55.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... of captive cervids. (a) CWD positive herds, or individual CWD suspect animals or exposed animals...

  17. 9 CFR 55.3 - Appraisal and destruction of captive cervids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraisal and destruction of captive cervids. 55.3 Section 55.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... of captive cervids. (a) CWD positive herds, or individual CWD suspect animals or exposed animals...

  18. 50 CFR 23.41 - What are the requirements for a bred-in-captivity certificate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What are the requirements for a bred-in... What are the requirements for a bred-in-captivity certificate? (a) Purpose. Article VII(5) of the Treaty grants an exemption to wildlife that is bred in captivity when a Management Authority issues...

  19. 50 CFR 23.41 - What are the requirements for a bred-in-captivity certificate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are the requirements for a bred-in... What are the requirements for a bred-in-captivity certificate? (a) Purpose. Article VII(5) of the Treaty grants an exemption to wildlife that is bred in captivity when a Management Authority issues...

  20. 50 CFR 23.41 - What are the requirements for a bred-in-captivity certificate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What are the requirements for a bred-in... What are the requirements for a bred-in-captivity certificate? (a) Purpose. Article VII(5) of the Treaty grants an exemption to wildlife that is bred in captivity when a Management Authority issues...

  1. Health survey of wild and captive bog turtles (Clemmys muhlenbergii) in North Carolina and Virginia.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Deena; Lewbart, Gregory; Stebbins, Martha; Herman, Dennis W

    2002-12-01

    Blood samples, fecal samples, and cloacal swabs were collected from 42 bog turtles (Clemmys muhlenbergii). including 14 wild males, 22 wild females, three captive males, and three captive females, in Virginia and North Carolina, USA. Samples were analyzed for hematologic and plasma chemistry values, Mycoplasma sp. antibodies, intestinal parasites, and normal cloacal flora.

  2. Can sexual selection theory inform genetic management of captive populations? A review.

    PubMed

    Chargé, Rémi; Teplitsky, Céline; Sorci, Gabriele; Low, Matthew

    2014-11-01

    Captive breeding for conservation purposes presents a serious practical challenge because several conflicting genetic processes (i.e., inbreeding depression, random genetic drift and genetic adaptation to captivity) need to be managed in concert to maximize captive population persistence and reintroduction success probability. Because current genetic management is often only partly successful in achieving these goals, it has been suggested that management insights may be found in sexual selection theory (in particular, female mate choice). We review the theoretical and empirical literature and consider how female mate choice might influence captive breeding in the context of current genetic guidelines for different sexual selection theories (i.e., direct benefits, good genes, compatible genes, sexy sons). We show that while mate choice shows promise as a tool in captive breeding under certain conditions, for most species, there is currently too little theoretical and empirical evidence to provide any clear guidelines that would guarantee positive fitness outcomes and avoid conflicts with other genetic goals. The application of female mate choice to captive breeding is in its infancy and requires a goal-oriented framework based on the needs of captive species management, so researchers can make honest assessments of the costs and benefits of such an approach, using simulations, model species and captive animal data.

  3. Can sexual selection theory inform genetic management of captive populations? A review

    PubMed Central

    Chargé, Rémi; Teplitsky, Céline; Sorci, Gabriele; Low, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Captive breeding for conservation purposes presents a serious practical challenge because several conflicting genetic processes (i.e., inbreeding depression, random genetic drift and genetic adaptation to captivity) need to be managed in concert to maximize captive population persistence and reintroduction success probability. Because current genetic management is often only partly successful in achieving these goals, it has been suggested that management insights may be found in sexual selection theory (in particular, female mate choice). We review the theoretical and empirical literature and consider how female mate choice might influence captive breeding in the context of current genetic guidelines for different sexual selection theories (i.e., direct benefits, good genes, compatible genes, sexy sons). We show that while mate choice shows promise as a tool in captive breeding under certain conditions, for most species, there is currently too little theoretical and empirical evidence to provide any clear guidelines that would guarantee positive fitness outcomes and avoid conflicts with other genetic goals. The application of female mate choice to captive breeding is in its infancy and requires a goal-oriented framework based on the needs of captive species management, so researchers can make honest assessments of the costs and benefits of such an approach, using simulations, model species and captive animal data. PMID:25553072

  4. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1996-03-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January to December 1994 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  5. 77 FR 42625 - Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program and Interstate Movement of Farmed or Captive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... Certification Program and Interstate Movement of Farmed or Captive Deer, Elk, and Moose AGENCY: Animal and Plant... interstate movement of farmed or captive cervids but not preempt State or local laws or regulations that are... movement. This action will allow interested persons additional time to prepare and submit comments on our...

  6. Hematological condition indexes in greenfinches: effects of captivity and diurnal variation.

    PubMed

    Sepp, Tuul; Sild, Elin; Hõrak, Peeter

    2010-01-01

    Ecophysiological research aiming at explaining the causes and consequences of variation in individual condition, health state, and allostasis is traditionally performed on captive animals under controlled laboratory conditions. The question about how captivity per se affects studied parameters is therefore of central importance for generalizing the information gained from such studies. We addressed this question by comparing various indexes of physiological condition of wintering greenfinches sampled in the wild and kept in captivity for different time periods. Bringing wild greenfinches into captivity did not result in systematic alteration in nine of 12 physiological parameters studied. Captive birds had consistently lower plasma carotenoid and uric acid levels than wild ones. Variation in differential leukocyte counts did not reveal any signs of elevated stress of birds kept in captivity. These results indicate that for a number of physiological parameters, information obtained from captive animals can be generalized to natural situations. Variance in traits most closely related to physical exercise capacity (body mass and hematocrit) were much lower in the wild than in captivity. These findings suggest that under harsh environmental conditions experienced by wild birds (i.e., predation threat, scarce resources), traits such as hematocrit and body mass are fine tuned by physiological trade-offs.

  7. Haemangiosarcoma in a captive Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica)

    PubMed Central

    Vercammen, F.; Brandt, J.; Brantegem, L. Van; Bosseler, L.; Ducatelle, R.

    2015-01-01

    A 2.7-year-old male captive Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica) died unexpectedly without preceding symptoms. Gross necropsy revealed liver and lung tumours, which proved to be haemangiosarcomas by histopathology. Some of the liver tumours were ruptured, leading to massive intra-abdominal haemorrhage and death. Haemangiosarcomas are rare in domestic and exotic felids, occurring in skin, thoracic-abdominal cavity and bones. Although these tumours mainly appear to be occurring in older cats, they are sometimes observed in younger animals, as in the present case. This is the first description of haemangiosarcoma in a young Asiatic lion. PMID:26623366

  8. An outbreak of leptospirosis in seals (Phoca vitulina) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Kik, M J L; Goris, M G; Bos, J H; Hartskeerl, R A; Dorrestein, G M

    2006-03-01

    An outbreak of leptospirosis in seals (Phoca vitulina) in captivity is described. In a zoo in The Netherlands 5 adult seals died within 12 days. At necropsy all animals showed signs of acute septicaemia, consistent with acute leptospirosis. Serological examination of one animal was positive for antibodies against Leptospira interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae and the serologically closely related serovar Copenhageni. Polymerase chain reaction was positive in one other animal. 8 nutria (Myocastor coypus) were examined, serologically, through bacteriological culture and PCR. 81,8% (9/11) were serologically positive for Leptospira. The seals and nutria were housed in the same water system.

  9. Picobirnavirus in captive animals from Uruguay: identification of new hosts.

    PubMed

    Gillman, Luciana; Sánchez, Ana Maria; Arbiza, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The Picobirnaviruses (PBVs) have been detected in several species of animals from different countries worldwide, including in South America. The host range of these viruses has increased in recent years; thus, in order to contribute to the knowledge in this topic we analyzed samples from captivity animals from Uruguay. We found the presence of PBVs in four species of animals, Panthera leo, Panthera onca, Puma concolor and Oncifelis geoffroyi, representing new PBV-susceptible hosts. All strains belonged to genogroup I. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Flea (Pulex simulans) infestation in captive giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).

    PubMed

    Mutlow, Adrian G; Dryden, Michael W; Payne, Patricia A

    2006-09-01

    A pair of captive adult giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) presented heavily infested with a flea species (Pulex simulans) commonly found on Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) in the central United States. In this case, the flea was demonstrated to have completed its entire life cycle with the anteaters as the host. A single treatment of topical imidacloprid, coupled with removal and replacement of infested bedding, was rapidly effective at controlling the infestation and no adverse effects of the drug were noted. Control of the anteater infestation also removed the flea infestation of aardvarks in the same building.

  11. Leishmania(Leishmania) chagasi in captive wild felids in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dahroug, Magyda A A; Almeida, Arleana B P F; Sousa, Valéria R F; Dutra, Valéria; Turbino, Nívea C M R; Nakazato, Luciano; de Souza, Roberto L

    2010-01-01

    This study used a PCR-RFLP test to determine the presence of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in 16 captive wild felids [seven Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771); five Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758) and four Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758)] at the zoological park of the Federal University of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Amplification of Leishmania spp. DNA was seen in samples from five pumas and one jaguar, and the species was characterized as L. chagasi using restriction enzymes. It is already known that domestic felids can act as a reservoir of L. chagasi in endemic areas, and further studies are necessary to investigate their participation in the epidemiological chain of leishmaniasis.

  12. Atoxoplasma spp. infection in captive canaries (Serinus canaria).

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Gómez-Villamandos, J C; Gutiérrez, J; Sierra, M A; Pedrera, M; Bautista, M J

    2007-02-01

    Clinical signs, histopathological and ultrastructural findings associated with Atoxoplasma spp. natural infection in captive canaries (Serinus canaria) are described. Intracytoplasmic Atoxoplasma-like protozoa were found in the liver and lung. In the liver, protozoa were found in hepatocytes and Kupffer's cells and were associated with granulomatous hepatitis and a marked bile duct hyperplasia. An usual finding was the presence of infected mononuclear cells adhered to the endothelium of the blood vessels in lung. The diagnosis was confirmed by ultrastructural examination of reprocessed paraffin-embedded tissues.

  13. Haemangiosarcoma in a captive Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica).

    PubMed

    Vercammen, F; Brandt, J; Brantegem, L Van; Bosseler, L; Ducatelle, R

    2015-01-01

    A 2.7-year-old male captive Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica) died unexpectedly without preceding symptoms. Gross necropsy revealed liver and lung tumours, which proved to be haemangiosarcomas by histopathology. Some of the liver tumours were ruptured, leading to massive intra-abdominal haemorrhage and death. Haemangiosarcomas are rare in domestic and exotic felids, occurring in skin, thoracic-abdominal cavity and bones. Although these tumours mainly appear to be occurring in older cats, they are sometimes observed in younger animals, as in the present case. This is the first description of haemangiosarcoma in a young Asiatic lion.

  14. Ulnar metaphyseal osteochondrosis in seven captive bred cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Allan, Graeme; Portas, Timothy; Bryant, Benn; Howlett, Rolfe; Blyde, David

    2008-01-01

    Distal ulna metaphyseal osteochondrosis was identified in seven captive bred cheetahs raised in Australia between 1984 and 2005. The disorder was characterized by bilateral carpal valgus conformation. In the metaphyseal region of the distal ulnae, an osteolucent defect that appeared as a proximal extension of the lucent physis was identified radiographically between 6 and 10 months of age. Ulna ostectomy was done to correct the angular limb deformity. Histologically, changes were identified in the osteolucent lesion that resembled osteochondrosis. We propose that the condition is probably familial and/or dietary in origin.

  15. 72 FR 6745 - Honey From Argentina and China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2007-02-13

    ... COMMISSION Honey From Argentina and China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of expedited five-year reviews concerning the countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina and the antidumping duty orders on honey from Argentina and China. SUMMARY: The Commission...

  16. 66 FR 31948 - Honey From Argentina and China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-06-13

    ... COMMISSION Investigations Nos. 701-TA-402 (Final) and 731-TA-892-893 (Final) Honey From Argentina and China... Argentina and less-than-fair-value imports from Argentina and China of honey, provided for in subheadings... honey, artificial honey containing more than 50 percent natural honey by weight, preparations of...

  17. 71 FR 64292 - Honey From Argentina and China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-11-01

    ... COMMISSION Honey From Argentina and China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of five-year reviews concerning the countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina and the antidumping duty orders on honey from Argentina and China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that...

  18. 65 FR 69573 - Honey From Argentina and China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-11-17

    ... COMMISSION Honey From Argentina and China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports from Argentina and China of honey... United States is materially injured by reason of imports from Argentina of honey that are alleged to...

  19. 50 CFR 21.14 - Permit exceptions for captive-bred migratory waterfowl other than mallard ducks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Permit exceptions for captive-bred... General Requirements and Exceptions § 21.14 Permit exceptions for captive-bred migratory waterfowl other than mallard ducks. You may acquire captive-bred and properly marked migratory waterfowl of all...

  20. 50 CFR 21.14 - Permit exceptions for captive-bred migratory waterfowl other than mallard ducks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Permit exceptions for captive-bred... General Requirements and Exceptions § 21.14 Permit exceptions for captive-bred migratory waterfowl other than mallard ducks. You may acquire captive-bred and properly marked migratory waterfowl of all...

  1. 50 CFR 21.14 - Permit exceptions for captive-bred migratory waterfowl other than mallard ducks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Permit exceptions for captive-bred... General Requirements and Exceptions § 21.14 Permit exceptions for captive-bred migratory waterfowl other than mallard ducks. You may acquire captive-bred and properly marked migratory waterfowl of all...

  2. 50 CFR 15.31 - Criteria for including species in the approved list for captive-bred species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... approved list for captive-bred species. 15.31 Section 15.31 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Approved List of Species Listed... captive-bred species. The Director will periodically review the list of captive-bred exotic bird species...

  3. 50 CFR 15.31 - Criteria for including species in the approved list for captive-bred species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... approved list for captive-bred species. 15.31 Section 15.31 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Approved List of Species Listed... captive-bred species. The Director will periodically review the list of captive-bred exotic bird species...

  4. Pedigree analysis reveals a generational decline in reproductive success of captive Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii): implications for captive management of threatened species.

    PubMed

    Farquharson, Katherine A; Hogg, Carolyn J; Grueber, Catherine E

    2017-04-04

    Captive breeding programs are an increasingly popular tool to augment the conservation of threatened wild populations. Many programs keep detailed pedigrees, which are used to prescribe breeding targets to meet demographic and genetic goals. Annual breeding targets are based on previous productivity, but do not account for changes in reproductive success that may occur over generations in captivity and which may impair the ability of a program to meet its goals. We utilise a large studbook from the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) captive breeding program to investigate biological, genetic and environmental factors that affect variation in reproductive success among individuals and over generations of captive breeding. Reproductive success declined with increasing generations in captivity: wild-born females had a 56.5% chance of producing a litter compared to a 2.8% chance for generation 5 captive-born females (N = 182) and when they did, wild-born females produced more offspring (3.1 joeys, 95% CI: 2.76 - 3.38, compared to 2.7 joeys, 95% CI: 2.55 - 2.90, in captive-born females [N = 105]). Reproductive success also declined as dam age at first breeding increased. Our results reveal a conflict with the widely-cited conservation strategy to limit opportunity for selection by extending generation length through delaying reproduction, as captive breeding programs that delay female breeding with this goal in mind risk reduced productivity. Our data demonstrate the benefit of pedigree analysis to identify biological processes that reveal crucial trade-offs with conservation best-practice.

  5. A Pasteurella sp associated with respiratory disease in captive desert tortoises.

    PubMed

    Snipes, K P; Biberstein, E L; Fowler, M E

    1980-11-01

    Bacteria isolated from captive healthy desert tortoises were compared with bacteria from captive tortoises with respiratory illness and with bacteria from free-ranging tortoises from the Mojave Desert. Major differences were not observed among these groups when bacteria from the mouth, nares, trachea, lungs, and cloaca were compared. Frequently encountered organisms in all 3 groups included: coagulase-negative, catalase-positive, gram-positive cocci; Corynebacterium sp; members of Enterobacteriaceae, including Proteus spp; and a bacterium apparently belonging to the genus Pasteurella. The Pasteurella sp was consistently found to be associated with respiratory lesions in captive tortoises with signs of respiratory disease but was also found to be part of the gastrointestinal and nasal flora of healthy tortoises. It was hypothesized that respiratory disease in captive desert tortoises involves a commensal bacterium with the potential to be an opportunistic pathogen when the tortoise is stressed by a captive environment.

  6. Genetic analysis reveals multiple parentage in captive reared eastern hellbender salamanders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis).

    PubMed

    Unger, Shem D; Williams, Rod N

    2015-11-01

    Information on the parentage of captive reared clutches is vital for conservation head-starting programs. Molecular methods, such as genotyping individuals with hyper-variable markers, can elucidate the genealogical contribution of captive-reared, reintroduced individuals to native populations. In this study, we used 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci to infer parentage of a clutch of 18 eastern hellbenders collected from a single nest from Buffalo Creek, West Virginia, subsequently reared in captivity, and used for translocations in Indiana. Collectively, these markers successfully detected the presence of multiple parentage for this species of conservation concern presently used in captive management programs in zoos across many states. This study highlights the need for genetic analysis of captive reared clutches used in translocations to minimize the loss of genetic diversity and potential for genetic swamping at release sites.

  7. Captive-rearing piping plovers: developing techniques to augment wild populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, A.N.; Cuthbert, F.J.; Wemmer, L.C.; Doolittle, A.

    1997-01-01

    Techniques for captive-rearing and releasing piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) were developed using a surrogate species, killdeer (Charadrius vociferus). We compared captive- and parent-reared killdeer, and parent-reared piping plovers and determined that growth and behavior were similar. After surrogate trials determined that captive-rearing was feasible, we used the same methods to raise piping plover chicks from salvaged eggs. For captive-reared chick of both species, survival to fledging was higher than and behaviors similar to parent-reared chicks in the wild. Rearing techniques were fine-tuned, and ten piping plover fledglings were released to the wild. Based on our results, we developed recommendations for captive-rearing piping plovers using salvaged eggs to enhance productivity of small populations.

  8. Captive-rearing piping plovers: Developing techniques to augment wild populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, A.N.; Cuthbert, F.J.; Wemmer, L.C.; Doolittle, A.W.; Feirer, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    Techniques for captive-rearing and releasing piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) were developed using a surrogate species, killdeer (Charadrius vociferus). We compared captive-and parent-reared killdeer, and parent-reared piping plovers and determined that growth and behavior were similar. After surrogate trials determined that captive-rearing was feasible, we used the same methods to raise piping plover chicks from salvaged eggs. For captive-reared chick of both species, survival to fledging was higher than and behaviors similar to parent-reared chicks in the wild. Rearing techniques were fine-tuned, and ten piping plover fledglings were released to the wild. Based on our results, we developed recommendations for captive-rearing piping plovers using salvaged eggs to enhance productivity of small populations. ?? 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Occurrence of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in Brazilian cervids kept in captivity.

    PubMed

    Tiemann, Julia C H; Rodrigues, Aline A R; de Souza, Silvio L P; Duarte, José M Barbanti; Gennari, Solange M

    2005-05-15

    Neospora caninum is a coccidian parasite that causes disease in captive and domesticated animals and has been found in wild animals such as cervids. Sera from 150 cervids of the genus Mazama, were collected from 31 captive herds and 16 zoos from different Brazilian regions and analyzed by indirect fluorescent antibody test for anti-N. caninum antibodies. Positive reactions were found in 42% (63) of the samples and the titers varied from 50 to 51,200. Of the 86 cervids from the captive herds, 38 (44.2%) had anti N. caninum antibodies and of the 64 samples from the zoo, 25 (39.1%) were positive. No significant difference (p>0.05) was found for the occurrence values observed between the animals from captive herds and zoos as well as within the values documented for each one of the species analyzed. Therefore, the results indicate that the agent is prevalent from cervids in captivity in Brazil.

  10. Assessing the effects of cognitive experiments on the welfare of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) by direct comparison of activity budget between wild and captive chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Hayashi, Misato

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the effects of cognitive experiments by direct comparison of activity budgets between wild and captive chimpanzees. One goal of captive management is to ensure that the activity budgets of captive animals are as similar as possible to those of their wild counterparts. However, such similarity has rarely been achieved. We compared the activity budget among three groups of chimpanzees: wild chimpanzees in Bossou (Guinea, n = 10), and captive chimpanzees who participated in cognitive experiments (experimental chimpanzees, n = 6) or did not participate in the experiments (nonexperimental chimpanzees, n = 6) at the Primate Research Institute (Japan). The experimental chimpanzees voluntarily participated in computer-controlled cognitive tasks and small pieces of fruits were provided as rewards. The data from captivity were obtained on the experimental days (weekdays) and nonexperimental days (weekends). In both study sites, we followed each chimpanzee from about 7 a.m. until the time when chimpanzees started to rest in the evening. The behaviors were recorded every 1 min. The results showed that on weekdays, feeding time and resting time of the experimental chimpanzees were almost the same as those of wild chimpanzees. However, for the nonexperimental chimpanzees, feeding time was significantly shorter and resting time was longer than those of the wild chimpanzees. In contrast, no difference was found in feeding time or resting time of the two groups of captive chimpanzees on weekends. The results suggested that the cognitive experiments worked as an efficient method for food-based enrichment.

  11. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1995-2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation and are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January 1995 to August 2000 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Since initiating captive brood culture in 1991, NMFS has returned 742,000 eyed eggs, 181 pre-spawning adults, and over 90,000 smolts to Idaho for recovery efforts. The first adult returns to the Stanley Basin from the captive brood program began with 7 in 1999, and increased to about 250 in 2000. NMFS currently has broodstock in culture from year classes 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999 in both the captive broodstock program, and an adult release program. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  12. Serum chemistry comparisons between captive and free-ranging giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Debra A; Barbiers, Robyn B; Ellersieck, Mark R; Ball, Ray L; Koutsos, Elizabeth A; Griffin, Mark E; Grobler, Douw; Citino, Scott B; Bush, Mitchell

    2011-03-01

    Serum chemistry analyses were compared between captive and free-ranging giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) in an attempt to better understand some of the medical issues seen with captive giraffes. Illnesses, including peracute mortality, energy malnutrition, pancreatic disease, urolithiasis, hoof disease, and severe intestinal parasitism, may be related to zoo nutrition and management issues. Serum samples were collected from 20 captive giraffes at 10 United States institutions. Thirteen of the captive animal samples were collected from animals trained for blood collection; seven were banked samples obtained from a previous serum collection. These samples were compared with serum samples collected from 24 free-ranging giraffes in South Africa. Differences between captive and free-ranging giraffes, males and females, and adults and subadults were analyzed by using a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial and Fisher's least significant difference for mean separation; when necessary variables were ranked and analyzed via analysis of variance. Potassium and bilirubin concentrations and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities were different between captive and free-ranging giraffes, but all fell within normal bovid reference ranges. The average glucose concentration was significantly elevated in free-ranging giraffes (161 mg/dl) compared with captive giraffes (113 mg/dl). All giraffes in this study had glucose concentrations higher than bovine (42-75 mg/ dl) and caprine (48-76 mg/dl) reference ranges. Differences were also seen in lipase, chloride, and magnesium though these findings are likely not clinically significant. There were no differences detected between sexes. Adults had higher concentrations of potassium, total protein, globulins, and chloride and higher gamma glutamyltransferase activities, whereas subadults had higher concentrations of phosphorus. Within the captive group, nonimmobilized animals had higher concentrations of total protein and globulins. Captive giraffe diets

  13. Differences in fecal particle size between free-ranging and captive individuals of two browser species.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Jürgen; Fritz, Julia; Kienzle, Ellen; Medici, E Patricia; Lang, Stefanie; Zimmermann, Waltraut; Streich, W Jürgen; Clauss, Marcus

    2008-01-01

    Data from captive animals indicated that browsing (BR) ruminants have larger fecal particles-indicative of lesser chewing efficiency-than grazers (GR). To answer whether this reflects fundamental differences between the animal groups, or different reactions of basically similar organisms to diets fed in captivity, we compared mean fecal particle size (MPS) in a GR and a BR ruminant (aurox Bos primigenius taurus, giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis) and a GR and a BR hindgut fermenter (Przewalski's horse Equus ferus przewalskii, lowland tapir Tapirus terrestris), both from captivity and from the wild. As would be expected owing to a proportion of finely ground, pelleted feeds in captive diets, MPS was smaller in captive than free-ranging GR. In contrast, MPS was drastically higher in captive than in free-ranging BR of either digestion type. Thus, the difference in MPS between GR and BR was much more pronounced among captive than free-ranging animals. The results indicate that BR teeth have adapted to their natural diet so that in the wild, they achieve a particle size reduction similar to that of GR. However, although GR teeth seem equally adapted to food ingested in captivity, the BR teeth seem less well suited to efficiently chew captive diets. In the case of ruminants, less efficient particle size reduction could contribute to potential clinical problems like "rumen blockage" and bezoar formation. Comparisons of MPS between free-ranging and captive animals might offer indications for the physical suitability of zoo diets. Zoo Biol 27:70-77, 2008. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Captivity induces hyper-inflammation in the house sparrow (Passer domesticus).

    PubMed

    Martin, Lynn B; Kidd, Laura; Liebl, Andrea L; Coon, Courtney A C

    2011-08-01

    Some species thrive in captivity but others exhibit extensive psychological and physiological deficits, which can be a challenge to animal husbandry and conservation as well as wild immunology. Here, we investigated whether captivity duration impacted the regulation of a key innate immune response, inflammation, of a common wild bird species, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus). Inflammation is one of the most commonly induced and fast-acting immune responses animals mount upon exposure to a parasite. However, attenuation and resolution of inflammatory responses are partly coordinated by glucocorticoid hormones, hormones that can be disregulated in captivity. Here, we tested whether captivity duration alters corticosterone regulation and hence the inflammatory response by comparing the following responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; a Gram-negative bacteria component that induces inflammation) of birds caught wild and injected immediately versus those held for 2 or 4 weeks in standard conditions: (1) the magnitude of leukocyte immune gene expression [the cytokines, interleukin 1β and interleukin 6, and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)], (2) the rate of clearance of endotoxin, and (3) the release of corticosterone (CORT) in response to endotoxin (LPS). We predicted that captivity duration would increase baseline CORT and thus suppress gene expression and endotoxin clearance rate. However, our predictions were not supported: TLR4 expression increased with time in captivity irrespective of LPS, and cytokine expression to LPS was stronger the longer birds remained captive. Baseline CORT was not affected by captivity duration, but CORT release post-LPS occurred only in wild birds. Lastly, sparrows held captive for 4 weeks maintained significantly higher levels of circulating endotoxin than other groups, perhaps due to leakage of microbes from the gut, but exogenous LPS did not increase circulating levels over the time scale samples were collected. Altogether, captivity

  15. History of exploration in Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, L.A. )

    1989-09-01

    The paper will review the exploration activities in Argentina, but slightly departing from the technical-geological viewpoints which have been dealt with in a number of previous congresses and symposiums. The talk will cover Argentine geological basins, exploration history in each of them, a brief outline of their stratigraphic columns and producing formations, highlighting their original and remaining hydrocarbon reserves. Based on the history of the exploratory discoveries, and what has been learned from them, a forecast will be made of the necessary effort to recover the reserves that is estimated will be consumed up to the year 2000. The results obtained from the four rounds of bids for the exploration of the 165 areas under the so-called Houston Plan, will be extensively discussed and its principal clauses will be underlined. A special emphasis will be given to the Gas Exploration issue, summarizing its short history and the essential role that this fluid will play in the Argentine energy balance of the future.

  16. Iron storage disorders in captive wild mammals: the comparative evidence.

    PubMed

    Clauss, Marcus; Paglia, Donald E

    2012-09-01

    Excessive burden of iron, or iron storage disease (ISD), has been reported in a large variety of captive mammal species, including browsing rhinoceroses; tapirs; fruit bats; lemurs; marmosets and some other primates; sugar gliders; hyraxes; some rodents and lagomorphs; dolphins; and some carnivores; including procyonids and pinnipeds. This report collates the comparative evidence for species' susceptibility, recognizing that the data for mammal species are limited. Differences reported in the occurrence of ISD between facilities, or within facilities over periods that span management changes, have been reported in individual cases but are underused in ISD research. Given the species composition, the hypothesis that evolutionary adaptations to the iron content and availability in the natural diet determine a species' susceptibility to ISD (in the face of deviating iron content and availability in diets offered in captivity) seems plausible in many cases. But exceptions, and additional species putatively susceptible based on this rationale, should be investigated. Whereas screening for ISD should be routine in zoo animal necropsy, screening of live individuals may be implemented for valuable species, to decide on therapeutic measures such as chelator application or phlebotomy. Whatever the reasons for ISD susceptibility, reducing dietary iron levels to maintenance requirements of the species in question seems to be a logical, preventive measure.

  17. Diversity of avipoxviruses in captive-bred Houbara bustard.

    PubMed

    Le Loc'h, Guillaume; Ducatez, Mariette F; Camus-Bouclainville, Christelle; Guérin, Jean-Luc; Bertagnoli, Stéphane

    2014-10-01

    Implementation of conservation breeding programs is a key step to ensuring the sustainability of many endangered species. Infectious diseases can be serious threats for the success of such initiatives especially since knowledge on pathogens affecting those species is usually scarce. Houbara bustard species (Chlamydotis undulata and Chlamydotis macqueenii), whose populations have declined over the last decades, have been captive-bred for conservation purposes for more than 15 years. Avipoxviruses are of the highest concern for these species in captivity. Pox lesions were collected from breeding projects in North Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia for 6 years in order to study the diversity of avipoxviruses responsible for clinical infections in Houbara bustard. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of 113 and 75 DNA sequences for P4b and fpv140 loci respectively, revealed an unexpected wide diversity of viruses affecting Houbara bustard even at a project scale: 17 genotypes equally distributed between fowlpox virus-like and canarypox virus-like have been identified in the present study. This suggests multiple and repeated introductions of virus and questions host specificity and control strategy of avipoxviruses. We also show that the observed high virus burden and co-evolution of diverse avipoxvirus strains at endemic levels may be responsible for the emergence of novel recombinant strains.

  18. The Final (Oral Ebola) Vaccine Trial on Captive Chimpanzees?

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Peter D.; Kurup, Drishya; Hasselschwert, Dana L.; Wirblich, Christoph; Goetzmann, Jason E.; Schnell, Matthias J.

    2017-01-01

    Could new oral vaccine technologies protect endangered wildlife against a rising tide of infectious disease? We used captive chimpanzees to test oral delivery of a rabies virus (RABV) vectored vaccine against Ebola virus (EBOV), a major threat to wild chimpanzees and gorillas. EBOV GP and RABV GP-specific antibody titers increased exponentially during the trial, with rates of increase for six orally vaccinated chimpanzees very similar to four intramuscularly vaccinated controls. Chimpanzee sera also showed robust neutralizing activity against RABV and pseudo-typed EBOV. Vaccination did not induce serious health complications. Blood chemistry, hematologic, and body mass correlates of psychological stress suggested that, although sedation induced acute stress, experimental housing conditions did not induce traumatic levels of chronic stress. Acute behavioral and physiological responses to sedation were strongly correlated with immune responses to vaccination. These results suggest that oral vaccination holds great promise as a tool for the conservation of apes and other endangered tropical wildlife. They also imply that vaccine and drug trials on other captive species need to better account for the effects of stress on immune response. PMID:28277549

  19. Spatial memory in captive American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Zamisch, Valeria; Vonk, Jennifer

    2012-11-01

    The spatial memory and foraging strategies of four adult captive-born American black bears (Ursus americanus) were explored in four experiments using a simulated foraging task. In the first three experiments, each session consisted of two phases separated by a delay: During the exploration phase, subjects foraged among a set of baited and unbaited sites. During the delay, the same locations were rebaited and subjects were released again and allowed to search the sites (search phase). In Experiments 1a and 1b, different sites were baited each day and the interval between exploration and search was short (4 hr or 15 min). Subjects were not accurate at recovering the food items in either experiment. In Experiment 2, an "informed forager" paradigm was used in which one subject was given privileged knowledge about the location of the food during the exploration phase and was later released with an "uninformed" competitor during the search phase. The bears did not achieve above-chance recovery accuracy even in the presence of a competitor. In Experiment 3, the same two of four sites were continually baited and the bears were released simultaneously over a period of 20 days, with each baiting separated by 2 or 3 days. As a group, the bears' foraging accuracy with repeated baiting and longer intervals approached greater than chance accuracy. Results suggest some limitations on bears' use of spatial memory in captive environments, but reveal the potential for use of spatial memory over longer delays.

  20. PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLA IN CAPTIVE REPTILES FROM CROATIA.

    PubMed

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-06-01

    Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples from 200 apparently healthy reptiles were tested for Salmonella excretions by bacteriologic culture and serotyping. These 200 individual reptiles included 31 lizards, 79 chelonians, and 90 snakes belonging to private owners or housed at the Zagreb Zoo, Croatia. Salmonella was detected in a total of 13% of the animals, among them 48.4% lizards, 8.9% snakes, and 3.8% turtles. Representatives of five of the six Salmonella enterica subspecies were identified with the following proportions in the total number of isolates: Salmonella enterica enterica 34.6%, Salmonella enterica houtenae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica arizonae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica diarizonae 15.4%, and Salmonella enterica salamae 3.8%. The 14 different serovars isolated included several rarely occurring serovars such as Salmonella Apapa, Salmonella Halle, Salmonella Kisarawe, and Salmonella Potengi. These findings confirm that the prevalence of Salmonella is considerable in captive reptiles in Croatia, indicating that these animals may harbor serovars not commonly seen in veterinary or human microbiologic practice. This should be addressed in the prevention and diagnostics of human reptile-transmitted infections.

  1. Ascarid infestation in captive Siberian tigers in China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhiwei; Liu, Shijie; Hou, Zhijun; Xing, Mingwei

    2016-08-15

    The Siberian tiger is endangered and is listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature; the captive environment is utilized to maintain Siberian tiger numbers. Little information regarding the prevalence of parasites in Siberian tigers is available. A total of 277 fecal samples of Siberian tigers were analyzed in this study. The microscopic analysis indicated the presence of ascarid eggs of Toxascaris leonina and Toxocara cati. The ascarid infection rate was 67.5% in Siberian tigers. The internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) phylogenetic analysis indicated that T. leonina belonged to Toxascaris and that Toxo. cati belonged to Toxocara. The infestation rate and intensity of T. leonina were higher than those of Toxo. cati. One-way analysis of variance showed that the presence of T. leonina was significantly associated with age (P<0.05). Temperature changes also influenced T. leonina and Toxo. cati infestation, and a rise in temperature caused an increase in the number of T. leonina and Toxo. cati eggs. This study provides a better understanding of ascarid infestation among the captive Siberian tigers and is helpful for the prevention of the spread of infectious parasitic diseases among other tigers in the zoo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Neophobia and learning mechanisms: how captive orangutans discover medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Erik; Krief, Sabrina; Saint Jalme, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Great apes sometimes feed on items of low nutritional value with bioactive secondary compounds. These molecules may be toxic and neophobia is presumed to be an essential factor in avoiding the ingestion of noxious items. The aim of this study is to investigate, in captive orangutans, individual and social learning involved in the discovery and ingestion of new items. We presented novel aromatic plants - 11 fresh plants and 4 infused plants - to 4 captive weaned Bornean orangutans, both under isolated and group conditions, and recorded their behaviour and interactions between group members. All animals tasted by nibbling or ingested most of the plants presented. Regardless of the experimental condition, individual responses did not vary visibly across the sessions, despite numerous close observations, and food transfers between individuals were observed. Our results suggest that a low level of neophobia and a strong propensity to look to conspecifics for information allow Bornean orangutans to expand their diet after weaning. Our results also provide some evidence that olfaction is a key sense in determining food edibility based on previous experience.

  3. Genetic assessment of captive red panda (Ailurus fulgens) population.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arun; Rai, Upashna; Roka, Bhupen; Jha, Alankar K; Reddy, P Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    Red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is threatened across its range by detrimental human activities and rapid habitat changes necessitating captive breeding programs in various zoos globally to save this flagship species from extinction. One of the ultimate aims of ex situ conservation is reintroduction of endangered animals into their natural habitats while maintaining 90 % of the founder genetic diversity. Advances in molecular genetics and microsatellite genotyping techniques make it possible to accurately estimate genetic diversity of captive animals of unknown ancestry. Here we assess genetic diversity of the red panda population in Padmaja Naidu Himalayan Zoological Park, Darjeeling, which plays a pivotal role in ex situ conservation of red panda in India. We generated microsatellite genotypes of fifteen red pandas with a set of fourteen loci. This population is genetically diverse with 68 % observed heterozygosity (HO) and mean inbreeding (FIS) coefficient of 0.05. However population viability analysis reveals that this population has a very low survival probability (<2 %) and will rapidly loose its genetic diversity to 37 % mainly due to small population size and skewed male-biased sex ratio. Regular supplementation with a pair of adult individuals every five years will increase survival probability and genetic diversity to 99 and 61 % respectively and will also support future harvesting of individuals for reintroduction into the wild and exchange with other zoos.

  4. Seasonal energetics and behavior of captive canvasbacks (Aythia valisineria)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Kuenzel, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Dramatic changes in the food habits and distribution of Chesapeake Bay canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) generated a desire to better understand the energetics and behavior of this species on its wintering grounds. Captive canvasbacks were maintained ad libitum on 5 diets during the winters of 1978-80 to evaluate varying protein and energy levels in the diets. Food consumption, weight, blood, and behavior were variables measured to assess affect of diet. Food consumption was higher (P<0.05) for canvasbacks on the low energy (1543 kcal/kg) diets than birds on the high energy (3638 kcal/kg) diets, but body weights did not differ (P<0.05) between diets for males or females. Food consumption and body weights were greatest in November and April and least in January and February. Canvas backs lost weight and ate less during the most stressful periods in spite of adequate food supplies. Blood parameters and behavior of captive canvasbacks did not differ between diets, although differences (P<0.05) were detected for some blood parameters and behaviors between sexes, ages, and seasons. Canvasbacks were more inactive during the coldest months. Changes in behavior, weight, and food consumption appear to be a mechanism to conserve energy at a time when natural food supplies are less plentiful or less available. Aquatic vegetation has declined in quantity making canvasbacks more dependent on invertebrates. Availability of low energy food (e.g. clams) may be the limiting factor in regard to the winter survival of wild canvasbacks.

  5. Captive Breeding Programs Based on Family Groups in Polyploid Sturgeons

    PubMed Central

    Boscari, Elisa; Pujolar, Jose Martin; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Corradin, Riccardo; Congiu, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In species with long life cycles and discontinuous availability of individuals to reproduction, implementing a long-term captive breeding program can be difficult or impossible. In such cases, managing diversity among familiar groups instead of individuals could become a suitable approach to avoid inbreeding and increase the possibility to accomplish a breeding scheme. This is the case of several sturgeon species including the Adriatic sturgeon, whose recovery depends on the management of a few captive stocks directly descended from the same group of wild parents. In the present study, relatedness among 445 potential breeders was inferred with a novel software for pedigree reconstruction in tetraploids (“BreedingSturgeons”). This information was used to plan a breeding scheme considering familiar groups as breeding units and identifying mating priorities. A two-step strategy is proposed: a short-term breeding program, relying on the 13 remaining F0 individuals of certain wild origin; and a long-term plan based on F1 families. Simulations to evaluate the loss of alleles in the F2 generation under different pairing strategies and assess the number of individuals to breed, costs and logistical aquaculture constraints were performed. The strategy proposed is transferable to the several other tetraploid sturgeon species on the brink of extinction. PMID:25356794

  6. Captive breeding programs based on family groups in polyploid sturgeons.

    PubMed

    Boscari, Elisa; Pujolar, Jose Martin; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Corradin, Riccardo; Congiu, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In species with long life cycles and discontinuous availability of individuals to reproduction, implementing a long-term captive breeding program can be difficult or impossible. In such cases, managing diversity among familiar groups instead of individuals could become a suitable approach to avoid inbreeding and increase the possibility to accomplish a breeding scheme. This is the case of several sturgeon species including the Adriatic sturgeon, whose recovery depends on the management of a few captive stocks directly descended from the same group of wild parents. In the present study, relatedness among 445 potential breeders was inferred with a novel software for pedigree reconstruction in tetraploids ("BreedingSturgeons"). This information was used to plan a breeding scheme considering familiar groups as breeding units and identifying mating priorities. A two-step strategy is proposed: a short-term breeding program, relying on the 13 remaining F0 individuals of certain wild origin; and a long-term plan based on F1 families. Simulations to evaluate the loss of alleles in the F2 generation under different pairing strategies and assess the number of individuals to breed, costs and logistical aquaculture constraints were performed. The strategy proposed is transferable to the several other tetraploid sturgeon species on the brink of extinction.

  7. Amyloidosis in a Captive Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata) Research Colony

    PubMed Central

    Shientag, Lisa J; Garlick, David S; Galati, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Five birds in a captive zebra finch research colony were diagnosed with systemic amyloidosis within a 7-mo period by means of postmortem Congo red staining and green birefringence under polarized light. The liver was the most frequently and usually the most seriously affected organ, followed by the spleen and then the kidney. All 5 birds had been clinically affected with various inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic conditions associated with amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis in humans and animals. Immunohistochemistry using antisera against duck AA protein revealed that tissues from 2 of the 5 birds were positive for the presence of AA protein and systemic inflammation-associated amyloidosis. Although the development of AA amyloidosis has been associated with chronic inflammation, trauma, and various infectious and neoplastic diseases as well as possible genetic predispositions and stresses linked to overcrowding, the root causes for individual cases of AA amyloidosis are incompletely understood. As far as we know, this report is the first description of AA amyloidosis in captive, research zebra finches. PMID:27298248

  8. Treatment of captive giant Canada geese affected by avian cholera.

    PubMed

    Zinkl, J G; Hurt, J J; Hyland, J M; Dey, N; Studnicka, D; King, D D

    1977-07-01

    In the spring of 1975, an epornitic of avian cholera in Nebraska affected wild waterfowl, common crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), and a captive flock of guant Canada geese (Branta canadensis maxima). Measures taken to control the disease in the captive geese included flushing the water of their pen with fresh well water, parenteral (50mg oxytetracycline intramuscularly) and feed (tetracycline 500 g/ton) antibiotic treatment, and removing dead waterfowl and crows from the pen, and keeping wild waterfowl and crows out of the pen. Other measures taken to prevent a recurrence of the outbreak included monitoring the area with susceptible sentinel birds and culturing nasal swabs for Pasteurella multocida. Young Canada geese and wood ducks (Aix sponsa) raised in the area also were cultured before release to assure that carriers would not be released into the wild. Presently, ponds in the pen have been dried up so that the area is less attractive to wild waterfowl. Swine feeders and waterers that have been modified to discourage their use by crows are being used to feed and water the geese.

  9. Consistency of captive giraffe behavior under two different management regimes.

    PubMed

    Bashaw, Meredith J

    2011-01-01

    Long-term animal behavior studies are sometimes conducted at a single site, leading to questions about whether effects are limited to animals in the same environment. Our ability to make general conclusions about behavior is improved when we can identify behaviors that are consistent across a range of environments. To extend Veasey and colleagues' ([1996b] Anim Welf 5:139-153) study, I compared not only activity budgets but also social behavior of an all-female group of giraffe at The Maryland Zoo in Baltimore (MZiB) to those previously observed in breeding groups at The San Diego Zoo's Wild Animal Park (SDZWAP; Bashaw et al. [2007] J Comp Psychol 121:46-53). Morning activity budgets and the maintenance of social relationships were consistent across groups. MZiB female giraffe interacted more frequently and the identity of animals that formed the strongest relationships was less predictable than at SDZWAP. Results support earlier findings that captive giraffe maintain social relationships and suggest that studies of giraffe social relationships and activity are generalizable across a range of captive conditions.

  10. Amyloidosis in a Captive Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata) Research Colony.

    PubMed

    Shientag, Lisa J; Garlick, David S; Galati, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Five birds in a captive zebra finch research colony were diagnosed with systemic amyloidosis within a 7-mo period by means of postmortem Congo red staining and green birefringence under polarized light. The liver was the most frequently and usually the most seriously affected organ, followed by the spleen and then the kidney. All 5 birds had been clinically affected with various inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic conditions associated with amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis in humans and animals. Immunohistochemistry using antisera against duck AA protein revealed that tissues from 2 of the 5 birds were positive for the presence of AA protein and systemic inflammation-associated amyloidosis. Although the development of AA amyloidosis has been associated with chronic inflammation, trauma, and various infectious and neoplastic diseases as well as possible genetic predispositions and stresses linked to overcrowding, the root causes for individual cases of AA amyloidosis are incompletely understood. As far as we know, this report is the first description of AA amyloidosis in captive, research zebra finches.

  11. Acquired umbilical hernias in four captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    Velguth, Karen E; Rochat, Mark C; Langan, Jennifer N; Backues, Kay

    2009-12-01

    Umbilical hernias are a common occurrence in domestic animals and humans but have not been well documented in polar bears. Surgical reduction and herniorrhaphies were performed to correct acquired hernias in the region of the umbilicus in four adult captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus) housed in North American zoos. Two of the four bears were clinically unaffected by their hernias prior to surgery. One bear showed signs of severe discomfort following acute enlargement of the hernia. In another bear, re-herniation led to acute abdominal pain due to gastric entrapment and strangulation. The hernias in three bears were surgically repaired by debridement of the hernia ring and direct apposition of the abdominal wall, while the large defect in the most severely affected bear was closed using polypropylene mesh to prevent excessive tension. The cases in this series demonstrate that while small hernias may remain clinically inconsequential for long periods of time, enlargement or recurrence of the defect can lead to incarceration and acute abdominal crisis. Umbilical herniation has not been reported in free-ranging polar bears, and it is suspected that factors such as body condition, limited exercise, or enclosure design potentially contribute to the development of umbilical hernias in captive polar bears.

  12. Body temperature in captive long-beaked echidnas (Zaglossus bartoni).

    PubMed

    Grigg, Gordon C; Beard, Lyn A; Barnes, Julie A; Perry, Larry I; Fry, Gary J; Hawkins, Margaret

    2003-12-01

    The routine occurrence of both short-term (daily) and long-term torpor (hibernation) in short-beaked echidnas, but not platypus, raises questions about the third monotreme genus, New Guinea's Zaglossus. We measured body temperatures (T(b)) with implanted data loggers over three and a half years in two captive Zaglossus bartoni at Taronga Zoo, Sydney. The modal T(b) of both long-beaks was 31 degrees C, similar to non-hibernating short-beaked echidnas, Tachyglossus aculeatus, in the wild (30-32 degrees C) and to platypus (32 degrees C), suggesting that this is characteristic of normothermic monotremes. T(b) cycled daily, usually over 2-4 degrees C. There were some departures from this pattern to suggest periods of inactivity but nothing to indicate the occurrence of long-term torpor. In contrast, two short-beaked echidnas monitored concurrently in the same pen showed extended periods of low T(b) in the cooler months (hibernation) and short periods of torpor at any time of the year, as they do in the wild. Whether torpor or hibernation occurs in Zaglossus in the wild or in juveniles remains unknown. However, given that the environment in this study was conducive to hibernation in short-beaks, which do not easily enter torpor in captivity, and their large size, we think that torpor in wild adult Zaglossus is unlikely.

  13. Care, management, and biology of captive striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis).

    PubMed

    Wade-Smith, J; Richmond, M E

    1975-10-01

    The striped skunk has a number of characteristics that make it one of the most desirable wild carnivores for scientific study. This paper described in detail the care and management of this species in captivity. Reproduction and factors which may affect productivity were discussed, including: duration of mating period, experience, and age of the female. Two optimal mating periods resulted in the greatest productivity and survival of young: (1) 24 hours and (2) 24 hours followed by another mating of equal duration 2 or 3 da later. Experienced females required fewer matings, conceived earlier, and had larger litters than their inexperienced counterparts. Captive skunks conceived as early as mid-February; births occurred in May or June with litters averaging 4.17 pups per litter. Females produced their maximum number of young at age 2 and had a progressive decline in mean litter size after this age. Measurements of growth and development of the young up to 32 da were included. A descenting method used in descenting nearly 300 pups was described. Mortality was high during the first 2 mo of life, with only 59.81% (192/321) of the pups surviving until weaning. Sixteen different pathologic conditions confirmed by necropsy were listed. The signs of canine distemper in the striped skunk were described.

  14. An enterovirus from a captive primate in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaochun; Shao, Shihe; Wang, Hua; Shen, Quan; Yang, Shixing; Zhang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EVs) are a genetically and antigenically diverse group of viruses infecting humans and a variety of animals including non-human primates (NHPs). The present study was to investigate EVs in the fecal samples from captive NHPs in zoos in China using classic RT-PCR and viral metagenomics methods. An EV strain was detected in a fecal sample collected from a captive NHP of a zoo in eastern China. The complete genome of this EV strain (named Sev-nj1) was determined and characterized. Sequence analysis indicated Sev-nj1 shared the highest sequence identity (75.6 %) with an EV-J strain, Poo-1, based on the complete genome. Phylogenetic analysis showed Sev-nj1 clustered with the other EV-J strains, forming a separate clade. According to the genetic distance-based criteria, Sev-nj1 belonged to a new type within the species EV-J. This is the first study detecting EV-J from a NHP in China, which will be helpful for the future epidemiology study of EVs in NHPs.

  15. Personality dimensions of the captive California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).

    PubMed

    Ciardelli, Lillian E; Weiss, Alexander; Powell, David M; Reiss, Diana

    2017-02-01

    Although the field of animal personality research is growing, information on sea lion personality is lacking. This is surprising as sea lions are charismatic, cognitively advanced, and relatively accessible for research. In addition, their presence in captivity and frequent interactions with humans allow for them to be closely observed in various contexts. These interactions provide a valuable and unique opportunity to assess dimensions of their personality. This study created a personality survey for captive California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) using a 3-step approach that balances comprehensiveness and comparability to other species. Zookeepers (N = 43) at 5 zoological parks rated sea lions (N = 16) on 52 personality traits and 7 training traits. A principal components analysis and regularized exploratory factor analysis revealed 3 dimensions (Extraversion/Impulsivity, Dominance/Confidence, and Reactivity/Undependability). Each dimension was significantly correlated with at least 1 training trait. Pups and juveniles scored significantly higher on Extraversion/Impulsivity than adults. No other age or sex effects were present on this or any other dimension. Sea lions are cognitively complex marine mammals that represent a valuable addition to the group of species in which personality structure and function have been studied. The unique behavioral and ecological characteristics of sea lions offer another vantage point for understanding how personality varies between disparate species. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Recent sedimentation, northeastern Port Valdez, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Harold D.

    1981-09-01

    Sediments accumulating on the northeastern shore of Port Valdez, a fjord leading to Prince William Sound in southern Alaska, are derived from both deltaic and alluvial fan processes. The resulting thick wedge of Recent silts, sands, shells and gravels lies atop irregular ridges of local graywacke bedrock and scattered till deposits. Seismic reflection profiling augmented by soil borings indicates that rapid infilling and upbuilding has occurred at this site. Evidence of slumping suggests general instability of steep submarine slopes in an area characterized by strong earthquakes and large tidal ranges.

  17. View of northeastern Italy including Venice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A near vertical view of northeastern Italy including the Venice (Venezia) area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) infrared photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The mountainous area is the Dolomite Alps. The most conspicuous stream northeast of Venice is the Piave River. The city near the center of the picture on the Brenta River is Bassano del Grappa. The large city of Padua (Padova) is on the western bank of the Grenta near the clock.

  18. View of northeastern Italy including Venice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A near vertical view of northeastern Italy including the Venice (Venezia) area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) infrared photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The mountainous area is the Dolomite Alps. The most conspicuous stream northeast of Venice is the Piave River. The city near the center of the picture on the Brenta River is Bassano del Grappa. The large city of Padua (Padova) is on the western bank of the Grenta near the clock.

  19. [Genetic diversity of microsatellite loci in captive Amur tigers].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Gaung; Li, Di-Qiang; Xiao, Qi-Ming; Rao, Li-Qun; Zhang, Xue-Wen

    2004-09-01

    The tiger is one of the most threatened wildlife species since the abundance and distribution of tiger have decreased dramatically in the last century. The wild Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) only distributed in northeast China, the far east area of Russia and the north Korea and its size of wild population is about 450 in the world and 20 in China. Several hundred captive populations of Amur tigers are the main source to protect gene library of tiger and the source of recovering the wild populations. The Breeding Center for Felidae at Hengdaohezi and Haoerbin Tiger Park in Heilongjiang Province is the biggest captive breeding base in China. How to make clear the genetic pedigree and establish reasonable breeding system is the urgent issues. So we use the microsatellite DNA markers and non-invasive technology to research on the genetic diversity of captive Amur tiger in this study. Ten microsatellite loci (Fca005, Fca075, Fca094, Fca152, Fca161, Fca294, Pti002, Pti003, Pti007 and Pti010), highly variable nuclear markers, were studied their genetic diversity in 113 captive Amur tigers. The PCR amplified products of microsatellite loci were detected by non-denatured polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Allele numbers, allelic frequency, gene heterozygosity(H(e)), polymorphism information content(PIC) and effective number of allele(N(e)) were calculated. 41 alleles were found and their size were ranged from 110bp to 250bp in ten microsatellite loci, Fca152 had 6 alleles, Fca075, Fca094 and Fca294 had 5 alleles, Fca005 and Pti002 had 4 alleles and the others had 3 alleles in all tiger samples, respectively. The allelic frequencies were from 0.009 to 0.767; The He ranged from 0.385 to 0.707, and Fca294 and Pti010 locus had the highest and lowest value; the PIC were from 0.353 to 0.658, Fca294 and Pti010 locus had the highest and lowest value; and N(e) were from 1.626 to 3.409, Fca294 and Pti010 locus had the highest and lowest value, which showed the ten

  20. Comparative analyses of tooth wear in free-ranging and captive wild equids.

    PubMed

    Taylor, L A; Müller, D W H; Schwitzer, C; Kaiser, T M; Castell, J C; Clauss, M; Schulz-Kornas, E

    2016-03-01

    Captive breeding has played a crucial role in the conservation of threatened equid species. Grazing ruminants and rhinoceros in captivity have less abrasion-dominated tooth wear than their free-ranging conspecifics, with potential negative consequences for their health. However, a similar study on wild equids in captivity is missing. The aim was to establish if different tooth wear patterns are exhibited by free-ranging and captive equids. Cross-sectional study of museum specimens comparing free-ranging and captive equids. Dental casts of maxillary cheek teeth of 228 museum specimens (122 from free-ranging and 106 from captive individuals) of 7 wild equid species were analysed using the extended mesowear method. Although teeth showing specific abnormalities were not scored, the presence of focal overgrowths (hooks) of the rostral premolars (106, 206) was recorded. Captive Equus ferus przewalskii, E. grevyi, E. hemionus, E. quagga boehmi and E. zebra hartmannae have less abrasion-dominated tooth wear on their premolars than their free-ranging conspecifics (P<0.001). Fewer differences were exhibited between populations in the molars. No differences were exhibited in the distal cusp of the molars (110, 210) between populations, except in a small sample of E. kiang. Captive equids exhibited more homogeneous wear along the tooth row whereas free-ranging equids exhibited a tooth wear gradient, with more abrasion on premolars than molars. There were more rostral hooks on the premolars (106, 206) in the captive than the free-ranging population (P = 0.02). Captive equids did experience less abrasion-dominated tooth wear than their free-ranging conspecifics, but the differences in tooth wear were less pronounced than those between captive and free-ranging wild ruminant and rhinoceros species. This indicates that feeding regimes for captive equids deviate less from natural diets than those for captive ruminants and rhinoceros but that factors leading to hook

  1. A current view of oncology in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Huñis, Adrián Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Since 2010, with the creation of the National Cancer Institute, the Argentine Republic has been tackling the battle against cancer as a genuine public health problem. Today in Argentina, there is a “cancer policy” whose pillars are prevention, education, assistance, and research. In this article, we provide information about the incidence and mortality of the tumours most common in adults and children, and details of some epidemiological aspects and advances Argentina has achieved in the battle against cancer in the past decade. PMID:26913073

  2. Argentina's YPF hones in on privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    This paper reports on Argentina's push to privatize and attract more foreign investment to its petroleum sector which continues to gather momentum. The Argentine government plans by year end 1992 to sell unprofitable assets of Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales, then sell as much as 50% of the state oil company through an international stock offering. If privatization proceeds as expected, YPF Pres. Jose Estenssoro the, the company's stock will be offered to private investors early in 1993. The company was founded in 1922. By March 1992, Argentina also will begin selling all assets of state owned Gas del Estado (GDE) through an international bidding process expected to take about 18 months.

  3. Ticks infesting humans in Northern Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lamattina, Daniela; Nava, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This work presents records of ticks infesting humans in northern Misiones Province, Argentina. Also, notes on potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens are included. A total of 282 ticks attached to researchers were collected and identified by their morphological characters. Eight tick species were found: Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma incisum, Amblyomma ovale, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus. Some of these species as A. dubitatum, A. ovale and R. sanguineus have been found infected with spotted fever group rickettsiae pathogenic to humans in Brazil and Argentina. The potential role as vectors of humans pathogens of the ticks found attached to humans in this study is discussed.

  4. Conservation efforts of captive golden takin (Budorcas taxicolor bedfordi) are potentially compromised by the elevated chemical elements exposure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Chen, Yi-Ping; Maltby, Lorraine; Ma, Qing-Yi

    2017-09-01

    Chemical elements exposure of endangered golden takins (Budorcas taxicolor bedfordi) living in the Qinling Mountains and in a captive breeding center was assessed by analyzing fecal samples. Concentrations of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Se were significantly higher in the feces of captive golden takins than the wild. There was no significant difference in the fecal concentrations of Cd, Mn, Hg, Pb or Zn for wild and captive animals. The element concentration of fecal samples collected from captive animals varied seasonally, with concentrations being lowest in spring and highest in winter and/or autumn. The food provided to captive animals varied both in the composition and the concentration of element present. Consumptions of feedstuff and additional foods such as D. sanguinalis and A. mangostanus for the captive golden takins were identified as the possible sources of chemical element exposure. The estimations of dietary intake of most elements by captive takins were below the oral reference dose, except for As and Pb, indicating that As and Pb were the key components which contributed to the potential non-carcinogenic risk for captive golden takins. In conclusion, captive golden takins were exposed to higher concentrations of chemical elements compared with the wild, which were likely due to their dietary difference. Conservation efforts of captive golden takin are potentially compromised by the elevated chemical element exposure and effort should focus on providing uncontaminated food for captive animals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. A new host of Trypanosoma cruzi from Jujuy, Argentina: Octodontomys gliroides (Gervais & D'Orbigny, 1844) (Rodentia, Octodontidae).

    PubMed

    Schweigmann, N J; Alberti, A; Pietrokovsky, S; Conti, O; Riarte, A; Montoya, S; Wisnivesky-Colli, C

    1992-01-01

    To identify wild hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi, surveys were conducted in the subandean valleys of Jujuy Province, Argentina, between June 1986 and March 1987. Seventy two mammals from 13 different species were examined by xenodiagnosis. Fifty two of them were mostly rodents trapped at the localities of Maimará, León and Tilcara, and the remainder had been kept in captivity at the Estación Biológica Experimental, in Jujuy. Trypanosoma cruzi infection was detected only in 2 Octodontomys gliroides (2 pos./8 exam. 25%) from all 72 examined mammals. Isolates were called Octodontomys Argentina 1 and 2 (OA1 and OA2). Both infected animals were caught at the archaelogical ruin of Pucará, at Tilcara. Repeated searches for triatomines in the ruin itself and in neighbour houses rendered negative results. Groups of mice inoculated with either OA1 or OA2 isolates became infected between 7 (OA1) to 12 days (OA2) postinoculation PI. Parasitemia peaks were observed between day 12th-14th PI. Scarce amastigote nests were found in myocardium and skeletal muscle. Mortality was observed only for mice inoculated with OA1. Isoenzyme patterns of OA1 and OA2 were identical to one found in dogs and slightly different from that of human parasites in Argentina. Bones from Octodontomys sp., were recently found in a cave, dated 10200-8600 BC, in Pumamarca, near Tilcara, Jujuy. There are evidences that O. gliroides cohabited with man in ancient times and was associated to the domestic cycle of T. cruzi transmission, playing a role like that of domestic caves in Bolivia.

  6. Comparative Analysis of the Gut Microbiota Composition between Captive and Wild Forest Musk Deer.

    PubMed

    Li, Yimeng; Hu, Xiaolong; Yang, Shuang; Zhou, Juntong; Zhang, Tianxiang; Qi, Lei; Sun, Xiaoning; Fan, Mengyuan; Xu, Shanghua; Cha, Muha; Zhang, Meishan; Lin, Shaobi; Liu, Shuqiang; Hu, Defu

    2017-01-01

    The large and complex gut microbiota in animals has profound effects on feed utilization and metabolism. Currently, gastrointestinal diseases due to dysregulated gut microbiota are considered important factors that limit growth of the captive forest musk deer population. Compared with captive forest musk deer, wild forest musk deer have a wider feeding range with no dietary limitations, and their gut microbiota are in a relatively natural state. However, no reports have compared the gut microbiota between wild and captive forest musk deer. To gain insight into the composition of gut microbiota in forest musk deer under different food-source conditions, we employed high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing technology to investigate differences in the gut microbiota occurring between captive and wild forest musk deer. Both captive and wild forest musk deer showed similar microbiota at the phylum level, which consisted mainly of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, although significant differences were found in their relative abundances between both groups. α-Diversity results showed that no significant differences occurred in the microbiota between both groups, while β-diversity results showed that significant differences did occur in their microbiota compositions. In summary, our results provide important information for improving feed preparation for captive forest musk deer and implementing projects where captive forest musk deer are released into the wild.

  7. Effectiveness of managed gene flow in reducing genetic divergence associated with captive breeding

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Charles D; Hard, Jeffrey J; Brieuc, Marine S O; Fast, David E; Warheit, Kenneth I; Waples, Robin S; Knudsen, Curtis M; Bosch, William J; Naish, Kerry A

    2015-01-01

    Captive breeding has the potential to rebuild depressed populations. However, associated genetic changes may decrease restoration success and negatively affect the adaptive potential of the entire population. Thus, approaches that minimize genetic risks should be tested in a comparative framework over multiple generations. Genetic diversity in two captive-reared lines of a species of conservation interest, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), was surveyed across three generations using genome-wide approaches. Genetic divergence from the source population was minimal in an integrated line, which implemented managed gene flow by using only naturally-born adults as captive broodstock, but significant in a segregated line, which bred only captive-origin individuals. Estimates of effective number of breeders revealed that the rapid divergence observed in the latter was largely attributable to genetic drift. Three independent tests for signatures of adaptive divergence also identified temporal change within the segregated line, possibly indicating domestication selection. The results empirically demonstrate that using managed gene flow for propagating a captive-reared population reduces genetic divergence over the short term compared to one that relies solely on captive-origin parents. These findings complement existing studies of captive breeding, which typically focus on a single management strategy and examine the fitness of one or two generations. PMID:26640521

  8. Assortative mating among animals of captive and wild origin following experimental conservation releases.

    PubMed

    Slade, Brendan; Parrott, Marissa L; Paproth, Aleisha; Magrath, Michael J L; Gillespie, Graeme R; Jessop, Tim S

    2014-11-01

    Captive breeding is a high profile management tool used for conserving threatened species. However, the inevitable consequence of generations in captivity is broad scale and often-rapid phenotypic divergence between captive and wild individuals, through environmental differences and genetic processes. Although poorly understood, mate choice preference is one of the changes that may occur in captivity that could have important implications for the reintroduction success of captive-bred animals. We bred wild-caught house mice for three generations to examine mating patterns and reproductive outcomes when these animals were simultaneously released into multiple outdoor enclosures with wild conspecifics. At release, there were significant differences in phenotypic (e.g. body mass) and genetic measures (e.g. Gst and F) between captive-bred and wild adult mice. Furthermore, 83% of offspring produced post-release were of same source parentage, inferring pronounced assortative mating. Our findings suggest that captive breeding may affect mating preferences, with potentially adverse implications for the success of threatened species reintroduction programmes.

  9. Anthelmintic efficacy in captive wild impala antelope (Aepyceros melampus) in Lusaka, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Nalubamba, King S; Mudenda, Ntombi B

    2012-05-25

    There has been an increase in the number of wild ungulates kept in captivity for ecotourism and conservation in Zambia and these animals are susceptible to a number of diseases including gastrointestinal helminth infections. Surveys to determine anthelmintic efficacy to gastrointestinal nematodes in captive-wildlife are not common and there have been no reports of anthelmintic resistance in captive-wildlife in Zambia. This study was carried out to determine the efficacy of the benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole in captive wild impala (Aepyceros melampus) in Zambia. During the month of April 2011, at the end of the rainy season, the faecal egg count reduction test was performed at a private game facility for assessing anthelmintic efficacy of oral fenbendazole and the anthelmintic treatment showed an efficacy of 90%. Haemonchus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. were the predominant genera present before treatment, but Haemonchus spp. larvae were the only genus recovered from the faecal cultures after anthelmintic treatment. This represents the first documentation of anthelmintic treatment failure in captive wild-antelopes in Zambia. It also demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the common traditional practice of deworming captive-wild antelopes at the end of the rainy season due to the rapid re-infection of impala that occurs due to high pasture infectivity. Suggestions on changes to current anthelmintic use/practices that will make them more efficacious and reduce the possibility of development of anthelmintic resistance in captive wild game in Zambia are also made.

  10. The disadvantages of mating outside home: How breeding in captivity affects the reproductive success of seahorses?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faleiro, Filipa; Narciso, Luís

    2013-04-01

    In captivity, husbandry conditions are distinct from those experienced by fish in the wild and may have a significant effect on reproductive success. This study evaluates the effect of supportive breeding (i.e., breeding animals in captivity using wild parents) on some quantitative and qualitative aspects of the reproductive success of the long-snouted seahorse, Hippocampus guttulatus. Wild and captive broods were compared in terms of juvenile number, size, condition and fatty acid profile at birth. Reproductive investment and breeding success of H. guttulatus decreased considerably in captivity. Juveniles from captive broods were fewer in number, smaller, generally thinner and with lower fatty acid contents (per juvenile) than those from wild broods, although their fatty acid composition (μg mg- 1 DW or %TFA) was not significantly affected. Although not greatly encouraging, the poor reproductive performance of captive seahorses should not, however, efface the potential of supportive breeding as a tool for seahorse conservation. Enhanced conditions and long-term breeding in captivity will allow to improve the reproductive success of the species and the quality of the fingerlings.

  11. Inbreeding and selection shape genomic diversity in captive populations: Implications for the conservation of endangered species

    PubMed Central

    Ivy, Jamie A.; Lacy, Robert C.; Doyle, Jacqueline M.; DeWoody, J. Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Captive breeding programs are often initiated to prevent species extinction until reintroduction into the wild can occur. However, the evolution of captive populations via inbreeding, drift, and selection can impair fitness, compromising reintroduction programs. To better understand the evolutionary response of species bred in captivity, we used nearly 5500 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in populations of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) to measure the impact of breeding regimes on genomic diversity. We bred mice in captivity for 20 generations using two replicates of three protocols: random mating (RAN), selection for docile behaviors (DOC), and minimizing mean kinship (MK). The MK protocol most effectively retained genomic diversity and reduced the effects of selection. Additionally, genomic diversity was significantly related to fitness, as assessed with pedigrees and SNPs supported with genomic sequence data. Because captive-born individuals are often less fit in wild settings compared to wild-born individuals, captive-estimated fitness correlations likely underestimate the effects in wild populations. Therefore, minimizing inbreeding and selection in captive populations is critical to increasing the probability of releasing fit individuals into the wild. PMID:28423000

  12. Effectiveness of managed gene flow in reducing genetic divergence associated with captive breeding.

    PubMed

    Waters, Charles D; Hard, Jeffrey J; Brieuc, Marine S O; Fast, David E; Warheit, Kenneth I; Waples, Robin S; Knudsen, Curtis M; Bosch, William J; Naish, Kerry A

    2015-12-01

    Captive breeding has the potential to rebuild depressed populations. However, associated genetic changes may decrease restoration success and negatively affect the adaptive potential of the entire population. Thus, approaches that minimize genetic risks should be tested in a comparative framework over multiple generations. Genetic diversity in two captive-reared lines of a species of conservation interest, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), was surveyed across three generations using genome-wide approaches. Genetic divergence from the source population was minimal in an integrated line, which implemented managed gene flow by using only naturally-born adults as captive broodstock, but significant in a segregated line, which bred only captive-origin individuals. Estimates of effective number of breeders revealed that the rapid divergence observed in the latter was largely attributable to genetic drift. Three independent tests for signatures of adaptive divergence also identified temporal change within the segregated line, possibly indicating domestication selection. The results empirically demonstrate that using managed gene flow for propagating a captive-reared population reduces genetic divergence over the short term compared to one that relies solely on captive-origin parents. These findings complement existing studies of captive breeding, which typically focus on a single management strategy and examine the fitness of one or two generations.

  13. Inbreeding and selection shape genomic diversity in captive populations: Implications for the conservation of endangered species.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Janna R; Ivy, Jamie A; Lacy, Robert C; Doyle, Jacqueline M; DeWoody, J Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Captive breeding programs are often initiated to prevent species extinction until reintroduction into the wild can occur. However, the evolution of captive populations via inbreeding, drift, and selection can impair fitness, compromising reintroduction programs. To better understand the evolutionary response of species bred in captivity, we used nearly 5500 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in populations of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) to measure the impact of breeding regimes on genomic diversity. We bred mice in captivity for 20 generations using two replicates of three protocols: random mating (RAN), selection for docile behaviors (DOC), and minimizing mean kinship (MK). The MK protocol most effectively retained genomic diversity and reduced the effects of selection. Additionally, genomic diversity was significantly related to fitness, as assessed with pedigrees and SNPs supported with genomic sequence data. Because captive-born individuals are often less fit in wild settings compared to wild-born individuals, captive-estimated fitness correlations likely underestimate the effects in wild populations. Therefore, minimizing inbreeding and selection in captive populations is critical to increasing the probability of releasing fit individuals into the wild.

  14. Genetic diversity of North American captive-born gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla)

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Noah D; Wagner, Ronald S; Lorenz, Joseph G

    2013-01-01

    Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) are designated as critically endangered and wild populations are dramatically declining as a result of habitat destruction, fragmentation, diseases (e.g., Ebola) and the illegal bushmeat trade. As wild populations continue to decline, the genetic management of the North American captive western lowland gorilla population will be an important component of the long-term conservation of the species. We genotyped 26 individuals from the North American captive gorilla collection at 11 autosomal microsatellite loci in order to compare levels of genetic diversity to wild populations, investigate genetic signatures of a population bottleneck and identify the genetic structure of the captive-born population. Captive gorillas had significantly higher levels of allelic diversity (t7 = 4.49, P = 0.002) and heterozygosity (t7 = 4.15, P = 0.004) than comparative wild populations, yet the population has lost significant allelic diversity while in captivity when compared to founders (t7 = 2.44, P = 0.04). Analyses suggested no genetic evidence for a population bottleneck of the captive population. Genetic structure results supported the management of North American captive gorillas as a single population. Our results highlight the utility of genetic management approaches for endangered nonhuman primate species. PMID:23403930

  15. Genetic diversity of North American captive-born gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    PubMed

    Simons, Noah D; Wagner, Ronald S; Lorenz, Joseph G

    2012-01-01

    Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) are designated as critically endangered and wild populations are dramatically declining as a result of habitat destruction, fragmentation, diseases (e.g., Ebola) and the illegal bushmeat trade. As wild populations continue to decline, the genetic management of the North American captive western lowland gorilla population will be an important component of the long-term conservation of the species. We genotyped 26 individuals from the North American captive gorilla collection at 11 autosomal microsatellite loci in order to compare levels of genetic diversity to wild populations, investigate genetic signatures of a population bottleneck and identify the genetic structure of the captive-born population. Captive gorillas had significantly higher levels of allelic diversity (t(7) = 4.49, P = 0.002) and heterozygosity (t(7) = 4.15, P = 0.004) than comparative wild populations, yet the population has lost significant allelic diversity while in captivity when compared to founders (t(7) = 2.44, P = 0.04). Analyses suggested no genetic evidence for a population bottleneck of the captive population. Genetic structure results supported the management of North American captive gorillas as a single population. Our results highlight the utility of genetic management approaches for endangered nonhuman primate species.

  16. Comparative Analysis of the Gut Microbiota Composition between Captive and Wild Forest Musk Deer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yimeng; Hu, Xiaolong; Yang, Shuang; Zhou, Juntong; Zhang, Tianxiang; Qi, Lei; Sun, Xiaoning; Fan, Mengyuan; Xu, Shanghua; Cha, Muha; Zhang, Meishan; Lin, Shaobi; Liu, Shuqiang; Hu, Defu

    2017-01-01

    The large and complex gut microbiota in animals has profound effects on feed utilization and metabolism. Currently, gastrointestinal diseases due to dysregulated gut microbiota are considered important factors that limit growth of the captive forest musk deer population. Compared with captive forest musk deer, wild forest musk deer have a wider feeding range with no dietary limitations, and their gut microbiota are in a relatively natural state. However, no reports have compared the gut microbiota between wild and captive forest musk deer. To gain insight into the composition of gut microbiota in forest musk deer under different food-source conditions, we employed high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing technology to investigate differences in the gut microbiota occurring between captive and wild forest musk deer. Both captive and wild forest musk deer showed similar microbiota at the phylum level, which consisted mainly of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, although significant differences were found in their relative abundances between both groups. α-Diversity results showed that no significant differences occurred in the microbiota between both groups, while β-diversity results showed that significant differences did occur in their microbiota compositions. In summary, our results provide important information for improving feed preparation for captive forest musk deer and implementing projects where captive forest musk deer are released into the wild. PMID:28928728

  17. Large-scale genetic survey provides insights into the captive management and reintroduction of giant pandas.

    PubMed

    Shan, Lei; Hu, Yibo; Zhu, Lifeng; Yan, Li; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Desheng; Jin, Xuelin; Zhang, Chenglin; Wei, Fuwen

    2014-10-01

    The captive genetic management of threatened species strives to preserve genetic diversity and avoid inbreeding to ensure populations remain available, healthy, and viable for future reintroduction. Determining and responding to the genetic status of captive populations is therefore paramount to these programs. Here, we genotyped 19 microsatellite loci for 240 captive giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) (∼64% of the captive population) from four breeding centers, Wolong (WL), Chengdu (CD), Louguantai (LGT), and Beijing (BJ), and analyzed 655 bp of mitochondrial DNA control region sequence for 220 of these animals. High levels of genetic diversity and low levels of inbreeding were estimated in the breeding centers, indicating that the captive population is genetically healthy and deliberate further genetic input from wild animals is unnecessary. However, the LGT population faces a higher risk of inbreeding, and significant genetic structure was detected among breeding centers, with LGT-CD and WL-BJ clustering separately. Based on these findings, we highlight that: 1) the LGT population should be managed as an independent captive population to resemble the genetic distinctness of their Qinling Mountain origins; 2) exchange between CD and WL should be encouraged because of similar wild founder sources; 3) the selection of captive individuals for reintroduction should consider their geographic origin, genetic background, and genetic contribution to wild populations; and 4) combining our molecular genetic data with existing pedigree data will better guide giant panda breeding and further reduce inbreeding into the future.

  18. Assortative mating among animals of captive and wild origin following experimental conservation releases

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Brendan; Parrott, Marissa L.; Paproth, Aleisha; Magrath, Michael J. L.; Gillespie, Graeme R.; Jessop, Tim S.

    2014-01-01

    Captive breeding is a high profile management tool used for conserving threatened species. However, the inevitable consequence of generations in captivity is broad scale and often-rapid phenotypic divergence between captive and wild individuals, through environmental differences and genetic processes. Although poorly understood, mate choice preference is one of the changes that may occur in captivity that could have important implications for the reintroduction success of captive-bred animals. We bred wild-caught house mice for three generations to examine mating patterns and reproductive outcomes when these animals were simultaneously released into multiple outdoor enclosures with wild conspecifics. At release, there were significant differences in phenotypic (e.g. body mass) and genetic measures (e.g. Gst and F) between captive-bred and wild adult mice. Furthermore, 83% of offspring produced post-release were of same source parentage, inferring pronounced assortative mating. Our findings suggest that captive breeding may affect mating preferences, with potentially adverse implications for the success of threatened species reintroduction programmes. PMID:25411380

  19. Admixture Between Historically Isolated Mitochondrial Lineages in Captive Western Gorillas: Recommendations for Future Management

    PubMed Central

    Dew, J. Larry; Bergl, Richard A.; Jensen-Seaman, Michael I.; Anthony, Nicola M.

    2015-01-01

    Although captive populations of western gorilla have been maintained in the United States for over a century, little is known about the geographic origins and genetic composition of the current zoo population. Furthermore, although previous mitochondrial analyses have shown that free-range gorilla populations exhibit substantial regional differentiation, nothing is known of the extent to which this variation has been preserved in captive populations. To address these questions, we combined 379 pedigree records with data from 52 mitochondrial sequences to infer individual haplogroup affiliations, geographical origin of wild founders and instances of inter-breeding between haplogroups in the United States captive gorilla population. We show that the current captive population contains all major mitochondrial lineages found within wild western lowland gorillas. Levels of haplotype diversity are also comparable to those found in wild populations. However, the majority of captive gorilla matings have occurred between individuals with different haplogroup affiliations. Although restricting crosses to individuals within the same haplogroup would preserve the phylogeographic structure present in the wild, careful management of captive populations is required to minimize the risk of drift and inbreeding. However, when captive animals are released back into the wild, we recommend that efforts should be made to preserve natural phylogeographic structure. PMID:25790828

  20. Effects of captivity and memory-based experiences on the hippocampus in mountain chickadees.

    PubMed

    Ladage, Lara D; Roth, Timothy C; Fox, Rebecca A; Pravosudov, Vladimir V

    2009-04-01

    The complexity of an animal's physical environment is known to affect the hippocampus. Captivity may affect hippocampal anatomy and this may be attributable to the limited opportunities for memory-based experiences. This has tangential support, in that differential demands on memory can mediate changes in the hippocampus. What remains unclear is whether captivity directly affects hippocampal architecture and whether providing memory-based experiences in captivity can maintain hippocampal attributes comparable to wild-caught conspecifics. Using food-caching mountain chickadees (Poecile gambeli), we found that wild-caught individuals had larger hippocampal volumes relative to the rest of the telencephalon than captive birds with or without memory-based food-caching experiences, whereas there were no differences in neuron numbers or telencephalon volume. Also, there were no significant differences in relative hippocampal volume or neuron numbers between the captive birds with or without memory-based experiences. Our results demonstrate that captivity reduces hippocampal volume relative to the remainder of the telencephalon, but not at the expense of neuron numbers. Further, memory-based experiences in captivity may not be sufficient to maintain hippocampal volume comparable to wild-caught counterparts. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. The effects of long-term captivity on the metabolic parameters of a small Afrotropical bird.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Lindy J; Brown, Mark; Downs, Colleen T

    2015-04-01

    The few within-species studies on the effects of long-term captivity on avian physiological variables have small samples sizes and contradictory results. Nevertheless, many physiological studies make use of long-term captive birds, assuming the results will be applicable to wild populations. Here we investigated the effects of long-term captivity on a variety of physiological measurements in a relatively small (~12 g) southern African endemic bird, the Cape white-eye (Zosterops virens). Whole animal basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body mass (Mb) were influenced more by long-term captivity than by season, while mass-specific BMR, standard and basal whole animal and mass-specific evaporative water loss (EWL), and respiratory quotient (RQ), were all affected primarily by season, with long-term captivity having less of an effect. We therefore caution that whole animal BMR and Mb of long-term captive birds should not be used as representative of wild populations, and that the origin of study birds should be considered when comparing EWL and RQ of wild and long-term captive birds.

  2. Increasing generations in captivity is associated with increased vulnerability of Tasmanian devils to vehicle strike following release to the wild.

    PubMed

    Grueber, Catherine E; Reid-Wainscoat, Elizabeth E; Fox, Samantha; Belov, Katherine; Shier, Debra M; Hogg, Carolyn J; Pemberton, David

    2017-05-19

    Captive breeding of threatened species, for release to the wild, is critical for conservation. This strategy, however, risks producing captive-raised animals with traits poorly suited to the wild. We describe the first study to characterise accumulated consequences of long-term captive breeding on behaviour, by following the release of Tasmanian devils to the wild. We test the impact of prolonged captive breeding on the probability that captive-raised animals are fatally struck by vehicles. Multiple generations of captive breeding increased the probability that individuals were fatally struck, a pattern that could not be explained by other confounding factors (e.g. age or release site). Our results imply that long-term captive breeding programs may produce animals that are naïve to the risks of the post-release environment. Our analyses have already induced changes in management policy of this endangered species, and serve as model of productive synergy between ecological monitoring and conservation strategy.

  3. Lineage identification and genealogical relationships among captive Galápagos tortoises.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Edgar; Russello, Michael; Boyer, Donal; Wiese, Robert J; Kajdacsi, Brittney; Marquez, Lady; Garrick, Ryan; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2012-01-01

    Genetic tools have become a critical complement to traditional approaches for meeting short- and long-term goals of ex situ conservation programs. The San Diego Zoo (SDZ) harbors a collection of wild-born and captive-born Galápagos giant tortoises (n = 22) of uncertain species designation and unknown genealogical relationships. Here, we used mitochondrial DNA haplotypic data and nuclear microsatellite genotypic data to identify the evolutionary lineage of wild-born and captive-born tortoises of unknown ancestry, to infer levels of relatedness among founders and captive-born tortoises, and assess putative pedigree relationships assigned by the SDZ studbook. Assignment tests revealed that 12 wild-born and five captive-born tortoises represent five different species from Isabela Island and one species from Santa Cruz Island, only five of which were consistent with current studbook designations. Three wild-born and one captive-born tortoise were of mixed ancestry. In addition, kinship analyses revealed two significant first-order relationship pairs between wild-born and captive-born tortoises, four second-order relationships (half-sibling) between wild-born and captive tortoises (full-sibs or parent-offspring), and one second-order relationship between two captive-born tortoises. Of particular note, we also reconstructed a first-order relationship between two wild-born individuals, violating the founder assumption. Overall, our results contribute to a worldwide effort in identifying genetically important Galápagos tortoises currently in captivity while revealing closely related founders, reconstructing genealogical relationships, and providing detailed management recommendations for the SDZ tortoises.

  4. Parasitic nematode communities of the red kangaroo, Macropus rufus: richness and structuring in captive systems.

    PubMed

    Lott, M J; Hose, G C; Power, M L

    2015-08-01

    Captive management practices have the potential to drastically alter pre-existing host-parasite relationships. This can have profound implications for the health and productivity of threatened species in captivity, even in the absence of clinical symptoms of disease. Maximising the success of captive breeding programmes requires a detailed knowledge of anthropogenic influences on the structure of parasite assemblages in captive systems. In this study, we employed two high-throughput molecular techniques to characterise the parasitic nematode (suborder Strongylida) communities of the red kangaroo, Macropus rufus, across seven captive sites. The first was terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of a region of rDNA encompassing the internal transcribed spacers 1 (ITS1), the 5.8S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2). The second was Illumina MiSeq next-generation sequencing of the ITS2 region. The prevalence, intensity of infection, taxonomic composition and comparative structure of strongylid nematode assemblages was assessed at each location. Prevalence (P = <0.001) and mean infection intensity (df = 6, F = 17.494, P = <0.001) differed significantly between the seven captive sites. Significant levels of parasite community structure were observed (ANOSIM, P = 0.01), with most of the variation being distributed within, rather than between, captive sites. The range of nematode taxa that occurred in captive red kangaroos appeared to differ from that of wild conspecifics, with representatives of the genus Cloacina, a dominant nematode parasite of the macropodid forestomach, being detected at only two of the seven study sites. This study also provides the first evidence for the presence of the genus Trichostrongylus in a macropodid marsupial. Our results demonstrate that contemporary species management practices may exert a profound influence on the structure of parasite communities in captive systems.

  5. Prevalence and molecular typing of Clostridium perfringens in captive wildlife in India.

    PubMed

    Milton, Arockiasamy Arun Prince; Agarwal, Rajesh Kumar; Bhuvana Priya, Govindarajan; Saminathan, Mani; Aravind, Manivasagam; Reddy, Avinash; Athira, C K; Ramees, Thadiyampuram; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Ashok

    2017-02-01

    The prevalence of Clostridium perfringens in captive wildlife in India has not been reported. The objective of the study was to determine the fecal prevalence of C. perfringens in captive wildlife in India. The prevalence in captive wild ruminants, non-ruminants, birds and caretakers were 34.1%, 36%, 22.5% and 6.7%, respectively. Toxinotyping of C. perfringens indicated that the predominant type was type A with a prevalence rate of 69.7%, followed by type A with cpb2 gene (28.3%) and type B (2.%).

  6. How well can captive breeding programs conserve biodiversity? A review of salmonids.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Dylan J

    2008-11-01

    Captive breeding programs are increasingly being initiated to prevent the imminent extinction of endangered species and/or populations. But how well can they conserve genetic diversity and fitness, or re-establish self-sustaining populations in the wild? A review of these complex questions and related issues in salmonid fishes reveals several insights and uncertainties. Most programs can maintain genetic diversity within populations over several generations, but available research suggests the loss of fitness in captivity can be rapid, its magnitude probably increasing with the duration in captivity. Over the long-term, there is likely tremendous variation between (i) programs in their capacity to maintain genetic diversity and fitness, and (ii) species or even intraspecific life-history types in both the severity and manner of fitness-costs accrued. Encouragingly, many new theoretical and methodological approaches now exist for current and future programs to potentially reduce these effects. Nevertheless, an unavoidable trade-off exists between conserving genetic diversity and fitness in certain instances, such as when captive-bred individuals are temporarily released into the wild. Owing to several confounding factors, there is also currently little evidence that captive-bred lines of salmonids can or cannot be reintroduced as self-sustaining populations. Most notably, the root causes of salmonid declines have not been mitigated where captive breeding programs exist. Little research has also addressed under what conditions an increase in population abundance due to captive-rearing might offset fitness reductions induced in captivity. Finally, more empirical investigation is needed to evaluate the genetic/fitness benefits and risks associated with (i) maintaining captive broodstocks as either single or multiple populations within one or more facilities, (ii) utilizing cryopreservation or surrogate broodstock technologies, and (iii) adopting other alternatives to

  7. How well can captive breeding programs conserve biodiversity? A review of salmonids

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Dylan J

    2008-01-01

    Captive breeding programs are increasingly being initiated to prevent the imminent extinction of endangered species and/or populations. But how well can they conserve genetic diversity and fitness, or re-establish self-sustaining populations in the wild? A review of these complex questions and related issues in salmonid fishes reveals several insights and uncertainties. Most programs can maintain genetic diversity within populations over several generations, but available research suggests the loss of fitness in captivity can be rapid, its magnitude probably increasing with the duration in captivity. Over the long-term, there is likely tremendous variation between (i) programs in their capacity to maintain genetic diversity and fitness, and (ii) species or even intraspecific life-history types in both the severity and manner of fitness-costs accrued. Encouragingly, many new theoretical and methodological approaches now exist for current and future programs to potentially reduce these effects. Nevertheless, an unavoidable trade-off exists between conserving genetic diversity and fitness in certain instances, such as when captive-bred individuals are temporarily released into the wild. Owing to several confounding factors, there is also currently little evidence that captive-bred lines of salmonids can or cannot be reintroduced as self-sustaining populations. Most notably, the root causes of salmonid declines have not been mitigated where captive breeding programs exist. Little research has also addressed under what conditions an increase in population abundance due to captive-rearing might offset fitness reductions induced in captivity. Finally, more empirical investigation is needed to evaluate the genetic/fitness benefits and risks associated with (i) maintaining captive broodstocks as either single or multiple populations within one or more facilities, (ii) utilizing cryopreservation or surrogate broodstock technologies, and (iii) adopting other alternatives to

  8. Spontaneous neoplasia in four captive greater hedgehog tenrecs (Setifer setosus).

    PubMed

    Khoii, Mina K; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Burns, Roy B; Carmichael, K Paige; Gyimesi, Zoltan S

    2008-09-01

    Little information is available about diseases and pathology of species within the family Tenrecidae, including the greater hedgehog tenrec (Setifer setosus), a Madagascan insectivore. This report summarizes necropsy and histopathologic findings of neoplasia in four captive greater hedgehog tenrecs. Although only four animals are included in this report, neoplasia seems to be a common and significant source of morbidity and mortality in greater hedgehog tenrecs. Types of neoplasia identified include a thyroid follicular-solid carcinoma, two urinary bladder transitional cell carcinomas, uterine endometrial polyps, and multicentric B-cell lymphoma. Due to small sample size, no etiology could be determined, but genetics, viral infection, pesticide treatment, nutrition, or other environmental factors might contribute to the development of neoplasia in this species. This is the first report of neoplasia in greater hedgehog tenrecs.

  9. Canine tooth wear in captive little brown bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Upper canine teeth of little brown bats Myotis lucifugus lucifugus held in stainless steel wire mesh cages underwent severe wear which exceeded that observed previously in caged big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus fuscus. This suggests a relationship between amount of wear and size of the caged bats with damage increasing as size decreases. Rapid wear of canine teeth by little brown bats resembled that observed in big brown bats in that it was limited to the first 2 weeks of captivity. This result indicates a universal interval for acclimation to cage conditions among vespertilionid bats. Dietary toxicants DDE and PCB did not affect the extent of wear. If bats are to be released to the wild, confinement in wire mesh cages should be avoided.

  10. ACTH stimulation test in the captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Köster, L S; Schoeman, J P; Meltzer, D G A

    2007-09-01

    Serum cortisol response was assessed in 8 captive cheetahs, of varying ages, after the intravenous administration of 500 microg of tetracosactide (Synacthen Depot, Novartis, Kempton Park) while maintained under general anaesthesia. In addition, 8 cheetahs were anaesthetised and given an equal volume of saline in order to establish baseline cortisol concentrations at similar stages of anaesthesia. A significant difference in the median cortisol concentration measured over time was found following ACTH administration in the ACTH group (P < 0.001). There was no difference between the median cortisol concentrations in the ACTH group at time-points 120, 150 and 180 min after ACTH stimulation (P = 0.867). Thus it appears appropriate to collect serum 120 to 180 min after tetracosactide administration to assess maximal stimulation of the adrenal in the cheetah. No statistically significant rise was seen in the anaesthetised control group following the injection of saline (P = 0.238).

  11. High tech cognitive and acoustic enrichment for captive elephants.

    PubMed

    French, Fiona; Mancini, Clara; Sharp, Helen

    2017-09-23

    This paper investigates the potential for using technology to support the development of sensory and cognitive enrichment activities for captive elephants. It explores the usefulness of applying conceptual frameworks from interaction design and game design to the problem of developing species-specific smart toys that promote natural behaviours and provide stimulation. We adopted a Research through Design approach, and describe how scientific inquiry supported our design process, while the creation of artefacts guided our investigations into possible future solutions. Our fieldwork resulted in the development of an interactive prototype of an acoustic toy that elephants are able to control using interface elements constructed from a range of natural materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Lumbar laminectomy in a captive, adult polar bear (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    Morrison, John F; Vakharia, Kunal; Moreland, Douglas B

    2017-01-01

    Animals held in captivity tend to live longer than do their wild counterparts, and as such, are prone to developing age-related degenerative injuries. Here, we present a case of an adult female polar bear with symptomatic lumbar stenosis. There is a paucity of literature on large mammalian spine surgery, and anatomical differences between humans and other vertebrates must be taken into consideration. A 24-year-old female polar bear residing at the zoo was found to have decreased motor function in her hind legs. Diagnostic myelography performed at the L7/S1 level demonstrated lumbar stenosis at L5/6 for which a laminectomy was performed. Postoperatively, she returned to premorbid functional level, with no apparent associated adverse sequelae. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of spine surgery in a polar bear and demonstrates that neurosurgical diagnostic and operative techniques developed for humans can also be applied to large mammals with successful results.

  13. Omental torsion in a captive polar bear (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    Mendez-Angulo, Jose L; Funes, Francisco J; Trent, Ava M; Willette, Michelle; Woodhouse, Kerry; Renier, Anna C

    2014-03-01

    This is the first case report of an omental torsion in a polar bear (Ursus maritimus). A captive, 23-yr-old, 250-kg, intact female polar bear presented to the University of Minnesota Veterinary Medical Center with a 2-day history of lethargy, depression, and vomiting. Abdominal ultrasound identified large amounts of hyperechoic free peritoneal fluid. Ultrasound-guided abdominocentesis was performed and yielded thick serosanguinous fluid compatible with a hemoabdomen. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a large amount of malodorous, serosanguineous fluid and multiple necrotic blood clots associated with a torsion of the greater omentum and rupture of a branch of the omental artery. A partial omentectomy was performed to remove the necrotic tissue and the abdomen was copiously lavaged. The polar bear recovered successfully and is reported to be clinically well 6 mo later. This condition should be considered as a differential in bears with clinical signs of intestinal obstruction and hemoabdomen.

  14. Computed tomographic analysis of calvarial hyperostosis in captive lions.

    PubMed

    Gross-Tsubery, Ruth; Chai, Orit; Shilo, Yael; Miara, Limor; Horowitz, Igal H; Shmueli, Ayelet; Aizenberg, Itzhak; Hoffman, Chen; Reifen, Ram; Shamir, Merav H

    2010-01-01

    Osseous malformations in the skull and cervical vertebrae of lions in captivity are believed to be caused by hypovitaminosis A. These often lead to severe neurologic abnormalities and may result in death. We describe the characterization of these abnormalities based on computed tomography (CT). CT images of two affected and three healthy lions were compared with define the normal anatomy of the skull and cervical vertebrae and provide information regarding the aforementioned osseous malformations. Because bone structure is influenced by various factors other than the aforementioned disease, all values were divided by the skull width that was not affected. The calculated ratios were compared and the most pronounced abnormalities in the affected lions were, narrowing of the foramen magnum, thickening of the tentorium osseus cerebelli and thickening of the dorsal arch of the atlas. CT is useful for detection of the calvarial abnormalities in lions and may be useful in further defining this syndrome.

  15. Ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy of healthy captive caracals (Caracal caracal).

    PubMed

    Makungu, Modesta; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Koeppel, Katja N; Groenewald, Hermanus B

    2012-09-01

    Abdominal ultrasonography was performed in six adult captive caracals (Caracal caracal) to describe the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy. Consistently, the splenic parenchyma was hyperechoic to the liver and kidneys. The relative echogenicity of the right kidney's cortex was inconsistent to the liver. The gall bladder was prominent in five animals and surrounded by a clearly visualized thin, smooth, regular echogenic wall. The wall thickness of the duodenum measured significantly greater compared with that of the jejunum and colon. The duodenum had a significantly thicker mucosal layer compared with that of the stomach. Such knowledge of the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy of individual species is important for accurate diagnosis and interpretation of routine health examinations.

  16. Patterns of oral bacterial infection in captive snakes.

    PubMed

    Draper, C S; Walker, R D; Lawler, H E

    1981-12-01

    The bacterial isolates from culture specimens of snakes with infectious stomatitis were compared with those from culture specimens of the oral cavity of healthy captive snakes. Cloacal swab specimens were also taken from healthy snakes to compare their intestinal and oral bacterial populations. The healthy snakes had a predominantly gram-positive oral flora, with Corynebacterium spp and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp being the organisms isolated most frequently. The specimens from snakes with infectious stomatitis yielded predominantly gram-negative bacteria. The organisms most frequently isolated from these specimens were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Providencia rettgeri, and P maltophilia. The cloacal swabbing of healthy snakes also resulted in the isolation of predominantly gram-negative organisms, suggesting that these bacteria are not exogenous pathogens but opportunistic invaders.

  17. First captive breeding of the imperial parrot (Amazona imperialis).

    PubMed

    Reillo, Paul R; Durand, Stephen; Burton, Minchinton

    2011-01-01

    We describe the rearing and development of the first imperial parrot (Amazona imperialis) hatched and raised in captivity. A single egg was hen-incubated for 28 days, and the chick was parent-fed for ∼14 days, after which it was removed for hand-rearing. Similar to wild, parent-reared imperial nestlings, the chick developed fully within 12 weeks, weaning at 540 g body weight. Endangered and endemic to Dominica, the imperial is a vital flagship for oceanic rainforest conservation. Chronicling the neonatal development of A. imperialis helps illuminate the natural history of this enigmatic species, whose secretive nesting habits and low population density have frustrated a detailed understanding of its ecology and reproduction. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection in captive black-footed ferrets.

    PubMed

    Bradley, G A; Orr, K; Reggiardo, C; Glock, R D

    2001-07-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli with genes for heat stabile toxins Sta and STb was isolated from the gastrointestinal tract and multiple visceral organs of three adult and three juvenile black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) that died in a captive breeding colony between 24 May 1998 and 2 July 1998. Similar isolates were obtained from rectal swabs of one adult and one juvenile that were clinically ill. All were fed a diet composed of mink chow, raw rabbit meat, beef liver powder, blood meal and lard. Escherichia coli of the same toxin genotype was isolated from the mixed ration. Clinical signs included sudden death, dehydration, anorexia and diarrhea. Necropsy lesions included acute enteritis with large numbers of rod shaped bacteria microscopically visible on intestinal villi.

  19. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in a captive meerkat (Suricata suricatta).

    PubMed

    Boonsri, Kittikorn; Sritan, Jiraporn; Vechmanus, Thewarach; O'Sullivan, M Gerard; Pringproa, Kidsadagon

    2013-09-01

    A 9-yr-old male meerkat (Suricata suricatta) living in captivity, with a history of anorexia, lethargy, and weight loss, was examined postmortem. Physical examination revealed poor body condition, dehydration, and icteric mucous membranes. Macroscopically, white to yellowish, multinodulated masses were found protruding from the liver. These multinodular masses were also observed in all lobes of the lungs and the mediastinal lymph nodes. Microscopic examination revealed tumors with well-circumscribed, atypical proliferating cuboidal to columnar bile duct epithelial layers arranged in solid sheets and papillary patterns. The neoplastic masses were separated by dense fibrous connective tissues and invaded the normal parenchyma. Periodic acid-Schiff-positive material was occasionally found within the lumen of tubuloacinar structures. Immunohistochemical labeling revealed that neoplastic cells were intensely positive for pan-cytokeratin, but negative for vimentin. Based on the macroscopic and microscopic findings, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma was diagnosed. This is the first report describing cholangiocarcinoma in a meerkat.

  20. Use of gesture sequences in captive chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) play.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Maureen S; Jensvold, Mary Lee Abshire; Fouts, Deborah H

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the use of sensory modalities relative to a partner's behavior in gesture sequences during captive chimpanzee play at the Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute. We hypothesized that chimpanzees would use visual gestures toward attentive recipients and auditory/tactile gestures toward inattentive recipients. We also hypothesized that gesture sequences would be more prevalent toward unresponsive rather than responsive recipients. The chimpanzees used significantly more auditory/tactile rather than visual gestures first in sequences with both attentive and inattentive recipients. They rarely used visual gestures toward inattentive recipients. Auditory/tactile gestures were effective with and used with both attentive and inattentive recipients. Recipients responded significantly more to single gestures than to first gestures in sequences. Sequences often indicated that recipients did not respond to initial gestures, whereas effective single gestures made more gestures unnecessary. The chimpanzees thus gestured appropriately relative to a recipient's behavior and modified their interactions according to contextual social cues.

  1. SUSPECTED LYME BORRELIOSIS IN A CAPTIVE ADULT CHIMPANZEE (PAN TROGLODYTES).

    PubMed

    Wack, Allison N; Holland, Cynthia J; Lopez, Job E; Schwan, Tom G; Bronson, Ellen

    2015-06-01

    An 18-yr-old female captive-born chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) presented with an intermittent history of inappetence, lethargy, and lower limb stiffness. No notable abnormalities were found on exam or complete blood cell count and serum biochemistry analysis. Serologic testing was strongly positive via indirect fluorescent antibody testing and Western blot for Borrelia burgdorferi. Treatment with doxycycline was initiated, and a clinical response was seen within 1 wk. Convalescent serum exhibited an eightfold increase in titer. Serologic testing was performed on several conspecifics with banked serum; while some low positive titers were present and presumed indicative of past exposure, no titer was elevated to the extent of the affected chimpanzee during its course of disease. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of suspected Lyme borreliosis in a great ape species, and the case originates from an area of the United States with a high incidence of human borreliosis.

  2. Sarcoma of possible nerve sheath origin in a captive muskrat.

    PubMed

    Borucinska, J D; Trettel, J; Knibbs, D

    2000-07-01

    A captive adult female muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) was found dead without previous signs of disease. At necropsy, abdominal organs were infiltrated with a poorly demarcated, soft, tan tissue. Microscopically this tissue was composed of neoplastic cells assuming two distinct growth characteristics consistent with Antoni A and B patterns. Ultrastructurally, the neoplastic cells were pleomorphic, lacked junctional devices, had abundant mitochondria and ergastoplasm, and frequently were closely associated with extracellular collagen. Immunocytochemical examination of tumor cells demonstrated sporadic expression of neuron specific enolase. Microscopic tumor metastases to the myocardium, ascending aorta, lungs and visceral pleura were present. This is the first report of a sarcoma compatible with a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in a muskrat.

  3. Pulmonary hyalinosis in captive sugar gliders ( Petaurus breviceps).

    PubMed

    Sokol, Set A; Agnew, Dalen W; Lewis, Anne D; Southard, Teresa L; Miller, Andrew D

    2017-09-01

    Pulmonary hyalinosis is an idiopathic, typically incidental lesion of old dogs, characterized by multifocal aggregates of epithelioid and multinucleate macrophages that surround periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive hyaline material in airways. Lung lesions resembling pulmonary hyalinosis were observed in 6 captive adult sugar gliders ( Petaurus breviceps; 5 females and 1 male) in a retrospective review of 18 autopsied animals. Clinical signs for 3 of the sugar gliders included lethargy, tachypnea, and dyspnea. At autopsy, 5 of 6 animals had comorbid lesions that were the primary cause of death. Gross pulmonary lesions were characterized by mildly firm, discolored, vaguely nodular areas of parenchyma. Histologic examination of the lung revealed granulomatous inflammation with intracellular and extracellular amphophilic hyaline bodies within alveoli and airways. Hyaline bodies were positive for PAS and oil red O staining, blue via crystal violet staining, and displayed birefringence under polarized light, similar to findings in dogs with pulmonary hyalinosis.

  4. Postconflict behavior in captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    PubMed

    Mallavarapu, S; Stoinski, T S; Bloomsmith, M A; Maple, T L

    2006-08-01

    Postconflict (PC) behaviors, including reconciliation and consolation, have been observed in many primate and several nonprimate species. Using the PC-matched control (MC) method, PC behavior was examined in two groups (n=13) of captive western lowland gorillas, a species for which no conflict resolution data have been published. Analyses of 223 conflicts showed significantly more affiliation between former opponents after a conflict when compared to control periods, indicating reconciliation. Results also showed significantly more affiliation between the victim and a third-party after a conflict, indicating consolation. Both solicited and unsolicited consolation were observed. The majority of the affiliative interactions observed for both reconciliation and consolation were social proximity, which suggests that unlike most nonhuman primates, proximity, rather than physical contact, may be the main mechanism for resolving conflicts in western lowland gorillas. PC behavior was not uniform throughout the groups, but rather varied according to dyad type.

  5. Clinical disorders observed in anteaters (Myrmecophagidae, Edentata) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Diniz, L S; Costa, E O; Oliveira, P M

    1995-01-01

    The major health problems found in 103 captive lesser anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla) and giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), family Myrmecophagidae, are presented and correlated with management. The most common of 200 recorded clinical disorders involved the digestive system (26%), nutritional deficiency (20%), injury (15.5%), respiratory system (10%), skin (7%) and circulatory system (4.5%), but 13% of the cases were inconclusive. Parasites were identified in 48.5% of faecal samples, mainly the eggs of nematodes (40%), of which the commonest were Trichuris spp (28%) and Strongyloides spp (11%); protozoa (16%), of which the commonest were Eimeria spp (10%), Entamoeba spp (5%) and Giardia spp (1%); and cestodes (8%) and acanthocephalids (1%). Bacteria cultured from the various materials included Salmonella enteritidis, S. cholerasuis, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Streptococcus spp and Staphylococcus spp. The ectoparasites found were Amblyomma spp and Otodectis spp (Arthropoda, Acaridae).

  6. Indirect oral immunization of captive vampires, Desmodus rotundus.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Marilene F; Martorelli, Luzia F A; Aires, Caroline C; Sallum, P C; Massad, Eduardo

    2005-07-01

    A vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant virus (V-RG) vaccine was tested in hematophagous bats (Desmodus rotundus) kept in captivity. The vaccine was applied in a neutral vehicle (Vaseline) spread on the back of one or two vector bats, which were then reintroduced into their groups. Our hypothesis was that, as in the case of vampire bat control by vampiricide paste, the administration of V-RG vaccine through paste to one bat could indirectly protect other bats from the same group. Eight groups were tested. The rabies virus strain used to challenge the bats was isolated from a naturally infected hematophagous bat (Desmodus rotundus). The survival proportion after the virus challenge ranged between 42.8 and 71.4%. The results are encouraging because a significant number of bats that did not receive the vaccine survived the challenge. The vaccine was shown to be safe and immunogenic to hematophagous bats. No adverse effects to vaccinia virus were observed.

  7. Parelaphostrongylus tenuis in captive pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) in Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Heather A; Steffen, David J; Armstrong, Douglas L; Rogers, Douglas G

    2002-10-01

    Lesions in four captive pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) naturally infected with Parelaphostrongylus tenuis in eastern Nebraska (USA) are described in this report. Animals were bright and alert with hind limb ataxia that progressed to sternal or lateral recumbency between July 28 and October 17, 1998. Animals were euthanized due to disease progression despite therapy. Multifocal decubital ulcers over bony prominences occurred in two animals and chronic unilateral otitis media was present in one animal. Histopathologic examination revealed severe Wallerian degeneration randomly scattered throughout the spinal cords of all four animals. Spinal cord sections from two animals contained adult nematode parasites consistent with P. tenuis. This is the first report of naturally occurring P. tenuis infection in pronghorn antelope. Pronghorn antelope should be considered susceptible to P. tenuis infection and contact with infected white-tailed deer as well as intermediate gastropod hosts of P. tenuis should be prevented in endemic areas.

  8. Detection of Leishmania infantum in captive wolves from Southwestern Europe.

    PubMed

    Sastre, Natalia; Francino, Olga; Ramírez, Oscar; Enseñat, Conrad; Sánchez, Armand; Altet, Laura

    2008-11-25

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Leishmania infantum infection in a wild reservoir host (Canis lupus) throughout an endemic area for the disease (Southern Europe). For that reason, the serum and peripheral blood samples of 33 captive wolves from the European Breeding of Endangered Species Programme (EEP) were analyzed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). L. infantum was detected in three samples from Central Portugal and Central and Northern Spain. Even though L. infantum infection in positive samples was low, surveillance of zoonotic leishmaniosis in this population is recommended as the parasite load could be higher in other tissues due to parasite tropism and most of the EEP institutions studied are located in endemic areas for canine leishmaniosis in Europe.

  9. Visceral leishmaniasis in captive wild canids in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Luppi, Marcela M; Malta, Marcelo C C; Silva, Teane M A; Silva, Fabiana L; Motta, Rafael O C; Miranda, Ildikó; Ecco, Roselene; Santos, Renato L

    2008-08-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in Belo Horizonte (State of Minas Gerais, Brazil). Leishmania sp. can naturally infect several species of mammals, and the domestic dog is the most important reservoir of the disease in South America. This report describes five cases of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazilian canids. Among 15 animals kept in captivity in a zoo in Belo Horizonte (State of Minas Gerais, Brazil), two animals, a bush dog (Spheotos venaticos) and a hoary zorro (Lycalopex vetulus) were serologically positive and developed clinical signs of VL, whereas three other canids, including a crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), a maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), and a hoary zorro (Lycalopex vetulus) had positive serological results without clinical signs.

  10. Feeding Behaviour of Cynopterus sphinx (Pteropodidae) Under Captive Conditions.

    PubMed

    Shafie, Nur Juliani; Rahman, Nor Amira; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd; Rosely, Nik Fadzly Nik; Sufian, Maryam

    2014-12-01

    We examined the olfactory and visual abilities of megachiropteran bats, Cynopterus sphinx, for discrimination of the odour and shape of the banana fruit, Musa sp. We conducted the experiments in captive conditions by offering a selection of ripe bananas, blended bananas and artificial bananas. The behaviour of the bats was observed visually, and the percentage of activity and rest, duration of the first foraging bout, number of feeding attempts and the average duration of successful attempts was recorded for each bat. The bats exhibited an increased number of visits to ripe bananas and blended banana fruits. However, the artificial fruit did not evoke any response. Our study suggests that odour cues are more important than visual cues for the location of fruits by C. sphinx.

  11. The use of a probiotic in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Koeppel, K N; Bertschinger, H; van Vuuren, M; Picard, J; Steiner, J; Williams, D; Cardwell, J

    2006-09-01

    Juvenile captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) often present with diarrhoea that is commonly associated with bacterial infections. A species-specific probiotic containing Lactobacillus Group 2 and Enterococcus faecium was prepared from healthy adult cheetahs. Juvenile cheetahs (n = 27) between 8 and 13 months of age were included in the probiotic trial. The animals were observed prior to and after feeding of the probiotic which was made available for 28 days. Feeding of the probiotic resulted in a significantly increased body weight in the treatment group (P = 0.026), while there was no increase in the control group. A relative improvement in the faecal quality in the probiotic group during the treatment period compared with the pre-treatment (P = 0.0363) and post-treatment (P = 0.004) period was observed. This was accompanied by an absence of blood and mucus in the faeces during the treatment period in the probiotic group.

  12. Registration of veterinary products in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Butler, E; Cané, B G

    1995-12-01

    A scheme for registering pharmaceutical and biological products for veterinary use was introduced in Argentina in 1994, as part of a joint scheme for countries of the Common Market of the South (Mercado Común del Sur: "Mercosur'). The authors describe the main features of these regulations, and the process which led to their development.

  13. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Argentina

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cases of epidemic typhus have been documented in Argentina since 1919; however, no confirmed reports of spotted fever rickettsiosis were described in this country until 1999. We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (R...

  14. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in Argentina

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the cause of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), from a tick vector, Amblyomma cajennense, and from a cluster of fatal spotted fever cases in Argentina. Questing A. cajennense ticks were collected at or near sites of presumed or...

  15. Contact dermatitis caused by dimethylfumarate in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lo Balbo, A; Gotelli, M J; Mac Cormack, W P; Kogan, N; Gotelli, C

    2011-07-01

    For the first time in Argentina, we describe an outbreak of contact dermatitis. New pairs of shoes caused intense pruritus, pain, and eruption, followed by edema, blisters, and a severe negative impact on the epidermal barrier of the feet. We identify dimethylfumarate as the causal agent and suggest an analytical method for its fast identification.

  16. Microsporidian isolates from mosquitoes of Argentina

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microsporidia are among the most common and widely distributed microbial pathogens associated with mosquitoes in nature. Since 1980 studies of microsporidia in mosquitoes of Argentina were conducted at the Laboratory of Insect Vectors of CEPAVE. Eleven morphologically unique species of microsporidia...

  17. MASTER: bright PSN discovered in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkov, V.; Lipunov, V.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Vladimirov, V.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Chazov, V.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.; Pogrosheva, T.; Shurpakov, S.

    2016-10-01

    MASTER-OAFA (located in Argentina) auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., 2010, Advances in Astronomy, vol. 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 22h 01m 01.36s -40d 15m 26.7s on 2016-10-31.08091 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 16.9m (mlim=19.9m).

  18. Counternarcotic Efforts in the Southern Cone: Argentina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-15

    explored to descern the major factors that intervene in counternarcotics policy and implementation. Political and economic background in Argentina are...essential in grasping the situation and understanding constraints that affect decisions. Geographical and cultural factors are considered that explain...Stat.s is taking place. Internal and external environments are explored in Chapter I# to obtain the major factors that intervene in counternarcotics

  19. Night Sky Protection Initiatives in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Beatriz; Pérez Álvarez, Silvina; Bibé, Victor; Risi, Andrés; Gino, Lisandro

    2015-03-01

    Light Pollution is a global problem. Some local actions carried out by a network of professional and amateur astronomers in Argentina are changing the way to attack this problem, taking into account measurements, education, public activities, planetarium shows and legislation proposals.

  20. Sudden death syndrome of soybean in Argentina

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is one of the most common and widely spread root disease affecting soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in Argentina where it is an economically important crop. This disease was first discovered in this country in 1992 in the Pampas Region, and the following year in Northwest...