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Sample records for argentina northeastern captive

  1. Pathogenic Hantaviruses, Northeastern Argentina and Eastern Paraguay

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Valeria P.; Bellomo, Carla; Maidana, Silvina; San Juan, Jorge; Tagliaferri, Paulina; Bargardi, Severino; Vazquez, Cynthia; Colucci, Norma; Estévez, Julio; Almiron, María

    2007-01-01

    We describe the first, to our knowledge, cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in northeastern Argentina and eastern Paraguay. Andes and Juquitiba (JUQ) viruses were characterized. JUQV was also confirmed in 5 Oligoryzomys nigripes reservoir species from Misiones. A novel Akodon-borne genetic hantavirus lineage was detected in 1 rodent from the Biologic Reserve of Limoy. PMID:17953094

  2. West Nile and st. Louis encephalitis viruses antibodies surveillance in captive and free-ranging birds of prey from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Quaglia, Agustin I; Diaz, Luis A; Argibay, Hernan; Contigiani, Marta S; Saggese, Miguel D

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the prevalence of WNV and SLEV neutralizing antibodies in captive and free-ranging raptors from Argentina by plaque-reduction neutralization test. Eighty plasma samples from 12 species were analyzed. Only one captive adult Crowned Eagle (Harpyhaliaetus coronatus) was WNV seropositive (prevalence: 1.25%; antibody titer of 1:80). Two captive Crowned Eagles were SLEV seropositive (prevalence: 2.50%; antibody titers: 1:80 and 1:40).These findings expand the geographic distribution of WNV and SLEV and confirm their activity in central and northeastern Argentina. West Nile virus activity in Argentina may represent a potential threat to Crowned Eagles and other endangered raptors in this country. PMID:25106849

  3. West Nile and st. Louis encephalitis viruses antibodies surveillance in captive and free-ranging birds of prey from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Quaglia, Agustin I; Diaz, Luis A; Argibay, Hernan; Contigiani, Marta S; Saggese, Miguel D

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the prevalence of WNV and SLEV neutralizing antibodies in captive and free-ranging raptors from Argentina by plaque-reduction neutralization test. Eighty plasma samples from 12 species were analyzed. Only one captive adult Crowned Eagle (Harpyhaliaetus coronatus) was WNV seropositive (prevalence: 1.25%; antibody titer of 1:80). Two captive Crowned Eagles were SLEV seropositive (prevalence: 2.50%; antibody titers: 1:80 and 1:40).These findings expand the geographic distribution of WNV and SLEV and confirm their activity in central and northeastern Argentina. West Nile virus activity in Argentina may represent a potential threat to Crowned Eagles and other endangered raptors in this country.

  4. New larval trematodes in Biomphalaria species (Planorbidae) from Northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Fernández, María Virginia; Hamann, Monika Inés; de Núñez, Margarita Ostrowski

    2016-09-01

    Larval trematodes infecting Biomphalaria tenagophila and B. occidentalis were surveyed in a suburban and semipermanent pond of Corrientes province, Northeastern Argentina. A total of 1,409 snails were examined between spring 2011 to winter 2013, and 8 different larval trematodes were studied morphologically. Three of these species-Echinocercaria sp. IV, Ribeiroia sp. and Echinocercaria sp. XIV-have been previously found in Corrientes province. Six other trematodes belonging to Strigeidae (Furcocercaria sp. III), Clinostomidae (Cercaria Clinostomidae sp.), Spirorchiidae (Cercaria Spirorchiidae sp.) and Echinostomatidae (Echinocercaria sp. 1, Echinocercaria sp. 2, Echinocercaria sp. 3) are new species parasitizing Biomphalaria snails. Cercaria Spirorchiidae sp. is the third larval trematode related to Spirorchiidae recorded in South America and the first one for Argentina. Cercaria Clinostomidae sp. is the first one related to Clinostomidae in northeastern Argentina. The prevalence of larval trematodes infecting B. tenagophila and B. occidentalis in the environment studied was low (<5%) with the echinostome group better represented in terms of prevalence and species richness. Drought periods could affect the dynamics of parasitic transmission due to the absence of trematodes in the autumn and winter of the first seasonal cycle. However, in humid periods parasite transmission can occur throughout the year due to the presence of larvae in all seasons of the second seasonal cycle, although the less-warm seasons showed higher prevalence than the summer period probably related to the subtropical climate of Corrientes province. PMID:27447210

  5. Avian Malaria ( Plasmodium spp.) in Captive Magellanic Penguins ( Spheniscus magellanicus ) from Northern Argentina, 2010.

    PubMed

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Capellino, Félix; Silveira, Patricia; Braga, Érika M; Rodríguez-Heredia, Sergio Andres; Loureiro, Julio; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2016-07-01

    We report two cases of lethal avian malaria in Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) captive at San Clemente del Tuyú, Argentina, approximately 560 km north of Argentinean breeding colonies of Magellanic Penguins. Blood smears revealed both penguins were concurrently infected by Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) tejerai, Plasmodium (Huffia) sp., and Plasmodium (Novyella) sp. PMID:27285418

  6. Genetic diversity of Chlamydia among captive birds from central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Frutos, María C; Monetti, Marina S; Vaulet, Lucia Gallo; Cadario, María E; Fermepin, Marcelo Rodríguez; Ré, Viviana E; Cuffini, Cecilia G

    2015-01-01

    To study the occurrence of Chlamydia spp. and their genetic diversity, we analysed 793 cloacal swabs from 12 avian orders, including 76 genera, obtained from 80 species of asymptomatic wild and captive birds that were examined with conventional nested polymerase chain reaction and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Chlamydia spp. were not detected in wild birds; however, four species (Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia gallinacea) were identified among captive birds (Passeriformes, n = 20; Psittaciformes, n = 15; Rheiformes, n = 8; Falconiformes n = 2; Piciformes n = 2; Anseriformes n = 1; Galliformes n = 1; Strigiformes n = 1). Two pathogens (C. pneumoniae and C. pecorum) were identified simultaneously in samples obtained from captive birds. Based on nucleotide-sequence variations of the ompA gene, three C. psittaci-positive samples detected were grouped into a cluster with the genotype WC derived from mammalian hosts. A single positive sample was phylogenetically related to a new strain of C. gallinacea. This report contributes to our increasing understanding of the abundance of Chlamydia in the animal kingdom. PMID:25469538

  7. Genetic diversity of Chlamydia among captive birds from central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Frutos, María C; Monetti, Marina S; Vaulet, Lucia Gallo; Cadario, María E; Fermepin, Marcelo Rodríguez; Ré, Viviana E; Cuffini, Cecilia G

    2015-01-01

    To study the occurrence of Chlamydia spp. and their genetic diversity, we analysed 793 cloacal swabs from 12 avian orders, including 76 genera, obtained from 80 species of asymptomatic wild and captive birds that were examined with conventional nested polymerase chain reaction and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Chlamydia spp. were not detected in wild birds; however, four species (Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia gallinacea) were identified among captive birds (Passeriformes, n = 20; Psittaciformes, n = 15; Rheiformes, n = 8; Falconiformes n = 2; Piciformes n = 2; Anseriformes n = 1; Galliformes n = 1; Strigiformes n = 1). Two pathogens (C. pneumoniae and C. pecorum) were identified simultaneously in samples obtained from captive birds. Based on nucleotide-sequence variations of the ompA gene, three C. psittaci-positive samples detected were grouped into a cluster with the genotype WC derived from mammalian hosts. A single positive sample was phylogenetically related to a new strain of C. gallinacea. This report contributes to our increasing understanding of the abundance of Chlamydia in the animal kingdom.

  8. Abundance, diversity and community characterization of aquatic Coleoptera in a rice field of Northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gómez Lutz, María Constanza; Kehr, Arturo I; Fernández, Liliana A

    2015-09-01

    Rice fields occupy large areas in Northeastern Argentina, and in Corrientes this widespead activity has become a feature in the landscape, as it is one of the main producing provinces. The aquatic Coleoptera is part of the fauna inhabiting these artificial environments but little is known about this group in irrigated rice fields. The aims of this study were to determine the diversity and species richness of coleopterans in a typical rice field, and to characterize the community of water beetles through different abundance models. For this, samples were collected from an active rice field located in "El Sombrero" town, in Corrientes Province, between November 2011 and April 2012. An entomological net of 30 cm diameter was used, and species richness, diversity and equitability were calculated monthly; besides, the community composition was characterized by means of rank-abundance models. A total of 74 species of aquatic coleopterans were identified. January and February resulted the months with the highest diversity. The aquatic Coleoptera species found in most of the sampled months were adjusted to the logarithmic rank-abundance model. The data suggests that, if it is properly managed, rice cropping in Northeastern Argentina can support a diverse aquatic coleopteran fauna. PMID:26666120

  9. Growth pattern differences of captive born Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus) calves and those rescued in the Brazilian northeastern coast.

    PubMed

    Borges, João Carlos Gomes; Freire, Augusto Carlos da Bôaviagem; Attademo, Fernanda Loffler Niemeyer; Serrano, Inês de Lima; Anzolin, Daiane Garcia; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Martins; Vergara-Parente, Jociery Einhardt

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze whether there are differences between the development pattern of Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus) calves born in captivity and those rescued and kept under rehabilitation. Biometrics data were collected from 1990 to 2010 from 38 calves, 29 of which still had the remnants of the umbilical cord and had been rescued from the Brazilian northeastern coastline (Group I), and nine individuals that were born in captivity and remained with their mothers (Group II). Among the measures obtained through biometry, the total length and weight of the animal were recorded. Given that the breastfeeding of calves occurs approximately until the age of 2 yr, data obtained until the 24th month of life of each individual were evaluated. An average increase in weight of 53.50 +/- 38.54 kg (mean +/- standard deviation [SD]) was detected in Group I and a gain of 106.87 +/- 47.21 kg (mean +/- SD) in Group II. From months 13 to 24, no significant difference in the weight increment was observed. A similar pattern occurred with regard to the increase in the overall length during the first year, where animals from Group I grew 34.81 +/- 17.94 cm (mean +/- SD) and from Group II grew 83.83 +/- 28.21 cm, a statistically significant difference. The growth was not significantly different from 13 to 24 mo. The results found in this study identified the need for a review of the nutritional diet offered to orphaned calves rescued and kept in captivity. The results also support the need for a better adequacy of facilities for these animals as a way to encourage the management strategies adopted for manatee calves maintained in captivity.

  10. Growth pattern differences of captive born Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus) calves and those rescued in the Brazilian northeastern coast.

    PubMed

    Borges, João Carlos Gomes; Freire, Augusto Carlos da Bôaviagem; Attademo, Fernanda Loffler Niemeyer; Serrano, Inês de Lima; Anzolin, Daiane Garcia; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Martins; Vergara-Parente, Jociery Einhardt

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze whether there are differences between the development pattern of Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus) calves born in captivity and those rescued and kept under rehabilitation. Biometrics data were collected from 1990 to 2010 from 38 calves, 29 of which still had the remnants of the umbilical cord and had been rescued from the Brazilian northeastern coastline (Group I), and nine individuals that were born in captivity and remained with their mothers (Group II). Among the measures obtained through biometry, the total length and weight of the animal were recorded. Given that the breastfeeding of calves occurs approximately until the age of 2 yr, data obtained until the 24th month of life of each individual were evaluated. An average increase in weight of 53.50 +/- 38.54 kg (mean +/- standard deviation [SD]) was detected in Group I and a gain of 106.87 +/- 47.21 kg (mean +/- SD) in Group II. From months 13 to 24, no significant difference in the weight increment was observed. A similar pattern occurred with regard to the increase in the overall length during the first year, where animals from Group I grew 34.81 +/- 17.94 cm (mean +/- SD) and from Group II grew 83.83 +/- 28.21 cm, a statistically significant difference. The growth was not significantly different from 13 to 24 mo. The results found in this study identified the need for a review of the nutritional diet offered to orphaned calves rescued and kept in captivity. The results also support the need for a better adequacy of facilities for these animals as a way to encourage the management strategies adopted for manatee calves maintained in captivity. PMID:23082512

  11. Genetic relationships among populations of Aedes aegypti from Uruguay and northeastern Argentina inferred from ISSR-PCR data.

    PubMed

    Soliani, C; Rondan-Dueñas, J; Chiappero, M B; Martínez, M; Da Rosa, E García; Gardenal, C N

    2010-09-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), the main vector of yellow fever and dengue viruses, was eradicated from Argentina between 1955 and 1963, but reinvaded the country in 1986. In Uruguay, the species was reintroduced in 1997. In this study we used highly polymorphic inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers to analyse the genetic structure of Ae. aegypti populations from Uruguay and northeastern Argentina to identify possible colonization patterns of the vector. Overall genetic differentiation among populations was high (F(ST) = 0.106) and showed no correlation with geographic distance, which is consistent with the short time since the reintroduction of the species in the area. Differentiation between pairs of Argentine populations (F(ST) 0.072 to 0.221) was on average higher than between Uruguayan populations (F(ST)-0.044 to 0.116). Bayesian estimation of population structure defined four genetic clusters and most populations were admixtures of two of them: Mercedes and Treinta y Tres (Uruguay) were mixtures of clusters 1 and 3; Salto (Uruguay) and Paraná (Argentina) of clusters 1 and 4; Fray Bentos (Uruguay) of clusters 2 and 3, and Gualeguaychú (Argentina) of clusters 2 and 3. Posadas and Buenos Aires in Argentina were fairly genetically homogeneous. Our results suggest that Ae. aegypti recolonized Uruguay from bordering cities in Argentina via bridges over the Uruguay River and also from Brazil.

  12. Genetic and clinical characterization of canine leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Paola A; Nevot, M Cecilia; Hoyos, Carlos L; Locatelli, Fabricio M; Lauthier, Juan J; Ruybal, Paula; Cardozo, Rubén M; Russo, Pablo D; Vassiliades, Carola N; Mora, María C; Estévez, J Octavio; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Korenaga, Masataka; Basombrío, Miguel A; Marco, Jorge D

    2015-10-01

    Leishmaniases comprise zoonotic diseases caused by protozoan flagellates of the Leishmania genus. They are endemic to South America, and the visceral form has been recently reported in Argentina. Dogs can play different roles in the Leishmania transmission cycles, depending mainly on the species of parasite involved. Here we focused on the clinical characterization of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in Northeast Argentina and on the molecular typing of its etiological agent. The nested polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis of the Leishmania cytochrome b (cyt b) gene was performed on DNA templates purified from lymph nodes, bone marrow or spleen aspirates obtained from 48 dogs previously diagnosed by the observation of Leishmania amastigotes on smears from these aspirates. Their clinical and epidemiological data were also recorded. Systemic abnormalities were observed in 46 subjects (95.8%), most frequently lymphadenopathy, and emaciation (89.6 and 75%). Furthermore, 87% also presented tegumentary abnormalities, such as alopecia (54.2%) or secondary skin lesions (47.9%), among others. Twenty three dogs were positive for cyt b amplification. The sequence analysis showed the presence of two genotypes, LiA1 and LiA2, assigned to Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, with 99.9 and 100% homology with the reference strain MHOM/TN/80/IPT1 respectively. LiA1 was identified in 18 cases (78.3%) and LiA2 in five (21.7%). Two cyt b variants of L. (L.) infantum were incriminated as the causative agents of CanL cases from three cities: Posadas, Garupá, and Ituzaingó. All three cities are located in the northeastern area of the country, where these parasites seem to be spreading in urban areas.

  13. Daily rainfall variability over northeastern Argentina in the La Plata River basin.

    PubMed

    García, Norberto O; Pedraza, Raúl A

    2008-12-01

    We did a brief description of the climatic behavior and after this we analyzed the temporal variation in the total number of days a year with rainfall and the number of days a year with rainfall above the 100 mm threshold at the rain gauging stations in northeastern Argentina south of the La Plata River basin. The results show an increase both in the frequency of daily rainfall, especially during the winter season, and the frequency of days with heavy rainfall starting in the early 1970s. The increase in frequency of occurrence is more significant in the case of heavy rainfall. The annual maximum rainfall was calculated for periods of 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 consecutive days at regional rain gauging stations for the respective historical periods, and the rain intensity-duration-return period curves (IDT) were determined on a frequency analysis. The IDT curves were compared with rainfall intensity-duration data of critical storms occurring in the last decades. We noticed that the rain intensities of critical storms (mostly convective) widely exceeded the intensities given by the 100-year IDT curves, particularly for short durations. The increase in both the frequency of heavy rainfall occurrence and rain intensity from the 1970s onward shows an increase in frequency and intensity of the meso-scale convective systems in the region resulting from climatic change. These systems tend to produce rainfall of very high intensity that is spatially concentrated and which generally produces significant floods in the local rivers.

  14. Ticks on captive and free-living wild animals in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Ferreira, Débora R A; de Melo, Louise M; Lima, Polly-Ana C P; Siqueira, Daniel B; Rameh-de-Albuquerque, Luciana C; de Melo, Adriana V; Ramos, Janaina A C

    2010-02-01

    From 2005 to 2009, 147 ticks found on 32 wild animals from or referred to two zoobotanical parks (Parque Zoobotânico Arruda Câmara and Parque Estadual Dois Irmãos) located in northeastern Brazil were identified. Ticks found on two veterinarians working in one of the parks (i.e., Parque Estadual Dois Irmãos), after return from forested areas within the park's territory, were also identified. The following tick-host associations were recorded: Amblyomma fuscum Neumann on Boa constrictor L.; Amblyomma longirostre Koch on Ramphastos vitellinus ariel Vigors and Coendou prehensilis (L.); Amblyomma varium Koch on Bradypus variegates Schinz; Amblyomma rotundatum Koch on Chelonoidis carbonaria (Spix), Chelonoidis denticulata (L.), Micrurus ibiboboca (Merrem), Python molurus bivittatus Kuhl, Iguana iguana (L.) and B. variegatus; Amblyomma nodosum Neumann on Myrmecophaga tridactyla L. and Tamandua tetradactyla (L.); and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) on Nasua nasua (L.). The ticks found on the veterinarians were identified as nine Amblyomma larvae. The presence of Am. nodosum in Pernambuco and Am. rotundatum and Am. varium in Paraíba is recorded for the first time and the occurrence of Am. longirostre in Pernambuco is confirmed. Ramphastos vitellinus ariel is a new host record for Am. longirostre whereas M. ibiboboca and B. variegatus are new host records for Am. rotundatum. Finally, the human parasitism by Amblyomma ticks is reported for the first time in Pernambuco, highlighting the potential of tick-borne pathogen transmission in this state.

  15. Molecular characterization of trypanosomatid infections in wild howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) in northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Mariela Florencia; Kowalewski, Martín Miguel; Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Schijman, Alejandro Gabriel

    2016-08-01

    The transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi by vectors is confined to the Americas, and the infection circulates in at least two broadly defined transmission cycles occurring in domestic and sylvatic habitats. This study sought to detect and characterize infection by T. cruzi and other trypanosomes using PCR strategies in blood samples from free-ranging howler monkeys, Alouatta caraya, in the northeastern Argentina. Blood samples were collected at four sites with variable levels of habitat modification by human activity. PCR was conducted using primers for kinetoplast DNA, satellite DNA and ribosomal DNA of the trypanosomatid parasites. Ribosomal and satellite DNA fragments were sequenced to identify the trypanosomatid species and to characterize the discrete typing units (DTUs) of T. cruzi. Overall, 46% (50/109) of the howlers were positive according to the kDNA-PCR assay, but only 7 of the howlers were positive according to the SatDNA-PCR protocol. We sequenced the amplicons of the satellite DNA obtained from five specimens, and the sequences were 99% and 100% similar to T. cruzi. A sequence typical of DTU T. cruzi I was found in one howler monkey from the "remote" site, while sequences compatible with DTUs II, V, and VI were found in howlers from the "remote", "rural" and "village" sites. We detected 96% positive samples for RibDNA-PCR, 9 of which were sequenced and displayed 99% identity with Trypanosoma minasense, while none showed identity with T. cruzi. The results demonstrated the presence of T. cruzi and a species closely related to T. minasense in blood samples from free-ranging A. caraya, belonging to different T. cruzi DTUs circulating in these howler monkey populations. The results obtained in this study could help evaluate the role of A. caraya as a reservoir of T. cruzi in regions where Chagas disease is hyper-endemic and where the human-wildlife interface is increasing.

  16. Molecular characterization of trypanosomatid infections in wild howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) in northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Mariela Florencia; Kowalewski, Martín Miguel; Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Schijman, Alejandro Gabriel

    2016-08-01

    The transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi by vectors is confined to the Americas, and the infection circulates in at least two broadly defined transmission cycles occurring in domestic and sylvatic habitats. This study sought to detect and characterize infection by T. cruzi and other trypanosomes using PCR strategies in blood samples from free-ranging howler monkeys, Alouatta caraya, in the northeastern Argentina. Blood samples were collected at four sites with variable levels of habitat modification by human activity. PCR was conducted using primers for kinetoplast DNA, satellite DNA and ribosomal DNA of the trypanosomatid parasites. Ribosomal and satellite DNA fragments were sequenced to identify the trypanosomatid species and to characterize the discrete typing units (DTUs) of T. cruzi. Overall, 46% (50/109) of the howlers were positive according to the kDNA-PCR assay, but only 7 of the howlers were positive according to the SatDNA-PCR protocol. We sequenced the amplicons of the satellite DNA obtained from five specimens, and the sequences were 99% and 100% similar to T. cruzi. A sequence typical of DTU T. cruzi I was found in one howler monkey from the "remote" site, while sequences compatible with DTUs II, V, and VI were found in howlers from the "remote", "rural" and "village" sites. We detected 96% positive samples for RibDNA-PCR, 9 of which were sequenced and displayed 99% identity with Trypanosoma minasense, while none showed identity with T. cruzi. The results demonstrated the presence of T. cruzi and a species closely related to T. minasense in blood samples from free-ranging A. caraya, belonging to different T. cruzi DTUs circulating in these howler monkey populations. The results obtained in this study could help evaluate the role of A. caraya as a reservoir of T. cruzi in regions where Chagas disease is hyper-endemic and where the human-wildlife interface is increasing. PMID:27617205

  17. Isolation and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from captive slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta) with fatal toxoplasmosis in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Basso, W; Moré, G; Quiroga, M A; Pardini, L; Bacigalupe, D; Venturini, L; Valenzuela, M C; Balducchi, D; Maksimov, P; Schares, G; Venturini, M C

    2009-05-12

    In this study, the diagnosis of fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in three captive slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta) in the zoo of La Plata, Argentina and the invitro isolation and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii are reported. The animals showed depression, dyspnea and hypothermia, and also ataxia in one case, and died within 1-5 days. The main histopathological lesions included interstitial pneumonia, non-suppurative inflammatory changes and focal necrosis in liver, spleen, kidney and brain. Tachyzoites or tissue cysts were present in lung, liver, spleen, brain, striated muscle, kidney, intestine and mesenteric lymph node sections, and stained strongly with T. gondii antiserum in immunohistochemical analysis. T. gondii was isolated in Swiss mice and in bovine monocytes cultures from tissues of one of the meerkats. The isolate was cryopreserved and it was named TG-Suricata-1. T. gondii DNA was demonstrated in tissues of all three animals and in tachyzoites isolated in cell cultures. The PCR-RFLP analysis of markers based in the loci 3'-SAG2, 5'-SAG2, BTUB, GRA6, SAG3, c22-8, L358, PK1, c29-2 and Apico of T. gondii produced patterns corresponding to the clonal type III. Type III strains of T. gondii possess no or only little virulence in the mouse model, however their association with virulence in other animal species is uncertain. In the present case, T. gondii of the clonal lineage III was responsible for fatal cases in S. suricatta. To our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation and genotyping of T. gondii from S. suricatta.

  18. Isolation and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from captive slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta) with fatal toxoplasmosis in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Basso, W; Moré, G; Quiroga, M A; Pardini, L; Bacigalupe, D; Venturini, L; Valenzuela, M C; Balducchi, D; Maksimov, P; Schares, G; Venturini, M C

    2009-05-12

    In this study, the diagnosis of fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in three captive slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta) in the zoo of La Plata, Argentina and the invitro isolation and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii are reported. The animals showed depression, dyspnea and hypothermia, and also ataxia in one case, and died within 1-5 days. The main histopathological lesions included interstitial pneumonia, non-suppurative inflammatory changes and focal necrosis in liver, spleen, kidney and brain. Tachyzoites or tissue cysts were present in lung, liver, spleen, brain, striated muscle, kidney, intestine and mesenteric lymph node sections, and stained strongly with T. gondii antiserum in immunohistochemical analysis. T. gondii was isolated in Swiss mice and in bovine monocytes cultures from tissues of one of the meerkats. The isolate was cryopreserved and it was named TG-Suricata-1. T. gondii DNA was demonstrated in tissues of all three animals and in tachyzoites isolated in cell cultures. The PCR-RFLP analysis of markers based in the loci 3'-SAG2, 5'-SAG2, BTUB, GRA6, SAG3, c22-8, L358, PK1, c29-2 and Apico of T. gondii produced patterns corresponding to the clonal type III. Type III strains of T. gondii possess no or only little virulence in the mouse model, however their association with virulence in other animal species is uncertain. In the present case, T. gondii of the clonal lineage III was responsible for fatal cases in S. suricatta. To our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation and genotyping of T. gondii from S. suricatta. PMID:19201541

  19. Digenean fauna in raptors from northeastern Argentina, with the description of a new species of Strigea (Digenea: Strigeidae).

    PubMed

    Drago, Fabiana B; Lunaschi, Lía I; Draghi, Regina

    2014-01-01

    The digenean fauna of six species of falconiform birds from northeastern Argentina is reported and a new species and several new hosts and geographical records are presented. Strigea proteolytica n. sp. (Strigeidae) is described from Buteogallus urubitinga and distinguished from their congeners by the combination of the following characters: plump body, conspicuous proteolytic gland, forebody with scarce vitelline glands, copulatory bursa with a well developed muscular ring (Ringnapf), and absence of true neck region in hindbody. Six previously known species are breifly described: Strigea falconis brasiliana Szidat, 1929 (Strigeidae) from Milvago chimachima and Caracara plancus; Neodiplostomum travassosi Dubois, 1937 from Buteogallus meridionalis; Tylodelphys brevis Drago & Lunaschi, 2008 and Posthodiplostomum macrocotyle Dubois, 1937 (Diplostomidae) from Busarellus nigricollis; Spaniometra variolaris (Fuhrmann, 1904) (Cyclocoelidae) and Megalophallus deblocki Kostadinova, Vaucher & Gibson, 2006 (Microphallidae) from Rostrhamus sociabilis. Literature records and information on distribution and host-parasite relationships is presented.

  20. Digenean fauna in raptors from northeastern Argentina, with the description of a new species of Strigea (Digenea: Strigeidae).

    PubMed

    Drago, Fabiana B; Lunaschi, Lía I; Draghi, Regina

    2014-01-01

    The digenean fauna of six species of falconiform birds from northeastern Argentina is reported and a new species and several new hosts and geographical records are presented. Strigea proteolytica n. sp. (Strigeidae) is described from Buteogallus urubitinga and distinguished from their congeners by the combination of the following characters: plump body, conspicuous proteolytic gland, forebody with scarce vitelline glands, copulatory bursa with a well developed muscular ring (Ringnapf), and absence of true neck region in hindbody. Six previously known species are breifly described: Strigea falconis brasiliana Szidat, 1929 (Strigeidae) from Milvago chimachima and Caracara plancus; Neodiplostomum travassosi Dubois, 1937 from Buteogallus meridionalis; Tylodelphys brevis Drago & Lunaschi, 2008 and Posthodiplostomum macrocotyle Dubois, 1937 (Diplostomidae) from Busarellus nigricollis; Spaniometra variolaris (Fuhrmann, 1904) (Cyclocoelidae) and Megalophallus deblocki Kostadinova, Vaucher & Gibson, 2006 (Microphallidae) from Rostrhamus sociabilis. Literature records and information on distribution and host-parasite relationships is presented. PMID:24872182

  1. Argentina.

    PubMed

    1986-06-01

    This discussion of Argentina covers geography, the people, history and political conditions, government, economy, foreign relations, and relations between the US and Argentina. In 1985, the population of Argentina was estimated to be 30.6 million with an estimated annual growth rate of 1.5%. The infant mortality rate is 34.1/1000, and life expectancy is 70.2 years. Argentina, which shares land borders with Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay, is bounded by the Atlantic and the Antarctic Oceans. Descendants of Italian and Spanish immigrants predominate in Argentina, but many trace their origins to British and West and East European ancestors. In recent years, there has been a substantial influx of immigrants from neighboring Latin American countries. The native Indian population, estimated to be 50,000, is concentrated in the peripheral provinces of the north, northwest, and south. What is now Argentina was discovered in 1516 by the Spanish navigator Juan de Solia. The formal declaration of independence from Spain was made on July 9, 1816. In the late 19th century, 2 forces worked to create the modern Argentine nation: the introduction of modern agricultural techniques and the integration of Argentina into the world economy. Argentina has impressive human and natural resources, but political conflict and uneven economic performance since World War II have impeded full realization of its considerable potential. Yet, it is one of the wealthiest countries in Latin America. Among the reasons for the military coup of March 1976 was the deteriorating economy, caused by declining production and rampant inflation. Under the leadership of the Minister of the Economy, the military government focused attention on those immediate problems, and, in 1978, embarked on a new development strategy focusing on the establishment of a free market economy. There was little improvement in the economy, and a new economic plan was introduced in 1985 which has capped inflation by

  2. Diversity of tuco-tucos (Ctenomys, Rodentia) in the Northeastern wetlands from Argentina: mitochondrial phylogeny and chromosomal evolution.

    PubMed

    Caraballo, Diego A; Abruzzese, Giselle A; Rossi, María Susana

    2012-06-01

    Tuco-tucos (small subterranean rodents of the genus Ctenomys) that inhabit sandy soils of the area under the influence of the second largest wetland of South America, in Northeastern Argentina (Corrientes province), are a complex of species and forms whose taxonomic status were not defined, nor are the evolutionary relationships among them. The tuco-tuco populations of this area exhibit one of the most ample grades of chromosomal variability within the genus. In order to analyze evolutionary relationships within the Corrientes group and its chromosomal variability, we completed the missing karyotypic information and performed a phylogenetic analysis. We obtained partial sequences of three mitochondrial markers: D-loop, cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase I. The Corrientes group was monophyletic and split into three main clades that grouped related karyomorphs. The phylogeny suggested an ancestral condition of the karyomorph with diploid number (2n) 70 and fundamental number (FN) 84 that has evolved mainly via reductions of the FN although amplifications occurred in certain lineages. We discuss the relationship between patterns of chromosomal variability and species and groups boundaries. From the three main clades the one named iberá exhibited a remarkable karyotypic homogeneity, and could be considered as an independent and cohesive evolutionary lineage. On the contrary, the former recognized species C. dorbignyi is a polyphyletic lineage and hence its systematic classification should be reviewed.

  3. Late Quaternary continental and marine sediments of northeastern Buenos Aires province (Argentina): Fossil content and paleoenvironmental interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucks, Enrique; Aguirre, Marina; Deschamps, Cecilia M.

    2005-10-01

    Abundant invertebrate and vertebrate fossil remains that exhibit excellent preservation and were collected from deposits of both continental and marine origins at Pilar (Buenos Aires, Argentina) add paleoenvironmental data from the northeastern Buenos Aires province area linked to sea-level oscillations and climate variability since approximately 120 ka BP (marine oxygen isotope stage [MOIS] 5e). Two new fossiliferous localities discovered in the Luján River Valley allow for detailed geological studies and new dating of molluscan shells and bones. The studies suggest salinity changes during the Last Interglacial (8 m above m.s.l., min. 14C>40 ka) and the mid-Holocene transgression (5 m above m.s.l., 7-3 14C ka BP) compared with the modern pattern along the adjacent littoral (Río de la Plata). The marine sequences represent the innermost boundary of the sea-level transgression in that area and contain a biogenic record (bivalves, gastropods, forams, ostracods) that indicates marginal marine environments (higher salinity than at present). Vertebrates and molluscs from the continental sequence suggest a freshwater habitat in which remains of marine fish must be allochthonous, probably incorporated by postmortem fluvial transport to the final depositional environment.

  4. Cryptococcus gattii in urban trees from cities in North-eastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Mariana; Refojo, Nicolás; Bosco-Borgeat, María Eugenia; Taverna, Constanza Giselle; Trovero, Alicia Cristina; Rogé, Ariel; Davel, Graciela

    2013-11-01

    In the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, Cryptococcus gattii genotype AFLP4/VGI was found to be associated with decaying wood in hollows of different tree species. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of C. gattii in the environment of riverside cities of the river Paraná, and to describe its serotypes and molecular types. Five hundred samples were collected in 50 parks by swabbing tree hollows. The samples were inoculated on caffeic acid agar supplemented with chloramphenicol, and incubated at 28 °C for 1 week with a daily observation. The isolates were identified by conventional methods. The serotype was determined by slide agglutination with specific antisera. Molecular typing was carried out by PCR-RFLP of the URA5 gene. Four isolates of C. gattii were recovered: Cryptococcus gattii serotype B, genotype AFLP4/VGI, isolated from Eucalyptus sp. in the city of Rosario and from Grevillea robusta in the city of La Paz; and C. gattii serotype C, genotype AFLP5/VGIII, isolated from two different Tipuana tipu trees in the city of Resistencia. Here, we report for the first time the isolation of C. gattii serotype C, genotype AFLP5/VGIII, from environmental samples in Argentina.

  5. Snake Venomics and Antivenomics of Bothrops diporus, a Medically Important Pitviper in Northeastern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Carolina; Sanz, Libia; Calvete, Juan J.; Pla, Davinia

    2015-01-01

    Snake species within genus Bothrops are responsible for more than 80% of the snakebites occurring in South America. The species that cause most envenomings in Argentina, B. diporus, is widely distributed throughout the country, but principally found in the Northeast, the region with the highest rates of snakebites. The venom proteome of this medically relevant snake was unveiled using a venomic approach. It comprises toxins belonging to fourteen protein families, being dominated by PI- and PIII-SVMPs, PLA2 molecules, BPP-like peptides, L-amino acid oxidase and serine proteinases. This toxin profile largely explains the characteristic pathophysiological effects of bothropic snakebites observed in patients envenomed by B. diporus. Antivenomic analysis of the SAB antivenom (Instituto Vital Brazil) against the venom of B. diporus showed that this pentabothropic antivenom efficiently recognized all the venom proteins and exhibited poor affinity towards the small peptide (BPPs and tripeptide inhibitors of PIII-SVMPs) components of the venom. PMID:26712790

  6. Snake Venomics and Antivenomics of Bothrops diporus, a Medically Important Pitviper in Northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gay, Carolina; Sanz, Libia; Calvete, Juan J; Pla, Davinia

    2015-12-25

    Snake species within genus Bothrops are responsible for more than 80% of the snakebites occurring in South America. The species that cause most envenomings in Argentina, B. diporus, is widely distributed throughout the country, but principally found in the Northeast, the region with the highest rates of snakebites. The venom proteome of this medically relevant snake was unveiled using a venomic approach. It comprises toxins belonging to fourteen protein families, being dominated by PI- and PIII-SVMPs, PLA₂ molecules, BPP-like peptides, L-amino acid oxidase and serine proteinases. This toxin profile largely explains the characteristic pathophysiological effects of bothropic snakebites observed in patients envenomed by B. diporus. Antivenomic analysis of the SAB antivenom (Instituto Vital Brazil) against the venom of B. diporus showed that this pentabothropic antivenom efficiently recognized all the venom proteins and exhibited poor affinity towards the small peptide (BPPs and tripeptide inhibitors of PIII-SVMPs) components of the venom.

  7. Snake Venomics and Antivenomics of Bothrops diporus, a Medically Important Pitviper in Northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gay, Carolina; Sanz, Libia; Calvete, Juan J; Pla, Davinia

    2016-01-01

    Snake species within genus Bothrops are responsible for more than 80% of the snakebites occurring in South America. The species that cause most envenomings in Argentina, B. diporus, is widely distributed throughout the country, but principally found in the Northeast, the region with the highest rates of snakebites. The venom proteome of this medically relevant snake was unveiled using a venomic approach. It comprises toxins belonging to fourteen protein families, being dominated by PI- and PIII-SVMPs, PLA₂ molecules, BPP-like peptides, L-amino acid oxidase and serine proteinases. This toxin profile largely explains the characteristic pathophysiological effects of bothropic snakebites observed in patients envenomed by B. diporus. Antivenomic analysis of the SAB antivenom (Instituto Vital Brazil) against the venom of B. diporus showed that this pentabothropic antivenom efficiently recognized all the venom proteins and exhibited poor affinity towards the small peptide (BPPs and tripeptide inhibitors of PIII-SVMPs) components of the venom. PMID:26712790

  8. Argentina.

    PubMed

    1988-10-01

    Argentina has been a melting pot for both East and West European citizens. In more recent years, the country has seen immigration from neighboring Latin America countries. The indigenous population of Indians is found on the northern, north-western and southern borders. The large percentage (80) of the immigrant population lives in urban areas with more than 1/3 of the population living in Buenos Aires alone. Over 90% of all Argentines are Roman Catholic. Argentina holds one of the highest literacy rates of Latin America at 92%. Although Spanish is the official language of the country, English, German, Italian and French are also spoken. Argentina is considered rich in both human and natural resources, but political conflict, human rights abuses and waivering economic performance have prevented the country from achieving its full potential. The country exports agricultural products, technical products and energy products. The Argentine population growth rate (1.5%) is one of the lowest in Latin Americas Life expectancy is 70.2 years. The infant mortality rate is 26.8/1000. PMID:12178012

  9. Determinants of daily path length in black and gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) in northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Raño, Mariana; Kowalewski, Martin M; Cerezo, Alexis M; Garber, Paul A

    2016-08-01

    Models used to explain the social organization of primates suggest that variation in daily path length (DPL) is a response to variation in resource distribution and the intensity of intragroup feeding competition. However, daily path length may be affected by a number of other factors including the availability and distribution of nutritionally complementary food items, temperature which can influence activity budget, patterns of subgrouping, and the frequency and function of intergroup encounters. In this 6-month study (total 495 hr of quantitative data), we examined daily path lengths in two neighboring groups of black and gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) inhabiting a semi-deciduous gallery forest in San Cayetano (27° 30'S, 58° 41'W), in the northwest province of Corrientes, Argentina. Both study groups were of similar size and composition. We identified relationships across groups between time spent feeding on fruits, leaves, and flowers, the number of trees visited, group spread, frequency of intergroup encounters, mean daily temperature, and DPL. Our results suggest that variation in food availability had a significant impact on howler ranging behavior by increasing DPL under conditions of high immature and mature fruit availability, and by decreasing DPL with increased availability and increased time invested in feeding on mature leaves. These results do not support the contention that a reduction in food availability or an increase in within-group feeding competition increased DPL in black and gold howler monkeys. DPL in black and gold howlers is influenced by several interrelated factors. In this regard we suggest that models of socio-ecology and ecological constraints need to reconsider how factors such as individual nutritional requirements, social tolerance and group cohesion, and the spatial and temporal availability of preferred and nearby food resources influence primate ranging behavior. Am. J. Primatol. 78:825-837, 2016. © 2016 Wiley

  10. Determinants of daily path length in black and gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) in northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Raño, Mariana; Kowalewski, Martin M; Cerezo, Alexis M; Garber, Paul A

    2016-08-01

    Models used to explain the social organization of primates suggest that variation in daily path length (DPL) is a response to variation in resource distribution and the intensity of intragroup feeding competition. However, daily path length may be affected by a number of other factors including the availability and distribution of nutritionally complementary food items, temperature which can influence activity budget, patterns of subgrouping, and the frequency and function of intergroup encounters. In this 6-month study (total 495 hr of quantitative data), we examined daily path lengths in two neighboring groups of black and gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) inhabiting a semi-deciduous gallery forest in San Cayetano (27° 30'S, 58° 41'W), in the northwest province of Corrientes, Argentina. Both study groups were of similar size and composition. We identified relationships across groups between time spent feeding on fruits, leaves, and flowers, the number of trees visited, group spread, frequency of intergroup encounters, mean daily temperature, and DPL. Our results suggest that variation in food availability had a significant impact on howler ranging behavior by increasing DPL under conditions of high immature and mature fruit availability, and by decreasing DPL with increased availability and increased time invested in feeding on mature leaves. These results do not support the contention that a reduction in food availability or an increase in within-group feeding competition increased DPL in black and gold howler monkeys. DPL in black and gold howlers is influenced by several interrelated factors. In this regard we suggest that models of socio-ecology and ecological constraints need to reconsider how factors such as individual nutritional requirements, social tolerance and group cohesion, and the spatial and temporal availability of preferred and nearby food resources influence primate ranging behavior. Am. J. Primatol. 78:825-837, 2016. © 2016 Wiley

  11. Zoo-heleoplankton structure in three artificial ponds of North-eastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Frutos, S M; Carnevali, R

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the abundance and species richness of zoo-heleoplankton bigger than 53 microm in an annual cycle under similar climate conditions in three artificial ponds, in order to observe the changes during an annual cycle. Samples were taken monthly from June 1993 to July 1994 in Corrientes, Argentina. The first pond (A) was covered an 80% by Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.), the second one (B) with bloom of Microcystis aeruginosa (Kurtzing) and the last one (C) with organic matter deposited in the bottom. The water was more acidic at pond A, and the water at pond B contained more dissolved oxygen concentration than the water at the other two ponds. The zoo-heleoplankton densities varied between 20-1728 ind.l(-1) at pond A, 42-4082 ind.l(-1) at pond B and 148-2447 ind.l(-1) at pond C. The maximum zoo-heleoplankton abundance was found in the pond with cyanobacteria bloom during Autumn 1994 and the minimum abundance was found in the one with a predominance of E. crassipes. The rank of species richness was pond A > pond B > pond C. Rotifera was the most abundant group in pond A whereas the larval stages of Copepoda were abundant in the other two ponds. Anuraeopsis navicula Rousselt 1910 was the dominant population in the pond with macrophytes prevalence. Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas 1776 and larval stage of Copepoda had variable proportions in the pond with cyanobacteria bloom. Thermocyclops decipiens (Kiefer 1929) was present during the annual cycle only in the pond with organic matter deposited in the bottom. The succession of taxa was observed in the pond with coverage of aquatic macrophytes and with cyanobacteria bloom. Differences in species richness and low similarity in zoo-heleoplankton between ponds were determined by differences in the quality of the water in relation to the presence of macrophytes, cyanobacteria, organic matter deposited in the bottom and fish predation. Multiple regression analysis (stepwise) revealed that

  12. First finding of Trypanosoma cruzi II in vampire bats from a district free of domestic vector-borne transmission in Northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Argibay, Hernán D; Orozco, M Marcela; Cardinal, M Victoria; Rinas, Miguel A; Arnaiz, María; Mena Segura, Carlos; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2016-09-01

    Establishing the putative links between sylvatic and domestic transmission cycles of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, is of public health relevance. We conducted three surveys to assess T. cruzi infection in wild mammals from a rural and a preserved area in Misiones Province, Northeastern Argentina, which had recently been declared free of vector- and blood-borne transmission of human T. cruzi infection. A total of 200 wild mammals were examined by xenodiagnosis (XD) and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the hyper-variable region of kinetoplast DNA minicircles of T. cruzi (kDNA-PCR). The overall prevalence of T. cruzi infection was 8%. Nine (16%) of 57 Didelphis albiventris opossums and two (7%) of 29 Desmodus rotundus vampire bats were positive by both XD and kDNA-PCR. Additionally, one D. rotundus positive for T. cruzi by kDNA-PCR tested positive by satellite-DNA-PCR (SAT-DNA-PCR). The T. cruzi-infected bats were captured indoors and in the yard of a vacant dwelling. All D. albiventris were infected with TcI and both XD-positive D. rotundus by TcII. Fifty-five opossum cubs within the marsupium were negative by XD. The mean infectiousness to the vector was 62% in D. albiventris and 50% in D. rotundus. Mice experimentally infected with a parasite isolate from a vampire bat displayed lesions typically caused by T. cruzi. Our study documents the presence of the genotype TcII in a sylvatic host for the first time in Argentina, and the occurrence of two transmission cycles of T. cruzi in a district free of domestic vector-borne transmission.

  13. First finding of Trypanosoma cruzi II in vampire bats from a district free of domestic vector-borne transmission in Northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Argibay, Hernán D; Orozco, M Marcela; Cardinal, M Victoria; Rinas, Miguel A; Arnaiz, María; Mena Segura, Carlos; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2016-09-01

    Establishing the putative links between sylvatic and domestic transmission cycles of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, is of public health relevance. We conducted three surveys to assess T. cruzi infection in wild mammals from a rural and a preserved area in Misiones Province, Northeastern Argentina, which had recently been declared free of vector- and blood-borne transmission of human T. cruzi infection. A total of 200 wild mammals were examined by xenodiagnosis (XD) and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the hyper-variable region of kinetoplast DNA minicircles of T. cruzi (kDNA-PCR). The overall prevalence of T. cruzi infection was 8%. Nine (16%) of 57 Didelphis albiventris opossums and two (7%) of 29 Desmodus rotundus vampire bats were positive by both XD and kDNA-PCR. Additionally, one D. rotundus positive for T. cruzi by kDNA-PCR tested positive by satellite-DNA-PCR (SAT-DNA-PCR). The T. cruzi-infected bats were captured indoors and in the yard of a vacant dwelling. All D. albiventris were infected with TcI and both XD-positive D. rotundus by TcII. Fifty-five opossum cubs within the marsupium were negative by XD. The mean infectiousness to the vector was 62% in D. albiventris and 50% in D. rotundus. Mice experimentally infected with a parasite isolate from a vampire bat displayed lesions typically caused by T. cruzi. Our study documents the presence of the genotype TcII in a sylvatic host for the first time in Argentina, and the occurrence of two transmission cycles of T. cruzi in a district free of domestic vector-borne transmission. PMID:27220254

  14. Relationship between precipitation and water-table fluctuation in a coastal dune aquifer: northeastern coast of the Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretero, Silvina C.; Kruse, Eduardo E.

    2012-12-01

    The water-table fluctuation (WTF) method is one of the most widely used means to estimate aquifer recharge. In the northeastern coast of the Buenos Aires province, Argentina, the geomorphological and climatic characteristics, as well as the presence of a shallow, homogeneous unconfined aquifer, make it possible to apply this methodology. The relationship between water-table fluctuations and precipitation in a humid climate, considering its seasonal variations, is assessed. Water tables were measured monthly between February 2008 and September 2010 in a monitoring network; rainfall data were analysed. The water table rises when the accumulated precipitation between measurements is more than 53 mm/month in the dry season and more than 97 mm/month in the rainy season. The index, relating water-table fluctuations and precipitation occurring between measurements, shows that values below 0 suggest no increase in the water reserves, whereas higher values entail an increase. In the study area, where there is a lack of historical data, finding out the relationship between water-table fluctuations and precipitation will constitute a tool for groundwater use and management, and set up an early warning system for dry periods. It could also be extrapolated to other regions with similar hydrological conditions lacking in data.

  15. Geographic Patterns of Inversion Polymorphism in the Second Chromosome of the Cactophilic Drosophila buzzatii from Northeastern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Ignacio M.; Soto, Eduardo M.; Carreira, Valeria P.; Hurtado, Juan; Fanara, Juan J.; Hasson, Esteban

    2010-01-01

    The inversion polymorphisms of the cactophilic Drosophila buzzatti Patterson and Wheeler (Diptera: Drosophilidae) were studied in new areas of its distribution in Argentina. A total of thirty-eight natural populations, including 29 from previous studies, were analyzed using multiple regression analyses. The results showed that about 23% of total variation was accounted for by a multiple regression model in which only altitude contributed significantly to population variation, despite the fact that latitude and longitude were also included in the model. Also, inversion frequencies exhibited significant associations with mean annual temperature, precipitation, and atmospheric pressure. In addition, expected heterozygosity exhibited a negative association with temperature and precipitation and a positive association with atmospheric pressure. The close similarity of the patterns detected in this larger dataset to previous reports is an indication of the stability of the clines. Also, the concurrence of the clines detected in Argentina with those reported for colonizing populations of Australia suggests the involvement of natural selection as the main mechanism shaping inversion frequencies in D. buzzatii. PMID:21062144

  16. Geographic patterns of inversion polymorphism in the second chromosome of the cactophilic Drosophila buzzatii from northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Soto, Ignacio M; Soto, Eduardo M; Carreira, Valeria P; Hurtado, Juan; Fanara, Juan J; Hasson, Esteban

    2010-01-01

    The inversion polymorphisms of the cactophilic Drosophila buzzatti Patterson and Wheeler (Diptera: Drosophilidae) were studied in new areas of its distribution in Argentina. A total of thirty-eight natural populations, including 29 from previous studies, were analyzed using multiple regression analyses. The results showed that about 23% of total variation was accounted for by a multiple regression model in which only altitude contributed significantly to population variation, despite the fact that latitude and longitude were also included in the model. Also, inversion frequencies exhibited significant associations with mean annual temperature, precipitation, and atmospheric pressure. In addition, expected heterozygosity exhibited a negative association with temperature and precipitation and a positive association with atmospheric pressure. The close similarity of the patterns detected in this larger dataset to previous reports is an indication of the stability of the clines. Also, the concurrence of the clines detected in Argentina with those reported for colonizing populations of Australia suggests the involvement of natural selection as the main mechanism shaping inversion frequencies in D. buzzatii.

  17. Genetic analysis of six communities of Mbyá-Guaraní inhabiting northeastern Argentina by means of nuclear and mitochondrial polymorphic markers.

    PubMed

    Sala, Andrea; Argüelles, Carina F; Marino, Miguel E; Bobillo, Cecilia; Fenocchio, Alberto; Corach, Daniel

    2010-08-01

    Autosomal STRs, Y-chromosome markers, and mitochondrial DNA sequences were investigated in six Mbyá-Guaraní villages (Fortín M'Bororé, Yryapu, Tabay, Kaaguy Poty, Jejy, and Yaboti), all of them settled within the province of Misiones, northeastern Argentina. One hundred twenty-one unrelated individuals were analyzed. The study involved typing fifteen autosomal STRs, nine Y-chromosome STRs, and four biallele loci in the nonrecombinant region of the Y chromosome, sequencing the mtDNA of hypervariable regions I and II, and detecting the 9-bp ins/del in region V of mtDNA. All autosomal STRs were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The four major native American mtDNA haplogroups were represented in the sample. Haplogroups A2 and D1 exhibited the highest frequencies (40.5% and 36.0%, respectively), and haplogroups B2 and C1 appeared to be less frequent (17.5% and 6.0%, respectively). The native American haplogroup Q1a3a was observed in a relevant proportion (88.8%). In addition, a nine-STR Y-chromosome haplo-type (DYS19*13, DYS389I*14, DYS389II*31, DYS390*24, DYS391*11, DYS392*14, DYS393*11, DYS385A*14, DYS385B*16) exhibited a frequency of more than 36%. Our results indicate that the analyzed Argentinean Guaraní individuals are genetically more closely related to Guaraní from Brazil [genetic distance (Δµ)(2) = 0.48] than to other related tribes that are geographically closer. Statistical approaches based on autosomal data do not support the hypothesis of genetic drift previously proposed; however, this apparent discrepancy might be due to the lack of sensitivity of the autosomal markers used here. PMID:21082911

  18. Environmental history since 11,000 14C yr B.P. of the northeastern Pampas, Argentina, from alluvial sequences of the Luján River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Aldo R.; Blasi, Adriana M.; De Francesco, Claudio G.; Fernández, Celina

    2004-09-01

    Sedimentological, malacological, and pollen analyses from 14C-dated alluvial sections from the Luján River provide a detailed record of environmental changes during the Holocene in the northeastern Pampas of Argentina. From 11,200 to 9000 14C yr B.P., both sedimentary and biological components suggest that the depositional environment was eutrophic, alkaline, and freshwater to brackish shallow water bodies without significant water circulation. During this time, bioclastic sedimentation was dominant and the shallow water bodies reached maximum development as the climate became more humid, suggesting an increase in precipitation. Short-term fluctuations in climate during the last stage of this interval may have been sufficient to initiate changes in the water bodies, as reduction of the volume alternated with periods of flooding. The beginning of the evolution of shallow swamps in the wide floodplain or huge wetlands was contemporaneous with a sea level lower than the present one. From 9000 and 7000 14C yr B.P., mesotrophic, alkaline, brackish, probably anoxic swamps existed. Between 7000 and 3000 14C yr B.P., anoxic calcareous swamps were formed, with subaerial exposure and development of the Puesto Berrondo Soil (3500-2900 14C yr B.P.). A trend to a reduction of water bodies is recorded from 9000 to ca. 3000 14C yr B.P., with a significant reduction after ca. 7000 14C yr B.P. A shift to subhumid-dry climate after 7000 14C yr B.P. appears to be the main cause. During this time, an additional external forcing toward higher groundwater levels was caused by Holocene marine transgression causing changes in the water bodies levels. The climate became drier during the late Holocene (ca. 3000 yr B.P.), when clastic sedimentation increased, under subhumid-dry conditions. Flood events increased in frequency during this time. From ca. A.D. 1790 to present, the pollen record reflects widespread disturbance of the vegetation during the European settlement.

  19. First report of geophilid centipedes of the genus Ribautia (Myriapoda: Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha) from the Atlantic Forest biome, with description of a new miniature species from Misiones Province, Northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Luis Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Ribautia paranaensis sp. nov. a new miniature species of geophilid centipede from the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest (the westernmost of the fifteen ecoregions comprising the Atlantic Forest biome sensu Di Bitetti et al. 2003), is herein described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by having the coxal organs grouped in clusters (one of these in each coxopleuron of the ultimate leg-bearing segment) and a claw-like pretarsus in the ultimate legs; these traits being shared by three other Neotropical members of the genus, i.e., R. combinata Pereira, Uliana & Minelli, 2006 (from the Amazonian rainforest of Peru), R. jakulicai Pereira, 2007 (from the Yungas rainforest of Northwestern Argentina), and R. lewisi Pereira, 2013 (collected in a gallery forest in the Mesopotamian region, Northeastern Argentina). R. paranaensis sp. nov. represents the first report of Ribautia Brölemann, 1909 in the entire Atlantic Forest biome, and the third confirmed record of the taxon from Argentina. PMID:24871738

  20. Hydrogeochemical and isotopic characterisation of groundwater in a sand-dune phreatic aquifer on the northeastern coast of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Carretero, Silvina C; Dapeña, Cristina; Kruse, Eduardo E

    2013-01-01

    This contribution presents the hydrochemical and isotopic characterisation of the phreatic aquifer located in the Partido de la Costa, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. In the sand-dune barrier geomorphological environment, groundwater is mainly a low-salinity Ca-HCO3 and Na-HCO3-type, being in general suitable for drinking, whereas in the continental plain (silty clay sediments), groundwater is a Na-Cl type with high salinity and unsuitable for human consumption. The general isotopic composition of the area ranges from-6.8 to-4.3 ‰ for δ(18)O and from-39 to-21 ‰ for δ(2)H, showing that rainwater rapidly infiltrates into the sandy substrate and reaches the water table almost without significant modification in its isotopic composition. These analyses, combined with other chemical parameters, made it possible to corroborate that in the eastern area of the phreatic aquifer, there is no contamination from marine salt water.

  1. Multivariate discrimination among cryptic mites of the genus Androlaelaps (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) parasitic of sympatric akodontine rodents (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) in northeastern Argentina: possible evidence of host switch followed by speciation, with the description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Lareschi, Marcela; Galliari, Carlos

    2014-12-01

    Laelapids are among the most common ectoparasites of rodents. Currently, it is under discussion whether there is a single polixenous species that parasites a variety of hosts, or whether there are cryptic species highly host specific. Herein, multivariate morphometric analyses of cryptic sympatric laelapids of the genus Androlaelaps allowed us to identify different species. These species are specific of their akodontine hosts, Akodon montensis and Thaptomys nigrita, in localities situated in northeastern Argentina. In addition, we analyzed similar laelapids associated with the akodontines Deltamys kempi and Akodon cursor. Using principle component analyses we differentiated four laelapid species, each one host specific, independent of sympatry of the hosts, and without geographical variation. From these four species, we described two new species (Androlaelaps navonae n. sp. and Androlaelaps wingei n. sp.). We determined the four species based on a range of variations in several characters, mainly size. These four laelapid species belong to the Androlaelaps rotundus species group, specific to akodontines. These species are very similar among them but differ from the remainder species of the group by their small size, distance between j6 setae similar to the distance between the z5 setae, strong ventral setae, opisthogaster with 13 pairs of strong setae (one close to the distal margin of epigynal shield), and anal shield wider than long. Further studies will elucidate whether they constitute a new laelapid genus. Phylogenetic and ecological factors influencing host-specificity are discussed, and we propose that host colonization could have taken place by host switching of a single laelapid species among rodent species, followed by speciation. PMID:25039004

  2. Averaging and Captive Wildlife.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRosa, Bill; Finch, Patty A.

    1985-01-01

    Offers a teaching technique that proposes to enliven instruction of statistics for mathematics students. This activity focuses on questions and associated calculations pertaining to wildlife in captivity. Directives for the lesson as well as a complete listing of questions and answers on captive wildlife are included. (ML)

  3. Risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive Sapajus spp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive capuchin monkeys at a facility in the northeastern Brazil. Serum samples from 116 bearded capuchin (Sapajus libidinosus), nine blonde capuchin (Sapajus flavius), five black-capped ...

  4. Captive insurance companies.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The landscape of the business world is changing; and now, more than ever, business owners are recognizing that life is filled with risks: known risk, calculated risk, and unexpected risk. Every day, businesses thrive or fail based on understanding the risk of owning and operating their business, and business owners are recognizing that there are alternative risk financing mechanisms other than simply taking out a basket of standard coverage as recommended by your friendly neighborhood agent. A captive insurance company is an insurance company established to provide a broad range of risk management capabilities to affiliated companies. The captive is owned by the business owner and can provide insurance to the business for potential future losses, whether or not the losses are already covered by a commercial carrier or are "self-insured." The premiums paid by your business are tax deductible. Meanwhile, the premiums that your captive collects are tax-free up to $1.2 million annually.

  5. Captive insurance companies.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The landscape of the business world is changing; and now, more than ever, business owners are recognizing that life is filled with risks: known risk, calculated risk, and unexpected risk. Every day, businesses thrive or fail based on understanding the risk of owning and operating their business, and business owners are recognizing that there are alternative risk financing mechanisms other than simply taking out a basket of standard coverage as recommended by your friendly neighborhood agent. A captive insurance company is an insurance company established to provide a broad range of risk management capabilities to affiliated companies. The captive is owned by the business owner and can provide insurance to the business for potential future losses, whether or not the losses are already covered by a commercial carrier or are "self-insured." The premiums paid by your business are tax deductible. Meanwhile, the premiums that your captive collects are tax-free up to $1.2 million annually. PMID:25807627

  6. Captive marsupial nutrition.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Delaney, Cathy A

    2014-09-01

    Marsupials comprise an interesting group of mammals, which are increasingly being kept as pets. Few actual feeding trials have been published, although many anecdotal diets have years of usage with good success. Marsupials have dental and digestive tract adaptations that allow them to use specific niches in their environments. Knowing the diet in the wild is instrumental in designing diets used in captivity.

  7. Captive marsupial nutrition.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Delaney, Cathy A

    2014-09-01

    Marsupials comprise an interesting group of mammals, which are increasingly being kept as pets. Few actual feeding trials have been published, although many anecdotal diets have years of usage with good success. Marsupials have dental and digestive tract adaptations that allow them to use specific niches in their environments. Knowing the diet in the wild is instrumental in designing diets used in captivity. PMID:25155664

  8. Captivity humanizes the primate microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Vangay, Pajau; Huang, Hu; Ward, Tonya; Hillmann, Benjamin M.; Al-Ghalith, Gabriel A.; Travis, Dominic A.; Long, Ha Thang; Tuan, Bui Van; Minh, Vo Van; Cabana, Francis; Nadler, Tilo; Toddes, Barbara; Murphy, Tami; Glander, Kenneth E.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Knights, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The primate gastrointestinal tract is home to trillions of bacteria, whose composition is associated with numerous metabolic, autoimmune, and infectious human diseases. Although there is increasing evidence that modern and Westernized societies are associated with dramatic loss of natural human gut microbiome diversity, the causes and consequences of such loss are challenging to study. Here we use nonhuman primates (NHPs) as a model system for studying the effects of emigration and lifestyle disruption on the human gut microbiome. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing in two model NHP species, we show that although different primate species have distinctive signature microbiota in the wild, in captivity they lose their native microbes and become colonized with Prevotella and Bacteroides, the dominant genera in the modern human gut microbiome. We confirm that captive individuals from eight other NHP species in a different zoo show the same pattern of convergence, and that semicaptive primates housed in a sanctuary represent an intermediate microbiome state between wild and captive. Using deep shotgun sequencing, chemical dietary analysis, and chloroplast relative abundance, we show that decreasing dietary fiber and plant content are associated with the captive primate microbiome. Finally, in a meta-analysis including published human data, we show that captivity has a parallel effect on the NHP gut microbiome to that of Westernization in humans. These results demonstrate that captivity and lifestyle disruption cause primates to lose native microbiota and converge along an axis toward the modern human microbiome. PMID:27573830

  9. Captivity humanizes the primate microbiome.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Jonathan B; Vangay, Pajau; Huang, Hu; Ward, Tonya; Hillmann, Benjamin M; Al-Ghalith, Gabriel A; Travis, Dominic A; Long, Ha Thang; Tuan, Bui Van; Minh, Vo Van; Cabana, Francis; Nadler, Tilo; Toddes, Barbara; Murphy, Tami; Glander, Kenneth E; Johnson, Timothy J; Knights, Dan

    2016-09-13

    The primate gastrointestinal tract is home to trillions of bacteria, whose composition is associated with numerous metabolic, autoimmune, and infectious human diseases. Although there is increasing evidence that modern and Westernized societies are associated with dramatic loss of natural human gut microbiome diversity, the causes and consequences of such loss are challenging to study. Here we use nonhuman primates (NHPs) as a model system for studying the effects of emigration and lifestyle disruption on the human gut microbiome. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing in two model NHP species, we show that although different primate species have distinctive signature microbiota in the wild, in captivity they lose their native microbes and become colonized with Prevotella and Bacteroides, the dominant genera in the modern human gut microbiome. We confirm that captive individuals from eight other NHP species in a different zoo show the same pattern of convergence, and that semicaptive primates housed in a sanctuary represent an intermediate microbiome state between wild and captive. Using deep shotgun sequencing, chemical dietary analysis, and chloroplast relative abundance, we show that decreasing dietary fiber and plant content are associated with the captive primate microbiome. Finally, in a meta-analysis including published human data, we show that captivity has a parallel effect on the NHP gut microbiome to that of Westernization in humans. These results demonstrate that captivity and lifestyle disruption cause primates to lose native microbiota and converge along an axis toward the modern human microbiome. PMID:27573830

  10. Captivity humanizes the primate microbiome.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Jonathan B; Vangay, Pajau; Huang, Hu; Ward, Tonya; Hillmann, Benjamin M; Al-Ghalith, Gabriel A; Travis, Dominic A; Long, Ha Thang; Tuan, Bui Van; Minh, Vo Van; Cabana, Francis; Nadler, Tilo; Toddes, Barbara; Murphy, Tami; Glander, Kenneth E; Johnson, Timothy J; Knights, Dan

    2016-09-13

    The primate gastrointestinal tract is home to trillions of bacteria, whose composition is associated with numerous metabolic, autoimmune, and infectious human diseases. Although there is increasing evidence that modern and Westernized societies are associated with dramatic loss of natural human gut microbiome diversity, the causes and consequences of such loss are challenging to study. Here we use nonhuman primates (NHPs) as a model system for studying the effects of emigration and lifestyle disruption on the human gut microbiome. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing in two model NHP species, we show that although different primate species have distinctive signature microbiota in the wild, in captivity they lose their native microbes and become colonized with Prevotella and Bacteroides, the dominant genera in the modern human gut microbiome. We confirm that captive individuals from eight other NHP species in a different zoo show the same pattern of convergence, and that semicaptive primates housed in a sanctuary represent an intermediate microbiome state between wild and captive. Using deep shotgun sequencing, chemical dietary analysis, and chloroplast relative abundance, we show that decreasing dietary fiber and plant content are associated with the captive primate microbiome. Finally, in a meta-analysis including published human data, we show that captivity has a parallel effect on the NHP gut microbiome to that of Westernization in humans. These results demonstrate that captivity and lifestyle disruption cause primates to lose native microbiota and converge along an axis toward the modern human microbiome.

  11. Phylodynamics of vampire bat-transmitted rabies in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Torres, C; Lema, C; Dohmen, F Gury; Beltran, F; Novaro, L; Russo, S; Freire, M C; Velasco-Villa, A; Mbayed, V A; Cisterna, D M

    2014-05-01

    Common vampire bat populations distributed from Mexico to Argentina are important rabies reservoir hosts in Latin America. The aim of this work was to analyse the population structure of the rabies virus (RABV) variants associated with vampire bats in the Americas and to study their phylodynamic pattern within Argentina. The phylogenetic analysis based on all available vampire bat-related N gene sequences showed both a geographical and a temporal structure. The two largest groups of RABV variants from Argentina were isolated from northwestern Argentina and from the central western zone of northeastern Argentina, corresponding to livestock areas with different climatic, topographic and biogeographical conditions, which determined their dissemination and evolutionary patterns. In addition, multiple introductions of the infection into Argentina, possibly from Brazil, were detected. The phylodynamic analysis suggests that RABV transmission dynamics is characterized by initial epizootic waves followed by local enzootic cycles with variable persistence. Anthropogenic interventions in the ecosystem should be assessed taking into account not only the environmental impact but also the potential risk of disease spreading through dissemination of current RABV lineages or the emergence of novel ones associated with vampire bats.

  12. Phylodynamics of vampire bat-transmitted rabies in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Torres, C; Lema, C; Dohmen, F Gury; Beltran, F; Novaro, L; Russo, S; Freire, M C; Velasco-Villa, A; Mbayed, V A; Cisterna, D M

    2014-05-01

    Common vampire bat populations distributed from Mexico to Argentina are important rabies reservoir hosts in Latin America. The aim of this work was to analyse the population structure of the rabies virus (RABV) variants associated with vampire bats in the Americas and to study their phylodynamic pattern within Argentina. The phylogenetic analysis based on all available vampire bat-related N gene sequences showed both a geographical and a temporal structure. The two largest groups of RABV variants from Argentina were isolated from northwestern Argentina and from the central western zone of northeastern Argentina, corresponding to livestock areas with different climatic, topographic and biogeographical conditions, which determined their dissemination and evolutionary patterns. In addition, multiple introductions of the infection into Argentina, possibly from Brazil, were detected. The phylodynamic analysis suggests that RABV transmission dynamics is characterized by initial epizootic waves followed by local enzootic cycles with variable persistence. Anthropogenic interventions in the ecosystem should be assessed taking into account not only the environmental impact but also the potential risk of disease spreading through dissemination of current RABV lineages or the emergence of novel ones associated with vampire bats. PMID:24661865

  13. Phylodynamics of vampire bat-transmitted rabies in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    DOHMEN, F. GURY; BELTRAN, F.; NOVARO, L.; RUSSO, S.; FREIRE, M. C.; VELASCO-VILLA, A.; MBAYED, V. A.; CISTERNA, D. M.

    2016-01-01

    Common vampire bat populations distributed from Mexico to Argentina are important rabies reservoir hosts in Latin America. The aim of this work was to analyse the population structure of the rabies virus (RABV) variants associated with vampire bats in the Americas and to study their phylodynamic pattern within Argentina. The phylogenetic analysis based on all available vampire bat-related N gene sequences showed both a geographical and a temporal structure. The two largest groups of RABV variants from Argentina were isolated from northwestern Argentina and from the central western zone of northeastern Argentina, corresponding to livestock areas with different climatic, topographic and biogeographical conditions, which determined their dissemination and evolutionary patterns. In addition, multiple introductions of the infection into Argentina, possibly from Brazil, were detected. The phylodynamic analysis suggests that RABV transmission dynamics is characterized by initial epizootic waves followed by local enzootic cycles with variable persistence. Anthropogenic interventions in the ecosystem should be assessed taking into account not only the environmental impact but also the potential risk of disease spreading through dissemination of current RABV lineages or the emergence of novel ones associated with vampire bats. PMID:24661865

  14. Habitat and Grazing Influence on Terrestrial Ants in Subtropical Grasslands and Savannas of Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The maintenance of species diversity in modified and natural habitats is a central focus of conservation biology. The Iberá Nature Reserve (INR) protects highly diverse ecosystems in northeastern Argentina, including one of the largest freshwater wetlands in South America. Livestock grazing is one o...

  15. Molecular detection of the human pathogenic Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest in Amblyomma dubitatum ticks from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Monje, Lucas D; Nava, Santiago; Eberhardt, Ayelen T; Correa, Ana I; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Beldomenico, Pablo M

    2015-02-01

    To date, three tick-borne pathogenic Rickettsia species have been reported in different regions of Argentina, namely, R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, and R. massiliae. However, there are no reports available for the presence of tick-borne pathogens from the northeastern region of Argentina. This study evaluated the infection with Rickettsia species of Amblyomma dubitatum ticks collected from vegetation and feeding from capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in northeastern Argentina. From a total of 374 A. dubitatum ticks collected and evaluated by PCR for the presence of rickettsial DNA, 19 were positive for the presence of Rickettsia bellii DNA, two were positive for Rickettsia sp. strain COOPERI, and one was positive for the pathogenic Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest. To our knowledge, this study is the first report of the presence of the human pathogen Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest and Rickettsia sp. strain COOPERI in Argentina. Moreover, our findings posit A. dubitatum as a potential vector for this pathogenic strain of Rickettsia.

  16. Northeastern Exterior, Northwestern Exterior, & Southwestern Exterior Elevations, Northeastern Interior, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northeastern Exterior, Northwestern Exterior, & Southwestern Exterior Elevations, Northeastern Interior, Southeastern Interior, & Southwestern Interior Elevations, Floor Plan, and Eastern Corner Detail - Manatoc Reservation, Vale Edge Adirondack, 1075 Truxell Road, Peninsula, Summit County, OH

  17. Oral health correlates of captivity.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Varsha; Antonelli, Tyler; Parkinson, Jennifer A; Hartstone-Rose, Adam

    2016-08-01

    The predominant diet fed to captive carnivores in North America consists of ground meat formulated to provide full nutritional requirements. However, this ground meat diet completely lacks the mechanical properties (i.e., toughness and hardness) of the foods these animals would consume in the wild. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of captivity on oral health by comparing the prevalence of periodontal disease and dental calculus accumulation in wild and captive lions and tigers (Panthera leo and Panthera tigris), and to also correlate oral health with cranial morphology in these specimens. To achieve this, 34 adult lion and 29 adult tiger skulls were scored for the presence and extent of dental calculus and periodontal disease. These oral health scores were also compared to cranial deformations examined in a previous study. We found that the occurrence and severity of calculus buildup and periodontal disease was significantly higher in captive felids compared to their wild counterparts. Further, higher calculus accumulation occurred on the posterior teeth when compared to the anterior teeth, while an opposite trend for periodontal disease was observed. We also found a significant correlation between oral health and cranial morphology of lions and tigers. The results suggest that food mechanical properties are significant factors contributing to oral health in felids. PMID:27473998

  18. Oral health correlates of captivity.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Varsha; Antonelli, Tyler; Parkinson, Jennifer A; Hartstone-Rose, Adam

    2016-08-01

    The predominant diet fed to captive carnivores in North America consists of ground meat formulated to provide full nutritional requirements. However, this ground meat diet completely lacks the mechanical properties (i.e., toughness and hardness) of the foods these animals would consume in the wild. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of captivity on oral health by comparing the prevalence of periodontal disease and dental calculus accumulation in wild and captive lions and tigers (Panthera leo and Panthera tigris), and to also correlate oral health with cranial morphology in these specimens. To achieve this, 34 adult lion and 29 adult tiger skulls were scored for the presence and extent of dental calculus and periodontal disease. These oral health scores were also compared to cranial deformations examined in a previous study. We found that the occurrence and severity of calculus buildup and periodontal disease was significantly higher in captive felids compared to their wild counterparts. Further, higher calculus accumulation occurred on the posterior teeth when compared to the anterior teeth, while an opposite trend for periodontal disease was observed. We also found a significant correlation between oral health and cranial morphology of lions and tigers. The results suggest that food mechanical properties are significant factors contributing to oral health in felids.

  19. Physical Education and Captive Wildlife.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Vicki

    1985-01-01

    Presents a simulation game that can be incorporated into physical education classes for intermediate and junior high school students. The lesson, titled "The Capture Game," focuses on the problems of capture, transportation, and captivity of wild animals. Background information, teacher preparation suggestions, student activity and wrap-up…

  20. SEROPREVALENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN CAPTIVE ANTILLEAN MANATEE (TRICHECHUS MANATUS MANATUS) IN BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Attademo, Fernanda L N; Ribeiro, Vanessa O; Soares, Herbert S; Luna, Fábia O; Sousa, Glaucia P; Freire, Augusto C B; Gennari, Solange M; Alves, Leucio C; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Dubey, Jitender P; Silva, Jean C R

    2016-06-01

    Antillean manatees ( Trichechus manatus manatus) are aquatic mammals that inhabit marine waters from Central America to the northeastern region of Brazil, and they are an endangered species. Infection with Toxoplasma gondii through intake of water or food contaminated with oocysts has been reported among marine mammals. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii in West Indian manatees living in captivity in northeastern Brazil. Serum samples from 55 West Indian manatees from three different captive groups were tested for T. gondii antibodies by means of the modified agglutination test using a cutoff of 1:25. The samples were screened at dilutions of 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500, and positive samples were end-titrated using twofold serial dilutions; antibodies were found in six Antillean manatees (10.9%) with titers of 1:50 in three, 1:500 in one, 1:3,200 in one, and 1:51,200 in one manatee. This study is the first report of T. gondii antibodies in captive Antillean manatees in Brazil.

  1. SEROPREVALENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN CAPTIVE ANTILLEAN MANATEE (TRICHECHUS MANATUS MANATUS) IN BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Attademo, Fernanda L N; Ribeiro, Vanessa O; Soares, Herbert S; Luna, Fábia O; Sousa, Glaucia P; Freire, Augusto C B; Gennari, Solange M; Alves, Leucio C; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Dubey, Jitender P; Silva, Jean C R

    2016-06-01

    Antillean manatees ( Trichechus manatus manatus) are aquatic mammals that inhabit marine waters from Central America to the northeastern region of Brazil, and they are an endangered species. Infection with Toxoplasma gondii through intake of water or food contaminated with oocysts has been reported among marine mammals. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii in West Indian manatees living in captivity in northeastern Brazil. Serum samples from 55 West Indian manatees from three different captive groups were tested for T. gondii antibodies by means of the modified agglutination test using a cutoff of 1:25. The samples were screened at dilutions of 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500, and positive samples were end-titrated using twofold serial dilutions; antibodies were found in six Antillean manatees (10.9%) with titers of 1:50 in three, 1:500 in one, 1:3,200 in one, and 1:51,200 in one manatee. This study is the first report of T. gondii antibodies in captive Antillean manatees in Brazil. PMID:27468012

  2. Rotary peening with captive shot

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    Roto Peen with captive shot removes coatings and surface contamination from concrete floors. The objective of treating radioactively contaminated concrete floors during the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D and D) process is to reduce the surface contamination levels to meet regulatory criteria for unrestricted use. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Chicago Operations office and DOE`s Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) jointly sponsored a Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) at the Chicago Pile-5 Research Reactor (CP-5) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL). The objective of the LSDP is to demonstrate potentially beneficial D and D technologies in comparison with current baseline technologies. As part of the LSDP, roto Peen with captive shot was demonstrated March 17--20, 1997, to treat a 20 x 25 ft area of radioactively contaminated concrete floor on the service level of the CP-5 building.

  3. Captive care and welfare considerations for beavers.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Palmer, Róisín; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Beavers (Castor spp.) tend not to be a commonly held species and little published material exists relating to their captive care. We review published material and discuss husbandry issues taking into account the requirements of wild beavers. As social mammals with complex chemical communication systems and with such an ability to modify their environments, studies of wild counterparts suggest the captive requirements of beavers may actually be more sophisticated than generally perceived. Common field techniques may have practical application in the captive setting. Their widespread utilisation in conservation, including reintroductions, translocations and habitat management, also requires components of captive care. As welfare science advances there is increasing pressure on captive collections to improve standards and justify the keeping of animals. Conservation science is increasingly challenged to address individual welfare standards. Further research focusing on the captive care of beavers is required. PMID:25653085

  4. Reproductive management of captive parrots.

    PubMed

    Millam, J R

    1999-01-01

    Studies of the behavior of Amazon parrots throughout a reproductive trial indicate that activities such as food gathering, which may occupy large fractions of the activity budget of wild parrots, occupy little time in captivity. This may be one factor contributing to the large percentage of time during which Amazon parrots are generally inactive in typical captive conditions. The extent of inactivity in captive Amazons creates an open time niche wherein enrichment devices might play a role in improving their well being. Studies of the reproductive endocrinology and the behavior of parrots suggest that hand rearing may impair adult fertility and nest box use. Hand rearing may also cause adult Cockatiels to lay eggs on cage floors rather than in nest boxes. However, the use of nest boxes with oversized nest entrances can be very effective in alleviating chronic floor laying in Cockatiels. Another egg-laying problem in Cockatiels, unwanted egg laying, can be prevented by the use of long-acting formulations of the superactive GnRH agonist, leuprolide acetate, which presumably [figure: see text] acts in birds, as in mammals, by down-regulating pituitary GnRH receptors. Manipulations to limit the increases in prolactin normally seen during incubation in poultry can significantly increase egg production. As clutch size in Cockatiels may also be limited by rising prolactin levels, such manipulations may be effective in stimulating egg production in parrots. An alternative approach for increasing flock egg production is to place foster eggs in nests of Cockatiel pairs that are slow to lay. This technique stimulates males to increase their nest-oriented behavior and, subsequently, may stimulate egg laying in some females that might not otherwise have laid eggs. The parental phases of reproduction in Amazon parrots are often a time of heightened aggressiveness towards humans, but low levels of serum testosterone in males during that time suggest that this particular

  5. Ground Ant Diversity (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Iberá Nature Reserve, the Largest Wetland of Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Iberá Nature Reserve in northeastern Argentina protects one of the largest freshwater wetlands and reservoirs of species in South America. However, key invertebrate groups such as the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) remain almost unknown. The main objective of this work was to study the ground an...

  6. Dengue reemergence in Argentina.

    PubMed Central

    Avilés, G.; Rangeón, G.; Vorndam, V.; Briones, A.; Baroni, P.; Enria, D.; Sabattini, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, eradicated from Argentina in 1963, has now reinfested the country as far south as Buenos Aires. In 1997, four persons with travel histories to Brazil, Ecuador, or Venezuela had confirmed dengue, and surveillance for indigenous transmission allowed the detection of 19 dengue cases in Salta Province. These cases of dengue are the first in Argentina since 1916 and represent a new southern extension of dengue virus. PMID:10460181

  7. 77 FR 42941 - Captive Nations Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... States of America the two hundred and thirty-seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-17948 Filed 7-19... July 20, 2012 Part VI The President Proclamation 8841--Captive Nations Week, 2012 Memorandum of July 11... President ] Proclamation 8841 of July 16, 2012 Captive Nations Week, 2012 By the President of the...

  8. Human colonization of the central territory of Argentina: design matrix models and craniometric evidence.

    PubMed

    Fabra, Mariana; Laguens, Andrés G; Demarchi, Darío A

    2007-08-01

    In this study we test several hypotheses about the peopling of the central territory of Argentina, archaeologically known as Sierras Centrales, by testing the association between four alternative models of the peopling of the area and cranial morphological variation through distance and matrix correlation analyses. Our results show that the ancient inhabitants of Sierras Centrales demonstrated close morphological similarities with the Patagonian and Tierra del Fuego populations. Moreover, the correlation and partial correlation analyses suggest that the peopling of the Sierras Centrales most likely took place as a migratory wave proceeding from the present area of Northeastern Argentina, and continued southward to Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.

  9. Captive-breeding of captive and wild-reared Gunnison sage-grouse.

    PubMed

    Apa, Anthony D; Wiechman, Lief A

    2016-01-01

    Gunnison sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus) distribution in North America has decreased over historical accounts and has received federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. We investigated captive-breeding of a captive-flock of Gunnison sage-grouse created from individuals reared in captivity from wild-collected eggs we artificially incubated. We also introduced wild-reared individuals into captivity. Our captive-flock successfully bred and produced fertile eggs. We controlled the timing and duration of male-female breeding interactions and facilitated a semi-natural mating regime. Males established a strutting ground in captivity that females attended for mate selection. In 2010, we allowed females to establish eight nests, incubate, and hatch eggs. Females in captivity were more successful incubating nests than raising broods. Although there are many technical, financial, and logistic issues associated with captive-breeding, we recommend that federal biologists and managers work collaboratively with state wildlife agencies and consider developing a captive-flock as part of a comprehensive conservation strategy for a conservation-reliant species like the Gunnison sage-grouse. The progeny produced from a captive-rearing program could assist in the recovery if innovative approaches to translocation are part of a comprehensive proactive conservation program.

  10. Captive-breeding of captive and wild-reared Gunnison sage-grouse.

    PubMed

    Apa, Anthony D; Wiechman, Lief A

    2016-01-01

    Gunnison sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus) distribution in North America has decreased over historical accounts and has received federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. We investigated captive-breeding of a captive-flock of Gunnison sage-grouse created from individuals reared in captivity from wild-collected eggs we artificially incubated. We also introduced wild-reared individuals into captivity. Our captive-flock successfully bred and produced fertile eggs. We controlled the timing and duration of male-female breeding interactions and facilitated a semi-natural mating regime. Males established a strutting ground in captivity that females attended for mate selection. In 2010, we allowed females to establish eight nests, incubate, and hatch eggs. Females in captivity were more successful incubating nests than raising broods. Although there are many technical, financial, and logistic issues associated with captive-breeding, we recommend that federal biologists and managers work collaboratively with state wildlife agencies and consider developing a captive-flock as part of a comprehensive conservation strategy for a conservation-reliant species like the Gunnison sage-grouse. The progeny produced from a captive-rearing program could assist in the recovery if innovative approaches to translocation are part of a comprehensive proactive conservation program. PMID:26598960

  11. Florida Community Colleges Argentina Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcombe, Willis; Greene, William

    1996-01-01

    Describes the origins of the Florida community colleges' Argentina Project, which sent a delegation of representatives to Argentina in 1992 to describe the community college system as a model for educational reform in the country. Describes changes in Argentina since 1989 regarding the political climate and reviews recent educational reforms in…

  12. Observations of captive Rocky Mountain mule deer behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Halford, D.K.; Arthur, W.J. III; Alldredge, A.W.

    1987-01-31

    Observations were made near Fort Collins, Colorado on the behavior of a captive herd of Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus). Comparisons in general behavior patterns were made between captive and wild deer. Similar behavior was exhibited by captive and wild deer. Captive deer (as well as other species) may be useful for study of certain behavioral aspects of their wild counterparts.

  13. Reproductive patterns in captive American kestrels (sparrow hawks)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, Ron; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    1972-01-01

    Female kestrels acquired in Florida in winter as full-grown birds began laying eggs a month later than did those acquired as nestlings from northeastern United States. Egg laying dates of the two groups did not overlap in 1966 through 1968. The later nesting Florida-wintering females may have nested in captivity at a latitude farther south of their normal breeding range than did those from the Northeast. There was an apparent trend of earlier laying in successive years between 1965 and 1968 in our captive birds.....Time intervals between pairing of previously unpaired kestrels and initiation of their first clutches ranged from 8 to 17 days; time intervals between removal of first-clutch eggs and initiation of second clutches for kestrels whose first clutches failed to hatch ranged frosm 11 to 16 days, with the exception of an apparent anomaly of 40 days. Some females laid second clutches prior to fledging of first-clutch young. The egg laying interval averaged 2.4 days, and appeared to be greater between the first two and last two eggs of the clutch than between intervening eggs. Egg sizes differed only slightly between age groups, and no statistical correlation was evident between weights of female kestrels and the size of their eggs.....Although both sexes incubated the eggs, the female assumed a much greater role than the male. Incubation of clutches of five eggs usually began with the laying of the fourth egg. The incubation period (last egg laid to last egg hatched) averaged 27 days. The average interval between hatching of the first and last eggs of clutches containing five eggs was two days.....The average nestling period for the first young hatched in 29 nests was 28.4 days. An exact 1:l secondary sex ratio was recorded in 1967 for complete clutches in which all young fledged.

  14. Genetic diversity and conservation status of managed vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) populations in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Anello, M; Daverio, M S; Romero, S R; Rigalt, F; Silbestro, M B; Vidal-Rioja, L; Di Rocco, F

    2016-02-01

    The vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) was indiscriminately hunted for more than 400 years and, by the end of 1960s, it was seriously endangered. At that time, a captive breeding program was initiated in Argentina by the National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA) with the aim of preserving the species. Nowadays, vicuñas are managed in captivity and in the wild to obtain their valuable fiber. The current genetic status of Argentinean vicuña populations is virtually unknown. Using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers, we assessed levels of genetic diversity of vicuña populations managed in the wild and compared it with a captive population from INTA. Furthermore, we examined levels of genetic structure and evidence for historical bottlenecks. Overall, all populations revealed high genetic variability with no signs of inbreeding. Levels of genetic diversity between captive and wild populations were not significantly different, although the captive population showed the lowest estimates of allelic richness, number of mitochondrial haplotypes, and haplotype diversity. Significant genetic differentiation at microsatellite markers was found between free-living populations from Jujuy and Catamarca provinces. Moreover, microsatellite data also revealed genetic structure within the Catamarca management area. Genetic signatures of past bottlenecks were detected in wild populations by the Garza Williamson test. Results from this study are discussed in relation to the conservation and management of the species.

  15. Chromosome comparison between populations of the collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu, raised in captivity.

    PubMed

    Carvalho de Souza, Patrícia; Khayat, André Salim; Seligmann, Igor Chamon; Rodríguez Burbano, Rommel Mario

    2008-08-01

    The collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) is widely distributed over the American continent, being found from the south of the USA to the north of Argentina. In Brazil, it is spread all over the country, being one of the potential species to be raised in captivity. Therefore, the cytogenetic techniques could be a potential tool for reproductive monitoring of animals raised in captivity, mainly when destined for commercial purposes. This study had the objective of determining the chromosome number of two populations raised in captivity and characterizing them by GTG banding. For this purpose, an analysis was made of mitotic metaphases obtained from lymphocyte cultures made from blood samples of 11 animals, six of which from the Northeast and five from the North of Brazil. The results of this analysis showed the same karyotype pattern for the species (2n=30 chromosomes and NF=48), besides corresponding to the South American pattern of the species, i.e., without a translocation between autosomes 1 and 8, chromosome X acrocentric, and no differences were found between the two populations studied. However, chromosomal polymorphisms were observed compared to data from the literature on populations from North and South America.

  16. Genetic analysis of captive proboscis monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Mitsuaki; Seino, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Information on the genetic relationships of captive founders is important for captive population management. In this study, we investigated DNA polymorphisms of four microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial control region sequence of five proboscis monkeys residing in a Japanese zoo as captive founders, to clarify their genetic relationship. We found that two of the five monkeys appeared to be genetically related. Furthermore, the haplotypes of the mitochondrial control region of the five monkeys were well differentiated from the haplotypes previously reported from wild populations from the northern area of Borneo, indicating a greater amount of genetic diversity in proboscis monkeys than previously reported. PMID:25266590

  17. Genetic analysis of captive proboscis monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Mitsuaki; Seino, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Information on the genetic relationships of captive founders is important for captive population management. In this study, we investigated DNA polymorphisms of four microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial control region sequence of five proboscis monkeys residing in a Japanese zoo as captive founders, to clarify their genetic relationship. We found that two of the five monkeys appeared to be genetically related. Furthermore, the haplotypes of the mitochondrial control region of the five monkeys were well differentiated from the haplotypes previously reported from wild populations from the northern area of Borneo, indicating a greater amount of genetic diversity in proboscis monkeys than previously reported.

  18. Photovoltaic development in Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrin, E.M.; Duran, J.C.; Frigerio, A.; Moragues, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    A critical assessment of the photovoltaic program in Argentina is presented. Research and development activities on photovoltaic cells as well as industrial and technological development are still in the initial stages. Activities accomplished by the Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) and the Institute of Technology Development for the Chemical industry (INTEC) are briefly described. The evolution of photovoltaic installations in Argentina is analyzed and accumulative data up to 1993 are given. A summary of the potential market for photovoltaic systems in the short and medium term is presented.

  19. Astronomy in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muriel, Hernan

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses the current state of Astronomy in Argentina and describes its origins. We briefly describe the institutions where astronomical research takes place, the observational facilities available, the training of staff and professionals, and the role of the institutions in scientific promotion. We also discuss the outreach of Astronomy towards the general public, as well as amateur activities. The article ends with an analysis of the future prospects of astronomy in Argentina. Although we have tried to be as objective as possible, some statements inevitably contain some personal views.

  20. CCP: Sierra Nevada Captive-Carry Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) Space System's Dream Chaser design passed one of its most complex tests to date with a successful captive-carry test conducted near the Rocky Mountain Metropolitan A...

  1. Systemic toxoplasmosis in captive flying-foxes.

    PubMed

    Sangster, C R; Gordon, A N; Hayes, D

    2012-04-01

    Systemic toxoplasmosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii was diagnosed in two juvenile, captive flying-foxes (Pteropus conspicillatus and P. scapulatus), which died following respiratory distress. One animal displayed clinical signs suggestive of neurological disease. This is the first report of this disease in megachiropteran bats and adds to the list of differential diagnoses for both systemic and neurological disease in these animals. The role of captivity in the exposure and development of the disease is discussed. PMID:22443329

  2. A lab in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-06-01

    Mauricio Erben, a researcher at the National University of La Plata and the National Scientific and Technical Research Council, talks to Nature Chemistry about his experience of research in Argentina, and how it is inherently linked to the country's political climate.

  3. English Teaching in Argentina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arazi, Blanca

    2002-01-01

    Examines the teaching of English in Argentina, a country that has had a myriad of English language teaching activities at all levels for many decades--mostly in British English. Looks at English in binational centers, in schools, and at the university level; methodological approach; language assessment; teacher training; and the current economic…

  4. Tidal power in Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Aisiks, E.G.

    1993-03-01

    This presentation describes the tidal power potential of Argentina and the current status of its utilization. The topics of the presentation include tidal power potential, electric production of the region and the Argentine share of production and consumption, conventional hydroelectric potential, economic feasibility of tidal power production, and the general design and feasibility of a tidal power plant planned for the San Jose Gulf.

  5. Mathematics Education in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varsavsky, Cristina; Anaya, Marta

    2009-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the state of mathematics education in Argentina across all levels, in the regional and world contexts. Statistics are drawn from Mercosur and UNESCO data bases, World Education Indicators and various national time-series government reports. Mathematics results in national testing programmes, Programme for…

  6. Irrigation in northeastern Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lang, J.W.; Boswell, E.H.

    1957-01-01

    The phenomenal increase in the use of water for agriculture, industry, and public water supply in the past few years has been an important factor in bringing about the current accelerated inventory and appraisal of the water resources of Mississippi. As a result of severe droughts during the past several years, and of the favorable results of experiments, the water resources of northeastern Mississippi today are rapidly being developed for irrigation. Records have shown that even during years of normal rainfall the distribution of the rain usually is such that supplementary irrigation can be profitably practiced on almost any crop. Although in northeaster Mississippi the annual precipitation generally is enough to support crops and pasture, short periods of drought are common. Supplemental irrigation protects against the periods of drought during the growing season and increases the yield and quality of crops.

  7. Review of the Eulimnadia (Branchiopoda: Spinicaudata: Limnadiidae) from Argentina with the description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Marinone, María Cristina; Urcola, Juan Ignacio; Rabet, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    A new spinicaudatan species, Eulimnadia pampa sp. nov., is described from Argentina mostly based on the differential egg morphology. This species was collected from rainwater pools from Buenos Aires City and the provinces of Buenos Aires and Entre Ríos, and compared to other Neotropical species. Previous Argentine record of E. brasiliensis is shown to belong to our new species, which represents the southernmost Neotropical Eulimnadia. We also present new records of the Paraguayan Eulimnadia ovisimilis Martin and Belk, 1989 from northeastern Argentina. Eulimnadia santiaguensis is treated as a species inquirenda, thus we recognize only three Eulimnadia species in Argentina: E. pampa sp. nov., E. ovilunata and E. ovisimilis, and we provide a brief indentification key. We present the first description and SEM images of the putative Eulimnadia spermatophore, which we found in the new species. PMID:27615894

  8. A Mycoplasma species of Emydidae turtles in the northeastern USA.

    PubMed

    Ossiboff, Robert J; Raphael, Bonnie L; Ammazzalorso, Alyssa D; Seimon, Tracie A; Niederriter, Holly; Zarate, Brian; Newton, Alisa L; McAloose, Denise

    2015-04-01

    Mycoplasma infections can cause significant morbidity and mortality in captive and wild chelonians. As part of a health assessment of endangered bog turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) in the northeastern US, choanal and cloacal swabs from these and other sympatric species, including spotted turtles (Clemmys guttata), eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina), wood turtles (Glyptemys insculpta), and common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from 10 sampling sites in the states (US) of Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, were tested by PCR for Mycoplasma. Of 108 turtles tested, 63 (58.3%) were PCR positive for Mycoplasma including 58 of 83 bog turtles (70%), three of three (100%) eastern box turtles, and two of 11 (18%) spotted turtles; all snapping turtles (n = 7) and wood turtles (n = 4) were negative. Sequence analysis of portions of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region and the 16S ribosomal RNA gene revealed a single, unclassified species of Mycoplasma that has been previously reported in eastern box turtles, ornate box turtles (Terrapene ornata ornata), western pond turtles (Emys marmorata), and red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans). We document a high incidence of Mycoplasma, in the absence of clinical disease, in wild emydid turtles. These findings, along with wide distribution of the identified Mycoplasma sp. across a broad geographic region, suggest this bacterium is likely a commensal inhabitant of bog turtles, and possibly other species of emydid turtles, in the northeastern US.

  9. A Mycoplasma species of Emydidae turtles in the northeastern USA.

    PubMed

    Ossiboff, Robert J; Raphael, Bonnie L; Ammazzalorso, Alyssa D; Seimon, Tracie A; Niederriter, Holly; Zarate, Brian; Newton, Alisa L; McAloose, Denise

    2015-04-01

    Mycoplasma infections can cause significant morbidity and mortality in captive and wild chelonians. As part of a health assessment of endangered bog turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) in the northeastern US, choanal and cloacal swabs from these and other sympatric species, including spotted turtles (Clemmys guttata), eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina), wood turtles (Glyptemys insculpta), and common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from 10 sampling sites in the states (US) of Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, were tested by PCR for Mycoplasma. Of 108 turtles tested, 63 (58.3%) were PCR positive for Mycoplasma including 58 of 83 bog turtles (70%), three of three (100%) eastern box turtles, and two of 11 (18%) spotted turtles; all snapping turtles (n = 7) and wood turtles (n = 4) were negative. Sequence analysis of portions of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region and the 16S ribosomal RNA gene revealed a single, unclassified species of Mycoplasma that has been previously reported in eastern box turtles, ornate box turtles (Terrapene ornata ornata), western pond turtles (Emys marmorata), and red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans). We document a high incidence of Mycoplasma, in the absence of clinical disease, in wild emydid turtles. These findings, along with wide distribution of the identified Mycoplasma sp. across a broad geographic region, suggest this bacterium is likely a commensal inhabitant of bog turtles, and possibly other species of emydid turtles, in the northeastern US. PMID:25574806

  10. Eye preferences in captive chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Braccini, Stephanie N; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2012-09-01

    Over the last century, the issue of brain lateralization in primates has been extensively investigated and debated, yet no previous study has reported eye preference in great apes. This study examined eye preference in 45 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in response to various stimuli. Eye preference was assessed when animals looked through a hole that only accommodated one eye at an empty box, a mirror, a picture of a dog, a rubber snake, food biscuits, bananas, a rubber duck, and a video camera. Main effects of stimulus type were found for direction of eye preference, number of looks, and looking duration, but not for strength of eye preference. A left-eye bias was found for viewing the rubber snake and a right-eye bias was found for viewing the bananas, supporting theories that emotional valence may affect lateralized behaviors. In addition, a significant shift in eye preference took place from the initial look to subsequent looks when viewing the snake. These results are not consistent with previous reports of human eye preference and may reflect lateralization differences for emotional processing. No relationship between eye preference and previously recorded hand preference was found. PMID:22733385

  11. Propagation of captive American kestrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, Ron; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    1970-01-01

    A colony of kestrels (Palco sparverius) was established at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in 1964 in connection with work on pesticides. The kestrels were acquired from the wild, both as nestlings and as full-grown birds, and were housed in several rows of outdoor pens. Each 50 x 20 ft pen was covered with wire netting and had its long sides in common with adjacent pens. During the first two reproductive seasons, untreated parent birds (dosed birds are not included in this paper) ate eggs and young. Cannibalism virtually ceased after the diet was changed from ground beef or horsemeat supplemented with liver, vitamins, and minerals to one containing a finely ground mixture of laboratory rodents, chicken heads, skinned chicken necks, and supplements; hatching success thereafter generally equalled that of a wild population. In 1967, 16 pairs of untreated hawks (3-year-old females) laid clutches averaging 4.9 eggs, hatched 88 percent of their eggs, and fledged 88 percent of their young. In 1968, 10 pairs of this group (4-year-old females) laid clutches averaging 4.9 eggs, hatched 51 percent of their eggs, and fledged 85 percent of their young. Nine yearling pairs (hatched in captivity) laid clutches in 1968 averaging 5.1 eggs, hatched 87 percent of their eggs, and fledged all of their young.

  12. Neotectonics in northeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezerra, Francisco Hilario Rego

    The thesis describes neotectonic deformation in the continental intraplate region of northeastern Brazil and explores its links with modern seismicity. The region, which is under E-W-oriented compression and N-S-oriented extension, shows shallow earthquake swarms which last for several years and include 5.0-5.2 mb events. Remote sensing, borehole and geophysical data, in conjunction with field structural information, indicate a continuous faulting process since the Miocene which has reactivated Cretaceous faults and Precambrian shear zones or in places generated new faults which cut across existing structures. Three main sets of faults are recognised across the area: a NE-striking set, a NW-striking set and a N-striking set. The first and the second sets are pervasive and their cross-cutting relationships show that they locally form a conjugate set and display both a strike-slip and a dip-slip component of movement. They have generated troughs filled by as much as 260 m of Cainozoic sediments. Radiocarbon dating shows that some of the faults slipped as recently as 4,041-3,689 cal. yr BP. Although the elevation of coastal deposits is consistent with the predictions of glacioisostatic models for the area, tectonic influence can be detected notably near the Carnaubais fault, where rapid emergence by at least 5 m to the east of Sao Bento occurred 4,080-2,780 cal. yr BP. Secondary ground failure, which includes hydroplastic deformation, liquefaction and landslides, can be seen in Quaternary alluvial sediments and is reported in the historical record. The present data show that the potential for large earthquakes in northeastern Brazil has been underestimated. Empirical relationships using liquefaction and surface rupture point to events of at least Ms=6.8 compared to a maximum mb = 5.2 recorded instrumentally. The finding that NE- and NW-trending faults are favourably orientated for reactivation in relation to the current stress field is of potential value for seismic

  13. Air Pollution Potential: Regional Study in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gassmann; Mazzeo

    2000-04-01

    / Air pollution potential is a measure of the atmospheric conditions that are unable to transport and dilute pollutants into the air, independently of the existence of sources. This potential can be determined from two atmospheric parameters: mixing height and transport wind. In this paper a statistical analysis of the mixing height and transport wind, in order to determine the areas with high or poor atmospheric ventilation in Argentina, is presented. In order to achieve this, meteorological data registered during 1979-1982 at eight meteorological stations were used. Daily values of the maximum mixing height were calculated from observations of daily temperatures at different heights and maximum surface temperature. At the same time as the maximum mixing height, the values of the transport wind were determined from the surface windspeed and the characteristics of the ground in the surroundings of each meteorological station. The mean seasonal values for both parameters were obtained. Isopleths of the mean seasonal of the maximum mixing heights were drawn. The percentage of seasonal frequencies of poor ventilation conditions were calculated and the frequency isopleths were also drawn to determine areas with minor and major relative frequencies. It was found that the northeastern and central-eastern regions of Argentina had a high air pollution potential during the whole year. Unfavorable atmospheric ventilation conditions were also found in the central-western side of the country during the cold seasons (37.5% in autumn and 56.9% in winter). The region with the greatest atmospheric ventilation is located south of 40 degrees S, where the frequency of poor ventilation varies between 8.0% in summer and 10.8% in winter.

  14. Rickettsia parkeri Rickettsiosis, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Seijo, Alfredo C.; Crudo, Favio; Nicholson, William L.; Varela-Stokes, Andrea; Lash, R. Ryan; Paddock, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    Rickettsia parkeri, a recently identified cause of spotted fever rickettsiosis in the United States, has been found in Amblyomma triste ticks in several countries of South America, including Argentina, where it is believed to cause disease in humans. We describe the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of 2 patients in Argentina with confirmed R. parkeri infection and 7 additional patients with suspected R. parkeri rickettsiosis identified at 1 hospital during 2004–2009. The frequency and character of clinical signs and symptoms among these 9 patients closely resembled those described for patients in the United States (presence of an inoculation eschar, maculopapular rash often associated with pustules or vesicles, infrequent gastrointestinal manifestations, and relatively benign clinical course). Many R. parkeri infections in South America are likely to be misdiagnosed as other infectious diseases, including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, dengue, or leptospirosis. PMID:21762568

  15. Rickettsia parkeri Rickettsiosis, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Romer, Yamila; Seijo, Alfredo C; Crudo, Favio; Nicholson, William L; Varela-Stokes, Andrea; Lash, R Ryan; Paddock, Christopher D

    2011-07-01

    Rickettsia parkeri, a recently identified cause of spotted fever rickettsiosis in the United States, has been found in Amblyomma triste ticks in several countries of South America, including Argentina, where it is believed to cause disease in humans. We describe the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of 2 patients in Argentina with confirmed R. parkeri infection and 7 additional patients with suspected R. parkeri rickettsiosis identified at 1 hospital during 2004-2009. The frequency and character of clinical signs and symptoms among these 9 patients closely resembled those described for patients in the United States (presence of an inoculation eschar, maculopapular rash often associated with pustules or vesicles, infrequent gastrointestinal manifestations, and relatively benign clinical course). Many R. parkeri infections in South America are likely to be misdiagnosed as other infectious diseases, including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, dengue, or leptospirosis.

  16. The survival of platypuses in captivity.

    PubMed

    Whittington, R J

    1991-01-01

    Data are presented on the duration of survival of 228 platypuses at six Australian zoos between 1934 and 1988. Only 22.4% of all platypuses survived more than 1 year in captivity. Of 15 living platypuses, 3 had been held in captivity for less than 1 year, 5 for between 1 and 5 years, 6 for between 5 and 10 years and 1 for 21 years. Of 213 platypuses that died in captivity, 81.7% had died within 1 year; most within the first month. The duration of survival was unrelated to the age of animals at acquisition or to sex. The survival rate of animals donated to zoos, including "refugees", was similar to that of purpose-caught animals. Clearly, only a small proportion of platypuses adapted to captive husbandry. The cause of death of most platypuses was not established. However, infectious disease did not appear to be significant. Approximately 28% of deaths were related to inadequate husbandry. Recommendations are made to improve the survival of platypuses in captivity. Research has commenced in zoos to facilitate this goal.

  17. Captive Conditions of Pet Lemurs in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Kim E; Schaefer, Melissa S

    2016-01-01

    Live extraction of wildlife is a threat to biodiversity and can compromise animal welfare standards. Studies of the captive environments and welfare of pet primates are known, but none has focused on Madagascar. We aimed to expand knowledge about the captive conditions of pet lemurs in Madagascar. We hypothesized that captive lemurs would often be kept in restrictive settings, including small cages, would be fed foods inconsistent with their natural diets and, as a result, would be in bad physical or psychological health. Data were collected via a web-based survey (n = 253 reports) and from the websites and social media pages of 25 hotels. Most lemurs seen by respondents were either kept on a rope/leash/chain or in a cage (67%), though some lemurs were habituated and were not restrained (28%). Most of the time (72%) cages were considered small, and lemurs were rarely kept in captivity together with other lemurs (81% of lemurs were caged alone). Pet lemurs were often fed foods inconsistent with their natural diets, and most (53%) were described as being in bad health. These findings point to a need to undertake outreach to pet lemur owners in Madagascar about the captivity requirements of primates. PMID:27092548

  18. Andes Altiplano, Northwest, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This view of the Andean Altiplano in northwest Argentina (25.5S, 68.0W) is dominated by heavily eroded older and inactive volcano peaks. Snow is more apparent on the south faces of the slopes where the sunlight is less direct and therefore, cooler. The Altiplano is a high altitude cold desert like the Tibetan Plateau but smaller in area. It is the inland extension of the hyperarid Atacama Desert of the west coast of South America.

  19. Argentina soybean yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate soybean yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the soybean growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation and monthly average temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1969 to 1978 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

  20. Argentina corn yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate corn yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the corn-growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1965 to 1980 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

  1. 22 CFR 192.42 - Applicable benefits for captives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applicable benefits for captives. 192.42 Section 192.42 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Educational Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.42 Applicable benefits for captives. (a) When authorized...

  2. 22 CFR 192.42 - Applicable benefits for captives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applicable benefits for captives. 192.42 Section 192.42 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Educational Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.42 Applicable benefits for captives. (a) When authorized...

  3. 22 CFR 192.42 - Applicable benefits for captives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applicable benefits for captives. 192.42 Section 192.42 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Educational Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.42 Applicable benefits for captives. (a) When authorized...

  4. 22 CFR 192.42 - Applicable benefits for captives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applicable benefits for captives. 192.42 Section 192.42 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Educational Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.42 Applicable benefits for captives. (a) When authorized...

  5. 22 CFR 192.42 - Applicable benefits for captives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicable benefits for captives. 192.42 Section 192.42 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Educational Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.42 Applicable benefits for captives. (a) When authorized...

  6. MISR Images Northeastern Botswana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    MISR images of the Ntwetwe and Sua Pans in northeastern Botswana, acquired on August 18, 2000 (Terra orbit 3553). The left image is a color view from the vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. On the right is a composite of red band imagery in which the 45-degree aft camera data are displayed in blue, 45-degree forward as green, and vertical as red. This combination causes wet areas to appear blue because of the glint-like reflection from water and damp surfaces. Clouds are visible in the upper left corner and right center of each image. The clouds look peculiar in the multi-angle view because geometric parallax resulting from their elevation above the surface causes a misregistration of the individual images making up the composite. This stereoscopic effect provides a way of distinguishing clouds from bright surfaces.

    The images are approximately 250 kilometers across. Ntwetwe and Sua pans are closed interior basins that catch rainwater and surface runoff during the wet season. Seasonal lakes form that may reach several meters in depth. During the dry season the collected waters rapidly evaporate leaving behind dissolved salts that coat the surface and turn it bright ('sua' means salt). The mining town of Sowa is located where the Sua Spit (a finger of grassland extending into the pan) attaches to the shore. Sowa represents headquarters for a JPL contingent carrying out MISR field experiments using the evaporite surface and the grasslands as targets and for Botswana scientists studying migration of groundwaters beneath the pans and surrounding areas. These efforts support the Southern Africa Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI-2000), which is now underway.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

    For more information: http://www-misr.jpl.nasa.gov

  7. [Maternal mortality in Argentina].

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    In Argentina, as in most countries, complications of pregnancy and delivery are important causes of mortality of fertile-age women. At the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, governments agreed on the objective of promoting maternity without risk in order to reduce maternal mortality. Maternal mortality rates in many developing countries are much higher than the 10/100,000 live births in the most developed countries. Deficiencies in reporting due either to failure to report deaths or errors in the cause of death are a major impediment to study of maternal mortality. Two studies were conducted recently to provide more accurate data on maternal mortality in Argentina. A study carried out during 1987-89 was designed to measure underregistration of maternal mortality in the federal capital in 1985. Data from death registers were paired with the corresponding clinical histories. The true maternal mortality rate was found to be 91/100,000 rather than the official 50. 38% of maternal deaths rather than the previously estimated 57% were found to be due to complications of illegal abortion. The degree of underreporting in the federal capital, which has the highest proportion of hospital deliveries and most developed infrastructure, suggests that the maternal mortality rate is also much higher than official estimates in other parts of Argentina. Official estimates for 1993 showed a maternal mortality rate of 46/100,000, with very significant regional differentials. A study using the indirect sister survival method was conducted in a low income neighborhood of Zarate in 1991. 8041 persons in 1679 households were interviewed. The resulting estimate of 140/100,000 corresponded to the early 1980s.

  8. 76 FR 43107 - Captive Nations Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... everywhere. Such brave actions led to the birth of our Nation, the fall of the Soviet Union, and countless other achievements that have shaped our world. During Captive Nations Week, we remember the men and women throughout the world still suffering under oppressive regimes, and we underscore our commitment...

  9. 9 CFR 91.7 - Captive cervids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Captive cervids. 91.7 Section 91.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND HANDLING...

  10. 75 FR 42279 - Captive Nations Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-17984 Filed 7-20-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W0... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8541 of July 16, 2010 Captive Nations Week... and requested the President to issue a proclamation designating the third week of July of each year...

  11. Flight restraint techniques for captive cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Dein, F.J.; Harris, James

    1991-01-01

    Traditional techniques for preventing escape of captive cranes (i.e., tenotomy, tenectomy, wing clipping, confinement under nets, and amputation) are discussed briefly. Two additional techniques (i.e., brailing and vane trimming) are described in detail. The advantages and limitations of each technique are presented.

  12. Defining management units for European captive aardvarks.

    PubMed

    Pohlová, Ludmila; Schepsky, Pauline; Lehmann, Thomas; Hochkirch, Axel; Masopustová, Renata; Simek, Jaroslav; Schoo, Wineke; Vodička, Roman; Robovský, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The Aardvark (Orycteropus afer) is a very unique, but relatively widespread African mammal. Although some morphological variation has been observed between forest and savannah populations and among different African regions, they are all considered as a single species. However, no modern taxonomic revision is available. All captive aardvarks in Europe are believed to stem from wild born animals from Namibia, but recently several new wild-caught aardvarks from Tanzania have been integrated into the captive population. This raises the question, whether these specimens should be interbred with the existing captive population or whether there is a risk of outbreeding depression. We studied the genetic structure of the captive populations by sequencing two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and 16S rRNA) to assess the degree of genetic differentiation between the two source regions. Our data suggest that the aardvarks kept in European zoos belong to the same phylogenetic (mitochondrial) lineage as the differentiation in the two studied mitochondrial markers was extremely low. A more comprehensive analysis of a larger sample with well documented origin (covering the complete geographic range) and with more sensitive genetic markers is needed to infer any final conclusions concerning the aardvark's taxonomy and identification of suitable aardvark management units. PMID:25185761

  13. Defining management units for European captive aardvarks.

    PubMed

    Pohlová, Ludmila; Schepsky, Pauline; Lehmann, Thomas; Hochkirch, Axel; Masopustová, Renata; Simek, Jaroslav; Schoo, Wineke; Vodička, Roman; Robovský, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The Aardvark (Orycteropus afer) is a very unique, but relatively widespread African mammal. Although some morphological variation has been observed between forest and savannah populations and among different African regions, they are all considered as a single species. However, no modern taxonomic revision is available. All captive aardvarks in Europe are believed to stem from wild born animals from Namibia, but recently several new wild-caught aardvarks from Tanzania have been integrated into the captive population. This raises the question, whether these specimens should be interbred with the existing captive population or whether there is a risk of outbreeding depression. We studied the genetic structure of the captive populations by sequencing two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and 16S rRNA) to assess the degree of genetic differentiation between the two source regions. Our data suggest that the aardvarks kept in European zoos belong to the same phylogenetic (mitochondrial) lineage as the differentiation in the two studied mitochondrial markers was extremely low. A more comprehensive analysis of a larger sample with well documented origin (covering the complete geographic range) and with more sensitive genetic markers is needed to infer any final conclusions concerning the aardvark's taxonomy and identification of suitable aardvark management units.

  14. 9 CFR 91.7 - Captive cervids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.7 Captive cervids. To be eligible for export, a... tested negative to an official single cervical tuberculin test for tuberculosis, as described in part...

  15. Children's Literature from Northeastern Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Maurine V.; And Others

    This paper presents an overview of three countries, China, Japan, and Korea, in the northeastern Asia region and provides a bibliography of children's literature from the area in the appendix. The document advocates that the global interdependence of societies necessitates an understanding of the cultures with which people must interrelate.…

  16. Northeastern Summer Electricity Market Alert

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    The National Weather Service declared an excessive-heat warning for much of the Mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States, including major electric markets covering Philadelphia, Boston, Washington, D.C., and New York City. This report highlights the wholesale electricity market activity occurring in response to the higher-than-normal electricity demand caused by the heat wave.

  17. Serologic survey of brucellosis in captive neotropical wild carnivores in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Filho, Edmilson F; Pinheiro, José W Junior; Souza, Marcília M A; Santana, Vânia L A; Silva, Jean C R; Mota, Rinaldo A; Sá, Fabricio B

    2012-06-01

    Abstract. This study reports the detection of antibodies against Brucella abortus and B. canis in wild neotropical carnivores kept in captivity in three zoos in northeastern Brazil. A total of 42 serum samples were examined, 17 from coatis (Nasua nasua), eight from crab-eating raccoons (Procyon cancrivorus), three from crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), three from hoary foxes (Lycalopex vetulus), two from little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus), five from tayras (Eira barbara), two from greater grisons (Galictis vittata), and two from neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis). The Rose-Bengal test and complement fixation test (CFT) were performed to detect anti-Brucella spp. antibodies, whereas the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) was employed to detect anti-B. canis antibodies. The overall seroprevalence varied by species and by test; in addition, CFT and AGID seemed better able to detect antibodies against B. abortus and B. canis, respectively. This is the first study on the presence of anti-Brucella spp. antibodies in captive carnivores from Brazil, as well as the first report of antibodies to Brucella spp. in coatis, crab-eating raccoons, hoary foxes, little spotted cats, tayras, and greater grisons.

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF Leishmania infantum IN PUERTO IGUAZÚ, MISIONES, ARGENTINA

    PubMed Central

    ACOSTA, Lucrecia; DÍAZ, Ricardo; TORRES, Pedro; SILVA, Gustavo; RAMOS, Marina; FATTORE, Gladys; DESCHUTTER, Enrique J.; BORNAY-LLINARES, Fernando J.

    2015-01-01

     The emergence of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) in Latin America is a growing public health problem. The urbanization of ZVL has been observed in different countries around the world, and there are a growing number of reports drawing attention to the emergence of this infection in new locations, as well as its increase in previously established areas of endemicity. In the city of Posadas, Misiones province, Northeastern Argentina, the transmission of ZVL associated with canines and Lutzomyia longipalpis was first reported in 2006. In the city of Puerto Iguazú, also in Misiones province, the first human case of ZVL was reported in February 2014. From 209 surveyed dogs, 15 (7.17%) were identified as positive by serological and/or parasitological methods. Amplification was observed in 14 samples and in all cases the species implicated was Leishmania infantum. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first molecular characterization of L. infantum from dogs in this area. PMID:25923899

  19. Vaccinating captive chimpanzees to save wild chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Warfield, Kelly L; Goetzmann, Jason E; Biggins, Julia E; Kasda, Mary Beth; Unfer, Robert C; Vu, Hong; Aman, M Javad; Olinger, Gene Gerrard; Walsh, Peter D

    2014-06-17

    Infectious disease has only recently been recognized as a major threat to the survival of Endangered chimpanzees and Critically Endangered gorillas in the wild. One potentially powerful tool, vaccination, has not been deployed in fighting this disease threat, in good part because of fears about vaccine safety. Here we report on what is, to our knowledge, the first trial in which captive chimpanzees were used to test a vaccine intended for use on wild apes rather than humans. We tested a virus-like particle vaccine against Ebola virus, a leading source of death in wild gorillas and chimpanzees. The vaccine was safe and immunogenic. Captive trials of other vaccines and of methods for vaccine delivery hold great potential as weapons in the fight against wild ape extinction.

  20. Fatal Parastrongylus dujardini infection in captive callitrichids.

    PubMed

    Graille, M; Ferté, H; Petit, T; Ollivet Courtois, F; Gauchot, J-Y; Nougaillon, J-L; Vitaud, C; Wardzynski, C; Lemberger, K

    2015-03-01

    Intravascular nematodes were considered the cause of death of 14 captive callitrichids. All animals were captive born at zoos in France and died with little or no premonitory signs of disease. No consistent gross lesions were observed at necropsy, although in certain cases intracardiac adult parasites were noted. The most significant histologic findings were verminous pneumonia and pulmonary endarteritis. In all cases except one, intravascular adult nematodes were observed with eggs and larvae in the lungs. Adult nematodes were obtained from 8 animals and in all cases were identified as Parastrongylus dujardini. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of intravascular angiostrongylosis with primary cardiopulmonary location in callitrichids in France. PMID:24793826

  1. [Zoonotic tuberculosis in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Kantor, Isabel N de; Torres, Pedro M; Morcillo, Nora; Imaz, María S; Sequeira, María D

    2012-01-01

    There are significant achievements in the control of animal tuberculosis (tB) in Argentina. the percentage of bovines with apparent tB lesions at the slaughterhouse inspection decreased from 6.7% to 0.6% between 1969 and 2011. on the other hand, the mean percentage of human tB cases due to M. bovis among all those bacteriologically confirmed, was in Santa Fe, an agro-industrial province, 2.3% in the period 1977-2001. It fell to 1.6% by 2011. In the Cetrángolo Hospital (Buenos Aires), it was 0.34% in the period 2001-2005, and 0.36% in 2006-2011. At the Muñiz Hospital, these percentages decreased from 1.75% in 1971 to 0.22% in 2006. Frequency of HIV infection among M. bovis cases varied from 5.9% in santa Fe to 11.1% and 20.5% respectively, in Cetrángolo and Muñiz Hospitals (a reference institution for aids) in Buenos Aires. According to these data M. bovis infection predominates in agro-industrial/ rural areas, showing a slow decrease there as well as in Buenos Aires. Co-infection with HIV is more frequent among patients with M. bovis that in all cases of tB. The situation of M. bovis in Argentina is here compared with that in USA and in several European and Latin American countries. Trends followed by tB in cattle, in humans, and the percentages of M. bovis among them, are not always closely related to move towards the common goal of eradicating tB; the employment of appropriate strategies and the strengthening of control measures are critical in both programs.

  2. Oral myiasis in a captive hippopotamus.

    PubMed

    Rossi Júnior, João Luiz; Guião-Leite, Flaviana L; Gioso, Marco Antonio; Falqueiro, Léslie M Domingues; Fecchio, Roberto Silveira

    2009-01-01

    Causes of dental infections can be related to failed dental eruption, malocclusion, abrasion, fractures with or without exposure of the dental pulp, and periodontal disease. Reports of oral myiasis in megavertebrates in captivity are infrequent, perhaps due to the difficulty in observing the oral cavity in such species. This report describes a case of oral myiasis in an adult male hippopotamus in the gingival area and alveolar mucosa of the left mandibular canine tooth.

  3. Oral myiasis in a captive hippopotamus.

    PubMed

    Rossi Júnior, João Luiz; Guião-Leite, Flaviana L; Gioso, Marco Antonio; Falqueiro, Léslie M Domingues; Fecchio, Roberto Silveira

    2009-01-01

    Causes of dental infections can be related to failed dental eruption, malocclusion, abrasion, fractures with or without exposure of the dental pulp, and periodontal disease. Reports of oral myiasis in megavertebrates in captivity are infrequent, perhaps due to the difficulty in observing the oral cavity in such species. This report describes a case of oral myiasis in an adult male hippopotamus in the gingival area and alveolar mucosa of the left mandibular canine tooth. PMID:19950517

  4. Iatrogenic salt poisoning in captive sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L.; Fleming, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Salt poisoning developed in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) when sea salt was added to normal drinking water to produce a sodium chloride concentration of 1%. Two of 18 cranes died and 2 were euthanatized when moribund. Muscle weakness, paresis, dyspnea, and depression were observed. Brain and serum sodium, serum uric acid,:and plasma osmolality values were abnormally high. Lesions were those of visceral gout, renal tubular necrosis, nephrosis, and skeletal muscle.necrosis.

  5. Hematologic values of captive Mexican wolves.

    PubMed

    Drag, M D

    1991-11-01

    Hematologic reference values were determined for a captive population of 11 Mexican wolves (Canis lupus baileyi). Wolf pups from 4 to 24 weeks old had progressive age-related increases in PCV, hemoglobin concentration, mean cell volume, and RBC counts similar to those seen in domestic dog pups (C familiaris). Hematologic indices in wolves older than 24 weeks were comparable to those of the adult domestic dog; however, PCV, hemoglobin concentration, and RBC counts were higher.

  6. [Soil transmitted helminthiasis in Argentina. A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Socías, M Eugenia; Fernández, Anabel; Gil, José F; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review of surveys performed between 1980 and 2011 (published in MEDLINE/Pubmed and/or LILACS indexed journals, available in the baseline data from a Mass Deworming National Program (MDNP, 2005) was used to identify the prevalence, distribution and detection of risk areas for soil transmitted helminth infections (STH) in Argentina. We found 310 publications in the database using the pre-defined key-words (medical subject headings) for research purposes. Only 24 articles with 26 surveillance sites in 8 provinces and a total of 5495 surveyed individuals fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Frequency rates for STH had a wide range: Ascaris lumbricoides: 0-67%, hookworms: 0-90%, Trichuris trichiura: 0-24.6 and Strongyloides stercoralis: 0-83%. The estimated combined incidence varied from 0.8% to 88.6%. Baseline surveys from the MDNP reporting on 1943 children from 12 provinces confirmed the heterogeneity, with combined STH frequency rates ranging from 0 to 42.7%. Surveys included in this review showed that the distribution of STH in Argentina is not homogeneous, with areas of high incidence (> 20%) in the northeastern and northwestern provinces where mass deworming activities would be highly beneficial. In several surveys, the high overall incidence was mostly due to hookworms and S. stercoralis, a situation to be considered when selecting diagnostic and therapeutic control strategies. The scarcity or absence of data from various provinces and the availability of less than 8000 surveyed individuals should be considered.

  7. Ribautia lewisi sp. nov., a new centipede from Argentina with unusual tentorial process (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha, Geophilidae).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Luis Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Ribautia lewisi sp. nov. (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha, Geophilidae) is herein described and illustrated after the holotype (male), paratypes (males and females), and additional non type specimens from Northeastern Argentina (Mesopotamian region). The new species is characterized by having a cluster of coxal organs in each coxopleuron of the ultimate leg-bearing segment and a claw-like pretarsus in the ultimate legs, bearing a very unusual feature, in that the internal limbs of tentorium have a conspicuous tooth-shaped sclerotized process directed inward. R. lewisi sp. nov. is only the second confirmed record of the genus Ribautia from Argentina, the other being R. jakulicai Pereira, 2007 from Northwestern region of the country (Yungas biogeographical province).

  8. Land flatworms of the genus Pasipha (Platyhelminthes, Geoplanidae) in Argentina, with description of three new species.

    PubMed

    Negrete, Lisandro; Brusa, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The genus Pasipha Ogren & Kawakatsu, 1990 currently includes 22 species, most of them recorded in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Recently, Pasipha hauseri was documented in north-eastern Argentina, thus extending its distribution range. This paper reports new records of the genus Pasipha in the Interior Atlantic Forest ecoregion in Argentina, with the description of three new species: Pasipha atla sp. nov., Pasipha johnsoni sp. nov., and Pasipha mbya sp. nov. These new species exhibit similarities in internal anatomy, such as pharynx cylindrical, extrabulbar prostatic vesicle with folded walls and proximally forked, male atrium highly folded, being at least two times longer than the female atrium and with small folds in their proximal portion. However, they can be distinguished from each other mainly by the secretion types discharged into the prostatic vesicle as well as into the male and female atria. In addition, they have different colour patterns on the dorsal surface. PMID:27470715

  9. Land flatworms of the genus Pasipha (Platyhelminthes, Geoplanidae) in Argentina, with description of three new species.

    PubMed

    Negrete, Lisandro; Brusa, Francisco

    2016-07-11

    The genus Pasipha Ogren & Kawakatsu, 1990 currently includes 22 species, most of them recorded in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Recently, Pasipha hauseri was documented in north-eastern Argentina, thus extending its distribution range. This paper reports new records of the genus Pasipha in the Interior Atlantic Forest ecoregion in Argentina, with the description of three new species: Pasipha atla sp. nov., Pasipha johnsoni sp. nov., and Pasipha mbya sp. nov. These new species exhibit similarities in internal anatomy, such as pharynx cylindrical, extrabulbar prostatic vesicle with folded walls and proximally forked, male atrium highly folded, being at least two times longer than the female atrium and with small folds in their proximal portion. However, they can be distinguished from each other mainly by the secretion types discharged into the prostatic vesicle as well as into the male and female atria. In addition, they have different colour patterns on the dorsal surface.

  10. Genetic adaptation to captivity can occur in a single generation.

    PubMed

    Christie, Mark R; Marine, Melanie L; French, Rod A; Blouin, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    Captive breeding programs are widely used for the conservation and restoration of threatened and endangered species. Nevertheless, captive-born individuals frequently have reduced fitness when reintroduced into the wild. The mechanism for these fitness declines has remained elusive, but hypotheses include environmental effects of captive rearing, inbreeding among close relatives, relaxed natural selection, and unintentional domestication selection (adaptation to captivity). We used a multigenerational pedigree analysis to demonstrate that domestication selection can explain the precipitous decline in fitness observed in hatchery steelhead released into the Hood River in Oregon. After returning from the ocean, wild-born and first-generation hatchery fish were used as broodstock in the hatchery, and their offspring were released into the wild as smolts. First-generation hatchery fish had nearly double the lifetime reproductive success (measured as the number of returning adult offspring) when spawned in captivity compared with wild fish spawned under identical conditions, which is a clear demonstration of adaptation to captivity. We also documented a tradeoff among the wild-born broodstock: Those with the greatest fitness in a captive environment produced offspring that performed the worst in the wild. Specifically, captive-born individuals with five (the median) or more returning siblings (i.e., offspring of successful broodstock) averaged 0.62 returning offspring in the wild, whereas captive-born individuals with less than five siblings averaged 2.05 returning offspring in the wild. These results demonstrate that a single generation in captivity can result in a substantial response to selection on traits that are beneficial in captivity but severely maladaptive in the wild.

  11. Argentina from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image over Argentina was acquired on April 24, 2000, and was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution 'true color' bands. This image was presented on June 13, 2000 as a GIFt to Argentinian President Fernando de la Rua by NASA Administrator Dan Goldin. Note the Parana River which runs due south from the top of the image before turning east to empty into the Atlantic Ocean. Note the yellowish sediment from the Parana River mixing with the redish sediment from the Uruguay River as it empties into the Rio de la Plata. The water level of the Parana seems high, which could explain the high sediment discharge. A variety of land surface features are visible in this image. To the north, the greenish pixels show forest regions, as well as characteristic clusters of rectangular patterns of agricultural fields. In the lower left of the image, the lighter green pixels show arable regions where there is grazing and farming. (Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Group, NASA GSFC)

  12. Occupational health in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Werner, A F

    2000-07-01

    Argentina is within the denominated "new industrialised countries", with the characteristic of having high contrasts in the urban population, based on service and industry, and in the rural population, based on agriculture and cattle, still the main sources of wealth in the country. The process of globalisation and the need to compete hard in international markets have provoked high unemployment and the transfer of workers from a formal market to an informal one. Legislation on occupational health is old and it is in the process of being updated. The system of prevention, assistance and compensation for accidents at work and for occupational illnesses has changed from being optative for employers, to the compulsory hiring of private insurance companies. The Government keeps the role of supervisor of the system. There are enough professionals in occupational health, hygiene and safety but not occupational nurses. The teaching is given by many universities and professional associations, some of which have an active profile in the occupational health of the country.

  13. [Research career in Argentina].

    PubMed

    De Nicola, A F

    2000-01-01

    The National Research Council of Argentina (CONICET) was founded in 1958, and the Research Career opened officially two years later (1960). Originally, 214 scientists belonged to this Career, increasing slowly to 3642 members in 1999. There are 5 categories of investigators, besides the Clinical Investigator class for the area of Medical Sciences. Investigators comprise 46%, while Technicians (34%) and Fellows (20%) account for the rest of CONICET research personnel. The low number of Fellows is a matter of worry, although Fellows from universities, local councils and private foundations contribute to increase their total number. There is an irregular regional distribution of Investigators, most of whom work in the Federal Capital and Province of Buenos Aires (61%). Increasing the salary of those living outside the metropolitan area did not solve the problem. Input to the Research Career has been erratic and not well planned, while mechanisms for personnel output due to low productivity or retirement age has had variable and erratic policies. The problem the Research Career is facing is similar to that of other areas of CONICET, due to an extremely low budget. Hopefully, new CONICET authorities will be active scientists considering Science and Technology as a Matter of State, just as important for the country as health, education or recovery of the Malvinas Islands.

  14. Understanding Captive-Takers Motivations, Methods and Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larned, Jean Garner

    2011-01-01

    Understanding Captive-Takers Motivations, Methods and Targets is the ultimate goal in order to help those who train, manage and prevent hostage taking events which include police officers, negotiators, recovery personnel, academics and psychologists. The overall lack of literature relating to the topic of captive-taker motivations is another…

  15. The Captivity Narrative as Propaganda in the Black Hawk War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Darlene E.

    1987-01-01

    Shows how captivity stories acted as propaganda against the American Indians in the nineteenth century. Gives excerpts from a captivity narrative portraying Indians in a negative way and demonstrates its use as propaganda during the time of the Black Hawk War. (AEM)

  16. 78 FR 10200 - Proposed Information Collection; Captive Wildlife Safety Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Captive Wildlife Safety Act (CWSA) amends the Lacey Act by making it illegal to...) and 170(b)(1)(A)(vi) of that code. Do not engage in commercial trade in the prohibited wildlife... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Information Collection; Captive Wildlife Safety Act AGENCY: Fish...

  17. Handedness in captive bonobos (Pan paniscus).

    PubMed

    Harrison, Rebecca M; Nystrom, Pia

    2008-01-01

    Species level right-handedness is often considered to be unique to humans. Handedness is held to be interrelated to our language ability and has been used as a means of tracing the evolution of language. Here we examine handedness in 3 captive groups of bonobos (Pan paniscus) comprising 22 individuals. We found no evidence for species level handedness. Conclusions that can be drawn from these findings are: (1) species level handedness evolved after the divergence of the Pan and Homo lineages; (2) inconsistent preferences may represent precursors to human handedness, and (3) Pan may have language abilities but these cannot be measured using handedness.

  18. Epileptiform seizures in captive African vultures.

    PubMed

    Mundy, P J; Foggin, C M

    1981-04-01

    African vultures are held in captivity at Salisbury, Johannesburg, and Durban, and in each place a number of birds showed epileptiform seizures. Of 17 griffon vultures (Gyps africanus and G. coprotheres) in Salisbury, three recovered and 11 died after one or more seizures. Of eight vultures of three other species, one Lappetfaced Vulture (Torgos tracheliotus) recovered and one Whiteheaded Vulture (Trigonoceps occipitalis) died. A variety of diagnostic tests, in particular levels of serum calcium and blood glucose, and histological examination of brains, has so far failed to reveal a cause. PMID:7241712

  19. A new tether system for captive raptors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    Several types of jesses are used to restrain captive raptors. The Hollywood jess described here has been tested on six species during two decades. Like the Aylmeri jess now in common use in North America, the Hollywood jess consists of a removable rolled button jess and an anklet. Unlike the Aylmeri anklet, however, the Hollywood anklet can be removed and reattached without restraining the bird. This anklet makes the Hollywood jess the safest of all jesses. It can also be used repeatedly on different individuals and allows for the bird to be released in its pen or to the wild without encumbrances.

  20. Some diseases and parasites of captive woodcocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Stickel, W.H.; Geis, S.A.

    1965-01-01

    Observations were made concerning the diseases and parasites of a group of woodcocks (Philohela minor) caught in Massachusetts in the summer of 1960 and kept in captivity in Maryland, and of another group caught and kept in Louisiana in the winter of 1960-61. Bumblefoot, a granulomatous swelling of the foot caused by Micrococcus sp., is reported for woodcocks for the first time. Six of 31 woodcocks were infected with a renal coccidium of an undetermined species. Tetrameres sp. was found in 4 of 31 birds examined. Sarcocystis was found in one bird. Aerosaculitis was found in several.

  1. Allonursing in captive belugas (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed

    Leung, Elaine S; Vergara, Valeria; Barrett-Lennard, Lance G

    2010-01-01

    This study describes allonursing (females nursing offspring that are not their own) in captive belugas (Delphinapterus leucas). In addition to the calf's mother, two females that were not pregnant or nursing at the time of the calf's birth spontaneously lactated and nursed the male calf intermittently throughout 34 months of his life at the Vancouver Aquarium Marine Science Center. These observations suggest that allonursing may also take place in their wild counterparts and add to existing evidence of alloparental care in this species. Alloparental care, the care of nonoffspring, has been observed in every major mammalian taxon; the protection of calves through alloparental care may be a strong evolutionary benefit. PMID:20127963

  2. Tick paralysis cases in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Remondegui, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Tick paralysis (TP) occurs worldwide and is caused by a neurotoxin secreted by engorged female ticks that affects the peripheral and central nervous system. The clinical manifestations range from mild or nonspecific symptoms to manifestations similar to Guillain-Barré syndrome, bulbar involvement, and death in 10% of the patients. The diagnosis of TP is clinical. To our knowledge, there are no formal reports of TP in humans in South America, although clusters of TP among hunting dogs in Argentina have been identified recently. In this paper, clinical features of two cases of TP occurring during 1994 in Jujuy Province, Argentina, are described. PMID:22930054

  3. Blood chemistry and hematocrit of captive and wild canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Obrecht, H.H.; Williams, B.K.; Kuenzel, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Blood chemistry and packed cell volume (PCV) did not vary among groups of captive canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) maintained ad libitum on 5 diets varying in metabolizable energy (ME) and protein. Ducks fed low quality diets increased their consumption so that all ducks were obtaining similar amounts of energy and protein. Some variables, including cholesterol, were found to differ between the sexes and ages of captive ducks. Seasonal differences were detected in the blood chemistry of captive canvasbacks. Four of the 5 enzyme values increased from October to January and then declined to April. PCV increased from 45 in October to 51 in April. Overall, blood chemistry values and PCV's were highly variable and did not appear to be good discriminators for age, sex, and diet of captive canvasbacks. Differences detected between captive and wild canvasbacks were attributed to increased stress of wild ducks during handling.

  4. The three-dimensional morphological effects of captivity.

    PubMed

    Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Selvey, Hannah; Villari, Joseph R; Atwell, Madeline; Schmidt, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    Many captive animals are fed diets that are drastically different in mechanical properties than their wild diet. Most captive pantherines are fed a nutritionally supplemented diet consisting almost entirely of ground meat. While many zoos supplement this diet with bones, the fact remains that large captive felids are fed diets that require substantially less masticatory effort than those of their wild counterparts. The osteological effects of this dietary difference have not been fully evaluated. To this end, we compared linear measurements and 3D geometric morphometric landmarks of captive and wild lions and tigers. Using Principal Component (PC) analysis of the linear measurements, not only were the sexes and species statistically distinct, but so too was the population clearly divisible in terms of captivity status. The 3D analysis supported these findings: although the most influential variable in the sample (PC1, 21.5% of the variation) separates the two species, the second most influential contributor (PC2) to the overall skull shape is driven not by the sex differences in these highly dimorphic species, but rather by their captivity status. In fact, captivity status drives nearly twice as much of the 3D variation as sexual dimorphism (14.8% vs. 8.0% for PC2 vs. PC3). Thus the shape is influenced nearly twice as much by whether the animal was captive or wild than by whether it was male or female. If a causal relationship can be demonstrated between dietary mechanical properties and morphology, people who oversee the diets of captive carnivores should consider modifying these diets to account for not only nutritional but also the mechanical properties of a carcass-based diet as well. In addition to the husbandry implications, our analyses show the ways in which captive specimens are different than their wild counterparts--ndings that have implications for morphologists when considering anatomical samples.

  5. The Three-Dimensional Morphological Effects of Captivity

    PubMed Central

    Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Selvey, Hannah; Villari, Joseph R.; Atwell, Madeline; Schmidt, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    Many captive animals are fed diets that are drastically different in mechanical properties than their wild diet. Most captive pantherines are fed a nutritionally supplemented diet consisting almost entirely of ground meat. While many zoos supplement this diet with bones, the fact remains that large captive felids are fed diets that require substantially less masticatory effort than those of their wild counterparts. The osteological effects of this dietary difference have not been fully evaluated. To this end, we compared linear measurements and 3D geometric morphometric landmarks of captive and wild lions and tigers. Using Principal Component (PC) analysis of the linear measurements, not only were the sexes and species statistically distinct, but so too was the population clearly divisible in terms of captivity status. The 3D analysis supported these findings: although the most influential variable in the sample (PC1, 21.5% of the variation) separates the two species, the second most influential contributor (PC2) to the overall skull shape is driven not by the sex differences in these highly dimorphic species, but rather by their captivity status. In fact, captivity status drives nearly twice as much of the 3D variation as sexual dimorphism (14.8% vs. 8.0% for PC2 vs. PC3). Thus the shape is influenced nearly twice as much by whether the animal was captive or wild than by whether it was male or female. If a causal relationship can be demonstrated between dietary mechanical properties and morphology, people who oversee the diets of captive carnivores should consider modifying these diets to account for not only nutritional but also the mechanical properties of a carcass-based diet as well. In addition to the husbandry implications, our analyses show the ways in which captive specimens are different than their wild counterparts – findings that have implications for morphologists when considering anatomical samples. PMID:25409498

  6. Are captive tortoises a reservoir for conservation? An assessment of genealogical affiliation of captive Gopherus agassizii to local, wild populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berry, Kristin H.; Edwards, Taylor

    2013-01-01

    The conservation of tortoises poses a unique situation because several threatened species are commonly kept as pets within their native ranges. Thus, there is potential for captive populations to be a reservoir for repatriation efforts. We assess the utility of captive populations of the threatened Agassiz’s desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) for recovery efforts based on genetic affinity to local areas. We collected samples from 130 captive desert tortoises from three desert communities: two in California (Ridgecrest and Joshua Tree) and the Desert Tortoise Conservation Center (Las Vegas) in Nevada. We tested all samples for 25 short tandem repeats and sequenced 1,109 bp of the mitochondrial genome. We compared captive genotypes to a database of 1,258 Gopherus samples, including 657 wild caught G. agassizii spanning the full range of the species. We conducted population assignment tests to determine the genetic origins of the captive individuals. For our total sample set, only 44 % of captive individuals were assigned to local populations based on genetic units derived from the reference database. One individual from Joshua Tree, California, was identified as being a Morafka’s desert tortoise, G. morafkai, a cryptic species which is not native to the Mojave Desert. Our data suggest that captive desert tortoises kept within the native range of G. agassizii cannot be presumed to have a genealogical affiliation to wild tortoises in their geographic proximity. Precautions should be taken before considering the release of captive tortoises into the wild as a management tool for recovery.

  7. A diet supplement for captive wild ruminants.

    PubMed

    Baker, D L; Stout, G W; Miller, M W

    1998-06-01

    Nutritional husbandry of captive wild ruminants often requires feeding these animals a supplemental diet to enhance their health, reproductive performance, and productivity. Although supplemental diets for wild ruminants are commercially available, few have been evaluated in controlled intake and digestion trials. Voluntary intake, digestive efficiency, nitrogen retention, and gross energy utilization of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), mountain sheep (Ovis canadensis), mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), and wapiti (Cervus elaphus) consuming a high-energy, high-protein pelleted supplement were compared. Voluntary intake of dry matter, energy, and nitrogen were similar (P > 0.34) between mountain goats and mountain sheep and consistently lower (P < 0.03) for these species than for pronghorn, mule deer, and wapiti. Differences in digestive efficiency among species were inversely related to dry matter intake rates. Apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral-detergent fiber was 10-20% higher for mountain goats and mountain sheep than for the other species (P < 0.04). Although these findings suggest a superior digestive efficiency for mountain goats and mountain sheep, species comparisons are inconclusive because of the confounding effects of season and ambient temperature on voluntary intake and digestion. Under the conditions of this experiment, the diet tested was safe, nutritious, and highly palatable. Protein and energy concentrations appear to be sufficient to meet or exceed known nutritional requirements of captive wild ruminants. PMID:9732028

  8. Study on reproduction of captive marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Katsumata, Etsuko

    2010-02-01

    The reproductive endocrinological characteristics of beluga, killer whale, spotted seal and bottlenose dolphin were evaluated and used in conjunction with applied reproductive research to enhance captive breeding programs. Results from 8 y of biweekly serum progesterone determination in a female beluga indicated that sexual maturity occured at approximately age 13, two to seven estrous cycles, lasting 37 +/- 3.9 days, per yr began in April-May every year. Rectal temperature was positively correlated with serum progesterone levels and negatively associated with behavioral estrus. In five cases of pregnancy of two female killer whale, positive relationship was found between serum progesterone concentration and temperature during the first period of 18 month-gestation. In the normal parturitions (n=4), rectal temperature decreased 0.8 C lower than average rectal temperature during pregnancy. Sexual maturity of female killer whales occurred at age nine. Yearly contraception in the mono-estrus captive spotted seals (n=10) using a single dose of the progestagen (proligestone(TM); 5 or 10 mg/kg s.c.) was achieved in 94% (33/35) of the attempts over 5 yr when the hormone was administered two months prior to the breeding season. Artificial insemination trials (n=4) were conducted in female bottlenose dolphin (n=3) using fresh and frozen-thawed semen. Estrus synchronization using regumate (27 days) resulted in ovulation occurring 19 to 24 days post withdrawal. Conception was confirmed in 75% of the attempts, with two females successfully delivering calves. PMID:20203429

  9. Self-hypnosis training and captivity survival.

    PubMed

    Wood, D P; Sexton, J L

    1997-01-01

    In February and March, 1973, 566 U.S. military prisoners (POWs) were released from North Vietnam. These men had been POWs for a period of time between 2 months and 9 years, with a mean incarceration of 4.44 years. They had faced physical and psychological stress similar to that experienced by POWs from previous wars: starvation, disease, inadequate shelter, lack of medical care, interrogations and torture (Deaton, Burge, Richlin & Latrownik, 1977; Mitchell, 1991). By definition, such prison conditions constituted a traumatic experience (Deaton et al., 1977). However, a unique stress for our POWs in North Vietnam was the additional trauma of solitary confinement. This paper reviews the coping and "time killing" activities of U.S. Navy Vietnam POWs who experienced solitary confinement and tortuous interrogation. This paper also reports the physical and psychological adjustment of our POWs following their release from captivity. Suggestions are made regarding the revision of the curriculum for captivity survival training programs such as Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape (SERE) school. PMID:9037797

  10. Behavioral abnormalities in captive nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Mallapur, Avanti; Choudhury, B C

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we dealt with 11 species of nonhuman primates across 10 zoos in India. We recorded behavior as instantaneous scans between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. In the study, we segregated behaviors for analyses into abnormal, undesirable, active, and resting. The 4 types of abnormal behavior exhibited included floating limb, self-biting, self-clasping, and stereotypic pacing. In the study, we recorded 2 types of undesirable behavior: autoerotic stimulation and begging. Langurs and group-housed macaques did not exhibit undesirable behaviors. A male lion-tailed macaque and a male gibbon exhibited begging behavior. autoerotic stimulation and self-biting occurred rarely. Males exhibited higher levels of undesirable behavior than did females. Animals confiscated from touring zoos, circuses, and animal traders exhibited higher levels of abnormal behaviors than did animals reared in larger, recognized zoos. The stump-tailed macaque was the only species to exhibit floating limb, autoerotic stimulation, self-biting, and self-clasping. Our results show that rearing experience and group composition influence the proportions of abnormal behavior exhibited by nonhuman primates in captivity. The history of early social and environmental deprivation in these species of captive nonhuman primates probably is critical in the development of behavioral pathologies. Establishing this will require further research.

  11. Factors affecting penetrating captive bolt gun performance.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Troy J; Mason, Charles W; Spence, Jade Y; Barker, Heather; Gregory, Neville G

    2015-01-01

    Captive bolt stunning is used for rendering livestock insensible at slaughter. The mechanical factors relating to performance of 6 penetrating captive bolt gun (CBG) models were examined. The Matador Super Sécurit 3000 and the .25 Cash Euro Stunner had the highest kinetic energy values (443 J and 412 J, respectively) of the CBGs tested. Ninety percent (27/30) of CBGs held at a government gun repository (United Kingdom) were found to have performed at a normal standard for the model, while 53% (10/19) of commercial contractor CBGs tested were found to underperform for the gun model. When the .22 Cash Special was fired 500 times at 4 shots per min, the gun reached a peak temperature of 88.8°C after 2.05 hr. Repeat firing during extended periods significantly reduced the performance of the CBG. When deciding on the appropriate CBG/cartridge combination, the kinetic energy delivered to the head of the nonhuman animal, bolt penetration depth, and species/animal type must be considered. It is recommended that CBGs are routinely checked for wear to the bolt and barrel if they are repeatedly fired in a session.

  12. Feline leukemia virus in a captive bobcat.

    PubMed

    Sleeman, J M; Keane, J M; Johnson, J S; Brown, R J; Woude, S V

    2001-01-01

    An 11-mo-old captive-bred male neutered bobcat (Felis rufus) presented with lethargy, anorexia, leukopenia, neutropenia, lymphopenia, and nonregenerative anemia. The animal was diagnosed as feline leukemia virus (FeLV) positive by immunofluorescent antibody and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) testing. It died despite supportive care. Pathologic examination revealed multifocal non-suppurative encephalitis, diffuse interstitial pneumonia, multifocal hepatocellular necrosis, non-suppurative peritonitis, and lymphoid depletion. FeLV was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, bone marrow, spleen, and lymph node. FeLV-specific gag sequences were amplified by DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and aligned with known domestic cat FeLV's. The source of the virus was speculated to be a domestic cat that was a surrogate nurse. Case reports of FeLV in nondomestic felids are few, and FeLV does not appear to be enzootic in wild felids, except European wildcats (Felis silvestris) in France and Scotland. Introduction of FeLV into free-living and captive nondomestic felid populations could have serious consequences for their health and survival. Measures to prevent the introduction of this virus to nondomestic felids are warranted. PMID:11272497

  13. Social Behaviour of Captive Belugas, Delphinapterus Leucas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recchia, Cheri Anne

    1994-01-01

    Focal-animal sampling techniques developed for investigating social behaviour of terrestrial animals were adapted for studying captive belugas, providing quantitative descriptions of social relationships among individuals. Five groups of captive belugas were observed, allowing a cross -sectional view of sociality in groups of diverse sizes and compositions. Inter-individual distances were used to quantify patterns of spatial association. A set of social behaviours for which actor and recipient could be identified was defined to characterize dyadic interactions. The mother-calf pair spent more time together, and interacted more often than adults. The calf maintained proximity with his mother; larger adults generally maintained proximity with smaller adults. Among adults, larger groups performed more kinds of behaviours and interacted at higher rates than smaller groups. Within dyads, the larger whale performed more aggressive behaviours and the smaller whale more submissive behaviours. Clear dominance relations existed in three groups, with larger whales dominant to smaller whales. Vocalizations of three groups were classified subjectively, based on aural impressions and visual inspection of spectrograms, but most signals appeared graded. Statistical analyses of measured acoustic features confirmed subjective impressions that vocalizations could not be classified into discrete and homogeneous categories. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-553-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.).

  14. NREL technical assistance to Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Lilienthal, P.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes assistance to Argentina from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory which has touched on four programs: tariff analysis for rural concessions programs; wind/diesel hybrid retrofits in Patagonia; small hybrid systems designs for rural schools; an assessment of wind resources. The paper expands briefly on the first two points.

  15. Integrating evolution in the management of captive zoo populations.

    PubMed

    Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I; Mastromonaco, Gabriela F

    2015-06-01

    Both natural animal populations and those in captivity are subject to evolutionary forces. Evolutionary changes to captive populations may be an important, but poorly understood, factor that can affect the sustainability of these populations. The importance of maintaining the evolutionary integrity of zoo populations, especially those that are used for conservation efforts including reintroductions, is critical for the conservation of biodiversity. Here, we propose that a greater appreciation for an evolutionary perspective may offer important insights that can enhance the reproductive success and health for the sustainability of captive populations. We provide four examples and associated strategies that highlight this approach, including minimizing domestication (i.e., genetic adaptation to captivity), integrating natural mating systems into captive breeding protocols, minimizing the effects of translocation on variation in photoperiodism, and understanding the interplay of parasites/pathogens and inflammation. There are a myriad of other issues that may be important for captive populations, and we conclude that these may often be species specific. Nonetheless, an evolutionary perspective may mitigate some of the challenges currently facing captive populations that are important from a conservation perspective, including their sustainability.

  16. Integrating evolution in the management of captive zoo populations

    PubMed Central

    Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I; Mastromonaco, Gabriela F

    2015-01-01

    Both natural animal populations and those in captivity are subject to evolutionary forces. Evolutionary changes to captive populations may be an important, but poorly understood, factor that can affect the sustainability of these populations. The importance of maintaining the evolutionary integrity of zoo populations, especially those that are used for conservation efforts including reintroductions, is critical for the conservation of biodiversity. Here, we propose that a greater appreciation for an evolutionary perspective may offer important insights that can enhance the reproductive success and health for the sustainability of captive populations. We provide four examples and associated strategies that highlight this approach, including minimizing domestication (i.e., genetic adaptation to captivity), integrating natural mating systems into captive breeding protocols, minimizing the effects of translocation on variation in photoperiodism, and understanding the interplay of parasites/pathogens and inflammation. There are a myriad of other issues that may be important for captive populations, and we conclude that these may often be species specific. Nonetheless, an evolutionary perspective may mitigate some of the challenges currently facing captive populations that are important from a conservation perspective, including their sustainability. PMID:26029256

  17. Integrating evolution in the management of captive zoo populations.

    PubMed

    Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I; Mastromonaco, Gabriela F

    2015-06-01

    Both natural animal populations and those in captivity are subject to evolutionary forces. Evolutionary changes to captive populations may be an important, but poorly understood, factor that can affect the sustainability of these populations. The importance of maintaining the evolutionary integrity of zoo populations, especially those that are used for conservation efforts including reintroductions, is critical for the conservation of biodiversity. Here, we propose that a greater appreciation for an evolutionary perspective may offer important insights that can enhance the reproductive success and health for the sustainability of captive populations. We provide four examples and associated strategies that highlight this approach, including minimizing domestication (i.e., genetic adaptation to captivity), integrating natural mating systems into captive breeding protocols, minimizing the effects of translocation on variation in photoperiodism, and understanding the interplay of parasites/pathogens and inflammation. There are a myriad of other issues that may be important for captive populations, and we conclude that these may often be species specific. Nonetheless, an evolutionary perspective may mitigate some of the challenges currently facing captive populations that are important from a conservation perspective, including their sustainability. PMID:26029256

  18. Captive breeding, reintroduction, and the conservation of amphibians.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Richard A; Pavajeau, Lissette

    2008-08-01

    The global amphibian crisis has resulted in renewed interest in captive breeding as a conservation tool for amphibians. Although captive breeding and reintroduction are controversial management actions, amphibians possess a number of attributes that make them potentially good models for such programs. We reviewed the extent and effectiveness of captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians through an analysis of data from the Global Amphibian Assessment and other sources. Most captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians have focused on threatened species from industrialized countries with relatively low amphibian diversity. Out of 110 species in such programs, 52 were in programs with no plans for reintroduction that had conservation research or conservation education as their main purpose. A further 39 species were in programs that entailed captive breeding and reintroduction or combined captive breeding with relocations of wild animals. Nineteen species were in programs with relocations of wild animals only. Eighteen out of 58 reintroduced species have subsequently bred successfully in the wild, and 13 of these species have established self-sustaining populations. As with threatened amphibians generally, amphibians in captive breeding or reintroduction programs face multiple threats, with habitat loss being the most important. Nevertheless, only 18 out of 58 reintroduced species faced threats that are all potentially reversible. When selecting species for captive programs, dilemmas may emerge between choosing species that have a good chance of surviving after reintroduction because their threats are reversible and those that are doomed to extinction in the wild as a result of irreversible threats. Captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians require long-term commitments to ensure success, and different management strategies may be needed for species earmarked for reintroduction and species used for conservation

  19. Subspecies genetic assignments of worldwide captive tigers increase conservation value of captive populations.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shu-Jin; Johnson, Warren E; Martenson, Janice; Antunes, Agostinho; Martelli, Paolo; Uphyrkina, Olga; Traylor-Holzer, Kathy; Smith, James L D; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2008-04-22

    Tigers (Panthera tigris) are disappearing rapidly from the wild, from over 100,000 in the 1900s to as few as 3000. Javan (P.t. sondaica), Bali (P.t. balica), and Caspian (P.t. virgata) subspecies are extinct, whereas the South China tiger (P.t. amoyensis) persists only in zoos. By contrast, captive tigers are flourishing, with 15,000-20,000 individuals worldwide, outnumbering their wild relatives five to seven times. We assessed subspecies genetic ancestry of 105 captive tigers from 14 countries and regions by using Bayesian analysis and diagnostic genetic markers defined by a prior analysis of 134 voucher tigers of significant genetic distinctiveness. We assigned 49 tigers to one of five subspecies (Bengal P.t. tigris, Sumatran P.t. sumatrae, Indochinese P.t. corbetti, Amur P.t. altaica, and Malayan P.t. jacksoni tigers) and determined 52 had admixed subspecies origins. The tested captive tigers retain appreciable genomic diversity unobserved in their wild counterparts, perhaps a consequence of large population size, century-long introduction of new founders, and managed-breeding strategies to retain genetic variability. Assessment of verified subspecies ancestry offers a powerful tool that, if applied to tigers of uncertain background, may considerably increase the number of purebred tigers suitable for conservation management.

  20. Subspecies genetic assignments of worldwide captive tigers increase conservation value of captive populations.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shu-Jin; Johnson, Warren E; Martenson, Janice; Antunes, Agostinho; Martelli, Paolo; Uphyrkina, Olga; Traylor-Holzer, Kathy; Smith, James L D; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2008-04-22

    Tigers (Panthera tigris) are disappearing rapidly from the wild, from over 100,000 in the 1900s to as few as 3000. Javan (P.t. sondaica), Bali (P.t. balica), and Caspian (P.t. virgata) subspecies are extinct, whereas the South China tiger (P.t. amoyensis) persists only in zoos. By contrast, captive tigers are flourishing, with 15,000-20,000 individuals worldwide, outnumbering their wild relatives five to seven times. We assessed subspecies genetic ancestry of 105 captive tigers from 14 countries and regions by using Bayesian analysis and diagnostic genetic markers defined by a prior analysis of 134 voucher tigers of significant genetic distinctiveness. We assigned 49 tigers to one of five subspecies (Bengal P.t. tigris, Sumatran P.t. sumatrae, Indochinese P.t. corbetti, Amur P.t. altaica, and Malayan P.t. jacksoni tigers) and determined 52 had admixed subspecies origins. The tested captive tigers retain appreciable genomic diversity unobserved in their wild counterparts, perhaps a consequence of large population size, century-long introduction of new founders, and managed-breeding strategies to retain genetic variability. Assessment of verified subspecies ancestry offers a powerful tool that, if applied to tigers of uncertain background, may considerably increase the number of purebred tigers suitable for conservation management. PMID:18424146

  1. Mucormycotic dermatitis in captive adult Wyoming toads.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S K; Williams, E S; Pier, A C; Mills, K W; Bock, M D

    1999-01-01

    During late May 1995, 50 adult captive endangered Wyoming toads (Bufo baxteri) were brought out of hibernation. Approximately 3 to 10 days after hibernation emergence, all toads were hormonally induced to breed, and paired. Each pair was placed in their own breeding tank. Four toads developed clinical signs of disease which included lethargy and multiple (4 to 12) small (2 mm) raised hyperemic nodules with white fuzzy caps on the ventral skin. The condition progressively worsened until death occurred, within 3 to 6 days. Mycotic dermatitis caused by Mucor sp. was diagnosed in the four toads through histology and isolation of the organism. This is the first case report of a Mucor sp. causing a fatal dermatitis in an amphibian without significant inflammatory response and without systemic involvement. PMID:10073348

  2. Stereo Pair: Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This view of northern Patagonia, near El Cain, Argentina shows complexly eroded volcanic terrain, with basalt mesas, sinkholes, landslide debris, playas, and relatively few integrated drainage channels. Surrounding this site (but also extending far to the east) is a broad plateau capped by basalt, the Meseta de Somuncura. Here, near the western edge of the plateau, erosion has broken through the basalt cap in a variety of ways. On the mesas, water-filled sinkholes (lower left) are most likely the result of the collapse of old lava tubes. Along the edges of the mesas (several locations) the basalt seems to be sliding away from the plateau in a series of slices. Water erosion by overland flow is also evident, particularly in canyons where vegetation blankets the drainage channels (green patterns, bottom of image). However, overland water flow does not extend very far at any location. This entire site drains to local playas, some of which are seen here (blue). While the water can reach the playas and then evaporate, what becomes of the eroded rock debris? Wind might excavate some of the finer eroded debris, but the fate of much of the missing bedrock remains mysterious.

    This cross-eyed stereoscopic image pair was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, combined with an enhanced Landsat 7 satellite color image. The topography data are used to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. In doing so, each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The

  3. Anaglyph: Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This view of northern Patagonia, near El Cain, Argentina shows complexly eroded volcanic terrain, with basalt mesas, sinkholes, landslide debris, playas, and relatively few integrated drainage channels. Surrounding this site (but also extending far to the east) is a broad plateau capped by basalt, the Meseta de Somuncura. Here, near the western edge of the plateau, erosion has broken through the basalt cap in a variety of ways. On the mesas, water-filled sinkholes (lower left) are most likely the result of the collapse of old lava tubes. Along the edges of the mesas (several locations) the basalt seems to be sliding away from the plateau in a series of slices. Water erosion by overland flow is also evident, particularly in canyons where vegetation blankets the drainage channels (bright patterns, bottom of image). However, overland water flow does not extend very far at any location. This entire site drains to local playas, some of which are seen here (dark lakes with bright shores). While the water can reach the playas and then evaporate, what becomes of the eroded rock debris? Wind might excavate some of the finer eroded debris, but the fate of much of the missing bedrock remains mysterious.

    This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat Thematic Mapper image over a topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, then producing the two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was

  4. Stereo Pair, Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This view of northern Patagonia, at Los Menucos, Argentina shows remnants of relatively young volcanoes built upon an eroded plain of much older and contorted volcanic, granitic, and sedimentary rocks. The large purple, brown, and green 'butterfly' pattern is a single volcano that has been deeply eroded. Large holes on the volcano's flanks indicate that they may have collapsed soon after eruption, as fluid molten rock drained out from under its cooled and solidified outer shell. At the upper left, a more recent eruption occurred and produced a small volcanic cone and a long stream of lava, which flowed down a gully. At the top of the image, volcanic intrusions permeated the older rocks resulting in a chain of small dark volcanic peaks. At the top center of the image, two halves of a tan ellipse pattern are offset from each other. This feature is an old igneous intrusion that has been split by a right-lateral fault. The apparent offset is about 6.6 kilometers (4 miles). Color, tonal, and topographic discontinuities reveal the fault trace as it extends across the image to the lower left. However, young unbroken basalt flows show that the fault has not been active recently.

    This cross-eyed stereoscopic image pair was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, combined with an enhanced Landsat 7satellite color image. The topography data are used to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. In doing so, each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive

  5. Anaglyph, Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This view of northern Patagonia, at Los Menucos, Argentina shows remnants of relatively young volcanoes built upon an eroded plain of much older and contorted volcanic, granitic, and sedimentary rocks. The large, dark 'butterfly' pattern is a single volcano that has been deeply eroded. Large holes on the volcano's flanks indicate that they may have collapsed soon after eruption, as fluid molten rock drained out from under its cooled and solidified outer shell. At the upper left, a more recent eruption occurred and produced a small volcanic cone and a long stream of lava, which flowed down a gully. At the top of the image, volcanic intrusions permeated the older rocks resulting in a chain of small dark volcanic peaks.

    At the top center of the image, two halves of a light ellipse pattern are offset from each other. This feature is an old igneous intrusion that has been split by a right-lateral fault. The apparent offset is about 6.6 kilometers (4 miles). Tonal and topographic discontinuities reveal the fault trace as it extends across the image to the lower left. However, young unbroken basalt flows show that the fault has not been active recently.

    This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat Thematic Mapper image over a topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, then producing the two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United

  6. Captivity, citizenship, and the ethics of otherwise in the society-of-captives thesis: a commentary on Arrigo.

    PubMed

    Brown, Michelle

    2013-06-01

    In this engagement with Professor Bruce Arrigo's psychological jurisprudence model, I explore his critique of captivity and risk management. I am particularly interested in his claims that incarceration culminates in society's own captivity, that the most destructive aspect of captivity is its foreclosing of human difference and potentiality, and that a praxis that is both clinical and mindful might point a way out. By way of a case anecdote, I interrogate several of the key terms in Arrigo's formulation-citizenship, reform, revolution, and praxis-in an effort to further conjugate from the ground up such an innovative and important set of possibilities.

  7. Yellow fever vaccine-associated adverse events following extensive immunization in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Biscayart, Cristián; Carrega, María Eugenia Pérez; Sagradini, Sandra; Gentile, Angela; Stecher, Daniel; Orduna, Tomás; Bentancourt, Silvia; Jiménez, Salvador García; Flynn, Luis Pedro; Arce, Gabriel Pirán; Uboldi, María Andrea; Bugna, Laura; Morales, María Alejandra; Digilio, Clara; Fabbri, Cintia; Enría, Delia; Diosque, Máximo; Vizzotti, Carla

    2014-03-01

    As a consequence of YF outbreaks that hit Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay in 2008-2009, a significant demand for YF vaccination was subsequently observed in Argentina, a country where the usual vaccine recommendations are restricted to provinces that border Brazil, Paraguay, and Bolivia. The goal of this paper is to describe the adverse events following immunization (AEFI) against YF in Argentina during the outbreak in the northeastern province of Misiones, which occurred from January 2008 to January 2009. During this time, a total of nine cases were reported, almost two million doses of vaccine were administered, and a total of 165 AEFI were reported from different provinces. Case study analyses were performed using two AEFI classifications. Forty-nine events were classified as related to the YF vaccine (24 serious and 1 fatal case), and 12 events were classified as inconclusive. As the use of the YF 17D vaccine can be a challenge to health systems of countries with different endemicity patterns, a careful clinical and epidemiological evaluation should be performed before its prescription to minimize serious adverse events. PMID:24456625

  8. Mycotic dermatitis in captive carpet snakes (Morelia spilotes variegata).

    PubMed

    McKenzie, R A; Green, P E; Branch, P

    1976-07-01

    Geotrichum candidum was isolated from necrotic skin lesions in one of three captive carpet snakes (Morelia spilotes variegata). Hyphae and arthrospores morphologically consistent with this organism were present in histological preparations of lesions from the three snakes.

  9. Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Hua, Liushuai; Gong, Shiping; Wang, Fumin; Li, Weiye; Ge, Yan; Li, Xiaonan; Hou, Fanghui

    2015-01-01

    Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin's specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins. PMID:26155072

  10. 24. Photocopy of engineering drawing. CAPTIVE TEST STANDS AT PADS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photocopy of engineering drawing. CAPTIVE TEST STANDS AT PADS 17A AND 17B-FLAME DEFLECTOR PIPING, MAY 1956. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28501, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  11. Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Hua, Liushuai; Gong, Shiping; Wang, Fumin; Li, Weiye; Ge, Yan; Li, Xiaonan; Hou, Fanghui

    2015-01-01

    Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin's specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins.

  12. Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Liushuai; Gong, Shiping; Wang, Fumin; Li, Weiye; Ge, Yan; Li, Xiaonan; Hou, Fanghui

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin’s specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins. PMID:26155072

  13. 6. VIEW OF FLAME DEFLECTOR DIRECTLY UNDER CAPTIVE TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF FLAME DEFLECTOR DIRECTLY UNDER CAPTIVE TEST STAND WITH MOBILE SERVICE STRUCTURE IN BACKGROUND; VIEW TO WEST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28501, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  14. Limitations of captive breeding in endangered species recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, N.F.R.; Derrickson, S.R.; Beissenger, S.R.; Wiley, J.W.; Smith, T.B.; Toone, W.D.; Miller, B.

    1996-01-01

    The use of captive breeding in species recovery has grown enormously in recent years, but without a concurrent growth in appreciation of its limitations. Problems with (1) establishing self-sufficient captive populations, (2) poor success in reintroductions, (3.) high costs, (4) domestication, (5) preemption of other recovery techniques, (6) disease outbreaks, and (7) maintaining administrative continuity have all been significant. The technique has often been invoked prematurely and should not normally be employed before a careful field evaluation of costs and benefits of all conservation alternatives has been accomplished and a determination made that captive breeding is essential for species survival. Merely demonstrating that a species population is declining or bas fallen below what may be a minimum viable size does not constitute enough analysis to justify captive breeding as a recovery measure. Captive breeding should be reviewed as a last resort in species recovery and not a prophylactic or long-term solution because of the inexorable genetic and phenotypic changes that occur in captive environments. Captive breeding can play a crucial role in recovery of some species for witch effective alternatives are unavailable in the short term. However, it should not displace habitat and ecosystem protection nor should it be invoked in the absence of comprehensive efforts to maintain or restore populations in wild habitats. Zoological institutions with captive breeding programs should operate under carefully defined conditions of disease prevention and genetic/behavioral management. More important, these institutions should help preserve biodiversity through their capacities for public education, professional training, research, and support of in situ conservation efforts.

  15. Update on common nutritional disorders of captive reptiles.

    PubMed

    Mans, Christoph; Braun, Jana

    2014-09-01

    Nutritional disorders of captive reptiles remain very common despite the increasing knowledge about reptile husbandry and nutrition. Many nutritional disorders are diagnosed late in the disease process; often secondary complications, such as pathologic fractures in reptiles suffering from nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism have occurred. Therefore, every attempt should be made to educate reptile owners and keepers about the proper care and dietary needs of reptiles under their care because all nutritional disorders seen in captive reptiles are preventable.

  16. Captive tiger attack: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Henry J; Cullinane, Daniel C; Sawyer, Mark D; Zietlow, Scott P

    2007-05-01

    Tigers, as well as other large predators, are being held in private settings with increasing frequency. Unregulated private "zoos" are cropping up in many rural and suburban settings across the country. The number of attacks from captive predators also is on the rise. This case highlights the potentially violent and aggressive nature of wild animals held in captivity. Treatment principals and wounding patterns of large cat attacks are emphasized.

  17. Pulmonary hydatidosis from Southern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Menghi, Claudia Irene; Arias, Liliana Eugenia; Puzzio, Carla Pia; Gatta, Claudia Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Hydatidosis or cystic echinococcosis is a zoonosis caused by the larval stage of the cestode Echinococcus. Even though different measures are taken including the use of a vaccine in livestock to stop transmission, the continuous diagnoses of cases, mainly of liver and pulmonary hydatidosis, show the failure of the control programs for hydatidosis in our country. A clinical case of pulmonary hydatidosis in a patient from a rural endemic area in Southern Argentina is described. PMID:26629454

  18. Patagonian Lakes, Argentina, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Patagonian Lakes of Argentinas Los Glacieres National Park (50.0S, 73.0W) occupying the foothills of the southern Andes Mountains along the border with Chile, are some of the most scenic in South America. The range is covered by a permanent ice cap and glaciers. Glacier activity frequently reaches into the lake region causing blockage and impounding of the waters until water pressure causes the glacier to crack with a roar that can be heard for miles.

  19. Thunderstorms, Andean Mountains Ridgeline, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In this scenic view of thunderstorms skirting the eastern ridgeline of the Andeas Mountains in northern Argentina (approximate coordinates 28.0S, 57.0W), the confluence of the Rio Salado and Rio Saladillo where they merge with the Rio Parana can be seen in sunglint. Thunderstorms along the eastern Andes are typical at this time of year (Southern Hemisphere summer) with anvils moving to the east from the core of the storm.

  20. Captive breeding and the reintroduction of Mexican and red wolves.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, P W; Fredrickson, R J

    2008-01-01

    Mexican and red wolves were both faced with extinction in the wild until captive populations were established more than two decades ago. These captive populations have been successfully managed genetically to minimize mean kinship and retain genetic variation. Descendants of these animals were subsequently used to start reintroduced populations, which now number about 40-50 Mexican wolves in Arizona and New Mexico and about 100 red wolves in North Carolina. The original captive Mexican wolf population was descended from three founders. Merging this lineage with two other captive lineages, each with two founders, has been successfully carried out in the captive population and is in progress in the reintroduced population. This effort has resulted in increased fitness of cross-lineage wolves, or genetic rescue, in both the captive and reintroduced populations. A number of coyote-red wolf hybrid litters were observed in the late 1990s in the reintroduced red wolf population. Intensive identification and management efforts appear to have resulted in the elimination of this threat. However, population reintroductions of both Mexican and red wolves appear to have reached numbers well below the generally recommended number for recovery and there is no current effort to re-establish other populations.

  1. Captive breeding and reintroduction of the endangered masked bobwhite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.W.; Gabel, R.R.; Goodwin, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    Efforts to restore the endangered masked bobwhite (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi) to its former range have required 1) habitat acquisition, restoration, and preservation; 2) captive propagation; and 3) reintroduction .bf captive-bred stock. In its role to recover the masked bobwhite, the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (U.S. Fish and Wildli e Service) has refined captive breeding techniques; provided captive-produced stock for release; conducted field research on the distribution, limiting factors, and habitat characteristics of this species; and developed release methods. Techniques for the husbandry and captive management, breeding, artificial incubation and hatching of eggs, and rearing of young of the masked bobwhite have been developed. Successful reintroduction techniques for the masked bobwhite have included prerelease conditioning and/or cross-fostering of captive-reared masked bobwhite chicks to a wild-caught, related, vasectomized bobwhite species and their release to the wild as family units. In addition, the establishment by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service of the Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge in 1985 has further enhanced the potential for establishing a self-sustaining population of the masked bobwhite in the U. S. Through continued releases and active management of habitat, therefore, it is believed that the masked bobwhite can become permanently established at the refuge to ensure its continued survival in the wild.

  2. Contrasting responses to novelty by wild and captive orangutans.

    PubMed

    Forss, Sofia I F; Schuppli, Caroline; Haiden, Dominique; Zweifel, Nicole; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-10-01

    Several studies have suggested that wild primates tend to behave with caution toward novelty, whereas captive primates are thought to be less neophobic, more exploratory, and more innovative. However, few studies have systematically compared captive and wild individuals of the same species to document this "captivity effect" in greater detail. Here we report the responses of both wild and captive orangutans to the same novel items. Novel objects were presented to wild orangutans on multiple platforms placed in the canopy and equipped with motion-triggered video cameras. The same and different novel objects were also presented to orangutans in two different zoos. The results demonstrate extreme conservatism in both Bornean and Sumatran wild orangutans, who gradually approached the novel objects more closely as they became familiar, but avoided contact with them over many encounters spanning several months. Their zoo-living conspecifics, in contrast, showed an immediate neophilic response. Our results thus confirm the "captivity effect." To the various ecological explanations proposed before (reduced risk and increased time and energy balance for captive individuals relative to wild ones), we add the social information hypothesis, which claims that individuals confronted with novel items preferentially rely on social cues whenever possible. This caution toward novelty disappears when human caretakers become additional role models and can also be eroded when all experience with novelty is positive.

  3. Genomic resources and genetic diversity of captive lesser kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis).

    PubMed

    Bock, Friederike; Gallus, Susanne; Janke, Axel; Hailer, Frank; Steck, Beatrice L; Kumar, Vikas; Nilsson, Maria A

    2014-01-01

    The lesser kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis) is a spiral-horned antelope native to northeastern Africa. Individuals kept in zoological gardens are suspected to be highly inbred due to few founder individuals and a small breeding stock. A morphological study suggested two distinct subspecies of the lesser kudu. However, subspecies designation and population structure in zoological gardens has not been analyzed using molecular markers. We analyzed one mitochondrial marker and two nuclear intron loci (total: 2,239 nucleotides) in 52 lesser kudu individuals. Of these, 48 individuals were bred in captivity and sampled from seven different zoos. The four remaining individuals were recently captured in Somalia and are currently held in the Maktoum zoo. Maternally inherited mitochondrial sequences indicate substantial amounts of genetic variation in the zoo populations, while the biparentally inherited intron sequences are, as expected, less variable. The analyzed individuals show 10 mitochondrial haplotypes with a maximal distance of 10 mutational steps. No prominent subspecies structure is detectable in this study. For further studies of the lesser kudu population genetics, we present microsatellite markers from a low-coverage genome survey using 454 sequencing technology. PMID:25043251

  4. Genomic resources and genetic diversity of captive lesser kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis).

    PubMed

    Bock, Friederike; Gallus, Susanne; Janke, Axel; Hailer, Frank; Steck, Beatrice L; Kumar, Vikas; Nilsson, Maria A

    2014-01-01

    The lesser kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis) is a spiral-horned antelope native to northeastern Africa. Individuals kept in zoological gardens are suspected to be highly inbred due to few founder individuals and a small breeding stock. A morphological study suggested two distinct subspecies of the lesser kudu. However, subspecies designation and population structure in zoological gardens has not been analyzed using molecular markers. We analyzed one mitochondrial marker and two nuclear intron loci (total: 2,239 nucleotides) in 52 lesser kudu individuals. Of these, 48 individuals were bred in captivity and sampled from seven different zoos. The four remaining individuals were recently captured in Somalia and are currently held in the Maktoum zoo. Maternally inherited mitochondrial sequences indicate substantial amounts of genetic variation in the zoo populations, while the biparentally inherited intron sequences are, as expected, less variable. The analyzed individuals show 10 mitochondrial haplotypes with a maximal distance of 10 mutational steps. No prominent subspecies structure is detectable in this study. For further studies of the lesser kudu population genetics, we present microsatellite markers from a low-coverage genome survey using 454 sequencing technology.

  5. Social grooming network in captive chimpanzees: does the wild or captive origin of group members affect sociality?

    PubMed

    Levé, Marine; Sueur, Cédric; Petit, Odile; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Hirata, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Many chimpanzees throughout the world are housed in captivity, and there is an increasing effort to recreate social groups by mixing individuals with captive origins with those with wild origins. Captive origins may entail restricted rearing conditions during early infant life, including, for example, no maternal rearing and a limited social life. Early rearing conditions have been linked with differences in tool-use behavior between captive- and wild-born chimpanzees. If physical cognition can be impaired by non-natural rearing, what might be the consequences for social capacities? This study describes the results of network analysis based on grooming interactions in chimpanzees with wild and captive origins living in the Kumamoto Sanctuary in Kumamoto, Japan. Grooming is a complex social activity occupying up to 25% of chimpanzees' waking hours and plays a role in the emergence and maintenance of social relationships. We assessed whether the social centralities and roles of chimpanzees might be affected by their origin (captive vs wild). We found that captive- and wild-origin chimpanzees did not differ in their grooming behavior, but that theoretical removal of individuals from the network had differing impacts depending on the origin of the individual. Contrary to findings that non-natural early rearing has long-term effects on physical cognition, living in social groups seems to compensate for the negative effects of non-natural early rearing. Social network analysis (SNA) and, in particular, theoretical removal analysis, were able to highlight differences between individuals that would have been impossible to show using classical methods. The social environment of captive animals is important to their well-being, and we are only beginning to understand how SNA might help to enhance animal welfare. PMID:26403665

  6. Social grooming network in captive chimpanzees: does the wild or captive origin of group members affect sociality?

    PubMed

    Levé, Marine; Sueur, Cédric; Petit, Odile; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Hirata, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Many chimpanzees throughout the world are housed in captivity, and there is an increasing effort to recreate social groups by mixing individuals with captive origins with those with wild origins. Captive origins may entail restricted rearing conditions during early infant life, including, for example, no maternal rearing and a limited social life. Early rearing conditions have been linked with differences in tool-use behavior between captive- and wild-born chimpanzees. If physical cognition can be impaired by non-natural rearing, what might be the consequences for social capacities? This study describes the results of network analysis based on grooming interactions in chimpanzees with wild and captive origins living in the Kumamoto Sanctuary in Kumamoto, Japan. Grooming is a complex social activity occupying up to 25% of chimpanzees' waking hours and plays a role in the emergence and maintenance of social relationships. We assessed whether the social centralities and roles of chimpanzees might be affected by their origin (captive vs wild). We found that captive- and wild-origin chimpanzees did not differ in their grooming behavior, but that theoretical removal of individuals from the network had differing impacts depending on the origin of the individual. Contrary to findings that non-natural early rearing has long-term effects on physical cognition, living in social groups seems to compensate for the negative effects of non-natural early rearing. Social network analysis (SNA) and, in particular, theoretical removal analysis, were able to highlight differences between individuals that would have been impossible to show using classical methods. The social environment of captive animals is important to their well-being, and we are only beginning to understand how SNA might help to enhance animal welfare.

  7. English in Argentina: A Sociolinguistic Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Paul Maersk

    2003-01-01

    Provides insight into the dimensions and dynamics of English in Argentina by drawing a sociolinguistic profile of this language in a South American setting. Begins with an overview of the languages and cultures represented in Argentina and the historical presence, contact, and availability of English from the eighteenth century on. (VWL)

  8. Boll weevil invasion process in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, is the most destructive cotton pest in the Western Hemisphere. In 1993, the pest was reported in Argentina, and in 1994 boll weevils were captured in cotton fields in the Formosa Province on the border between Argentina and Paraguay. The pest ha...

  9. The Stenopodainae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) of Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Diez, Fernando; Coscarón, María del Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In Argentina, 10 genera and 33 species of Stenopodainae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) have been recorded. Diagnoses of the genera, subgenera and species are given, and an illustrated key to genera is provided. Six species are new records for Argentina and an additional seven species represent new records for provinces. PMID:25493054

  10. A new Batillipedidae (Tardigrada, Arthrotardigrada) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Menechella, Agustín G; Bulnes, Verónica N; Cazzaniga, Néstor J

    2015-10-16

    A new species of marine tardigrade, Batillipes acuticauda sp. n., has been found in midlittoral sand sediments collected at Monte Hermoso beach (Buenos Aires province, Argentina). The new species differs from all other members of Batillipedidae by its combination of caudal apparatus, lateral processes and toe patterns. It is the first description of an arthrotardigrade from Argentina.

  11. Public University in Argentina: Subsidizing the Rich?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozada, Martin Gonzalez; Menendez, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    Investigates educational equity and efficiency of higher education in Argentina. Concludes that despite the fact that public universities are tuition-free, only students from the richest families in Argentina are able to attend universities. Suggests improving higher education equality and efficiency by charging tuition fees and offering selective…

  12. A new Batillipedidae (Tardigrada, Arthrotardigrada) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Menechella, Agustín G; Bulnes, Verónica N; Cazzaniga, Néstor J

    2015-01-01

    A new species of marine tardigrade, Batillipes acuticauda sp. n., has been found in midlittoral sand sediments collected at Monte Hermoso beach (Buenos Aires province, Argentina). The new species differs from all other members of Batillipedidae by its combination of caudal apparatus, lateral processes and toe patterns. It is the first description of an arthrotardigrade from Argentina. PMID:26624370

  13. Bionomics of Aedes aegypti subpopulations (Diptera: Culicidae) from Misiones Province, northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Tejerina, Edmundo Fabricio; Almeida, Francisco Felipe Ludueña; Almirón, Walter Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Life statistics of four Aedes aegypti subpopulations from the subtropical province of Misiones were studied during autumn and winter, under semi-natural conditions, coming from the localities of Posadas (SW), San Javier (SE), Bernardo de Irigoyen (NE) and Puerto Libertad (NW). The eastern subpopulations are geographically separated by the central mountain system of the province from the western subpopulations. High percentages of larval and pupal survival (97-100%) were recorded, and no significant differences were detected among the four subpopulations. Larvae and pupae lasted approximately 8 days to complete their development, no significant differences being detected among the four subpopulations studied. Sex ratio recorded did not differ significantly from 1:1. Male longevity did not show difference among the different subpopulations, but female longevity was remarkably different among the four subpopulations (F=16.27; d.f.=(3;8); P=0.0009), ranging among 11.45 days for San Javier and 57.87 days for Posadas. Fecundity also varied considerably among subpopulations, the greatest number (307.44 eggs/female) being recorded for Posadas (F=4.13; d.f.=(3;8); P=0.04). Ae. aegypti females of the western subpopulations lived longer than the eastern subpopulations studied, therefore, the risk of dengue outbreak would be greater on the Misiones Province border with Paraguay.

  14. Electrocardiogram abnormalities in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Doane, Cynthia J; Lee, D Rick; Sleeper, Meg M

    2006-12-01

    Although cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the captive chimpanzee population, little is known about the prevalence and etiology of heart disease in this species. We reviewed the physical exam records of 265 common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) for electrocardiogram abnormalities. During the 24-mo period reviewed (August 2003 through August 2005), 34 animals were diagnosed with cardiac arrhythmias consisting of ventricular arrhythmias, supraventricular arrhythmias, conduction disturbances, mixed arrhythmias, and bradycardia. The incidence of cardiac arrhythmia was significantly higher in male animals, chimpanzees 20 to 39 y old, and those with structural heart disease. Incidence of cardiac arrhythmia was not significantly higher in animals with hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or chronic viral infections. During the retrospective period, 7 animals with cardiac arrhythmias died or were euthanized. Mortality was significantly higher in animals with ventricular arrhythmias compared with those without ventricular arrhythmias. We conclude that in the common chimpanzee, age, male gender, and structural heart disease are risk factors for developing cardiac arrhythmias and that ventricular arrhythmias are risk factors for mortality. PMID:17219782

  15. Developments in amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction programs.

    PubMed

    Harding, Gemma; Griffiths, Richard A; Pavajeau, Lissette

    2016-04-01

    Captive breeding and reintroduction remain high profile but controversial conservation interventions. It is important to understand how such programs develop and respond to strategic conservation initiatives. We analyzed the contribution to conservation made by amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction since the launch of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Amphibian Conservation Action Plan (ACAP) in 2007. We assembled data on amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction from a variety of sources including the Amphibian Ark database and the IUCN Red List. We also carried out systematic searches of Web of Science, JSTOR, and Google Scholar for relevant literature. Relative to data collected from 1966 to 2006, the number of species involved in captive breeding and reintroduction projects increased by 57% in the 7 years since release of the ACAP. However, there have been relatively few new reintroductions over this period; most programs have focused on securing captive-assurance populations (i.e., species taken into captivity as a precaution against extinctions in the wild) and conservation-related research. There has been a shift to a broader representation of frogs, salamanders, and caecilians within programs and an increasing emphasis on threatened species. There has been a relative increase of species in programs from Central and South America and the Caribbean, where amphibian biodiversity is high. About half of the programs involve zoos and aquaria with a similar proportion represented in specialist facilities run by governmental or nongovernmental agencies. Despite successful reintroduction often being regarded as the ultimate milestone for such programs, the irreversibility of many current threats to amphibians may make this an impractical goal. Instead, research on captive assurance populations may be needed to develop imaginative solutions to enable amphibians to survive alongside current, emerging, and future threats.

  16. Developments in amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction programs.

    PubMed

    Harding, Gemma; Griffiths, Richard A; Pavajeau, Lissette

    2016-04-01

    Captive breeding and reintroduction remain high profile but controversial conservation interventions. It is important to understand how such programs develop and respond to strategic conservation initiatives. We analyzed the contribution to conservation made by amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction since the launch of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Amphibian Conservation Action Plan (ACAP) in 2007. We assembled data on amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction from a variety of sources including the Amphibian Ark database and the IUCN Red List. We also carried out systematic searches of Web of Science, JSTOR, and Google Scholar for relevant literature. Relative to data collected from 1966 to 2006, the number of species involved in captive breeding and reintroduction projects increased by 57% in the 7 years since release of the ACAP. However, there have been relatively few new reintroductions over this period; most programs have focused on securing captive-assurance populations (i.e., species taken into captivity as a precaution against extinctions in the wild) and conservation-related research. There has been a shift to a broader representation of frogs, salamanders, and caecilians within programs and an increasing emphasis on threatened species. There has been a relative increase of species in programs from Central and South America and the Caribbean, where amphibian biodiversity is high. About half of the programs involve zoos and aquaria with a similar proportion represented in specialist facilities run by governmental or nongovernmental agencies. Despite successful reintroduction often being regarded as the ultimate milestone for such programs, the irreversibility of many current threats to amphibians may make this an impractical goal. Instead, research on captive assurance populations may be needed to develop imaginative solutions to enable amphibians to survive alongside current, emerging, and future threats. PMID

  17. Water Buffalos as carriers of Babesia bovis in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ferreri, Lucas; Benitez, Daniel; Dominguez, Mariana; Rodriguez, Anabel; Asenzo, Gustavo; Mesplet, Maria; Florin-Christensen, Monica; Schnittger, Leonhard

    2008-12-01

    The tick-transmitted hemoprotozoan Babesia bovis is a major causative agent of bovine babesiosis, an often fatal disease of cattle. The disease is widespread in the northeastern region of Argentina, where an increasing part of the livestock is composed of water buffalos. Although clinical cases of buffalo babesiosis have not been reported so far, the pathogen-transmitting tick vector has been occasionally observed by us to be feeding on water buffalos. We therefore set out to examine whether buffalos may constitute a reservoir of the parasite. Competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) detected B. bovis-specific antibodies in 20% of investigated buffalos (21/103), while direct detection of the pathogen by nested PCR was demonstrated in 34% of the animals (35/103). In one field, more than 60% of investigated animals (22/36) tested positive by nested PCR. These results are discussed in the context of buffalo babesiosis reported in other countries and in view of the currently effected control measures against bovine babesiosis in the region.

  18. Thermal characteristics of wild and captive Micronesian Kingfisher nesting habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kesler, Dylan C.; Haig, Susan M.

    2004-01-01

    To provide information for managing the captive population of endangered Guam Micronesian kingfishers (Halcyon cinnamomina cinnamomina), four biologically relevant thermal metrics were compared among captive facilities on the United States mainland and habitats used by wild Micronesian kingfishers on the island of Pohnpei (H. c. reichenbachii), Federated States of Micronesia. Additionally, aviaries where kingfishers laid eggs were compared to those in which birds did not attempt to breed. Compared to aviaries, habitats used by wild Pohnpei kingfishers had 3.2A?C higher daily maximum and minimum temperatures and the proportion of time when temperatures were in the birds' thermoneutral zone was 45% greater. No differences were found in the magnitude of temperature fluctuation in captive and wild environments. In captive environments in which birds bred, daily maximum temperatures were 2.1A?C higher and temperatures were within the thermoneutral zone 25% more often than in the aviaries where the kingfishers did not breed. No differences were found in the magnitude of temperature fluctuation or the daily minimum temperature. Results suggest that the thermal environment has the potential to influence reproduction, and that consideration should be given to increasing temperatures in captive breeding facilities to improve propagation of the endangered Micronesian kingfisher.

  19. Missile Captive Carry Monitoring using a Capacitive MEMS Accelerometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hatchell, Brian K.; Mauss, Fredrick J.; Santiago-Rojas, Emiliano; Amaya, Ivan A.; Skorpik, James R.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Marotta, Steve

    2010-04-08

    Military missiles are exposed to many sources of mechanical vibration that can affect system reliability, safety, and mission effectiveness. One of the most significant exposures to vibration occurs when the missile is being carried by an aviation platform, which is a condition known as captive carry. If the duration of captive carry exposure could be recorded during the missile’s service life, several advantages could be realized. Missiles that have been exposed to durations outside the design envelop could be flagged or screened for maintenance or inspection; lightly exposed missiles could be selected for critical mission applications; and missile allocation to missions could be based on prior use to avoid overuse. The U. S. Army Aviation and Missile Research Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) has been developing health monitoring systems to assess and improve reliability of missiles during storage and field exposures. Under the direction of AMRDEC staff, engineers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a Captive Carry Health Monitor (CCHM) for the HELLFIRE II missile. The CCHM is an embedded usage monitoring device installed on the outer skin of the HELLFIRE II missile to record the cumulative hours the host missile has been in captive carry mode and thereby assess the overall health of the missile. This paper provides an overview of the CCHM electrical and package design, describes field testing and data analysis techniques used to identify captive carry, and discusses the potential application of missile health and usage data for real-time reliability analysis and fleet management.

  20. Behavior of captive white-footed mice.

    PubMed

    Kavanau, J L

    1967-03-31

    Detailed studies of the behavior of captive white-footed mice have cast a number of old problems in new perspectives. Many responses of small captive mammals cannot be interpreted at face value because of severe distortions of behavior that are caused by depriving the wild animal of natural outlets for activity. Confined animals are likely to seize upon and repeatedly exercise virtually any opportunities to modify (and alter their relationships with) their surroundings. In addition they have a strong tendency to counteract nonvolitional and "unexpected" deviations from the status quo. As a result, their responses do not bear an immutable relationship to the nature of the stimulus or other variable being modified; stimuli and activities that are rewarding in certain circumstances are avoided in others. These aspects of behavior have been illustrated by studies of nest occupancy, running in motordriven wheels, and control of intensity of illumination. The results of the control-of-illumination studies suggest the complex interplay of tendencies to modify features of the environment, to avoid conditions imposed compulsorily, and to select preferred levels of illumination. The importance of split-second timing, coordination, and quick reflex actions in the running of activity wheels is indicated by the fact that experienced white-footed mice prefer running in square "wheels" and wheels with hurdles to running in plain round wheels. The relatively conservative behavior of these mice in selecting between multiple sources of food and water and different types of activity wheels suggests the need for careful experimental design in free-choice studies with inexperienced animals. The tendency of trained animals to give some so-called "incorrect" responses even after long experience can be interpreted most reasonably in terms of the adaptive value of a certain degree of variability of behavior in the wild. White-footed mice readily master complex regimes in which several

  1. [The health system of Argentina].

    PubMed

    Belló, Mariana; Becerril-Montekio, Victor M

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the health system of Argentina.This system has three sectors: public, social security and private.The public sector includes the national and provincial ministries as well as the network of public hospitals and primary health care units which provide care to the poor and uninsured population. This sector is financed with taxes and payments made by social security beneficiaries that use public health care facilities. The social security sector or Obras Sociales (OS) covers all workers of the formal economy and their families. Most OS operate through contracts with private providers and are financed with payroll contributions of employers and employees. Finally, the private sector includes all those private providers offering services to individuals, OS beneficiaries and all those with private health insurance.This sector also includes private insurance agencies called Prepaid Medicine Enterprises, financed mostly through premiums paid by families and/or employers.This paper also discusses some of the recent innovations implemented in Argentina, including the program Remediar.

  2. [The health system of Argentina].

    PubMed

    Belló, Mariana; Becerril-Montekio, Victor M

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the health system of Argentina.This system has three sectors: public, social security and private.The public sector includes the national and provincial ministries as well as the network of public hospitals and primary health care units which provide care to the poor and uninsured population. This sector is financed with taxes and payments made by social security beneficiaries that use public health care facilities. The social security sector or Obras Sociales (OS) covers all workers of the formal economy and their families. Most OS operate through contracts with private providers and are financed with payroll contributions of employers and employees. Finally, the private sector includes all those private providers offering services to individuals, OS beneficiaries and all those with private health insurance.This sector also includes private insurance agencies called Prepaid Medicine Enterprises, financed mostly through premiums paid by families and/or employers.This paper also discusses some of the recent innovations implemented in Argentina, including the program Remediar. PMID:21877098

  3. Education in acoustics in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyara, Federico

    2002-11-01

    Over the last decades, education in acoustics (EA) in Argentina has experienced ups and downs due to economic and political issues interfering with long term projects. Unlike other countries, like Chile, where EA has reached maturity in spite of the acoustical industry having shown little development, Argentina has several well-established manufacturers of acoustic materials and equipment but no specific career with a major in acoustics. At the university level, acoustics is taught as a complementary--often elective--course for careers such as architecture, communication engineering, or music. In spite of this there are several research centers with programs covering environmental and community noise, effects of noise on man, acoustic signal processing, musical acoustics and acoustic emission, and several national and international meetings are held each year in which results are communicated and discussed. Several books on a variety of topics such as sound system, architectural acoustics, and noise control have been published as well. Another chapter in EA is technical and vocational education, ranging between secondary and postsecondary levels, with technical training on sound system operation or design. Over the last years there have been several attempts to implement master degrees in acoustics or audio engineering, with little or no success.

  4. Artificial insemination in captive Whooping Cranes: Results from genetic analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, K.L.; Nicolich, Jane M.

    2001-01-01

    Artificial insemination has been used frequently in the captive whooping crane (Grus americana) population. In the 1980s, it was necessary at times to inseminate females with semen from several males during the breeding season or with semen from multiple males simultaneously due to unknown sperm viability of the breeding males. The goals of this study were to apply microsatellite DNA profiles to resolve uncertain paternities and to use these results to evaluate the current paternity assignment assumptions used by captive managers. Microsatellite DNA profiles were successful in resolving 20 of 23 paternity questions. When resolved paternities were coupled with data on insemination timing, substantial information was revealed on fertilization timing in captive whooping cranes. Delayed fertilization from inseminations 6+ days pre-oviposition suggests capability of sperm storage.

  5. Captivate Your Audience by Turning Powerpoint Presentations into Interactive E-Learning Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Montessa; Hirnyck, Ronda; Agenbroad, Ariel; Bechinski, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Adobe® Captivate software provides educators with a tool to create interactive distance learning modules. This article describes how Adobe® Captivate was used to increase engagement of volunteer learners. An Adobe® Captivate module was created for the University of Idaho Master Gardener program to educate and test new Master Gardener volunteers on…

  6. Crustal structure of northeastern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucca, John J.; Fuis, Gary S.; Milkereit, Bernd; Mooney, Walter D.; Catchings, Rufus D.

    1986-06-01

    In 1981, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a seismic refraction survey of northeastern California designed to characterize the structure in four geologic provinces: the Klamath Mountains, Cascade Range, Modoc Plateau, and Basin and Range provinces. The survey consisted of north-south lines in the Klamath Mountains and Modoc Plateau provinces, northwest-southeast lines centered on Mount Shasta and Medicine Lake volcano, and an east-west line linking all the profiles. All lines except the east-west line ranged in length from 125 to 140 km, contained three shot points, and were recorded by 100 instruments. The east-west line was 260 km long, contained six shot points, and was recorded by 200 instruments. The Klamath and Modoc lines yielded the simplest models. The Klamath model is finely layered from the surface to at least 14-km depth, consisting of a series of high-velocity layers (6.1-6.7 km/s), ranging in thickness from 1 to 4 km, with alternating positive and negative velocity gradients. A layer with an unreversed velocity of 7.0 km/s extends from 14 km downward to an unknown depth. The Modoc model, in contrast, is thickly layered and has lower velocity at all depths down to 25 km. The uppermost layer, 4.5 km thick, consists of low-velocity material (2-4.5 km/s). Velocity beneath this layer is much higher (6.2 km/s) and increases slowly with depth. A small velocity step (to 6.4 km/s) is seen at 11 km, and a larger step (to 7.0 km/s) is seen at 25 km depth. Moho is probably 38-45 km deep under the Modoc Plateau, but its depth is unknown under the Klamath Mountains. Models for the Shasta and Medicine Lake lines show special features including low velocity (less than 3.5 km/s) in the edifice of Mount Shasta but high velocity (5.6 km/s) at shallow depth (1-2 km) under the summit of Medicine Lake volcano. The model for the east-west line consists of a western part similar to the Klamath model, an eastern part similar to the Modoc model, and laterally changing

  7. Malocclusion in the jaws of captive bred Arctic wolves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Federoff, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    Similar abnormalities in the skulls of captive Arctic Wolves (Canis lupus arctos) and a wild Arctic wolf found dead on Ellesmere Island, Canada, in 1986 are described. The malocclusion is likely to be recessively inherited and would be expressed more frequently in association with increased levels of inbreeding. A re-shaping of the skulls may have occurred due to the effects of the malocclusive trait. The Ellesmere skull was short and wide in comparison to the captive skulls which were long and narrow. The focus of effect was in a foreshortening of the rostrum and the resulting shortened toothrow.

  8. History and dietary husbandry of pangolins in captivity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ci Wen; Chen, Suming; Chang, Chi-Yen; Lin, Mei Fong; Block, Erik; Lorentsen, Ronald; Chin, Jason S C; Dierenfeld, Ellen S

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a history of feeding and dietary husbandry of pangolin in captivity. Over the past 150 years, several zoos have attempted to maintain pangolins (Manis spp). Most of these zoos have not succeeded in maintaining these animals for long periods, associated largely with dietary problems. This study reviews the historic records of captive pangolins. The dietary husbandry of pangolins in Taipei Zoo is discussed in detail. Zoo Biol 0:1-8, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19360575

  9. Neosporosis in a captive Parma wallaby (Macropus parma).

    PubMed

    Cronstedt-Fell, A; Richter, B; Voracek, T; Kübber-Heiss, A

    2012-01-01

    Infection with Neospora caninum has been diagnosed in a variety of animal species; however, reports in marsupials are rare. A captive Parma wallaby (Macropus parma) died suddenly and was subjected to necropsy examination. The main finding was necrotizing myocarditis associated with protozoan parasites. The protozoa were identified as N. caninum by use of immunohistochemistry and partial gene sequence analysis. Neospora and Toxoplasma should be considered a possible cause of disease in captive marsupials. Further work is required to determine whether marsupials are an accidental or terminal host of this protozoan in order to better understand the host-parasite relationship. PMID:21689827

  10. History and dietary husbandry of pangolins in captivity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ci Wen; Chen, Suming; Chang, Chi-Yen; Lin, Mei Fong; Block, Erik; Lorentsen, Ronald; Chin, Jason S C; Dierenfeld, Ellen S

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a history of feeding and dietary husbandry of pangolin in captivity. Over the past 150 years, several zoos have attempted to maintain pangolins (Manis spp). Most of these zoos have not succeeded in maintaining these animals for long periods, associated largely with dietary problems. This study reviews the historic records of captive pangolins. The dietary husbandry of pangolins in Taipei Zoo is discussed in detail. Zoo Biol 0:1-8, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. CHARCOAL-PRODUCING INDUSTRIES IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Charcoal workers in northeastern Brazil: Occupational risks and effects of exposure to wood smoke
    ABSTRACT
    Brazil has the largest production of charcoal in the world, which is used mostly in the iron and steel industries. In most of the production sites, the process is ba...

  12. Superintendent Communication Patterns in Northeastern Indiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clendening, David Earl

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative study was to examine the communication patterns of superintendents in Northeastern Indiana. The demand for accountability, transparency, and student achievement calls for today's superintendent to increase communication strategies and support the needs of the varied stakeholders. Today's public school leaders are…

  13. Argentina spectral-agronomic multitemporal data set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmer, D.; Kinzler, C.; Tomppkins, M. A.; Badhwar, G. D.

    1983-01-01

    A multitemporal LANDSAT spectral data set was created. The data set is over five 5 nm-by-6 nm areas over Argentina and contains by field, the spectral data, vegetation type and cloud cover information.

  14. The Ochodaeidae of Argentina (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, M.J.; Ocampo, Federico C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Ochodaeidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) of Argentina are revised. Previously, two species of Ochodaeinae were known from the country, both in the genus Parochodaeus Nikolajev: Parochodaeus campsognathus (Arrow) and Parochodaeus cornutus (Ohaus). An additional 7 species of Parochodaeus from Argentina are described here as new. In addition, Gauchodaeus patagonicus, new genus and new species in the subfamilyChaetocanthinae, is described. This is the first record of the subfamily Chaetocanthinae in South America. Redescriptions, diagnoses, and maps are provided for each species. We also provide a key to genera and a key to species of Parochodaeus of Argentina. With this work, the number of ochodaeid species known from Argentina is increased from 2 to 10. PMID:22451781

  15. Occurrence of Meloidogyne spp. in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Doucet, M. E.; Pinochet, J.

    1992-01-01

    A record of 84 plant species in 32 families that are hosts to the root-knot nematode species found in Argentina is presented. The genus Meloidogyne appears to be widely distributed in the country, with Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica the most frequently detected species. Other species found in Argentina include M. arenaria, M. cruciani, M. decalineata, M. hapla, and M. ottersoni. The present survey is supplemented with existing published information. PMID:19283059

  16. An Energy Overview of Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-20

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Argentina. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

  17. Parana River Delta in Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Parana River delta is a huge forested marshland about 20 miles northeast of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The area is a very popular tour destination. Guided boat tours can be taken into this vast labyrinth of marsh and trees. The Parana River delta is one of the world's greatest bird-watching destinations. This image highlights the striking contrast between dense forest and wetland marshes, and the deep blue ribbon of the Parana River. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on May 26, 2000. This is a false-color composite image made using shortwave infrared, near infrared, and green wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch.

  18. 50 CFR 15.31 - Criteria for including species in the approved list for captive-bred species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... approved list for captive-bred species. 15.31 Section 15.31 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND... captive-bred species. The Director will periodically review the list of captive-bred exotic bird species...) All specimens of the species known to be in trade (legal or illegal) are captive-bred; (b)...

  19. 50 CFR 15.31 - Criteria for including species in the approved list for captive-bred species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... approved list for captive-bred species. 15.31 Section 15.31 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND... captive-bred species. The Director will periodically review the list of captive-bred exotic bird species...) All specimens of the species known to be in trade (legal or illegal) are captive-bred; (b)...

  20. 50 CFR 15.31 - Criteria for including species in the approved list for captive-bred species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... approved list for captive-bred species. 15.31 Section 15.31 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND... captive-bred species. The Director will periodically review the list of captive-bred exotic bird species...) All specimens of the species known to be in trade (legal or illegal) are captive-bred; (b)...

  1. 50 CFR 15.31 - Criteria for including species in the approved list for captive-bred species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... approved list for captive-bred species. 15.31 Section 15.31 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND... captive-bred species. The Director will periodically review the list of captive-bred exotic bird species...) All specimens of the species known to be in trade (legal or illegal) are captive-bred; (b)...

  2. 50 CFR 15.31 - Criteria for including species in the approved list for captive-bred species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... approved list for captive-bred species. 15.31 Section 15.31 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND... captive-bred species. The Director will periodically review the list of captive-bred exotic bird species...) All specimens of the species known to be in trade (legal or illegal) are captive-bred; (b)...

  3. Pesticide exposure on sloths (Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni) in an agricultural landscape of Northeastern Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Pinnock Branford, Margaret Verónica; de la Cruz, Elba; Solano, Karla; Ramírez, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Between 2005 and 2008, wild Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni inhabiting an agricultural landscape and captive animals from a rescue center in Northeastern Costa Rica were studied to assess exposure to pesticides. A total of 54 animals were sampled: 42 wild sloths captured at an agricultural landscape and 12 captive animals from a rescue center. Pesticides' active ingredients were determined in three sample matrices: hair, aqueous mixture (paws' wash) and cotton gauze (mouth clean) based on multi-residue gas chromatography methods. Recoveries tests ranged from 73 to 146% and relative standard deviations were less than 20% throughout all the recovery tests. Active ingredients detected in sloths samples were ametryn, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, difenoconazole, ethoprophos and thiabendazole. These active ingredients were used in intensive agricultural production for bananas, pineapples and other crops. Blood plasma cholinesterase activity (PChE) was determined by the Ellman method modified for micro plates. Enzyme activity determination was normalized to protein content in the samples according to Bradford method. Wild sloth PChE activity was similar for both species while sloths in captivity showed differences between species. Enzyme activity was significantly lower for two-toed sloths. This study showed that sloths were exposed to pesticides that caused acute and chronic effect in mammals and can also be a threat to other wildlife species. There is a need to better understand the potential effects of exposure to pesticides in sloths and other wild mammal populations, especially those threatened or endangered. More studies in this field must be carried out on the wildlife fauna inhabiting the agricultural landscape and its surroundings.

  4. Pesticide exposure on sloths (Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni) in an agricultural landscape of Northeastern Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Pinnock Branford, Margaret Verónica; de la Cruz, Elba; Solano, Karla; Ramírez, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Between 2005 and 2008, wild Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni inhabiting an agricultural landscape and captive animals from a rescue center in Northeastern Costa Rica were studied to assess exposure to pesticides. A total of 54 animals were sampled: 42 wild sloths captured at an agricultural landscape and 12 captive animals from a rescue center. Pesticides' active ingredients were determined in three sample matrices: hair, aqueous mixture (paws' wash) and cotton gauze (mouth clean) based on multi-residue gas chromatography methods. Recoveries tests ranged from 73 to 146% and relative standard deviations were less than 20% throughout all the recovery tests. Active ingredients detected in sloths samples were ametryn, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, difenoconazole, ethoprophos and thiabendazole. These active ingredients were used in intensive agricultural production for bananas, pineapples and other crops. Blood plasma cholinesterase activity (PChE) was determined by the Ellman method modified for micro plates. Enzyme activity determination was normalized to protein content in the samples according to Bradford method. Wild sloth PChE activity was similar for both species while sloths in captivity showed differences between species. Enzyme activity was significantly lower for two-toed sloths. This study showed that sloths were exposed to pesticides that caused acute and chronic effect in mammals and can also be a threat to other wildlife species. There is a need to better understand the potential effects of exposure to pesticides in sloths and other wild mammal populations, especially those threatened or endangered. More studies in this field must be carried out on the wildlife fauna inhabiting the agricultural landscape and its surroundings. PMID:24579518

  5. Reclassification of captive chimpanzees as endangered would cost lives.

    PubMed

    Vandeberg, John L

    2013-10-01

    A reclassification of captive chimpanzees as endangered by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) would have devastating consequences on critical areas of basic biomedical research for which chimpanzees are uniquely suitable as animal models. It also would have a negative impact on the survival of wild chimpanzees and the preservation of the species. PMID:24025076

  6. Serum vitamin A concentrations in captive sea otters (Enhydra lutris).

    PubMed

    Righton, Alison L; St Leger, Judy A; Schmitt, Todd; Murray, Michael J; Adams, Lance; Fascetti, Andrea J

    2011-03-01

    Individual dietary preferences and difficulty with animal training create challenges and nutritional concerns when evaluating a captive sea otter (Enhydra lutris) diet. The importance of vitamin A within the body reflects the necessity that it be ingested in adequate amounts to ensure optimal health. To compare levels of serum vitamin A concentrations from captive sea otters on daily oral vitamin A supplementation, serum samples from eight adult sea otters from three institutions were evaluated for serum vitamin A concentrations. The eight animals were fed a total of four different diets and received oral supplementation via three different methods. Multiple diet items were analyzed for vitamin A content and were found to have low to nondetectable levels of vitamin A. Oral vitamin A supplementation, as a slurry with dietary items, was shown to be effective and a mean serum concentration of approximately 170 +/- 51 microg/L was obtained for serum vitamin A concentrations in captive sea otters. Captive diets can be modified to increase vitamin A concentration and supplementation and, if accepted, can be used as a means to ensure adequate vitamin A intake.

  7. Dolphin Morbillivirus Infection in a Captive Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina)

    PubMed Central

    Peletto, Simone; Mondin, Alessandra; Centelleghe, Cinzia; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Di Francesco, Cristina Esmeralda; Casalone, Cristina; Acutis, Pier Luigi

    2013-01-01

    During the second morbillivirus epidemic (2007 to 2011) in cetaceans along the Italian coastline, dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) was detected by molecular analyses in a captive harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), with pathological findings consistent with morbillivirus infection. This report confirms interspecies DMV transmission from cetaceans to pinnipeds. PMID:23224101

  8. Excellent Educators: ISTE's Award Winners Inspire, Captivate, and Motivate!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingal, Diana

    2012-01-01

    In the impassioned debate about school reform, there is one point that all sides agree on: Classroom teachers have a huge impact on student success. Great teachers don't just teach. They inspire, they captivate, and they motivate their students to create, investigate, solve, and continue learning long after their school years are over. This…

  9. TOXOPLASMOSIS IN CAPTIVE DOLPHINS (TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS) AND WALRUS (ODOBENUS ROSMRUS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is intriguing and indicative of contamination of the ocean environment and coastal waters with oocysts. Toxoplasma gondii infection was detected in captive marine mammals at a seaquarium in Canada. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in all 7 bottlenose ...

  10. 13. DETAIL VIEW OF DELUGE JETS DIRECTED TOWARDS CAPTIVE TEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL VIEW OF DELUGE JETS DIRECTED TOWARDS CAPTIVE TEST STAND BEHIND PROTECTIVE BLAST WALL. NOTE FLAME RETARDENT PUTTY (FONDUE FYRE) ON WALL; VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28402, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  11. Molecular identification of Entamoeba spp. in captive nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Levecke, B; Dreesen, Leentje; Dorny, Pierre; Verweij, Jaco J; Vercammen, Francis; Casaert, Stijn; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geldhof, Peter

    2010-08-01

    This study describes the molecular identification of 520 Entamoeba-positive fecal samples from a large and diverse population of captive nonhuman primates (NHP). The results revealed the presence of Entamoeba histolytica (NHP variant only), E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, E. hartmanni, E. coli, and E. polecki-like organisms. PMID:20573870

  12. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in captive cheetah.

    PubMed

    Crossley, Beate; Hietala, Sharon; Hunt, Tania; Benjamin, Glenn; Martinez, Marie; Darnell, Daniel; Rubrum, Adam; Webby, Richard

    2012-02-01

    We describe virus isolation, full genome sequence analysis, and clinical pathology in ferrets experimentally inoculated with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus recovered from a clinically ill captive cheetah that had minimal human contact. Evidence of reverse zoonotic transmission by fomites underscores the substantial animal and human health implications of this virus.

  13. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection in a captive bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Galbreath, Elizabeth J.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Abell, John M.

    1994-01-01

    An adult bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) kept in captivity for nearly 7 yr at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, died suddenly with gross and microscopic lesions characteristic of septicemia. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae was isolated from the liver. Fish comprised part of the bird's diet and may have been the source of the organism.

  14. Hemorrhagic enteritis in captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.; Graham, D.L.; Domermuth, C.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Pattee, O.H.

    1983-01-01

    Hemorrhagic enteritis and hepatitis of suspected adenovirus etiology were the apparent cause of death of nine captive American kestrels. Cloacal hemorrhage was the only prominent gross lesion: disseminated hepatocellular necrosis, and intranuclear inclusion bodies were evident microscopically. Electron microscopy revealed numerous adenovirus-like particles associated with the hepatic lesions. Attempts to serologically identify the agent were unsuccessful.

  15. Patterns of aggression among captive American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber).

    PubMed

    Hinton, Mitchell G; Bendelow, Annie; Lantz, Samantha; Wey, Tina W; Schoen, Lee; Brockett, Robin; Karubian, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Many species of flamingo are endangered in the wild but common in zoos, where successful captive breeding programs are a management priority. Unlike their counterparts in the wild, captive flamingo individuals are easy to mark and follow, facilitating longitudinal data collection on social dynamics that may affect reproduction. We studied a captive group of American Flamingos at the Audubon Zoo in New Orleans, LA to document patterns of aggression between individuals during the onset of breeding. We used a social network approach to test whether overall aggression would be higher during courtship or following establishment of pair bonds. Aggression was higher following pair bond establishment than during courtship, suggesting that individuals in our study population may compete more intensely for resources such as nesting sites than for mates. We also found that males were more aggressive than females during all stages of the study period and that there was a positive relationship between age and aggression in males during the pair-bond stage. We discuss these findings in light of management practices for captive populations of flamingos and general patterns of aggression in social animals.

  16. Serum vitamin A concentrations in captive sea otters (Enhydra lutris).

    PubMed

    Righton, Alison L; St Leger, Judy A; Schmitt, Todd; Murray, Michael J; Adams, Lance; Fascetti, Andrea J

    2011-03-01

    Individual dietary preferences and difficulty with animal training create challenges and nutritional concerns when evaluating a captive sea otter (Enhydra lutris) diet. The importance of vitamin A within the body reflects the necessity that it be ingested in adequate amounts to ensure optimal health. To compare levels of serum vitamin A concentrations from captive sea otters on daily oral vitamin A supplementation, serum samples from eight adult sea otters from three institutions were evaluated for serum vitamin A concentrations. The eight animals were fed a total of four different diets and received oral supplementation via three different methods. Multiple diet items were analyzed for vitamin A content and were found to have low to nondetectable levels of vitamin A. Oral vitamin A supplementation, as a slurry with dietary items, was shown to be effective and a mean serum concentration of approximately 170 +/- 51 microg/L was obtained for serum vitamin A concentrations in captive sea otters. Captive diets can be modified to increase vitamin A concentration and supplementation and, if accepted, can be used as a means to ensure adequate vitamin A intake. PMID:22946382

  17. A stereo music system as environmental enrichment for captive chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Howell, Sue; Schwandt, Melanie; Fritz, Jo; Roeder, Elizabeth; Nelson, Christine

    2003-11-01

    Music has been shown to have beneficial effects on humans but little is known about the effects of music on nonhuman primates in biomedical research settings. The authors monitored the effects of music on the behavior of captive chimpanzees and found that music had significant positive effects, including a reduction in agitated and aggressive behaviors.

  18. Controllability in environmental enrichment for captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Videan, Elaine N; Fritz, Jo; Schwandt, Melanie L; Smith, Heather F; Howell, Sue

    2005-01-01

    This study considers the use of nonsocial environmental enrichment by captive chimpanzees at the Primate Foundation of Arizona. The goal was to determine whether a relationship existed between controllability of enrichment items by captive chimpanzees and frequency of use. The study measured controllability, the ability of nonhuman animals to alter aspects of their environment by the potential destructibility of the enrichment item. This study examined additional factors that may affect enrichment use: individual age, sex, rearing history, social group composition, and availability of outdoor access. The chimpanzees in the study used destructible items--the enrichment category with the highest level of controllability--more than indestructible items across all age, sex, and rearing classes. Thus, controllability seems to be an important factor in chimpanzee enrichment. Younger individuals and groups with outdoor access used enrichment more than did older individuals and groups with indoor-only access. Individual sex, rearing history, and social group composition had minimal effects on enrichment use. These results support the importance of control to captive chimpanzees and further enable captive management to customize enrichment programs to the needs of particular animals.

  19. 25. Photocopy of engineering drawing. CAPTIVE TEST STANDS AT PADS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photocopy of engineering drawing. CAPTIVE TEST STANDS AT PADS 17A AND 17B-PLANS AND SECTIONS OF MISSILE SERVICE PIPING, APRIL 1956. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28501, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  20. 2. GENERAL VIEW DOWN TO CAPTIVE TEST STAND. STEEL SERVICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW DOWN TO CAPTIVE TEST STAND. STEEL SERVICE DECK REMOVED. BASE OF UMBILICAL TOWER AT RIGHT AND FLUME LEADING TO DELUGE BASIN AT CENTER; VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28501, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  1. Aspects of the husbandry and management of captive cervids.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Erin; Selariu, Anca I; Anderson, Kelly; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Nalls, Amy V; Powers, Jenny G; Hoover, Edward A; Mathiason, Candace K

    2016-04-01

    In a continuing effort to better understand the transmission and persistence of chronic wasting disease in wild populations of cervids, Colorado State University, Fort Collins houses two species of deer indoors to study the pathogenesis of chronic wasting disease. Here we report key aspects regarding the husbandry and medication of Reeves' muntjac and white-tailed deer in captivity for research purposes. PMID:27003353

  2. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2001 : Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, Deborah A.; McAuley, W. Carlin; Maynard, Desmond J.

    2002-04-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstock and captive rearing programs to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock and captive rearing programs are a form of artificial propagation that are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations that are at critically low numbers. Captive broodstocks, reared in captivity for the entire life cycle, couple the salmon's high fecundity with potentially high survival in protective culture to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from 1 September 2000 to 31 August 2001 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock and captive rearing program. NMFS currently has broodstock in culture from year classes 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000 in both the captive broodstock and captive rearing programs. Offspring from these programs are being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  3. Blood values in wild and captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis).

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Don; Frye, Frederic L.; Stockham, Steven L.; Fredeking, Terry

    2000-01-01

    The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) is the largest living lizard and occupies a range smaller than that of any other large carnivore in the world. Samples from 33 free-ranging animals at five localities in Komodo National Park, Indonesia were evaluated to assess underlying health problems. To build a comparative database, samples from 44 Komodo dragons in both Indonesian and U.S. zoos were also analyzed. Tests performed included complete blood counts, clinical chemistry profiles, vitamin A, D(3), and E analyses, mineral levels, and screening for chlorinated pesticides or other toxins in wild specimens. Blood samples from wild dragons were positive for hemogregarines, whereas captive specimens were all negative. Total white blood cell counts were consistently higher in captive Komodo dragons than in wild specimens. Reference intervals were established for some chemistry analytes, and values obtained from different groups were compared. Vitamin A and E ranges were established. Vitamin D(3) levels were significantly different in Komodo dragons kept in captive, indoor exhibits versus those with daily ultraviolet-B exposure, whether captive or wild specimens. Corrective measures such as ultraviolet-permeable skylights, direct sunlight exposure, and self-ballasted mercury vapor ultraviolet lamps increased vitamin D(3) concentrations in four dragons to levels comparable with wild specimens. Toxicology results were negative except for background-level chlorinated pesticide residues. The results indicate no notable medical, nutritional, or toxic problems in the wild Komodo dragon population. Problems in captive specimens may relate to, and can be corrected by, husbandry measures such as regular ultraviolet-B exposure. Zoo Biol 19:495-509, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Aerobic salivary bacteria in wild and captive Komodo dragons.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Joel M; Gillespie, Don; Sastrawan, Putra; Fredeking, Terry M; Stewart, George L

    2002-07-01

    During the months of November 1996, August 1997, and March 1998, saliva and plasma samples were collected for isolation of aerobic bacteria from 26 wild and 13 captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis). Twenty-eight Gram-negative and 29 Gram-positive species of bacteria were isolated from the saliva of the 39 Komodo dragons. A greater number of wild than captive dragons were positive for both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The average number of bacterial species within the saliva of wild dragons was 46% greater than for captive dragons. While Escherichia coli was the most common bacterium isolated from the saliva of wild dragons, this species was not present in captive dragons. The most common bacteria isolated from the saliva of captive dragons were Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus caseolyticus, neither of which were found in wild dragons. High mortality was seen among mice injected with saliva from wild dragons and the only bacterium isolated from the blood of dying mice was Pasteurella multocida. A competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed the presence of anti-Pasteurella antibody in the plasma of Komodo dragons. Four species of bacteria isolated from dragon saliva showed resistance to one or more of 16 antimicrobics tested. The wide variety of bacteria demonstrated in the saliva of the Komodo dragon in this study, at least one species of which was highly lethal in mice and 54 species of which are known pathogens, support the observation that wounds inflicted by this animal are often associated with sepsis and subsequent bacteremia in prey animals.

  5. Aerobic salivary bacteria in wild and captive Komodo dragons.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Joel M; Gillespie, Don; Sastrawan, Putra; Fredeking, Terry M; Stewart, George L

    2002-07-01

    During the months of November 1996, August 1997, and March 1998, saliva and plasma samples were collected for isolation of aerobic bacteria from 26 wild and 13 captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis). Twenty-eight Gram-negative and 29 Gram-positive species of bacteria were isolated from the saliva of the 39 Komodo dragons. A greater number of wild than captive dragons were positive for both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The average number of bacterial species within the saliva of wild dragons was 46% greater than for captive dragons. While Escherichia coli was the most common bacterium isolated from the saliva of wild dragons, this species was not present in captive dragons. The most common bacteria isolated from the saliva of captive dragons were Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus caseolyticus, neither of which were found in wild dragons. High mortality was seen among mice injected with saliva from wild dragons and the only bacterium isolated from the blood of dying mice was Pasteurella multocida. A competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed the presence of anti-Pasteurella antibody in the plasma of Komodo dragons. Four species of bacteria isolated from dragon saliva showed resistance to one or more of 16 antimicrobics tested. The wide variety of bacteria demonstrated in the saliva of the Komodo dragon in this study, at least one species of which was highly lethal in mice and 54 species of which are known pathogens, support the observation that wounds inflicted by this animal are often associated with sepsis and subsequent bacteremia in prey animals. PMID:12238371

  6. Blood values in wild and captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis).

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Don; Frye, Frederic L.; Stockham, Steven L.; Fredeking, Terry

    2000-01-01

    The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) is the largest living lizard and occupies a range smaller than that of any other large carnivore in the world. Samples from 33 free-ranging animals at five localities in Komodo National Park, Indonesia were evaluated to assess underlying health problems. To build a comparative database, samples from 44 Komodo dragons in both Indonesian and U.S. zoos were also analyzed. Tests performed included complete blood counts, clinical chemistry profiles, vitamin A, D(3), and E analyses, mineral levels, and screening for chlorinated pesticides or other toxins in wild specimens. Blood samples from wild dragons were positive for hemogregarines, whereas captive specimens were all negative. Total white blood cell counts were consistently higher in captive Komodo dragons than in wild specimens. Reference intervals were established for some chemistry analytes, and values obtained from different groups were compared. Vitamin A and E ranges were established. Vitamin D(3) levels were significantly different in Komodo dragons kept in captive, indoor exhibits versus those with daily ultraviolet-B exposure, whether captive or wild specimens. Corrective measures such as ultraviolet-permeable skylights, direct sunlight exposure, and self-ballasted mercury vapor ultraviolet lamps increased vitamin D(3) concentrations in four dragons to levels comparable with wild specimens. Toxicology results were negative except for background-level chlorinated pesticide residues. The results indicate no notable medical, nutritional, or toxic problems in the wild Komodo dragon population. Problems in captive specimens may relate to, and can be corrected by, husbandry measures such as regular ultraviolet-B exposure. Zoo Biol 19:495-509, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:11180411

  7. Magritte's Captivity in Robbe-Grillet's "La Belle Captive:" The Subjugation of the Image by the Word.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortquist, Leslie

    1989-01-01

    Offers Alain Robbe-Grillet's novel "La Belle Captive" (which employs 77 paintings by the Belgian surrealist Rene Magritte) as playful interchange between word and image. Argues that the novel may be understood to demonstrate a fundamental relationship of inequality between word and image. (RS)

  8. Active use of coyotes (Canis latrans) to detect Bovine Tuberculosis in northeastern Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Berentsen, A R; Dunbar, M R; Johnson, S R; Robbe-Austerman, S; Martinez, L; Jones, R L

    2011-07-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is endemic in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Michigan, USA, and research suggests transmission to cattle. Prevalence of the disease in deer is estimated at 1.8%, but as prevalence decreases the difficulty of detection increases. Research suggests coyotes (Canis latrans) have a higher prevalence of bTB in Michigan than deer and sampling coyotes may be a more efficient surveillance tool to detect presence or spread of the disease. Coyotes possess suitable ecological characteristics to serve as a sentinel species, assuming transmission between coyotes is not significant. The question of whether free-ranging coyotes shed Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bTB, has not been previously addressed. We actively used coyotes as a sentinel to detect bTB in infected and uninfected counties in Michigan's Northeastern Lower Peninsula. We determined whether bTB infection was present through bacteriologic culture of lymph nodes and tissues containing lesions and cultured oral/nasal swabs and feces to establish shedding. Seventeen of 171 coyotes were M. bovis culture positive, one of which was from a previously uninfected county. All oral, nasal secretions and feces were culture negative suggesting minimal, if any, shedding of M. bovis. Thus, infection of coyotes is likely to occur through ingestion of infected deer carcasses and not from interaction with conspecifics. These findings support previous research suggesting that coyotes are useful sentinels for bTB. The use of coyotes as a sentinel, may allow wildlife managers to detect the spread of bTB into naïve counties. With earlier detection managers may be able to take proactive surveillance measures to detect the disease in deer and reduce the potential risk to domestic livestock and captive deer herds.

  9. Early Triassic geologic history of northeastern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Paull, R.K.; Paull, R.A.

    1986-08-01

    Conodont biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic studies of Lower Triassic rocks in northeastern Elko County, Nevada, and adjacent parts of Idaho and Utah provide new information about regional geologic history. A sequential summary of Early Triassic events in this area follows: (1) rapid transgression of the Griesbachian sea to limiting barriers on the south (Oquirrh-Uinta axis) and west (Humboldt highland.). (2) Although the initial Triassic transgression may have persisted farther south and west than present-day evidence indicates, a period of progradation during the Dienerian limited marine sedimentation to northeastern-most Nevada and adjacent states. (3) In Smithian time, a widespread transgression spilled south and west over the earliest Triassic basin margin. (4) The southward flood is characterized by locally spectacular basal conglomerates followed by shallow marine deposits of the Thaynes Formation. (5) The transgression to the west was facilitated by tectonic removal of the restrictive barrier during the Smithian. This resulted in a slope-basin environment that accumulated a thick sequence of shale and calcareous siltstone with interbeds of turbidite conglomerates, olistostromes, and exotic blocks derived from Permian formations in northern Nevada or adjacent Idaho. (6) During a regional progradation in early Spathian time, marine conditions persisted in northeastern Nevada. (7) A final depositional episode is documented by the progressive westward spread of carbonate rocks of the Thaynes Formation. (8) Withdrawal of Triassic seas from northeast Nevada occurred post-latest Early Triassic, since a carbonate sequence of more than 300 m overlies the youngest dated interval.

  10. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, Deborah; McAuley, W.; Maynard, Desmond

    2003-04-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstock programs to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock and captive rearing programs are a form of artificial propagation that are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations that are at critically low numbers. Captive broodstocks, reared in captivity for the entire life cycle, couple the salmon's high fecundity with potentially high survival in protective culture to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS activities from 1 September 2001 to 31 August 2002 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock and captive rearing program. NMFS currently has broodstocks in culture from year classes 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 in both the captive breeding and captive rearing programs. Offspring from these programs are being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  11. Brief communication: Morphological effects of captivity: A geometric morphometric analysis of the dorsal side of the scapula in captive-bred and wild-caught Hominoidea.

    PubMed

    Bello-Hellegouarch, Gaëlle; Potau, Josep Maria; Arias-Martorell, Julia; Pastor, Juan Francisco; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

    2013-10-01

    Many osteological collections from museums and research institutions consist mainly of remains from captive-bred animals. The restrictions related to the space of their enclosures and the nature of its substrate are likely to affect the locomotor and postural behaviors of captive-bred animals, which are widely considered uninformative regarding bone morphology and anatomical adaptations of wild animals, especially so in the case of extant great apes. We made a landmark-based geometric morphometrics analysis of the dorsal side of the scapular bone of both wild-caught and captive-bred great apes to clarify the effect of captivity on the morphology of a bone greatly involved in locomotion. The comparison suggested that captivity did not have a significant effect on the landmark configuration used, neither on average scapular shape nor shape variability, being impossible to distinguish the scapulae of a captive-bred animal from that of a wild-caught one. This indicates that the analyzed scapulae from captive Hominoidea specimens may be used in morphological or taxonomic analyses since they show no atypical morphological traits caused by living conditions in captivity.

  12. Psychiatry and humanism in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Niño Amieva, Alejandra

    2016-04-01

    The authors of the present selection of Latin American Psychiatry texts were characterized by a common deep humanistic attitude. These prolific writers were able to establish or extend the scope of the discipline in which they chose to act, questioning the establishment of rigid boundaries within the framework of a rigorous epistemological reflection. Thus the systematizing spirit of Jose Ingenieros' in the context of positivist evolutionism, resulted in the act of founding a discipline that integrated the biological and the social. In the case of Guillermo Vidal his conception of mental health went beyond the biomedical to consider psychotherapies as an emotional commitment, continence and empathic understanding; with regard to César Cabral his formation and extensive clinical practice resulted in a work defined by the inquiring into the theoretical concepts underlying Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology. This brief selection does not exhaust the issues or the level of ideas and discussions of Psychiatry in Argentina, but constitutes a textual corpus representative of a disciplinary conception understood as scientific and humanistic endeavor. PMID:27102381

  13. Psychiatry and humanism in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Niño Amieva, Alejandra

    2016-04-01

    The authors of the present selection of Latin American Psychiatry texts were characterized by a common deep humanistic attitude. These prolific writers were able to establish or extend the scope of the discipline in which they chose to act, questioning the establishment of rigid boundaries within the framework of a rigorous epistemological reflection. Thus the systematizing spirit of Jose Ingenieros' in the context of positivist evolutionism, resulted in the act of founding a discipline that integrated the biological and the social. In the case of Guillermo Vidal his conception of mental health went beyond the biomedical to consider psychotherapies as an emotional commitment, continence and empathic understanding; with regard to César Cabral his formation and extensive clinical practice resulted in a work defined by the inquiring into the theoretical concepts underlying Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology. This brief selection does not exhaust the issues or the level of ideas and discussions of Psychiatry in Argentina, but constitutes a textual corpus representative of a disciplinary conception understood as scientific and humanistic endeavor.

  14. Contextual view showing northeastern eucalyptus windbreak and portion of citrus ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view showing northeastern eucalyptus windbreak and portion of citrus orchard. Camera facing 118" east-southeast. - Goerlitz House, 9893 Highland Avenue, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino County, CA

  15. Ticks infesting wildlife species in northeastern Brazil with new host and locality records.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Siqueira, Daniel B; Rameh-De-Albuquerque, Luciana C; Da Silva E Souza, Denisson; Zanotti, Alexandre P; Ferreira, Débora R A; Martins, Thiago F; De Senna, Michelle B; Wagner, Paulo G C; Da Silva, Marcio A; Marvulo, Maria F V; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2010-11-01

    From September 2008 to March 2010, 397 ticks (315 larvae, 33 nymphs, 23 females, and 26 males) were collected from captive and free-living wildlife species in northeastern Brazil. Six tick species were identified, including Amblyomma auricularium (Conil) on Tamandua tetradactyla (L.), Amblyomma dubitatum Neumann on Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (L.), Nectomys rattus (Pelzen) and T. tetradactyla, Amblyomma parvum Aragão on T. tetradactyla, Amblyomma rotundatum Koch on Boa constrictor L., Chelonoidis carbonaria (Spix), Kinosternon scorpioides (L.) and Rhinella jimi (Stevaux), Amblyomma oarium Koch on Bradypus variegatus Schinz, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) on Lycalopex vetulus (Lund). Nectomys rattus and T. tetradactyla are new hosts for A. dubitatum. This study extends the known distribution ofA. dubitatum in South America and provides evidence that its geographical range has been underestimated because of the lack of research. Four (A. dubitatum, A. parvum, A. rotundatum, and R. sanguineus) of six tick species identified in this study have previously been found on humans in South America, some of them being potentially involved in the transmission of pathogens of zoonotic concern.

  16. CLINICOPATHOLOGIC FEATURES OF MAMMARY MASSES IN CAPTIVE LIONS (PANTHERA LEO).

    PubMed

    Sadler, Ryan A; Craig, Linden E; Ramsay, Edward C; Helmick, Kelly; Collins, Darin; Garner, Michael M

    2016-03-01

    A multi-institutional retrospective analysis of 330 pathology accessions from 285 different lions found 15 captive, female African lions (Panthera leo) with confirmed mammary masses. Aside from the presence of a mammary mass, the most common initial clinical sign was inappetence. Histologic diagnoses were predominantly adenocarcinoma (n = 12), though two benign masses (mammary hyperplasia and a mammary cyst) and one squamous cell carcinoma were identified. Nine of 13 malignant tumors had metastasized to lymph nodes or viscera at the time of necropsy. Six lions with adenocarcinoma and two lions with benign mammary masses had received hormonal contraception, though little evidence of mammary lobular hyperplasia was seen in association with the adenocarcinomas. The most common concurrent disease processes found at necropsy were chronic urinary tract disease and other malignancies. These cases demonstrate that mammary malignancies occur in captive lions and frequently metastasize.

  17. Captive and field-tested radio attachments for bald eagles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buehler, D.A.; Fraser, J.D.; Fuller, M.R.; McAllister, L.S.; Seegar, J.K.D.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of two radio transmitter attachment techniques on captive and one attachment technique on wild Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were studied. A Y-attachment method with a 160-g dummy transmitter was less apt to cause tissue damage on captive birds than an X-attachment method, and loosely fit transmitters caused less damage than tightly fit transmitters Annual survival of wild birds fitted with 65-g transmitters via an X attachment was estimated at 90-95%. As a result of high survival, only five wild birds marked as nestlings were recovered.Two of these birds had superficial pressure sores from tight-fitting harnesses It is recommended that a 1.3-cm space be left between the transmitter and the bird's b ack when radio-tagging post-fiedging Bald Eagles. Additional space, perhaps up to 2.5 cm, is required for nestlings to allow for added growth and development.

  18. CLINICOPATHOLOGIC FEATURES OF MAMMARY MASSES IN CAPTIVE LIONS (PANTHERA LEO).

    PubMed

    Sadler, Ryan A; Craig, Linden E; Ramsay, Edward C; Helmick, Kelly; Collins, Darin; Garner, Michael M

    2016-03-01

    A multi-institutional retrospective analysis of 330 pathology accessions from 285 different lions found 15 captive, female African lions (Panthera leo) with confirmed mammary masses. Aside from the presence of a mammary mass, the most common initial clinical sign was inappetence. Histologic diagnoses were predominantly adenocarcinoma (n = 12), though two benign masses (mammary hyperplasia and a mammary cyst) and one squamous cell carcinoma were identified. Nine of 13 malignant tumors had metastasized to lymph nodes or viscera at the time of necropsy. Six lions with adenocarcinoma and two lions with benign mammary masses had received hormonal contraception, though little evidence of mammary lobular hyperplasia was seen in association with the adenocarcinomas. The most common concurrent disease processes found at necropsy were chronic urinary tract disease and other malignancies. These cases demonstrate that mammary malignancies occur in captive lions and frequently metastasize. PMID:27010273

  19. Oxidative stress, activity behaviour and body mass in captive parrots.

    PubMed

    Larcombe, S D; Tregaskes, C A; Coffey, J; Stevenson, A E; Alexander, L G; Arnold, K E

    2015-01-01

    Many parrot species are kept in captivity for conservation, but often show poor reproduction, health and survival. These traits are known to be influenced by oxidative stress, the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ability of antioxidant defences to ameliorate ROS damage. In humans, oxidative stress is linked with obesity, lack of exercise and poor nutrition, all of which are common in captive animals. Here, we tested whether small parrots (budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus) maintained in typical pet cages and on ad libitum food varied in oxidative profile, behaviour and body mass. Importantly, as with many birds held in captivity, they did not have enough space to engage in extensive free flight. Four types of oxidative damage, single-stranded DNA breaks (low-pH comet assay), alkali-labile sites in DNA (high-pH comet assay), sensitivity of DNA to ROS (H2O2-treated comet assay) and malondialdehyde (a byproduct of lipid peroxidation), were uncorrelated with each other and with plasma concentrations of dietary antioxidants. Without strenuous exercise over 28 days in a relatively small cage, more naturally 'active' individuals had more single-stranded DNA breaks than sedentary birds. High body mass at the start or end of the experiment, coupled with substantial mass gain, were all associated with raised sensitivity of DNA to ROS. Thus, high body mass in these captive birds was associated with oxidative damage. These birds were not lacking dietary antioxidants, because final body mass was positively related to plasma levels of retinol, zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol. Individuals varied widely in activity levels, feeding behaviour, mass gain and oxidative profile despite standardized living conditions. DNA damage is often associated with poor immunocompetence, low fertility and faster ageing. Thus, we have candidate mechanisms for the limited lifespan and fecundity common to many birds kept for conservation purposes.

  20. Oxidative stress, activity behaviour and body mass in captive parrots.

    PubMed

    Larcombe, S D; Tregaskes, C A; Coffey, J; Stevenson, A E; Alexander, L G; Arnold, K E

    2015-01-01

    Many parrot species are kept in captivity for conservation, but often show poor reproduction, health and survival. These traits are known to be influenced by oxidative stress, the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ability of antioxidant defences to ameliorate ROS damage. In humans, oxidative stress is linked with obesity, lack of exercise and poor nutrition, all of which are common in captive animals. Here, we tested whether small parrots (budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus) maintained in typical pet cages and on ad libitum food varied in oxidative profile, behaviour and body mass. Importantly, as with many birds held in captivity, they did not have enough space to engage in extensive free flight. Four types of oxidative damage, single-stranded DNA breaks (low-pH comet assay), alkali-labile sites in DNA (high-pH comet assay), sensitivity of DNA to ROS (H2O2-treated comet assay) and malondialdehyde (a byproduct of lipid peroxidation), were uncorrelated with each other and with plasma concentrations of dietary antioxidants. Without strenuous exercise over 28 days in a relatively small cage, more naturally 'active' individuals had more single-stranded DNA breaks than sedentary birds. High body mass at the start or end of the experiment, coupled with substantial mass gain, were all associated with raised sensitivity of DNA to ROS. Thus, high body mass in these captive birds was associated with oxidative damage. These birds were not lacking dietary antioxidants, because final body mass was positively related to plasma levels of retinol, zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol. Individuals varied widely in activity levels, feeding behaviour, mass gain and oxidative profile despite standardized living conditions. DNA damage is often associated with poor immunocompetence, low fertility and faster ageing. Thus, we have candidate mechanisms for the limited lifespan and fecundity common to many birds kept for conservation purposes. PMID:27293729

  1. Osmoregulation in wild and captive West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus).

    PubMed

    Ortiz, R M; Worthy, G A; MacKenzie, D S

    1998-01-01

    The ability of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris and Trichechus manatus manatus) to inhabit both freshwater and marine habitats presents an interesting model to study osmoregulation in sirenians. Blood samples were analyzed from manatees held in fresh- and saltwater and from wild animals captured in fresh-, brackish, and saltwater for concentrations of aldosterone, arginine vasopressin, plasma renin activity, Na+, K+, Cl-, and osmolality. Two separate experiments were also conducted on captive animals to evaluate osmoregulatory responses to acute saltwater exposure and freshwater deprivation. Spurious differences were observed in plasma electrolyte and osmolality among the captive and wild groups. Wild brackish water animals exhibited the highest vasopressin concentrations, while wild freshwater manatees had the highest aldosterone levels. A significant correlation between mean vasopressin and osmolality was demonstrated for captive and wild animals. When freshwater animals were acutely exposed to saltwater, osmolality, Na+, and Cl- increased 5.5%, 8.0%, and 14%, respectively, while aldosterone decreased 82.6%. Saltwater animals deprived of freshwater exhibited an almost twofold increase in aldosterone during the deprivation period and a fourfold decrease when freshwater was again provided. Within this group, osmolality increased significantly by 3.4% over the course of the study; however, electrolytes did not change. The lack of consistent differences in electrolyte and osmolality among wild and captive groups suggests that manatees are good osmoregulators regardless of the environment. The high aldosterone levels in wild freshwater animals may indicate a need to conserve Na+, while the high vasopressin levels in wild brackish-water manatees suggest an antidiuretic state to conserve water. Vasopressin levels appear to be osmotically mediated in manatees as in other mammals.

  2. Survival on the ark: life history trends in captive parrots

    PubMed Central

    Young, Anna M.; Hobson, Elizabeth A.; Lackey, Laurie Bingaman; Wright, Timothy F.

    2011-01-01

    Members of the order Psittaciformes (parrots and cockatoos) are among the most long-lived and endangered avian species. Comprehensive data on lifespan and breeding are critical to setting conservation priorities, parameterizing population viability models, and managing captive and wild populations. To meet these needs, we analyzed 83, 212 life history records of captive birds from the International Species Information System and calculated lifespan and breeding parameters for 260 species of parrots (71% of extant species). Species varied widely in lifespan, with larger species generally living longer than smaller ones. The highest maximum lifespan recorded was 92 years in Cacatua moluccensis, but only 11 other species had a maximum lifespan over 50 years. Our data indicate that while some captive individuals are capable of reaching extraordinary ages, median lifespans are generally shorter than widely assumed, albeit with some increase seen in birds presently held in zoos. Species that lived longer and bred later in life tended to be more threatened according to IUCN classifications. We documented several individuals of multiple species that were able to breed for more than two decades, but the majority of clades examined had much shorter active reproduction periods. Post-breeding periods were surprisingly long and in many cases surpassed the duration of active breeding. Our results demonstrate the value of the ISIS database to estimate life history data for an at-risk taxon that is difficult to study in the wild, and provide life history data that is crucial for predictive modeling of future species endangerment and proactively managing captive populations of parrots. PMID:22389582

  3. Mycobacterium infection in a captive-reared capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus).

    PubMed

    Marco, I; Domingo, M; Lavin, S

    2000-01-01

    One captive male capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) was found dead on December 1993 at the breeding center of capercaillie in Catalonia, Spain. The bird was emaciated and, at necropsy, had numerous nodules of various sizes subcutaneously in the cervical region, pleura, lungs, liver, spleen, and mesentery. Microscopic examination revealed granulomatous lesions with central caseous necrosis, epithelioid cells, giant cells, and few lymphocytes in all affected organs. Numerous acid-fast bacilli were demonstrated in the tubercles with Ziehl-Nielsen stain.

  4. Survival on the ark: life history trends in captive parrots.

    PubMed

    Young, Anna M; Hobson, Elizabeth A; Lackey, Laurie Bingaman; Wright, Timothy F

    2012-02-01

    Members of the order Psittaciformes (parrots and cockatoos) are among the most long-lived and endangered avian species. Comprehensive data on lifespan and breeding are critical to setting conservation priorities, parameterizing population viability models, and managing captive and wild populations. To meet these needs, we analyzed 83, 212 life history records of captive birds from the International Species Information System and calculated lifespan and breeding parameters for 260 species of parrots (71% of extant species). Species varied widely in lifespan, with larger species generally living longer than smaller ones. The highest maximum lifespan recorded was 92 years in Cacatua moluccensis, but only 11 other species had a maximum lifespan over 50 years. Our data indicate that while some captive individuals are capable of reaching extraordinary ages, median lifespans are generally shorter than widely assumed, albeit with some increase seen in birds presently held in zoos. Species that lived longer and bred later in life tended to be more threatened according to IUCN classifications. We documented several individuals of multiple species that were able to breed for more than two decades, but the majority of clades examined had much shorter active reproduction periods. Post-breeding periods were surprisingly long and in many cases surpassed the duration of active breeding. Our results demonstrate the value of the ISIS database to estimate life history data for an at-risk taxon that is difficult to study in the wild, and provide life history data that is crucial for predictive modeling of future species endangerment and proactively managing captive populations of parrots. PMID:22389582

  5. Ileocecocolic strictures in two captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus).

    PubMed

    Travis, Erika K; Duncan, Mary; Weber, Martha; Adkesson, Michael J; Junge, Randall E

    2007-12-01

    Intestinal strictures were diagnosed in two captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus). The cheetahs presented with lethargy, anorexia, diarrhea, and weight loss. The first cheetah had a stricture of the ileocecocolic junction diagnosed at necropsy. The second had an ileocecocolic stricture causing obstruction that was diagnosed at surgery. After resection and anastomosis, the cheetah recovered well. The etiology of the strictures remains undetermined. Intestinal stricture, particularly of the ileocecocolic junction, should be considered as a differential diagnosis for cheetahs with nonspecific gastrointestinal signs.

  6. Picobirnavirus in captive animals from Uruguay: identification of new hosts.

    PubMed

    Gillman, Luciana; Sánchez, Ana Maria; Arbiza, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The Picobirnaviruses (PBVs) have been detected in several species of animals from different countries worldwide, including in South America. The host range of these viruses has increased in recent years; thus, in order to contribute to the knowledge in this topic we analyzed samples from captivity animals from Uruguay. We found the presence of PBVs in four species of animals, Panthera leo, Panthera onca, Puma concolor and Oncifelis geoffroyi, representing new PBV-susceptible hosts. All strains belonged to genogroup I. PMID:22759924

  7. 23. "A CAPTIVE ATLAS MISSILE EXPLODED DURING THE TEST ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. "A CAPTIVE ATLAS MISSILE EXPLODED DURING THE TEST ON TEST STAND 1-A, 27 MARCH 1959, PUTTING THAT TEST STAND OUT-OF-COMMISSION. STAND WAS NOT REPAIRED FOR THE ATLAS PROGRAM BUT TRANSFERRED TO ROCKETDYNE AND MODIFIED FOR THE F-l ENGINE PROGRAM." - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  8. Oxidative stress, activity behaviour and body mass in captive parrots

    PubMed Central

    Larcombe, S. D.; Tregaskes, C. A.; Coffey, J.; Stevenson, A. E.; Alexander, L. G.; Arnold, K. E.

    2015-01-01

    Many parrot species are kept in captivity for conservation, but often show poor reproduction, health and survival. These traits are known to be influenced by oxidative stress, the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ability of antioxidant defences to ameliorate ROS damage. In humans, oxidative stress is linked with obesity, lack of exercise and poor nutrition, all of which are common in captive animals. Here, we tested whether small parrots (budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus) maintained in typical pet cages and on ad libitum food varied in oxidative profile, behaviour and body mass. Importantly, as with many birds held in captivity, they did not have enough space to engage in extensive free flight. Four types of oxidative damage, single-stranded DNA breaks (low-pH comet assay), alkali-labile sites in DNA (high-pH comet assay), sensitivity of DNA to ROS (H2O2-treated comet assay) and malondialdehyde (a byproduct of lipid peroxidation), were uncorrelated with each other and with plasma concentrations of dietary antioxidants. Without strenuous exercise over 28 days in a relatively small cage, more naturally ‘active’ individuals had more single-stranded DNA breaks than sedentary birds. High body mass at the start or end of the experiment, coupled with substantial mass gain, were all associated with raised sensitivity of DNA to ROS. Thus, high body mass in these captive birds was associated with oxidative damage. These birds were not lacking dietary antioxidants, because final body mass was positively related to plasma levels of retinol, zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol. Individuals varied widely in activity levels, feeding behaviour, mass gain and oxidative profile despite standardized living conditions. DNA damage is often associated with poor immunocompetence, low fertility and faster ageing. Thus, we have candidate mechanisms for the limited lifespan and fecundity common to many birds kept for conservation purposes. PMID

  9. Picobirnavirus in captive animals from Uruguay: identification of new hosts.

    PubMed

    Gillman, Luciana; Sánchez, Ana Maria; Arbiza, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The Picobirnaviruses (PBVs) have been detected in several species of animals from different countries worldwide, including in South America. The host range of these viruses has increased in recent years; thus, in order to contribute to the knowledge in this topic we analyzed samples from captivity animals from Uruguay. We found the presence of PBVs in four species of animals, Panthera leo, Panthera onca, Puma concolor and Oncifelis geoffroyi, representing new PBV-susceptible hosts. All strains belonged to genogroup I.

  10. Spongiform encephalopathy in a captive puma (Felis concolor).

    PubMed

    Willoughby, K; Kelly, D F; Lyon, D G; Wells, G A

    1992-11-01

    A captive adult puma developed ataxia, a hypermetric gait and whole body tremor. The signs progressed over a period of six weeks. Histopathological examination following euthanasia demonstrated spongiform encephalopathy, gliosis and mild non-suppurative meningoencephalitis. Immunostaining with a polyclonal antiserum revealed prion protein (PrP) associated with these changes in sections of cervical spinal cord and medulla. This is the first confirmed case of a scrapie-like spongiform encephalopathy described in a non-domestic cat in the United Kingdom.

  11. Typhlitis due to Balantidium coli in captive lowland gorillas.

    PubMed

    Lee, R V; Prowten, A W; Anthone, S; Satchidanand, S K; Fisher, J E; Anthone, R

    1990-01-01

    Typhlitis caused by Balantidium coli and requiring surgical resection occurred in three captive lowland gorillas over a 30-month period. Not one of the other gorillas in the colony or their keepers was ill. B. coli is distributed widely geographically and widely among mammals. Asymptomatic commensalism predominates, but invasion of the colonic mucosa can produce diarrhea and dysentery and set the stage for local or systemic spread. PMID:2267484

  12. Ticks infesting humans in Northern Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lamattina, Daniela; Nava, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This work presents records of ticks infesting humans in northern Misiones Province, Argentina. Also, notes on potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens are included. A total of 282 ticks attached to researchers were collected and identified by their morphological characters. Eight tick species were found: Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma incisum, Amblyomma ovale, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus. Some of these species as A. dubitatum, A. ovale and R. sanguineus have been found infected with spotted fever group rickettsiae pathogenic to humans in Brazil and Argentina. The potential role as vectors of humans pathogens of the ticks found attached to humans in this study is discussed. PMID:27135846

  13. A current view of oncology in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Huñis, Adrián Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Since 2010, with the creation of the National Cancer Institute, the Argentine Republic has been tackling the battle against cancer as a genuine public health problem. Today in Argentina, there is a “cancer policy” whose pillars are prevention, education, assistance, and research. In this article, we provide information about the incidence and mortality of the tumours most common in adults and children, and details of some epidemiological aspects and advances Argentina has achieved in the battle against cancer in the past decade. PMID:26913073

  14. A current view of oncology in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Huñis, Adrián Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Since 2010, with the creation of the National Cancer Institute, the Argentine Republic has been tackling the battle against cancer as a genuine public health problem. Today in Argentina, there is a "cancer policy" whose pillars are prevention, education, assistance, and research. In this article, we provide information about the incidence and mortality of the tumours most common in adults and children, and details of some epidemiological aspects and advances Argentina has achieved in the battle against cancer in the past decade. PMID:26913073

  15. Ticks infesting humans in Northern Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lamattina, Daniela; Nava, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This work presents records of ticks infesting humans in northern Misiones Province, Argentina. Also, notes on potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens are included. A total of 282 ticks attached to researchers were collected and identified by their morphological characters. Eight tick species were found: Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma incisum, Amblyomma ovale, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus. Some of these species as A. dubitatum, A. ovale and R. sanguineus have been found infected with spotted fever group rickettsiae pathogenic to humans in Brazil and Argentina. The potential role as vectors of humans pathogens of the ticks found attached to humans in this study is discussed.

  16. Reforming health insurance in Argentina and Chile.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, A; Lloyd-Sherlock, P

    2000-12-01

    The paper examines the recent reforms of health insurance in Chile and Argentina. These partially replace social health insurance with individual insurance administered through the private sector. In Chile, reforms in the early 1980s allowed private health insurance funds to compete for affiliates with the social health insurance system. In Argentina, reforms in the 1990s aim to open up the union-administered social insurance system to competition both internally and from private insurers. The paper outlines the specific articulation of social and individual health insurance produced by these reforms, and discusses the implications for health insurance coverage, inequalities in access to healthcare, and health expenditures.

  17. Limits to captive breeding of mammals in zoos.

    PubMed

    Alroy, John

    2015-06-01

    Captive breeding of mammals in zoos is the last hope for many of the best-known endangered species and has succeeded in saving some from certain extinction. However, the number of managed species selected is relatively small and focused on large-bodied, charismatic mammals that are not necessarily under strong threat and not always good candidates for reintroduction into the wild. Two interrelated and more fundamental questions go unanswered: have the major breeding programs succeeded at the basic level of maintaining and expanding populations, and is there room to expand them? I used published counts of births and deaths from 1970 to 2011 to quantify rates of growth of 118 captive-bred mammalian populations. These rates did not vary with body mass, contrary to strong predictions made in the ecological literature. Most of the larger managed mammalian populations expanded consistently and very few programs failed. However, growth rates have declined dramatically. The decline was predicted by changes in the ratio of the number of individuals within programs to the number of mammal populations held in major zoos. Rates decreased as the ratio of individuals in programs to populations increased. In other words, most of the programs that could exist already do exist. It therefore appears that debates over the general need for captive-breeding programs and the best selection of species are moot. Only a concerted effort could create room to manage a substantially larger number of endangered mammals. PMID:25736919

  18. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    PubMed

    Lopez, Ignacio; Pineda, Carmen; Muñoz, Luis; Raya, Ana; Lopez, Guillermo; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico

    2016-01-01

    To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose) vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta) were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28), and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL), hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL), increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL) and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL). Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets. PMID:27243456

  19. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    PubMed

    Lopez, Ignacio; Pineda, Carmen; Muñoz, Luis; Raya, Ana; Lopez, Guillermo; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico

    2016-01-01

    To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose) vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta) were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28), and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL), hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL), increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL) and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL). Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets.

  20. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus)

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Luis; Raya, Ana; Lopez, Guillermo; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico

    2016-01-01

    To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose) vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta) were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28), and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL), hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL), increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL) and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL). Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets. PMID:27243456

  1. Urolithiasis in a captive group of Tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii).

    PubMed

    Liptovszky, Mátyás; Sós, Endre; Bende, Balázs; Perge, Edina; Molnár, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Urolithiasis is a well-known disease of the urogenital system in domestic animals, and it has also been described in captive and free-ranging wildlife. This article reports 15 cases of urolithiasis in a captive group of Tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii) between 2004 and 2011. The analyzed stones were composed of pure calcium carbonate (n = 5), calcium carbonate with traces of calcium phosphate (n = 6), carbonate apatite (n = 2), and carbonate apatite mixed with calcium oxalate (n = 2). In 12 out of 15 cases uroliths were situated only in the renal pelvis; in two cases they were found in the renal pelvis and the ureter; while in one case in the ureter only. No common infectious agents were identified either by microbiological or histopathological methods. Although the exact cause remains unknown, the repetitive occurrence of calcium carbonate urolithiasis suggests husbandry-related causes. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on recurrent appearance of urolithiasis in a captive group of Tammar wallabies. PMID:25105843

  2. Comparison of several types of enrichment for captive felids.

    PubMed

    Skibiel, Amy L; Trevino, Heather S; Naugher, Ken

    2007-09-01

    Enrichment can increase the complexity of the captive environment and possibly enhance captive animals' well-being by stimulating active behaviors and reducing stereotypical behaviors commonly seen in zoo felids. In this study, three different enrichment items were added to outdoor enclosures of felids at the Montgomery Zoo to test their effects on activity levels and stereotypic pacing. Bones, frozen fish, and spices (cinnamon, chili powder, and cumin) were presented over a 3-month period to six species of felids: cheetah, cougar, jaguar, lion, ocelot, and tiger. Proportion of time spent engaging in active behaviors and stereotypic pacing were compared before, during, and after treatments. All treatments resulted in a significant increase in activity level from baseline (bones: +15.59%; frozen fish: +35.7%; spices: +12.38%). Effects of enrichment items on activity levels were not sustained 7 days after removal. Proportion of time spent pacing significantly decreased during presentation of spices (-21.25%) and frozen fish (-26.58%), but not with the addition of bones. However, only the effect of frozen fish on stereotypic behavior was sustained 7 days after removal of the enrichment item. In conclusion, bones, spices, and frozen fish are inexpensive and easy-to-administer enrichment items that may be used to increase active behaviors of captive felids. Zoo Biol 26:371-381, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19360587

  3. Limits to captive breeding of mammals in zoos.

    PubMed

    Alroy, John

    2015-06-01

    Captive breeding of mammals in zoos is the last hope for many of the best-known endangered species and has succeeded in saving some from certain extinction. However, the number of managed species selected is relatively small and focused on large-bodied, charismatic mammals that are not necessarily under strong threat and not always good candidates for reintroduction into the wild. Two interrelated and more fundamental questions go unanswered: have the major breeding programs succeeded at the basic level of maintaining and expanding populations, and is there room to expand them? I used published counts of births and deaths from 1970 to 2011 to quantify rates of growth of 118 captive-bred mammalian populations. These rates did not vary with body mass, contrary to strong predictions made in the ecological literature. Most of the larger managed mammalian populations expanded consistently and very few programs failed. However, growth rates have declined dramatically. The decline was predicted by changes in the ratio of the number of individuals within programs to the number of mammal populations held in major zoos. Rates decreased as the ratio of individuals in programs to populations increased. In other words, most of the programs that could exist already do exist. It therefore appears that debates over the general need for captive-breeding programs and the best selection of species are moot. Only a concerted effort could create room to manage a substantially larger number of endangered mammals.

  4. Classification and prevalence of foot lesions in captive flamingos (Phoenicopteridae).

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Adriana M W; Nielsen, Søren S; King, Catherine E; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2010-03-01

    Foot lesions can compromise the health and welfare of captive birds. In this study, we estimated the prevalence of foot lesions in captive flamingos (Phoenicopteridae). The study was based on photos of 1,495 pairs of foot soles from 854 flamingos in 18 European and two Texan (USA) zoological collections. Methodology for evaluating flamingo feet lesions was developed for this project because no suitable method had been reported in the literature. Four types of foot lesions were identified: hyperkeratoses, fissures, nodular lesions, and papillomatous growths. Seven areas on each foot received a severity score from 0 to 2 for each type of lesion (0 = no lesion, 1 = mild to moderate lesion, 2 = severe lesion). The prevalence of birds with lesions (scores 1 or 2) were 100%, 87%, 17%, and 46% for hyperkeratosis, fissures, nodular lesions, and papillomatous growths, respectively. Birds with severe lesions (score 2) constituted 67%, 46%, 4%, and 12% for hyperkeratosis, fissures, nodular lesions, and papillomatous growths, respectively. Hyperkeratosis and nodular lesions were most prevalent on the base of the foot and the proximal portion of the digits, likely reflecting those areas bearing the most weight. The second and fourth digits were most affected with fissures and papillomatous lesions; these areas of the foot appear to be where the most flexion occurs during ambulation. The study demonstrates that foot lesions are highly prevalent and widely distributed in the study population, indicating that they are an extensive problem in captive flamingos.

  5. Comparison of several types of enrichment for captive felids.

    PubMed

    Skibiel, Amy L; Trevino, Heather S; Naugher, Ken

    2007-09-01

    Enrichment can increase the complexity of the captive environment and possibly enhance captive animals' well-being by stimulating active behaviors and reducing stereotypical behaviors commonly seen in zoo felids. In this study, three different enrichment items were added to outdoor enclosures of felids at the Montgomery Zoo to test their effects on activity levels and stereotypic pacing. Bones, frozen fish, and spices (cinnamon, chili powder, and cumin) were presented over a 3-month period to six species of felids: cheetah, cougar, jaguar, lion, ocelot, and tiger. Proportion of time spent engaging in active behaviors and stereotypic pacing were compared before, during, and after treatments. All treatments resulted in a significant increase in activity level from baseline (bones: +15.59%; frozen fish: +35.7%; spices: +12.38%). Effects of enrichment items on activity levels were not sustained 7 days after removal. Proportion of time spent pacing significantly decreased during presentation of spices (-21.25%) and frozen fish (-26.58%), but not with the addition of bones. However, only the effect of frozen fish on stereotypic behavior was sustained 7 days after removal of the enrichment item. In conclusion, bones, spices, and frozen fish are inexpensive and easy-to-administer enrichment items that may be used to increase active behaviors of captive felids. Zoo Biol 26:371-381, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Thirty years later: enrichment practices for captive mammals.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Julia M; Murray, Peter J; Tribe, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Environmental enrichment of captive mammals has been steadily evolving over the past thirty years. For this process to continue, it is first necessary to define current enrichment practices and then identify the factors that limit enhancing the quality and quantity of enrichment, as well as the evaluation of its effectiveness. With the objective of obtaining this information, an international multi-institutional questionnaire survey was conducted with individuals working with zoo-housed mammals. Results of the survey showed that regardless of how important different types of enrichment were perceived to be, if providing them was particularly time-consuming, they were not made available to captive mammals as frequently as those requiring less staff time and effort. The groups of mammals provided with enrichment most frequently received it on average fewer than four times per day, resulting in less than two hours per day spent by each animal care staff member on tasks related to enrichment. The time required for staff to complete other husbandry tasks was the factor most limiting the implementation and evaluation of enrichment. The majority of survey respondents agreed that they would provide more enrichment and carry out more evaluation of enrichment if it was manageable to do so. The results of this study support the need for greater quantity, variety, frequency, and evaluation of enrichment provided to captive mammals housed in zoos without impinging on available staff time.

  7. Comparative skull analysis suggests species-specific captivity-related malformation in lions (Panthera leo).

    PubMed

    Saragusty, Joseph; Shavit-Meyrav, Anat; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Nadler, Rona; Bdolah-Abram, Tali; Gibeon, Laura; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Shamir, Merav H

    2014-01-01

    Lion (Panthera leo) populations have dramatically decreased worldwide with a surviving population estimated at 32,000 across the African savannah. Lions have been kept in captivity for centuries and, although they reproduce well, high rates of stillbirths as well as morbidity and mortality of neonate and young lions are reported. Many of these cases are associated with bone malformations, including foramen magnum (FM) stenosis and thickened tentorium cerebelli. The precise causes of these malformations and whether they are unique to captive lions remain unclear. To test whether captivity is associated with FM stenosis, we evaluated 575 lion skulls of wild (N = 512) and captive (N = 63) origin. Tiger skulls (N = 276; 56 captive, 220 wild) were measured for comparison. While no differences were found between males and females or between subadults and adults in FM height (FMH), FMH of captive lions (17.36±3.20 mm) was significantly smaller and with greater variability when compared to that in wild lions (19.77±2.11 mm). There was no difference between wild (18.47±1.26 mm) and captive (18.56±1.64 mm) tigers in FMH. Birth origin (wild vs. captive) as a factor for FMH remained significant in lions even after controlling for age and sex. Whereas only 20/473 wild lions (4.2%) had FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile of the wild population (16.60 mm), this was evident in 40.4% (23/57) of captive lion skulls. Similar comparison for tigers found no differences between the captive and wild populations. Lions with FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile had wider skulls with smaller cranial volume. Cranial volume remained smaller in both male and female captive lions when controlled for skull size. These findings suggest species- and captivity-related predisposition for the pathology in lions.

  8. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon; Assessment of Captive Broodstock Technologies, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry

    2004-01-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish

  9. Activation of southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) estrogen receptors by phytoestrogens and their potential role in thereproductive failure of captive-born females

    EPA Science Inventory

    The captive southern white rhinoceros (SWR; Ceratotherium simum simum) population serves as an important genetic reservoir critical to the conservation of this vulnerable species. Unfortunately, captive populations are declining due to the poor reproductive success of captive-bor...

  10. Molecular findings of disseminated histoplasmosis in two captive snow leopards (Uncia uncia).

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Avilés, David; Taylor, Maria Lucia; del Rocio Reyes-Montes, Maria; Pérez-Torrez, Armando

    2008-09-01

    This paper reports two cases of disseminated histoplasmosis in captive snow leopards (Uncia uncia). Histoplasmosis was diagnosed based on histopathology, immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and molecular findings.

  11. Comparison of Serum Protein Electrophoresis Values in Wild and Captive Whooping Cranes ( Grus americana ).

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Jennifer C; Cray, Carolyn; Hartup, Barry K

    2015-09-01

    Protein electrophoresis of serum samples from endangered, wild whooping cranes ( Grus americana ) was performed to help assess the health of the only self-sustaining, migratory population in North America. Serum samples from wild adult cranes (n = 22) were taken at Aransas National Wildlife Refuge, Texas, USA during winter. Wild juvenile cranes (n = 26) were sampled at Wood Buffalo National Park, Northwest Territories, Canada, in midsummer. All captive crane samples were acquired from the International Crane Foundation, Baraboo, WI, USA. Captive adult cranes (n = 30) were sampled during annual examinations, and archived serum samples from captive juvenile cranes (n = 19) were selected to match the estimated age of wild juveniles. Wild juveniles had significantly lower concentrations of all protein fractions than wild adults, except for prealbumin and γ globulins. All protein fraction concentrations for wild juveniles were significantly lower compared with captive juveniles, except for prealbumin and γ globulins, which were higher. Wild adults had significantly greater γ globulin concentrations than captive adults. Captive juveniles had significantly lower prealbumin and albumin concentrations and albumin : globulin ratios than captive adults. The higher γ globulin concentrations in wild versus captive cranes are likely because of increased antigenic exposure and immune stimulation. Protein fraction concentrations vary significantly with age and natural history in this species. Reference intervals for serum protein electrophoresis results from captive adult whooping cranes are provided in this study. PMID:26378665

  12. Causes of Mississippi sandhill crane mortality in captivity 1984-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.; Gee, G.F.; Urbanek, R.P.; Stahlecker, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    During 1984-95, 111 deaths were documented in the captive flock of Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla) housed at the Paluxent Wildlife Research Center. Trauma was the leading cause of death (37%), followed by infectious/parasitic diseases (25%), anatomic abnormalities (15%), and miscellaneous (8%). No positive diagnosis of cause of death was found in 19% of the necropsies. Chicks < 2 months old suffered 76% of captive deaths. Trauma, the greatest cause of deaths of captive juveniles anti adults, is likely Iimited to collisions in the wild. lnfectious/parasitic diseases and anatomic abnormalities could affect wild chick survival at similar rates to those of captive chicks.

  13. Wild-caught rodents retain a majority of their natural gut microbiota upon entrance into captivity.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Kevin D; Dearing, M Denise

    2014-04-01

    Experiments conducted on captive animals allow scientists to control many variables; however, these settings are highly unnatural. Previous research has documented a large difference in microbial communities between wild animals and captive-bred individuals. However, wild-caught animals brought into captivity might retain their natural microbiota and thus provide a better study system in which to investigate the ecology of the gut microbiome. We collected individuals of the desert woodrat (Neotoma lepida) from nature and investigated changes in the microbial community over 6 months in captivity. Additionally, we inventoried potential environmental sources of microbes (food, bedding) from the wild and captivity. We found that environmental sources do not make large contributions to the woodrat gut microbial community. We documented a slight decrease in several biodiversity metrics over 6 months in captivity, yet the magnitude of change was small compared with other studies. Wild and captive animals shared 64% of their microbial species, almost twice that observed in other studies of wild and captive-bred individuals (≤ 37% shared). We conclude that wild-caught animals brought into captivity retain a substantial proportion of their natural microbiota and represent an acceptable system in which to study the gut microbiome.

  14. View of northeastern Italy including Venice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A near vertical view of northeastern Italy including the Venice (Venezia) area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) infrared photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The mountainous area is the Dolomite Alps. The most conspicuous stream northeast of Venice is the Piave River. The city near the center of the picture on the Brenta River is Bassano del Grappa. The large city of Padua (Padova) is on the western bank of the Grenta near the clock.

  15. Recent sedimentation, northeastern Port Valdez, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Harold D.

    1981-09-01

    Sediments accumulating on the northeastern shore of Port Valdez, a fjord leading to Prince William Sound in southern Alaska, are derived from both deltaic and alluvial fan processes. The resulting thick wedge of Recent silts, sands, shells and gravels lies atop irregular ridges of local graywacke bedrock and scattered till deposits. Seismic reflection profiling augmented by soil borings indicates that rapid infilling and upbuilding has occurred at this site. Evidence of slumping suggests general instability of steep submarine slopes in an area characterized by strong earthquakes and large tidal ranges.

  16. Litigation in Argentina: challenging the tobacco industry

    PubMed Central

    Flores, M L; Barnoya, J; Mejia, R; Alderete, E; Pérez‐Stable, E J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the processes and outcomes of tobacco litigation in Argentina and to analyse the strategies of the tobacco industry to oppose litigation using tobacco industry documents. Methods A systematic search of tobacco industry documents on the internet dating from 1978 to 2002. Law library searches using Argentinean official and unofficial reports systems were combined with computerised online searches. Results There have been at least 15 failed litigation cases in Argentina and the tobacco industry presented a concerted defence in every claim regardless of cost. We categorised 11 cases as product liability and nicotine addiction, two as health care reimbursement, and two as criminal law and secondhand smoke. Industry strategies included hiring legal consultants from prestigious international and Argentinean law firms and developing litigation prevention programmes. Industry monitored legal academic meetings, controlled the development of new product liability legislation, obtained favourable opinions from experts, and closely observed the development of litigation in Argentina. Conclusion The strategies used by the industry have been successful in preventing recovery for tobacco injuries through litigation. Argentinean health advocates and lawyers need to be aware of the roles and strategies of the tobacco industry in order to develop effective litigation in Argentina. PMID:16565455

  17. MASTER: bright PSN discovered in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkov, V.; Lipunov, V.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Vladimirov, V.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Chazov, V.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.; Pogrosheva, T.; Shurpakov, S.

    2016-10-01

    MASTER-OAFA (located in Argentina) auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., 2010, Advances in Astronomy, vol. 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 22h 01m 01.36s -40d 15m 26.7s on 2016-10-31.08091 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 16.9m (mlim=19.9m).

  18. Argentina and Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andelman, Marta

    2005-01-01

    In Argentina, few groups recognize the value of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). The Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) carries no significant weight in governmental and nongovernmental circles. It does not appear in any agenda, or in any suggestion or recommendation for policy-making, not even in proposals for…

  19. The Privatization of Education in Argentina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naradowski, Mariono; Andrada, Myrian

    2001-01-01

    Describes historical and current trends in Argentina's private and public primary- and secondary-school enrollment levels and policy reasons behind changes, including deregulation of private schools. Evaluates research analyzing impact of increased private-school enrollment; argues middle- and high-income students are opting out of public schools…

  20. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cases of epidemic typhus have been documented in Argentina since 1919; however, no confirmed reports of spotted fever rickettsiosis were described in this country until 1999. We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (R...

  1. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the cause of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), from a tick vector, Amblyomma cajennense, and from a cluster of fatal spotted fever cases in Argentina. Questing A. cajennense ticks were collected at or near sites of presumed or...

  2. The Case of Public Schools in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrogue, Cecilia; Orlicki, Maria Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    As Argentina presents problems of malnutrition, the federal in-school feeding program has become a key policy because it provides an important nutritional intervention during a relevant growth period. This paper estimates the effect of the program on academic performance--measured by standardized test scores--with a difference in difference model,…

  3. [Immigration and political marginality in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Forte, R

    1996-01-01

    The author analyzes immigration in Argentina, with a focus on the extent to which the political system has contributed to the social and economic marginalization of migrants since the mid-nineteenth century. Sociocultural characteristics of migrants are examined. Patterns of land distribution and ownership are discussed, and the impact on movements of migrants within the country and on urban marginality is investigated.

  4. Night Sky Protection Initiatives in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Beatriz; Pérez Álvarez, Silvina; Bibé, Victor; Risi, Andrés; Gino, Lisandro

    2015-03-01

    Light Pollution is a global problem. Some local actions carried out by a network of professional and amateur astronomers in Argentina are changing the way to attack this problem, taking into account measurements, education, public activities, planetarium shows and legislation proposals.

  5. Registration of veterinary products in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Butler, E; Cané, B G

    1995-12-01

    A scheme for registering pharmaceutical and biological products for veterinary use was introduced in Argentina in 1994, as part of a joint scheme for countries of the Common Market of the South (Mercado Común del Sur: "Mercosur'). The authors describe the main features of these regulations, and the process which led to their development.

  6. SRTM Anaglyph: Lava plateaus, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    All of the major landforms relate to volcanism and/or erosion in this Shuttle Radar Topography Mission scene of Patagonia, near La Esperanza, Argentina. The two prominent plateaus once formed a continuous surface that extended over much of this region. Younger volcanoes have grown through and atop the plateau, and one just south of this scene has sent a long, narrow flow down a stream channel (lower left). The topographic pattern shows that streams dominate the erosion processes in this arid environment even though wind is known to move substantial amounts of sediment here.

    This anaglyph was produced by first shading a preliminary SRTM elevation model. The stereoscopic effect was then created by generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 62.4 by 88.8 kilometers (38.7 by 55.1 miles) Location: 40.0 deg. South lat., 68.6 deg. West lon

  7. Effects of satellite transmitters on captive and wild mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kesler, Dylan C.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Foggia, Jennifer R.; Beatty, William S.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Humburg, Dale D.; Naylor, Luke W.

    2014-01-01

    Satellite telemetry has become a leading method for studying large-scale movements and survival in birds, yet few have addressed potential effects of the larger and heavier tracking equipment on study subjects. We simultaneously evaluated effects of satellite telemetry equipment on captive and wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to assess impacts on behavior, body mass, and movement. We randomly assigned 55 captive ducks to one of 3 treatment groups, including a standard body harness group, a modified harness group, and a control group. Ducks in the control group were not fitted with equipment, whereas individuals in the other 2 groups were fitted with dummy transmitters attached with a Teflon ribbon harness or with a similar harness constructed of nylon cord. At the conclusion of the 14-week captive study, mean body mass of birds in the control group was 40–105 g (95% CI) greater than birds with standard harnesses, and 28–99 g (95% CI) greater than birds with modified harnesses. Further, results of focal behavior observations indicated ducks with transmitters were less likely to be in water than control birds. We also tested whether movements of wild birds marked with a similar Teflon harness satellite transmitter aligned with population movements reported by on-the-ground observers who indexed local abundances of mid-continent mallards throughout the non-breeding period. Results indicated birds marked with satellite transmitters moved concurrently with the larger unmarked population. Our results have broad implications for field research and suggest that investigators should consider potential for physiological and behavioral effects brought about by tracking equipment. Nonetheless, results from wild ducks indicate satellite telemetry has the potential to provide useful movement data.

  8. Seroprevalence of retrovirus in North American captive macropodidae.

    PubMed

    Georoff, Timothy A; Joyner, Priscilla H; Hoover, John P; Payton, Mark E; Pogranichniy, Roman M

    2008-09-01

    Laboratory records of serology results from captive macropodidae sampled between 1997 and 2005 were reviewed to assess the seroprevalence of retrovirus exposure. Serum samples from 269 individuals (136 males, 133 females) representing 10 species of macropods housed in 31 North American captive collections were analyzed for retrovirus antibody using an indirect immunofluorescent assay. The prevalence of positive antibody titers comparing male versus female, between species, between age groups, and among animals with identified parentage was examined by nonparametric statistical analyses. Median age of animals at time of sample collection was 36 mo (range 2-201 mo). Total percentage seropositive was 20.4%. Serum antibody was detected in 31 of 47 (66.0%) tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), nine of 24 (37.5%) yellow-footed rock wallaby (Petrogale xanthopus), four of 11 (36.4%) swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor), 10 of 80 (12.5%) red-necked wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus), and one of 54 (1.9%) parma wallaby (Macropus parma). No individuals of western gray kangaroo (n=3) (Macropus fuliginosus), eastern gray kangaroo (n=19) (Macropus giganteus), common wallaroo (n=6) (Macropus robustus), red kangaroo (n=11) (Macropus rufus), or Matschie's tree kangaroo (n=14) (Dendrolagus matschiei) were positive for retrovirus antibody. These results demonstrate that five species of captive macropods have a history of exposure to retrovirus, with the highest percentage seropositive and highest statistical correlation in M. eugenii (pair-wise Fisher's exact test, alpha = 0.05). Additionally, one wild-caught M. eugenii was confirmed seropositive during quarantine period, indicating that retrovirus exposure may exist in wild populations.

  9. Contrafreeloading in grizzly bears: implications for captive foraging enrichment.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Ragen T S; Robbins, Charles T; Alldredge, J Richard; Newberry, Ruth C

    2010-01-01

    Although traditional feeding regimens for captive animals were focused on meeting physiological needs to assure good health, more recently emphasis has also been placed on non-nutritive aspects of feeding. The provision of foraging materials to diversify feeding behavior is a common practice in zoos but selective consumption of foraging enrichment items over more balanced "chow" diets could lead to nutrient imbalance. One alternative is to provide balanced diets in a contrafreeloading paradigm. Contrafreeloading occurs when animals choose resources that require effort to exploit when identical resources are freely available. To investigate contrafreeloading and its potential as a theoretical foundation for foraging enrichment, we conducted two experiments with captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). In Experiment 1, bears were presented with five foraging choices simultaneously: apples, apples in ice, salmon, salmon in ice, and plain ice under two levels of food restriction. Two measures of contrafreeloading were considered: weight of earned food consumed and time spent working for earned food. More free than earned food was eaten, with only two bears consuming food extracted from ice, but all bears spent more time manipulating ice containing salmon or apples than plain ice regardless of level of food restriction. In Experiment 2, food-restricted bears were presented with three foraging choices simultaneously: apples, apples inside a box, and an empty box. Although they ate more free than earned food, five bears consumed food from boxes and all spent more time manipulating boxes containing apples than empty boxes. Our findings support the provision of contrafreeloading opportunities as a foraging enrichment strategy for captive wildlife.

  10. Contrafreeloading in grizzly bears: implications for captive foraging enrichment.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Ragen T S; Robbins, Charles T; Alldredge, J Richard; Newberry, Ruth C

    2010-01-01

    Although traditional feeding regimens for captive animals were focused on meeting physiological needs to assure good health, more recently emphasis has also been placed on non-nutritive aspects of feeding. The provision of foraging materials to diversify feeding behavior is a common practice in zoos but selective consumption of foraging enrichment items over more balanced "chow" diets could lead to nutrient imbalance. One alternative is to provide balanced diets in a contrafreeloading paradigm. Contrafreeloading occurs when animals choose resources that require effort to exploit when identical resources are freely available. To investigate contrafreeloading and its potential as a theoretical foundation for foraging enrichment, we conducted two experiments with captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). In Experiment 1, bears were presented with five foraging choices simultaneously: apples, apples in ice, salmon, salmon in ice, and plain ice under two levels of food restriction. Two measures of contrafreeloading were considered: weight of earned food consumed and time spent working for earned food. More free than earned food was eaten, with only two bears consuming food extracted from ice, but all bears spent more time manipulating ice containing salmon or apples than plain ice regardless of level of food restriction. In Experiment 2, food-restricted bears were presented with three foraging choices simultaneously: apples, apples inside a box, and an empty box. Although they ate more free than earned food, five bears consumed food from boxes and all spent more time manipulating boxes containing apples than empty boxes. Our findings support the provision of contrafreeloading opportunities as a foraging enrichment strategy for captive wildlife. PMID:19816856

  11. 9 CFR 77.33 - Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testing procedures for tuberculosis in... PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.33 Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. (a) Approved testers. Except as explained in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, official tuberculosis tests...

  12. 9 CFR 77.33 - Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Testing procedures for tuberculosis in... PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.33 Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. (a) Approved testers. Except as explained in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, official tuberculosis tests...

  13. 9 CFR 77.33 - Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Testing procedures for tuberculosis in... PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.33 Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. (a) Approved testers. Except as explained in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, official tuberculosis tests...

  14. 9 CFR 77.33 - Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Testing procedures for tuberculosis in... PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.33 Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. (a) Approved testers. Except as explained in paragraphs (a)(1) or (a)(2) of this section, official...

  15. 9 CFR 77.33 - Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Testing procedures for tuberculosis in... PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.33 Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. (a) Approved testers. Except as explained in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, official tuberculosis tests...

  16. 9 CFR 55.3 - Appraisal and destruction of captive cervids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraisal and destruction of captive cervids. 55.3 Section 55.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... of captive cervids. (a) CWD positive herds, or individual CWD suspect animals or exposed...

  17. 9 CFR 55.3 - Appraisal and destruction of captive cervids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraisal and destruction of captive cervids. 55.3 Section 55.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... of captive cervids. (a) CWD positive herds, or individual CWD suspect animals or exposed...

  18. 77 FR 42625 - Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program and Interstate Movement of Farmed or Captive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... Federal Register (77 FR 35542-35571, Docket No. 00-108-8) an interim final rule that will establish a herd... Farmed or Captive Cervids With Respect to CWD,'' beginning on 77 FR 35545. Comments on our decisions... Certification Program and Interstate Movement of Farmed or Captive Deer, Elk, and Moose AGENCY: Animal and...

  19. Can sexual selection theory inform genetic management of captive populations? A review

    PubMed Central

    Chargé, Rémi; Teplitsky, Céline; Sorci, Gabriele; Low, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Captive breeding for conservation purposes presents a serious practical challenge because several conflicting genetic processes (i.e., inbreeding depression, random genetic drift and genetic adaptation to captivity) need to be managed in concert to maximize captive population persistence and reintroduction success probability. Because current genetic management is often only partly successful in achieving these goals, it has been suggested that management insights may be found in sexual selection theory (in particular, female mate choice). We review the theoretical and empirical literature and consider how female mate choice might influence captive breeding in the context of current genetic guidelines for different sexual selection theories (i.e., direct benefits, good genes, compatible genes, sexy sons). We show that while mate choice shows promise as a tool in captive breeding under certain conditions, for most species, there is currently too little theoretical and empirical evidence to provide any clear guidelines that would guarantee positive fitness outcomes and avoid conflicts with other genetic goals. The application of female mate choice to captive breeding is in its infancy and requires a goal-oriented framework based on the needs of captive species management, so researchers can make honest assessments of the costs and benefits of such an approach, using simulations, model species and captive animal data. PMID:25553072

  20. Can sexual selection theory inform genetic management of captive populations? A review.

    PubMed

    Chargé, Rémi; Teplitsky, Céline; Sorci, Gabriele; Low, Matthew

    2014-11-01

    Captive breeding for conservation purposes presents a serious practical challenge because several conflicting genetic processes (i.e., inbreeding depression, random genetic drift and genetic adaptation to captivity) need to be managed in concert to maximize captive population persistence and reintroduction success probability. Because current genetic management is often only partly successful in achieving these goals, it has been suggested that management insights may be found in sexual selection theory (in particular, female mate choice). We review the theoretical and empirical literature and consider how female mate choice might influence captive breeding in the context of current genetic guidelines for different sexual selection theories (i.e., direct benefits, good genes, compatible genes, sexy sons). We show that while mate choice shows promise as a tool in captive breeding under certain conditions, for most species, there is currently too little theoretical and empirical evidence to provide any clear guidelines that would guarantee positive fitness outcomes and avoid conflicts with other genetic goals. The application of female mate choice to captive breeding is in its infancy and requires a goal-oriented framework based on the needs of captive species management, so researchers can make honest assessments of the costs and benefits of such an approach, using simulations, model species and captive animal data. PMID:25553072

  1. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Prevalence among Captive Chimpanzees, Texas, USA, 20121

    PubMed Central

    Barnhart, Kirstin F.; Abee, Christian R.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Weese, J. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in humans and animals is concerning. In 2012, our evaluation of a captive chimpanzee colony in Texas revealed MRSA prevalence of 69%. Animal care staff should be aware of possible zoonotic MRSA transmission resulting from high prevalence among captive chimpanzees. PMID:26583847

  2. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Prevalence among Captive Chimpanzees, Texas, USA, 2012(1).

    PubMed

    Hanley, Patrick W; Barnhart, Kirstin F; Abee, Christian R; Lambeth, Susan P; Weese, J Scott

    2015-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in humans and animals is concerning. In 2012, our evaluation of a captive chimpanzee colony in Texas revealed MRSA prevalence of 69%. Animal care staff should be aware of possible zoonotic MRSA transmission resulting from high prevalence among captive chimpanzees.

  3. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1996-03-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January to December 1994 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  4. Atoxoplasma spp. infection in captive canaries (Serinus canaria).

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Gómez-Villamandos, J C; Gutiérrez, J; Sierra, M A; Pedrera, M; Bautista, M J

    2007-02-01

    Clinical signs, histopathological and ultrastructural findings associated with Atoxoplasma spp. natural infection in captive canaries (Serinus canaria) are described. Intracytoplasmic Atoxoplasma-like protozoa were found in the liver and lung. In the liver, protozoa were found in hepatocytes and Kupffer's cells and were associated with granulomatous hepatitis and a marked bile duct hyperplasia. An usual finding was the presence of infected mononuclear cells adhered to the endothelium of the blood vessels in lung. The diagnosis was confirmed by ultrastructural examination of reprocessed paraffin-embedded tissues.

  5. Schistosoma spindale infection in a captive jackal (Canis aureus).

    PubMed

    Vimalraj, P G; Latchumikanthan, A

    2015-03-01

    This report is based on the findings from a captive jackal (Canis aureus) housed in Amirthi Zoological Park, Javadu Hills, Vellore. The animal was reported to be dull, depressed and also had diarrhea. Fecal samples were collected in 10 % formalin and subjected to direct and sedimentation method of faecal examination and was examined for endoparasitic infection. Surprisingly, fecal examination revealed two spindle shaped eggs having terminal spine with a size of 250μ by 60μ. The eggs were identified as belonging to Schistosoma spindale and as per the standard keys (Soulsby 1982). PMID:25698875

  6. Haemangiosarcoma in a captive Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica).

    PubMed

    Vercammen, F; Brandt, J; Brantegem, L Van; Bosseler, L; Ducatelle, R

    2015-01-01

    A 2.7-year-old male captive Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica) died unexpectedly without preceding symptoms. Gross necropsy revealed liver and lung tumours, which proved to be haemangiosarcomas by histopathology. Some of the liver tumours were ruptured, leading to massive intra-abdominal haemorrhage and death. Haemangiosarcomas are rare in domestic and exotic felids, occurring in skin, thoracic-abdominal cavity and bones. Although these tumours mainly appear to be occurring in older cats, they are sometimes observed in younger animals, as in the present case. This is the first description of haemangiosarcoma in a young Asiatic lion. PMID:26623366

  7. Avian penicilliosis caused by Penicillium griseofulvum in a captive toucanet.

    PubMed

    Aho, R; Westerling, B; Ajello, L; Padhye, A A; Samson, R A

    1990-01-01

    A sudden fatal illness developed in a group of New World toucanets held captive in Finland. Necropsy studies on one of the birds revealed the presence of invasive, hyaline, septate, branched mycelium in the lungs, air sacs, liver and other tissues. In addition, conidiophores and conidial chains, typical of members of the genus Penicillium were present in the lungs and air sacs. Cultures yielded a mould which was subsequently identified as Penicillium griseofulvum. A critical review of the literature revealed that only seven other species of Penicillium have been convincingly documented as agents of penicilliosis on the basis of histologic and cultural findings. PMID:2283582

  8. Leishmania(Leishmania) chagasi in captive wild felids in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dahroug, Magyda A A; Almeida, Arleana B P F; Sousa, Valéria R F; Dutra, Valéria; Turbino, Nívea C M R; Nakazato, Luciano; de Souza, Roberto L

    2010-01-01

    This study used a PCR-RFLP test to determine the presence of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in 16 captive wild felids [seven Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771); five Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758) and four Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758)] at the zoological park of the Federal University of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Amplification of Leishmania spp. DNA was seen in samples from five pumas and one jaguar, and the species was characterized as L. chagasi using restriction enzymes. It is already known that domestic felids can act as a reservoir of L. chagasi in endemic areas, and further studies are necessary to investigate their participation in the epidemiological chain of leishmaniasis.

  9. Haemangiosarcoma in a captive Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica)

    PubMed Central

    Vercammen, F.; Brandt, J.; Brantegem, L. Van; Bosseler, L.; Ducatelle, R.

    2015-01-01

    A 2.7-year-old male captive Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica) died unexpectedly without preceding symptoms. Gross necropsy revealed liver and lung tumours, which proved to be haemangiosarcomas by histopathology. Some of the liver tumours were ruptured, leading to massive intra-abdominal haemorrhage and death. Haemangiosarcomas are rare in domestic and exotic felids, occurring in skin, thoracic-abdominal cavity and bones. Although these tumours mainly appear to be occurring in older cats, they are sometimes observed in younger animals, as in the present case. This is the first description of haemangiosarcoma in a young Asiatic lion. PMID:26623366

  10. Flea (Pulex simulans) infestation in captive giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).

    PubMed

    Mutlow, Adrian G; Dryden, Michael W; Payne, Patricia A

    2006-09-01

    A pair of captive adult giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) presented heavily infested with a flea species (Pulex simulans) commonly found on Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) in the central United States. In this case, the flea was demonstrated to have completed its entire life cycle with the anteaters as the host. A single treatment of topical imidacloprid, coupled with removal and replacement of infested bedding, was rapidly effective at controlling the infestation and no adverse effects of the drug were noted. Control of the anteater infestation also removed the flea infestation of aardvarks in the same building.

  11. Primate breeding season: photoperiodic regulation in captive Lemur catta.

    PubMed

    Van Horn, R N

    1975-01-01

    Under natural light in Portland, Oreg., captive ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) experience a breeding season that differs by nearly half a year from the season in Madagascar. A series of experimental day length changes from 1971 to 1974 demonstrated the ability of both temperate and tropical photoperiod cycles to induce estrous cycles in quiescent animals. After photoperiodic activation, most impregnated females failed to resume estrous cycles even after infant separations unless they received additional photoperiod changes. Unimpregnated females, on the other hand, showed no significant decline in the incidence of estrous cycles under prolonged exposure to a constant day length regimen (12.OL:12.OD) for over a year.

  12. 9 CFR 50.4 - Classification of cattle, bison, captive cervids, and other livestock as infected, exposed, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General..., or suspect. (a) Cattle, bison, and captive cervids are classified as infected with tuberculosis on... captive cervids are classified as exposed to tuberculosis when such cattle, bison, and captive cervids...

  13. 9 CFR 50.4 - Classification of cattle, bison, captive cervids, and other livestock as infected, exposed, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General..., or suspect. (a) Cattle, bison, and captive cervids are classified as infected with tuberculosis on... captive cervids are classified as exposed to tuberculosis when such cattle, bison, and captive cervids...

  14. 9 CFR 50.4 - Classification of cattle, bison, captive cervids, and other livestock as infected, exposed, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General..., or suspect. (a) Cattle, bison, and captive cervids are classified as infected with tuberculosis on... captive cervids are classified as exposed to tuberculosis when such cattle, bison, and captive cervids...

  15. 9 CFR 50.4 - Classification of cattle, bison, captive cervids, and other livestock as infected, exposed, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General..., or suspect. (a) Cattle, bison, and captive cervids are classified as infected with tuberculosis on... captive cervids are classified as exposed to tuberculosis when such cattle, bison, and captive cervids...

  16. 9 CFR 50.4 - Classification of cattle, bison, captive cervids, and other livestock as infected, exposed, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General..., or suspect. (a) Cattle, bison, and captive cervids are classified as infected with tuberculosis on... captive cervids are classified as exposed to tuberculosis when such cattle, bison, and captive cervids...

  17. 50 CFR 21.14 - Permit exceptions for captive-bred migratory waterfowl other than mallard ducks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permit exceptions for captive-bred... General Requirements and Exceptions § 21.14 Permit exceptions for captive-bred migratory waterfowl other than mallard ducks. You may acquire captive-bred and properly marked migratory waterfowl of all...

  18. 50 CFR 21.14 - Permit exceptions for captive-bred migratory waterfowl other than mallard ducks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Permit exceptions for captive-bred... General Requirements and Exceptions § 21.14 Permit exceptions for captive-bred migratory waterfowl other than mallard ducks. You may acquire captive-bred and properly marked migratory waterfowl of all...

  19. 50 CFR 21.14 - Permit exceptions for captive-bred migratory waterfowl other than mallard ducks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Permit exceptions for captive-bred... General Requirements and Exceptions § 21.14 Permit exceptions for captive-bred migratory waterfowl other than mallard ducks. You may acquire captive-bred and properly marked migratory waterfowl of all...

  20. 50 CFR 21.14 - Permit exceptions for captive-bred migratory waterfowl other than mallard ducks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Permit exceptions for captive-bred... General Requirements and Exceptions § 21.14 Permit exceptions for captive-bred migratory waterfowl other than mallard ducks. You may acquire captive-bred and properly marked migratory waterfowl of all...

  1. 50 CFR 21.14 - Permit exceptions for captive-bred migratory waterfowl other than mallard ducks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Permit exceptions for captive-bred... General Requirements and Exceptions § 21.14 Permit exceptions for captive-bred migratory waterfowl other than mallard ducks. You may acquire captive-bred and properly marked migratory waterfowl of all...

  2. Annual pattern of fecal corticoid excretion in captive Red-tailed parrots (Amazona brasiliensis).

    PubMed

    Popp, Lucyenne G; Serafini, Patrícia P; Reghelin, Angela L S; Spercoski, Katherinne Maria; Roper, James J; Morais, Rosana N

    2008-05-01

    Annual patterns of fecal corticoid excretion were analyzed in the threatened Red-tailed parrot (Amazona brasiliensis) in captivity. Corticoid concentration over the 15 months of the study (mean +/- standard error, 12.6 +/- 0.32 ng g(-1), n = 585) was lowest around May (the southern Fall), and greatest around September (late winter), just prior to their normal breeding period. Corticoid excretion follows a seasonal pattern best explained by reproductive cycles rather than climate, although climate may be involved in the timing of corticoid excretion. Fecal corticoids also show promise as a tool to measure stress levels. We demonstrate that fecal corticoid measurement is a simple, yet efficient method for monitoring adrenocortical activity in captive, and perhaps wild, parrots. Monitoring adrenocortical activity can inform researchers about imposed stress in captivity, whether pair-bonds are forming in captive birds, and of the timing of breeding both in captivity and in nature.

  3. Genetic analysis reveals multiple parentage in captive reared eastern hellbender salamanders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis).

    PubMed

    Unger, Shem D; Williams, Rod N

    2015-11-01

    Information on the parentage of captive reared clutches is vital for conservation head-starting programs. Molecular methods, such as genotyping individuals with hyper-variable markers, can elucidate the genealogical contribution of captive-reared, reintroduced individuals to native populations. In this study, we used 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci to infer parentage of a clutch of 18 eastern hellbenders collected from a single nest from Buffalo Creek, West Virginia, subsequently reared in captivity, and used for translocations in Indiana. Collectively, these markers successfully detected the presence of multiple parentage for this species of conservation concern presently used in captive management programs in zoos across many states. This study highlights the need for genetic analysis of captive reared clutches used in translocations to minimize the loss of genetic diversity and potential for genetic swamping at release sites. PMID:26301598

  4. Captive-rearing piping plovers: developing techniques to augment wild populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, A.N.; Cuthbert, F.J.; Wemmer, L.C.; Doolittle, A.

    1997-01-01

    Techniques for captive-rearing and releasing piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) were developed using a surrogate species, killdeer (Charadrius vociferus). We compared captive- and parent-reared killdeer, and parent-reared piping plovers and determined that growth and behavior were similar. After surrogate trials determined that captive-rearing was feasible, we used the same methods to raise piping plover chicks from salvaged eggs. For captive-reared chick of both species, survival to fledging was higher than and behaviors similar to parent-reared chicks in the wild. Rearing techniques were fine-tuned, and ten piping plover fledglings were released to the wild. Based on our results, we developed recommendations for captive-rearing piping plovers using salvaged eggs to enhance productivity of small populations.

  5. Captive-rearing piping plovers: Developing techniques to augment wild populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, A.N.; Cuthbert, F.J.; Wemmer, L.C.; Doolittle, A.W.; Feirer, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    Techniques for captive-rearing and releasing piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) were developed using a surrogate species, killdeer (Charadrius vociferus). We compared captive-and parent-reared killdeer, and parent-reared piping plovers and determined that growth and behavior were similar. After surrogate trials determined that captive-rearing was feasible, we used the same methods to raise piping plover chicks from salvaged eggs. For captive-reared chick of both species, survival to fledging was higher than and behaviors similar to parent-reared chicks in the wild. Rearing techniques were fine-tuned, and ten piping plover fledglings were released to the wild. Based on our results, we developed recommendations for captive-rearing piping plovers using salvaged eggs to enhance productivity of small populations. ?? 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Occurrence of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in Brazilian cervids kept in captivity.

    PubMed

    Tiemann, Julia C H; Rodrigues, Aline A R; de Souza, Silvio L P; Duarte, José M Barbanti; Gennari, Solange M

    2005-05-15

    Neospora caninum is a coccidian parasite that causes disease in captive and domesticated animals and has been found in wild animals such as cervids. Sera from 150 cervids of the genus Mazama, were collected from 31 captive herds and 16 zoos from different Brazilian regions and analyzed by indirect fluorescent antibody test for anti-N. caninum antibodies. Positive reactions were found in 42% (63) of the samples and the titers varied from 50 to 51,200. Of the 86 cervids from the captive herds, 38 (44.2%) had anti N. caninum antibodies and of the 64 samples from the zoo, 25 (39.1%) were positive. No significant difference (p>0.05) was found for the occurrence values observed between the animals from captive herds and zoos as well as within the values documented for each one of the species analyzed. Therefore, the results indicate that the agent is prevalent from cervids in captivity in Brazil.

  7. Genetic analysis reveals multiple parentage in captive reared eastern hellbender salamanders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis).

    PubMed

    Unger, Shem D; Williams, Rod N

    2015-11-01

    Information on the parentage of captive reared clutches is vital for conservation head-starting programs. Molecular methods, such as genotyping individuals with hyper-variable markers, can elucidate the genealogical contribution of captive-reared, reintroduced individuals to native populations. In this study, we used 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci to infer parentage of a clutch of 18 eastern hellbenders collected from a single nest from Buffalo Creek, West Virginia, subsequently reared in captivity, and used for translocations in Indiana. Collectively, these markers successfully detected the presence of multiple parentage for this species of conservation concern presently used in captive management programs in zoos across many states. This study highlights the need for genetic analysis of captive reared clutches used in translocations to minimize the loss of genetic diversity and potential for genetic swamping at release sites.

  8. Anaglyph: Basalt Cliffs, Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Basalt cliffs along the northwest edge of the Meseta de Somuncura plateau near Sierra Colorada, Argentina show an unusual and striking pattern of erosion. Stereoscopic observation helps to clarify the landform changing processes active here. Many of the cliffs appear to be rock staircases that have the same color as the plateau's basaltic cap rock. Are these the edges of lower layers in the basalt or are they a train of slivers that are breaking off from, then sliding downslope and away from, the cap rock. They appear to be the latter. Close inspection shows that each stair step is too laterally irregular to be a continuous sheet of bedrock like the cap rock. Also, the steps are not flat but instead are little ridges, as one might expect from broken, tilted, and sliding slices of the cap rock. Stream erosion has cut some gullies into the cliffs and vegetation (appears bright in this infrared image) shows that water springs from and flows down some channels, but land sliding is clearly a major agent of erosion here.

    This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat Thematic Mapper image over a topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, then producing the two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center,Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this

  9. Assessing the effects of cognitive experiments on the welfare of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) by direct comparison of activity budget between wild and captive chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Hayashi, Misato

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the effects of cognitive experiments by direct comparison of activity budgets between wild and captive chimpanzees. One goal of captive management is to ensure that the activity budgets of captive animals are as similar as possible to those of their wild counterparts. However, such similarity has rarely been achieved. We compared the activity budget among three groups of chimpanzees: wild chimpanzees in Bossou (Guinea, n = 10), and captive chimpanzees who participated in cognitive experiments (experimental chimpanzees, n = 6) or did not participate in the experiments (nonexperimental chimpanzees, n = 6) at the Primate Research Institute (Japan). The experimental chimpanzees voluntarily participated in computer-controlled cognitive tasks and small pieces of fruits were provided as rewards. The data from captivity were obtained on the experimental days (weekdays) and nonexperimental days (weekends). In both study sites, we followed each chimpanzee from about 7 a.m. until the time when chimpanzees started to rest in the evening. The behaviors were recorded every 1 min. The results showed that on weekdays, feeding time and resting time of the experimental chimpanzees were almost the same as those of wild chimpanzees. However, for the nonexperimental chimpanzees, feeding time was significantly shorter and resting time was longer than those of the wild chimpanzees. In contrast, no difference was found in feeding time or resting time of the two groups of captive chimpanzees on weekends. The results suggested that the cognitive experiments worked as an efficient method for food-based enrichment.

  10. Serum chemistry comparisons between captive and free-ranging giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Debra A; Barbiers, Robyn B; Ellersieck, Mark R; Ball, Ray L; Koutsos, Elizabeth A; Griffin, Mark E; Grobler, Douw; Citino, Scott B; Bush, Mitchell

    2011-03-01

    Serum chemistry analyses were compared between captive and free-ranging giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) in an attempt to better understand some of the medical issues seen with captive giraffes. Illnesses, including peracute mortality, energy malnutrition, pancreatic disease, urolithiasis, hoof disease, and severe intestinal parasitism, may be related to zoo nutrition and management issues. Serum samples were collected from 20 captive giraffes at 10 United States institutions. Thirteen of the captive animal samples were collected from animals trained for blood collection; seven were banked samples obtained from a previous serum collection. These samples were compared with serum samples collected from 24 free-ranging giraffes in South Africa. Differences between captive and free-ranging giraffes, males and females, and adults and subadults were analyzed by using a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial and Fisher's least significant difference for mean separation; when necessary variables were ranked and analyzed via analysis of variance. Potassium and bilirubin concentrations and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities were different between captive and free-ranging giraffes, but all fell within normal bovid reference ranges. The average glucose concentration was significantly elevated in free-ranging giraffes (161 mg/dl) compared with captive giraffes (113 mg/dl). All giraffes in this study had glucose concentrations higher than bovine (42-75 mg/ dl) and caprine (48-76 mg/dl) reference ranges. Differences were also seen in lipase, chloride, and magnesium though these findings are likely not clinically significant. There were no differences detected between sexes. Adults had higher concentrations of potassium, total protein, globulins, and chloride and higher gamma glutamyltransferase activities, whereas subadults had higher concentrations of phosphorus. Within the captive group, nonimmobilized animals had higher concentrations of total protein and globulins. Captive giraffe diets

  11. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1995-2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation and are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January 1995 to August 2000 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Since initiating captive brood culture in 1991, NMFS has returned 742,000 eyed eggs, 181 pre-spawning adults, and over 90,000 smolts to Idaho for recovery efforts. The first adult returns to the Stanley Basin from the captive brood program began with 7 in 1999, and increased to about 250 in 2000. NMFS currently has broodstock in culture from year classes 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999 in both the captive broodstock program, and an adult release program. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  12. Serum chemistry comparisons between captive and free-ranging giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Debra A; Barbiers, Robyn B; Ellersieck, Mark R; Ball, Ray L; Koutsos, Elizabeth A; Griffin, Mark E; Grobler, Douw; Citino, Scott B; Bush, Mitchell

    2011-03-01

    Serum chemistry analyses were compared between captive and free-ranging giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) in an attempt to better understand some of the medical issues seen with captive giraffes. Illnesses, including peracute mortality, energy malnutrition, pancreatic disease, urolithiasis, hoof disease, and severe intestinal parasitism, may be related to zoo nutrition and management issues. Serum samples were collected from 20 captive giraffes at 10 United States institutions. Thirteen of the captive animal samples were collected from animals trained for blood collection; seven were banked samples obtained from a previous serum collection. These samples were compared with serum samples collected from 24 free-ranging giraffes in South Africa. Differences between captive and free-ranging giraffes, males and females, and adults and subadults were analyzed by using a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial and Fisher's least significant difference for mean separation; when necessary variables were ranked and analyzed via analysis of variance. Potassium and bilirubin concentrations and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities were different between captive and free-ranging giraffes, but all fell within normal bovid reference ranges. The average glucose concentration was significantly elevated in free-ranging giraffes (161 mg/dl) compared with captive giraffes (113 mg/dl). All giraffes in this study had glucose concentrations higher than bovine (42-75 mg/ dl) and caprine (48-76 mg/dl) reference ranges. Differences were also seen in lipase, chloride, and magnesium though these findings are likely not clinically significant. There were no differences detected between sexes. Adults had higher concentrations of potassium, total protein, globulins, and chloride and higher gamma glutamyltransferase activities, whereas subadults had higher concentrations of phosphorus. Within the captive group, nonimmobilized animals had higher concentrations of total protein and globulins. Captive giraffe diets

  13. Captivity induces hyper-inflammation in the house sparrow (Passer domesticus).

    PubMed

    Martin, Lynn B; Kidd, Laura; Liebl, Andrea L; Coon, Courtney A C

    2011-08-01

    Some species thrive in captivity but others exhibit extensive psychological and physiological deficits, which can be a challenge to animal husbandry and conservation as well as wild immunology. Here, we investigated whether captivity duration impacted the regulation of a key innate immune response, inflammation, of a common wild bird species, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus). Inflammation is one of the most commonly induced and fast-acting immune responses animals mount upon exposure to a parasite. However, attenuation and resolution of inflammatory responses are partly coordinated by glucocorticoid hormones, hormones that can be disregulated in captivity. Here, we tested whether captivity duration alters corticosterone regulation and hence the inflammatory response by comparing the following responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; a Gram-negative bacteria component that induces inflammation) of birds caught wild and injected immediately versus those held for 2 or 4 weeks in standard conditions: (1) the magnitude of leukocyte immune gene expression [the cytokines, interleukin 1β and interleukin 6, and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)], (2) the rate of clearance of endotoxin, and (3) the release of corticosterone (CORT) in response to endotoxin (LPS). We predicted that captivity duration would increase baseline CORT and thus suppress gene expression and endotoxin clearance rate. However, our predictions were not supported: TLR4 expression increased with time in captivity irrespective of LPS, and cytokine expression to LPS was stronger the longer birds remained captive. Baseline CORT was not affected by captivity duration, but CORT release post-LPS occurred only in wild birds. Lastly, sparrows held captive for 4 weeks maintained significantly higher levels of circulating endotoxin than other groups, perhaps due to leakage of microbes from the gut, but exogenous LPS did not increase circulating levels over the time scale samples were collected. Altogether, captivity

  14. Urbanization and water supplies for northeastern Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.R.

    1981-03-01

    Increasing populations in northeastern Colorado have resulted in reductions in irrigated acreage and the proportionate quantities of water available to support that segment of the agricultural industry. The growth has caused increased demands for municipal-domestic and industrial water supplies from the South Platte and Colorado River Basins. These impacts have been determined by comparing hydrologic data in conjunction with water use for agricultural, municipal-domestic, and industrial purposes between the period 1975 to 1979. Pricing and water rights ownership were also compared for the same period, as were land conversion data, population data, and crop production valuation. Proper administration of nonconsumptive return flows coupled with the importation of water from the Colorado River Basin will provide adequate, industrial, and irrigation water supplies for this growth intense area and downstream farm lands. 8 figures.

  15. Flooding in the Northeastern United States, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suro, Thomas P.; Roland, Mark A.; Kiah, Richard G.

    2015-12-31

    The annual exceedance probability (AEP) for 327 streamgages in the Northeastern United States were computed using annual peak streamflow data through 2011 and are included in this report. The 2011 peak streamflow for 129 of those streamgages was estimated to have an AEP of less than or equal to 1 percent. Almost 100 of these peak streamflows were a result of the flooding associated with Hurricane Irene in late August 2011. More extreme than the 1-percent AEP, is the 0.2-percent AEP. The USGS recorded peak streamflows at 31 streamgages that equaled or exceeded the estimated 0.2-percent AEP during 2011. Collectively, the USGS recorded peak streamflows having estimated AEPs of less than 1 percent in Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, and Vermont and new period-of-record peak streamflows were recorded at more than 180 streamgages resulting from the floods of 2011.

  16. Total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of commercially available tea (Camellia sinensis) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Anesini, Claudia; Ferraro, Graciela E; Filip, Rosana

    2008-10-01

    Tea, Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze (Theaceae) is cultivated in Argentina in the northeastern region (provinces of Misiones and Corrientes), between 26 degrees and 28 degrees south latitude, the southernmost area of the world where tea is cultivated. The objective of this work was to determine the total polyphenol content and the in vitro antioxidant capacity of green and black tea cultivated and industrialized in Argentina. Twelve samples of eight brands were analyzed. The total polyphenol content was determined according to the International Organization for Standardization method (ISO) 14502-1 for the determination of substances characteristic of green and black tea. The antioxidant capacity was determined by the ferric thiocyanate method (FTC) and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging assay. Green tea showed a higher polyphenol content than black tea. The total polyphenol concentration in green tea was found to vary from 21.02 +/- 1.54 to 14.32 +/- 0.45% of gallic acid equivalents (GAE), whereas in black tea, the polyphenol content ranged from 17.62 +/- 0.42 to 8.42 +/- 0.55% of GAE (P < 0.05). A similar profile was observed for the antioxidant capacity determined by both methods. The antioxidant activities were well correlated with the total polyphenol content (r (2) = 0.9935 for the ferric thiocyanate method and r (2) = 0.9141 for the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging assay). This is the first systematic screening for the quantification of polyphenols and antioxidant activity in tea commercialized in Argentine markets. The results obtained herein allow one to conclude that Argentine tea is of very good quality when compared to teas from other sources.

  17. Vaccines in Argentina: a regulatory view.

    PubMed

    Pérez, A C; Diez, R A

    2003-07-28

    In Argentina, vaccines for immuno-preventable diseases are regulated by the national regulatory agency, the Administración Nacional de Medicamentos, Alimentos y Tecnología Médica (the National Administration of Drugs, Food and Medical Devices, or ANMAT) created in 1992 to ensure efficacy and safety of drugs, food and medical devices available in the country, according to Law 16,463 and Decree 150/92. ANMAT has licensed 84 out of 157 vaccines registered in Argentina. Since 1994, ANMAT evaluated, approved and inspected 20 clinical trials with vaccines (1.8% of the 1062 trials approved by the agency since that time). The National System of Pharmaco-vigilance has received 318 communications of eventual adverse post-vaccination events (0.3% of the total). In addition, ANMAT provides support to the National Immunisation Programme. The current procedure is to follow international guidelines in the field, to be prepared for new, rapidly changing scenarios.

  18. Oral tool use by captive orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    O'Malley, R C; McGrew, W C

    2000-01-01

    Eight captive orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) were given wooden blocks embedded with raisins and bamboo as raw material for tool making in a study of manual laterality. In about three quarters of the raisin extraction bouts, the orangutans held the tool in the lips or teeth rather than in their hands. Three adult males and 2 adult females showed extreme (> or =92%) preference for oral tool use, a subadult male and an adult female used oral tools about half the time, and 1 adult female preferred manual tool use. Most oral tool users made short tools (approx. 4-10 cm long) that were held in the lips and (probably) supported by the tongue. Preference for oral tool use does not correlate with body weight, age or sex, but it may be related to hand size or individual preference. This is the first report of customary oral tool use as the norm in captive orangutans; it resembles the behavioral patterns reported by van Schaik et al. and Fox et al. in nature. PMID:11093037

  19. Parental failure in captive cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus Oedipus).

    PubMed

    Bardi, M; Petto, A J; Lee-Parritz, D E

    2001-07-01

    Several New World monkey species experience high rates of infant mortality in captivity, and parental failure in the form of infant neglect and abuse is often regarded as one of the leading causes of this problem. We explored a large archival database to assess environmental, familial, and biological variables identified as significant for parental success in previous studies of captive tamarins, through several generations and across several dozen pedigrees. Using a stepwise multiple regression analysis we developed a model including the fewest variables able to identify statistically significant predictors of infant outcome. We found that seven independent variables could predict infant outcome in the colony. The most important appeared to be the presence of helpers with whom parents could share infant carrying. Mother's experience and litter size were two other variables that contributed to a significant extent to explaining parental failure. Moreover, the model showed that there is a measurable contribution to infant outcome due to the health status of both parents. Finally, we found a distinct role for mothers and fathers, and that parental failure follows different patterns for abuse and rejection. PMID:11443631

  20. Body temperature in captive long-beaked echidnas (Zaglossus bartoni).

    PubMed

    Grigg, Gordon C; Beard, Lyn A; Barnes, Julie A; Perry, Larry I; Fry, Gary J; Hawkins, Margaret

    2003-12-01

    The routine occurrence of both short-term (daily) and long-term torpor (hibernation) in short-beaked echidnas, but not platypus, raises questions about the third monotreme genus, New Guinea's Zaglossus. We measured body temperatures (T(b)) with implanted data loggers over three and a half years in two captive Zaglossus bartoni at Taronga Zoo, Sydney. The modal T(b) of both long-beaks was 31 degrees C, similar to non-hibernating short-beaked echidnas, Tachyglossus aculeatus, in the wild (30-32 degrees C) and to platypus (32 degrees C), suggesting that this is characteristic of normothermic monotremes. T(b) cycled daily, usually over 2-4 degrees C. There were some departures from this pattern to suggest periods of inactivity but nothing to indicate the occurrence of long-term torpor. In contrast, two short-beaked echidnas monitored concurrently in the same pen showed extended periods of low T(b) in the cooler months (hibernation) and short periods of torpor at any time of the year, as they do in the wild. Whether torpor or hibernation occurs in Zaglossus in the wild or in juveniles remains unknown. However, given that the environment in this study was conducive to hibernation in short-beaks, which do not easily enter torpor in captivity, and their large size, we think that torpor in wild adult Zaglossus is unlikely.

  1. Ascarid infestation in captive Siberian tigers in China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhiwei; Liu, Shijie; Hou, Zhijun; Xing, Mingwei

    2016-08-15

    The Siberian tiger is endangered and is listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature; the captive environment is utilized to maintain Siberian tiger numbers. Little information regarding the prevalence of parasites in Siberian tigers is available. A total of 277 fecal samples of Siberian tigers were analyzed in this study. The microscopic analysis indicated the presence of ascarid eggs of Toxascaris leonina and Toxocara cati. The ascarid infection rate was 67.5% in Siberian tigers. The internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) phylogenetic analysis indicated that T. leonina belonged to Toxascaris and that Toxo. cati belonged to Toxocara. The infestation rate and intensity of T. leonina were higher than those of Toxo. cati. One-way analysis of variance showed that the presence of T. leonina was significantly associated with age (P<0.05). Temperature changes also influenced T. leonina and Toxo. cati infestation, and a rise in temperature caused an increase in the number of T. leonina and Toxo. cati eggs. This study provides a better understanding of ascarid infestation among the captive Siberian tigers and is helpful for the prevention of the spread of infectious parasitic diseases among other tigers in the zoo.

  2. Sudden cardiac death in 13 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Lammey, Michael L; Lee, D Rick; Ely, John J; Sleeper, Meg M

    2008-02-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD), presumed secondary to fatal arrhythmias, is a common cause of mortality in captive chimpanzees at the Alamogordo Primate Facility. Over the 6-year period at the Alamogordo Primate Facility between 2001 and 2006, 13 animals were defined as sudden cardiac death (11 male and 2 female) on the basis of clinical presentation which was 38% of all deaths. All animals had annual physical exams, including electrocardiograms and serial blood pressures. Six of the 13 animals underwent a complete cardiac evaluation by a veterinary cardiologist and all six of these animals were diagnosed with various degrees of cardiomyopathy. Systemic hypertension was noted in two of the 13 cases and antemortem cardiac arrhythmias were seen in all 13 animals. Histological examination of the hearts revealed myocardial fibrosis in 12 chimpanzees. Most of the animals (10/13) that died of sudden cardiac death had cardiomegaly (increased heart weight/body weight ratio) and some degree of myocardial fibrosis noted. Additional data as well as serial diagnostic evaluations will be needed to identify the possible causes of sudden cardiac death in captive chimpanzees. PMID:18269527

  3. Seasonal energetics and behavior of captive canvasbacks (Aythia valisineria)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Kuenzel, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Dramatic changes in the food habits and distribution of Chesapeake Bay canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) generated a desire to better understand the energetics and behavior of this species on its wintering grounds. Captive canvasbacks were maintained ad libitum on 5 diets during the winters of 1978-80 to evaluate varying protein and energy levels in the diets. Food consumption, weight, blood, and behavior were variables measured to assess affect of diet. Food consumption was higher (P<0.05) for canvasbacks on the low energy (1543 kcal/kg) diets than birds on the high energy (3638 kcal/kg) diets, but body weights did not differ (P<0.05) between diets for males or females. Food consumption and body weights were greatest in November and April and least in January and February. Canvas backs lost weight and ate less during the most stressful periods in spite of adequate food supplies. Blood parameters and behavior of captive canvasbacks did not differ between diets, although differences (P<0.05) were detected for some blood parameters and behaviors between sexes, ages, and seasons. Canvasbacks were more inactive during the coldest months. Changes in behavior, weight, and food consumption appear to be a mechanism to conserve energy at a time when natural food supplies are less plentiful or less available. Aquatic vegetation has declined in quantity making canvasbacks more dependent on invertebrates. Availability of low energy food (e.g. clams) may be the limiting factor in regard to the winter survival of wild canvasbacks.

  4. Amyloidosis in a Captive Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata) Research Colony.

    PubMed

    Shientag, Lisa J; Garlick, David S; Galati, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Five birds in a captive zebra finch research colony were diagnosed with systemic amyloidosis within a 7-mo period by means of postmortem Congo red staining and green birefringence under polarized light. The liver was the most frequently and usually the most seriously affected organ, followed by the spleen and then the kidney. All 5 birds had been clinically affected with various inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic conditions associated with amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis in humans and animals. Immunohistochemistry using antisera against duck AA protein revealed that tissues from 2 of the 5 birds were positive for the presence of AA protein and systemic inflammation-associated amyloidosis. Although the development of AA amyloidosis has been associated with chronic inflammation, trauma, and various infectious and neoplastic diseases as well as possible genetic predispositions and stresses linked to overcrowding, the root causes for individual cases of AA amyloidosis are incompletely understood. As far as we know, this report is the first description of AA amyloidosis in captive, research zebra finches. PMID:27298248

  5. Zinc toxicosis in a captive striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena).

    PubMed

    Agnew, D W; Barbiers, R B; Poppenga, R H; Watson, G L

    1999-09-01

    An 11-yr-old captive-born female striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena) acutely developed lameness and swelling of the left front foot with anorexia, depression, and lethargy. Hematologic evaluation revealed regenerative anemia, azotemia, and other mild serum electrolyte and mineral abnormalities. Twenty radiographically visible coins and 10 coin fragments were removed by laparotomy and gastrotomy following unsuccessful medical therapy. The animal died during anesthetic recovery. Zinc serum levels were 41.0 ppm at first presentation and 36.0 ppm at the time of surgery, compared with concentrations of 1.78 ppm and 2.82 ppm for serum taken from this female and a male hyena 3 mo previously. Zinc toxicosis was diagnosed based on the similarity of clinical signs to those described in dogs, presence in the stomach of pennies minted after 1982 (when the zinc content of U.S. pennies was increased substantially), necropsy findings, and elevated serum and liver zinc values. The case highlights the risk posed by penny ingestion for subsequent zinc toxicosis in captive omnivores.

  6. Diversity of avipoxviruses in captive-bred Houbara bustard.

    PubMed

    Le Loc'h, Guillaume; Ducatez, Mariette F; Camus-Bouclainville, Christelle; Guérin, Jean-Luc; Bertagnoli, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of conservation breeding programs is a key step to ensuring the sustainability of many endangered species. Infectious diseases can be serious threats for the success of such initiatives especially since knowledge on pathogens affecting those species is usually scarce. Houbara bustard species (Chlamydotis undulata and Chlamydotis macqueenii), whose populations have declined over the last decades, have been captive-bred for conservation purposes for more than 15 years. Avipoxviruses are of the highest concern for these species in captivity. Pox lesions were collected from breeding projects in North Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia for 6 years in order to study the diversity of avipoxviruses responsible for clinical infections in Houbara bustard. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of 113 and 75 DNA sequences for P4b and fpv140 loci respectively, revealed an unexpected wide diversity of viruses affecting Houbara bustard even at a project scale: 17 genotypes equally distributed between fowlpox virus-like and canarypox virus-like have been identified in the present study. This suggests multiple and repeated introductions of virus and questions host specificity and control strategy of avipoxviruses. We also show that the observed high virus burden and co-evolution of diverse avipoxvirus strains at endemic levels may be responsible for the emergence of novel recombinant strains. PMID:25270742

  7. Diversity of avipoxviruses in captive-bred Houbara bustard.

    PubMed

    Le Loc'h, Guillaume; Ducatez, Mariette F; Camus-Bouclainville, Christelle; Guérin, Jean-Luc; Bertagnoli, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of conservation breeding programs is a key step to ensuring the sustainability of many endangered species. Infectious diseases can be serious threats for the success of such initiatives especially since knowledge on pathogens affecting those species is usually scarce. Houbara bustard species (Chlamydotis undulata and Chlamydotis macqueenii), whose populations have declined over the last decades, have been captive-bred for conservation purposes for more than 15 years. Avipoxviruses are of the highest concern for these species in captivity. Pox lesions were collected from breeding projects in North Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia for 6 years in order to study the diversity of avipoxviruses responsible for clinical infections in Houbara bustard. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of 113 and 75 DNA sequences for P4b and fpv140 loci respectively, revealed an unexpected wide diversity of viruses affecting Houbara bustard even at a project scale: 17 genotypes equally distributed between fowlpox virus-like and canarypox virus-like have been identified in the present study. This suggests multiple and repeated introductions of virus and questions host specificity and control strategy of avipoxviruses. We also show that the observed high virus burden and co-evolution of diverse avipoxvirus strains at endemic levels may be responsible for the emergence of novel recombinant strains.

  8. Spatial memory in captive American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Zamisch, Valeria; Vonk, Jennifer

    2012-11-01

    The spatial memory and foraging strategies of four adult captive-born American black bears (Ursus americanus) were explored in four experiments using a simulated foraging task. In the first three experiments, each session consisted of two phases separated by a delay: During the exploration phase, subjects foraged among a set of baited and unbaited sites. During the delay, the same locations were rebaited and subjects were released again and allowed to search the sites (search phase). In Experiments 1a and 1b, different sites were baited each day and the interval between exploration and search was short (4 hr or 15 min). Subjects were not accurate at recovering the food items in either experiment. In Experiment 2, an "informed forager" paradigm was used in which one subject was given privileged knowledge about the location of the food during the exploration phase and was later released with an "uninformed" competitor during the search phase. The bears did not achieve above-chance recovery accuracy even in the presence of a competitor. In Experiment 3, the same two of four sites were continually baited and the bears were released simultaneously over a period of 20 days, with each baiting separated by 2 or 3 days. As a group, the bears' foraging accuracy with repeated baiting and longer intervals approached greater than chance accuracy. Results suggest some limitations on bears' use of spatial memory in captive environments, but reveal the potential for use of spatial memory over longer delays. PMID:22545764

  9. PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLA IN CAPTIVE REPTILES FROM CROATIA.

    PubMed

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-06-01

    Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples from 200 apparently healthy reptiles were tested for Salmonella excretions by bacteriologic culture and serotyping. These 200 individual reptiles included 31 lizards, 79 chelonians, and 90 snakes belonging to private owners or housed at the Zagreb Zoo, Croatia. Salmonella was detected in a total of 13% of the animals, among them 48.4% lizards, 8.9% snakes, and 3.8% turtles. Representatives of five of the six Salmonella enterica subspecies were identified with the following proportions in the total number of isolates: Salmonella enterica enterica 34.6%, Salmonella enterica houtenae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica arizonae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica diarizonae 15.4%, and Salmonella enterica salamae 3.8%. The 14 different serovars isolated included several rarely occurring serovars such as Salmonella Apapa, Salmonella Halle, Salmonella Kisarawe, and Salmonella Potengi. These findings confirm that the prevalence of Salmonella is considerable in captive reptiles in Croatia, indicating that these animals may harbor serovars not commonly seen in veterinary or human microbiologic practice. This should be addressed in the prevention and diagnostics of human reptile-transmitted infections.

  10. Videotapes as enrichment for captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Bloomsmith, M.A.; Lambeth, S.P.

    2000-01-01

    The effectiveness of showing videotapes to captive chimpanzees as an environmental enrichment was quantitatively tested. The responses of 10 subjects (3 adult males and 7 adult females) to videotapes of chimpanzees engaging in a variety of behaviors, to videotapes of other animals and humans, and to television programs were compared. Data collection consisted of 20-minute, continuous sampling tests while various videotapes were shown. A total of 400 tests were conducted. Multivariate analysis of variance was applied to measure differences in the duration of eight categories of behavior across videotapes of varying content. No general behavioral differences in response to the tapes based on sex or housing were revealed. However, with the behavior of monitor-watching analyzed alone, we found that individually housed subjects watched the videotapes more than socially housed subjects. When viewing time was averaged across all videotapes, the chimpanzees watched the monitor a mean of 38.4% of the time available. The chimpanzees' behavior varied significantly only when they were watching the videotapes of various human and chimpanzee activities and not when watching a blank screen. A Pearson's correlation indicated that subjects habituated to repeated presentations of the videotapes, although the effect was small numerically. Although this type of enrichment did not extensively alter behavior, it did occupy a significant portion of the subjects' activity budget; thus, the amount of time spent watching the video stimuli indicated that videotapes may be a useful enrichment for captive chimpanzees. Zoo Biol 19:541-551, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Ascarid infestation in captive Siberian tigers in China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhiwei; Liu, Shijie; Hou, Zhijun; Xing, Mingwei

    2016-08-15

    The Siberian tiger is endangered and is listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature; the captive environment is utilized to maintain Siberian tiger numbers. Little information regarding the prevalence of parasites in Siberian tigers is available. A total of 277 fecal samples of Siberian tigers were analyzed in this study. The microscopic analysis indicated the presence of ascarid eggs of Toxascaris leonina and Toxocara cati. The ascarid infection rate was 67.5% in Siberian tigers. The internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) phylogenetic analysis indicated that T. leonina belonged to Toxascaris and that Toxo. cati belonged to Toxocara. The infestation rate and intensity of T. leonina were higher than those of Toxo. cati. One-way analysis of variance showed that the presence of T. leonina was significantly associated with age (P<0.05). Temperature changes also influenced T. leonina and Toxo. cati infestation, and a rise in temperature caused an increase in the number of T. leonina and Toxo. cati eggs. This study provides a better understanding of ascarid infestation among the captive Siberian tigers and is helpful for the prevention of the spread of infectious parasitic diseases among other tigers in the zoo. PMID:27514888

  12. Captive breeding programs based on family groups in polyploid sturgeons.

    PubMed

    Boscari, Elisa; Pujolar, Jose Martin; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Corradin, Riccardo; Congiu, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In species with long life cycles and discontinuous availability of individuals to reproduction, implementing a long-term captive breeding program can be difficult or impossible. In such cases, managing diversity among familiar groups instead of individuals could become a suitable approach to avoid inbreeding and increase the possibility to accomplish a breeding scheme. This is the case of several sturgeon species including the Adriatic sturgeon, whose recovery depends on the management of a few captive stocks directly descended from the same group of wild parents. In the present study, relatedness among 445 potential breeders was inferred with a novel software for pedigree reconstruction in tetraploids ("BreedingSturgeons"). This information was used to plan a breeding scheme considering familiar groups as breeding units and identifying mating priorities. A two-step strategy is proposed: a short-term breeding program, relying on the 13 remaining F0 individuals of certain wild origin; and a long-term plan based on F1 families. Simulations to evaluate the loss of alleles in the F2 generation under different pairing strategies and assess the number of individuals to breed, costs and logistical aquaculture constraints were performed. The strategy proposed is transferable to the several other tetraploid sturgeon species on the brink of extinction.

  13. Birth of common shovelnose rays (Glaucostegus typus) under captive conditions.

    PubMed

    Timm, Lori L; Carter, Joshua E; Frey, Joshua; Prappas, James; Wells, R J David

    2014-01-01

    The common shovelnose ray (Glaucostegus typus) is a poorly studied species of the Rhinobatidae family that occurs throughout the Indo-West Pacific. Although common in aquariums throughout the United States, there are currently no records of captive birth events. In 2013, a female common shovelnose ray housed at the Downtown Aquarium in Houston, Texas, USA gave birth to eleven pups. Although all pups were stillborn, this event demonstrates that it is possible to breed common shovelnose rays in a controlled environment. The single female and two male common shovelnose rays at the aquarium are of sexually mature size (between 206 and 240 cm total length, TL), demonstrate mating behaviors, and provide an excellent opportunity to investigate the reproductive biology of this species. Captive environmental conditions of the birth enclosure may be useful in replicating the birthing event in order to develop a breeding program that could potentially relieve collection pressures on wild populations of guitarfish given their vulnerable status. PMID:25043106

  14. MASTER: 2 OT discovered in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkov, V.; Pogrosheva, T.; Lipunov, V.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Vladimirov, V.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Chazov, V.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.

    2016-10-01

    MASTER-OAFA, located in Argentina, with auto-detection system (Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 03h 19m 42.92s -45d 30m 13.9s on 2016-10-27.27597 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 16.9m (mlim=20.8m).

  15. Site Testing in the Northwest of Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recabarren, P.; García Lambas, D.; Muriel, H.; Stasyszyn, F.; Renzi, V.; Vrech, R.; Viramonte, J.; Sarazin, M.

    2009-05-01

    We present results of the characterization of the Tolar Grande-Macon Range site in the North-West of Argentina. This project is being developed by the IATE in collaboration with ESO in the framework of the E-ELT project. We present and discuss one year of image quality measurements with MASS and DIMM, three years of meteorological data and detailed studies of seismic activity and geo-technical aspects as well as diverse logistic issues.

  16. Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Mitre Peninsula is the easternmost tip of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, (54.5S, 65.5W). Early winter snow can be seen on this south tip of the Andes Mountains. These same mountains continue underwater to Antarctica. The Strait of Magellan, separating the South American mainland from Tierra del Fuego is off the scene to the north and west, but the Strait of LeMaire, separating Tierra del Fuego from the Isla de los Estados can be seen.

  17. Andes Altiplano, Northwest Argentina, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This view of the Andes Altiplano in northwest Argentina (25.5S, 68.0W) is dominated by heavily eroded older and inactive volcano peaks. The altiplano is a high altitude cold desert like the Tibetan Plateau but smaller in area. It is an inland extension of the hyperarid Atacama Desert of the west coast of South America and includes hundreds of volcanic edifices (peaks, cinder cones, lava flows, debris fields, lakes and dry lake beds (salars).

  18. [Genetic diversity of microsatellite loci in captive Amur tigers].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Gaung; Li, Di-Qiang; Xiao, Qi-Ming; Rao, Li-Qun; Zhang, Xue-Wen

    2004-09-01

    The tiger is one of the most threatened wildlife species since the abundance and distribution of tiger have decreased dramatically in the last century. The wild Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) only distributed in northeast China, the far east area of Russia and the north Korea and its size of wild population is about 450 in the world and 20 in China. Several hundred captive populations of Amur tigers are the main source to protect gene library of tiger and the source of recovering the wild populations. The Breeding Center for Felidae at Hengdaohezi and Haoerbin Tiger Park in Heilongjiang Province is the biggest captive breeding base in China. How to make clear the genetic pedigree and establish reasonable breeding system is the urgent issues. So we use the microsatellite DNA markers and non-invasive technology to research on the genetic diversity of captive Amur tiger in this study. Ten microsatellite loci (Fca005, Fca075, Fca094, Fca152, Fca161, Fca294, Pti002, Pti003, Pti007 and Pti010), highly variable nuclear markers, were studied their genetic diversity in 113 captive Amur tigers. The PCR amplified products of microsatellite loci were detected by non-denatured polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Allele numbers, allelic frequency, gene heterozygosity(H(e)), polymorphism information content(PIC) and effective number of allele(N(e)) were calculated. 41 alleles were found and their size were ranged from 110bp to 250bp in ten microsatellite loci, Fca152 had 6 alleles, Fca075, Fca094 and Fca294 had 5 alleles, Fca005 and Pti002 had 4 alleles and the others had 3 alleles in all tiger samples, respectively. The allelic frequencies were from 0.009 to 0.767; The He ranged from 0.385 to 0.707, and Fca294 and Pti010 locus had the highest and lowest value; the PIC were from 0.353 to 0.658, Fca294 and Pti010 locus had the highest and lowest value; and N(e) were from 1.626 to 3.409, Fca294 and Pti010 locus had the highest and lowest value, which showed the ten

  19. Dento-alveolar lesions and palaeodietary inferences from the Paso Alsina 1 site (eastern Pampean-Patagonian transition, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Flensborg, G

    2011-10-01

    Several archaeological researches in northeastern Patagonia and southeastern Pampas have evaluated various indicators of the diets of hunter-gatherers who inhabited these regions during the Late Holocene, including the role of plant foods. Dental analysis is an important way to introduce new information about subsistence. In this sense, the objective of this work is to document and interpret dento-alveolar lesions in an osteological sample recovered from the Paso Alsina 1 archaeological site (eastern Pampean-Patagonian transition, Argentina). This paper will explore the oral health status of individuals and discuss palaeodietary information of hunter-gatherers that inhabited the lower valley of the Colorado River during the final Late Holocene (ca. 500 years BP). The site is defined as a formal area bundle composed of 10 secondary multiple burials containing 56 individuals of both sexes and various ages (e.g., perinatal, infant, and adult). In this study, 781 teeth and 1036 alveoli from 47 maxillae and 38 mandibles were analysed from 51 adult individuals. The results indicate a moderate rate of dental wear, and dental calculus, and low percentages of caries, abscesses, and antemortem tooth loss. The information obtained suggests a diet based on a combination of proteins, fat and carbohydrates. Results are then compared with those from other lines of analysis for the study area and for the neighboring regions (northeastern Patagonia and southeastern Pampas). PMID:21924417

  20. Acute Intermittent Porphyria in Argentina: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Cerbino, Gabriela Nora; Gerez, Esther Noemí; Varela, Laura Sabina; Melito, Viviana Alicia; Parera, Victoria Estela; Rossetti, María Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Porphyrias are a group of metabolic diseases that arise from deficiencies in the heme biosynthetic pathway. A partial deficiency in hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS) produces a hepatic disorder named Acute Intermittent Porphyria (AIP); the acute porphyria is more frequent in Argentina. In this paper we review the results obtained for 101 Argentinean AIP families and 6 AIP families from foreign neighbour countries studied at molecular level at Centro de Investigaciones sobre Porfirinas y Porfirias (CIPYP). Thirty-five different mutations were found, of which 14 were described for the first time in our population. The most prevalent type of mutations was the missense mutations (43%) followed by splice defects (26%) and small deletions (20%). An odd case of a double heterozygous presentation of AIP in a foreign family from Paraguay is discussed. Moreover, it can be noted that 38 new families were found carrying the most frequent mutation in Argentina (p.G111R), increasing to 55.66% the prevalence of this genetic change in our population and adding further support to our previous hypothesis of a founder effect for this mutation in Argentina. Identification of patients with an overt AIP is important because treatment depends on an accurate diagnosis, but more critical is the identification of asymptomatic relatives to avoid acute attacks which may progress to death. PMID:26075277

  1. Acute intermittent porphyria in Argentina: an update.

    PubMed

    Cerbino, Gabriela Nora; Gerez, Esther Noemí; Varela, Laura Sabina; Melito, Viviana Alicia; Parera, Victoria Estela; Batlle, Alcira; Rossetti, María Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Porphyrias are a group of metabolic diseases that arise from deficiencies in the heme biosynthetic pathway. A partial deficiency in hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS) produces a hepatic disorder named Acute Intermittent Porphyria (AIP); the acute porphyria is more frequent in Argentina. In this paper we review the results obtained for 101 Argentinean AIP families and 6 AIP families from foreign neighbour countries studied at molecular level at Centro de Investigaciones sobre Porfirinas y Porfirias (CIPYP). Thirty-five different mutations were found, of which 14 were described for the first time in our population. The most prevalent type of mutations was the missense mutations (43%) followed by splice defects (26%) and small deletions (20%). An odd case of a double heterozygous presentation of AIP in a foreign family from Paraguay is discussed. Moreover, it can be noted that 38 new families were found carrying the most frequent mutation in Argentina (p.G111R), increasing to 55.66% the prevalence of this genetic change in our population and adding further support to our previous hypothesis of a founder effect for this mutation in Argentina. Identification of patients with an overt AIP is important because treatment depends on an accurate diagnosis, but more critical is the identification of asymptomatic relatives to avoid acute attacks which may progress to death.

  2. 60. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  3. 55. GENERAL NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. GENERAL NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX WITH LADLE HOUSE AND IRON DESULPHERIZATION BUILDING ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  4. 43. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF MOULD CONDITIONING BUILDING AND BOP SHOP, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF MOULD CONDITIONING BUILDING AND BOP SHOP, WITH OPEN HEARTH No. 2 BUILDING ON LEFT. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  5. 14. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF ORIGINAL DEMAG AIR COMPRESSOR UNIT FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF ORIGINAL DEMAG AIR COMPRESSOR UNIT FOR THE LINDE 1000 TONS PER DAY HIGH PURITY OXYGEN MAKING PLANT. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Fuel & Utilities Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  6. Landscape Thresholds and the Condition of Northeastern Estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic impacts to northeastern estuaries have been well documented and many researchers have quantified the associations between broad scale human land uses in contributing landscapes and impacted estuarine condition. However, associations alone are not adequate for ident...

  7. 3. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF THE ROCK CREEK AND POTOMAC PARKWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF THE ROCK CREEK AND POTOMAC PARKWAY RAMP. VIEW TAKEN FROM NORTHERN RAILING OF MEMORIAL BRIDGE. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Watergate & Bridge Plaza, Adjacent to Arlington Memorial Bridge & Lincoln Memorial, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. IS NITROGEN DEPOSITION ALTERING THE NITROGEN STATUS OF NORTHEASTERN FORESTS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews literature and compiles existing data to address the question "Is N deposition altering the N status in Northeastern forests?" Using correlational techniques and large sample size, three different categories of indicators appear to give different results. The...

  9. Admixture Between Historically Isolated Mitochondrial Lineages in Captive Western Gorillas: Recommendations for Future Management

    PubMed Central

    Dew, J. Larry; Bergl, Richard A.; Jensen-Seaman, Michael I.; Anthony, Nicola M.

    2015-01-01

    Although captive populations of western gorilla have been maintained in the United States for over a century, little is known about the geographic origins and genetic composition of the current zoo population. Furthermore, although previous mitochondrial analyses have shown that free-range gorilla populations exhibit substantial regional differentiation, nothing is known of the extent to which this variation has been preserved in captive populations. To address these questions, we combined 379 pedigree records with data from 52 mitochondrial sequences to infer individual haplogroup affiliations, geographical origin of wild founders and instances of inter-breeding between haplogroups in the United States captive gorilla population. We show that the current captive population contains all major mitochondrial lineages found within wild western lowland gorillas. Levels of haplotype diversity are also comparable to those found in wild populations. However, the majority of captive gorilla matings have occurred between individuals with different haplogroup affiliations. Although restricting crosses to individuals within the same haplogroup would preserve the phylogeographic structure present in the wild, careful management of captive populations is required to minimize the risk of drift and inbreeding. However, when captive animals are released back into the wild, we recommend that efforts should be made to preserve natural phylogeographic structure. PMID:25790828

  10. Genetic diversity of North American captive-born gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    PubMed

    Simons, Noah D; Wagner, Ronald S; Lorenz, Joseph G

    2012-01-01

    Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) are designated as critically endangered and wild populations are dramatically declining as a result of habitat destruction, fragmentation, diseases (e.g., Ebola) and the illegal bushmeat trade. As wild populations continue to decline, the genetic management of the North American captive western lowland gorilla population will be an important component of the long-term conservation of the species. We genotyped 26 individuals from the North American captive gorilla collection at 11 autosomal microsatellite loci in order to compare levels of genetic diversity to wild populations, investigate genetic signatures of a population bottleneck and identify the genetic structure of the captive-born population. Captive gorillas had significantly higher levels of allelic diversity (t(7) = 4.49, P = 0.002) and heterozygosity (t(7) = 4.15, P = 0.004) than comparative wild populations, yet the population has lost significant allelic diversity while in captivity when compared to founders (t(7) = 2.44, P = 0.04). Analyses suggested no genetic evidence for a population bottleneck of the captive population. Genetic structure results supported the management of North American captive gorillas as a single population. Our results highlight the utility of genetic management approaches for endangered nonhuman primate species.

  11. Anthelmintic efficacy in captive wild impala antelope (Aepyceros melampus) in Lusaka, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Nalubamba, King S; Mudenda, Ntombi B

    2012-05-25

    There has been an increase in the number of wild ungulates kept in captivity for ecotourism and conservation in Zambia and these animals are susceptible to a number of diseases including gastrointestinal helminth infections. Surveys to determine anthelmintic efficacy to gastrointestinal nematodes in captive-wildlife are not common and there have been no reports of anthelmintic resistance in captive-wildlife in Zambia. This study was carried out to determine the efficacy of the benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole in captive wild impala (Aepyceros melampus) in Zambia. During the month of April 2011, at the end of the rainy season, the faecal egg count reduction test was performed at a private game facility for assessing anthelmintic efficacy of oral fenbendazole and the anthelmintic treatment showed an efficacy of 90%. Haemonchus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. were the predominant genera present before treatment, but Haemonchus spp. larvae were the only genus recovered from the faecal cultures after anthelmintic treatment. This represents the first documentation of anthelmintic treatment failure in captive wild-antelopes in Zambia. It also demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the common traditional practice of deworming captive-wild antelopes at the end of the rainy season due to the rapid re-infection of impala that occurs due to high pasture infectivity. Suggestions on changes to current anthelmintic use/practices that will make them more efficacious and reduce the possibility of development of anthelmintic resistance in captive wild game in Zambia are also made.

  12. Genetic diversity of North American captive-born gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    PubMed

    Simons, Noah D; Wagner, Ronald S; Lorenz, Joseph G

    2012-01-01

    Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) are designated as critically endangered and wild populations are dramatically declining as a result of habitat destruction, fragmentation, diseases (e.g., Ebola) and the illegal bushmeat trade. As wild populations continue to decline, the genetic management of the North American captive western lowland gorilla population will be an important component of the long-term conservation of the species. We genotyped 26 individuals from the North American captive gorilla collection at 11 autosomal microsatellite loci in order to compare levels of genetic diversity to wild populations, investigate genetic signatures of a population bottleneck and identify the genetic structure of the captive-born population. Captive gorillas had significantly higher levels of allelic diversity (t(7) = 4.49, P = 0.002) and heterozygosity (t(7) = 4.15, P = 0.004) than comparative wild populations, yet the population has lost significant allelic diversity while in captivity when compared to founders (t(7) = 2.44, P = 0.04). Analyses suggested no genetic evidence for a population bottleneck of the captive population. Genetic structure results supported the management of North American captive gorillas as a single population. Our results highlight the utility of genetic management approaches for endangered nonhuman primate species. PMID:23403930

  13. Effectiveness of managed gene flow in reducing genetic divergence associated with captive breeding.

    PubMed

    Waters, Charles D; Hard, Jeffrey J; Brieuc, Marine S O; Fast, David E; Warheit, Kenneth I; Waples, Robin S; Knudsen, Curtis M; Bosch, William J; Naish, Kerry A

    2015-12-01

    Captive breeding has the potential to rebuild depressed populations. However, associated genetic changes may decrease restoration success and negatively affect the adaptive potential of the entire population. Thus, approaches that minimize genetic risks should be tested in a comparative framework over multiple generations. Genetic diversity in two captive-reared lines of a species of conservation interest, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), was surveyed across three generations using genome-wide approaches. Genetic divergence from the source population was minimal in an integrated line, which implemented managed gene flow by using only naturally-born adults as captive broodstock, but significant in a segregated line, which bred only captive-origin individuals. Estimates of effective number of breeders revealed that the rapid divergence observed in the latter was largely attributable to genetic drift. Three independent tests for signatures of adaptive divergence also identified temporal change within the segregated line, possibly indicating domestication selection. The results empirically demonstrate that using managed gene flow for propagating a captive-reared population reduces genetic divergence over the short term compared to one that relies solely on captive-origin parents. These findings complement existing studies of captive breeding, which typically focus on a single management strategy and examine the fitness of one or two generations. PMID:26640521

  14. Molecular characterization of the cloacal microbiota of wild and captive parrots.

    PubMed

    Xenoulis, Panagiotis G; Gray, Patricia L; Brightsmith, Donald; Palculict, Blake; Hoppes, Sharman; Steiner, Jörg M; Tizard, Ian; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2010-12-15

    The gastrointestinal microbiota plays a fundamental role in health and disease. Only limited data are available about the composition of the intestinal microbiota of captive animals compared to those of wild animals. The aim of the present study was to characterize the cloacal microbiota of apparently healthy wild and captive parrots. A total of 16 parrots, 8 wild and 8 captive, belonging to 3 different species, were used in this study. Cloacal material was collected via cloacal swabbing. DNA was extracted and 16S rRNA genes were amplified using universal bacterial primers. Constructed 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were compared between groups. A total of 518 clones were analyzed, and 49 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified. The OTUs were classified in 4 bacterial phyla: Firmicutes (72.9%), Proteobacteria (14.9%), Actinobacteria (12%), and Bacteroidetes (0.2%). Bacterial diversity was significantly lower in wild birds than in captive birds. Principal component analysis based on the Unifrac distance metric indicated that the cloacal microbiota differed between wild and captive parrots. Staphylococcus saprophyticus was significantly more abundant in wild birds, while Escherichia coli was significantly more abundant in captive birds. In conclusion, wild and captive parrots appear to have differences in the composition of their cloacal bacterial microbiota. The clinical significance of these differences remains to be determined.

  15. Large-scale genetic survey provides insights into the captive management and reintroduction of giant pandas.

    PubMed

    Shan, Lei; Hu, Yibo; Zhu, Lifeng; Yan, Li; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Desheng; Jin, Xuelin; Zhang, Chenglin; Wei, Fuwen

    2014-10-01

    The captive genetic management of threatened species strives to preserve genetic diversity and avoid inbreeding to ensure populations remain available, healthy, and viable for future reintroduction. Determining and responding to the genetic status of captive populations is therefore paramount to these programs. Here, we genotyped 19 microsatellite loci for 240 captive giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) (∼64% of the captive population) from four breeding centers, Wolong (WL), Chengdu (CD), Louguantai (LGT), and Beijing (BJ), and analyzed 655 bp of mitochondrial DNA control region sequence for 220 of these animals. High levels of genetic diversity and low levels of inbreeding were estimated in the breeding centers, indicating that the captive population is genetically healthy and deliberate further genetic input from wild animals is unnecessary. However, the LGT population faces a higher risk of inbreeding, and significant genetic structure was detected among breeding centers, with LGT-CD and WL-BJ clustering separately. Based on these findings, we highlight that: 1) the LGT population should be managed as an independent captive population to resemble the genetic distinctness of their Qinling Mountain origins; 2) exchange between CD and WL should be encouraged because of similar wild founder sources; 3) the selection of captive individuals for reintroduction should consider their geographic origin, genetic background, and genetic contribution to wild populations; and 4) combining our molecular genetic data with existing pedigree data will better guide giant panda breeding and further reduce inbreeding into the future. PMID:25015646

  16. Genetic diversity of North American captive-born gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla)

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Noah D; Wagner, Ronald S; Lorenz, Joseph G

    2013-01-01

    Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) are designated as critically endangered and wild populations are dramatically declining as a result of habitat destruction, fragmentation, diseases (e.g., Ebola) and the illegal bushmeat trade. As wild populations continue to decline, the genetic management of the North American captive western lowland gorilla population will be an important component of the long-term conservation of the species. We genotyped 26 individuals from the North American captive gorilla collection at 11 autosomal microsatellite loci in order to compare levels of genetic diversity to wild populations, investigate genetic signatures of a population bottleneck and identify the genetic structure of the captive-born population. Captive gorillas had significantly higher levels of allelic diversity (t7 = 4.49, P = 0.002) and heterozygosity (t7 = 4.15, P = 0.004) than comparative wild populations, yet the population has lost significant allelic diversity while in captivity when compared to founders (t7 = 2.44, P = 0.04). Analyses suggested no genetic evidence for a population bottleneck of the captive population. Genetic structure results supported the management of North American captive gorillas as a single population. Our results highlight the utility of genetic management approaches for endangered nonhuman primate species. PMID:23403930

  17. The disadvantages of mating outside home: How breeding in captivity affects the reproductive success of seahorses?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faleiro, Filipa; Narciso, Luís

    2013-04-01

    In captivity, husbandry conditions are distinct from those experienced by fish in the wild and may have a significant effect on reproductive success. This study evaluates the effect of supportive breeding (i.e., breeding animals in captivity using wild parents) on some quantitative and qualitative aspects of the reproductive success of the long-snouted seahorse, Hippocampus guttulatus. Wild and captive broods were compared in terms of juvenile number, size, condition and fatty acid profile at birth. Reproductive investment and breeding success of H. guttulatus decreased considerably in captivity. Juveniles from captive broods were fewer in number, smaller, generally thinner and with lower fatty acid contents (per juvenile) than those from wild broods, although their fatty acid composition (μg mg- 1 DW or %TFA) was not significantly affected. Although not greatly encouraging, the poor reproductive performance of captive seahorses should not, however, efface the potential of supportive breeding as a tool for seahorse conservation. Enhanced conditions and long-term breeding in captivity will allow to improve the reproductive success of the species and the quality of the fingerlings.

  18. Effectiveness of managed gene flow in reducing genetic divergence associated with captive breeding

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Charles D; Hard, Jeffrey J; Brieuc, Marine S O; Fast, David E; Warheit, Kenneth I; Waples, Robin S; Knudsen, Curtis M; Bosch, William J; Naish, Kerry A

    2015-01-01

    Captive breeding has the potential to rebuild depressed populations. However, associated genetic changes may decrease restoration success and negatively affect the adaptive potential of the entire population. Thus, approaches that minimize genetic risks should be tested in a comparative framework over multiple generations. Genetic diversity in two captive-reared lines of a species of conservation interest, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), was surveyed across three generations using genome-wide approaches. Genetic divergence from the source population was minimal in an integrated line, which implemented managed gene flow by using only naturally-born adults as captive broodstock, but significant in a segregated line, which bred only captive-origin individuals. Estimates of effective number of breeders revealed that the rapid divergence observed in the latter was largely attributable to genetic drift. Three independent tests for signatures of adaptive divergence also identified temporal change within the segregated line, possibly indicating domestication selection. The results empirically demonstrate that using managed gene flow for propagating a captive-reared population reduces genetic divergence over the short term compared to one that relies solely on captive-origin parents. These findings complement existing studies of captive breeding, which typically focus on a single management strategy and examine the fitness of one or two generations. PMID:26640521

  19. Assortative mating among animals of captive and wild origin following experimental conservation releases.

    PubMed

    Slade, Brendan; Parrott, Marissa L; Paproth, Aleisha; Magrath, Michael J L; Gillespie, Graeme R; Jessop, Tim S

    2014-11-01

    Captive breeding is a high profile management tool used for conserving threatened species. However, the inevitable consequence of generations in captivity is broad scale and often-rapid phenotypic divergence between captive and wild individuals, through environmental differences and genetic processes. Although poorly understood, mate choice preference is one of the changes that may occur in captivity that could have important implications for the reintroduction success of captive-bred animals. We bred wild-caught house mice for three generations to examine mating patterns and reproductive outcomes when these animals were simultaneously released into multiple outdoor enclosures with wild conspecifics. At release, there were significant differences in phenotypic (e.g. body mass) and genetic measures (e.g. Gst and F) between captive-bred and wild adult mice. Furthermore, 83% of offspring produced post-release were of same source parentage, inferring pronounced assortative mating. Our findings suggest that captive breeding may affect mating preferences, with potentially adverse implications for the success of threatened species reintroduction programmes.

  20. The effects of long-term captivity on the metabolic parameters of a small Afrotropical bird.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Lindy J; Brown, Mark; Downs, Colleen T

    2015-04-01

    The few within-species studies on the effects of long-term captivity on avian physiological variables have small samples sizes and contradictory results. Nevertheless, many physiological studies make use of long-term captive birds, assuming the results will be applicable to wild populations. Here we investigated the effects of long-term captivity on a variety of physiological measurements in a relatively small (~12 g) southern African endemic bird, the Cape white-eye (Zosterops virens). Whole animal basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body mass (Mb) were influenced more by long-term captivity than by season, while mass-specific BMR, standard and basal whole animal and mass-specific evaporative water loss (EWL), and respiratory quotient (RQ), were all affected primarily by season, with long-term captivity having less of an effect. We therefore caution that whole animal BMR and Mb of long-term captive birds should not be used as representative of wild populations, and that the origin of study birds should be considered when comparing EWL and RQ of wild and long-term captive birds.

  1. Large-scale genetic survey provides insights into the captive management and reintroduction of giant pandas.

    PubMed

    Shan, Lei; Hu, Yibo; Zhu, Lifeng; Yan, Li; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Desheng; Jin, Xuelin; Zhang, Chenglin; Wei, Fuwen

    2014-10-01

    The captive genetic management of threatened species strives to preserve genetic diversity and avoid inbreeding to ensure populations remain available, healthy, and viable for future reintroduction. Determining and responding to the genetic status of captive populations is therefore paramount to these programs. Here, we genotyped 19 microsatellite loci for 240 captive giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) (∼64% of the captive population) from four breeding centers, Wolong (WL), Chengdu (CD), Louguantai (LGT), and Beijing (BJ), and analyzed 655 bp of mitochondrial DNA control region sequence for 220 of these animals. High levels of genetic diversity and low levels of inbreeding were estimated in the breeding centers, indicating that the captive population is genetically healthy and deliberate further genetic input from wild animals is unnecessary. However, the LGT population faces a higher risk of inbreeding, and significant genetic structure was detected among breeding centers, with LGT-CD and WL-BJ clustering separately. Based on these findings, we highlight that: 1) the LGT population should be managed as an independent captive population to resemble the genetic distinctness of their Qinling Mountain origins; 2) exchange between CD and WL should be encouraged because of similar wild founder sources; 3) the selection of captive individuals for reintroduction should consider their geographic origin, genetic background, and genetic contribution to wild populations; and 4) combining our molecular genetic data with existing pedigree data will better guide giant panda breeding and further reduce inbreeding into the future.

  2. Parasitic nematode communities of the red kangaroo, Macropus rufus: richness and structuring in captive systems.

    PubMed

    Lott, M J; Hose, G C; Power, M L

    2015-08-01

    Captive management practices have the potential to drastically alter pre-existing host-parasite relationships. This can have profound implications for the health and productivity of threatened species in captivity, even in the absence of clinical symptoms of disease. Maximising the success of captive breeding programmes requires a detailed knowledge of anthropogenic influences on the structure of parasite assemblages in captive systems. In this study, we employed two high-throughput molecular techniques to characterise the parasitic nematode (suborder Strongylida) communities of the red kangaroo, Macropus rufus, across seven captive sites. The first was terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of a region of rDNA encompassing the internal transcribed spacers 1 (ITS1), the 5.8S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2). The second was Illumina MiSeq next-generation sequencing of the ITS2 region. The prevalence, intensity of infection, taxonomic composition and comparative structure of strongylid nematode assemblages was assessed at each location. Prevalence (P = <0.001) and mean infection intensity (df = 6, F = 17.494, P = <0.001) differed significantly between the seven captive sites. Significant levels of parasite community structure were observed (ANOSIM, P = 0.01), with most of the variation being distributed within, rather than between, captive sites. The range of nematode taxa that occurred in captive red kangaroos appeared to differ from that of wild conspecifics, with representatives of the genus Cloacina, a dominant nematode parasite of the macropodid forestomach, being detected at only two of the seven study sites. This study also provides the first evidence for the presence of the genus Trichostrongylus in a macropodid marsupial. Our results demonstrate that contemporary species management practices may exert a profound influence on the structure of parasite communities in captive systems.

  3. Pro-Market Educational Governance: Is Argentina a Black Swan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beech, Jason; Barrenechea, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    In this article we explore ways in which pro-market discourses have been interpreted in policy initiatives in Argentina since the 1970s. Our argument is that even though pro-market discourses have guided reforms in many aspects of public policies in Argentina, the arena of education has overall been resistant to taking them up. The first part of…

  4. International Reports on Literacy Research: Argentina, Mexico, France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Mallozzi, Christine, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on Argentina, Mexico, and France. In the first report, Melina Porto reports on a new implementation of a teacher-education program currently underway in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, under the leadership of teacher-researcher…

  5. Intercultural Citizenship Education in an EFL Online Project in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porto, Melina

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I describe an online intercultural citizenship experience in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom in Argentina. An action research project on the Malvinas/Falklands war fought between Argentina and the UK in 1982 was carried out in 2012. Through a comparative methodology involving Argentine and English foreign language…

  6. Argentina: Social Sectors in Crisis. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    Based on the findings of a two month visit to Argentina by a World Bank Mission in November/December of 1988, this report summarizes current economic, education, and social policies in Argentina. The four major areas targeted are the social sectors, education, health care, and housing. The analysis identifies critical problems in the organization…

  7. Computing and Education in Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadowsky, Manuel

    Although the report is specifically about Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, the considerations presented are valid for all of Latin America. In September, 1969, Argentina had approximately 200 electronic computers. The annual growth is estimated at 15-20% and the implementation of teleprocessing and time-sharing systems have made evident the…

  8. Laboratory Surveillance of Dengue in Argentina, 1995–2001

    PubMed Central

    Paz, Maria Valeria; Rangeon, Griselda; Ranaivoarisoa, Marie Y.; Verzeri, Nora; Roginski, Sandra; Baroni, Pablo; Enria, Delia

    2003-01-01

    Local transmission of dengue fever virus in Argentina is increased by the presence of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and dengue outbreaks in neighboring countries. From 1995 to 2001, a laboratory-based active surveillance program detected 922 dengue cases. Indigenous transmission involving dengue-1 and -2 serotypes was confirmed only in subtropical areas in northern Argentina. PMID:12781019

  9. Prospect for Development of Open Access in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miguel, Sandra; Bongiovani, Paola C.; Gomez, Nancy D.; Bueno-de-la-Fuente, Gema

    2013-01-01

    This perspective article presents an overview of the Open Access movement in Argentina, from a global and regional (Latin American) context. The article describes the evolution and current state of initiatives by examining two principal approaches to Open Access in Argentina: "golden" and "green roads". The article will then turn its attention to:…

  10. Laboratory surveillance of dengue in Argentina, 1995-2001.

    PubMed

    Avilés, Gabriela; Paz, Maria Valeria; Rangeon, Griselda; Ranaivoarisoa, Marie Y; Verzeri, Nora; Roginski, Sandra; Baroni, Pablo; Enria, Delia

    2003-06-01

    Local transmission of dengue fever virus in Argentina is increased by the presence of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and dengue outbreaks in neighboring countries. From 1995 to 2001, a laboratory-based active surveillance program detected 922 dengue cases. Indigenous transmission involving dengue-1 and -2 serotypes was confirmed only in subtropical areas in northern Argentina.

  11. Participatory Reforms and Democracy: The Case of Argentina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pini, Monica; Cigliutti, Sonia

    1999-01-01

    Uses Argentina as an example to explore issues of participatory reform and democracy, discussing the national and international background of Argentina's educational reform and describing the Argentinean educational system and sociocultural realities that create the local context of reform. Uses findings from studies of school site councils in…

  12. Boninites: Characteristics and tectonic constraints, northeastern Appalachians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, J.; Jacobi, R.D.

    2002-01-01

    Boninites are high Mg andesites that are thought to form in suprasubduction zone tectonic environments as primary melts from refractory mantle. Boninites provide a potential constraint on tectonic models for ancient terranes that contain boninites because the only unequivocal tectonic setting in which "modern" boninites have been recognized is a fore-arc setting. Tectonic models for "modern" boninite genesis include subduction initiation ("infant arc"), fore-arc spreading, and the forearc side of intra-arc rifting (spreading). These models can be differentiated by the relative age of the boninites and to a lesser degree, geochemistry. The distinctive geochemistry of boninites promotes their recognition in ancient terranes. As detailed in this report, several mafic terranes in the northeastern Appalachians contain boninites; these terranes were situated on both sides of Iapetus. The characteristics of these boninites can be used to constrain tectonic models of the evolution of the northeastern Appalachians. On the Laurentian side of Iapetus, "infant arc" boninites were not produced ubiquitously during the Cambrian subduction initiation, unless sampling problems or minimum age dates obscure a more widespread boninite "infant arc". The Cambrian subduction initiation on the Laurentian side was probably characterized by both "infant arc" boninitic arc construction (perhaps the >496 Ma Hawley Formation and the >488 Ma Betts Cove Ophiolite) and "normal" arc construction (Mt. Orford). This duality is consistent with the suggestion that the pre-collisional geometry of the Laurentian margin was complex. The Bay of Islands Complex and Thetford Mines ophiolite boninites are likely associated with forearc/intra-arc spreading during the protracted evolution of the Cambrian arc system. The relatively young boninites in the Bronson Hill Arc suggest that the Taconic continuous eastward subduction tectonic model is less tenable than other models. On the Gondwana side of Iapetus, the

  13. Floods of June 2012 in northeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czuba, Christiana R.; Fallon, James D.; Kessler, Erich W.

    2012-01-01

    During June 19–20, 2012, heavy rainfall, as much as 10 inches locally reported, caused severe flooding across northeastern Minnesota. The floods were exacerbated by wet antecedent conditions from a relatively rainy spring, with May 2012 as one of the wettest Mays on record in Duluth. The June 19–20, 2012, rainfall event set new records in Duluth, including greatest 2-day precipitation with 7.25 inches of rain. The heavy rains fell on three major watersheds: the Mississippi Headwaters; the St. Croix, which drains to the Mississippi River; and Western Lake Superior, which includes the St. Louis River and other tributaries to Lake Superior. Widespread flash and river flooding that resulted from the heavy rainfall caused evacuations of residents, and damages to residences, businesses, and infrastructure. In all, nine counties in northeastern Minnesota were declared Federal disaster areas as a result of the flooding. Peak-of-record streamflows were recorded at 13 U.S. Geological Survey streamgages as a result of the heavy rainfall. Flood-peak gage heights, peak streamflows, and annual exceedance probabilities were tabulated for 35 U.S. Geological Survey streamgages. Flood-peak streamflows in June 2012 had annual exceedance probabilities estimated to be less than 0.002 (0.2 percent; recurrence interval greater than 500 years) for five streamgages, and between 0.002 and 0.01 (1 percent; recurrence interval greater than 100 years) for four streamgages. High-water marks were identified and tabulated for the most severely affected communities of Barnum (Moose Horn River), Carlton (Otter Creek), Duluth Heights neighborhood of Duluth (Miller Creek), Fond du Lac neighborhood of Duluth (St. Louis River), Moose Lake (Moose Horn River and Moosehead Lake), and Thomson (Thomson Reservoir outflow near the St. Louis River). Flood-peak inundation maps and water-surface profiles were produced for these six severely affected communities. The inundation maps were constructed in a

  14. How well can captive breeding programs conserve biodiversity? A review of salmonids

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Dylan J

    2008-01-01

    Captive breeding programs are increasingly being initiated to prevent the imminent extinction of endangered species and/or populations. But how well can they conserve genetic diversity and fitness, or re-establish self-sustaining populations in the wild? A review of these complex questions and related issues in salmonid fishes reveals several insights and uncertainties. Most programs can maintain genetic diversity within populations over several generations, but available research suggests the loss of fitness in captivity can be rapid, its magnitude probably increasing with the duration in captivity. Over the long-term, there is likely tremendous variation between (i) programs in their capacity to maintain genetic diversity and fitness, and (ii) species or even intraspecific life-history types in both the severity and manner of fitness-costs accrued. Encouragingly, many new theoretical and methodological approaches now exist for current and future programs to potentially reduce these effects. Nevertheless, an unavoidable trade-off exists between conserving genetic diversity and fitness in certain instances, such as when captive-bred individuals are temporarily released into the wild. Owing to several confounding factors, there is also currently little evidence that captive-bred lines of salmonids can or cannot be reintroduced as self-sustaining populations. Most notably, the root causes of salmonid declines have not been mitigated where captive breeding programs exist. Little research has also addressed under what conditions an increase in population abundance due to captive-rearing might offset fitness reductions induced in captivity. Finally, more empirical investigation is needed to evaluate the genetic/fitness benefits and risks associated with (i) maintaining captive broodstocks as either single or multiple populations within one or more facilities, (ii) utilizing cryopreservation or surrogate broodstock technologies, and (iii) adopting other alternatives to

  15. Phylogeography of Aedes aegypti in Argentina: long-distance colonization and rapid restoration of fragmented relicts after a continental control campaign.

    PubMed

    Llinás, Guillermo Albrieu; Gardenal, Cristina Noemí

    2012-03-01

    Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti, the main vector of Dengue and Yellow Fever viruses, is present in all the northern and central provinces of Argentina. During 2009, a Dengue outbreak spread broadly throughout the country, causing 27,752 infections in 13 provinces. In Argentina, little is known about the demographic history of this vector, which suffered a drastic decrease in abundance and distribution during a major control campaign performed in the Americas between 1950 and 1960. With the aim of uncovering the past and present events that determined the present distribution of the genetic variability in Ae. aegypti populations, we analyzed the distribution and abundance of mitochondrial haplotypes obtained by sequencing a 450-bp fragment of the ND5 gene. We detected 14 haplotypes among the sequences of 197 individuals from 22 populations that cover most of the distribution of the species in Argentina; one population from Bolivia and one from Paraguay were also included. A high heterogeneity in the geographical distribution of the genetic polymorphism was observed, with a pattern of isolation by distance in the north-west of Argentina. Haplotypes nested in three haplogroups, representing different colonization events and evolutionary histories in distant geographical areas. North-western and north-eastern populations correspond to independent introduced stocks for which a past fragmentation and rapid restoration from highly polymorphic relicts were inferred. By contrast, a unique genetic variant was detected in the east, probably as the result of a recent re-colonization event after the major control campaign; in this area, the mosquito would have been practically eradicated as a consequence of the continental control campaign.

  16. Bibliografia Bibliotecologica Argentina [Hasta 1967] (A Bibliography of Library Science in Argentina [to 1967]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matijevic, Nicolas, Comp.

    A guide to library services, management, and organization is offered to professionals in this comprehensive bibliography, written in Spanish, of approximately 2500 items. Published by the Universidad Nacional del Sur (The National University of the South) in Bahia Blanca, Argentina, the list covers books, articles, monographs, manuals, catalogs,…

  17. Ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy of healthy captive caracals (Caracal caracal).

    PubMed

    Makungu, Modesta; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Koeppel, Katja N; Groenewald, Hermanus B

    2012-09-01

    Abdominal ultrasonography was performed in six adult captive caracals (Caracal caracal) to describe the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy. Consistently, the splenic parenchyma was hyperechoic to the liver and kidneys. The relative echogenicity of the right kidney's cortex was inconsistent to the liver. The gall bladder was prominent in five animals and surrounded by a clearly visualized thin, smooth, regular echogenic wall. The wall thickness of the duodenum measured significantly greater compared with that of the jejunum and colon. The duodenum had a significantly thicker mucosal layer compared with that of the stomach. Such knowledge of the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy of individual species is important for accurate diagnosis and interpretation of routine health examinations.

  18. Spontaneous neoplasia in four captive greater hedgehog tenrecs (Setifer setosus).

    PubMed

    Khoii, Mina K; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Burns, Roy B; Carmichael, K Paige; Gyimesi, Zoltan S

    2008-09-01

    Little information is available about diseases and pathology of species within the family Tenrecidae, including the greater hedgehog tenrec (Setifer setosus), a Madagascan insectivore. This report summarizes necropsy and histopathologic findings of neoplasia in four captive greater hedgehog tenrecs. Although only four animals are included in this report, neoplasia seems to be a common and significant source of morbidity and mortality in greater hedgehog tenrecs. Types of neoplasia identified include a thyroid follicular-solid carcinoma, two urinary bladder transitional cell carcinomas, uterine endometrial polyps, and multicentric B-cell lymphoma. Due to small sample size, no etiology could be determined, but genetics, viral infection, pesticide treatment, nutrition, or other environmental factors might contribute to the development of neoplasia in this species. This is the first report of neoplasia in greater hedgehog tenrecs.

  19. Parelaphostrongylus tenuis in captive pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) in Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Heather A; Steffen, David J; Armstrong, Douglas L; Rogers, Douglas G

    2002-10-01

    Lesions in four captive pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) naturally infected with Parelaphostrongylus tenuis in eastern Nebraska (USA) are described in this report. Animals were bright and alert with hind limb ataxia that progressed to sternal or lateral recumbency between July 28 and October 17, 1998. Animals were euthanized due to disease progression despite therapy. Multifocal decubital ulcers over bony prominences occurred in two animals and chronic unilateral otitis media was present in one animal. Histopathologic examination revealed severe Wallerian degeneration randomly scattered throughout the spinal cords of all four animals. Spinal cord sections from two animals contained adult nematode parasites consistent with P. tenuis. This is the first report of naturally occurring P. tenuis infection in pronghorn antelope. Pronghorn antelope should be considered susceptible to P. tenuis infection and contact with infected white-tailed deer as well as intermediate gastropod hosts of P. tenuis should be prevented in endemic areas. PMID:12528452

  20. Pathological findings in a captive colony of maras (Dolichotis patagonum).

    PubMed

    Rosas-Rosas, A G; Juan-Sallés, C; Garner, M M

    2006-05-27

    This paper describes the causes of death of 54 maras (Dolichotis patagonum) in a captive colony in Mexico over a period of seven years. There were 35 adults, 11 juveniles, five neonates, two fetuses and one stillbirth--27 males, 21 females and six whose sex was not determined. Trauma was the cause of 25 deaths, and there were eight cases of fatal bacterial infection. Besnoitiosis was the only parasitic disease found frequently (13 cases), and was associated with fatal interstitial pneumonia in three juveniles. Right-sided hypertrophic cardiomyopathy attributed to high altitude was observed in 26 maras, and in three cases death was attributed to acute cardiac dysfunction. Two maras died of disseminated histoplasmosis and two of hyperthermia. Additional causes of death included one case each of uterine torsion, intestinal intussusception, aspiration pneumonia and hydranencephaly. Gastric erosions with luminal haemorrhage were found in 27 of the maras and splenic lymphoid depletion in 20, changes that were attributed to stress. PMID:16731703

  1. Omental torsion in a captive polar bear (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    Mendez-Angulo, Jose L; Funes, Francisco J; Trent, Ava M; Willette, Michelle; Woodhouse, Kerry; Renier, Anna C

    2014-03-01

    This is the first case report of an omental torsion in a polar bear (Ursus maritimus). A captive, 23-yr-old, 250-kg, intact female polar bear presented to the University of Minnesota Veterinary Medical Center with a 2-day history of lethargy, depression, and vomiting. Abdominal ultrasound identified large amounts of hyperechoic free peritoneal fluid. Ultrasound-guided abdominocentesis was performed and yielded thick serosanguinous fluid compatible with a hemoabdomen. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a large amount of malodorous, serosanguineous fluid and multiple necrotic blood clots associated with a torsion of the greater omentum and rupture of a branch of the omental artery. A partial omentectomy was performed to remove the necrotic tissue and the abdomen was copiously lavaged. The polar bear recovered successfully and is reported to be clinically well 6 mo later. This condition should be considered as a differential in bears with clinical signs of intestinal obstruction and hemoabdomen. PMID:24712179

  2. The use of a probiotic in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Koeppel, K N; Bertschinger, H; van Vuuren, M; Picard, J; Steiner, J; Williams, D; Cardwell, J

    2006-09-01

    Juvenile captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) often present with diarrhoea that is commonly associated with bacterial infections. A species-specific probiotic containing Lactobacillus Group 2 and Enterococcus faecium was prepared from healthy adult cheetahs. Juvenile cheetahs (n = 27) between 8 and 13 months of age were included in the probiotic trial. The animals were observed prior to and after feeding of the probiotic which was made available for 28 days. Feeding of the probiotic resulted in a significantly increased body weight in the treatment group (P = 0.026), while there was no increase in the control group. A relative improvement in the faecal quality in the probiotic group during the treatment period compared with the pre-treatment (P = 0.0363) and post-treatment (P = 0.004) period was observed. This was accompanied by an absence of blood and mucus in the faeces during the treatment period in the probiotic group.

  3. Veno-occlusive disease of the liver in captive cheetah.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, S J; Loudy, D L; Tarr, M J; Balistreri, W F; Setchell, K D; Johnston, J O; Kramer, L W; Dresser, B L

    1988-01-01

    Liver tissues from 126 captive cheetah were evaluated by light microscopy and histochemistry; eight animals were evaluated by electron microscopy. The main hepatic lesion, a vascular lesion resembling veno-occlusive disease (VOD) of the liver and characterized by subendothelial fibrosis and proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells in the central veins, was seen in 60% of the sexually mature cheetah. Although this hepatic vascular lesion was seen in cheetah as young as 1 year of age, the most severe lesions, usually associated with liver failure, were found in cheetah between the ages of 6 and 11. There was no sex predisposition, and in approximately 40% of the VOD cases, liver disease was not suspected clinically or at necropsy. VOD was found in other felidae, especially in the snow leopard. High levels of vitamin A in livers, as well as in diets of the cheetah, could be a contributing factor in the development of VOD in some groups of cheetah.

  4. First captive breeding of the imperial parrot (Amazona imperialis).

    PubMed

    Reillo, Paul R; Durand, Stephen; Burton, Minchinton

    2011-01-01

    We describe the rearing and development of the first imperial parrot (Amazona imperialis) hatched and raised in captivity. A single egg was hen-incubated for 28 days, and the chick was parent-fed for ∼14 days, after which it was removed for hand-rearing. Similar to wild, parent-reared imperial nestlings, the chick developed fully within 12 weeks, weaning at 540 g body weight. Endangered and endemic to Dominica, the imperial is a vital flagship for oceanic rainforest conservation. Chronicling the neonatal development of A. imperialis helps illuminate the natural history of this enigmatic species, whose secretive nesting habits and low population density have frustrated a detailed understanding of its ecology and reproduction.

  5. Feeding Behaviour of Cynopterus sphinx (Pteropodidae) Under Captive Conditions.

    PubMed

    Shafie, Nur Juliani; Rahman, Nor Amira; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd; Rosely, Nik Fadzly Nik; Sufian, Maryam

    2014-12-01

    We examined the olfactory and visual abilities of megachiropteran bats, Cynopterus sphinx, for discrimination of the odour and shape of the banana fruit, Musa sp. We conducted the experiments in captive conditions by offering a selection of ripe bananas, blended bananas and artificial bananas. The behaviour of the bats was observed visually, and the percentage of activity and rest, duration of the first foraging bout, number of feeding attempts and the average duration of successful attempts was recorded for each bat. The bats exhibited an increased number of visits to ripe bananas and blended banana fruits. However, the artificial fruit did not evoke any response. Our study suggests that odour cues are more important than visual cues for the location of fruits by C. sphinx. PMID:27073599

  6. Social learning of a communicative signal in captive chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Taglialatela, Jared P; Reamer, Lisa; Schapiro, Steven J; Hopkins, William D

    2012-08-23

    The acquisition of linguistic competency from more experienced social partners is a fundamental aspect of human language. However, there is little evidence that non-human primates learn to use their vocalizations from social partners. Captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) produce idiosyncratic vocal signals that are used intentionally to capture the attention of a human experimenter. Interestingly, not all apes produce these sounds, and it is unclear what factors explain this difference. We tested the hypothesis that these attention-getting (AG) sounds are socially learned via transmission between mothers and their offspring. We assessed 158 chimpanzees to determine if they produced AG sounds. A significant association was found between mother and offspring sound production. This association was attributable to individuals who were raised by their biological mother-as opposed to those raised by humans in a nursery environment. These data support the hypothesis that social learning plays a role in the acquisition and use of communicative vocal signals in chimpanzees.

  7. ACTH stimulation test in the captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Köster, L S; Schoeman, J P; Meltzer, D G A

    2007-09-01

    Serum cortisol response was assessed in 8 captive cheetahs, of varying ages, after the intravenous administration of 500 microg of tetracosactide (Synacthen Depot, Novartis, Kempton Park) while maintained under general anaesthesia. In addition, 8 cheetahs were anaesthetised and given an equal volume of saline in order to establish baseline cortisol concentrations at similar stages of anaesthesia. A significant difference in the median cortisol concentration measured over time was found following ACTH administration in the ACTH group (P < 0.001). There was no difference between the median cortisol concentrations in the ACTH group at time-points 120, 150 and 180 min after ACTH stimulation (P = 0.867). Thus it appears appropriate to collect serum 120 to 180 min after tetracosactide administration to assess maximal stimulation of the adrenal in the cheetah. No statistically significant rise was seen in the anaesthetised control group following the injection of saline (P = 0.238).

  8. Fatal pentastomiasis in captive African dwarf crocodile hatchlings (Osteolaemus tetraspis).

    PubMed

    Adams, L; Isaza, R; Greiner, E

    2001-12-01

    Six eggs from a captive African dwarf crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis) nest were artificially incubated. Two abnormal hatchlings with incomplete absorption of their yolk sacs died within 48 hr of hatching. No parasites were detected grossly or histologically in either hatchling. The remaining four apparently healthy hatchlings died without clinical signs at 3 wk of age, 1 wk after being fed live wild-caught fish and commercially raised goldfish. Necropsy revealed multiple white small wormlike organisms within the lungs, liver, and gastrointestinal tract of all four hatchlings. Histopathologic cross sections suggested that pentastomiasis was the cause of death, and whole parasites were identified as Sebekia mississippiensis. This infection was probably contracted by ingestion of live fish intermediate hosts infected with nymphal parasites. Avoiding the use of infected live fish or untreated fish products can prevent mortality of hatchling crocodilians caused by S. mississippiensis within zoological collections.

  9. Indirect oral immunization of captive vampires, Desmodus rotundus.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Marilene F; Martorelli, Luzia F A; Aires, Caroline C; Sallum, P C; Massad, Eduardo

    2005-07-01

    A vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant virus (V-RG) vaccine was tested in hematophagous bats (Desmodus rotundus) kept in captivity. The vaccine was applied in a neutral vehicle (Vaseline) spread on the back of one or two vector bats, which were then reintroduced into their groups. Our hypothesis was that, as in the case of vampire bat control by vampiricide paste, the administration of V-RG vaccine through paste to one bat could indirectly protect other bats from the same group. Eight groups were tested. The rabies virus strain used to challenge the bats was isolated from a naturally infected hematophagous bat (Desmodus rotundus). The survival proportion after the virus challenge ranged between 42.8 and 71.4%. The results are encouraging because a significant number of bats that did not receive the vaccine survived the challenge. The vaccine was shown to be safe and immunogenic to hematophagous bats. No adverse effects to vaccinia virus were observed.

  10. Positional behaviour in captive aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis).

    PubMed

    Curtis, D J; Feistner, A T

    1994-01-01

    The aye-aye shows numerous special features in its postcranial skeleton, partly in association with its unusual feeding habits and partly in association with locomotor specialisation connected with the possession of claws. This study examined the positional behaviour of 3 captive adult aye-ayes in order to throw light on these morphological specialisations. Locomotion was dominated by quadrupedal walking and climbing. Given the relatively large body size of aye-ayes, an unexpectedly high frequency of head-first descent was observed. This may provide an explanation for two characteristics of aye-ayes: robusticity of the shoulder girdle and high compressive and bending strengths of the humerus. Agile leaping was also observed, contrasting with previous reports that this species is characterised by slow, cautious movement. Specific morphological features that are shared with slow-moving lorisids may be attributable to a combination of frequent head-first descent and postural suspension. PMID:7721202

  11. Recovery of Aeromonas hydrophila associated with bacteraemia in captive snakes.

    PubMed

    Orozova, Petya; Sirakov, Ivo; Petkov, Iosko; Crumlish, Mags; Austin, Brian

    2012-09-01

    Captive snakes, that is, a Jamaican boa (Epicrates subflavus) a yellow anaconda (Eunectes notaeus) and a corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus guttatus), died with signs of bacteraemia including the presence of petechial haemorrhages in the mouth and gums and haemorrhages in the lung, spleen and intestines. The abdomen and anus were swollen with bloody-tinged mucus in the colon. Aeromonas hydrophila was recovered in dense virtually pure culture growth from the internal organs. Characterization of the isolates was by phenotyping and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (sequence homology of 99% with A. hydrophila) with outputs confirming the identity as A. hydrophila. Pathogenicity experiments confirmed virulence to frogs (Rana esculenta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

  12. Indirect oral immunization of captive vampires, Desmodus rotundus.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Marilene F; Martorelli, Luzia F A; Aires, Caroline C; Sallum, P C; Massad, Eduardo

    2005-07-01

    A vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant virus (V-RG) vaccine was tested in hematophagous bats (Desmodus rotundus) kept in captivity. The vaccine was applied in a neutral vehicle (Vaseline) spread on the back of one or two vector bats, which were then reintroduced into their groups. Our hypothesis was that, as in the case of vampire bat control by vampiricide paste, the administration of V-RG vaccine through paste to one bat could indirectly protect other bats from the same group. Eight groups were tested. The rabies virus strain used to challenge the bats was isolated from a naturally infected hematophagous bat (Desmodus rotundus). The survival proportion after the virus challenge ranged between 42.8 and 71.4%. The results are encouraging because a significant number of bats that did not receive the vaccine survived the challenge. The vaccine was shown to be safe and immunogenic to hematophagous bats. No adverse effects to vaccinia virus were observed. PMID:15896405

  13. Omental torsion in a captive polar bear (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    Mendez-Angulo, Jose L; Funes, Francisco J; Trent, Ava M; Willette, Michelle; Woodhouse, Kerry; Renier, Anna C

    2014-03-01

    This is the first case report of an omental torsion in a polar bear (Ursus maritimus). A captive, 23-yr-old, 250-kg, intact female polar bear presented to the University of Minnesota Veterinary Medical Center with a 2-day history of lethargy, depression, and vomiting. Abdominal ultrasound identified large amounts of hyperechoic free peritoneal fluid. Ultrasound-guided abdominocentesis was performed and yielded thick serosanguinous fluid compatible with a hemoabdomen. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a large amount of malodorous, serosanguineous fluid and multiple necrotic blood clots associated with a torsion of the greater omentum and rupture of a branch of the omental artery. A partial omentectomy was performed to remove the necrotic tissue and the abdomen was copiously lavaged. The polar bear recovered successfully and is reported to be clinically well 6 mo later. This condition should be considered as a differential in bears with clinical signs of intestinal obstruction and hemoabdomen.

  14. SUSPECTED LYME BORRELIOSIS IN A CAPTIVE ADULT CHIMPANZEE (PAN TROGLODYTES).

    PubMed

    Wack, Allison N; Holland, Cynthia J; Lopez, Job E; Schwan, Tom G; Bronson, Ellen

    2015-06-01

    An 18-yr-old female captive-born chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) presented with an intermittent history of inappetence, lethargy, and lower limb stiffness. No notable abnormalities were found on exam or complete blood cell count and serum biochemistry analysis. Serologic testing was strongly positive via indirect fluorescent antibody testing and Western blot for Borrelia burgdorferi. Treatment with doxycycline was initiated, and a clinical response was seen within 1 wk. Convalescent serum exhibited an eightfold increase in titer. Serologic testing was performed on several conspecifics with banked serum; while some low positive titers were present and presumed indicative of past exposure, no titer was elevated to the extent of the affected chimpanzee during its course of disease. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of suspected Lyme borreliosis in a great ape species, and the case originates from an area of the United States with a high incidence of human borreliosis.

  15. Use of gesture sequences in captive chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) play.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Maureen S; Jensvold, Mary Lee Abshire; Fouts, Deborah H

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the use of sensory modalities relative to a partner's behavior in gesture sequences during captive chimpanzee play at the Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute. We hypothesized that chimpanzees would use visual gestures toward attentive recipients and auditory/tactile gestures toward inattentive recipients. We also hypothesized that gesture sequences would be more prevalent toward unresponsive rather than responsive recipients. The chimpanzees used significantly more auditory/tactile rather than visual gestures first in sequences with both attentive and inattentive recipients. They rarely used visual gestures toward inattentive recipients. Auditory/tactile gestures were effective with and used with both attentive and inattentive recipients. Recipients responded significantly more to single gestures than to first gestures in sequences. Sequences often indicated that recipients did not respond to initial gestures, whereas effective single gestures made more gestures unnecessary. The chimpanzees thus gestured appropriately relative to a recipient's behavior and modified their interactions according to contextual social cues.

  16. Colonic obstruction in three captive reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).

    PubMed

    Davis, Michelle R; Langan, Jennifer N; Mylniczenko, Natalie D; Benson, Keith; Lamberski, Nadine; Ramer, Jan

    2009-03-01

    Fatal colonic obstructions were diagnosed in three captive, adult, reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata). Clinical presentations varied, but all cases displayed decreased activity, anorexia, and considerably decreased fecal production, consistent with intestinal obstruction. Case 1 was diagnosed at necropsy with a phytobezoar obstructing the spiral colon. Case 2 was diagnosed at necropsy with a fecal impaction of the colon. Case 3 was diagnosed during surgery with colonic ileus. Cases 2 and 3 underwent surgical intervention but were markedly compromised by the time of surgery and died during surgery or 24 hr postoperatively. Gastrointestinal obstruction, requiring aggressive supportive care and early surgical intervention, should be considered in giraffe in which anorexia and substantially decreased fecal production are observed. Abdominal exploratory surgery will likely be necessary for diagnosis and treatment. Based on a small number of cases, gastrointestinal obstruction has a poor prognosis in giraffe. PMID:19368259

  17. Clinical disorders observed in anteaters (Myrmecophagidae, Edentata) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Diniz, L S; Costa, E O; Oliveira, P M

    1995-01-01

    The major health problems found in 103 captive lesser anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla) and giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), family Myrmecophagidae, are presented and correlated with management. The most common of 200 recorded clinical disorders involved the digestive system (26%), nutritional deficiency (20%), injury (15.5%), respiratory system (10%), skin (7%) and circulatory system (4.5%), but 13% of the cases were inconclusive. Parasites were identified in 48.5% of faecal samples, mainly the eggs of nematodes (40%), of which the commonest were Trichuris spp (28%) and Strongyloides spp (11%); protozoa (16%), of which the commonest were Eimeria spp (10%), Entamoeba spp (5%) and Giardia spp (1%); and cestodes (8%) and acanthocephalids (1%). Bacteria cultured from the various materials included Salmonella enteritidis, S. cholerasuis, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Streptococcus spp and Staphylococcus spp. The ectoparasites found were Amblyomma spp and Otodectis spp (Arthropoda, Acaridae).

  18. Rigid plastic balls as enrichment devices for captive chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Bloomsmith, M A; Finlay, T W; Merhalski, J J; Maple, T L

    1990-05-01

    The use of rigid, plastic balls as enrichment devices for 16 captive chimpanzees was studied at The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center chimpanzee colony. After the subjects were presented with balls, 10 hours of data were collected for each subject using a scan-sampling technique. The mean percentage of ball-use time for all subjects during the study was 7.1%. There was no sex difference in ball use. Age and housing effects were obtained, with younger animals and those housed in more barren environments exhibiting higher levels of ball use. It is concluded that the balls were worthwhile additions to the chimpanzee environments with use stabilizing at a mean of 2.5% of the subjects' time.

  19. Canine tooth wear in captive little brown bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Upper canine teeth of little brown bats Myotis lucifugus lucifugus held in stainless steel wire mesh cages underwent severe wear which exceeded that observed previously in caged big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus fuscus. This suggests a relationship between amount of wear and size of the caged bats with damage increasing as size decreases. Rapid wear of canine teeth by little brown bats resembled that observed in big brown bats in that it was limited to the first 2 weeks of captivity. This result indicates a universal interval for acclimation to cage conditions among vespertilionid bats. Dietary toxicants DDE and PCB did not affect the extent of wear. If bats are to be released to the wild, confinement in wire mesh cages should be avoided.

  20. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in a captive meerkat (Suricata suricatta).

    PubMed

    Boonsri, Kittikorn; Sritan, Jiraporn; Vechmanus, Thewarach; O'Sullivan, M Gerard; Pringproa, Kidsadagon

    2013-09-01

    A 9-yr-old male meerkat (Suricata suricatta) living in captivity, with a history of anorexia, lethargy, and weight loss, was examined postmortem. Physical examination revealed poor body condition, dehydration, and icteric mucous membranes. Macroscopically, white to yellowish, multinodulated masses were found protruding from the liver. These multinodular masses were also observed in all lobes of the lungs and the mediastinal lymph nodes. Microscopic examination revealed tumors with well-circumscribed, atypical proliferating cuboidal to columnar bile duct epithelial layers arranged in solid sheets and papillary patterns. The neoplastic masses were separated by dense fibrous connective tissues and invaded the normal parenchyma. Periodic acid-Schiff-positive material was occasionally found within the lumen of tubuloacinar structures. Immunohistochemical labeling revealed that neoplastic cells were intensely positive for pan-cytokeratin, but negative for vimentin. Based on the macroscopic and microscopic findings, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma was diagnosed. This is the first report describing cholangiocarcinoma in a meerkat. PMID:24063104

  1. Effects of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior.

    PubMed

    Orban, David A; Siegford, Janice M; Snider, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Zoological institutions develop human-animal interaction opportunities for visitors to advance missions of conservation, education, and recreation; however, the animal welfare implications largely have yet to be evaluated. This behavioral study was the first to quantify impacts of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior and welfare, by documenting giraffe time budgets that included both normal and stereotypic behaviors. Thirty giraffes from nine zoos (six zoos with varying guest feeding programs and three without) were observed using both instantaneous scan sampling and continuous behavioral sampling techniques. All data were collected during summer 2012 and analyzed using linear mixed models. The degree of individual giraffe participation in guest feeding programs was positively associated with increased time spent idle and marginally associated with reduced time spent ruminating. Time spent participating in guest feeding programs had no effect on performance of stereotypic behaviors. When time spent eating routine diets was combined with time spent participating in guest feeding programs, individuals that spent more time engaged in total feeding behaviors tended to perform less oral stereotypic behavior such as object-licking and tongue-rolling. By extending foraging time and complexity, guest feeding programs have the potential to act as environmental enrichment and alleviate unfulfilled foraging motivations that may underlie oral stereotypic behaviors observed in many captive giraffes. However, management strategies may need to be adjusted to mitigate idleness and other program consequences. Further studies, especially pre-and-post-program implementation comparisons, are needed to better understand the influence of human-animal interactions on zoo animal behavior and welfare.

  2. Noninvasive monitoring of adrenocortical function in captive jaguars (Panthera onca).

    PubMed

    Conforti, Valéria A; Morato, Ronaldo G; Augusto, Anderson M; de Oliveira e Sousa, Lúcio; de Avila, David M; Brown, Janine L; Reeves, Jerry J

    2012-01-01

    Jaguars are threatened with extinction throughout their range. A sustainable captive population can serve as a hedge against extinction, but only if they are healthy and reproduce. Understanding how jaguars respond to stressors may help improve the captive environment and enhance their wellbeing. Thus, our objectives were to: (1) conduct an adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) challenge to validate a cortisol radioimmunoassay (RIA) for noninvasive monitoring of adrenocortical function in jaguars; (2) investigate the relationship between fecal corticoid (FCM) and androgen metabolite (FAM) concentrations in males during the ACTH challenge; and (3) establish a range of physiological concentrations of FCMs for the proposed protocol. Seven jaguars (3 M, 4 F) received 500 IU/animal of ACTH. Pre- and post-ACTH fecal samples were assayed for corticoid (M and F) and androgen metabolites (M) by RIA. Concentrations of FCMs increased (P80.01) after ACTH injection (pre-ACTH: 0.90 ± 0.12 µg/g dry feces; post-ACTH: 2.55 ± 0.25 µg/g). Considering pre- and post-ACTH samples, FCM concentrations were higher (P80.01) in males (2.15 ± 0.20 µg/g) than in females (1.30 ± 0.20 µg/g), but the magnitude of the response to ACTH was comparable (P>0.05) between genders. After ACTH injection, FAMs increased in two (of 3) males; in one male, FCMs and FAMs were positively correlated (0.60; P80.01). Excretion of FCMs was assessed in 16 jaguars (7 M, 9 F) and found to be highly variable (range, 80.11-1.56 µg/g). In conclusion, this study presents a cortisol RIA for monitoring adrenocortical function in jaguars noninvasively.

  3. Chemical restraint of the Nile hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, E C; Loomis, M R; Mehren, K G; Boardman, W S; Jensen, J; Geiser, D

    1998-03-01

    This retrospective study describes 16 immobilizations performed on nine adult captive Nile hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius). Animals were immobilized using intramuscular etorphine alone (1.0-5.0 micrograms/kg; n = 9) or in combination with xylazine (67-83 micrograms/kg; n = 6) or acepromazine (20 micrograms/kg; n = 1). Exact weights for the animals were unknown so drug dosages were based on estimated weights. Seven animals either were in good health or had minor or localized medical problems. Following etorphine and xylazine induction, one animal undergoing castration was anesthetized with isoflurane in oxygen delivered by endotracheal tube. Ten immobilizations occurred without complications, and eight of those procedures were rated as good or excellent. Complications, including bradypnea, cyanosis, and apnea, occurred during six immobilizations. One animal died following prolonged apnea, and the necropsy failed to find a specific cause of death. Immobilizations were reversed with diprenorphine alone (4.4-10.0 micrograms/kg; n = 13), diprenorphine (2.9 micrograms/kg) and naloxone (14.6 mu k/kg; n = 1), or naltrexone (146-180 micrograms/kg; n = 2). Mean time to reversal of immobilization for those animals given etorphine alone and reversed with diprenorphine alone was 21.6 min (n = 5). Time to reversal for the two immobilizations reversed with only naltrexone was 4 min. No renarcotizations were observed. Total doses of 2.0-6.0 mg etorphine i.m. should produce heavy sedation to surgical anesthesia in calm adult captive Nile hippopotamuses. Insufflation with oxygen during immobilization seems warranted.

  4. Pathology in Captive Wild Felids at German Zoological Gardens

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Martin; Beyerbach, Martin; Wohlsein, Peter; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study provides an overview on spontaneous diseases occurring in 38 captive wild felids submitted for necropsy by German zoological gardens between 2004 and 2013. Species included 18 tigers, 8 leopards, 7 lions, 3 cheetahs and 2 cougars with an age ranging from 0.5 to 22 years. Renal lesions, predominantly tubular alterations (intra-tubular concrements, tubular degeneration, necrosis, intra-tubular cellular debris, proteinaceous casts, dilated tubuli) followed by interstitial (lympho-plasmacytic inflammation, fibrosis, metastatic-suppurative inflammation, eosinophilic inflammation) and glomerular lesions (glomerulonephritis, glomerulosclerosis, amyloidosis) were detected in 33 out of 38 animals (87%). Tumors were found in 19 of 38 felids (50%) with 12 animals showing more than one neoplasm. The tumor prevalence increased with age. Neoplasms originated from endocrine (11), genital (8), lympho-hematopoietic (5) and alimentary organs (4) as well as the mesothelium (3). Most common neoplasms comprised uterine/ovarian leiomyomas (5/2), thyroid adenomas/adenocarcinoma (5/1), pleural mesotheliomas (3), hemangiosarcomas (2) and glossal papillomas (2). Inflammatory changes were frequently encountered in the intestine and the lung. Two young animals displayed metastatic mineralization suggestive of a vitamin D- or calcium intoxication. One tiger exhibited degenerative white matter changes consistent with an entity termed large felid leukoencephalomyelopathy. Various hyperplastic, degenerative and inflammatory changes with minor clinical significance were found in several organs. Summarized, renal lesions followed by neoplastic changes as well as inflammatory changes in lung and gastrointestinal tract represent the most frequent findings in captive wild felids living in German zoological gardens. PMID:26086731

  5. Molecular evidence of Sarcocystis species in captive snakes in Japan.

    PubMed

    Abe, Niichiro; Matsubara, Katsuki; Tamukai, Kenichi; Miwa, Yasutsugu; Takami, Kazutoshi

    2015-08-01

    Sarcocystis nesbitti, using snakes as the definitive host, is a causative agent of acute human muscular sarcocystosis in Malaysia. Therefore, it is important to explore the distribution and prevalence of S. nesbitti in snakes. Nevertheless, epizootiological information of S. nesbitti in snakes remains insufficient because few surveys have assessed Sarcocystis infection in snakes in endemic countries. In Japan, snakes are popular exotic pet animals that are imported from overseas, but the degree of Sarcocystis infection in them remains unclear. The possibility exists that muscular sarcocystosis by S. nesbitti occurs in contact with captive snakes in non-endemic countries. For a total of 125 snake faecal samples from 67 snake species collected at animal hospitals, pet shops and a zoo, this study investigated the presence of Sarcocystis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the 18S ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA). Four (3.2%) faecal samples were positive by PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA sequences obtained from four amplification products revealed one isolate from a beauty snake (Elaphe taeniura), Sarcocystis zuoi, which uses rat snakes as the definitive host. The isolate from a Macklot's python (Liasis mackloti) was closely related with unidentified Sarcocystis sp. from reticulated pythons in Malaysia. The remaining two isolates from tree boas (Corallus spp.) were closely related with Sarcocystis lacertae, Sarcocystis gallotiae and unidentified Sarcocystis sp. from smooth snakes, Tenerife lizards and European shrews, respectively. This report is the first of a study examining the distribution of Sarcocystis species in captive snakes in Japan.

  6. Noninvasive monitoring of adrenocortical function in captive jaguars (Panthera onca).

    PubMed

    Conforti, Valéria A; Morato, Ronaldo G; Augusto, Anderson M; de Oliveira e Sousa, Lúcio; de Avila, David M; Brown, Janine L; Reeves, Jerry J

    2012-01-01

    Jaguars are threatened with extinction throughout their range. A sustainable captive population can serve as a hedge against extinction, but only if they are healthy and reproduce. Understanding how jaguars respond to stressors may help improve the captive environment and enhance their wellbeing. Thus, our objectives were to: (1) conduct an adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) challenge to validate a cortisol radioimmunoassay (RIA) for noninvasive monitoring of adrenocortical function in jaguars; (2) investigate the relationship between fecal corticoid (FCM) and androgen metabolite (FAM) concentrations in males during the ACTH challenge; and (3) establish a range of physiological concentrations of FCMs for the proposed protocol. Seven jaguars (3 M, 4 F) received 500 IU/animal of ACTH. Pre- and post-ACTH fecal samples were assayed for corticoid (M and F) and androgen metabolites (M) by RIA. Concentrations of FCMs increased (P80.01) after ACTH injection (pre-ACTH: 0.90 ± 0.12 µg/g dry feces; post-ACTH: 2.55 ± 0.25 µg/g). Considering pre- and post-ACTH samples, FCM concentrations were higher (P80.01) in males (2.15 ± 0.20 µg/g) than in females (1.30 ± 0.20 µg/g), but the magnitude of the response to ACTH was comparable (P>0.05) between genders. After ACTH injection, FAMs increased in two (of 3) males; in one male, FCMs and FAMs were positively correlated (0.60; P80.01). Excretion of FCMs was assessed in 16 jaguars (7 M, 9 F) and found to be highly variable (range, 80.11-1.56 µg/g). In conclusion, this study presents a cortisol RIA for monitoring adrenocortical function in jaguars noninvasively. PMID:21953790

  7. Enhancing Oceanography Classrooms with "Captive and Cultured" Ocean Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macko, S. A.; Tuite, M.; O'Connell, M.

    2012-04-01

    Students in oceanography classes often request more direct exposure to actual ocean situations or field trips. During regular session (13 week) or shorter term (4 week) summer classes such long trips are logistically difficult owing to large numbers of students involved or timing. This new approach to such a course supplement addresses the requests by utilizing local resources and short field trips for a limited number of students (20) to locations in which Ocean experiences are available, and are often supported through education and outreach components. The vision of the class was a mixture of classroom time, readings, along with paper and actual laboratories. In addition short day-long trips to locations where the ocean was "captured" were also used to supplement the experience as well as speakers involved with aquaculture ("cultivated") . Central Virginia is a fortunate location for such a class, with close access for "day travel" to the Chesapeake Bay and numerous field stations, museums with ocean-based exhibits (the Smithsonian and National Zoo) that address both extant and extinct Earth history, as well as national/state aquaria in Baltimore, Washington and Virginia Beach. Furthermore, visits to local seafood markets at local grocery stores, or larger city markets) enhance the exposure to productivity in the ocean, and viability of the fisheries sustainability. The course could then address not only the particulars of the marine science, but also aspects of ethics, including keeping animals in captivity or overfishing of particular species and the special difficulties that arise from captive or culturing ocean populations. In addition, the class was encouraged to post web-based journals of experiences in order to share opinions of observations in each of the settings.

  8. Molecular evidence of Sarcocystis species in captive snakes in Japan.

    PubMed

    Abe, Niichiro; Matsubara, Katsuki; Tamukai, Kenichi; Miwa, Yasutsugu; Takami, Kazutoshi

    2015-08-01

    Sarcocystis nesbitti, using snakes as the definitive host, is a causative agent of acute human muscular sarcocystosis in Malaysia. Therefore, it is important to explore the distribution and prevalence of S. nesbitti in snakes. Nevertheless, epizootiological information of S. nesbitti in snakes remains insufficient because few surveys have assessed Sarcocystis infection in snakes in endemic countries. In Japan, snakes are popular exotic pet animals that are imported from overseas, but the degree of Sarcocystis infection in them remains unclear. The possibility exists that muscular sarcocystosis by S. nesbitti occurs in contact with captive snakes in non-endemic countries. For a total of 125 snake faecal samples from 67 snake species collected at animal hospitals, pet shops and a zoo, this study investigated the presence of Sarcocystis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the 18S ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA). Four (3.2%) faecal samples were positive by PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA sequences obtained from four amplification products revealed one isolate from a beauty snake (Elaphe taeniura), Sarcocystis zuoi, which uses rat snakes as the definitive host. The isolate from a Macklot's python (Liasis mackloti) was closely related with unidentified Sarcocystis sp. from reticulated pythons in Malaysia. The remaining two isolates from tree boas (Corallus spp.) were closely related with Sarcocystis lacertae, Sarcocystis gallotiae and unidentified Sarcocystis sp. from smooth snakes, Tenerife lizards and European shrews, respectively. This report is the first of a study examining the distribution of Sarcocystis species in captive snakes in Japan. PMID:26044884

  9. Effects of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior.

    PubMed

    Orban, David A; Siegford, Janice M; Snider, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Zoological institutions develop human-animal interaction opportunities for visitors to advance missions of conservation, education, and recreation; however, the animal welfare implications largely have yet to be evaluated. This behavioral study was the first to quantify impacts of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior and welfare, by documenting giraffe time budgets that included both normal and stereotypic behaviors. Thirty giraffes from nine zoos (six zoos with varying guest feeding programs and three without) were observed using both instantaneous scan sampling and continuous behavioral sampling techniques. All data were collected during summer 2012 and analyzed using linear mixed models. The degree of individual giraffe participation in guest feeding programs was positively associated with increased time spent idle and marginally associated with reduced time spent ruminating. Time spent participating in guest feeding programs had no effect on performance of stereotypic behaviors. When time spent eating routine diets was combined with time spent participating in guest feeding programs, individuals that spent more time engaged in total feeding behaviors tended to perform less oral stereotypic behavior such as object-licking and tongue-rolling. By extending foraging time and complexity, guest feeding programs have the potential to act as environmental enrichment and alleviate unfulfilled foraging motivations that may underlie oral stereotypic behaviors observed in many captive giraffes. However, management strategies may need to be adjusted to mitigate idleness and other program consequences. Further studies, especially pre-and-post-program implementation comparisons, are needed to better understand the influence of human-animal interactions on zoo animal behavior and welfare. PMID:26910772

  10. Task Design Influences Prosociality in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    House, Bailey R.; Silk, Joan B.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Chimpanzees confer benefits on group members, both in the wild and in captive populations. Experimental studies of how animals allocate resources can provide useful insights about the motivations underlying prosocial behavior, and understanding the relationship between task design and prosocial behavior provides an important foundation for future research exploring these animals' social preferences. A number of studies have been designed to assess chimpanzees' preferences for outcomes that benefit others (prosocial preferences), but these studies vary greatly in both the results obtained and the methods used, and in most cases employ procedures that reduce critical features of naturalistic social interactions, such as partner choice. The focus of the current study is on understanding the link between experimental methodology and prosocial behavior in captive chimpanzees, rather than on describing these animals' social motivations themselves. We introduce a task design that avoids isolating subjects and allows them to freely decide whether to participate in the experiment. We explore key elements of the methods utilized in previous experiments in an effort to evaluate two possibilities that have been offered to explain why different experimental designs produce different results: (a) chimpanzees are less likely to deliver food to others when they obtain food for themselves, and (b) evidence of prosociality may be obscured by more “complex” experimental apparatuses (e.g., those including more components or alternative choices). Our results suggest that the complexity of laboratory tasks may generate observed variation in prosocial behavior in laboratory experiments, and highlights the need for more naturalistic research designs while also providing one example of such a paradigm. PMID:25191860

  11. Effectiveness of poll stunning water buffalo with captive bolt guns.

    PubMed

    Gregory, N G; Spence, J Y; Mason, C W; Tinarwo, A; Heasman, L

    2009-01-01

    Practical experience has indicated that shooting water buffalo with a captive bolt gun in the front of the head does not always produce an effective stun. Slaughtermen have been claiming that the poll position is more reliable, but under present EU regulations this shooting position is not allowed for domesticated bovines. This study examined the effectiveness of shooting water buffalo with captive bolt guns in the poll region. The depth of concussion was assessed in 30 water buffalo from physical collapse, presence or absence of corneal and palpebral reflexes, normal rhythmic breathing, eyeball rotation, nystagmus and whether the animal was re-shot. All except one animal collapsed immediately. The one animal that failed to collapse was not breathing. The prevalence of a shallow depth of concussion in the poll shot animals was 53%. Two had been shot through the spinal cord, and with the exception of those plus one other in which the bolt did not penetrate the brain, the other animals were considered to be adequately stunned. Post mortem examination of the brain showed that 79% of the under thirty month old animals were shot in the midbrain or brain stem, but these regions had to be avoided in over thirty month old animals because of the risk of damaging the brain stem sample needed for BSE testing. In addition, three water buffalo were shot in the crown position and one in the front of the head. The frontal position was ineffective as the animal did not collapse, and all animals shot in the crown position resumed breathing shortly after shooting, indicating a shallow depth of concussion. It is concluded that poll shooting can be effective in water buffalo, but it produces a shallow depth of concussion compared with frontal shooting in cattle. It requires accurate placement of the gun to ensure that buffalo are not shot through the spinal cord instead of the brain. Vigilance is needed in ensuring that the animals are stuck promptly so that none recover consciousness.

  12. Tooth wear in captive giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis): mesowear analysis classifies free-ranging specimens as browsers but captive ones as grazers.

    PubMed

    Clauss, Marcus; Franz-Odendaal, Tamara A; Brasch, Juliane; Castell, Johanna C; Kaiser, Thomas

    2007-09-01

    Captive giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) mostly do not attain the longevity possible for this species and frequently have problems associated with low energy intake and fat storage mobilization. Abnormal tooth wear has been among the causes suggested as an underlying problem. This study utilizes a tooth wear scoring method ("mesowear") primarily used in paleobiology. This scoring method was applied to museum specimens of free-ranging (n=20) and captive (n=41) giraffes. The scoring system allows for the differentiation between attrition--(typical for browsers, as browse contains little abrasive silica) and abrasion--(typical for grazers, as grass contains abrasive silica) dominated tooth wear. The dental wear pattern of the free-ranging population is dominated by attrition, resembles that previously published for free-ranging giraffe, and clusters within browsing herbivores in comparative analysis. In contrast, the wear pattern of the captive population is dominated by abrasion and clusters among grazing herbivores in comparative analyses. A potential explanation for this difference in tooth wear is likely related to the content of abrasive elements in zoo diets. Silica content (measured as acid insoluble ash) is low in browse and alfalfa. However, grass hay and the majority of pelleted compound feeds contain higher amounts of silica. It can be speculated that the abnormal wear pattern in captivity compromises tooth function in captive giraffe, with deleterious long-term consequences.

  13. Hongshan chiefly communities in Neolithic northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Christian E.; Lu, Xueming; Drennan, Robert D.; Zhu, Da

    2010-01-01

    The Hongshan societies of northeastern China are among East Asia’s earliest complex societies. They have been known largely from elaborate burials with carved jades in ceremonial platforms. The most monumental remains are concentrated in a “core zone” in western Liaoning province. Residential remains are less well known and most investigations of them have been in peripheral regions outside the core zone. Recent regional settlement pattern research around the well known ceremonial site of Dongshanzui has begun to document the communities that built and used Hongshan core zone monuments and to assess their developmental dynamics. The core zone, like the Hongshan periphery, appears to have been organized into a series of small chiefly districts within which ceremonial activities were important integrative forces. Their estimated populations of less than 1,000 are not much larger than those of districts in the periphery, and the evidence does not suggest that these districts were integrated into any larger political entity. The greater elaboration of core zone monumental architecture is thus not attributable to demographically larger communities or to larger-scale political integration. Future research should focus on documenting the organization of statuses and economic activities within these core zone communities to assess potential differences from peripheral communities in these regards. PMID:20224038

  14. Filarioids infecting dogs in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; de Oliveira do Rêgo, Ana Gabriela; de Farias Firmino, Everton Diogo; do Nascimento Ramos, Carlos Alberto; de Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico; Alves, Leucio Câmara

    2016-08-15

    Species of filarial nematodes belonging to the genera Dirofilaria and Acanthocheilonema are recognised as common parasites of dogs throughout the world. Recently, other filarioids featured by the presence of dermal microfilariae (e.g., Onchocerca lupi and Cercopithifilaria spp.) have been recognised in Europe. In Brazil, reports of filarioids in dogs are limited to Dirofilaria immitis, Acanthocheilonema reconditum and Cercopithifilaria bainae. To investigate the distribution of filarial infections in dogs living in an endemic region from northeastern Brazil, blood and skin samples (n=104) were microscopically (modified Knott's test and skin snip sediment examination) and molecularly evaluated. Twenty-two dogs (21.15%) were positive at microscopic and/or molecular examination for at least one filarioid species, with 21 (20.19%) animals positive for blood microfilariae at molecular and/or at microscopic examination. Microfilariae of D. immitis were detected in 12 (11.54%) animals, with co-infection of D. immitis and A. reconditum observed in four (3.85%) individuals. One animal was positive for C. bainae at both microscopic and molecular examination. Analysis of sequence obtained in the present study showed significant alignment identity with that of C. bainae from Europe. Considering that in the area of study arthropod vectors (mosquitoes, fleas and ticks) are prevalent throughout the year, preventive measures should be disposed in order to avoid the animal infestation and pathogen infection. PMID:27514878

  15. A palaeomagnetic reconnaissance of northeastern Baluchistan, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klootwijk, Chris T.; Nazirullah, Russel; de Jong, Kees A.; Ahmed, Habib

    1981-01-01

    A total of 560 samples from three areas in northeastern Baluchistan (the southern Sulaiman Range, the central Loralai Range, and the northern Kirthar Range) were analyzed using thermal demagnetization techniques. Thirteen formations of late Palaeozoic to early Tertiary age were studied palaeomagnetically. Inclinations of the obtained results show a general affinity with the Indian apparent polar wander path. Deviating declinations from the Loralai Range indicate a clockwise rotation over 50° with respect to the Indian shield. Secondary magnetization components probably of late Palaeocene to early Eocene age were consistently present in the samples from the Kirthar Range and the Sulaiman Range but were not observed in samples from the Loralai Range. Acquisition of these components is attributed to crustal upwarping during the Palaeocene, which is tentatively related to initial collision of continental Indo-Pakistan with an island arc off south central Asia. The Baluchistan data support recent palaeomagnetic results from the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone in Ladakh (NW Himalaya), which indicate that such an initial collision took place at very low northern palaeolatitudes.

  16. Filarioids infecting dogs in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; de Oliveira do Rêgo, Ana Gabriela; de Farias Firmino, Everton Diogo; do Nascimento Ramos, Carlos Alberto; de Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico; Alves, Leucio Câmara

    2016-08-15

    Species of filarial nematodes belonging to the genera Dirofilaria and Acanthocheilonema are recognised as common parasites of dogs throughout the world. Recently, other filarioids featured by the presence of dermal microfilariae (e.g., Onchocerca lupi and Cercopithifilaria spp.) have been recognised in Europe. In Brazil, reports of filarioids in dogs are limited to Dirofilaria immitis, Acanthocheilonema reconditum and Cercopithifilaria bainae. To investigate the distribution of filarial infections in dogs living in an endemic region from northeastern Brazil, blood and skin samples (n=104) were microscopically (modified Knott's test and skin snip sediment examination) and molecularly evaluated. Twenty-two dogs (21.15%) were positive at microscopic and/or molecular examination for at least one filarioid species, with 21 (20.19%) animals positive for blood microfilariae at molecular and/or at microscopic examination. Microfilariae of D. immitis were detected in 12 (11.54%) animals, with co-infection of D. immitis and A. reconditum observed in four (3.85%) individuals. One animal was positive for C. bainae at both microscopic and molecular examination. Analysis of sequence obtained in the present study showed significant alignment identity with that of C. bainae from Europe. Considering that in the area of study arthropod vectors (mosquitoes, fleas and ticks) are prevalent throughout the year, preventive measures should be disposed in order to avoid the animal infestation and pathogen infection.

  17. Temperature mediated moose survival in Northeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lenarz, M.S.; Nelson, M.E.; Schrage, M.W.; Edwards, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    The earth is in the midst of a pronounced warming trend and temperatures in Minnesota, USA, as elsewhere, are projected to increase. Northern Minnesota represents the southern edge to the circumpolar distribution of moose (Alces alces), a species intolerant of heat. Moose increase their metabolic rate to regulate their core body temperature as temperatures rise. We hypothesized that moose survival rates would be a function of the frequency and magnitude that ambient temperatures exceeded the upper critical temperature of moose. We compared annual and seasonal moose survival in northeastern Minnesota between 2002 and 2008 with a temperature metric. We found that models based on January temperatures above the critical threshold were inversely correlated with subsequent survival and explained >78 of variability in spring, fall, and annual survival. Models based on late-spring temperatures also explained a high proportion of survival during the subsequent fall. A model based on warm-season temperatures was important in explaining survival during the subsequent winter. Our analyses suggest that temperatures may have a cumulative influence on survival. We expect that continuation or acceleration of current climate trends will result in decreased survival, a decrease in moose density, and ultimately, a retreat of moose northward from their current distribution.

  18. Pathways as "signatures in landscape": towards an ethnography of mobility among the Mbya-Guaraní (Northeastern Argentina).

    PubMed

    Crivos, Marta; Martínez, María Rosa; Pochettino, María Lelia; Remorini, Carolina; Sy, Anahí; Teves, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Processes of spatial mobility among the Mbya are of interest in anthropological and ethnobiological studies, as these processes are related to transformations in the landscape and the environment. Despite this, ethnographic literature usually focuses itself on the mobility of Guaraní communities from the perspective of population dynamics on a regional scale. Our research among two Mbya-Guaraní communities in the Argentinean province of Misiones has enabled us to recognize patterns of mobility on a micro-scale. Certainly, the mobility of adult members of these communities as they perform hunting and gathering activities delimit spaces of individual use. We consider the different pathways as "signatures in landscape", resulting from processes of spatial mobility inherent to those activities. Taking into account the gathering and circulation of medicinal plants for treatment of gastrointestinal illnesses, we have been able to identify different pathways inherent in their search, towards the monte or other spaces away from de settlement. The design and construction of the pathways is determined by the specific personal knowledge of individuals who search for these valuable resources. Using both strategies of direct observation--as members of the community manipulate different resources during these search and gathering trips--and interviews, we have been able to gather and interpret significant information on the strategies used by the Mbya to domesticate the monte areas. As a consequence of our approach we suggest that the landscape design resulting from these trips should not be considered a consensual or collective strategy of the whole community; it is rather the result of the daily strategies of individuals, which involves the selection of resources mainly based on each individual's knowledge and interests.

  19. Pathways as "signatures in landscape": towards an ethnography of mobility among the Mbya-Guaraní (Northeastern Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Crivos, Marta; Martínez, María Rosa; Pochettino, María Lelia; Remorini, Carolina; Sy, Anahí; Teves, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Processes of spatial mobility among the Mbya are of interest in anthropological and ethnobiological studies, as these processes are related to transformations in the landscape and the environment. Despite this, ethnographic literature usually focuses itself on the mobility of Guaraní communities from the perspective of population dynamics on a regional scale. Our research among two Mbya-Guaraní communities in the Argentinean province of Misiones has enabled us to recognize patterns of mobility on a micro-scale. Certainly, the mobility of adult members of these communities as they perform hunting and gathering activities delimit spaces of individual use. We consider the different pathways as "signatures in landscape", resulting from processes of spatial mobility inherent to those activities Taking into account the gathering and circulation of medicinal plants for treatment of gastrointestinal illnesses, we have been able to identify different pathways inherent in their search, towards the monte or other spaces away from de settlement. The design and construction of the pathways is determined by the specific personal knowledge of individuals who search for these valuable resources. Using both strategies of direct observation – as members of the community manipulate different resources during these search and gathering trips – and interviews, we have been able to gather and interpret significant information on the strategies used by the Mbya to domesticate the monte areas. As a consequence of our approach we suggest that the landscape design resulting from these trips should not be considered a consensual or collective strategy of the whole community; it is rather the result of the daily strategies of individuals, which involves the selection of resources mainly based on each individual's knowledge and interests. PMID:17207272

  20. Trophic ecology of the freshwater prawn, Pseudopalaemon bouvieri (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) in Northeastern Argentina, with remarks on population structure.

    PubMed

    Carnevali, Romina Patricia; Collins, Pablo Agustín; Poi de Neiff, Alicia S Guadalupe

    2012-03-01

    Freshwater decapod crustaceans are important components of food webs in these environments, but little is known about the diet of species that live in tropical waters. We studied the feeding ecology of the prawn Pseudopalaemon bouvieri and its population structure in two different areas with six lagoons, with a different composition and abundance of aquatic macrophytes. At each site of macrophytes banks, 18 prawns sample was collected with a hand net (1mm mesh size) from 1m2. In the laboratory, prawns cephalothorax length was measured, sex determined, and a total of 208 stomachs were examined for food items. Our results showed that the population abundance varied between 10 ind/m2 and 1 411 ind/m2. The cephalothorax length ranged between 6mm and 21mm, and the male:female ratio varied between 0.3 and 1.0, with a higher proportion of ovigerous females (21%) in area one than area two. P. bouvieri is omnivorous, and its diet was principally based on algae, plant remains, Protozoa, Rotifera, Oligochaeta, Crustacea, Insecta, detritus and other items. The analysis of the stomach content did not reveal any significant difference in the diet between juveniles and adults, and males and females of both areas consumed a similar diet (Kruskal-Wallis test p=0.8273). We concluded that the dietary items consumed by prawns and the niche breadth were similar between the two areas, although the proportion of items consumed varied between lagoons of both areas. The density of P. bouvieri was different between areas, but the size of cephalothorax (CL) was similar. PMID:22458226

  1. Coleopterans associated with plants that form phytotelmata in subtropical and temperate Argentina, South America.

    PubMed

    Campos, Raúl E; Fernández, Liliana A

    2011-01-01

    A list of the most common plants that form phytotelmata and their associated coleopterans (aquatic, semi-aquatic and terrestrial) from the northeastern subtropical and temperate area of Argentina, South America with biological and behavioral observations is presented in this study. Species of Poaceae (n = 3), Bromeliaceae (5), Apiaceae (6), Araceae (2), Urticaceae (1), Marantaceae (1), Arecaceae (1), Dipsacaceae (1) and Cyperaceae (1) were identified as phytotelmata. Aquatic species of Scirtidae (2), Dytiscidae (2), and Hydrophilidae (4), semi-aquatic Chelonariidae (2), and terrestrial species of Carabidae (3), Staphylinidae (5), Histeridae (1), Elateridae (1), Cantharidae (1), Cleridae (1), Tenebrionidae (1), Meloidae (1), Anthicidae (1), Chrysomelidae (3), Curculionidae (7) and Apionidae (1) were identified from six species of Eryngium L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), two species of Guadua Kunth (Poales: Poaceae), Aechmea distichantha Lemaire (Poales: Bromeliaceae), and from fallen leaves of Euterpe edulis Martius (Arecales: Arecaceae) from the temperate and subtropical area. The highest species richness was recorded in Eryngium phytotelmata. Fifteen species of beetles inhabit Eryngium cabrerae Pontiroli, 11 in E. horridum Malme, 7 in E. stenophyllum Urban, 4 in E. aff. serra Chamisso and Schlechtendal., 3 in E. elegans Chamisso and Schlechtendal, 2 in E. eburneum Decne and E. pandanifolium Chamisso and Schlechtendal. From bamboo, 6 species of coleopterans were collected from Guadua trinii (Nees) Nees ex Ruprecht and 4 from G. chacoensis (Rojas) Londoño and Peterson. Three species of aquatic coleopterans were recorded from A. distichantha and only one from E. edulis.

  2. Coleopterans Associated with Plants that form Phytotelmata in Subtropical and Temperate Argentina, South America

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Raúl E.; Fernández, Liliana A.

    2011-01-01

    A list of the most common plants that form phytotelmata and their associated coleopterans (aquatic, semi-aquatic and terrestrial) from the northeastern subtropical and temperate area of Argentina, South America with biological and behavioral observations is presented in this study. Species of Poaceae (n = 3), Bromeliaceae (5), Apiaceae (6), Araceae (2), Urticaceae (1), Marantaceae (1), Arecaceae (1), Dipsacaceae (1) and Cyperaceae (1) were identified as phytotelmata. Aquatic species of Scirtidae (2), Dytiscidae (2), and Hydrophilidae (4), semi-aquatic Chelonariidae (2), and terrestrial species of Carabidae (3), Staphylinidae (5), Histeridae (1), Elateridae (1), Cantharidae (1), Cleridae (1), Tenebrionidae (1), Meloidae (1), Anthicidae (1), Chrysomelidae (3), Curculionidae (7) and Apionidae (1) were identified from six species of Eryngium L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), two species of Guadua Kunth (Poales: Poaceae), Aechmea distichantha Lemaire (Poales: Bromeliaceae), and from fallen leaves of Euterpe edulis Martius (Arecales: Arecaceae) from the temperate and subtropical area. The highest species richness was recorded in Eryngium phytotelmata. Fifteen species of beetles inhabit Eryngium cabrerae Pontiroli, 11 in E. horridum Malme, 7 in E. stenophyllum Urban, 4 in E. aff. serra Chamisso and Schlechtendal., 3 in E. elegans Chamisso and Schlechtendal, 2 in E. eburneum Decne and E. pandanifolium Chamisso and Schlechtendal. From bamboo, 6 species of coleopterans were collected from Guadua trinii (Nees) Nees ex Ruprecht and 4 from G. chacoensis (Rojas) Londoño and Peterson. Three species of aquatic coleopterans were recorded from A. distichantha and only one from E. edulis. PMID:22236084

  3. Indigenous Starter Cultures to Improve Quality of Artisanal Dry Fermented Sausages from Chaco (Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Palavecino Prpich, Noelia Z.; Castro, Marcela P.; Cayré, María E.; Garro, Oscar A.; Vignolo, Graciela M.

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and coagulase negative cocci (CNC) were isolated from artisanal dry sausages sampled from the northeastern region of Chaco, Argentina. In order to evaluate their performance in situ and considering technological features of the isolated strains, two mixed selected autochthonous starter cultures (SAS) were designed: (i) SAS-1 (Lactobacillus sakei 487 + Staphylococcus vitulinus C2) and (ii) SAS-2 (L. sakei 442 + S. xylosus C8). Cultures were introduced into dry sausage manufacturing process at a local small-scale facility. Microbiological and physicochemical parameters were monitored throughout fermentation and ripening periods, while sensory attributes of the final products were evaluated by a trained panel. Lactic acid bacteria revealed their ability to colonize and adapt properly to the meat matrix, inhibiting the growth of spontaneous microflora and enhancing safety and hygienic profile of the products. Both SAS showed a beneficial effect on lipid oxidation and texture of the final products. Staphylococcus vitulinus C2, from SAS-1, promoted a better redness of the final product. Sensory profile revealed that SAS addition preserved typical sensory attributes. Introduction of these cultures could provide an additional tool to standardize manufacturing processes aiming to enhance safety and quality while keeping typical sensory attributes of regional dry fermented sausages. PMID:26955636

  4. Indigenous Starter Cultures to Improve Quality of Artisanal Dry Fermented Sausages from Chaco (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Palavecino Prpich, Noelia Z; Castro, Marcela P; Cayré, María E; Garro, Oscar A; Vignolo, Graciela M

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and coagulase negative cocci (CNC) were isolated from artisanal dry sausages sampled from the northeastern region of Chaco, Argentina. In order to evaluate their performance in situ and considering technological features of the isolated strains, two mixed selected autochthonous starter cultures (SAS) were designed: (i) SAS-1 (Lactobacillus sakei 487 + Staphylococcus vitulinus C2) and (ii) SAS-2 (L. sakei 442 + S. xylosus C8). Cultures were introduced into dry sausage manufacturing process at a local small-scale facility. Microbiological and physicochemical parameters were monitored throughout fermentation and ripening periods, while sensory attributes of the final products were evaluated by a trained panel. Lactic acid bacteria revealed their ability to colonize and adapt properly to the meat matrix, inhibiting the growth of spontaneous microflora and enhancing safety and hygienic profile of the products. Both SAS showed a beneficial effect on lipid oxidation and texture of the final products. Staphylococcus vitulinus C2, from SAS-1, promoted a better redness of the final product. Sensory profile revealed that SAS addition preserved typical sensory attributes. Introduction of these cultures could provide an additional tool to standardize manufacturing processes aiming to enhance safety and quality while keeping typical sensory attributes of regional dry fermented sausages.

  5. Coleopterans associated with plants that form phytotelmata in subtropical and temperate Argentina, South America.

    PubMed

    Campos, Raúl E; Fernández, Liliana A

    2011-01-01

    A list of the most common plants that form phytotelmata and their associated coleopterans (aquatic, semi-aquatic and terrestrial) from the northeastern subtropical and temperate area of Argentina, South America with biological and behavioral observations is presented in this study. Species of Poaceae (n = 3), Bromeliaceae (5), Apiaceae (6), Araceae (2), Urticaceae (1), Marantaceae (1), Arecaceae (1), Dipsacaceae (1) and Cyperaceae (1) were identified as phytotelmata. Aquatic species of Scirtidae (2), Dytiscidae (2), and Hydrophilidae (4), semi-aquatic Chelonariidae (2), and terrestrial species of Carabidae (3), Staphylinidae (5), Histeridae (1), Elateridae (1), Cantharidae (1), Cleridae (1), Tenebrionidae (1), Meloidae (1), Anthicidae (1), Chrysomelidae (3), Curculionidae (7) and Apionidae (1) were identified from six species of Eryngium L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), two species of Guadua Kunth (Poales: Poaceae), Aechmea distichantha Lemaire (Poales: Bromeliaceae), and from fallen leaves of Euterpe edulis Martius (Arecales: Arecaceae) from the temperate and subtropical area. The highest species richness was recorded in Eryngium phytotelmata. Fifteen species of beetles inhabit Eryngium cabrerae Pontiroli, 11 in E. horridum Malme, 7 in E. stenophyllum Urban, 4 in E. aff. serra Chamisso and Schlechtendal., 3 in E. elegans Chamisso and Schlechtendal, 2 in E. eburneum Decne and E. pandanifolium Chamisso and Schlechtendal. From bamboo, 6 species of coleopterans were collected from Guadua trinii (Nees) Nees ex Ruprecht and 4 from G. chacoensis (Rojas) Londoño and Peterson. Three species of aquatic coleopterans were recorded from A. distichantha and only one from E. edulis. PMID:22236084

  6. Complete genome sequencing of dengue virus type 1 isolated in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Barrero, Paola R; Mistchenko, Alicia S

    2004-05-01

    Dengue (DEN) constitutes a major viral arthropod-borne human illness. South America was last considered free of dengue two decades ago when a dramatic increase in the number of dengue fever and hemorrhagic dengue cases had been reported. Five viruses were isolated in Buenos Aires City from the 1999-2000 Paraguay outbreak. RT-PCRs obtained directly from plasma were cloned into pGemT vectors and sequences of the structural genes and NS1 were analyzed. Three viruses were full-length sequenced from RT-PCR obtained from cell-culture isolates. Excess of synonymous over non-synonymous mutations suggested that the structural proteins were under strong functional constraints while a weak purifying selection was operating in the whole polyprotein. Sequence diversity and selective pressures varied among patients but results were significantly above the procedure threshold. One sample showed small-plaque phenotype and impaired growth coupled to 3'untranslated region mutations. Phylogenetic analysis of full-length sequences split Buenos Aires isolates into two clusters within American DEN-1 genotype V: Clade I was phylogenetically linked to Brazilian samples and Clade II with samples from Paraguay and Northeastern Argentina. In Buenos Aires City, only dengue virus serotype 1 imported from Paraguay has been detected, though without evidence of local transmission.

  7. Surveillance and monitoring of white-tailed deer for chronic wasting disease in the northeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, Tyler S.; Schuler, Krysten L.; Walter, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disease that affects both wild and captive cervid populations. In the past 45 y, CWD has spread from northern Colorado to all bordering states, as well as the midwestern United States (Midwest) and northeastern United States (Northeast), Canada, and South Korea. Because CWD is a relatively new issue for wildlife management agencies in the Northeast, we surveyed a representative (e.g., cervid biologist, wildlife veterinarian) from 14 states to gain a better understanding of state-specific surveillance measures. Between 2002 and 2012, New York (37,093) and Pennsylvania (35,324) tested the greatest number of harvested white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus in the Northeast. Additionally, the 14 states surveyed have tested 121,730 harvested deer, or approximately 15,216/y, since CWD was first detected in 2005. The most common tissues used by agencies in the Northeast for testing were retropharyngeal lymph nodes, which have been determined to be the most reliable in detecting CWD in cervids. Understanding CWD surveillance efforts at a regional scale can help to provide guidance for the development of new surveillance plans or the improvement of existing ones. Furthermore, collaborations among state and regional agencies in the Northeast may attempt to identify deficiencies in surveillance by state or subregion.

  8. Tobacco industry targeting youth in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Braun, S; Mejia, R; Ling, P M; Pérez-Stable, E J

    2013-01-01

    Background/aim Argentina has one of the highest cigarette smoking rates among both men and women in the Americas and no legislated restrictions on tobacco industry advertising. The tobacco industry has traditionally expanded markets by targeting adolescents and young adults. The objective of this study was to determine whether and how the tobacco industry promotes cigarettes to adolescents in Argentina. Methods We conducted a systematic search of tobacco industry documents available through the internet dated between 1995 and 2004 using standard search terms to identify marketing strategies in Argentina. A selected review of the four leading newspapers and nine magazines with reported high readership among adolescents was completed. The selected print media were searched for tobacco images and these were classified as advertisements if associated with a commercial product or as a story if not. Results The tobacco industry used market segmentation as a strategy to target Argentinean consumers. British American Tobacco (BAT) undertook a young adult psychographic study and classified them as “progressives”, “Jurassics” or “conservatives” and “crudos” or “spoiled brats”. BAT marketed Lucky Strike to the “progressives” using Hollywood movies as a vehicle. The tobacco industry also targeted their national brands to the conservatives and linked these brands with “nationalistic values” in advertising campaigns. Philip Morris promoted Marlboro by sponsoring activities directed at young people and they launched the 10 cigarettes packet as a starter vehicle. Conclusions The tobacco industry used psychographic segmentation of the population and developed advertising strategies focused on youth. Tobacco control researchers and advocates must be able to address these strategies in counter-marketing interventions. PMID:18299308

  9. Cutaneous adenocarcinoma of sebaceous gland in a captive male jaguar Panthera onca: a case report.

    PubMed

    Majie, Arnab K; Mondal, Parswanath; Ghosh, Swapan K; Banerjee, Dayanarayan

    2014-02-24

    High incidence of neoplasia in captive jaguar (Panthera onca) has been recorded but there have been no reports of cutaneous adenocarcinoma of the sebaceous gland. A high incidence of neoplasia has been detected in captive jaguars, possibly associated with longevity and husbandry practices in captivity. Neoplasm is a major cause of mortality in jaguar. Tumours of sebaceous gland are common in older domestic felids. A case of cutaneous adenocarcinoma of the sebaceous gland was diagnosed in a male captive jaguar in the Zoological Garden, Alipore, Kolkata, India and was managed successfully. The tumour was observed as a superficial, ulcerated, multilobulated intradermal mass. After preoperative haematological evaluation the tumour was excised through routine surgical procedure under chemical immobilisation. Post-operative management was uneventful. Local tumour recurrence was not noticed till one year after post-operation.

  10. Genetic effects of captive breeding cause a rapid, cumulative fitness decline in the wild.

    PubMed

    Araki, Hitoshi; Cooper, Becky; Blouin, Michael S

    2007-10-01

    Captive breeding is used to supplement populations of many species that are declining in the wild. The suitability of and long-term species survival from such programs remain largely untested, however. We measured lifetime reproductive success of the first two generations of steelhead trout that were reared in captivity and bred in the wild after they were released. By reconstructing a three-generation pedigree with microsatellite markers, we show that genetic effects of domestication reduce subsequent reproductive capabilities by approximately 40% per captive-reared generation when fish are moved to natural environments. These results suggest that even a few generations of domestication may have negative effects on natural reproduction in the wild and that the repeated use of captive-reared parents to supplement wild populations should be carefully reconsidered.

  11. Time-budgets and activity patterns of captive Sunda pangolins (Manis javanica).

    PubMed

    Challender, Daniel W S; Thai, Nguyen Van; Jones, Martin; May, Les

    2012-01-01

    This is the first assessment of Manis javanica behavior in captivity. The aim of the investigation was to assess behavior in order to suggest ways of improving captive care and management of the species. This was undertaken by constructing time-budgets and activity patterns and identifying any abnormal repetitive behavior (ARB) exhibited. Scan and focal animal sampling were implemented in observations of seven subjects. Analyses detailed idiosyncrasies in how subjects partitioned their active time. Peak activity occurred between 18:00 and 21:00 hr. Two ARBs, clawing and pacing, were identified and the cessation of clawing in one subject was possible by modifying its enclosure. Stress-related behavior, understood to be related to several factors, means maintaining this species in captivity remains problematic. Recommendations are made pertaining to husbandry, captive management, and future research. PMID:21360581

  12. Cutaneous adenocarcinoma of sebaceous gland in a captive male jaguar Panthera onca: a case report.

    PubMed

    Majie, Arnab K; Mondal, Parswanath; Ghosh, Swapan K; Banerjee, Dayanarayan

    2014-01-01

    High incidence of neoplasia in captive jaguar (Panthera onca) has been recorded but there have been no reports of cutaneous adenocarcinoma of the sebaceous gland. A high incidence of neoplasia has been detected in captive jaguars, possibly associated with longevity and husbandry practices in captivity. Neoplasm is a major cause of mortality in jaguar. Tumours of sebaceous gland are common in older domestic felids. A case of cutaneous adenocarcinoma of the sebaceous gland was diagnosed in a male captive jaguar in the Zoological Garden, Alipore, Kolkata, India and was managed successfully. The tumour was observed as a superficial, ulcerated, multilobulated intradermal mass. After preoperative haematological evaluation the tumour was excised through routine surgical procedure under chemical immobilisation. Post-operative management was uneventful. Local tumour recurrence was not noticed till one year after post-operation. PMID:24831350

  13. An assessment of gum-based environmental enrichment for captive gummivorous primates.

    PubMed

    Huber, Hillary F; Lewis, Kerrie P

    2011-01-01

    In the wild, many primates consume gums exuded from trees, and many species are gum specialists. In spite of this, few data exist concerning gum feeding in captivity. Using a web-based survey of 46 zoos in 12 countries, we evaluated the extent to which zoos feed gum to primates. We found that although callitrichids and galagos receive gum-based enrichment, cercopithecines generally do not. Environmental enrichment is important for stimulating naturalistic behavior to promote the psychological wellbeing of animals. Thus, gum-based enrichment is important for captive gummivores. Our study highlights the need to improve environmental enrichment for captive gummivores, in particular that of cercopithecines. This is most striking for the patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas), an obligate gummivore. The exchange of ecological data between field research and captive settings is crucial, and is just one way primate caretakers can contribute to the conservation and welfare of some of our closest living relatives.

  14. Genetic characterization of near full length SIVdrl genomes from four captive drills (Mandrillus leucophaeus).

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Ursula; Landersz, Margot; Stahl-Hennig, Christiane; Geiger, Christina; Foley, Brian T

    2015-03-01

    We sequenced near full length SIVdrl genomes from four captive drills (Mandrillus leucophaeus). All four animals were born in captivity in German zoos. Although serologically SIV negative before acquisition in zoo A in 2008 and 2009, during a routine analysis all four animals were determined to be SIV antibody positive in 2011. Comparisons of the four new SIVdrl sequences showed high identity among each other (90.7-97.7% in env) and to the only published full length sequence SIVdrl FAO (90.5-92.8% in env), which is also derived from a captive drill. SIVdrl infections seem to be highly prevalent in captive drills, probably resulting from frequent animal transfers between the zoos in an effort to maintain this highly endangered species and its genetic diversity. This should be kept in mind as SIVdrl may be transmitted to uninfected animals in open groups and potentially also to animal keepers having contact with these nonhuman primates.

  15. Species differences in responses to captivity: stress, welfare and the comparative method.

    PubMed

    Mason, Georgia J

    2010-12-01

    Approximately 26 billion animals, spanning over 10 000 species, are kept on farms and in zoos, conservation breeding centers, research laboratories and households. Captive animals are often healthier, longer-lived and more fecund than free-living conspecifics, but for some species the opposite is true. Captivity is a very long way from the ideal 'common garden' often assumed by evolutionary and ecological researchers using data for captive animals. The use of comparative methods to investigate the fundamental biological causes of these species differences would help to improve husbandry and enclosure design, and might even reveal relationships between susceptibilities to poor captive welfare and susceptibilities to anthropogenic threat in the wild. Studies of these species differences could also inspire and facilitate 'evo-mecho' research into the functions of behavioral control mechanisms.

  16. Remnants of ancient genetic diversity preserved within captive groups of scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah).

    PubMed

    Iyengar, A; Gilbert, T; Woodfine, T; Knowles, J M; Diniz, F M; Brenneman, R A; Louis, E E; Maclean, N

    2007-06-01

    Scimitar-horned oryx, now considered extinct in the wild, persists in large numbers in captivity. In this first molecular genetic study on this species, we explore the patterns of genetic diversity across European, North American, and a few other captive groups using microsatellite markers and mitochondrial control region sequencing. Strong population structure was not evident from microsatellite data but we discovered deep divergence within the mitochondrial DNA haplotypes from a network analysis where three disconnected networks were obtained, with estimated divergence times of c. 2.1-2.7 million years. Mismatch distribution analyses suggest population expansions c. 1.2 and 0.5 million years ago. We discuss our findings in the context of historical climatic changes in North Africa and use information obtained on current patterns of genetic diversity within captive groups to make recommendations for future captive management and reintroduction strategies. PMID:17561904

  17. Nutritional and behavioral effects of gorge and fast feeding in captive lions.

    PubMed

    Altman, Joanne D; Gross, Kathy L; Lowry, Stephen R

    2005-01-01

    Nonhuman animals in captivity manifest behaviors and physiological conditions that are not common in the wild. Lions in captivity face problems of obesity, inactivity, and stereotypy. To mediate common problems of captive lions, this study implemented a gorge and fast feeding schedule that better models naturalistic patterns: African lions (Panthera leo) gradually adapted from a conventional feeding program to a random gorge and fast feeding schedule. Digestibility increased significantly and food intake and metabolizable energy intake correspondingly decreased. Lions also showed an increase in appetitive active behaviors, no increase in agonistic behavior, and paced half as frequently on fast days as on feeding days. Thus, switching captive lions to a gorge and fast feeding schedule resulted in improved nutritional status and increased activity.

  18. Molecular findings of disseminated histoplasmosis in two captive snow leopards (Uncia uncia).

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Avilés, David; Taylor, Maria Lucia; del Rocio Reyes-Montes, Maria; Pérez-Torrez, Armando

    2008-09-01

    This paper reports two cases of disseminated histoplasmosis in captive snow leopards (Uncia uncia). Histoplasmosis was diagnosed based on histopathology, immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and molecular findings. PMID:18817010

  19. Species differences in responses to captivity: stress, welfare and the comparative method.

    PubMed

    Mason, Georgia J

    2010-12-01

    Approximately 26 billion animals, spanning over 10 000 species, are kept on farms and in zoos, conservation breeding centers, research laboratories and households. Captive animals are often healthier, longer-lived and more fecund than free-living conspecifics, but for some species the opposite is true. Captivity is a very long way from the ideal 'common garden' often assumed by evolutionary and ecological researchers using data for captive animals. The use of comparative methods to investigate the fundamental biological causes of these species differences would help to improve husbandry and enclosure design, and might even reveal relationships between susceptibilities to poor captive welfare and susceptibilities to anthropogenic threat in the wild. Studies of these species differences could also inspire and facilitate 'evo-mecho' research into the functions of behavioral control mechanisms. PMID:20952089

  20. Lower Rio Parana Panaramic, Argentina, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This southeast looking view shows the lower Parana River (32.0S, 59.5W) of central Argentina with floodwaters obscuring most of the valley bottom detail. The rain swollen lower 300 km of the river, that displaced some 200,000 people, even appears as an arm of the ocean. Uruguay is visible at top left and cities appear as small white patches. Buenos Aires, South America's largest city, can be seen on the south shore of Rio de la Plata.

  1. International Skeletal Society outreach in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Ignacio; Bencardino, Jenny T; Rosenberg, Zehava S; Steinbach, Lynne

    2014-04-01

    From June 28th to 29th, 2013, the Argentinian ISS Outreach Program took place in collaboration with the Centro de Diagnóstico Dr. Enrique Rossi in the city of Buenos Aires. A total of 690 participants attended. In the following report, we analyze the actual radiologic situation in this South American country. Outreach programs in a country such as Argentina are extremely valuable, as they provide a great opportunity for physicians that cannot travel overseas an attend international meetings such as RSNA, International Skeletal Society, or ARRS.

  2. Aedes aegypti resistance to temephos in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Seccacini, Emilia; Lucia, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo; Licastro, Susana; Masuh, Hector

    2008-12-01

    Monitoring of resistance of Aedes aegypti to temephos was implemented in the provinces of Formosa and Misiones, Argentina, as a response to the need to improve the vigilance for the dengue vector in areas of high risk of dengue. Eggs collected in each locality were reared, and susceptibility to temephos was assayed using larval bioassays. A weak decrease in susceptibility of larvae to temephos was observed in Clorinda and Puerto Iguazú, indicating an incipient resistance with a resistance ratio of 3. No control failures have been observed yet, and this program should allow the early detection of a real problem in our country.

  3. The partial captivity condition for U(1) extensions of expanding maps on the circle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Yushi; Tsujii, Masato; Wittsten, Jens

    2016-07-01

    This paper concerns the compact group extension f:T2→T2,f(x,s)=(E(x),s+τ(x) mod 1) of an expanding map E:{{{S}}1}\\to {{{S}}1} . The dynamics of f and its stochastic perturbations have previously been studied under the so-called partial captivity condition. Here we prove a supplementary result that shows that partial captivity is a \\mathscr{C}r generic condition on τ, once we fix E.

  4. Focal palatine erosion in captive and free-living cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) and other felid species.

    PubMed

    Zordan, Martýn; Deem, Sharon L; Sanchez, Carlos R

    2012-01-01

    We examined 1,092 skulls of captive and free-living individuals, representing 33 felid species, to determine the prevalence of focal palatine erosion (FPE). FPE was detected in 3.2% of cats evaluated, including cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and 14 other felid species. The prevalence of FPE between cheetah (9.4%; n = 64) and non-cheetah species (2.8%; n = 1,028) (χ(2) test; P = 0.004) and between captive (5.7%; n = 246) and free-living (2.4%; n = 824) individuals (χ(2) test; P = 0.010) were significantly different, with prevalence between captive (19%; n = 21) and free-living (2.9%; n = 34) cheetahs approaching significance (Fisher's exact test; P = 0.064). FPE was diagnosed with equal prevalence in skulls from individuals in which the lower molars did not meet the palatine bone (60.6%) and individuals in which it did (39.4%; n = 33) (χ(2) test; P = 0.139). In cheetahs with FPE, one was a captive animal in Germany, one a free-living cheetah from Mali, one captive cheetah from Kenya, and three captive cheetahs of unknown origin. Additionally, we evaluated the medical records of 49 captive cheetahs in Namibia. Of these cheetahs, 48 (98.0%) had clinical signs consistent with FPE, although only 16 of these 48 (39.6%) had perforation of the palatine bone. Based on physical examinations, FPE was diagnosed in two caracals (Caracal caracal) and one fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) from a North American Zoo. Results from this study confirm FPE in cheetahs outside of Namibia, in a minimum of 15 felid species, and a higher FPE prevalence in captive individuals than free-living ones. Clinical implications of these findings and recommendations for future studies are provided.

  5. Microbiological evaluation of different strategies for management of snakes in captivity.

    PubMed

    Campagner, M V; Bosco, S M G; Bagagli, E; Cunha, M L R S; Jeronimo, B C; Saad, E; Biscola, N P; Ferreira, R S; Barraviera, B

    2012-01-01

    Keeping snakes in captivity to produce venom for scientific research and production of inputs is now a worldwide practice. Maintaining snakes in captivity involves capture, infrastructure investments, management techniques, and appropriate qualified personnel. Further, the success of the project requires knowledge of habitat, nutrition, and reproduction, and control of opportunistic infections. This study evaluated the management of snakes in three types of captivity (quarantine, intensive, and semiextensive) and diagnosed bacterial and fungal contaminants. A bacteriological profile was obtained by swabbing the oral and cloacal cavities, scales, and venoms of healthy adult snakes from Bothrops jararaca (Bj) and Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt). There was predominance of Enterobacteriaceae, especially non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli excluding Pseudomonas spp and Gram- positive bacteria. Statistically, intensive captivity resulted in the highest number of bacterial isolates, followed by recent capture (quarantine) and by semiextensive captivity. No statistical difference was found between Bj and Cdt bacterial frequency. In vitro bacterial susceptibility testing found the highest resistance against the semisynthetic penicillins (amoxicillin and ampicillin) and highest sensitivity to amicacin and tobramycin aminoglycosides. To evaluate mycological profile of snakes from intensive captivity, samples were obtained from two healthy Bj and one B. moojeni, one B. pauloensis, and one Cdt showing whitish lesions on the scales suggestive of ringworm. Using conventional methods and DNA-based molecular procedures, five samples of Trichosporon asahii were identified. Despite the traditional role of intense captivity in ophidian venom production, semiextensive captivity was more effective in the present study by virtue of presenting superior control of bacterial and fungal transmission, easier management, lowest cost, and decreased rate of mortality; therefore, it should be

  6. Captivity results in disparate loss of gut microbial diversity in closely related hosts.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Kevin D; Skopec, Michele M; Dearing, M Denise

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tracts of animals contain diverse communities of microbes that provide a number of services to their hosts. There is recent concern that these communities may be lost as animals enter captive breeding programmes, due to changes in diet and/or exposure to environmental sources. However, empirical evidence documenting the effects of captivity and captive birth on gut communities is lacking. We conducted three studies to advance our knowledge in this area. First, we compared changes in microbial diversity of the gut communities of two species of woodrats (Neotoma albigula, a dietary generalist, and Neotoma stephensi, which specializes on juniper) before and after 6-9 months in captivity. Second, we investigated whether reintroduction of the natural diet of N. stephensi could restore microbial diversity. Third, we compared the microbial communities between offspring born in captivity and their mothers. We found that the dietary specialist, N. stephensi, lost a greater proportion of its native gut microbiota and overall diversity in response to captivity compared with N. albigula. Addition of the natural diet increased the proportion of the original microbiota but did not restore overall diversity in N. stephensi. Offspring of N. albigula more closely resembled their mothers compared with offspring-mother pairs of N. stephensi. This research suggests that the microbiota of dietary specialists may be more susceptible to captivity. Furthermore, this work highlights the need for further studies investigating the mechanisms underlying how loss of microbial diversity may vary between hosts and what an acceptable level of diversity loss may be to a host. This knowledge will aid conservation biologists in designing captive breeding programmes effective at maintaining microbial diversity. Sequence Accession Numbers: NCBI's Sequence Read Archive (SRA) - SRP033616.

  7. Thyroid hormone concentrations in captive and free-ranging West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus).

    PubMed

    Ortiz, R M; MacKenzie, D S; Worthy, G A

    2000-12-01

    Because thyroid hormones play a critical role in the regulation of metabolism, the low metabolic rates reported for manatees suggest that thyroid hormone concentrations in these animals may also be reduced. However, thyroid hormone concentrations have yet to be examined in manatees. The effects of captivity, diet and water salinity on plasma total triiodothyronine (tT(3)), total thyroxine (tT(4)) and free thyroxine (fT(4)) concentrations were assessed in adult West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus). Free-ranging manatees exhibited significantly greater tT(4) and fT(4) concentrations than captive adults, regardless of diet, indicating that some aspect of a captive existence results in reduced T(4) concentrations. To determine whether this reduction might be related to feeding, captive adults fed on a mixed vegetable diet were switched to a strictly sea grass diet, resulting in decreased food consumption and a decrease in body mass. However, tT(4) and fT(4) concentrations were significantly elevated over initial values for 19 days. This may indicate that during periods of reduced food consumption manatees activate thyroid-hormone-promoted lipolysis to meet water and energetic requirements. Alterations in water salinity for captive animals did not induce significant changes in thyroid hormone concentrations. In spite of lower metabolic rates, thyroid hormone concentrations in captive manatees were comparable with those for other terrestrial and marine mammals, suggesting that the low metabolic rate in manatees is not attributable to reduced circulating thyroid hormone concentrations.

  8. Seroepidemiology of TmPV1 infection in captive and wild Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    PubMed

    Donà, Maria Gabriella; Rehtanz, Manuela; Adimey, Nicole M; Bossart, Gregory D; Jenson, Alfred B; Bonde, Robert K; Ghim, Shin-je

    2011-07-01

    In 1997, cutaneous papillomatosis caused by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris [Tm]) papillomavirus 1 (TmPV1) was detected in seven captive manatees at the Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park, Florida, USA, and, subsequently, in two wild manatees from the adjacent Homosassa River. Since then, papillomatosis has been reported in captive manatees housed in other locations, but not in wild animals. To determine TmPV1 antibody prevalence in captive and wild manatees sampled at various locations throughout Florida coastal regions, virus-like particles, composed of the L1 capsid protein of TmPV1, were generated with a baculovirus expression system and used to measure anti-TmPV1 antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serologic analysis of 156 manatees revealed a TmPV1 antibody prevalence of 26.3%, with no significant difference between captive (n=39) and wild (n=117) manatees (28.2% and 25.6%, respectively). No antibody-positive wild animal showed PV-induced cutaneous lesions, whereas papillomatosis was observed in 72.7% of antibody-positive captive manatees. Our data indicate that Florida manatees living in the wild are naturally infected by TmPV1 but rarely show TmPV1-induced papillomatosis. Hence, it appears that the wild population would not be harmed in a case of contact with captive animals without visible lesions and productive infections, which could be thus released into the wild.

  9. Seroepidemiology of TmPV1 infection in captive and wild Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dona, Maria Gabriella; Rehtanz, Manuela; Adimey, Nicole M.; Bossart, Gregory D.; Jenson, Alfred B.; Bonde, Robert K.; Ghim, Shin-je

    2011-01-01

    In 1997, cutaneous papillomatosis caused by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris [Tm]) papillomavirus 1 (TmPV1) was detected in seven captive manatees at the Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park, Florida, USA, and, subsequently, in two wild manatees from the adjacent Homosassa River. Since then, papillomatosis has been reported in captive manatees housed in other locations, but not in wild animals. To determine TmPV1 antibody prevalence in captive and wild manatees sampled at various locations throughout Florida coastal regions, virus-like particles, composed of the L1 capsid protein of TmPV1, were generated with a baculovirus expression system and used to measure anti-TmPV1 antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serologic analysis of 156 manatees revealed a TmPV1 antibody prevalence of 26.3%, with no significant difference between captive (n=39) and wild (n=117) manatees (28.2% and 25.6%, respectively). No antibody-positive wild animal showed PV-induced cutaneous lesions, whereas papillomatosis was observed in 72.7% of antibody-positive captive manatees. Our data indicate that Florida manatees living in the wild are naturally infected by TmPV1 but rarely show TmPV1-induced papillomatosis. Hence, it appears that the wild population would not be harmed in a case of contact with captive animals without visible lesions and productive infections, which could be thus released into the wild.

  10. Discrepancies in the occurrence of Balantidium coli between wild and captive African great apes.

    PubMed

    Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Petrželková, Klára J; Profousová, Ilona; Petrášová, Jana; Modrý, David

    2010-12-01

    Balantidium coli is a ciliate reported in many mammalian species, including African great apes. In the former, asymptomatic infections as well as clinical balantidiasis have been reported in captivity. We carried out a cross-sectional study of B. coli in African great apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, and both species of gorillas) and examined 1,161 fecal samples from 28 captive facilities in Europe, plus 2 sanctuaries and 11 wild sites in Africa. Samples were analyzed with the use of Sheather's flotation and merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde (MIFC) sedimentation. MIFC sedimentation was the more sensitive technique for diagnostics of B. coli in apes. Although not detected in any wild-ape populations, B. coli was diagnosed in 52.6% of captive individuals. Surprisingly, in the apes' feces, trophozoites of B. coli were commonly detected, in contrast with other animals, e.g., Old World monkeys, pigs, etc. Most likely reservoirs for B. coli in captive apes include synantropic rats. High starch diets in captive apes are likely to exacerbate the occurrence of balantidiasis in captive apes.

  11. Effects of environmental complexity and temporary captivity on foraging behavior of wild-caught meadow voles.

    PubMed

    Kozuch, Amaranta E; McPhee, M Elsbeth

    2014-01-01

    Increased housing of wild nonhuman animals in captivity for conservation, research, and rehabilitation has revealed the importance of systematically analyzing effects of the captive environment on behavior. This study focused on the effects of complexity and time held in captivity on foraging behaviors of wild-caught, adult meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus). Forty-six individuals captured from a meadow outside Oshkosh, WI, were assigned to 1 of 4 captive treatment groups: simple/<50 days (SS), simple/>50 days, complex/<50 days, and complex/>50 days. Number of dish visits, proportion foraging, and frequency of nonforaging behaviors recorded during a 15-min foraging trial were measured for all subjects. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U Tests were conducted to analyze 4 different comparisons within this behavioral data. Overall, neither time in captivity or environmental complexity affected nonforaging behaviors. In contrast, foraging behaviors did change with treatment: Voles were less active at food dishes and visited control dishes more in treatment group SS than in the other treatment groups. In addition, sex-related differences in foraging behaviors were maintained when voles were exposed to environmental complexity. This article includes options for wildlife managers to adapt captive environments to meet the welfare and behavioral needs of translocated wild nonhuman mammals. PMID:24559285

  12. Seroepidemiology of TmPV1 infection in captive and wild Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    PubMed

    Donà, Maria Gabriella; Rehtanz, Manuela; Adimey, Nicole M; Bossart, Gregory D; Jenson, Alfred B; Bonde, Robert K; Ghim, Shin-je

    2011-07-01

    In 1997, cutaneous papillomatosis caused by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris [Tm]) papillomavirus 1 (TmPV1) was detected in seven captive manatees at the Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park, Florida, USA, and, subsequently, in two wild manatees from the adjacent Homosassa River. Since then, papillomatosis has been reported in captive manatees housed in other locations, but not in wild animals. To determine TmPV1 antibody prevalence in captive and wild manatees sampled at various locations throughout Florida coastal regions, virus-like particles, composed of the L1 capsid protein of TmPV1, were generated with a baculovirus expression system and used to measure anti-TmPV1 antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serologic analysis of 156 manatees revealed a TmPV1 antibody prevalence of 26.3%, with no significant difference between captive (n=39) and wild (n=117) manatees (28.2% and 25.6%, respectively). No antibody-positive wild animal showed PV-induced cutaneous lesions, whereas papillomatosis was observed in 72.7% of antibody-positive captive manatees. Our data indicate that Florida manatees living in the wild are naturally infected by TmPV1 but rarely show TmPV1-induced papillomatosis. Hence, it appears that the wild population would not be harmed in a case of contact with captive animals without visible lesions and productive infections, which could be thus released into the wild. PMID:21719832

  13. An investigation into the prevalence of exploratory behavior in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Quirke, Thomas; O'Riordan, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Exploratory behavior in the wild is fundamentally linked to an animal's survival and natural life history. The ability to gather information about their environment, establish territories, assert dominance, communicate information regarding reproductive status and locate mates are closely associated with a range of exploratory behaviors. Understanding how these behaviors are performed within the captive setting is crucial in order to create a captive environment in which these behaviors can be expressed, and their function conserved. The objective of this research was to highlight the factors of captive husbandry and management that influence the occurrence of exploratory behaviour of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in captivity. One hundred and twelve cheetahs in 88 enclosures across nine zoological institutions in five countries were the subjects of this study. The presence of raised areas, number of movements between enclosures, group composition, sex and an interaction between group composition and the ability to view cheetahs in adjacent enclosures, all significantly influenced the prevalence of exploratory behavior in captive cheetahs. The presence of raised areas and an increasing number of movements between enclosures significantly increased the probability of observing exploratory behaviour, while this probability was significantly decreased for female cheetahs, when cheetahs were able to view conspecifics in adjacent enclosures, and were maintained in groups. A number of recommendations are discussed in relation to promoting exploratory behavior in captive cheetahs.

  14. Captive coyotes compared to their counterparts in the wild: does environmental enrichment help?

    PubMed

    Shivik, John A; Palmer, Gemma L; Gese, Eric M; Osthaus, Britta

    2009-01-01

    This article attempts to determine the effects of environment (captive or wild) and a simple form of environmental enrichment on the behavior and physiology of a nonhuman animal. Specifically, analyses first compared behavioral budgets and stereotypic behavior of captive coyotes (Canis latrans) in kennels and pens to their counterparts in the wild. Second, experiments examined the effect of a simple form of environmental enrichment for captive coyotes (food-filled bones) on behavioral budgets, stereotypies, and corticosteroid levels. Overall, behavioral budgets of captive coyotes in both kennels and pens were similar to those observed in the wild, but coyotes in captivity exhibited significantly more stereotypic behavior. Intermittently providing a bone generally lowered resting and increased foraging behaviors but did not significantly reduce stereotypic behavior or alter corticosteroid levels. Thus, coyote behavior in captivity can be similar to that exhibited in the wild; in addition, although enrichment can affect proportions of elicited behaviors, abnormal behaviors and corticosteroid levels may require more than a simple form of environmental enrichment for their reduction. PMID:20183476

  15. Antibody response to rabies vaccination in captive and freeranging wolves (Canis lupus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Federoff, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    Fourteen captive and five free-ranging Minnesota gray wolves (Canis lupus) were tested for the presence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) after vaccination with an inactivated canine rabies vaccine. Blood was collected from all wolves prior to vaccination and at 1 mo postvaccination (PV) and from all captive and three wild wolves at 3 mo PV. In addition, one free-ranging wolf was sampled at 4 mo PV, and two free-ranging wolves were sampled at 6 mo PV. All wolves were seronegative prior to vaccination. RVNA were detected in 14 (100%) captive wolves and in four of five (80%) free-ranging wolves. The geometric mean titer of the captive wolves at 1 mo PV was significantly higher (P = 0.023) than in the free-ranging wolves. Five of 13 (38.5%) captive wolves and none of the three (0%) free-ranging wolves had measurable RVNA at 3 mo PV. No measurable RVNA were detected in the serum samples collected from the free-ranging wolves at 4 and 6 mo PV. These results should be interpreted with caution because of the small number of free-ranging wolves tested. Further research is needed to properly assess immune function and antibody response to vaccination in captive wolves in comparison with their free-ranging counterparts.

  16. An Assessment of the Status of Captive Broodstock Technology of Pacific Salmon, 1995 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Flagg, Thomas A.; Mahnaken, Conrad V.W.; Hard, Jeffrey J.

    1995-06-01

    This report provides guidance for the refinement and use of captive broodstock technology for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) by bringing together information on the husbandry techniques, genetic risks, physiology, nutrition, and pathology affecting captive broodstocks. Captive broodstock rearing of Pacific salmon is an evolving technology, as yet without well defined standards. At present, we regard captive rearing of Pacific salmon as problematic: high mortality rates and low egg viability were common in the programs we reviewed for this report. One of the most important elements in fish husbandry is the culture environment itself. Many captive broodstock programs for Pacific salmon have reared fish from smolt-to-adult in seawater net-pens, and most have shown success in providing gametes for recovery efforts. However, some programs have lost entire brood years to diseases that transmitted rapidly in this medium. Current programs for endangered species of Pacific salmon rear most fish full-term to maturity in fresh well-water, since ground water is low in pathogens and thus helps ensure survival to adulthood. Our review suggested that captive rearing of fish in either freshwater, well-water, or filtered and sterilized seawater supplied to land-based tanks should produce higher survival than culture in seawater net-pens.

  17. The survival of platypus in captivity: a reappraisal with recommendations for veterinary management and future research.

    PubMed

    Serena, M; Williams, G A

    1993-02-01

    Data are presented on the duration of survival of platypus held in the collections of the 5 Australian zoos displaying the species over the period 1987-1991. Of 10 living platypus, five had survived for 7 or more years. Similarly, of 10 captive animals that died during the period, six had survived for 6 or more years. Five purpose-caught animals were integrated into captive collections over the period; all of these were alive at the end of 1991. The high survival of captive platypus documented in this study contrasts with the conclusion of Whittington (1991) that the duration of survival of platypus in captivity is generally short. This primarily reflects differences in the nature of the two sets of data: Whittington's analysis was based on incomplete records dating back to 1934, and also categorised as 'managed in captivity' those wild platypus that died at zoos while under veterinary care. A series of recommendations on current captive management issues includes the need for improved veterinary knowledge of platypus.

  18. Discrepancies in the occurrence of Balantidium coli between wild and captive African great apes.

    PubMed

    Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Petrželková, Klára J; Profousová, Ilona; Petrášová, Jana; Modrý, David

    2010-12-01

    Balantidium coli is a ciliate reported in many mammalian species, including African great apes. In the former, asymptomatic infections as well as clinical balantidiasis have been reported in captivity. We carried out a cross-sectional study of B. coli in African great apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, and both species of gorillas) and examined 1,161 fecal samples from 28 captive facilities in Europe, plus 2 sanctuaries and 11 wild sites in Africa. Samples were analyzed with the use of Sheather's flotation and merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde (MIFC) sedimentation. MIFC sedimentation was the more sensitive technique for diagnostics of B. coli in apes. Although not detected in any wild-ape populations, B. coli was diagnosed in 52.6% of captive individuals. Surprisingly, in the apes' feces, trophozoites of B. coli were commonly detected, in contrast with other animals, e.g., Old World monkeys, pigs, etc. Most likely reservoirs for B. coli in captive apes include synantropic rats. High starch diets in captive apes are likely to exacerbate the occurrence of balantidiasis in captive apes. PMID:21158624

  19. Captive coyotes compared to their counterparts in the wild: does environmental enrichment help?

    PubMed

    Shivik, John A; Palmer, Gemma L; Gese, Eric M; Osthaus, Britta

    2009-01-01

    This article attempts to determine the effects of environment (captive or wild) and a simple form of environmental enrichment on the behavior and physiology of a nonhuman animal. Specifically, analyses first compared behavioral budgets and stereotypic behavior of captive coyotes (Canis latrans) in kennels and pens to their counterparts in the wild. Second, experiments examined the effect of a simple form of environmental enrichment for captive coyotes (food-filled bones) on behavioral budgets, stereotypies, and corticosteroid levels. Overall, behavioral budgets of captive coyotes in both kennels and pens were similar to those observed in the wild, but coyotes in captivity exhibited significantly more stereotypic behavior. Intermittently providing a bone generally lowered resting and increased foraging behaviors but did not significantly reduce stereotypic behavior or alter corticosteroid levels. Thus, coyote behavior in captivity can be similar to that exhibited in the wild; in addition, although enrichment can affect proportions of elicited behaviors, abnormal behaviors and corticosteroid levels may require more than a simple form of environmental enrichment for their reduction.

  20. Effects of environmental complexity and temporary captivity on foraging behavior of wild-caught meadow voles.

    PubMed

    Kozuch, Amaranta E; McPhee, M Elsbeth

    2014-01-01

    Increased housing of wild nonhuman animals in captivity for conservation, research, and rehabilitation has revealed the importance of systematically analyzing effects of the captive environment on behavior. This study focused on the effects of complexity and time held in captivity on foraging behaviors of wild-caught, adult meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus). Forty-six individuals captured from a meadow outside Oshkosh, WI, were assigned to 1 of 4 captive treatment groups: simple/<50 days (SS), simple/>50 days, complex/<50 days, and complex/>50 days. Number of dish visits, proportion foraging, and frequency of nonforaging behaviors recorded during a 15-min foraging trial were measured for all subjects. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U Tests were conducted to analyze 4 different comparisons within this behavioral data. Overall, neither time in captivity or environmental complexity affected nonforaging behaviors. In contrast, foraging behaviors did change with treatment: Voles were less active at food dishes and visited control dishes more in treatment group SS than in the other treatment groups. In addition, sex-related differences in foraging behaviors were maintained when voles were exposed to environmental complexity. This article includes options for wildlife managers to adapt captive environments to meet the welfare and behavioral needs of translocated wild nonhuman mammals.