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Sample records for argentine hake merluccius

  1. Feeding strategy and cannibalism of the Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi.

    PubMed

    Ocampo Reinaldo, M; González, R; Romero, M A

    2011-12-01

    The diet composition and feeding strategy of the Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi in the San Matías Gulf were analysed in order to use this information for the sustainable management of the fishery. Merluccius hubbsi behaved as an opportunistic predator. Small M. hubbsi consumed planktonic crustaceans, whereas medium and large fish ate numerous prey taxa with low frequency of occurrence and variable specific abundance. Intra- and intercohort cannibalism were detected in all size groups and were particularly significant in large M. hubbsi. Medium-sized M. hubbsi consumed small conspecifics and large-sized M. hubbsi consumed both small and medium M. hubbsi. These results indicate that the removal of large M. hubbsi by fishing may increase the risk of overfishing by two combined effects: a direct effect of recruitment-overfishing and an indirect effect of growth-overfishing through an enhanced cannibalism of medium M. hubbsi on small M. hubbsi. Intra- and intercohort cannibalism and other trophic relationships in the M. hubbsi should therefore be considered explicitly in stock assessment models.

  2. Comparative study of spawning pattern and reproductive potential of the Northern and Southern stocks of Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Karina A.; Macchi, Gustavo J.; Militelli, Maria I.

    2015-08-01

    The reproductive biology of the Northern (Bonaerense) and Southern (Patagonian) stocks of Merluccius hubbsi in the Argentinean Sea is analyzed, including information on spawning areas, estimates of abundance and size composition of spawning females, fecundity, spawning frequency and egg quality. Samples of Argentine hake were obtained during the period of peak reproductive activity; May and January for the Northern and Southern stocks, respectively. The size of the reproductive area for the Northern stock (35-38°S) was clearly smaller than the one estimated for the Southern population (43°30‧-46°S), being 23,770 km2 and 52,460 km2 respectively. Spawning females from the Northern reproductive area were smaller (modal values between 35 and 40 cm TL) than those from the Southern stock (modal values between 38 and 50 cm TL), and they were also less abundant in number and had a lower spawning frequency (8-13 days and 5-7 days between partial spawning for the Northern and Southern stocks respectively). No differences in batch and relative fecundity between stocks were recorded (mean values of 526 and 530 hydrated oocytes g- 1), but the dry weights of hydrated oocytes from females of the Northern group were higher (3.08 mg for 100 hydrated oocytes) than those of the Patagonian stock (2.84 mg) for the same total length range. The egg production during the month of peak spawning of the Northern group depended mostly on the smaller females (< 50 cm TL) and was in average 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower than that estimated for the Southern stock (9 × 1012-22 × 1012 eggs and 692 × 1012-1295 × 1012 eggs for the Northern and Southern stocks respectively). Those differences in egg production and the high productivity and retentive characteristics described for the spawning area and nursery ground in Patagonian waters would justify the greater abundance and resilience of the Southern stock of Argentine hake. The low abundance of females in spawning capable stage observed

  3. Myxozoans as biological tags for stock identification of the Argentine hake, Merluccius hubbsi (Gadiformes: Merlucciidae).

    PubMed

    Cantatore, D M P; Irigoitia, M M; Holzer, A S; Timi, J T

    2016-05-01

    Myxozoans have been successfully used as tags for fish stock identification around the world. However, few studies using myxozoan tags have been carried out in the Southern Atlantic, a region with complex oceanography that constitutes a potentially suitable scenario for testing the utility of myxozoans as indicators. Its usefulness was tested using six samples of Merluccius hubbsi in two different regions of the Argentine Sea. Generalized linear models were performed to assess the effects of fish size and sex, and year and region of capture and selected using the Information Theoretic approach. Three myxozoan species were recorded: Kudoa rosenbuschi, Myxoproteus meridionalis and Fabespora sp. Results of modelling species individually showed differential capabilities for detecting geographical population structure at different spatial scales, with K. rosenbuschi and Fabespora sp. allowing the discrimination of northern and southern stocks, but Fabespora sp. also as a promissory indicator of intrapopulation sub-structure due to different migratory routes during non-reproductive periods. This work confirms that myxozoans offer a set of suitable markers at different spatial scales, which can be selected individually or in any combination, depending on the geographical extent of the study, constituting tools adaptable to the objectives of further research on fish population structure.

  4. Spatial patterns of copepod biodiversity in relation to a tidal front system in the main spawning and nursery area of the Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temperoni, B.; Viñas, M. D.; Martos, P.; Marrari, M.

    2014-11-01

    Copepods play an important role in marine ecosystems as a direct link of energy transfer between primary producers and higher trophic level consumers, such as fish. In the Argentine Sea, the Patagonian stock of Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi spawns from late austral spring (December) to early autumn (April) in the northern Patagonian shelf region (43°-45°30‧S), in association with a highly productive tidal front system. Since hake larvae prey mainly upon copepods, the objective of this study was to assess the spatial variability in the abundance and diversity of these potential food items in different sectors of the front, as one of the possible factors affecting hake recruitment success. Two complementary mesh sizes (67 and 300 μm) were used to accurately target the entire copepod size spectrum. The copepod community was dominated by developmental stages < 1 mm in total length (eggs, nauplii, copepodites of cyclopoids and calanoids), and adults of the species Oithona helgolandica, Microsetella norvegica, Ctenocalanus vanus and Drepanopus forcipatus. Their spatial distribution was highly influenced by the across-shelf characteristics of the tidal front system, highlighting the impact of environmental features, mainly bottom temperature and salinity, in shaping the community. Abundances were higher in the transitional relative to the stratified sector of the system. Such sector would provide the appropriate conditions to sustain M. hubbsi larval growth resulting from high availability of adequate prey, the suitable thermal ranges, and the existence of retention mechanisms.

  5. New tools (DNA barcoding), old hypothesis: the case of the taxonomic identity of the Argentine hakes (Actinopterygii: Merluccius).

    PubMed

    Deli Antoni, M Y; González-Castro, M; Díaz de Astarloa, J M

    2015-09-01

    The present study evaluated the possible occurrence of cryptic species among Merluccidae from Argentina by examining sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (coI) mtDNA. This approach can discriminate Merluccius hubbsi and Merluccius australis; specimens with morphological diagnostic characters of Merluccius patagonicus formed a cohesive cluster with M. hubbsi specimens. BIN analysis confirmed the effectiveness of barcoding within a global context.

  6. Fine spatial structure of Atlantic hake (Merluccius merluccius) stocks revealed by variation at microsatellite loci.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Ana G F; Martinez, Jose L; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2004-01-01

    Genetic variation at 5 microsatellite loci was analyzed for European hake Merluccius merluccius sampled from 9 different regions in the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Significant genetic differentiation was found between samples, suggesting a fine subdivision of Atlantic and Mediterranean hake stocks. These results are discussed in the context of the decline of demersal fish species, probably due to overfishing.

  7. Identification of European Hake species (Merluccius merluccius) using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, A; Quinteiro, J; Rey-Mendez, M; Perez-Martín, R I; Sotelo, C G

    2009-05-13

    A rapid and precise method for identifying European hake (Merluccius merluccius) based on TaqMan technology is presented. The method can be applied to fresh, frozen, and processed fish products to detect the fraudulent or unintentional mislabeling of this species. Specific primers and a minor groove binding (MGB) TaqMan probe were designed for this purpose based on partial sequences of the mitochondrial DNA control region. Combinations of primers and probe concentrations that gave the lowest Ct value and the highest final fluorescence value were selected to carry out efficiency, specificity, and cross-reactivity assays. The method was successfully tested on 31 commercial hake samples. A Ct value of about 16 was obtained when Merluccius merluccius was present; however, the fluorescence signal was not detected most of the time (Ct value 40) or presented significantly higher Ct values (38.2 +/- 0.96) for the nonhake species.

  8. A dynamic and mechanistic model of PCB bioaccumulation in the European hake ( Merluccius merluccius)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodiguel, Xavier; Maury, Olivier; Mellon-Duval, Capucine; Roupsard, François; Le Guellec, Anne-Marie; Loizeau, Véronique

    2009-08-01

    Bioaccumulation is difficult to document because responses differ among chemical compounds, with environmental conditions, and physiological processes characteristic of each species. We use a mechanistic model, based on the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory, to take into account this complexity and study factors impacting accumulation of organic pollutants in fish through ontogeny. The bioaccumulation model proposed is a comprehensive approach that relates evolution of hake PCB contamination to physiological information about the fish, such as diet, metabolism, reserve and reproduction status. The species studied is the European hake ( Merluccius merluccius, L. 1758). The model is applied to study the total concentration and the lipid normalised concentration of 4 PCB congeners in male and female hakes from the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean sea) and the Bay of Biscay (NE Atlantic ocean). Outputs of the model compare consistently to measurements over the life span of fish. Simulation results clearly demonstrate the relative effects of food contamination, growth and reproduction on the PCB bioaccumulation in hake. The same species living in different habitats and exposed to different PCB prey concentrations exhibit marked difference in the body accumulation of PCBs. At the adult stage, female hakes have a lower PCB concentration compared to males for a given length. We successfully simulated these sex-specific PCB concentrations by considering two mechanisms: a higher energy allocation to growth for females and a transfer of PCBs from the female to its eggs when allocating lipids from reserve to eggs. Finally, by its mechanistic description of physiological processes, the model is relevant for other species and sets the stage for a mechanistic understanding of toxicity and ecological effects of organic contaminants in marine organisms.

  9. Genetic structure and environmental heterogeneity in the European hake (Merluccius merluccius).

    PubMed

    Cimmaruta, R; Bondanelli, P; Nascetti, G

    2005-07-01

    This study aimed at assessing the genetic structure and the state of the stocks of the European hake (Merluccius merluccius). To this end, 15 samples were taken from the whole range of the species and analysed using allozymes. Since 11 samples were taken from the poorly studied Mediterranean Sea, the results obtained provided a complete picture of the hake's genetic structure and an initial insight into its relationships with environmental features. Atlantic and Mediterranean hake populations are separated by the Almeria-Oran front. This area has been proved to be the boundary between Atlantic and Mediterranean stocks of many marine organisms, but some doubt exists concerning the efficaciousness of the local gyres as barriers to the gene flow. Our data have evidenced a latitudinal cline at loci Gapdh and Gpi-2 within the Mediterranean Sea, with a further steep change across the Almeria-Oran front. The genetic pattern showed a strong correlation with the values of the salinity both at the surface and at -320 m and of the salinity + temperature at the surface, suggesting a role for these parameters in maintaining the genetic differentiation among the two population groups through selective processes. Finally, the levels of genetic variability were found to be slightly lower in the depleted Atlantic stock than in the Mediterranean one.

  10. Gonadotropin characterization, localization and expression in the European hake (Merluccius merluccius).

    PubMed

    Candelma, Michela; Fontaine, Romain; Colella, Sabrina; Santojanni, Alberto; Weltzien, Finn-Arne; Carnevali, Oliana

    2017-02-01

    In vertebrates, the regulation of gametogenesis is under the control of gonadotropins (Gth), follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) and luteinizing hormone (Lh). In fish, the physiological role of Gths is not fully understood, especially in species with asynchronous ovarian development. To elucidate the role of Gths in species with asynchronous ovary, we studied European hake (Merluccius merluccius) during the reproductive season. For this aim, we first cloned and sequenced both hormones. Then, we characterized their amino acid sequence and performed phylogenetic analyses to verify the relationship to their orthologues in other species. In addition, the quantification of gene expression during their natural reproductive season was analyzed in wild-caught female hake. Our results revealed that fshb peaked during the vitellogenic phase, remaining high until spawning. This is in contrast to the situation in species with synchronous ovary. lhb, on the other hand, peaked during maturation as it is also common in species with synchronous ovarian development. Finally, combining double-labeling fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for Gth mRNAs with immunofluorescence for Lh protein, we evidenced the specific expression of fshb and lhb in different cells within the proximal pars distalis (PPD) of the pituitary. In addition to gonadotrope cells specific to expression of either fshb or lhb, some cells showed co-expression of both genes. This suggests either that gonadotropes with co-expression are not yet specified or they could have a plasticity that permits changes from one cell phenotype to another during certain life stages and in turn during different physiological states.

  11. Effect of Intestinal Tapeworm Clestobothrium crassiceps on Concentrations of Toxic Elements and Selenium in European Hake Merluccius merluccius from the Gulf of Lion (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Torres, Jordi; Eira, Catarina; Miquel, Jordi; Ferrer-Maza, Dolors; Delgado, Eulàlia; Casadevall, Margarida

    2015-10-28

    The capacity for heavy metal bioaccumulation by some fish parasites has been demonstrated, and their contribution to decreasing metal concentrations in tissues of parasitized fish has been hypothesized. The present study evaluated the effect of the cestode Clestobothrium crassiceps on the accumulation of trace elements in 30 European hake, Merluccius merluccius, in Spain (half of them infested by C. crassiceps). Tissue samples from all M. merluccius and specimens of C. crassiceps from the infected hakes were collected and stored until element analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic, mercury, and selenium were generally present in lower levels in the cestode than in all hake tissues. The mean value of the muscular Se:Hg molar ratio in the infested subsample was higher than that in hakes without cestodes. Values indicate that the edible part of infested hakes presents a lower amount of Cd and Pb in relation to noninfested hakes.

  12. Estimation of freezing storage time and quality changes in hake (Merluccius merluccius, L.) by low field NMR.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Alonso, Isabel; Martinez, Iciar; Sánchez-Valencia, Javier; Careche, Mercedes

    2012-12-01

    The potential of low field NMR (LF NMR) as a fast monitoring technique to estimate the quality of hake (Merluccius merluccius) frozen stored at -10°C for up to 6months was evaluated. LF NMR clearly detected three populations of water: water strongly bound to macromolecules (T(2b)), trapped water (T(21)) and free water (T(22)). As storage time increased, and concomitant with an increase in the T(22) and a decrease in the T(21) water populations, the water holding capacity (WHC) and apparent viscosity values decreased and the shear strength increased, reflecting the characteristic loss of juiciness and tougher texture developed by hake during frozen storage. Two mathematical models were constructed: a simple regression using the biexponential analysis of the relaxation times (T(21), T(22)) and amplitudes (A(21), A(22)) and a partial least square regression (PLS) of CONTIN analysis. Both models seemed suitable to estimate the quality of the product.

  13. First Record of Anisakis simplex Third-Stage Larvae (Nematoda, Anisakidae) in European Hake Merluccius merluccius lessepsianus in Egyptian Water

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Rahma, Yasmin; Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Kamal Ahmed, Amira

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of infection and the identification of anisakid larvae in European hake Merluccius merluccius lessepsianus from Hurghada City, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, were investigated. Fish samples were collected during the period of February and November 2014. Twenty-two (36.66%) out of sixty examined fish specimens were found to be naturally infected with Anisakis type I larvae mostly found as encapsulated larvae in visceral organs. There was a positive relationship between host length/weight and prevalence of infection. Based on morphological, morphometric, and molecular analyses, these nematodes were identified as third-stage larvae of Anisakis simplex. The present study was considered as the first report of anisakid larvae from European hake in the Egyptian water. PMID:26925257

  14. Diel vertical migration of European hake Merluccius merluccius and associated temperature histories: insights from a pilot data-storage tagging (DST) experiment.

    PubMed

    De Pontual, H; Jolivet, A; Bertignac, M; Fablet, R

    2012-07-01

    A pioneering experiment of archival tagging of European hake Merluccius merluccius provided evidence of a diel vertical migration pattern which was analysed using an automatic method, developed and validated through time-frequency analyses. Frequent vertical movements across the thermocline were observed and fish experienced rapid temperature changes >7° C. These tagging-recapture data also suggested a homing behaviour to feeding grounds.

  15. Modeling real-time PCR kinetics: Richards reparametrized equation for quantitative estimation of European hake (Merluccius merluccius).

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Ana; Vázquez, José A; Quinteiro, Javier; Sotelo, Carmen G

    2013-04-10

    Real-time PCR is the most sensitive method for detection and precise quantification of specific DNA sequences, but it is not usually applied as a quantitative method in seafood. In general, benchmark techniques, mainly cycle threshold (Ct), are the routine method for quantitative estimations, but they are not the most precise approaches for a standard assay. In the present work, amplification data from European hake (Merluccius merluccius) DNA samples were accurately modeled by three sigmoid reparametrized equations, where the lag phase parameter (λc) from the Richards equation with four parameters was demonstrated to be the perfect substitute for Ct for PCR quantification. The concentrations of primers and probes were subsequently optimized by means of that selected kinetic parameter. Finally, the linear correlation among DNA concentration and λc was also confirmed.

  16. Evaluating the resolution power of new microsatellites for species identification and stock delimitation in the Cape hakes Merluccius paradoxus and Merluccius capensis (Teleostei: Merlucciidae).

    PubMed

    Hoareau, T B; Klopper, A W; Dos Santos, S M R; Oosthuizen, C J; Bloomer, P

    2015-05-01

    The utility of 15 new and 17 previously published microsatellite markers was evaluated for species identification and stock delimitation in the deep-water hake Merluccius paradoxus and the shallow-water hake Merluccius capensis. A total of 14 microsatellites were polymorphic in M. paradoxus and 10 in M. capensis. Two markers could individually discriminate the species using Bayesian clustering methods and a statistical power analysis showed that the set of markers for each species is likely to detect subtle genetic differentiation (FST < 0·006) that will be valuable to delimit and characterize genetic stocks.

  17. Structural and biochemical characterization and evolutionary relationships of the fatty acid-binding protein 10 (Fabp10) of hake (Merluccius hubbsi).

    PubMed

    Crovetto, Cecilia Alejandra; Córdoba, Osvaldo León

    2016-02-01

    A fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) from the liver of Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi) was isolated and characterized and its expression analyzed. The determination of its partial primary structures (72%) showed that it presents highest identity with Fabp10, commonly termed liver basic-type FABP. The evolutionary tree showed greater relationship between the Fabp10 of hake (Me Fabp10) and the Fabp10 and the Fabp10a of teleost fish. Me Fabp10 had low affinity for palmitic, oleic and palmitoleic acid and high affinity for bilirubin, lysophosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylethanolamine, all of them important in the metabolic functions of the liver. Me Fabp10 was able to bind only one cis-parinaric acid molecule and was found to be expressed only in the liver.

  18. Morphological, morphometric, meristic and osteological evidence for two species of hake (Actinopterygii: Gadiformes: Merluccius) in Argentinean waters.

    PubMed

    Díaz de Astarloa, J M; Bezzi, S I; González Castro, M; Mabragaña, E; Hernández, D; Delpiani, S M; Figueroa, D E; Cousseau, M B; Deli Antoni, M Y; Tringali, L

    2011-05-01

    Morphologically, both classic and landmark-based morphometry and meristic analyses of 241 specimens of Merluccius, along with the re-examination of six paratype specimens of Merluccius hubbsi, the holotype and three paratypes of Merluccius patagonicus and the syntype of Merluccius australis revealed the presence of only two species of Merluccius in Argentinean waters. Internal structures (hyomandibula, urohyal and sagitta otolith) of M. hubbsi were compared to those reported for M. patagonicus and were shown to have identical morphology. Type specimens of M. patagonicus showed a complete overlap in morphometric and meristic characters with M. hubbsi, whereas M. australis had a greater number of second dorsal and anal-fin rays, and more lateral-line scales. In addition, M. australis had a smaller eye and longer snout than M. hubbsi and M. patagonicus. The results indicate that there is no evidence for a third hake species in Argentinean waters. Merluccius patagonicus is a synonym of M. hubbsi.

  19. Molecular cloning and measurement of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) transcription patterns in tissues of European hake (Merluccius merluccius) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) during aging.

    PubMed

    López de Abechuco, E; Bilbao, E; Soto, M; Díez, G

    2014-05-10

    Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase ribonucleoprotein that maintains the ends of linear chromosomes. This enzyme plays a major role in cell processes like proliferation, differentiation and tumorigenesis, being associated with aging and survival of species. In this study, the gene coding for TERT (Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase) of two commercial fish species, European hake (Merluccius merluccius) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), has been partially cloned. A fragment of 1581bp (hake) and 633bp (cod) showed high homology (identity 74%, query cover 99%, E-value=0) with known Perciformes TERT sequences. TERT transcription patterns were assessed by qRT-PCR in different tissues of hake (brain, ovary, testis, muscle, skin, gills, liver and kidney) and cod (brain, muscle and skin) of different sizes/ages in order to understand its role in the physiological aging of teleosts. TERT was found to be ubiquitously transcribed in all tissues and size/age groups studied in both species. Significantly higher relative transcription levels (p<0.05) were found with increasing size/age of M. merluccius in the kidney, muscle, skin and gonad, the latter exhibiting particularly high relative transcription levels. Male hakes showed higher TERT relative transcription levels in the brain, gonad and liver than females, although these differences were not statistically significant (p<0.05). In G. morhua, higher TERT relative transcription levels were recorded in the muscle and brain of fry and juvenile individuals. Therefore, TERT relative transcription pattern exhibited a higher telomerase demand in early developmental stages and also in mature stages, suggesting tissue renewal or regeneration processes as a conserved mechanism for maintaining long-term cell proliferation capacity and preventing senescence. Thus, it can be concluded that TERT relative transcription level was species and tissue specific and changed with the age of fishes.

  20. Molecular Cytogenetic Analysis of the European Hake Merluccius merluccius (Merlucciidae, Gadiformes): U1 and U2 snRNA Gene Clusters Map to the Same Location.

    PubMed

    García-Souto, Daniel; Troncoso, Tomás; Pérez, Montse; Pasantes, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    The European hake (Merluccius merluccius) is a highly valuable and intensely fished species in which a long-term alive stock has been established in captivity for aquaculture purposes. Due to their huge economic importance, genetic studies on hakes were mostly focused on phylogenetic and phylogeographic aspects; however chromosome numbers are still not described for any of the fifteen species in the genus Merluccius. In this work we report a chromosome number of 2n = 42 and a karyotype composed of three meta/submetacentric and 18 subtelo/telocentric chromosome pairs. Telomeric sequences appear exclusively at both ends of every single chromosome. Concerning rRNA genes, this species show a single 45S rDNA cluster at an intercalary location on the long arm of subtelocentric chromosome pair 12; the single 5S rDNA cluster is also intercalary to the long arm of chromosome pair 4. While U2 snRNA gene clusters map to a single subcentromeric position on chromosome pair 13, U1 snRNA gene clusters seem to appear on almost all chromosome pairs, but showing bigger clusters on pairs 5, 13, 16, 17 and 19. The brightest signals on pair 13 are coincident with the single U2 snRNA gene cluster signals. Therefore, the use of these probes allows the unequivocal identification of at least 7 of the chromosome pairs that compose the karyotype of Merluccius merluccius thus opening the way to integrate molecular genetics and cytological data on the study of the genome of this important species.

  1. Molecular Cytogenetic Analysis of the European Hake Merluccius merluccius (Merlucciidae, Gadiformes): U1 and U2 snRNA Gene Clusters Map to the Same Location

    PubMed Central

    García-Souto, Daniel; Troncoso, Tomás; Pérez, Montse; Pasantes, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    The European hake (Merluccius merluccius) is a highly valuable and intensely fished species in which a long-term alive stock has been established in captivity for aquaculture purposes. Due to their huge economic importance, genetic studies on hakes were mostly focused on phylogenetic and phylogeographic aspects; however chromosome numbers are still not described for any of the fifteen species in the genus Merluccius. In this work we report a chromosome number of 2n = 42 and a karyotype composed of three meta/submetacentric and 18 subtelo/telocentric chromosome pairs. Telomeric sequences appear exclusively at both ends of every single chromosome. Concerning rRNA genes, this species show a single 45S rDNA cluster at an intercalary location on the long arm of subtelocentric chromosome pair 12; the single 5S rDNA cluster is also intercalary to the long arm of chromosome pair 4. While U2 snRNA gene clusters map to a single subcentromeric position on chromosome pair 13, U1 snRNA gene clusters seem to appear on almost all chromosome pairs, but showing bigger clusters on pairs 5, 13, 16, 17 and 19. The brightest signals on pair 13 are coincident with the single U2 snRNA gene cluster signals. Therefore, the use of these probes allows the unequivocal identification of at least 7 of the chromosome pairs that compose the karyotype of Merluccius merluccius thus opening the way to integrate molecular genetics and cytological data on the study of the genome of this important species. PMID:26716701

  2. Nursery areas of red mullet ( Mullus barbatus), hake ( Merluccius merluccius) and deep-water rose shrimp ( Parapenaeus longirostris) in the Eastern-Central Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlucci, Roberto; Giuseppe, Lembo; Porzia, Maiorano; Francesca, Capezzuto; Alessandra, Marano Chiara; Letizia, Sion; Teresa, Spedicato Maria; Nicola, Ungaro; Angelo, Tursi; D'Onghia, Gianfranco

    2009-08-01

    The spatial pattern of the nursery areas of red mullet ( Mullus barbatus), hake ( Merluccius merluccius) (Linnaeus, 1758) and deep-water rose shrimp ( Parapenaeus longirostris) (Lucas, 1846) was studied in the South Adriatic and North Ionian Seas (Eastern-Central Mediterranean) applying geostatistical techniques and data from time series trawl surveys conducted in the area. The analysed variables were: R (number of recruits/km 2) and R/Tot (fraction of recruits on the total sampled population). The structural analysis showed a spatial pattern of both variables characterized by continuity on a small scale. Predictions of nursery area localization with probability of finding recruits at different threshold values were obtained through median indicator kriging. For the red mullet the nurseries were mainly identified in the South Adriatic Sea off the Gargano peninsula and between Molfetta and Monopoli within 50 m in depth. The main concentration of hake juveniles was found to be between 100 and 200 m in depth along the Gargano peninsula and between Otranto and Santa Maria di Leuca, where a nursery of deep-water rose shrimp was also detected. An overlapping depth, between 100 and 200 m, was identified for hake and deep-water rose shrimp nurseries. Protection of these areas through limitations of fishing pressure is discussed.

  3. ITS1-rDNA-based methodology to identify world-wide hake species of the Genus Merluccius.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Montse; Vieites, Juan M; Presa, Pablo

    2005-06-29

    Species-specific DNA-based tags are valuable tools for the management of both fisheries and commercial fish products. In this study, we have developed a two-step molecular tool to detect the presence of hake DNA (Merluccius spp.) and to identify the exact hake species present in an blind sample. The first test involves PCR amplification of an ITS1-rDNA fragment of 193 bp using nested primers that are interspecifically conserved in Merluccius spp. and Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua. The second test consists of the PCR amplification of a 602-659 bp DNA fragment spanning part of the ribosomal cluster 18S-ITS1-5.8S and digesting it with four restriction enzymes whose targets map at interspecifically nonconserved sites of the ITS1. Alternatively, the identification of hake species can be achieved by FINS or BLAST, using the nucleotide sequence of either the whole ITS1 sequence or its nested fragment of 193 bp. Because of their high reproducibility and ease of execution, these procedures allow for routine analysis and constitute high reliable tools for the rapid identification of 12 species of hake.

  4. When homoplasy mimics hybridization: a case study of Cape hakes (Merluccius capensis and M. paradoxus)

    PubMed Central

    von der Heyden, Sophie; Matthee, Conrad A.

    2016-01-01

    In the marine environment, an increasing number of studies have documented introgression and hybridization using genetic markers. Hybridization appears to occur preferentially between sister-species, with the probability of introgression decreasing with an increase in evolutionary divergence. Exceptions to this pattern were reported for the Cape hakes (Merluccius capensis and M. paradoxus), two distantly related Merluciidae species that diverged 3–4.2 million years ago. Yet, it is expected that contemporary hybridization between such divergent species would result in reduced hybrid fitness. We analysed 1,137 hake individuals using nine microsatellite markers and control region mtDNA data to assess the validity of the described hybridization event. To distinguish between interbreeding, ancestral polymorphism and homplasy we sequenced the flanking region of the most divergent microsatellite marker. Simulation and empirical analyses showed that hybrid identification significantly varied with the number of markers, model and approach used. Phylogenetic analyses based on the sequences of the flanking region of Mmerhk-3b, combined with the absence of mito-nuclear discordance, suggest that previously reported hybridization between M. paradoxus and M. capensis cannot be substantiated. Our findings highlight the need to conduct a priori simulation studies to establish the suitability of a particular set of microsatellite loci for detecting multiple hybridization events. In our example, the identification of hybrids was severely influenced by the number of loci and their variability, as well as the different models employed. More importantly, we provide quantifiable evidence showing that homoplasy mimics the effects of heterospecific crossings which can lead to the incorrect identification of hybridization. PMID:27069785

  5. Low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) relaxometry in hake (Merluccius merluccius, L.) muscle after different freezing and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Alonso, Isabel; Moreno, Pilar; Careche, Mercedes

    2014-06-15

    Low field NMR T2 transverse relaxation measurements were performed on muscle samples from sixty hake (Merluccius merluccius, L.). Fish fillets from hake stored in ice for 3 and 14 days were subjected to different freezing methods (air blast, liquid nitrogen or walk-in freezer) and storage conditions (-20 and -10°C for 5 days, 8 and 18 weeks). Distribution analysis of T2 data of unfrozen muscle displayed a major band (T21), accounting for 90-92% of the total signal, with a relaxation time centred at 47-60 ms and a broad band with protons of higher mobility between 300 and 800 ms, accounting for 3-5% of the signal. Upon freezing, T21 became wider and an extra band appeared within the range 120-360 ms. Whereas no changes were detected at -20°C, the T21 time constant decreased during frozen storage at -10°C in a similar way for all three freezing methods. The relative abundance of T21 declined with storage time but differences were found as a function of freezing. Results are discussed in the light of morphological alterations and protein denaturation, and it is concluded that LF NMR relaxometry is sensitive to different freezing and frozen storage conditions which can have important implications for the quality of fish muscle.

  6. Effect of added lipids on the texture of minced hake (Merluccius merluccius L.), megrim (Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis W.) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus W.) during frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Careche, M; Tejada, M

    1991-12-01

    The effect of added cod liver oil and oxidized cod liver oil on the measurement of texture in minced hake (Merluccius merluccius L.), megrim (Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis W.) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus W.) has been measured during frozen storage (-18 degrees C). The results show that added neutral and oxidized lipids, even at high rancidity levels, do not affect shear resistances measured by the Kramer shear-compression cell in non-formaldehyde forming species such as megrim and sardine, over the frozen storage period. However, in a formaldehyde-forming species such as hake, in the presence of neutral and oxidized lipids at the end of the storage period, the values of shear resistances may be lower than in the absence of these lipids, probably owing to formation of less formaldehyde in these cases. Although it is very difficult to estimate the importance of a single compound or group of compounds on texture, these results seem to indicate that formaldehyde is a much more important factor than oxidized lipids in changes of texture in fish.

  7. Endotoxin and biogenic amine levels in Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus), sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and Mediterranean hake (Merluccius merluccius) stored at 22 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Prester, Ljerka; Macan, Jelena; Varnai, Veda Marija; Orct, Tatjana; Vukusic, Jelena; Kipcic, Dubravka

    2009-03-01

    Whole Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus), sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and Mediterranean hake (Merluccius merluccius) from the Croatian Adriatic were stored at 22 degrees C and changes in histamine, putrescine, tyramine and cadaverine levels were monitored in relation to bacterial endotoxin. After 12 h, histamine levels in sardine were above the legal limit of 50 mg kg(-1), set by the US Food and Drug Administration, and an increase in putrescine content preceded the increase in histamine. After 24 h, histamine contents in mackerel and sardine reached 1090 +/- 101 and 577 +/- 275 mg kg(-1), respectively, which exceeded the toxic threshold of 500 mg kg(-1). At the same time, the putrescine content was also high in both fish (353-420 mg kg(-1)). The time-course of endotoxin production was similar in all fish species stored at 22 degrees C. A high correlation was found between endotoxin and histamine, and between endotoxin and putrescine in mackerel and sardine. On the other hand, high endotoxin levels in hake, after 24 h, were associated with the low histamine and putrescine content (40-60 mg kg(-1)).

  8. Influences of bioavailability, trophic position, and growth on methylmercury in hakes (Merluccius merluccius) from Northwestern Mediterranean and Northeastern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Cossa, D; Harmelin-Vivien, M; Mellon-Duval, C; Loizeau, V; Averty, B; Crochet, S; Chou, L; Cadiou, J-F

    2012-05-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) determinations in hake, its food-chain, and the surrounding waters and sediments allowed us to show that the higher length or age normalized mercury concentrations of Northwestern Mediterranean (Gulf of Lions: GoL) muscle hakes compared to its Northeastern Atlantic (Bay of Biscay: BoB) counterpart are due to both biotic and abiotic differences between their ecosystems. Bioenergetic modeling reveals that the slower growth rate of Mediterranean hake favors the MeHg bioaccumulation in the fish muscle and explains most of the difference between GOL and BoB hake populations. In addition, the waters of the Mediterranean hake habitat favor a higher MeHg exposition, due to the upper position of the thermohalocline, where MeHg is formed. Furthermore, we show that, within the Mediterranean hake population, a major increase in the biomagnification power (the slope of the relationships between logMeHg and δ(15)N), from 0.36 up to 1.12, occurs when individuals enter adulthood, resulting from the combined effects of lowering growth rate and change in feeding habits. Finally, δ(15)N normalized Hg concentrations indicate that the highest Hg concentrations are for hake from the shelf edge and the lowest are for hake from the Rhône prodelta area, suggesting a lower Hg bioavailability in inshore environments, consistent with MeHg distributions in water, sediment, and preys.

  9. Changes in the diet and feeding of the hake Merluccius merluccius at the shelf-break of the Balearic Islands: Influence of the mesopelagic-boundary community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, Joan E.; Hidalgo, Manuel; Papiol, Vanesa; Massutí, Enric; Moranta, Joan

    2009-03-01

    Short spatio-temporal variations in the feeding intensity and the diet of the European hake, Merluccius merluccius, together with the abundance of their potential prey were studied between August 2003 and June 2004 at two locations, northwest (Sóller) and south (Cabrera), off the island of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean) at depths between 150 and 750 m. The two areas present different oceanographic conditions. Hake was mainly distributed along the shelf-slope break and the upper slope (between 166 and 350 m) where recruits (TL<18 cm) were dominant. The hake's diet varied as a function of size. Recruits fed mainly on micronektonic prey, and the diet was influenced primarily by seasonality, with two dietary patterns (identified by MDS analyses) corresponding to August-September 2003 (summer) and to November 2003/February-April 2004 (autumn-winter). The summer pattern was consistent with a thermally stratified water column, while November and April were consistent with homogenized temperature and salinity throughout all the water column. The main prey of recruits were the euphausiid Meganyctiphanes norvegica and the midwater fish Maurolicus muelleri in autumn-winter and myctophids (mainly Ceratoscopelus maderensis) in summer. In contrast to recruits, the geographic factor (NW vs. S) was the main factor influencing the diets of post-recruits (TL between 18 and 21.9 cm) and adults (TL⩾22 cm). Hake recruits (and to a lesser extent post-recruits) and their preferred prey occupied different depth ranges during daylight periods. Meganyctiphanes norvegica and Ceratoscopelus maderensis were, for instance, distributed as much as 500 m deeper than hake that had eaten them. All these trends were especially obvious at NW, an area with a more abrupt slope and with a greater influence by northern winter intermediate water (WIW) inflow in early spring than the S area. These factors probably enhanced micronekton aggregation in April, when feeding intensity

  10. [Lipid profile analysis of two species of hake "merluccius capensis and merluccius paradoxus" and its contribution to cardiovascular disease prevention].

    PubMed

    Piñeiro Corrales, Guadalupe; Lago Rivero, N; Olivera Fernández, R; Culebras-Fernandez, Jesus M

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: En los últimos 2013s se ha demostrado que los AGPI omega-3 presentan múltiples efectos protectores cardiovasculares. Actualmente, el pescado constituye la principal y la más importante fuente de ácidos grasos Omega-3. Objetivo: Analizar la composición en ácidos grasos en dos especies de merluza, determinar su contenido en ácidos grasos omega-3 y estudiar su aportación en la prevención de enfermedades cardiovasculares. Material y métodos: Se han analizado muestras de dos especies de merluza (Merluccius capensis y Merluccius paradoxus) en su estado natural y congeladas, cocinadas al microondas y muestras hervidas. Se ha estudiado el contenido en humedad, contenido lipídico y el análisis, composición e identificación de ácidos grasos. Resultados: Se observó que el contenido de AGPI w-3 fue mayor que el de AGPI w-6. Los ácidos grasos omega-3 DHA y EPA fueron los más representativos de la familia omega-3, destacando el contenido de DHA en todas lasmuestras analizadas. Asimismo, se ha demostrado la seguridad de los métodos de cocción «microondas» y «hervido» como métodos que aseguran la integridad de los AGPI w-3. Conclusión: Las muestras de merluza analizadas presentan un óptimo perfil lipídico. Su contenido en AGPI w-3 y sus propiedades, hacen que la merluza se distinga como pescado de referencia en dietas cardiosaludables.

  11. Genetic identification and distribution of the parasitic larvae of Anisakis pegreffii and Anisakis simplex (s. s.) in European hake Merluccius merluccius from the Tyrrhenian Sea and Spanish Atlantic coast: implications for food safety.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, Paolo; Smaldone, Giorgio; Acerra, Virginia; D'Angelo, Luisa; Anastasio, Aniello; Bellisario, Bruno; Palma, Giuseppe; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Mattiucci, Simonetta

    2015-04-02

    The consumption of the hake Merluccius merluccius is widespread in European countries, where this fish has a high commercial value. To date, different larval species of Anisakis have been identified as parasites in M. merluccius from European waters, Anisakis pegreffii and Anisakis simplex (s. s.) being the two most common. The aim of the study is to present data on the occurrence of Anisakis spp. larvae in the viscera and flesh of M. merluccius. Consequently, the distribution and infection rates of different species of Anisakis in different sites (viscera, and dorsal and ventral fillets) were investigated in hake caught in the central Tyrrhenian Sea (FAO 37.1.3) and the NE Atlantic Ocean (FAO 27 IXa). A sample of N=65 fish individuals (length>26 cm) was examined parasitologically from each fishing ground. The fillets were examined using the pepsin digestion method. A large number (1310) of Anisakis specimens were identified by multilocus allozyme electrophoresis (MAE) and mtDNA cox2 sequence analysis; among these, 814 larvae corresponded to A. simplex (s. s.) and 476 to A. pegreffii. They were found to infect both the flesh and the viscera. The two species co-infected the same individual fish (both in the viscera and in the flesh) from the FAO 27 area, whereas only A. pegreffii was found in hake from the Tyrrhenian Sea. The average parasite burden of A. pegreffii in hake from the Tyrrhenian Sea was significantly lower to that observed from hake off the Atlantic coast of Spain, both in prevalence and in abundance. In addition, whereas no significant difference in overall prevalence values was recorded between the two Anisakis species in the viscera of the FAO 27 sample, significant differences were found in the abundance levels observed between these species in the flesh, with A. simplex (s. s.) exhibiting significantly higher levels than that observed for A. pegreffii (p<0.001). Given that the pathogenic role in relation to man is known for these two species of

  12. The impact of overfishing and El Niño on the condition factor and reproductive success of Peruvian hake, Merluccius gayi peruanus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballón, Michael; Wosnitza-Mendo, Claudia; Guevara-Carrasco, Renato; Bertrand, Arnaud

    2008-10-01

    In this study we examine physiological responses of Peruvian hake ( Merluccius gayi peruanus) to changes in their population structure and physical environment during the period 1971-2004. In particular, we assess the relative investment of energy in growth and/or reproduction of small (20-35 cm) and large (35-50 cm) hake. We calculated the (i) condition (Fulton’s K), (ii) gonad and (iii) gut fullness indices for 42,761 female hakes sampled from commercial landings; these indices indicate fish somatic, reproductive and feeding condition, respectively. Using Generalized Additive Models we then examined potential relationships between these indices and sea surface temperature anomalies and date. Drastic energy exhaustion and a decrease in female hake fecundity were observed during El Niño events. The long-term trend showed a general increase in condition factor and a decrease in gonad index for large hake between 1971 and 2004. Small hake exhibited a different trend with an increase in reproductive activity, which was accompanied by an earlier maturation. We hypothesise that the observed low investment of energy in reproduction by large female hake might be related to the lack of large males, due to a sex-selective fishery and the impact of El Niño. We suggest that fishing diminished hake reproductive capacity, modified the sex ratio in favour of females and increased population vulnerability to environmental stress, in particular to the El Niño. The impact of multidecadal variability and predators like the squid, Dosidicus gigas, remain unresolved until longer time series become available.

  13. Cooperation between scientists, NGOs and industry in support of sustainable fisheries: the South African hake Merluccius spp. trawl fishery experience.

    PubMed

    Field, J G; Attwood, C G; Jarre, A; Sink, K; Atkinson, L J; Petersen, S

    2013-10-01

    This paper examines the increasingly close interaction between natural and social scientists, non-governmental organizations (NGO) and industry, in pursuit of responsible ecosystem-based management of fisheries. South Africa has committed to implementing an ecosystem approach to fisheries management. Management advice stems from multi-stakeholder representation on government-led scientific and management working groups. In the hake Merluccius capensis and Merluccius paradoxus fishery, the primary management measure is an annual total allowable catch (TAC), the level of which is calculated using a management procedure (MP) that is revised approximately every 4 years. Revision of the MP is a consultative process involving most stakeholders, and is based on simulation modelling of projected probable scenarios of resource and fishery dynamics under various management options. NGOs, such as the Worldwide Fund for Nature in South Africa (WWF-SA), have played an important role in influencing consumers, the fishing industry and government to develop responsible fishing practices that minimize damage to marine ecosystems. Cooperation between industry, government and scientists has helped to improve sustainability and facilitated the meeting of market-based incentives for more responsible fisheries. Research includes ecosystem modelling, spatial analysis and ecosystem risk assessment with increasing research focus on social and economic aspects of the fishery. A four-year cooperative experiment to quantify the effect of trawling on benthic community structure is being planned. The food requirements of top predators still need to be included in the TAC-setting formulae and more social and economic research is needed. This paper also demonstrates how NGO initiatives such as Marine Stewardship Council certification and the Southern African Sustainable Seafood Initiative, a traffic light system of classifying seafood for consumers, have contributed to responsible fishing

  14. Otolith Trace Elemental Analyses of South American Austral Hake, Merluccius australis (Hutton, 1872) Indicates Complex Salinity Structuring on their Spawning/Larval Grounds

    PubMed Central

    Brickle, Paul; Schuchert, Pia C.; Arkhipkin, Alexander I.; Reid, Malcolm R.; Randhawa, Haseeb S.

    2016-01-01

    Trace element signatures of otolith edges and cores from 335 austral hake (Merluccius autralis) were analysed using LA-ICPMS from samples collected in Chilean and Falkland Islands' waters, in order to provide potential insights into stock discrimination and migrations. Fish were caught in two locations in Chile and four locations in the south-west of the Falkland Islands Shelf. Univariate and multivariate analyses of trace element signatures in the edges of otoliths, representing adult fish, were not able to distinguish between samples collected in Chile and the Falkland Islands. Cluster analyses based on Ward’s similarity/distance metric suggested that it was possible to identify two groups from core signatures. Further analyses of this perceived clustering of the core concentrations revealed that this was largely due to the wide spread of Sr/Ca ratios in the otoliths’ cores. Gaussian finite mixtures using MCMC methods confirmed that Sr/Ca ratios form two separate distributions with significantly different mean values while concentrations of other elements showed no evidence of the presence of two or more distributions. The results suggest that there is only one spawning stock of austral hake with spawning situated in and around the Chilean fjords (43°30’S– 47°S) and the variation in Sr/Ca ratios likely suggests complex salinity structuring in this area. PMID:26727274

  15. Histopathological indices in sole (Solea solea) and hake (Merluccius merluccius) for implementation of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive along the Basque continental shelf (SE Bay of Biscay).

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Nagore; Zorita, Izaskun; Costa, Pedro M; Quincoces, Iñaki; Larreta, Joana; Franco, Javier

    2015-05-15

    Sole and hake, together with sediments, were collected during two campaigns along the Basque continental shelf to study the utility of two existing histopathological indices for assessing the biological effects of contaminants to implement the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Hepatic and gonadal histopathology were measured, and metal and/or organic contaminants were determined in both liver and sediments. Sediments from the Basque continental shelf were found to be moderately impacted by metals but non-impacted by organic compounds. Metal bioaccumulation and histopathological lesions in liver were higher in sole than in hake, although non-specific and early non-neoplastic toxicopathic lesions were observed in both species. No gross alterations were recorded in gonad. The two histopathological indices applied were highly correlated in both organs but the lack of correlation between sediment contamination levels, bioaccumulation and histopathological indices suggests that other factors, rather than pollution alone, are responsible for the biological effects observed.

  16. Cholesterol oxidation is increased and PUFA decreased by frozen storage and grilling of Atlantic hake fillets (Merluccius hubbsi).

    PubMed

    Saldanha, Tatiana; Bragagnolo, Neura

    2007-07-01

    Fresh fillets of Atlantic hake were stored at -18 degrees C for 120 days and changes in lipid composition and the formation of cholesterol oxidation products (COP) during storage and subsequent grilling were evaluated. Fresh hake showed low COP levels (8.0 microg/g, dry basis); however, a significant increase in COP (P < 0.02) and a concomitant decrease in the cholesterol and polyunsaturated fatty acids content during frozen storage and after grilling were observed. The main cholesterol oxides present in the analyzed samples were: 19-Hydroxycholesterol, 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol, 22(S)-hydroxycholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, 25(R)-hydroxycholesterol and 7-Ketocholesterol. The oxides which were more influenced by the thermal treatment were 24(S)-OH and 25(R)-OH; however, after 120 days of storage 7-ketocholesterol was the main product formed. Frozen storage and subsequent grilling under domestic conditions are important factors in damage of cholesterol and unsaturated fatty acids levels, with consequent production of cholesterol oxides, although the mechanism of the formation of these compounds by the different processes is probably different.

  17. Antioxidative and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory potential of a Pacific Hake ( Merluccius productus ) fish protein hydrolysate subjected to simulated gastrointestinal digestion and Caco-2 cell permeation.

    PubMed

    Samaranayaka, Anusha G P; Kitts, David D; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y

    2010-02-10

    Pacific hake fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) with promising chemical assay based antioxidative capacity was studied for in vitro angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory potential, intestinal cell permeability characteristics, and intracellular antioxidative potential using the Caco-2 cell model system. FPH showed substrate-type inhibition of ACE with IC(50) of 161 microg of peptides/mL. HPLC analysis revealed that different peptides were responsible for antioxidative and ACE-inhibitory activity. FPH inhibited 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride-induced oxidation in Caco-2 cells at noncytotoxic concentrations. In vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion increased (P < 0.05) antioxidative capacity; ACE-inhibitory activity of FPH remained unchanged, although individual peptide fractions showed decreased or no activity after digestion. Some FPH peptides passed through Caco-2 cells: the permeates showed 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activity but no ACE-inhibitory activity. These results suggest the potential for application of Pacific hake FPH to reduce oxidative processes in vivo. Further studies are needed to assess prospective antihypertensive effects.

  18. Investigations into inhibitor type and mode, simulated gastrointestinal digestion, and cell transport of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme-inhibitory peptides in Pacific hake (Merluccius productus) fillet hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Cinq-Mars, Crystal D; Hu, Chun; Kitts, David D; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y

    2008-01-23

    Fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) produced by incubation of Pacific hake fillet with 3.00% Protamex at pH 6.5 and 40 degrees C for 125 min demonstrated in vitro ACE-inhibitory activity (IC50 = 165 microg/mL), which was enhanced by ultrafiltration through a 10 kDa molecular weight cutoff membrane (IC50 = 44 microg/mL). However, after simulated gastrointestinal digestion, FPH and ultrafiltrate had similar ACE-inhibitory activity (IC 50 = 90 microg/mL), indicating that FPH peptides act as "pro-drug type" inhibitors and that enrichment by ultrafiltration may be unnecessary. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry confirmed that the molecular weights of major peaks were <1 kDa regardless of ultrafiltration. ACE-inhibitory activities of digested hydrolysates were not significantly affected by preincubation with ACE ( P > 0.05) and exhibited a competitive inhibitory mode. A permeability assay using fully differentiated colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells showed an apical to basolateral transport of peptides that ranged from approximately 2 to 20% after 2 h at 37 degrees C. Pacific hake fillet hydrolysates are a potentially bioavailable source of ACE-inhibitory peptides awaiting further in vivo study.

  19. Identification of commercial hake and grenadier species by proteomic analysis of the parvalbumin fraction.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Mónica; Cañas, Benito; Piñeiro, Carmen; Vázquez, Jesús; Gallardo, José Manuel

    2006-10-01

    Analysis of parvalbumin fractions through proteomic methodologies allowed the differential classification of ten commercial, closely related species of the family Merlucciidae. Muscle extracts from nine hake species of the genus Merluccius including two subspecies of Merluccius australis (australis and polylepsis) and one grenadier species Macruronus novaezelandiae with two populations (novaezelandiae and magellanicus) were evaluated by 2-DE and MALDI-TOF MS. 2-DE demonstrated that the species tested displayed a low intra-specific degree of polymorphism and the isoform patterns were noticeably species-specific. MALDI-TOF mass fingerprints showed clear differences in the pattern of peptides produced by tryptic digestion between the Merluccius and the Macruronus, making the genus differentiation possible. In addition, a selective peptide mass present in the spectra from certain hakes allowed its classification in two groups: Euro-African and American hakes. Besides, some specific masses allowed a clearly individual identification for M. bilinearis, M. australis polylepsis, M. australis australis, M. productus, M. paradoxus and M. polli, while the rest of the hake species can be grouped in two clusters, comprising M. hubbsi and M. gayi in one and M. merluccius and M. capensis in the other.

  20. Silver hake tracks changes in Northwest Atlantic circulation.

    PubMed

    Nye, Janet A; Joyce, Terrence M; Kwon, Young-Oh; Link, Jason S

    2011-08-02

    Recent studies documenting shifts in spatial distribution of many organisms in response to a warming climate highlight the need to understand the mechanisms underlying species distribution at large spatial scales. Here we present one noteworthy example of remote oceanographic processes governing the spatial distribution of adult silver hake, Merluccius bilinearis, a commercially important fish in the Northeast US shelf region. Changes in spatial distribution of silver hake over the last 40 years are highly correlated with the position of the Gulf Stream. These changes in distribution are in direct response to local changes in bottom temperature on the continental shelf that are responding to the same large scale circulation change affecting the Gulf Stream path, namely changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). If the AMOC weakens, as is suggested by global climate models, silver hake distribution will remain in a poleward position, the extent to which could be forecast at both decadal and multidecadal scales.

  1. Use of sand wave habitats by silver hake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Auster, P.J.; Lindholm, J.; Schaub, S.; Funnell, G.; Kaufman, L.S.; Valentine, P.C.

    2003-01-01

    Silver hake Merluccius bilinearis are common members of fish communities in sand wave habitats on Georges Bank and on Stellwagen Bank in the Gulf of Maine. Observations of fish size v. sand wave period showed that silver hake are not randomly distributed within sand wave landscapes. Regression analyses showed a significant positive relationship between sand wave period and fish length. Correlation coefficients, however, were low, suggesting other interactions with sand wave morphology, the range of current velocities, and available prey may also influence their distribution. Direct contact with sand wave habitats varied over diel periods, with more fish resting on the seafloor during daytime than at night. Social foraging, in the form of polarized groups of fish swimming in linear formations during crepuscular and daytime periods, was also observed. Sand wave habitats may provide shelter from current flows and mediate fish-prey interactions. ?? 2003 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. Contrasting energy allocation strategies of two sympatric Merluccius species in an upwelling system.

    PubMed

    Rey, J; Fernandez-Peralta, L; Quintanilla, L F; Hidalgo, M; Presas, C; Salmeron, F; Puerto, M A

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the somatic growth and energy allocation strategy of two sympatric hake species (Merluccius polli and Merluccius senegalensis), coexisting under the strong influence of the Mauritanian upwelling. The results revealed that ontogeny, bathymetry, geography and reproduction shaped the differences found between the condition dynamics of the two species. Aside from species-specific differences, individuals were observed in better condition in the northernmost area (more influenced by the permanent upwelling) and in the deepest waters, probably the most favourable habitat for Merluccius spp. Both species also displayed contrasting trade-offs in energy allocation probably due to the dissimilarity of their habitats, which favours the existence of divergent adaptive strategies in response to different ontogenic requirements. It was hypothesized that M. polli invests in mass and energy reserves while sacrificing growth, as larger sizes may not provide an ecological advantage in a deeper and more stable environment. Moreover, M. senegalensis capitalizes on a steady growth without major disruptions, enabling earlier spawning at the expense of a lower somatic mass, which is fitting to a less stable shallower environment. This study sheds new light on differences in the biological traits and life strategies of Merluccius spp., which permit their overlap in a complex upwelling system and may contribute to the long-lasting scientific-based management of these species.

  3. Quantifying the predation on sardine and hake by cetaceans in the Atlantic waters of the Iberian peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begoña Santos, M.; Saavedra, Camilo; Pierce, Graham J.

    2014-08-01

    Construction of ecosystem models requires detailed information on trophic interactions which may not be readily available, especially for top predators such as cetaceans. Such information can also be useful to estimate natural mortality (M) for fish stock assessments and to evaluate the potential for competition between cetaceans and fisheries. In the present paper we provide estimates and confidence limits, taking into account sampling error, for consumption of fish by the four most common cetaceans along the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula, while highlighting the uncertainties and biases inherent in the information presently available on energy requirements, diet and population size. We estimated that common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) consume around 6800 (95% CI, 4871-9476) tons of sardine (Sardina pilchardus), 8800 (6195-12,647) tons of gadids, 1100 (721-1662) tons of hake (Merluccius merluccius) and 1900 (1222-2752) tons of scads (Trachurus sp.) annually. For striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), prey consumed were 900 (196-2661) tons of sardine, 6200 (3448-11,129) tons of gadids, 200 (11-504) tons of hake and 1600 (0-5318) tons of scads. Estimated amounts taken by harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are much lower, reflecting their low abundance in the area. Cetacean predation on sardine represents 2-8% of the current M value, indicating that cetaceans probably have little influence on sardine population dynamics. For the southern hake stock, estimated average removal by cetaceans often exceeds M. While this may indicate that both M and the consumption estimates for hake require revision it also suggests that cetaceans could have a more significant impact on hake populations. Different approaches to estimation of energy requirements of cetaceans can result in figures that differ by at least a factor of 2. The lack of good estimates of field metabolic rate for most species probably represents the most

  4. Multi-sensor Oceanographic Correlations for Pacific Hake Acoustic Survey Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brozen, M.; Hillyer, N.; Holt, B.; Armstrong, E. M.

    2010-12-01

    North Pacific hake (Merluccius productus), the most abundant groundfish along the Pacific coast of northwestern America, are an essential source of income for the coastal region from southern California to British Columbia, Canada. However, hake abundance and distribution are highly variable among years, exhibiting variance in both the north-south and east-west distribution as seen in the results from biannual acoustic surveys. This project is part of a larger undertaking, ultimately focused on the prediction of hake distribution to improve the distribution of survey effort and precision of stock assessments in the future. Four remotely sensed oceanographic variables are examined as a first step in improving our understanding the relationship between the intensity of coastal upwelling and other ocean dynamics, and the north-south summer hake distribution. Sea surface height, wind vectors, chlorophyll - a concentrations, and sea surface temperature were acquired from several satellites, including AVHRR, SeaWifs, TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, Jason-2, SSM/I, ASMR-E, and QuikScat. Data were aligned to the same spatial and temporal resolution, and these re-gridded data were then analyzed using empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs). EOFs were used as a spatio-temporally compact representation of the data and to reduce the co-variability of the multiple time series in the dataset. The EOF results were plotted and acoustic survey results were overlaid to understand differences between regions. Although this pilot project used data from only a single year (2007), it demonstrated a methodology for reducing dimensionality of linearly related satellite variables that can used in future applications, and provided insight into multi-dimensional ocean characteristics important for hake distribution.

  5. Dynamics and fishery of the Peruvian hake: Between nature and man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara-Carrasco, Renato; Lleonart, Jordi

    Mean length in the catch of Peruvian hake ( Merluccius gayi peruanus) declined drastically by 8 cm in a few months in 1992. The 1991-93 El Niño event marked the beginning of changes in bottom environmental conditions, that along with other changes in the ecosystem, were the cause of the disappearance of large sized old hake from the traditional fishing grounds and the invasion of these areas by high concentrations of small sized young hake, traditionally distributed in the southern areas. A misinterpretation of this change gave an optimistic perception of the state of the stock, leading to a large increase of the fishing fleet and therefore to an increase of the fishing pressure on this resource. Catch increased quickly to very high levels in 1996, the fishery indicators of relative abundance remained stable, while global abundance of hake was diminishing. The resource responded to these natural variations of environment and to the intense fishing pressure with changes in some aspects of its biology and ecology. The most remarkable was the decrease of the length and age at first maturity that led to spawning by 1 year old (19 cm) individuals in a species whose observed longevity was 14 years. In 2002 a total and indefinite fishery closure was established by the Peruvian government and a technical commission for the hake recovery was created, which carried out continuous monitoring of the stock. After a closure of 20 months the indicators showed signs of recovery and the fishery was reopened in 2004. However, after an encouraging beginning during 2004 and the first quarter of 2005, neither abundance nor age structure had improved by the end of 2005, and in fact were deteriorating by the start of 2006. The survival of the age 2 and 3 groups was very low and few 4+ years old individuals were observed. Several factors working at different time scales have been proposed to explain the status of hake. The impact of the fishery, variations in the abiotic environment

  6. Trophic structure of the Peruvian marine ecosystem in 2000-2006: Insights on the effects of management scenarios for the hake fishery using the IBM trophic model Osmose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzloff, Martin; Shin, Yunne-Jai; Tam, Jorge; Travers, Morgane; Bertrand, Arnaud

    2009-01-01

    The individual-based trophic model Osmose is applied to the upwelling marine ecosystem off the coast of Peru. The dynamics and life cycle of eight major species of the Peruvian marine ecosystem are explicitly considered in the model. Reference simulations provide an overview of the trophic structure of the Peruvian ecosystem during the period 2000-2006. Results of model calibration and simulations are discussed in the light of current empirical knowledge on the trophic functioning of the Peruvian ecosystem and are compared to outputs obtained recently using the trophic model Ecopath. The impacts on the ecosystem of restoration plans for the depleted hake ( Merluccius gayi peruanus) population are explored through two management scenarios: a) a long term reduction of fishing effort targeting hake and b) a moratorium on the hake fishery. The simulations help better understand the recent failure of a 20 month hake moratorium and provide long-term strategic support to ecosystem-based management. Limits of our approach are discussed and recommendations are detailed for future developments of the Osmose model and ecosystem approach to fishery management in the Peruvian context.

  7. X-Ray crystal structure and molecular dynamics simulations of silver hake parvalbumin (Isoform B).

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, R. C.; King, N. M.; Harrington, D. J.; Sun, H.; Royer, W. E.; Nelson, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Parvalbumins constitute a class of calcium-binding proteins characterized by the presence of several helix-loop-helix (EF-hand) motifs. In a previous study (Revett SP, King G, Shabanowitz J, Hunt DF, Hartman KL, Laue TM, Nelson DJ, 1997, Protein Sci 7:2397-2408), we presented the sequence of the major parvalbumin isoform from the silver hake (Merluccius bilinearis) and presented spectroscopic and structural information on the excised "EF-hand" portion of the protein. In this study, the X-ray crystal structure of the silver hake major parvalbumin has been determined to high resolution, in the frozen state, using the molecular replacement method with the carp parvalbumin structure as a starting model. The crystals are orthorhombic, space group C2221, with a = 75.7 A, b = 80.7 A, and c = 42.1 A. Data were collected from a single crystal grown in 15% glycerol, which served as a cryoprotectant for flash freezing at -188 degrees C. The structure refined to a conventional R-value of 21% (free R 25%) for observed reflections in the range 8 to 1.65 A [1 > 2sigma(I)]. The refined model includes an acetylated amino terminus, 108 residues (characteristic of a beta parvalbumin lineage), 2 calcium ions, and 114 water molecules per protein molecule. The resulting structure was used in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations focused primarily on the dynamics of the ligands coordinating the Ca2+ ions in the CD and EF sites. MD simulations were performed on both the fully Ca2+ loaded protein and on a Ca2+ deficient variant, with Ca2+ only in the CD site. There was substantial agreement between the MD and X-ray results in addressing the issue of mobility of key residues in the calcium-binding sites, especially with regard to the side chain of Ser55 in the CD site and Asp92 in the EF site. PMID:10739249

  8. X-Ray crystal structure and molecular dynamics simulations of silver hake parvalbumin (Isoform B).

    PubMed

    Richardson, R C; King, N M; Harrington, D J; Sun, H; Royer, W E; Nelson, D J

    2000-01-01

    Parvalbumins constitute a class of calcium-binding proteins characterized by the presence of several helix-loop-helix (EF-hand) motifs. In a previous study (Revett SP, King G, Shabanowitz J, Hunt DF, Hartman KL, Laue TM, Nelson DJ, 1997, Protein Sci 7:2397-2408), we presented the sequence of the major parvalbumin isoform from the silver hake (Merluccius bilinearis) and presented spectroscopic and structural information on the excised "EF-hand" portion of the protein. In this study, the X-ray crystal structure of the silver hake major parvalbumin has been determined to high resolution, in the frozen state, using the molecular replacement method with the carp parvalbumin structure as a starting model. The crystals are orthorhombic, space group C2221, with a = 75.7 A, b = 80.7 A, and c = 42.1 A. Data were collected from a single crystal grown in 15% glycerol, which served as a cryoprotectant for flash freezing at -188 degrees C. The structure refined to a conventional R-value of 21% (free R 25%) for observed reflections in the range 8 to 1.65 A [1 > 2sigma(I)]. The refined model includes an acetylated amino terminus, 108 residues (characteristic of a beta parvalbumin lineage), 2 calcium ions, and 114 water molecules per protein molecule. The resulting structure was used in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations focused primarily on the dynamics of the ligands coordinating the Ca2+ ions in the CD and EF sites. MD simulations were performed on both the fully Ca2+ loaded protein and on a Ca2+ deficient variant, with Ca2+ only in the CD site. There was substantial agreement between the MD and X-ray results in addressing the issue of mobility of key residues in the calcium-binding sites, especially with regard to the side chain of Ser55 in the CD site and Asp92 in the EF site.

  9. [IMPACT OF SIX COOKING TECHNIQUES ON FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF MARLIN (MAKAIRA NIGRICANS) AND HAKE (MERLUCCIUS PRODUCTUS)].

    PubMed

    Castro-González, María Isabel; Carrillo-Domínguez, Silvia

    2015-09-01

    Introducción: el consumo frecuente de pescado aporta beneficios a la salud por su contenido en ácidos grasos n-3. Generalmente se consume cocinado pero la cocción mejora o perjudica la concentración de ácidos grasos(AG), pues son susceptibles a oxidarse por las temperaturas y tiempos de cocción. Objetivos: analizar el efecto de seis técnicas de cocción sobre los lípidos totales (LT) y AG de marlín y merluza y seleccionar la que favorece una mejor conservación de AG de importancia para la salud. Métodos: se sometieron los filetes a diferentes técnicas de cocción: vapor (VA), empapelado papel-aluminio (EA), empapelado hoja-plátano (EP), horno-gas (HG), horno-microondas (HM) y sofrito (SF). Los AG se identificaron por cromatografía de gases/FID. Resultados y discusión: Marlín: el SF aumentó la concentración de LT y el HM la disminuyó. Estadísticamente, los AGS, AGP y EPA + DHA aumentaron con EA, los AGM disminuyeron con EP y aumentaron en el SF. Merluza: el SF aumentó la concentración en todos los grupos de AG, mientras que el VA la disminuyó. Por los valores de AGS, índices de aterogenicidad (IA), trombogenicidad (IT), susceptibilidad a la peroxidación y relación hipocolesterolémica/ hipercolesterolémica de los ácidos grasos (HH) encontrados, se sugiere que la merluza es un pescado con mayores beneficios para la salud, independientemente de la técnica que se aplique. Por su contenido en EPA + DHA el marlín parece ser una excelente opción si se cocina en papel aluminio. La técnica de sofrito en ambas especies disminuyó el IA, IT y aumentó significativamente la HH, sin embargo la relación n3/n6 disminuyó. La técnica menos conveniente para ambas especies resultó ser el VA.

  10. Argentine hemorrhagic fever vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Ana; Saavedra, Maria; Mariani, Mauricio; Gamboa, Graciela; Maiza, Andrea

    2011-06-01

    Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF), an acute disease caused by Junin virus (JUNV, Arenaviridae), has been an important issue to public health in Argentina since the early 1950s. The field rodent Calomys musculinus is JUNV natural reservoir and human disease is a consequence of contact with infected rodents. A steady extention of AHF endemic area is being observed since the first reports of the disease. Important achievements have been made in: (a) improvement of methods for the etiological diagnosis; (b) implementation and validation of therapeutical measures; (c) development of vaccines to protect against AHF. Reference is made to different research strategies used to obtain anti-AHF vaccines in the past and anti-arenaviral diseases in the present. Information is updated on features and field performance of Candid #1 vaccine, a live attenuted vaccine currently used to prevent AHF. This vaccine was developed through a joint international effort that envisioned it as an orphan drug. With transferred technology, Argentine government was committed to be Candid #1 manufacturer and to register this vaccine as a novel medical product under the Argentine regulatory authority. Candid #1 vaccine is the first one used to control an arenaviral hemorrhagic fever, the first live viral vaccine to be manufactured and registered in Argentina, reaching its target population through governmental effort.

  11. [Immigration policies in Argentine law].

    PubMed

    Vichich, N P

    1988-12-01

    This paper analyzes contents of Argentine immigration laws in different periods of Argentine history and refers those contents to the State which enforced the corresponding immigration policies and to the socioeconomic structure they support. The Argentine constitution (1852) and subsequent immigration laws define 2 principal guidelines in population and immigration policies: 1) from 1852 until 1955 immigrants are seen as a part of socioeconomic growth, and 2) after 1955 the theory of national security prevails over considerations of an economic nature. With the return to democracy it should be possible to redefine immigration policies considering the country's demographic requirements and the migrants' own needs.

  12. Argentine tango in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    2016-10-28

    This article reports on a meta-analysis of 13 studies of the effects of Argentine tango (AT) as a music-based movement therapy for people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Nine studies involved randomised controlled trials.

  13. Acoustical Scattering, Propagation, and Attenuation Caused by Two Abundant Pacific Schooling Species: Humboldt Squid and Hake

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    Caused by Two Abundant Pacific Schooling Species: Humboldt Squid and Hake Kelly J. Benoit-Bird College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences 104...Attenuation Caused by Two Abundant Pacific Schooling Species: Humboldt Squid and Hake 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...have successfully recruited graduate students that will conduct thesis research as part of this project. RESULTS Both hake and Humboldt squid

  14. 77 FR 72242 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; White Hake Trimester...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... closes the White Hake Trimester Total Allowable Catch (TAC) Area to all common pool groundfish vessels... Trimester 2 TAC or its annual catch limit for white hake. This rule is expected to slow the catch rate of... apportioned into trimester TACs (Trimester 1 May 1--August 31; Trimester 2 September 1--December 31;...

  15. Contemporary Argentine Cinema during Neoliberalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Carolina

    2009-01-01

    In this article I analyze contemporary Argentine cinematic production assessing the impact of Law 24,377 that was implemented in 1995 and that provided much-needed funds for national productions. By looking at film production and consumption, the emergence of young filmmakers and the performance of both commercial films and those belonging to the…

  16. Marine fronts are important fishing areas for demersal species at the Argentine Sea (Southwest Atlantic Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemany, Daniela; Acha, Eduardo M.; Iribarne, Oscar O.

    2014-03-01

    The high primary and secondary production associated with frontal systems attract a diversity of organisms due to high prey availability; this is why a strong relationship between fronts and pelagic fisheries has been shown worldwide. In the Argentine Sea, demersal resources are the most important, both in economical and in ecological sense; so we hypothesize that fronts are also preferred fishing areas for demersal resources. We evaluated the relationship between spatial distribution of fishing effort and oceanographic fronts, analyzing three of the most important frontal systems located in the Argentine Sea: the shelf-break front, the southern Patagonia front and the mid-shelf front. Individual vessel satellite monitoring system data (VMS; grouped by fleet type: ice-trawlers, freezer-trawlers and jigging fleet) were studied and fishing events were identified. Fishing events per area were used as a proxy of fishing effort and its spatial distribution by fleet type was visualized and analyzed with Geographic Information Systems. Oceanographic fronts were defined using polygons based on satellite chlorophyll amplitude values, and the percentage of fishing events within each polygon was calculated. Results showed a positive association between fronts and fishing activities of the different fleets, which suggests the aggregation of target species in these zones. The coupling of the freezer-trawler and jigging fleets (that operate on lower trophic level species; Macruronus magellanicus and Illex argentinus respectively) with fronts was higher than the ice-trawler fleet, targeting species of higher trophic level (Merluccius hubbsi). Marine fronts represent important fishing areas, even for demersal resources, as the distribution of fishing fleets and fishing effort are positively associated with frontal zones.

  17. Acoustical Scattering, Propagation, and Attenuation Caused by Two Abundant Pacific Schooling Species: Humboldt Squid and Hake

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    Caused by Two Abundant Pacific Schooling Species: Humboldt Squid and Hake Kelly J. Benoit-Bird College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences 104...Abundant Pacific Schooling Species: Humboldt Squid and Hake 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...with maximum lengths of up to 90 cm. A more recent immigrant to these waters, is the similarly sized and highly abundant jumbo or Humboldt squid

  18. Selection of the Argentine indicator region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, C. J.; Reed, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Determined from available Argentine crop statistics, selection of the Indicator Region was based on the highest wheat, corn, and soybean producing provinces, which were: Buenos Aires, Cordoba, Entre Rios, and Santa Fe. Each province in Argentina was examined for the availability of LANDSAT data; area, yield and production statistics; crop calendars; and other ancillary data. The Argentine Indicator Region is described.

  19. Pacific Hake Characteristics Affecting the Conduct of an Acoustic Clutter Experiment off the West Coast of the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-04

    the assessment process. Echo sounder /trawl surveys of hake have been conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) since 1977 to assess...3] There will be an NMFS hake survey in 2012. [20] The echo sounder /trawl method uses echo sounders to measure the total acoustic backscattering...NMFS echo sounder /trawl surveys have focused on fish age two or greater. Age-1 hake are generally more southerly and closer to shore than adults and

  20. Trap-mulching Argentine ants.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Jules; Sorenson, Clyde E; Waldvogel, Michael G

    2006-10-01

    Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), management is constrained, in large part, by polydomy where nestmates are distributed extensively across urban landscapes, particularly within mulch. Management with trap-mulching is a novel approach derived from trap-cropping where ants are repelled from a broad domain of nest sites to smaller defined areas, which are subsequently treated with insecticide. This concept was field-tested with mulch surrounding ornamental trees replaced with a narrow band of pine (Pinus spp.) needle mulch (trap) within a much larger patch of repellent aromatic cedar (Juniperus spp.) mulch. After ants reestablished around the trees, the pine needle mulch band was treated with 0.06% fipronil (Termidor). Poor results were obtained when the trap extended from the tree trunk to the edge of the mulched area. When the trap was applied as a circular band around the tree trunk reductions in the number of foraging ants were recorded through 14 d compared with an untreated mulch control, but not for longer periods. Reductions in the number of ant nests within mulch were no different between the trap mulch and any of the other treatments. We conclude that trap-mulching offers limited benefits, and that successful management of Argentine ants will require implementation of complementary or perhaps alternative strategies.

  1. [Microbiological controls and control points in a hake fillets manufacturing process for exportation].

    PubMed

    Estevao Belchior, S; Pucci, O H

    2000-06-01

    Indicator and foodborne pathogen microorganisms in the "for export" hake fillets manufacturing were investigated in this study. Critical control points were identified and prevention activities and control were proposed during seafood elaboration process. 45 samples of hake from sequential processing operation stages, 15 ice samples and 12 water samples from utensil washing, were collected. The samples were analyzed for their content of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, psychrotrophic bacteria, enterobacteria, total and fecal coliform bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and the presence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Shigella. The analysis of the samples collected from the factory revealed that the amounts of aerobic mesophile bacteria increased during manual filleting and packaging, in comparison with raw material. Psychrotrophic bacteria were the predominant microorganisms, specially in hake samples. In addition, high levels of enterobacteria, which do not occur normally in fish, were detected in raw hake samples. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Shigella, were not isolated from any samples in this study. The goal of this work is to establish microbiological risks in the hake fillets manufacturing process and, therefore to make possible corrective and control actions to assure the quality and safety of seafood.

  2. Prediction of silver hake distribution on the Northeast U.S. shelf based on the Gulf Stream path index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Xujing Jia; Joyce, Terrence M.; Kwon, Young-Oh

    2017-04-01

    Over the past 40 years, the distribution of silver hake on the Northeast U.S. shelf is found to be significantly correlated with changes in the latitude of Gulf Stream path. The correlation coefficient between the fall Gulf Stream position and the center of biomass of spring silver hake reaches 0.75 when the Gulf Stream leads the silver hake for 6 months. Based on this lead-lag relationship and low-frequency variability of Gulf Stream position with a dominant periodicity of 9-10 years, the Gulf Stream position is used as a predictor for the center of biomass of silver hake in linear autoregressive (AR) models. The goal of this study is then to optimize the AR model for the prediction of silver hake based on the observed changes in Gulf Stream position. Fall Gulf Stream position is first predicted out to 5 years using a 5th order AR model and the observed Gulf Stream position in preceding years. An optimization process is proposed to choose best AR coefficients based on a newly proposed combined skill parameter. Furthermore, the robustness of our Gulf Stream prediction is verified by comparing the observed Gulf Stream path index data from 2009 to 2012, which are not used for optimizing the AR model, and the predicted Gulf Stream path values for the same time period. We then use this predicted Gulf Stream position to further predict the center of biomass of silver hake in the subsequent spring. Three different methods are used and compared for the silver hake prediction. The predicted silver hake time series can explain as much as 69% of the variance of the observation for the 1st year prediction and 41% for the 5th year prediction. Our results indicate that including Gulf Stream as a predictor produces better prediction skills of silver hake center of biomass than the AR model prediction solely based on the observed silver hake time series.

  3. Early intrauterine embryonic development of the bothriocephalidean cestode Clestobothrium crassiceps (Rudolphi, 1819), a parasite of the teleost Merluccius merluccius (L., 1758) (Gadiformes: Merlucciidae).

    PubMed

    Swiderski, Zdzisław; Miquel, Jordi; Torres, Jordi; Delgado, Eulàlia

    2013-07-01

    The early intrauterine embryonic development of the bothriocephalidean cestode Clestobothrium crassiceps (Rudolphi, 1819), a parasite of the teleost Merluccius merluccius (L., 1758), was studied by means of light (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Contrary to the generic diagnosis given in the CABI Keys to the cestode parasites of vertebrates, the eggs of C. crassiceps, the type of species of Clestobothrium Lühe, 1899, are operculate and embryonated. Our LM and TEM results provide direct evidence that an operculum is present and that the eggs exhibit various stages of intrauterine embryonic development, and in fact represent a good example of early ovoviviparity. The intrauterine eggs of this species are polylecithal and contain numerous vitellocytes, generally ∼30, which are pushed to the periphery and remain close to the eggshell, whereas the dividing zygote and later the early embryo remain in the egg centre. During early intrauterine embryonic development, several cleavage divisions take place, which result in the formation of three types of blastomeres, i.e. macro-, meso- and micromeres. These can be readily differentiated at the TEM level, not only by their size, but also by the ultrastructural characteristics of their nuclei and cytoplasmic organelles. The total number of blastomeres in these early embryos, enclosed within the electron-dense eggshells, can be up to ∼20 cells of various sizes and characteristics. Mitotic divisions of early blastomeres were frequently observed at both LM and TEM levels. Simultaneously with the mitotic cleavage divisions leading to blastomere multiplication and their rapid differentiation, there is also a deterioration of some blastomeres, mainly micromeres. A similar degeneration of vitellocytes begins even earlier. Both processes show a progressive degeneration of both vitellocytes and micromeres, and are good examples of apoptosis, a process that provides nutritive substances, including lipids, for the

  4. Spermiogenesis and spermatozoon ultrastructure of the bothriocephalidean cestode Clestobothrium crassiceps (Rudolphi, 1819), a parasite of the teleost fish Merluccius merluccius (Gadiformes: Merlucciidae).

    PubMed

    Marigo, Adji Mama; Delgado, Eulàlia; Torres, Jordi; Bâ, Cheikh Tidiane; Miquel, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Spermiogenesis and the ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of the bothriocephalidean cestode Clestobothrium crassiceps (Rudolphi, 1819), a parasite of the teleost fish Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus, 1758), have been studied by means of transmission electron microscopy. Spermiogenesis involves firstly the formation of a differentiation zone. It is characterized by the presence of two centrioles associated with striated rootlets, an intercentriolar body and an electron-dense material in the apical region of this zone. Later, two flagella develop from the centrioles, growing orthogonally in relation to the median cytoplasmic process. Flagella then undergo a rotation of 90° until they become parallel to the median cytoplasmic process, followed by the proximodistal fusion of the flagella with the median cytoplasmic process. The nucleus elongates and afterwards it migrates along the spermatid body. Spermiogenesis finishes with the appearance of the apical cone surrounded by the single helical crested body at the base of the spermatid. Finally, the narrowing of the ring of arched membranes detaches the fully formed spermatozoon. The mature spermatozoon of C. crassiceps is filiform and contains two axonemes of the 9 + "1" trepaxonematan pattern, a parallel nucleus, parallel cortical microtubules, and electron-dense granules of glycogen. The anterior extremity of the gamete exhibits a short electron-dense apical cone and one crested body, which turns once around the sperm cell. The first axoneme is surrounded by a ring of thick cortical microtubules that persist until the appearance of the second axoneme. Later, these thick cortical microtubules disappear and thus, the mature spermatozoon exhibits two bundles of thin cortical microtubules. The posterior extremity of the male gamete presents only the nucleus. Results are discussed and compared particularly with the available ultrastructural data on the former "pseudophyllideans". Two differences can be established

  5. Treatment of Argentine hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Enria, Delia A; Briggiler, Ana M; Sánchez, Zaida

    2008-04-01

    Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF) is a rodent-borne illness caused by the arenavirus Junin that is endemic to the humid pampas of Argentina. AHF has had significant morbidity since its emergence in the 1950s, with a case-fatality rate of the illness without treatment between 15% and 30%. The use of a live attenuated vaccine has markedly reduced the incidence of AHF. Present specific therapy involves the transfusion of immune plasma in defined doses of neutralizing antibodies during the prodromal phase of illness. However, alternative forms of treatment are called for due to current difficulties in early detection of AHF, related to its decrease in incidence, troubles in maintaining adequate stocks of immune plasma, and the absence of effective therapies for severely ill patients that progress to a neurologic-hemorrhagic phase. Ribavirin might be a substitute for immune plasma, provided that the supply is guaranteed. Immune immunoglobulin or monoclonal antibodies should also be considered. New therapeutic options such as those being developed for systemic inflammatory syndromes should also be valuated in severe forms of AHF.

  6. 77 FR 48915 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; White Hake Trimester...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... White Hake Trimester Total Allowable Catch (TAC) Area to all common pool vessels fishing with trawl gear.... This action is necessary to prevent the common pool fishery from exceeding its Trimester 1 TAC or its... catch limit for each stock is apportioned into trimester total allowable catches (TACs). The...

  7. Antiviral treatment of Argentine hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Enria, D A; Maiztegui, J I

    1994-01-01

    Argentine hemorrhagic fever is a systemic viral disease caused by Junin virus, with a mortality of 15-30% in untreated individuals. Current specific therapy is highly effective in reducing mortality, and consists of the early administration of immune plasma in defined doses of specific neutralizing antibodies per kg of body weight. However, several reasons suggest the need to investigate alternative therapies. Ribavirin, a broad spectrum antiviral agent, is effective in the treatment of other viral hemorrhagic fevers, and the studies done with Junin virus infections to date indicate that this drug may also have a beneficial effect in Argentine hemorrhagic fever.

  8. Terpenoids and bibenzyls from three Argentine liverworts.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Fumihiro; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2011-12-16

    A new rosane diterpenoid, 3a-hydroxy-5,15-rosadien-11-one (3), was isolated, together with a known rosane diterpenoid, 5,15-rosadiene-3,11-dione (4), and an aromadendrane sesquiterpenoid, ent-cyclocolorenone (5), from the Et(2)O extract of an unidentified Argentine liverwort Anastrophyllum species. Moreover, four known sesquiterpene lactones 6-9 and two known bibenzyls 10, 11 were isolated from the Et(2)O extracts of Argentine Frullania brasiliensis and Radula voluta, respectively. The structures of compounds 3-11 were determined by the use of NMR techniques.

  9. Merluccius tasmanicus Matallanas & Lloris 2006 is a junior synonym of M. australis (Hutton 1872) (Gadiformes: Merluciidae) based on morphological and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Antoni, Mariana Y Deli; Delpiani, Sergio M; Stewart, Andrew L; González-Castro, Mariano; De Astarloa, Juan M Díaz

    2015-05-07

    The high intraspecific variation among and the conservative external morphology of Merluccius spp. have resulted in serious identification difficulties. Four hundred and twenty fresh and preserved specimens of Merluccius were analyzed, including the type series of Merluccius australis, M. tasmanicus and M. hubbsi; specimens of M. hubbsi from Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay, and individuals of M. australis from Argentina and New Zealand were examined. The nomenclatural status of the type specimens of M. australis is discussed and the designation of a lectotype and a paralectotype is proposed. The comparative study of morphology, meristic, traditional and landmark-based morphometry, both external and internal, and through DNA-based Barcoding molecular tools demonstrates that Merluccius tasmanicus is a junior synonym of Merluccius australis. Meristic and morphometric characters of types of M. tasmanicus completely overlap those of M. australis, whereas M. hubbsi show fewer scales along the lateral line, total vertebrae, second dorsal and anal-fin rays. A trend of a longer snout and wider head in M. australis and M. tasmanicus, and larger eyes and longer pelvic fins, in M. hubbsi was observed. While discriminant characters were found in the internal elements (hyomandibula, urohyal and sagitta otolith) between M. hubbsi and M. australis, none were observed between M. australis and those reported for M. tasmanicus. DNA barcoding analyses found no evidence of the existence of other species of Merluccius besides M. hubbsi and M. australis.

  10. Radiation Studies with Argentine Ion Exchange Material

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.L.

    2002-06-28

    A recent technology exchange between Argentina Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEA) and the US Department of Energy involved vitrification studies of ion exchange resins. Details of the spent ion exchange resins currently stored at two Argentine nuclear power plants, Atucha I and Embalse, have been presented in earlier reports. The present study examines irradiation of simulant samples of ion exchange resins.

  11. Juvenile hake predation on Myctophidae and Sternoptychidae: Quantifying an energy transfer between mesopelagic and neritic communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modica, Larissa; Cartes, Joan E.; Velasco, Francisco; Bozzano, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal study of the diet and food consumption of juvenile hake has been carried out in the Central Mediterranean Sea (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea). Fish were the most important food resource in terms of weight (ca. 70%). Among the fish, Myctophidae and Sternoptychidae, which are usually distributed deeper than juvenile hake, are most important. During summer, Ceratoscopelus maderensis constituted up to 21% of weight of all prey, and Maurolicus muelleri represented almost 10%. During autumn M. muelleri became the most important food resource. The way in which these more deeply distributed prey enter shallower food webs relates to the daily vertical migrations of lanternfish. In upper water column strata at night or near dawn they become prey of the juvenile hake. Considering that trophic energy flows primarily downward, in the direction of the productivity gradient, the observed flow of energy from deep strata into epipelagic layers could be considered an inverse energy transfer. Daily food consumption of juvenile hake ranged between 4.11 and 4.72% of the body wet-weight (BWW). The application of a square-root model allowed calculation of the fraction of this consumption derived by ingestion of the more deeply distributed mesopelagic fish. Between 11.6% and 17.8% of food consumption was sustained by this energy flow. Such information is useful for understanding the interaction between communities distributed in different depth ranges and to reinforce the idea that marine communities are open systems in which migratory movements can dramatically change the assumptions and results of mass-balance models.

  12. 75 FR 53731 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Contemporary Argentine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... for Exhibition Determinations: ``Contemporary Argentine Masterworks'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given... hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Contemporary Argentine...

  13. SAC-B, Argentine scientific satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulich, J. M.; White, C.

    1994-01-01

    The project and the missions of the Argentine scientific satellite, SAC-B, are summarized. SAC-B is an international cooperative project between NASA and the Secretariat of State of Science and Technology of the Argentine Republic. The objective of SAC-B is to advance the study of solar physics and astrophysics through the examination of solar flares, gamma ray burst sources and the diffuse soft X-ray cosmic background. The scientific payload comprises an instrument to measure the temporal evolution of X-ray emissions from solar flares as well as nonsolar gamma ray bursts, a combined soft X-ray and gamma ray burst detector, a diffuse X-ray background detector, and an energetic neutral atoms detector.

  14. Chlorofluorocarbon distributions in the deep Argentine Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, M.J. ); Weiss, R.F. ); Smethie, W.M. Jr. )

    1990-01-09

    The seawater concentrations of the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) F-11 and F-12 were measured in the Argentine Basin during the Abyssal Boundary Current Studies (1986) and the South Atlantic Ventilation Experiment (1988-89) expeditions. In most regions of the basin, the CFC concentrations are above the detection limit (0.015 pmol/kg) in the entire water column. The main features of the F-11 and F-12 profiles in the deep waters of the Argentine Basin are concentration mixima at depths of 2 to 3 km and generally increasing concentrations towards the bottom. The mid-depth CFC minima are associated with the salinity maximum of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). The higher CFC concentrations at the seafloor are correlated with the colder temperatures of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). The CFC concentrations in AABW are highest on the eastern portion of the basin along 47[degrees]S and along the southern and western boundaries. These distributions are consistent with a separation of the inflowing AABW into a cyclonic gyre in the eastern portion of the basin and a western boundary current which carries a detectable CFC singal as far noth as 17[degrees]S. Between CDW and AABW, there are local CFC maxima and minima which are not associated with extrema in other hydrographic properties. The local minima are found on a mean density of 46.07 [sigma][sub 4], which is the upper bound of the water entering the Argentine Basin from the Weddell Sea (Reid, Deep-Sea Res., 1989 submitted). The local CFC maxima are found at about the 46.00 [sigma][sub 4] isopycnal surface. Water of this density apparently is of circumpolar origin. The presence of these local CFC extrema in this density range carries information on the time-dependent vertical mixing in the deep Argentine Basin.

  15. Out of the Celtic cradle: The genetic signature of European hake connectivity in South-western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pita, Alfonso; Pérez, Montse; Balado, Miguel; Presa, Pablo

    2014-10-01

    Population genetic data of marine genetic resources add up to establish their pattern of connectivity. Such pattern determines the choice of a suitable management strategy to those resources in space and time. This study addresses the pattern of connectivity among European hake grounds upon the largest sampling effort so far developed in this species. Bayesian inference made on multilocus genotypic data provides evidence that a large genetic connectivity exists among Atlantic grounds and is mediated by significant migration rates stepping up from the Celtic Sea towards its adjacent Atlantic grounds. Therefore, the spawning biomass of the northern hake population could play a crucial role at ensuring the sustainability of southern hake fish grounds. The deepest restriction to gene flow was observed at the easternmost side of the Alboran Sea what suggests that the Almeria-Oran Oceanographic Front is an effective barrier keeping apart the two major gene pools so far shown in this species. A molecular clock calibrated for cytochrome b sequences of fishes and applied to the divergence between hake pools (0.3%) suggests that the Atlantic-Mediterranean population split might date back to the Middle Pleistocene (150,000 years BP). Complementarily, Bayesian treatments of multilocus genotypes indicate that such barrier to gene flow remains active nowadays. This study shows the upmost interest of future integrative efforts to incorporate population genetic data into current assessment practices, in order to better manage European hake populations and make its exploitation sustainable.

  16. High level of mislabeling in Spanish and Greek hake markets suggests the fraudulent introduction of African species.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Vazquez, Eva; Perez, Juliana; Martinez, Jose L; Pardiñas, Antonio F; Lopez, Belen; Karaiskou, Nikoletta; Casa, Mary F; Machado-Schiaffino, Gonzalo; Triantafyllidis, Alexander

    2011-01-26

    DNA analysis of hake products commercialized in southern European (Spanish and Greek) market chains have demonstrated more than 30% mislabeling, on the basis of species substitution. Tails and fillets were more mislabeled than other products, such as slices and whole pieces. African species were substitute species for products labeled as American and European species, and we suggest it is a case of deliberate economically profitable mislabeling because real market prices of European and American hake products are higher than those of African in Spanish market chains. The presented results suggest fraud detection that disadvantages African producers. Government-mandated genetic surveys of commercial hakes and the use of subsequent statements of fair trade on labels of seafood products could help to reduce fraud levels in a global market of increasingly conscious consumers sensitive to ethical issues.

  17. Hydrocarbon prospectivity of the Argentine Continental Slope

    SciTech Connect

    Light, M.P.R.; Keeley M.L.; Maslanyj, M.P.; Urien, C.M.; Hoggs, S.L.

    1993-02-01

    A rift basin containing stratigraphic and structural closures is developed along the Argentine slope over a distance of some 1000 km and area of 50,000 km[sup 2] in potentially exploitable water depths of 200 to 1500 m. No wells exist on this part of the continental margin. Rifting began during the Late Triassic/Jurassic and ended in Early Cretaceous. The first marine seaways flooded the Rift alluvial plains and lake. In Hauterian-Barrenian time, low circulation marine conditions with oxygen deficiency prevailed up to Rio Grande/Walvis Ridge flooding in part the coastal pull-apart basins. A major marine transgression in the Maastrichtian formed a widespread seal over the entire shelf and slope area. Four play types were identified: (1) a major north-east trending elongate delta system sourced inland from the San Julien (N. Malvinas) Basin and deposited on the southern Patagonian shelf and rise, (2) reworked deltaic barrier sands accumulated along the crest of the Outer Basement Ridge, (3) The Outer Basement Ridge, a major structural closure 400 km long, and (4) a series of margin-parallel rift systems in the offshore region between the 200 m and 1500 m isobaths. Regional seismic data and geological correlations suggest that oil prone source rocks are likely in the Middle and Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous formations. Source rocks are probably mature east and west of the Outer Basement Ridge and in the easterndepocenter of the Colorado Basin. Eastward migration from Jurassic age lacustrine source rocks in the Colorado Basin may have charged traps along the crest of the Outer Basement Ridge. Westward directed migration from deeply buried Aptian age marine source rocks in the Atlantic basins has probably charged prospective stratigraphic and structural traps in a suite of coast-parallel grabens developed on the Argentine continental shelf and slope. The Argentine offshore region, therefore, offers significant encouragement as a productive hydrocarbon province.

  18. Characterization of a helix-loop-helix (EF hand) motif of silver hake parvalbumin isoform B.

    PubMed

    Revett, S P; King, G; Shabanowitz, J; Hunt, D F; Hartman, K L; Laue, T M; Nelson, D J

    1997-11-01

    Parvalbumins are a class of calcium-binding proteins characterized by the presence of several helix-loop-helix (EF-hand) motifs. It is suspected that these proteins evolved via intragene duplication from a single EF-hand. Silver hake parvalbumin (SHPV) consists of three EF-type helix-loop-helix regions, two of which have the ability to bind calcium. The three helix-loop-helix motifs are designated AB, CD, and EF, respectively. In this study, native silver hake parvalbumin isoform B (SHPV-B) has been sequenced by mass spectrometry. The sequence indicates that this parvalbumin is a beta-lineage parvalbumin. SHPV-B was cleaved into two major fragments, consisting of the ABCD and EF regions of the native protein. The 33-amino acid EF fragment (residues 76-108), containing one of the calcium ion binding sites in native SHPV-B, has been isolated and studied for its structural characteristics, ability to bind divalent and trivalent cations, and for its propensity to undergo metal ion-induced self-association. The presence of Ca2+ does not induce significant secondary structure in the EF fragment. However, NMR and CD results indicate significant secondary structure promotion in the EF fragment in the presence of the higher charge-density trivalent cations. Sedimentation equilibrium analysis results show that the EF fragment exists in a monomer-dimer equilibrium when complexed with La3+.

  19. Exploration of Possible Astroblemes in the Argentine Puna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acevedo, R. D.; Alonso, R.; Rocca, M.; Klajnik, K.; Tálamo, E.

    2014-09-01

    Potential three new astrobleme sites have been detected by remote sensors and checked in situ in Argentine Puna: an elevated plateau that it has remained stable and invariable across long geological periods.

  20. Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Manning, L.M.; Stringer, L.D.; Cappadonna, J.; El-Sayed, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m2) to 1- and 4-m2 plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  1. Developmental instability as an indicator of natural stress on the Pacific Hake (Merlussius productus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alados, C.L.; Escos, J.; Emlen, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Developmental lnstability (DI) has been proposed as an inexpensive, quickly applied, and sensitive indicator of stress that can be utilized in early warning and in monitoring anthropogenic impacts on fish and other animals and plants. A problem arises, however, to the extent that natural stressors confound the effects of human-induced disturbances. Our objective in this work was to investigate whether a natural stressor, in the form of EI Nino conditions, contributed to DI in the Pacific hake. Right-left (fluctuating> asymmetry of otolith length, width, growth rate, and weight, as well as right-left otolith shape differences, were used as measures of DI. Results show that indeed EI Nino disrupts development, indicating stress. This outcome suggests that DI, as an early warning and monitoring tool for stress, must be used with caution.

  2. Effect of cooking on total mercury content in Norway lobster and European hake and public health impact.

    PubMed

    Perugini, Monia; Zezza, Daniela; Tulini, Serena Maria Rita; Abete, Maria Cesarina; Monaco, Gabriella; Conte, Annamaria; Olivieri, Vincenzo; Amorena, Michele

    2016-08-15

    The risk of Hg poisoning by eating seafood is considered real from the several international agencies that recommended, by fish consumption advisories, to pregnant women and young children to avoid or severely limit the consumption of the fish and shellfish with a high-range mercury levels. The analyses of two common species, European hake and Norway lobster, collected from an area of Central Adriatic Sea, reported high mercury levels in crustaceans. For Norway lobster total mercury exceeded, in six out of ten analysed pools, the recommended 0.5mg/kg wet weight European limit. Moreover the increased amount of Hg concentrations in Norway lobster cooked samples suggests the necessity to review current procedures of Hg control in food, considering also consumption habits of consumers. The Hg values found in all European hake samples are below the legal limits and, in this species, the boiling did not modify the concentrations in fish tissues.

  3. An Optimization of the Maintenance Assets Distribution Network in the Argentine Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    AN OPTIMIZATION OF THE MAINTENANCE ASSETS DISTRIBUTION NETWORK IN THE ARGENTINE AIR FORCE...copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENS-MS-15-M-152 AN OPTIMIZATION OF THE MAINTENANCE ASSETS DISTRIBUTION NETWORK IN THE ARGENTINE AIR...PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENS-MS-15-M-152 AN OPTIMIZATION OF THE MAINTENANCE ASSETS DISTRIBUTION NETWORK IN THE ARGENTINE AIR

  4. Argentine nuclear development: capabilities and implications

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    Complacency was shattered in 1974 by the Indian explosion of a nuclear device developed from a civil nuclear program. The fear of nuclear weapon spread led the international system to consider the other states that could develop devices from what were assumed to be peaceful nuclear programs. Many states of the non-nuclear ranks, often the more developed states of the Third World, resented the nuclear suppliers weapon holders dictating to the developing states the types of technology that these states could handle. Some of these developing states had highly sophisticated nuclear programs that no longer rely on the suppliers for assistance. These states are using the options that their nuclear developments present in an attempt to alter the international system, or the balance of power, that has existed since the end of World War II. Argentina's nuclear program has become one of the most-sophisticated in the Third World. This work discusses the implications of the country's present capabilities as they affect Argentine actions in the foreign policy areas of nuclear commerce and the international nuclear weapons non-proliferation regime.

  5. Material properties of Pacific hake, Humboldt squid, and two species of myctophids in the California Current.

    PubMed

    Becker, Kaylyn N; Warren, Joseph D

    2015-05-01

    Material properties of the flesh from three fish species (Merluccius productus, Symbolophorus californiensis, and Diaphus theta), and several body parts of the Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas) collected from the California Current ecosystem were measured. The density contrast relative to seawater varied within and among taxa for fish flesh (0.9919-1.036), squid soft body parts (mantle, arms, tentacle, braincase, eyes; 1.009-1.057), and squid hard body parts (beak and pen; 1.085-1.459). Effects of animal length and environmental conditions on nekton density contrast were investigated. The sound speed contrast relative to seawater varied within and among taxa for fish flesh (0.986-1.027) and Humboldt squid mantle and braincase (0.937-1.028). Material properties in this study are similar to values from previous studies on species with similar life histories. In general, the sound speed and density of soft body parts of fish and squid were 1%-3% and 1%-6%, respectively, greater than the surrounding seawater. Hard parts of the squid were significantly more dense (6%-46%) than seawater. The material properties reported here can be used to improve target strength estimates from acoustic scattering models, which could increase the accuracy of biomass estimates from acoustic surveys for these nekton.

  6. Genetic diversity of Argentine isolates of feline immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Pecoraro, M R; Tomonaga, K; Miyazawa, T; Kawaguchi, Y; Sugita, S; Tohya, Y; Kai, C; Etcheverrigaray, M E; Mikami, T

    1996-09-01

    We report the nucleotide sequence and genetic diversity of part of the envelope (env) gene of four strains of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) isolated from Argentine domestic cats. The DNA encoding the V3 to V5 regions of the env gene of the FIV isolates were amplified by PCR, cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Argentine isolates did not cluster into a single group; one isolate clustered with subtype B FIV isolated in the USA and Japan, whereas the others formed a new cluster of FIV which might represent a prototype sequence for subtype E.

  7. The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) in an Argentine Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montes, Silvana Andrea; Ledesma, Rubén Daniel; García, Natalia Mariana; Poó, Fernando Martín

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide evidence of validity for the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale scores in an Argentine sample (Spanish-language version). Results indicated satisfactory psychometric properties (a one-factor structure, good item discrimination, high reliability, and significant correlations with additional measures). This…

  8. Different Argentine Rural Extensionists' Mindsets and Their Practical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landini, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reflects upon the practice of Argentine rural extensionists working in the extension public system through the process of identifying different rural extensionists' types of mindsets and comparing them with transfer of technology extension approach, dialogical processes of horizontal knowledge exchange, participatory…

  9. Antigenicity and viability of Anisakis larvae infesting hake heated at different time-temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Vidacek, Sanja; de las Heras, Cristina; Solas, Maria Teresa; Mendizábal, Angel; Rodriguez-Mahillo, Ana I; Tejada, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    Heat treatments (40 to 94 degrees Celsius, 30 s to 60 min) were applied to different batches of Anisakis simplex L3 larvae isolated from hake ovaries and viscera to study the effect of heat on the viability of the larvae measured as mobility, emission of fluorescence under UV light, and changes in color after staining with specific dyes, and on A. simplex antigenic proteins. The aim was to determine the lowest time-temperature conditions needed to kill the larvae to avoid anisakiasis in consumers, and to evaluate whether high temperature modifies the antigenicity of A. simplex extracts. Heating at 60 degrees Celsius for 10 min (recommended by some authors) was considered unsafe, as differences in viability between batches were found, with some larvae presenting spontaneous movements in one batch. At higher temperatures (> or = 70 degrees Celsius for > or = 1 min), no movement of the larvae was observed. Antigenic protein Ani s 4 and A. simplex crude antigens were detected in the larvae heated at 94 + or - 1 degrees Celsius for 3 min. This indicates that allergic symptoms could be provoked in previously sensitized consumers, even if the larvae were killed by heat treatment.

  10. Hake fish bone as a calcium source for efficient bone mineralization.

    PubMed

    Flammini, Lisa; Martuzzi, Francesca; Vivo, Valentina; Ghirri, Alessia; Salomi, Enrico; Bignetti, Enrico; Barocelli, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Calcium is recognized as an essential nutritional factor for bone health. An adequate intake is important to achieve or maintain optimal bone mass in particular during growth and old age. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of hake fish bone (HBF) as a calcium source for bone mineralization: in vitro on osteosarcoma SaOS-2 cells, cultured in Ca-free osteogenic medium (OM) and in vivo on young growing rats fed a low-calcium diet. Lithotame (L), a Ca supplement derived from Lithothamnium calcareum, was used as control. In vitro experiments showed that HBF supplementation provided bone mineralization similar to standard OM, whereas L supplementation showed lower activity. In vivo low-Ca HBF-added and L-added diet similarly affected bone deposition. Physico-chemical parameters concerning bone mineralization, such as femur breaking force, tibia density and calcium/phosphorus mineral content, had beneficial effects from both Ca supplementations, in the absence of any evident adverse effect. We conclude HBF derived from by-product from the fish industry is a good calcium supplier with comparable efficacy to L.

  11. Production of seafood flavor from red hake (Urophycis chuss) by enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Imm, J Y; Lee, C M

    1999-06-01

    Protein hydrolysates were prepared as a natural flavor stock from the red hake (Urophycis chuss) headed-gutted (H&G) mince and frame mince using commercial enzymes, Flavourzyme and Savorase, at the natural pH of fish (6.8) and the water/fish ratio of 2:5. The addition of 1.5% NaCl and 0.4% STPP improved the flavor quality of the hydrolysate by masking bitterness and off-flavor. A 6 h hydrolysis of H&G mince with Flavourzyme yielded a hydrolysate of the highest acceptability. Hydrolysis increased the concentration of most free amino acids except Arg and His. Leu, Lys, and Arg were predominant free amino acids in the hydrolysates, whereas Leu and Arg were major ones in the cooking juice. The concentration of Glu responsible for umami taste was increased by 6-9 times upon hydrolysis. Hydrolysates contained higher percentages of free amino acids giving both umami and sweet tastes than did cooking juice.

  12. [Argentine consensus on the treatment of bipolar disorders].

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Gustavo Héctor; Strejilevich, Sergio; García Bonetto, Gerardo; Cetkovich-Bakmas, Marcelo; Zaratiegui, Rodolfo; Lagomarsino, Alejandro; Goldchluk, Aníbal; Kalina, Eduardo; Herbst, Luis; Gutiérrez, Benigno

    2005-01-01

    The consensus guidelines of argentine experts in the treatment of bipolar disorders are the result of three days of work of the 10 main local experts under the organization of the Argentine Association of Biological Psychiatry (AAPB). It was adopted a mixed criterion for its preparation: all the recent data of the evidence medicine based published until now were discussed and were balanced with the knowledge acquired from clinical experience of the local experts on the bipolar field. It presents general recommendations and suggested therapeutic sequences for the phase of maintenance, the manic/hypomanic or mixed episode and the depressive episode. These have been divided according to the classification in type I and II; with or without rapid cycling. Since the group of experts identified the delay and miss-diagnoses like the most important barrier for a suitable treatment enclosed a series of recommendations for differential diagnosis of bipolar disorders.

  13. Fast and Flexible: Argentine Ants Recruit from Nearby Trails

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Tatiana P.; Pinter-Wollman, Noa M.; Moses, Melanie E.; Gordon, Deborah M.

    2013-01-01

    Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) live in groups of nests connected by trails to each other and to stable food sources. In a field study, we investigated whether some ants recruit directly from established, persistent trails to food sources, thus accelerating food collection. Our results indicate that Argentine ants recruit nestmates to food directly from persistent trails, and that the exponential increase in the arrival rate of ants at baits is faster than would be possible if recruited ants traveled from distant nests. Once ants find a new food source, they walk back and forth between the bait and sometimes share food by trophallaxis with nestmates on the trail. Recruiting ants from nearby persistent trails creates a dynamic circuit, like those found in other distributed systems, which facilitates a quick response to changes in available resources. PMID:23967129

  14. Fast and flexible: argentine ants recruit from nearby trails.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Tatiana P; Pinter-Wollman, Noa M; Moses, Melanie E; Gordon, Deborah M

    2013-01-01

    Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) live in groups of nests connected by trails to each other and to stable food sources. In a field study, we investigated whether some ants recruit directly from established, persistent trails to food sources, thus accelerating food collection. Our results indicate that Argentine ants recruit nestmates to food directly from persistent trails, and that the exponential increase in the arrival rate of ants at baits is faster than would be possible if recruited ants traveled from distant nests. Once ants find a new food source, they walk back and forth between the bait and sometimes share food by trophallaxis with nestmates on the trail. Recruiting ants from nearby persistent trails creates a dynamic circuit, like those found in other distributed systems, which facilitates a quick response to changes in available resources.

  15. Malvinas: the Argentine Perspective of the Falkland’s Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    such a way that: “Neither British military nor local civilians should be killed during the entire Argentine military operation over own territory .”3...Giachino knew that that mission went beyond the simple seizure of territory and that any loss of life would hurt the post-war negotiations that...Informe Oficial del Ejercito Argentino Tomo II - Conflicto Malvinas (Buenos Aires- Argentina: Estado Mayor General del Ejercito Argentino 1983): Annex 6. 5

  16. Argentine Population Genetic Structure: Large Variance in Amerindian Contribution

    PubMed Central

    Seldin, Michael F.; Tian, Chao; Shigeta, Russell; Scherbarth, Hugo R.; Silva, Gabriel; Belmont, John W.; Kittles, Rick; Gamron, Susana; Allevi, Alberto; Palatnik, Simon A.; Alvarellos, Alejandro; Paira, Sergio; Caprarulo, Cesar; Guillerón, Carolina; Catoggio, Luis J.; Prigione, Cristina; Berbotto, Guillermo A.; García, Mercedes A.; Perandones, Carlos E.; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta E.

    2011-01-01

    Argentine population genetic structure was examined using a set of 78 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to assess the contributions of European, Amerindian, and African ancestry in 94 individuals members of this population. Using the Bayesian clustering algorithm STRUCTURE, the mean European contribution was 78%, the Amerindian contribution was 19.4%, and the African contribution was 2.5%. Similar results were found using weighted least mean square method: European, 80.2%; Amerindian, 18.1%; and African, 1.7%. Consistent with previous studies the current results showed very few individuals (four of 94) with greater than 10% African admixture. Notably, when individual admixture was examined, the Amerindian and European admixture showed a very large variance and individual Amerindian contribution ranged from 1.5 to 84.5% in the 94 individual Argentine subjects. These results indicate that admixture must be considered when clinical epidemiology or case control genetic analyses are studied in this population. Moreover, the current study provides a set of informative SNPs that can be used to ascertain or control for this potentially hidden stratification. In addition, the large variance in admixture proportions in individual Argentine subjects shown by this study suggests that this population is appropriate for future admixture mapping studies. PMID:17177183

  17. Paleomagnetic confirmation of the Laurentian origin of the Argentine Precordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapalini, A. E.; Astini, R. A.

    1998-02-01

    Several recent tectonic models have portrayed the Argentine Precordillera has been recently portrayed as an Early Paleozoic Laurentian derived exotic terrane now found in southwestern South America. These models have primarily been based on strong biogeographic and stratigraphic evidence, however, no paleomagnetic data have previously been available to independently test them. A paleomagnetic study was, therefore, carried out on the Early Cambrian Cerro Totora Formation, exposed in the northern reaches of the Argentine Precordillera. After stepwise thermal demagnetization a pre-folding remanence was identified in ten sites of this formation, yielding a paleomagnetic pole (CT) at 37.0°N, 314.1°E, A95=5.8°. This pole is not consistent with the latest Proterozoic-Early Paleozoic apparent polar wander path for Gondwana, but it agrees with the Early Cambrian Section of the Laurentian path if the Argentine Precordillera is positioned as the conjugate margin of the Ouachita embayment in southeast Laurentia. This result confirms that the Precordillera is an allochthonous terrane derived from Laurentia in Cambrian times, that was later accreted to Gondwana, probably in Middle Ordovician times.

  18. [Behavior of Argentine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus strains in rodents].

    PubMed

    Saavedra, María del Cármen; Ambrosio, Ana M; Riera, Laura; Sabattini, Marta S

    2007-01-01

    The activity of LCM virus was first reported in Argentina at the beginning of the seventies and only five strains have been isolated from rodents Mus domesticus and two from humans. The objective of this paper was to find differential biological characteristics of Argentine strains of LCM virus comparing them in relation to the historical strains WE and Armstrong. Regarding the results obtained in tissue culture, when L 929 cells were used, plaque forming units (PFU) were obtained with human and mouse strains, whilst on Vero cells only human strains developed PFU. Differentials characteristics of historical and Argentine strain's plates were not found, neither differences related to the strain's origin. Neither historical nor Argentine strains were lethal to new-born mice giving a persistent infection, that was demonstrated when we inoculated new-born mouse by intracranial route with different strains of LCM virus and virus was isolated from brains harvested at different days post inoculation. The only exception was Cba An 13065 strain that exhibited virulence in new-born mice, only with 0.026 PFU was obtained 1 DL50. All the strains resulted lethal to adult mice. The mouse strains were more virulent than human strains, being Cba An 13065 the most virulent. These results demonstrate a different behavior in tissue culture between human and mouse strains and allow the identification of virulence markers by intracranial inoculation into new-born or adult mice.

  19. Two new species of Clestobothrium (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidea), parasites of Merluccius australis and m. hubbsi (Gadiformes: Merlucciidae) from the Patagonian shelf of Argentina, with comments on Clestobothrium crassiceps (Rudolphi, 1819).

    PubMed

    de Pertierra, Alicia A Gil; Incorvaia, Inés S; Arredondo, Nathalia J

    2011-06-01

    Abstract: Two new species of bothriocephalidean cestodes, Clestobothrium splendidum sp. n. from Merluccius australis (Hutton) and Clestobothrium cristinae sp. n. from Merluccius hubbsi Marini from the Patagonian shelf of Argentina, are described. Clestobothrium splendidum can be typified by the following characteristics: a medium-sized strobila composed of410-528 proglottides that are much wider than long; 49-90 testes per mature proglottis, partially surrounding the ovary posteriorly; a transversely elongated genital pore situated anterior to spurious articulations; presence of a genital atrium; a globular cirrus-sac occupying 4-6% of mature proglottis width; a vagina with sphincter and three pairs of osmoregulatory canals on each side of the proglottis. Clestobothrium cristinae is characterised by its small size; 71-219 proglottides; 39-64 testes per mature proglottis, usually surrounding completely the ovary posteriorly; a rounded genital pore situated at the same level of spurious articulations; an oval cirrus-sac occupying 8-16% of mature proglottis width; and three pairs of osmoregulatory canals on each side of the proglottis. Clestobothrium cristinae shares with C. splendidum the type and distribution of microtriches, except for the central surface delimited by two lips. Additionally, type and voucher materials of Clestobothrium crassiceps (Rudolphi, 1819) from Merluccius merluccius were studied. A key to species is provided.

  20. A Framework for Improving Integrative Factors in C3I Systems of the Argentine Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    improving integrative factors in C3I systems of the Argentine Army by Eduardo Alfredo Trotta Major, Argentine Army Ingeniero Militar , Escuela...Library, Code 52 2 Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5002 3. Estado Mayor General del Ej~rcito Argentino 3 Direcci6n de Comunicaciones

  1. Gas-Phase Intramolecular Cyclization of Argentinated N-Allylbenzamides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hezhi; Chai, Yunfeng; Jin, Zhe; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2015-05-01

    The fragmentations of argentinated N-allylbenzamides have been exhaustively studied through collision-induced dissociation and through deuterium labeling. The intriguing elimination of AgOH is certified as the consequence of intramolecular cyclization between terminal olefin and carbonyl carbon following proton transfer to carbonyl oxygen, rather than simple enolization of amide. Linear free energy correlations and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to understand the competitive relationship between AgOH loss and AgH loss, which results from the 1,2-elimination of α-hydrogen (to the amido nitrogen) with the silver.

  2. Experience influences aggressive behaviour in the Argentine ant

    PubMed Central

    Van Wilgenburg, Ellen; Clémencet, Johanna; Tsutsui, Neil D.

    2010-01-01

    All animals interact with conspecifics during their life, and nearly all also display some form of aggression. An enduring challenge, however, is to understand how the experiences of an individual animal influence its later behaviours. Several studies have shown that prior winning experience increases the probability of initiating fights in later encounters. Using behavioural assays in the laboratory, we provide evidence that, in Argentine ants (Linepithema humile), the mere exposure to an opponent, without the encounter escalating to a fight, also increases the probability that it will display aggression in later encounters. Argentine ant workers differ in their propensity to attack non-colonymates, with some ants repeatedly aggressive and others consistently more docile. Although 78 per cent of the workers were consistent in their behaviour from one encounter to the next, workers that did change their behaviour after an encounter with a non-colonymate more often changed from non-aggressive to aggressive, rather than the reverse. Surprisingly, a single encounter with a non-colonymate increased a worker's propensity to fight in encounters up to a week later. An encounter with a non-colonymate also increased the probability that a worker would attack ants from a colony that it had not previously encountered. Thus, these interactions lowered the overall aggression threshold, rather than stimulating a specific aggressive response to a particular foreign colony. Finally, our data suggest that aggression towards non-colonymates increases with age. PMID:19793741

  3. Trail Pheromone Disruption of Argentine Ant Trail Formation and Foraging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Stringer, L.D.; Snook, K.; Banko, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    Trail pheromone disruption of invasive ants is a novel tactic that builds on the development of pheromone-based pest management in other insects. Argentine ant trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, was formulated as a micro-encapsulated sprayable particle and applied against Argentine ant populations in 400 m2 field plots in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. A widely dispersed point source strategy for trail pheromone disruption was used. Traffic rates of ants in bioassays of treated filter paper, protected from rainfall and sunlight, indicated the presence of behaviorally significant quantities of pheromone being released from the formulation for up to 59 days. The proportion of plots, under trade wind conditions (2-3 m s-1), with visible trails was reduced for up to 14 days following treatment, and the number of foraging ants at randomly placed tuna-bait cards was similarly reduced. The success of these trail pheromone disruption trials in a natural ecosystem highlights the potential of this method for control of invasive ant species in this and other environments. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.

  4. New mutualism for old: indirect disruption and direct facilitation of seed dispersal following Argentine ant invasion.

    PubMed

    Rowles, Alexei D; O'Dowd, Dennis J

    2009-01-01

    The indirect effects of biological invasions on native communities are poorly understood. Disruption of native ant communities following invasion by the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) is widely reported to lead indirectly to the near complete collapse of seed dispersal services. In coastal scrub in southeastern Australia, we examined seed dispersal and handling of two native and two invasive alien plant species at Argentine ant-invaded or -uninvaded sites. The Argentine ant virtually eliminates the native keystone disperser Rhytidoponera victoriae, but seed dispersal did not collapse following invasion. Indeed, Argentine ants directly accounted for 92% of all ant-seed interactions and sustained overall seed dispersal rates. Nevertheless, dispersal quantity and quality among seed species differed between Argentine ant-invaded and -uninvaded sites. Argentine ants removed significantly fewer native Acacia retinodes seeds, but significantly more small seeds of invasive Polygala myrtifolia than did native ants at uninvaded sites. They also handled significantly more large seeds of A. sophorae, but rarely moved them >5 cm, instead recruiting en masse, consuming elaiosomes piecemeal and burying seeds in situ. In contrast, Argentine ants transported and interred P. myrtifolia seeds in their shallow nests. Experiments with artificial diaspores that varied in diaspore and elaiosome masses, but kept seed morphology and elaiosome quality constant, showed that removal by L. humile depended on the interaction of seed size and percentage elaiosome reward. Small diaspores were frequently taken, independent of high or low elaiosome reward, but large artificial diaspores with high reward instead elicited mass recruitment by Argentine ants and were rarely moved. Thus, Argentine ants appear to favour some diaspore types and reject others based largely on diaspore size and percentage reward. Such variability in response indirectly reduces native seed dispersal and can directly

  5. Activity of Bifenthrin, Chlorfenapyr, Fipronil, and Thiamethoxam against Argentine Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, fipronil, and thiamethoxam were evaluated for activity against the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr). Mobility impairment and lethal times were determined following topical treatments. Ants were immobilized most quickly by bifenthrin, followed by chlorfenapyr and th...

  6. Fecundity and longevity of Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) queens in response to irradiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irradiation is a postharvest quarantine treatment option to control ants and other hitchhiker pests on fresh horticultural products traded between countries. As little is known about irradiation effects on ants, radiotolerance of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae...

  7. Argentine gas system underway for Gas del Estado

    SciTech Connect

    Bosch, H.

    1980-10-01

    Gas del Estado's giant 1074-mile Centro-Oeste pipeline project - designed to ultimately transport over 350 million CF/day of natural gas from the Neuquen basin to the Campo Duran-Buenos Aires pipeline system - is now underway. The COGASCO consortium of Dutch and Argentine companies awarded the construction project will also operate and maintain the system for 15 years after its completion. In addition to the 30-in. pipelines, the agreement calls for a major compressor station at the gas field, three intermediate compressor stations, a gas-treatment plant, liquids-recovery facilities, and the metering, control, communications, and maintenance equipment for the system. Fabricated in Holland, the internally and externally coated pipe will be double-jointed to 80-ft lengths after shipment to Argentina; welders will use conventional manual-arc techniques to weld the pipeline in the field.

  8. TGS pipeline primed for Argentine growth, CEO says

    SciTech Connect

    Share, J.

    1997-03-01

    Nowhere in Latin America has the privatization process been more aggressively pursued than in Argentina where President Carlos Menem has successfully turned over the bulk of state companies to the private sector. In the energy sector, that meant the divestiture in 1992 of Gas del Estado, the state-owned integrated gas transportation and distribution company. It was split in two transportation companies: Transportadora de Gas del Sur (TGS) and Transportadora de Gas del Norte (TGN), and eight distribution companies. TGS is the largest transporter of natural gas in Argentina, delivering more than 60 percent of that nation`s total gas consumption with a capacity of 1.9 Bcf/d. This is the second in a series of Pipeline and Gas Journal special reports that discuss the evolving strategies of the natural gas industry as it continues to restructure amid deregulation. The article focuses on TGS, the Argentine pipeline system in which Enron Corp. is a key participant.

  9. Lymphocyte subsets alteration in patients with argentine hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Vallejos, D A; Ambrosio, A M; Feuillade, M R; Maiztegui, J I

    1989-02-01

    Peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations were studied in 15 patients with Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever (AHF), during the acute period of the disease and in early convalescence. Anti-human Ig antibodies were used to identify B cells and monoclonal antibodies to assess T4 and T8 subsets. During the acute period of the disease, significant alterations were found in B, T4, and T8 lymphocytes (P less than .001), as well as in T4/T8 ratios (P less than .001). These abnormalities disappeared in early convalescence, around 30 days after the clinical onset. Diminished numbers of T4 lymphocytes are interpreted as relevant to the immunodepression that characterizes the acute phase of AHF.

  10. Soils of the Galindez Island, Argentine archipelago, Western Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abakumov, Evgeny; Parnikoza, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Antarctic Peninsula is a part of Antarctica which is characterized by increased soil diversity, caused by specific of parent materials and diversity of non-vascular and vascular plants. Soils of Galindez Island have been investigated during the 18-th Ukranian Antarctic Expedition 2013/14. This Island situated in Argentine archipelago (coastal part of Antarctic Peninsula). Soils of Galindez Island presented by following types: Leptosols, Lithosols, Histic Lithosols and Leptosols and some Gleyic soils, located in lowlands and coastal parts. An average solum profile thickness is 3-19 cm which result from the small depth of debris's, underplayed by massive crystallic rocks. The permafrost layer is located within the massive rock, but not in coarse friable parent material. The soils with bird influence are widely spread both in coastal and central part of Island. In the coastal parts we can find typical Ornithosols in the penguin rockeries areas. The main aim of our investigation was characterization of soils formed under vegetation, exactly under Deschampsia antarctica Desv. localities. Argentine Islands is the central part of D. antarctica spreading area in region of Antarctic peninsula. Probably, these islands colonized by hairgrass mainly due to ornitogenic activity. So, coastal population appearance related with Larus dominicanus nest areas and feeding activity. Thus, we found typical post ornithogenic soils here. This kind of soils we also observed in population of hairgrass of Galindez mainland where it was connected with the other Antarctic bird - Catharacta maccormicki activity. Thus, the soil diversity and soil geochemistry of the Galindez Island are closely related to the activity of birds. The spatial pattern of soils, their chemistry and organic matter quality is discussed in relation with distribution of bird nesting and feeding activity.

  11. First report of viral infections that affect argentine honeybees.

    PubMed

    Reynaldi, Francisco José; Sguazza, Guillermo Hernán; Pecoraro, Marcelo Ricardo; Tizzano, Marco Andrés; Galosi, Cecilia Mónica

    2010-12-01

    Honey is one of the most important agricultural products for export in Argentina. In fact, more than 3.5 million beehives and 50 000 beekeepers are related with this production, mainly located in Buenos Aires province. Honeybee mortality is a serious problem that beekeepers in Argentina have had to face during the last 3 years. It is known that the consequence of the complex interactions between environmental and beekeeping parameters added to the effect of different disease agents such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasitic mites may result in a sudden collapse of the colony. In addition, multiple viral infections are frequently detected concomitantly in bee colonies. We describe here the preliminary results of a survey of three honeybee-pathogenic viruses, acute bee paralysis viruses (ABPV), chronic bee paralysis viruses (CBPV) and Sacbrood viruses (SBV) detected during a screening of 61 apiaries located in the main honey producer province using a RT-PCR assay. This is the first molecular report of the presence of these viruses in Argentine apiaries.

  12. Insecticide Transfer Efficiency and Lethal Load in Argentine Ants

    PubMed Central

    Hooper-Bui, L.M.; Kwok, E.S.C.; Buchholz, B.A.; Rust, M.K.; Eastmond, D.A.; Vogel, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Trophallaxis between individual worker ants and the toxicant load in dead and live Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in colonies exposed to fipronil and hydramethylnon experimental baits were examined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). About 50% of the content of the crop containing trace levels of 14C-sucrose, 14C-hydramethylnon, and 14C-fipronil was shared between single donor and recipient ants. Dead workers and queens contained significantly more hydramethylnon (122.7 and 22.4 amol/μg ant, respectively) than did live workers and queens (96.3 and 10.4 amol/μg ant, respectively). Dead workers had significantly more fipronil (420.3 amol/μg ant) than did live workers (208.5 amol/μg ant), but dead and live queens had equal fipronil levels (59.5 and 54.3 amol/μg ant, respectively). The distribution of fipronil differed within the bodies of dead and live queens; the highest amounts of fipronil were recovered in the thorax of dead queens whereas live queens had the highest levels in the head. Resurgence of polygynous ant colonies treated with hydramethylnon baits may be explained by queen survival resulting from sublethal doses due to a slowing of trophallaxis throughout the colony. Bait strategies and dose levels for controlling insect pests need to be based on the specific toxicant properties and trophic strategies for targeting the entire colony. PMID:26504258

  13. Clinical and epidemiological patterns of Argentine haemorrhagic fever

    PubMed Central

    Maiztegui, J. I.

    1975-01-01

    The epidemiology of Argentine haemorrhagic fever (AHF) is closely related to cricetine rodents acting as natural hosts of Junin virus. The endemo-epidemic area, which has increased 5 times since the disease was first recognized 15-20 years ago, is located in a densely populated region of Argentina. It has been shown that the virus of LCM is active in humans and rodents of the AHF endemic area; this demonstrates the simultaneous presence of two arenaviruses pathogenic for man in a given geographic location. The disease is characterized by haematological, renal, neurological and cardiovascular changes. Electron microscopy and immunohistochemical studies have shown cytopathic changes, characteristic intracellular virus-like particles, and antigenic determinants of Junin virus in different organs from 9 cases of AHF. No deposits of immunoglobulins or C3 were found in the kidneys; in addition, an absence of fibrinogen and C3 in the hepatocytes and of immunoglobulins in the spleen was observed. These findings suggest a direct viral pathogenic action in the human disease. Ultrastructural and immunofluorescence studies in tissues of guinea-pigs inoculated with two strains of Junin virus revealed the presence of the same types of virus-like particles and antigenic determinants of Junin virus as were encountered in the human subjects with AHF. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:1085212

  14. The tropopause at southern extratropical latitudes: Argentine operational rawinsonde climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, Susana A.; Canziani, Pablo O.; Yuchechen, Adrián E.

    2007-02-01

    Argentine operational rawinsonde records spanning a 30-year period (1968-1997) were used to study the climatology of the tropopause from the subtropics to the southern mid-latitudes, approximately along the 60°W meridian. The thermal tropopause annual cycle as well as its variability was analyzed at three sites: Resistencia (RES), Ezeiza (EZE), and Comodoro Rivadavia (CRD). Single and double tropopause observations were studied, given the comparatively frequent occurrence of double tropopause events at all three sites. The tropopause behavior at RES and CRD is distinct, whereas at EZE it shows a winter evolution similar to the one at CRD and a summer evolution closer to the one at RES, in agreement with the annual evolution of the subtropical jet. The tropopause evolution is discussed under the light of the dynamic climatology of southern South America. In the presence of double tropopause events and in terms of potential temperature, it should be noted that the upper tropopause temperature is close to the 380 K isentropic, i.e. the tropical tropopause layer. Moreover, the lower tropopause and single tropopause events are fairly close together, i.e. coincident with the lowermost stratosphere. Considering previous research and results from the present analysis, a definition of Extratropical Tropopause Layer (ExTL) is introduced in this work. It is proposed that the lowermost stratosphere should be regarded as the ExTL.

  15. [Distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the Argentine Mesopotamia, 2010].

    PubMed

    Salomon, Oscar D; Fernandez, Maria S; Santini, María S; Saavedra, Silvina; Montiel, Natalia; Ramos, Marina A; Rosa, Juan R; Szelag, Enrique A; Martinez, Mariela F

    2011-01-01

    The first case of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Argentina was reported in 2006 in Posadas, Misiones. During the summer 2008-2009 Lutzomyia longipalpis, the VL vector, and canine VL cases were already spread along the province of Corrientes. In order to know the distribution of VL risk, systematic captures of the vector were performed between February and March 2010, in 18 areas of the provinces of Entre Ríos and Corrientes, and the city of Puerto Iguazú, Misiones, with a total of 313 traps/night. We confirmed the presence of Lu. longipalpis, for the first time in Chajarí (Entre Ríos), Alvear, La Cruz, Curuzú Cuatiá and Bella Vista (Corrientes), and Puerto Iguazú (Misiones). In Santo Tome and Monte Caseros (Corrientes), where the vector had been previously reported, traps with more samples were obtained with 830 and 126 Lu. Longipalpis trap/site/night respectively. These results show that the vector of urban VL continues spreading in the Argentine territory. Simultaneously, the spread of the parasite and the resulting human VL cases are associated with the dispersion of reservoirs, infected dogs, with or without clinical symptoms or signs, due to human transit.

  16. Insecticide transfer efficiency and lethal load in Argentine ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper-Bui, L. M.; Kwok, E. S. C.; Buchholz, B. A.; Rust, M. K.; Eastmond, D. A.; Vogel, J. S.

    2015-10-01

    Trophallaxis between individual worker ants and the toxicant load in dead and live Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in colonies exposed to fipronil and hydramethylnon experimental baits were examined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). About 50% of the content of the crop containing trace levels of 14C-sucrose, 14C-hydramethylnon, and 14C-fipronil was shared between single donor and recipient ants. Dead workers and queens contained significantly more hydramethylnon (122.7 and 22.4 amol/μg ant, respectively) than did live workers and queens (96.3 and 10.4 amol/μg ant, respectively). Dead workers had significantly more fipronil (420.3 amol/μg ant) than did live workers (208.5 amol/μg ant), but dead and live queens had equal fipronil levels (59.5 and 54.3 amol/μg ant, respectively). The distribution of fipronil differed within the bodies of dead and live queens; the highest amounts of fipronil were recovered in the thorax of dead queens whereas live queens had the highest levels in the head. Resurgence of polygynous ant colonies treated with hydramethylnon baits may be explained by queen survival resulting from sublethal doses due to a slowing of trophallaxis throughout the colony. Bait strategies and dose levels for controlling insect pests need to be based on the specific toxicant properties and trophic strategies for targeting the entire colony.

  17. Insecticide Transfer Efficiency and Lethal Load in Argentine Ants

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper-Bui, L. M.; Kwok, E S.C.; Buchholz, B. A.; Rust, M. K.; Eastmond, D. A.; Vogel, J. S.

    2015-07-03

    Trophallaxis between individual worker ants and the toxicant load in dead and live Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in colonies exposed to fipronil and hydramethylnon experimental baits were examined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). About 50% of the content of the crop containing trace levels of 14C-sucrose, 14C-hydramethylnon, and 14C-fipronil was shared between single donor and recipient ants. Dead workers and queens contained significantly more hydramethylnon (122.7 and 22.4 amol/μg ant, respectively) than did live workers and queens (96.3 and 10.4 amol/μg ant, respectively). Dead workers had significantly more fipronil (420.3 amol/μg ant) than did live workers (208.5 amol/μg ant), but dead and live queens had equal fipronil levels (59.5 and 54.3 amol/μg ant, respectively). Moreover, the distribution of fipronil differed within the bodies of dead and live queens; the highest amounts of fipronil were recovered in the thorax of dead queens whereas live queens had the highest levels in the head. Resurgence of polygynous ant colonies treated with hydramethylnon baits may be explained by queen survival resulting from sublethal doses due to a slowing of trophallaxis throughout the colony. The bait strategies and dose levels for controlling insect pests need to be based on the specific toxicant properties and trophic strategies for targeting the entire colony.

  18. Insecticide Transfer Efficiency and Lethal Load in Argentine Ants

    DOE PAGES

    Hooper-Bui, L. M.; Kwok, E S.C.; Buchholz, B. A.; ...

    2015-07-03

    Trophallaxis between individual worker ants and the toxicant load in dead and live Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in colonies exposed to fipronil and hydramethylnon experimental baits were examined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). About 50% of the content of the crop containing trace levels of 14C-sucrose, 14C-hydramethylnon, and 14C-fipronil was shared between single donor and recipient ants. Dead workers and queens contained significantly more hydramethylnon (122.7 and 22.4 amol/μg ant, respectively) than did live workers and queens (96.3 and 10.4 amol/μg ant, respectively). Dead workers had significantly more fipronil (420.3 amol/μg ant) than did live workers (208.5 amol/μg ant), butmore » dead and live queens had equal fipronil levels (59.5 and 54.3 amol/μg ant, respectively). Moreover, the distribution of fipronil differed within the bodies of dead and live queens; the highest amounts of fipronil were recovered in the thorax of dead queens whereas live queens had the highest levels in the head. Resurgence of polygynous ant colonies treated with hydramethylnon baits may be explained by queen survival resulting from sublethal doses due to a slowing of trophallaxis throughout the colony. The bait strategies and dose levels for controlling insect pests need to be based on the specific toxicant properties and trophic strategies for targeting the entire colony.« less

  19. Molecular dynamics study of Ca(2+) binding loop variants of silver hake parvalbumin with aspartic acid at the "gateway" position.

    PubMed

    Fahie, Kamau; Pitts, Rebecca; Elkins, Kelly; Nelson, Donald J

    2002-04-01

    The helix-loop-helix (i.e., EF-hand) Ca(2+) ion binding motif is characteristic of a large family of high-affinity calcium ion binding proteins, including the parvalbumins, oncomodulins and calmodulins. In this work we describe a set of molecular dynamics computations on the major parvalbumin from the silver hake (SHPV-B) and on functional fragments of this protein, consisting of the first four helical regions (the ABCD fragment), and the internal helix-loop- helix region (the CD fragment). In both whole protein and protein fragments (i.e., ABCD and CD fragments), the 9th loop residue in the calcium ion binding site in the CD helix-loop-helix region (the so-called "gateway" position) has been mutated from glutamic acid to aspartic acid. Aspartic acid is one of the most common residues found at the gateway position in other (non-parvalbumin) EF- hand proteins, but has never been found at the gateway position of any parvalbumin. (Interestingly, aspartic acid does occur at the gateway position in the closely related rat and human oncomodulins.) Consistent with experimental observations, the results of our molecular dynamics simulations show that incorporation of aspartic acid at the gateway position is very disruptive to the structural integrity of the calcium ion coordination site in the whole protein. The aspartic acid mutation is somewhat less disruptive to the calcium ion coordination sites in the two parvalbumin fragments (i.e., the ABCD and CD fragments), presumably due to the higher degree of motional freedom allowable in these protein fragments. One problem associated with the E59D whole protein variant is a prohibitively close approach of the aspartate carboxyl group to the CD calcium ion observed in the energy-minimized (pre-molecular dynamics) structure. This steric situation does not emerge during energy-minimization of the wild-type protein. The damage to the structural integrity of the calcium ion coordination site in the whole protein E59D variant is

  20. Biotic and abiotic controls of argentine ant invasion success at local and landscape scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menke, S.B.; Fisher, R.N.; Jetz, W.; Holway, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Although the ecological success of introduced species hinges on biotic interactions and physical conditions, few experimental studies - especially on animals - have simultaneously investigated the relative importance of both types of factors. The lack of such research may stem from the common assumption that native and introduced species exhibit similar environmental tolerances. Here we combine experimental and spatial modeling approaches (1) to determine the relative importance of biotic and abiotic controls of Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) invasion success, (2) to examine how the importance of these factors changes with spatial scale in southern California (USA), and (3) to assess how Argentine ants differ from native ants in their environmental tolerances. A factorial field experiment that combined native ant removal with irrigation revealed that Argentine ants failed to invade any dry plots (even those lacking native ants) but readily invaded all moist plots. Native ants slowed the spread of Argentine ants into irrigated plots but did not prevent invasion. In areas without Argentine ants, native ant species showed variable responses to irrigation. At the landscape scale, Argentine ant occurrence was positively correlated with minimum winter temperature (but not precipitation), whereas native ant diversity increased with precipitation and was negatively correlated with minimum winter temperature. These results are of interest for several reasons. First, they demonstrate that fine-scale differences in the physical environment can eclipse biotic resistance from native competitors in determining community susceptibility to invasion. Second, our results illustrate surprising complexities with respect to how the abiotic factors limiting invasion can change with spatial scale, and third, how native and invasive species can differ in their responses to the physical environment. Idiosyncratic and scale-dependent processes complicate attempts to forecast where

  1. A mutualism with a native membracid facilitates pollinator displacement by Argentine ants.

    PubMed

    Lach, Lori

    2007-08-01

    The loss of biodiversity and associated ecosystem services are major threats posed by the spread of alien invasive species. Invasive ants are frequently associated with declines in the diversity of ground-dwelling arthropods but also may affect plants through their attraction to floral nectar and tending of hemipterans. Protea nitida is a tree native to the South African fynbos that hosts a native membracid, Beaufortiana sp., which is tended by ants. Here I compare Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) to native ants in their attraction to P. nitida inflorescences in the presence and absence of the membracid, and their effects on other floral arthropod visitors, seed set, and ovule predation. Argentine ant discovery of inflorescences increased at least 13-fold when membracids were present on the branch, whereas native ant discovery of inflorescences was only doubled by membracid presence at one site in one study year and was unaffected in the other three site-years. Excluding Argentine ants from inflorescences resulted in an increase in several arthropod taxa and potential pollinators; native ant exclusion had no positive effects. Thus the mutualism between Argentine ants and the membracid is facilitating pollinator deterrence by the ants. Though Argentine ants were not associated with a decline in P. nitida seed set or ovule predation, declines in generalist insect pollinators may have ramifications for the 83% of fynbos plants that are insect pollinated. Pitfall traps showed that Argentine ants were not more abundant than native ants in non-invaded sites. Focusing only on abundance on the ground and displacement of ground-dwelling arthropod fauna may lead to an underestimate of the effects of invasive ants on their adopted communities.

  2. Agronomic characterization of the Argentina Indicator Region. [U.S. corn belt and Argentine pampas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, D. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    An overview of the Argentina indicator region including information on topography, climate, soils and vegetation is presented followed by a regionalization of crop livestock land use. Corn/soybean production and exports as well as agricultural practices are discussed. Similarities and differences in the physical agronomic scene, crop livestock land use and agricultural practices between the U.S. corn belt and the Argentine pampa are considered. The Argentine agricultural economy is described. Crop calendars for the Argentina indicator region, an accompanying description, notes on crop-livestock zones, wheat production, field size, and agricultural problems and practices are included.

  3. [Evaluation and treatment of interstitial lung disease in Argentine].

    PubMed

    Mosca, C; Quadrelli, S; Castro Zorrilla, L; Castagnino, J

    2000-01-01

    To determine the availability and usual management of interstitial lung diseases (ILD) in our country, the Section of Interstitial Lung Diseases of the Argentine Association for Respiratory Medicine (AAMR) made a survey about diagnostic methodology and treatment of ILD. A total of 115 answers were obtained (38.5%), 43% of them among physicians living in the provinces. Availability of diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide test (DLCO) is limited: 25.4% never have access to it and 35.6% can seldom use it. Availability to thoracic CT scan is wider: 85% may use if often (32.4%) or always (52.6%). Bronchoscopy is commonly available in 87.7% of the physicians either often (21.9%) or always (65.8%). However, only 20.2% perform BAL and 13.1% transbronchial biopsy in every patient. Only 16.6% perform open lung biopsy or thoracoscopic biopsy in all or most of their patients. Sixty eight percent of physicians who always have availability of DLCO perform it in every patient but only 7.1% of those who seldom have access to DLCO do so (p = 0.0003). Availability of bronchoscopy does not have any influence on the decision of performing BAL or transbronchial biopsy. Frequency of use of surgical biopsy or treatment with immunosuppressive drugs was not influenced by any variable. We conclude that there is a current trend to underuse diagnostic resources for ILD in Argentina. Limitations in availability are relevant regarding DLCO. An effort from the health authorities to centralize the management of patients with ILD would allow to study and treat them according to international recommendations.

  4. DNA Barcoding Identifies Argentine Fishes from Marine and Brackish Waters

    PubMed Central

    Mabragaña, Ezequiel; Díaz de Astarloa, Juan Martín; Hanner, Robert; Zhang, Junbin; González Castro, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Background DNA barcoding has been advanced as a promising tool to aid species identification and discovery through the use of short, standardized gene targets. Despite extensive taxonomic studies, for a variety of reasons the identification of fishes can be problematic, even for experts. DNA barcoding is proving to be a useful tool in this context. However, its broad application is impeded by the need to construct a comprehensive reference sequence library for all fish species. Here, we make a regional contribution to this grand challenge by calibrating the species discrimination efficiency of barcoding among 125 Argentine fish species, representing nearly one third of the known fauna, and examine the utility of these data to address several key taxonomic uncertainties pertaining to species in this region. Methodology/Principal Findings Specimens were collected and morphologically identified during crusies conducted between 2005 and 2008. The standard BARCODE fragment of COI was amplified and bi-directionally sequenced from 577 specimens (mean of 5 specimens/species), and all specimens and sequence data were archived and interrogated using analytical tools available on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD; www.barcodinglife.org). Nearly all species exhibited discrete clusters of closely related haplogroups which permitted the discrimination of 95% of the species (i.e. 119/125) examined while cases of shared haplotypes were detected among just three species-pairs. Notably, barcoding aided the identification of a new species of skate, Dipturus argentinensis, permitted the recognition of Genypterus brasiliensis as a valid species and questions the generic assignment of Paralichthys isosceles. Conclusions/Significance This study constitutes a significant contribution to the global barcode reference sequence library for fishes and demonstrates the utility of barcoding for regional species identification. As an independent assessment of alpha taxonomy, barcodes provide

  5. Schooling and Governance: Pedagogical Knowledge and Bureaucratic Expertise in the Genesis of the Argentine Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwell, Myriam

    2013-01-01

    The consolidation of the Argentine Federal Government by the 1870s aimed to modernise local society, establish state institutions and reach political stabilisation. Building a modern schooling system articulated both utopia and bureaucracy by establishing the use of knowledge as an instrument of social intervention, vindicating and legitimising…

  6. Draft genome of the globally widespread and invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile)

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christopher D.; Zimin, Aleksey; Holt, Carson; Abouheif, Ehab; Benton, Richard; Cash, Elizabeth; Croset, Vincent; Currie, Cameron R.; Elhaik, Eran; Elsik, Christine G.; Fave, Marie-Julie; Fernandes, Vilaiwan; Gadau, Jürgen; Gibson, Joshua D.; Graur, Dan; Grubbs, Kirk J.; Hagen, Darren E.; Helmkampf, Martin; Holley, Jo-Anne; Hu, Hao; Viniegra, Ana Sofia Ibarraran; Johnson, Brian R.; Johnson, Reed M.; Khila, Abderrahman; Kim, Jay W.; Laird, Joseph; Mathis, Kaitlyn A.; Moeller, Joseph A.; Muñoz-Torres, Monica C.; Murphy, Marguerite C.; Nakamura, Rin; Nigam, Surabhi; Overson, Rick P.; Placek, Jennifer E.; Rajakumar, Rajendhran; Reese, Justin T.; Robertson, Hugh M.; Suarez, Andrew V.; Suen, Garret; Suhr, Elissa L.; Tao, Shu; Torres, Candice W.; van Wilgenburg, Ellen; Viljakainen, Lumi; Walden, Kimberly K. O.; Wild, Alexander L.; Yandell, Mark; Yorke, James A.; Tsutsui, Neil D.

    2011-01-01

    Ants are some of the most abundant and familiar animals on Earth, and they play vital roles in most terrestrial ecosystems. Although all ants are eusocial, and display a variety of complex and fascinating behaviors, few genomic resources exist for them. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a particularly widespread and well-studied species, the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile), which was accomplished using a combination of 454 (Roche) and Illumina sequencing and community-based funding rather than federal grant support. Manual annotation of >1,000 genes from a variety of different gene families and functional classes reveals unique features of the Argentine ant's biology, as well as similarities to Apis mellifera and Nasonia vitripennis. Distinctive features of the Argentine ant genome include remarkable expansions of gustatory (116 genes) and odorant receptors (367 genes), an abundance of cytochrome P450 genes (>110), lineage-specific expansions of yellow/major royal jelly proteins and desaturases, and complete CpG DNA methylation and RNAi toolkits. The Argentine ant genome contains fewer immune genes than Drosophila and Tribolium, which may reflect the prominent role played by behavioral and chemical suppression of pathogens. Analysis of the ratio of observed to expected CpG nucleotides for genes in the reproductive development and apoptosis pathways suggests higher levels of methylation than in the genome overall. The resources provided by this genome sequence will offer an abundance of tools for researchers seeking to illuminate the fascinating biology of this emerging model organism. PMID:21282631

  7. Draft genome of the globally widespread and invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile).

    PubMed

    Smith, Christopher D; Zimin, Aleksey; Holt, Carson; Abouheif, Ehab; Benton, Richard; Cash, Elizabeth; Croset, Vincent; Currie, Cameron R; Elhaik, Eran; Elsik, Christine G; Fave, Marie-Julie; Fernandes, Vilaiwan; Gadau, Jürgen; Gibson, Joshua D; Graur, Dan; Grubbs, Kirk J; Hagen, Darren E; Helmkampf, Martin; Holley, Jo-Anne; Hu, Hao; Viniegra, Ana Sofia Ibarraran; Johnson, Brian R; Johnson, Reed M; Khila, Abderrahman; Kim, Jay W; Laird, Joseph; Mathis, Kaitlyn A; Moeller, Joseph A; Muñoz-Torres, Monica C; Murphy, Marguerite C; Nakamura, Rin; Nigam, Surabhi; Overson, Rick P; Placek, Jennifer E; Rajakumar, Rajendhran; Reese, Justin T; Robertson, Hugh M; Smith, Chris R; Suarez, Andrew V; Suen, Garret; Suhr, Elissa L; Tao, Shu; Torres, Candice W; van Wilgenburg, Ellen; Viljakainen, Lumi; Walden, Kimberly K O; Wild, Alexander L; Yandell, Mark; Yorke, James A; Tsutsui, Neil D

    2011-04-05

    Ants are some of the most abundant and familiar animals on Earth, and they play vital roles in most terrestrial ecosystems. Although all ants are eusocial, and display a variety of complex and fascinating behaviors, few genomic resources exist for them. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a particularly widespread and well-studied species, the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile), which was accomplished using a combination of 454 (Roche) and Illumina sequencing and community-based funding rather than federal grant support. Manual annotation of >1,000 genes from a variety of different gene families and functional classes reveals unique features of the Argentine ant's biology, as well as similarities to Apis mellifera and Nasonia vitripennis. Distinctive features of the Argentine ant genome include remarkable expansions of gustatory (116 genes) and odorant receptors (367 genes), an abundance of cytochrome P450 genes (>110), lineage-specific expansions of yellow/major royal jelly proteins and desaturases, and complete CpG DNA methylation and RNAi toolkits. The Argentine ant genome contains fewer immune genes than Drosophila and Tribolium, which may reflect the prominent role played by behavioral and chemical suppression of pathogens. Analysis of the ratio of observed to expected CpG nucleotides for genes in the reproductive development and apoptosis pathways suggests higher levels of methylation than in the genome overall. The resources provided by this genome sequence will offer an abundance of tools for researchers seeking to illuminate the fascinating biology of this emerging model organism.

  8. Argentine Hydrellia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Ephydridae): new species and key to identification.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Júnior, Francisco De Assis; Mathis, Wayne Nielsen; Hauser, Martin

    2015-05-13

    Hydrellia egeriae sp. nov., a new species of Hydrellia from Campana (34 14' 04 S, 58 52' 32 W) and Hurlingham (3435'14 S, 5838'27 W), Buenos Aires province, Argentina is described. A key to the Argentine Hydrellia species is presented.

  9. Powerful motors: Kinship, citizenship and the transformation of the Argentine oil industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shever, Elana

    The privatization of the Argentine oil industry has been described as an unprecedented transfer of property, capital and control from the state to the corporate sphere, but this study demonstrates that the privatization process is better understood as a transformation of the historical configurations of oil-fueled development, political communities and human subjectivities. This dissertation probes the development of the state-led oil industry, and the shift to a corporate-led one, through an ethnography of Argentines differently positioned in relation to the global oil industry. The ethnography explores the lives of middle class oil workers and their families in Northwest Patagonia, impoverished residents of the shanty neighborhoods near the refineries in metropolitan Buenos Aires, and affluent employees of the translocal corporations operating in the Argentine oil fields. After the Introduction delineates this study's four principal interventions into anthropological scholarship, each subsequent chapter engages a particular problem that cuts across the Argentine oil fields and the anthropological theoretical fields. Chapter Two scrutinizes the historical construction of the Argentine subterritory as a "natural" space of value. Chapters Three and Four investigate the articulation of capitalist production and filial reproduction. These chapters argue that sentiment is a crucial generative force that has shaped the oil industry, company towns and worker families from the founding of the state-owned oil company in beginning of the twentieth century to its conversion into a corporate-owned one at the century's close. Chapters Five and Six examine the emergence of consumer citizenship and corporate citizenship out of Argentine neoliberalismo and its transformation of the oil industry. They argue that consumer and corporate citizenship are both reformulations of the older traditions of liberalism and Peronism. All the chapters of this dissertation illustrate that the

  10. Trophic ecology of invasive Argentine ants in their native and introduced ranges.

    PubMed

    Tillberg, Chadwick V; Holway, David A; Lebrun, Edward G; Suarez, Andrew V

    2007-12-26

    Although the ecological effects of invasions often become obvious soon after introduced species become established, more gradual effects may take years to manifest and can thus require long-term data for quantification. We analyzed an 8-year record of stable isotope data on Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) from southern California to infer how the trophic position of this widespread invasive species changes over time as native ant species are displaced. We couple this longitudinal analysis with a biregional comparison of stable isotope data (delta(15)N) on ants from Argentina (native range) and California (introduced range) to quantify (i) how the trophic position of L. humile differs between native and introduced populations, and (ii) how relative trophic position as estimated by delta(15)N values of Argentine ants compare with those of other ants at the same site. Both long-term and biregional comparisons indicate that the Argentine ant's relative trophic position is reduced at sites with a longer history of occupation. Over the course of 8 years, the relative trophic position of L. humile remained high at the leading edge of an invasion front but declined, on average, behind the front as native ants disappeared. Relative to native populations, where L. humile is among the most carnivorous of ants, Argentine ants from California occupied lower trophic positions. These results support the hypothesis that Argentine ants shift their diet after establishment as a result of resource depletion and increasing reliance on plant-based resources, especially honeydew-producing Hemiptera. Our results demonstrate the value of long-term and biregional data in uncovering ecological effects of invasions.

  11. Trophic ecology of invasive Argentine ants in their native and introduced ranges

    PubMed Central

    Tillberg, Chadwick V.; Holway, David A.; LeBrun, Edward G.; Suarez, Andrew V.

    2007-01-01

    Although the ecological effects of invasions often become obvious soon after introduced species become established, more gradual effects may take years to manifest and can thus require long-term data for quantification. We analyzed an 8-year record of stable isotope data on Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) from southern California to infer how the trophic position of this widespread invasive species changes over time as native ant species are displaced. We couple this longitudinal analysis with a biregional comparison of stable isotope data (δ15N) on ants from Argentina (native range) and California (introduced range) to quantify (i) how the trophic position of L. humile differs between native and introduced populations, and (ii) how relative trophic position as estimated by δ15N values of Argentine ants compare with those of other ants at the same site. Both long-term and biregional comparisons indicate that the Argentine ant's relative trophic position is reduced at sites with a longer history of occupation. Over the course of 8 years, the relative trophic position of L. humile remained high at the leading edge of an invasion front but declined, on average, behind the front as native ants disappeared. Relative to native populations, where L. humile is among the most carnivorous of ants, Argentine ants from California occupied lower trophic positions. These results support the hypothesis that Argentine ants shift their diet after establishment as a result of resource depletion and increasing reliance on plant-based resources, especially honeydew-producing Hemiptera. Our results demonstrate the value of long-term and biregional data in uncovering ecological effects of invasions. PMID:18093925

  12. Evaluation of various infused cryoprotective ingredients for their freeze-thaw stabilizing and texture improving properties in frozen red hake muscle.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, W; Lee, C M

    2007-01-01

    Various cryoprotective ingredients were evaluated for their freeze-thaw stabilizing and texture improving properties during 6-mo frozen storage when red hake (Urophycis chuss) fillets were injected with sorbitol-sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) (40% to 60% : 3%), 1.5% alginate, or 0.75% alginate with soy protein isolate (SPI)-sorbitol-STPP (5% to 10% : 40% : 3%). Injection of 10% SPI, 1.5% alginate, or 0.75% alginate-5% SPI effectively improved water binding and retarded the freeze-induced texture changes when drip and cooking loss, centrifugal expressible moisture, protein extractability, SDS-PAGE profile, and Instron and sensory texture were assessed. The sorbitol and STPP combination was not as effective as alginate and SPI. Freeze-susceptible whitefish can be injected with proper cryoprotective ingredients for improved frozen storability.

  13. From discard ban to exemption: How can gear technology help reduce catches of undersized Nephrops and hake in the Bay of Biscay trawling fleet?

    PubMed

    Vogel, Camille; Kopp, Dorothée; Méhault, Sonia

    2017-01-15

    On January 1st, 2016, the French mixed Nephrops and hake fishery of the Grande Vasière, an area located in the Bay of Biscay, fell under the discard ban implemented as part of the new European Common Fisheries Policy. The fleet records historically high levels of discard despite numerous gear selectivity studies. Together with high discards survival, new technological solutions to minimize catches of undersized individuals could justify local exemptions from the discard ban. Our study focuses on the effects of two selective devices, a square mesh cylinder (SMC) and a grid, on the escapement of undersized individuals and discard reduction. Relative catch probability of the modified gear compared with the traditional gear was modelled using the catch comparison method. Potential losses from the commercial fraction of the catch were taken into account to assess their influence on the economic viability of fishing with the modified gears. The two devices had similar effects on undersized Nephrops escapement and on discard reduction, with median values of 26.5% and 23.6% for the SMC and of 30.4% and 21.4% for the grid, respectively. Only the grid was efficient for undersized hake, recording median values of escapement and discard reduction equal to 25.0% and 20.6%, respectively. Some loss from the commercial fraction of the catch was to be expected with both devices, which could be compensated for in the long term by the contribution of undersized individuals to the stock biomass. Our results support the use of selective gears technology as part of an integrated framework including control and management measures to mitigate the effect of the discard ban both for fishers and for the ecosystem. Further work is needed to quantify the effect of additional escapement from the gear on stock dynamics.

  14. Argentine ant invasion associated with loblolly pines in the southeastern United States: minimal impacts but seasonally sustained.

    PubMed

    Rowles, Alexei D; Silverman, Jules

    2010-08-01

    Invasive ants are notorious for directly displacing native ant species. Although such impacts are associated with Argentine ant invasions (Linepithema humile) worldwide, impacts within natural habitat are less widely reported, particularly those affecting arboreal ant communities. Argentine ants were detected in North Carolina mixed pine-hardwood forest for the first time but were localized on and around loblolly pines (Pinus taeda), probably because of association with honeydew-producing Hemiptera. We explored the potential impacts of L. humile on arboreal and ground-foraging native ant species by comparing interspersed loblolly pines invaded and uninvaded by Argentine ants. Impacts on native ants were assessed monthly over 1 yr by counting ants in foraging trails on pine trunks and in surrounding plots using a concentric arrangement of pitfall traps at 1, 2, and 3 m from the base of each tree. Of floristics and habitat variables, higher soil moisture in invaded plots was the only difference between plot types, increasing confidence that any ant community differences were caused by Argentine ants. Overall patterns of impact were weak. Composition differed significantly between Argentine ant invaded and uninvaded trunks and pitfalls but was driven only by the presence of Argentine ants rather than any resulting compositional change in native ant species. Native ant abundance and richness were similarly unaffected by L. humile. However, the abundance of individual ant species was more variable. Although numbers of the arboreal Crematogaster ashmeadi (Myrmicinae) declined on and around invaded pines, epigeic Aphaenogaster rudis (Myrmicinae) remained the most abundant species in all plots. Argentine ant densities peaked in late summer and fall, therefore overlapping with most native ants. Unexpected was their continued presence during even the coldest months. We provide evidence that Argentine ants can invade and persist in native North Carolina forests, probably

  15. Long-term field trial to control the invasive Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with synthetic trail pheromone.

    PubMed

    Nishisue, K; Sunamura, E; Tanaka, Y; Sakamoto, H; Suzuki, S; Fukumoto, T; Terayama, M; Tatsuki, S

    2010-10-01

    Previous short-term experiments showed that trail following behavior of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), can be disrupted by a high concentration of synthetic trail pheromone component (Z)-9-hexadecenal. In this study, a long-term field trial was conducted in 100-m2 plots of house gardens in an urban area of Japan to see whether the control effect on Argentine ants can be obtained by permeating synthetic trail pheromone from dispensers. The dispensers were placed in the experimental plots during the ant's active season (April-November) for 2 yr with monthly renewal. To estimate Argentine ant population density, foraging activity of Argentine ants in the study plots was monitored by monthly bait surveys. Throughout the study period, Argentine ant foraging activity was suppressed in the presence of the dispensers, presumably via trail forming inhibition. In contrast, the level of foraging activity was not different between treatment and no-treatment plots when the dispensers were temporarily removed, suggesting that treatment with pheromone dispensers did not suppress Argentine ant density in the treatment plots. Population decline may be expected with larger-scale treatment that covers a significant portion of the ant colony or with improvement in the potency of the disruptant.

  16. Effects of aromatic cedar mulch on the Argentine ant and the odorous house ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Meissner, H E; Silverman, J

    2001-12-01

    In laboratory studies, the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), and the odorous house ant, Tapinoma sessile (Say), avoided aromatic cedar mulch as a nesting substrate. Both ant species were killed when confined with fresh aromatic cedar mulch in sealed containers. However, when confined with cedar mulch that had been aged outdoors for up to 140 d, mortality of L. humile was complete regardless of mulch age, whereas T. sessile mortality declined significantly over the mulch-aging period. Argentine ant susceptibility to aromatic cedar mulch was also greater than that of the odorous house ant when colonies were restricted to mulch in open trays. In addition, commercial aromatic cedar oil was lethal to both ant species. Our results suggest that aromatic cedar mulch may serve as an effective component of a comprehensive urban ant management program.

  17. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Enterococcus faecium Strains Isolated from Argentine Cheese.

    PubMed

    Martino, Gabriela P; Quintana, Ingrid M; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S; Gallina Nizo, Gabriel; Esteban, Luis; Magni, Christian

    2016-02-04

    We report the draft genome sequences of four Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from Argentine regional cheeses. These strains were selected based on their technological properties, i.e., their ability to produce aroma compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol) from citrate. The goal of our study is to provide further genetic evidence for the rational selection of enterococci strains based on their pheno- and genotype in order to be used in cheese production.

  18. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Enterococcus faecium Strains Isolated from Argentine Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Martino, Gabriela P.; Quintana, Ingrid M.; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S.; Gallina Nizo, Gabriel; Esteban, Luis

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequences of four Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from Argentine regional cheeses. These strains were selected based on their technological properties, i.e., their ability to produce aroma compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol) from citrate. The goal of our study is to provide further genetic evidence for the rational selection of enterococci strains based on their pheno- and genotype in order to be used in cheese production. PMID:26847907

  19. Vitrification Demonstration with Argentine Ion Exchange Material in the Stir-Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Cicero-Herman, C.A.

    2002-06-28

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is investigating the viability of vitrification treatment of Argentine ion exchange material as part of a Department of Energy (DOE) - Office of Science and Technology Development Task Plan. Bench-scale studies were performed by the SRTC to define the necessary vitrification process for this material. However, the process had to be demonstrated in a melter system before vitrification could be considered a viable treatment option.

  20. Survey of Argentine Health Researchers on the Use of Evidence in Policymaking

    PubMed Central

    Corluka, Adrijana; Hyder, Adnan A.; Segura, Elsa; Winch, Peter; McLean, Robert K. D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this study, Argentine health researchers were surveyed regarding their perceptions of facilitators and barriers to evidence-based policymaking in Argentina, as well as their publication activities, and research environment satisfaction. Methods A self-administered online survey was sent to health researchers in Argentina. The survey questions were based on a preceding qualitative study of Argentine health researchers, as well as the scientific literature. Results Of the 647 researchers that were reached, 226 accessed the survey, for a response rate of 34.9%. Over 80% of researchers surveyed had never been involved in or contributed to decision-making, while over 90% of researchers indicated they would like to be involved in the decision-making process. Decision-maker self-interest was perceived to be the driving factor in the development of health and healthcare policies. Research conducted by a research leader was seen to be the most influential factor in influencing health policy, followed by policy relevance of the research. With respect to their occupational environment, researchers rated highest and most favourably the opportunities available to present, discuss and publish research results and their ability to further their education and training. Argentine researchers surveyed demonstrated a strong interest and willingness to contribute their work and expertise to inform Argentine health policy development. Conclusion Despite Argentina’s long scientific tradition, there are relatively few institutionalized linkages between health research results and health policymaking. Based on the results of this study, the disconnect between political decision-making and the health research system, coupled with fewer opportunities for formalized or informal researcher/decision-maker interaction, contribute to the challenges in evidence informing health policymaking in Argentina. Improving personal contact and the building of relationships between

  1. Brazilian-Argentine Relations in the 1980s: from Wary Rivalry toward Friendly Competition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    premises is that attention should be drawn from territorial disputes to developmental issues. Brazil’s interest will move into cautious, modest, and almost...contrasted with a national defense concept. 3. Settlement of Argentine territorial disputes with Chile and at least attenuation of the Falklands...betterment in political relations and the shift from a territorial defense preoccupation toward a largely socio-economic concept of national security

  2. Assessment of the Applicability of Total Quality Leadership into the Argentine Army.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-03-01

    vocabulary. 2. The Department of Navy (DON) and Quality Most of the information of this section was derived from Suarez , J.G., Three Experts on Quality...examples in the Argentine Army of leaders who exemplify driving out fear. Col Miguel Enrique Chichizola was one example. He was in charge of the 601...Nonprofit Organization. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. 7. Suarez , J.G. 1992. Three Experts on Quality Management: Philip B. Crosby. W.Edwards

  3. Effect of aromatic cedar mulch on Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) foraging activity and nest establishment.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Heike E; Silverman, Jules

    2003-06-01

    In the laboratory, Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), mortality was positively correlated to the length of an aromatic cedar mulch section that had to be crossed before food could be reached. When ants could access food without crossing the mulch, mortality was not correlated to mulch section length. In the field, Argentine ants showed a tendency to avoid aromatic cedar mulch as a nesting substrate. In plant beds alongside buildings the number of ant nests (pockets containing brood) found was not significantly different between aromatic cedar and cypress mulch. However, when pine straw mulch around oak trees was replaced with aromatic cedar or cypress mulch, a similar number of ant nests was found in the cypress mulch as in the original pine straw, whereas numbers in aromatic cedar mulch were significantly lower. Also, fewer ants were trailing on the trees surrounded by aromatic cedar mulch compared with cypress mulch or the original pine straw. The number of ants attracted to apple jelly baits placed alongside the buildings did not differ between mulch types; neither did the number of ant trails crossing the mulch beds around the buildings. We suggest that aromatic cedar mulch may help control Argentine ants and reduce insecticide input when applied in combination with conventional control methods.

  4. [Preclinical assay of candid #1 vaccine against Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever made in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Ana M; Riera, Laura M; Saavedra, María del Carmen; Sottosanti, María J

    2005-01-01

    Candid #1 vaccine against Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever produced in USA versus lots of the same vaccine made in Argentina were compared in guinea pigs regarding safety, immunogenicity and protective efficacy against a challenge with pathogenic Junin virus. Lots No Exp 3, 7A and 8A of Argentine origin as well as lot TSI 5-1-92 from USA were inoculated in guinea pigs of 250-400 g in two consecutive assays. Ten animals inoculated with saline performed as normal controls in each experiment. Parameters studied were: a) temperature; b) body weight; c) neutralizing antibodies to Junin virus; d) response to viral challenge. Animals gained weight and remained normothermic up to the challenge. Guinea pigs that received Candid #1 from any manufacturer elicited neutralizing antibodies to Junin virus (titles from 40 to 81920) and survived to challenge whilst 8/10 animals died in each control group. Data presented demonstrated that Candid #1 vaccines from USA or Argentine manufacturers were equally safe, immunogenic and protective in guinea pigs.

  5. Hydrocarbon-released nestmate aggression in the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, following encounters with insect prey.

    PubMed

    Liang, D; Blomquist, G J; Silverman, J

    2001-07-01

    Argentine ants, Linepithema humile, were attacked by their nestmates following contact with a particular prey item, the brown-banded cockroach, Supella longipalpa. Contact with prey, as brief as 2 min, provoked nestmate aggression. Argentine ants contaminated with hydrocarbons extracted from S. longipalpa also released nestmate aggression behavior similar to that released by the whole prey item, confirming the involvement of hydrocarbons. In contrast to S. longipalpa, little or no nestmate aggression was induced by other ant prey from diverse taxa. A comparison of prey hydrocarbon profiles revealed that all hydrocarbons of S. longipalpa were very long chain components with 33 or more carbons, while other prey had either less, or none, of the very long chain hydrocarbons of 33 carbons or greater. We identified the hydrocarbons of S. longipalpa and some new groups of long chain hydrocarbons of L. humile. The majority of S. longipalpa hydrocarbons were 35 and 37 carbons in length with one to three methyl branches, and closely resembled two previously unidentified groups of compounds from L. humile of similar chain length. The hydrocarbons of S. longipalpa and L. humile were compared and their role in the Argentine ant nestmate recognition is discussed.

  6. The Haleakala Argentine ant project: a synthesis of past research and prospects for the future.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krushelnycky, Paul; Haines, William; Loope, Lloyd; Van Gelder, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    1. The Haleakala Argentine Ant Project is an ongoing effort to study the ecology of the invasive Argentine ant in the park, and if possible to develop a strategy to control this destructive species. 2. Past research has demonstrated that the Argentine ant causes very significant impacts on native arthropods where it invades, threatening a large portion of the park’s biodiversity in subalpine shrubland and alpine aeolian ecosystems. 3. Patterns of spread over the past 30+ years indicate that the invasion process is influenced to a substantial degree by abiotic factors such as elevation, rainfall and temperature, and that the ant has not reached its potential range. Predictions of total range in the park suggest that it has only invaded a small fraction of available suitable habitat, confirming that this species is one of most serious threats to the park’s natural resources. 4. Numerous experiments have been conducted since 1994 in an attempt to develop a method for eradicating the Argentine ant at Haleakala using pesticidal ant baits. Thirty baits have been screened for attractiveness to ants in the park, and ten of these were tested for effectiveness of control in field plots. While some of these baits have been very effective in reducing numbers of ants, none has been able to eliminate all nests in experimental plots. 5. Research into a secondary management goal of ant population containment was initiated in 1996. By treating only expanding margins of the park’s two ant populations with an ant pesticide, rates of outward spread were substantially reduced in some areas. While this strategy was implemented from 1997 to 2004, it was ultimately discontinued after 2004 because of the difficulty and insufficient effectiveness of the technique. 6. In order to achieve the types of results necessary for eradication, the project would probably need to explore the possibility of developing a specialized bait, rather than relying on a commercially produced bait. An

  7. Isolation of Mycobacteria from Frozen Fish Destined for Human Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Mediel, M. J.; Rodriguez, V.; Codina, G.; Martin-Casabona, N.

    2000-01-01

    Mycobacteria were isolated from defrost water and tissue of sole (Solea solea), hake (Merluccius merluccius), cod (Gadus morhua), ling (Genypterus blacodes), and monkfish (Lophius piscatorius) on Löwenstein-Jensen medium after incubation at different temperatures. Samples of frozen fish were obtained under sterile conditions inside a refrigeration chamber (−18 to −22°C) in a wholesale market from which these products are distributed to shops for retail sale and human consumption. PMID:10919833

  8. Equity during an economic crisis: financing of the Argentine health system.

    PubMed

    Cavagnero, Eleonora; Bilger, Marcel

    2010-07-01

    This article analyses the redistributive effect caused by health financing and the distribution of healthcare utilization in Argentina before and during the severe 2001/2002 economic crisis. Both dramatically changed during this period: the redistributive effect became much more positive and utilization shifted from pro-poor to pro-rich. This clearly demonstrates that when utilization is contingent on financing, changes can occur rapidly; and that an integrated approach is required when monitoring equity. From a policy perspective, the Argentine health system appears vulnerable to economic downturns mainly due to high reliance on out-of-pocket payments and the strong link between health insurance and employment.

  9. Tolerance and antiviral effect of ribavirin in patients with Argentine hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Enria, D A; Briggiler, A M; Levis, S; Vallejos, D; Maiztegui, J I; Canonico, P G

    1987-07-01

    Tolerance and antiviral effect of ribavirin was studied in 6 patients with Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF) of more than 8 days of evolution. Administration of ribavirin resulted in a neutralization of viremia and a drop of endogenous interferon titers. The average time of death was delayed. A reversible anemia was the only adverse effect observed. From these results, we conclude that ribavirin has an antiviral effect in advanced cases of AHF, and that anemia, the only secondary reaction observed, can be easily managed. The possible beneficial effect of ribavirin during the initial days of AHF is discussed.

  10. In vitro antibacterial activity of Argentine folk medicinal plants against Salmonella typhi.

    PubMed

    Pérez, C; Anesini, C

    1994-08-01

    Boiling water extracts of 132 samples from 54 plant families, commonly used in Argentine folk medicine, were screened for antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhi. The agar-well diffusion method was used. A reference concentration-response curve for ampicillin was used to estimate the apparent activity of the samples. Twenty four species showed antibacterial activity. Cassia occidentalis roots, Heimia salicifolia aerial parts, Punica granatum fruit pericarp and Rosa borboniana flowers produced some of the more active extracts. Taking into account the multiple resistance of Salmonella typhi, these findings could be useful in the search for new clinically useful antimicrobials.

  11. A new species of Havelockia Pearson, 1903 from the Argentine Sea (Holothuroidea: Dendrochirotida: Sclerodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Martinez, Mariano I; Thandar, Ahmed S; Penchaszadeh, Pablo E

    2013-02-04

    Havelockia pegi sp. nov., is here described from shallow waters of the Argentine Sea. This new species is distinctive in the purple colouration of its tentacles, scarcity of body wall ossicles and the presence of rosette-shaped ossicles in both the introvert and the tentacles. It is not closely related to any of its congenors. This is the first record of a true sclerodactylid from Argentina. Thandarum hernandezi Martinez & Brogger, 2012, described in the family Sclerodactylidae, is now classified in the family Sclerothyonidae.

  12. Geographical potential of Argentine ants (Linepithema humile Mayr) in the face of global climate change.

    PubMed Central

    Roura-Pascual, Núria; Suarez, Andrew V.; Gómez, Crisanto; Pons, Pere; Touyama, Yoshifumi; Wild, Alexander L.; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2004-01-01

    Determining the spread and potential geographical distribution of invasive species is integral to making invasion biology a predictive science. We assembled a dataset of over 1000 occurrences of the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile), one of the world's worst invasive alien species. Native to central South America, Argentine ants are now found in many Mediterranean and subtropical climates around the world. We used this dataset to assess the species' potential geographical and ecological distribution, and to examine changes in its distributional potential associated with global climate change, using techniques for ecological niche modelling. Models developed were highly predictive of the species' overall range, including both the native distributional area and invaded areas worldwide. Despite its already widespread occurrence, L. humile has potential for further spread, with tropical coastal Africa and southeast Asia apparently vulnerable to invasion. Projecting ecological niche models onto four general circulation model scenarios of future (2050s) climates provided scenarios of the species' potential for distributional expansion with warming climates: generally, the species was predicted to retract its range in tropical regions, but to expand at higher latitude areas. PMID:15615677

  13. Potential application of Northern Argentine propolis to control some phytopathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, R M; Zampini, I C; Moreno, M I Nieva; Isla, M I

    2011-10-20

    The antimicrobial activity of samples of Northern Argentine propolis (Tucumán, Santiago del Estero and Chaco) against phytopathogenic bacteria was assessed and the most active samples were identified. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined by agar macrodilution and broth microdilution assays. Strong antibacterial activity was detected against Erwinia carotovora spp carotovora CECT 225, Pseudomonas syringae pvar tomato CECT 126, Pseudomonas corrugata CECT 124 and Xanthomonas campestris pvar vesicatoria CECT 792. The most active propolis extract (Tucumán, T1) was selected to bioguide isolation and identified for antimicrobial compound (2',4'-dihydroxychalcone). The antibacterial chalcone was more active than the propolis ethanolic extract (MIC values of 0.5-1 μg ml(-1) and 9.5-15 μg ml(-1), respectively). Phytotoxicity assays were realized and the propolis extracts did not retard germination of lettuce seeds or the growth of onion roots. Propolis solutions applied as sprays on tomato fruits infected with P. syringae reduced the severity of disease. Application of the Argentine propolis extracts diluted with water may be promising for the management of post harvest diseases of fruits.

  14. [Detection of a founder mutation in an Argentine family with hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Gómez, Laura; Adi, José; Ibarra, Jorge; Roqué, María

    2010-01-01

    Hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) has been related to mutations in the DNA mismatch repair genes (MLH1, MSH2 y MSH6). Mutation detection analysis requires the complete sequencing of these genes, given the high frequency of family-specific alterations. A point mutation (2269-2270insT) in the last codon of the MLH1 gene has been detected in families from a northern region of Italy (Reggio Emilia).Given that this alteration was registered only in people from this region, it has been considered a founder mutation. In this work, we present an Argentine HNPCC family whose ancestors were natives from the Reggio Emilia, Italy, and who were carriers for this mutation. In order to detect the genetic alteration, a PCR was developed followed by a restriction enzyme incubation assay. The mutation was detected in 3 family members, two of them without clinical symptoms. The PCR/restriction enzyme methodology has been sensitive and specific for the detection of this mutation. It has allowed the performance of a pre-symptomatic genetic diagnosis in the Argentine HNPCC family, avoiding sending samples abroad. It is worth mentioning that pre-symptomatic diagnosis of hereditary cancers allows enhanced surveillance and support for the affected families when it is performed by a multidisciplinary group.

  15. Determination of TBT in water and sediment samples along the Argentine Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    de Waisbaum, R G; Rodriguez, C; Nudelman, N Sbarbati

    2010-11-01

    Cases of imposex have been reported for some organisms living in areas of the Argentine Atlantic coast. Since this is one of the known effects of the anti-fouling agent tributyltin (TBT), quantitative determinations of organotins in samples of water and sediments collected from sites along the Argentine coast were carried out. Severe cases of imposex were first reported for two gastropod species living in the Mar del Plata area, and determinations of TBT in samples collected from this site gave extremely high values and showed a close correlation between the degree of imposex and TBT concentration. Recent investigations in the area have shown a significant decrease. Surveys were also conducted in sites that exhibit highly irregular coastal profiles to examine the relevance of physical environments. Alarming concentrations of TBT were determined in most of the sites where heavy boat traffic and/or marine activities occur, demonstrating the urgent need for regulations to avoid further input of TBT. Reports from other sites in South America reveal that this should be a subject of regional concern in order to avoid severe damage to the biodiversity of regional marine organisms.

  16. Nutrition and interference competition have interactive effects on the behavior and performance of Argentine ants.

    PubMed

    Kay, Adam D; Zumbusch, Taylor; Heinen, Justa L; Marsh, Tom C; Holway, David A

    2010-01-01

    Food availability often influences competitive outcomes through effects on consumer growth. Although it has received less attention, food availability may also affect competition through nutritional effects on behavior. One hypothesis linking nutrition and competition in ants posits that increased access to carbohydrates favors greater investment in worker traits that underlie behavioral dominance. We tested this hypothesis by varying dietary protein:carbohydrate (P:C) ratios and levels of interspecific interference for Argentine ants (Linepithema humile), a widespread invasive species. As predicted, colonies facing interference increased patrolling more when reared on low P:C diets; this result is the first demonstration of an interactive effect of nutrition and interference on ant colonies. Several results suggest that this dietary effect on patrolling was due primarily to changes in colony size rather than worker behavior. Colonies on lower P:C diets had lower worker mortality and larger final colony sizes. Diet had little effect on per capita patrolling, and worker behavior in performance assays depended more on previous exposure to interference than on diet. Our findings indicate that dietary P:C ratios can influence Argentine ant performance in a competitive environment and suggest a mechanism by which monopolization of carbohydrate-rich resources can help invasive ants displace native ant competitors.

  17. Quantitative analysis of the effects of the exotic Argentine ant on seed-dispersal mutualisms

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Cabal, Mariano A.; Stuble, Katharine L.; Nuñez, Martin A.; Sanders, Nathan J.

    2009-01-01

    Although it is increasingly clear that exotic invasive species affect seed-dispersal mutualisms, a synthetic examination of the effect of exotic invasive species on seed-dispersal mutualisms is lacking. Here, we review the impacts of the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) on seed dispersal. We found that sites with L. humile had 92 per cent fewer native ant seed dispersers than did sites where L. humile was absent. In addition, L. humile did not replace native seed dispersers, as rates of seed removal and seedling establishment were all lower in the presence of L. humile than in its absence. We conclude that potential shifts in plant diversity and concomitant changes in ecosystem function may be a consequence of Argentine ant invasions, as well as invasions by other ant species. Because very few studies have examined the effects of non-ant invasive species on seed-dispersal mutualisms, the prevalence of disruption of seed-dispersal mutualisms by invasive species is unclear. PMID:19465575

  18. Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) use adaptable transportation networks to track changes in resource quality.

    PubMed

    Latty, Tanya; Holmes, Michael J; Makinson, James C; Beekman, Madeleine

    2017-02-15

    Transportation networks play a crucial role in human and animal societies. For a transportation network to be efficient, it must have adequate capacity to meet traffic demand. Network design becomes increasingly difficult in situations where traffic demand can change unexpectedly. In humans, network design is often constrained by path dependency because it is difficult to move a road once it is built. A similar issue theoretically faces pheromone-trail-laying social insects; once a trail has been laid, positive feedback makes re-routing difficult because new trails cannot compete with continually reinforced pre-existing trails. In the present study, we examined the response of Argentine ant colonies and their trail networks to variable environments where resources differ in quality and change unexpectedly. We found that Argentine ant colonies effectively tracked changes in food quality such that colonies allocated the highest proportion of foragers to the most rewarding feeder. Ant colonies maximised access to high concentration feeders by building additional trails and routes connecting the nest to the feeder. Trail networks appeared to form via a pruning process in which lower traffic trails were gradually removed from the network. At the same time, we observed several instances where new trails appear to have been built to accommodate a surge in demand. The combination of trail building when traffic demand is high and trail pruning when traffic demand is low results in a demand-driven network formation system that allows ants to monopolise multiple dynamic resources.

  19. Portrayals of character smoking and drinking in Argentine-, Mexican- and US-produced films.

    PubMed

    Kollath-Cattano, Christy; Abad-Vivero, Erika N; Mejia, Raul; Perez-Hernandez, Rosaura; Sargent, James D; Thrasher, James F

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess film character portrayals of tobacco and alcohol use in US and nationally-produced films that were popular in Argentina and Mexico from 2004-2012. We performed a content analysis of these films (n=82 Argentine, 91 Mexican, and 908 US films, respectively). Chi-squares and t-tests were used to compare characteristics of characters who smoked or drank by country of movie production. Then data from all countries were pooled, and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to determine independent correlates of character smoking or drinking. There were 480 major characters for Argentine-, 364 for Mexican-, and 4962 for US-produced films. Smoking prevalence among movie characters was similar to population smoking prevalence in Mexico (21%) and Argentina (26%), but about half in the US (11%), where movie product placements are restricted. Movie smoking declined over the period in all three countries. Movie alcohol prevalence was 40-50% across all countries and did not change with time. Demographic predictors of character smoking included: being male, 18 and older, having negative character valence. Movie smoking was not associated with lower SES. Predictors of character drinking included: being age 18 and older and positive character valence. Smoking and drinking predicted each other, illicit drug use, and higher scores for other risk behaviors. This suggests that policy development in Mexico and Argentina may be necessary to reduce the amount of character tobacco and alcohol use in films.

  20. Optimisation in a natural system: Argentine ants solve the Towers of Hanoi.

    PubMed

    Reid, Chris R; Sumpter, David J T; Beekman, Madeleine

    2011-01-01

    Natural systems are a source of inspiration for computer algorithms designed to solve optimisation problems. Yet most 'nature-inspired' algorithms take only superficial inspiration from biology, and little is known about how real biological systems solve difficult problems. Moreover, ant algorithms, neural networks and similar methods are usually applied to static problems, whereas most biological systems have evolved to perform under dynamically changing conditions. We used the Towers of Hanoi puzzle to test whether Argentine ants can solve a potentially difficult optimisation problem. We also tested whether the ants can adapt to dynamic changes in the problem. We mapped all possible solutions to the Towers of Hanoi on a single graph and converted this into a maze for the ants to solve. We show that the ants are capable of solving the Towers of Hanoi, and are able to adapt when sections of the maze are blocked off and new sections installed. The presence of exploration pheromone increased the efficiency of the resulting network and increased the ants' ability to adapt to changing conditions. Contrary to previous studies, our study shows that mass-recruiting ant species such as the Argentine ant can forage effectively in a dynamic environment. Our results also suggest that novel optimisation algorithms can benefit from stronger biological mimicry.

  1. Geographical potential of Argentine ants (Linepithema humile Mayr) in the face of global climate change.

    PubMed

    Roura-Pascual, Núria; Suarez, Andrew V; Gómez, Crisanto; Pons, Pere; Touyama, Yoshifumi; Wild, Alexander L; Peterson, A Townsend

    2004-12-22

    Determining the spread and potential geographical distribution of invasive species is integral to making invasion biology a predictive science. We assembled a dataset of over 1000 occurrences of the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile), one of the world's worst invasive alien species. Native to central South America, Argentine ants are now found in many Mediterranean and subtropical climates around the world. We used this dataset to assess the species' potential geographical and ecological distribution, and to examine changes in its distributional potential associated with global climate change, using techniques for ecological niche modelling. Models developed were highly predictive of the species' overall range, including both the native distributional area and invaded areas worldwide. Despite its already widespread occurrence, L. humile has potential for further spread, with tropical coastal Africa and southeast Asia apparently vulnerable to invasion. Projecting ecological niche models onto four general circulation model scenarios of future (2050s) climates provided scenarios of the species' potential for distributional expansion with warming climates: generally, the species was predicted to retract its range in tropical regions, but to expand at higher latitude areas.

  2. Differential use of the Argentine shelf by wintering adults and juveniles southern giant petrels, Macronectes giganteus, from Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Gabriela S.; Quintana, Flavio

    2014-08-01

    To study habitat use and at-sea movements of southern giant petrels (SGP) during non-breeding period, we deployed 15 satellite transmitters (six adults, nine juveniles) at Isla Arce and Isla Gran Robredo colonies in Patagonia, Argentina. Birds were instrumented during 81.4 ± 37 days. Adult birds used 74% of the Argentine shelf concentrating mainly at the shelf break, middle shelf waters, and the surroundings of the colony. After fledging, juveniles spread to the Argentine, Uruguayan and Brazilian shelves within the South Atlantic. Adults alternated at-sea excursions (12 ± 5 days) with periods at the colony of 3 ± 0.3 days. Contrarily, juveniles moved first to the shelf break and then traveled northwards reaching the south of Brazil. There was some spatial overlap between age classes, but only during the first 30 days after juveniles had fledged; thereafter there was not overlap between the areas used by both age classes. The Argentine shelf is widely used by different species offering a suitable environment for foraging; this may be why adults SGP from Patagonian colonies spend all year-round within the Argentine shelf. The identification of used areas of non-breeding SGP fills a gap in the species knowledge contributing not only to the preservation the species, but also to the management of marine areas globally recognized as important for many other Procellariiformes.

  3. Sea Level and Ocean Bottom Pressure Variations From Altimetry, Mercator Model and GRACE Mission in the Argentine Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Garcia, D.; Boy, J.; Chao, B. F.

    2008-12-01

    Sea Level Variations (SLV) in the Argentine basin, as already observed from space altimetry missions, show one of the most prominent variances in the oceans. Here we study two major signals in the Argentine basin, the annual and submonthly SLV signals, based on altimetry, various hydrographic data, and the time-variable gravity data from the GRACE mission. We demonstrate that the annual variation is mainly driven by density variations of the water column, that is the steric-SLV. In contrast, the submonthly SLV in the form of the so- called Argentine gyre, a barotropic counterclockwise gyre with a period around 25 days, is mainly mass- induced, that is, mostly produced by mass variations in the region [Fu et al. 2000]. The Argentine gyre signal is well reproduced by the MERCATOR ocean circulation (and bottom pressure) model, unlike the annual signal. We show that now the aliased form (into monthly sampling) is also captured in the GRACE time- variable gravity data after applying appropriated filters; further study awaits higher temporal-resolution GRACE data.

  4. Valvulopathy consistent with endocarditis in an Argentine boa (Boa constrictor occidentalis).

    PubMed

    Wernick, Morena B; Novo-Matos, José; Ebling, Alessia; Kühn, Karolin; Ruetten, Maja; Hilbe, Monika; Howard, Judith; Chang, Rita; Prohaska, Sarah; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2015-03-01

    An Argentine boa (Boa constrictor occidentalis) of 5 yr 7 mo of age was presented for respiratory problems and regurgitation. Radiographs revealed evidence of cardiomegaly and pneumonia. Blood smear examination revealed the presence of intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in peripheral lymphocytes, consistent with inclusion body disease. Cultures of a tracheal wash sample resulted in growth of Ochrobactrum intermedium and Pseudomonas putida. Echocardiographic examination revealed a large vegetative lesion on the right atrioventricular valve with valvular insufficiency, a mildly dilated right atrium, and pulmonary hypertension. Postmortem examination confirmed the presence of pneumonia and bacterial endocarditis with dystrophic mineralization of the right atrioventricular valve, associated with different bacteria than those cultured from the tracheal wash. The present case is the first report of endocarditis in a boa constrictor and contributes to the rare reports of cardiac disease in snakes.

  5. Basis for the implementation of digital signature in Argentine's health environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, P. P.; Formica, M.

    2007-11-01

    The growth of telemedical applications and electronic transactions in health environments is paced by the constant technology evolution. This implies a big cultural change in traditional medicine and in hospital information systems' users which arrival is delayed, basically, by the lack of solid laws and a well defined role-based infrastructure. The use of digital signature as a mean of identification, authentication, confidentiality and non-repudiation is the most suitable tool for assuring the electronic transactions and patient's data protection. The implementation of a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) in health environment allows for authentication, encryption and use of digital signature for assuring confidentiality and control of the movement of sensitive information. This work defines the minimum technological, legal and procedural basis for a successful PKI implementation and establishes the roles for the different actors in the chain of confidence in the public health environment of Argentine.

  6. Adjective checklist to assess the big five personality factors in the Argentine population.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, Rubén D; Sánchez, Roberto; Díaz-Lázaro, Carlos M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop an adjective checklist to assess the Big Five personality factors in the Argentine population. The new instrument was administered to pilot (n= 112), validation (n= 372), and replication (n= 309) samples. The final version of the checklist included 67 adjectives encompassing its 5 dimensions. Factor analysis results were consistent with the Five-factor model. Internal consistency of scales was very good and convergent correlations with the Big Five Inventory (BFI; John, Donahue, & Kentle, 1991) were substantial. Face validity, as evaluated by 2 independent raters, was good. Preliminary evidence of validity for the checklist is presented. Finally, the Adjective Checklist for Personality Assessment and BFI are compared, taking into consideration their psychometric properties in our cultural context. Study limitations and future research are discussed.

  7. Screening of plants used in Argentine folk medicine for antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Anesini, C; Perez, C

    1993-06-01

    Screening of 132 extracts from Argentine folk-medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity has been conducted using a penicillin G resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Aspergillus niger as test microorganisms. Cephazolin, ampicillin and miconazole were used as standard antibiotics and concentration-response curves were obtained using the agar-well diffusion method. Boiling water extracts of plant materials were tested and 12 species were active against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas 10 were effective against Escherichia coli and 4 against Aspergillus niger. Tabebuia impetiginosa bark, Achyrocline sp. aerials parts, Larrea divaricata leaves, Rosa borboniana flowers, Punica granatum fruit pericarp, Psidium guineense fruit pericarp, Lithrea ternifolia leaves and Allium sativum bulbs produced some of the more active extracts.

  8. Protective efficacy of a live attenuated vaccine against Argentine hemorrhagic fever. AHF Study Group.

    PubMed

    Maiztegui, J I; McKee, K T; Barrera Oro, J G; Harrison, L H; Gibbs, P H; Feuillade, M R; Enria, D A; Briggiler, A M; Levis, S C; Ambrosio, A M; Halsey, N A; Peters, C J

    1998-02-01

    Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF), caused by the arenavirus Junin, is a major public health problem among agricultural workers in Argentina. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, efficacy trial of Candid 1, a live attenuated Junin virus vaccine, was conducted over two consecutive epidemic seasons among 6500 male agricultural workers in the AHF-endemic region. Twenty-three men developed laboratory-confirmed AHF during the study; 22 received placebo and 1 received vaccine (vaccine efficacy 95%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 82%-99%). Three additional subjects in each group developed laboratory-confirmed Junin virus infection associated with mild illnesses that did not fulfill the clinical case definition for AHF, yielding a protective efficacy for prevention of any illness associated with Junin virus infection of 84% (95% CI, 60%-94%). No serious adverse events were attributed to vaccination. Candid 1, the first vaccine for the prevention of illness caused by an arenavirus, is safe and highly efficacious.

  9. Junin virus replication in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with Argentine haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, M; Vallejos, A; Saavedra, C; Maiztegui, J I

    1990-02-01

    To study the relationship of Junin virus (JV) to populations of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with Argentine Haemorrhagic Fever (AHF), blood samples were obtained during the acute period of disease and cultured as total, adherent, and non-adherent cell populations. JV was sequentially sought in these cell populations by using an Infectious Centre (IC) assay, whereas free JV in the supernatants was evaluated by plaque formation. IC were obtained in cultures of total PBMC from 8 out of 19 patients. Maximum numbers of IC showed high variation among patients, ranging from 3 to 410 IC per 10(6) viable PBMC. In contrast, IC were sporadically demonstrated in the non-adherent cell population. The release of JV into culture supernatants was detected only in total PBMC cultures, thus in the presence of macrophages. These results demonstrate that circulating monocytes (macrophages) are targets for JV replication contributing to the viral spread in the acute phase of AHF.

  10. Use of remote sensing and GIS to identify Flamingo habitat in the Argentine Altiplano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyle, Susan C.; Hoffer, Roger M.; Boyle, Terence P.; Bucher, Enrique H.

    1992-01-01

    The Argentine altiplano is a remote area which has never been adequately mapped. It is an arid region with harsh climate, little vegetation, sparse population, and an average elevation of over 3,500 feet. Little is known about the large populations of three species of flamingos which nest and feed in the altiplano lakes. In a study funded by the National Geographic Society satellite data (Landsat MSS and TM data) were used to map the location of major water bodies and to analyze the spectral characteristics of the aquatic ecosystems in the altiplano. A comparison of the two images revealed dramatic changes in the size, depth, and spectral reflectance of the lakes utilized by the flamingos.

  11. Development and validation of an Argentine set of facial expressions of emotion.

    PubMed

    Vaiman, Marcelo; Wagner, Mónica Anna; Caicedo, Estefanía; Pereno, Germán Leandro

    2017-02-01

    Pictures of facial expressions of emotion are used in a wide range of experiments. The last decade has seen an increase in the number of studies presenting local sets of emotion stimuli. However, only a few existing sets contain pictures of Latin Americans, despite the growing attention emotion research is receiving in this region. Here we present the development and validation of the Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Expresiones de Emociones Faciales (UNCEEF), a Facial Action Coding System (FACS)-verified set of pictures of Argentineans expressing the six basic emotions, plus neutral expressions. FACS scores, recognition rates, Hu scores, and discrimination indices are reported. Evidence of convergent validity was obtained using the Pictures of Facial Affect in an Argentine sample. However, recognition accuracy was greater for UNCEEF. The importance of local sets of emotion pictures is discussed.

  12. The widespread collapse of an invasive species: Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Cooling, Meghan; Hartley, Stephen; Sim, Dalice A; Lester, Philip J

    2012-06-23

    Synergies between invasive species and climate change are widely considered to be a major biodiversity threat. However, invasive species are also hypothesized to be susceptible to population collapse, as we demonstrate for a globally important invasive species in New Zealand. We observed Argentine ant populations to have collapsed in 40 per cent of surveyed sites. Populations had a mean survival time of 14.1 years (95% CI = 12.9-15.3 years). Resident ant communities had recovered or partly recovered after their collapse. Our models suggest that climate change will delay colony collapse, as increasing temperature and decreasing rainfall significantly increased their longevity, but only by a few years. Economic and environmental costs of invasive species may be small if populations collapse on their own accord.

  13. First finding of melanic sylvatic Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) colonies in the Argentine Chaco.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, L A; Piccinali, R V; Berkunsky, I; Kitron, U; Gürtler, R E

    2009-09-01

    Triatoma infestans (Klug), the most important vector of Chagas disease in southern South America, is a highly domiciliated species with well-known sylvatic foci only in the Bolivian Andean valleys and in the Bolivian Chaco, where melanic insects designated as "dark morphs" were found. After the tentative identification of two melanic bugs collected from parrot nests in a forest reserve in the Argentine Chaco as T. infestans, we conducted an intensive search there using mouse-baited sticky traps in summer 2006 and 2007. Four live T. infestans bugs were collected in trees without parrot nests in 288 trap-nights, whereas no bug was collected from inside trees with active parrot nests in 51 trap-nights. To increase bug captures, hollow tree trunks that recently had had Amazona aestiva (Berlepsch) and Aratinga acuticaudata (Vieillot) parrot nests were treated with insecticide fumigant canisters exhibiting strong knockdown power. Four (22%) of 18 trees were positive for T. infestans with a dark phenotype. A fragment of the mitochondrial gene COI of 8 of the 14 triatomine bugs collected was successfully sequenced and confirmed as T. infestans. Most of the bugs were captured from Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco (Schlechter) hollow tree trunks harboring parrot nests. All of the T. infestans collected from the nearest house located at 10 km from the sylvatic foci displayed normal chromatic characters. The repeated finding of T. infestans in sylvatic habitats, albeit at very low density, shows that this species is capable of maintaining viable sylvatic foci in the absence of human hosts and immigration from domestic populations. These are the first confirmed findings of sylvatic T. infestans colonies in Argentina and of dark morphs in the Argentine Chaco.

  14. First Finding of Melanic Sylvatic Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Colonies in the Argentine Chaco

    PubMed Central

    CEBALLOS, L. A.; PICCINALI, R. V.; BERKUNSKY, I.; KITRON, U.; GÜRTLER, R. E.

    2009-01-01

    Triatoma infestans (Klug), the most important vector of Chagas disease in southern South America, is a highly domiciliated species with well-known sylvatic foci only in the Bolivian Andean valleys and in the Bolivian Chaco, where melanic insects designated as “dark morphs” were found. After the tentative identification of two melanic bugs collected from parrot nests in a forest reserve in the Argentine Chaco as T. infestans, we conducted an intensive search there using mouse-baited sticky traps in summer 2006 and 2007. Four live T. infestans bugs were collected in trees without parrot nests in 288 trap-nights, whereas no bug was collected from inside trees with active parrot nests in 51 trap-nights. To increase bug captures, hollow tree trunks that recently had had Amazona aestiva (Berlepsch) and Aratinga acuticaudata (Vieillot) parrot nests were treated with insecticide fumigant canisters exhibiting strong knockdown power. Four (22%) of 18 trees were positive for T. infestans with a dark phenotype. A fragment of the mitochondrial gene COI of 8 of the 14 triatomine bugs collected was successfully sequenced and confirmed as T. infestans. Most of the bugs were captured from Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco (Schlechter) hollow tree trunks harboring parrot nests. All of the T. infestans collected from the nearest house located at 10 km from the sylvatic foci displayed normal chromatic characters. The repeated finding of T. infestans in sylvatic habitats, albeit at very low density, shows that this species is capable of maintaining viable sylvatic foci in the absence of human hosts and immigration from domestic populations. These are the first confirmed findings of sylvatic T. infestans colonies in Argentina and of dark morphs in the Argentine Chaco. PMID:19769054

  15. Consequences of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), invasion on pollination of Euphorbia characias (L.) (Euphorbiaceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blancafort, Xavier; Gómez, Crisanto

    2005-07-01

    We have studied the influence of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, on the pollination of Euphorbia characias, a deciduous insect-pollinated shrub. The observations were made in two adjacent areas (invaded and non-invaded by L. humile) in a Mediterranean cork-oak forest. In the invaded area, L. humile has replaced most of the native ants that climb up this plant's inflorescences. Five native ant species were detected in the non-invaded areas and only one in the invaded area. The number of visitors to infested inflorescences (1.54 ± 1.86 visitors/10 min observation) was lower than in non-infested inflorescences in the invaded area (3.74 ± 4.19 visitors/10'), and in the non-invaded areas (4.16 ± 5.00 visits/10'). For several species of flower-visiting insects, no differences were detected between the time spent in the flowers and the number of flowers visited in the two areas, except for Eristalis tenax, a dipteran which visited more flowers (15.2 ± 11.1 flowers visited/10') and spent more time (9.4 ± 5.8 sec) in the non-invaded area than in the invaded area (7.8 ± 8.2 flowers visited/10' and 5.3 ± 2.1 sec, respectively). The relative representation of insect orders in the two areas was not different. A significant reduction in fruit-set and seed-set was detected in the invaded area. These results suggest that the Argentine ant may greatly affect the reproductive success of components of the Mediterranean flora.

  16. Can the Argentine ant ( Linepithema humile Mayr) replace native ants in myrmecochory?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Crisanto; Oliveras, Jordi

    2003-04-01

    We analyse the influence of the Argentine ant ( Linepithema humile Mayr) on the seed dispersal process of the myrmecochorous plants Euphorbia characias, E. biumbellata, Genista linifolia, G. triflora, G. monspessulana and Sarothamnus arboreus. The observations were made in two study plots of Mediterranean cork-oak secondary forest (invaded and non-invaded by L. humile). The presence of L. humile implies the displacement of all native ant species that disperse seeds. Seed transports in the non-invaded zone were carried out by eight ant species. In the invaded zone, L. humile workers removed and transported seeds to the nest. In vertebrate exclusion trials, we observed the same level of seed removal in the invaded and non-invaded zones. Two findings could explain this result. Although mean time to seed localization was higher for native ants (431.7 s) than that for L. humile (150.5 s), the mean proportion of seeds transported after being detected was higher (50.1%) in non-invaded than in invaded (16.8%) zones. The proportion of seeds removed and transported into an ant nest after an ant-seed interaction had dramatically reduced from non-invaded (41.9%) to invaded (7.4%) zones. The levels of seed dispersal by ants found prior to invasion are unlikely to be maintained in invaded zones. However, total replacement of seed dispersal function is possible if contact iteration finally offers similar levels or quantities of seeds reaching the nests. The results obtained confirm that the Argentine ant invasion may affect myrmecochory dramatically in the Mediterranean biome.

  17. By their own devices: invasive Argentine ants have shifted diet without clear aid from symbiotic microbes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi; Holway, David A; Łukasik, Piotr; Chau, Linh; Kay, Adam D; LeBrun, Edward G; Miller, Katie A; Sanders, Jon G; Suarez, Andrew V; Russell, Jacob A

    2017-03-01

    The functions and compositions of symbiotic bacterial communities often correlate with host ecology. Yet cause-effect relationships and the order of symbiont vs. host change remain unclear in the face of ancient symbioses and conserved host ecology. Several groups of ants exemplify this challenge, as their low-nitrogen diets and specialized symbioses appear conserved and ancient. To address whether nitrogen-provisioning symbionts might be important in the early stages of ant trophic shifts, we studied bacteria from the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile - an invasive species that has transitioned towards greater consumption of sugar-rich, nitrogen-poor foods in parts of its introduced range. Bacteria were present at low densities in most L. humile workers, and among those yielding quality 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing data, we found just three symbionts to be common and dominant. Two, a Lactobacillus and an Acetobacteraceae species, were shared between native and introduced populations. The other, a Rickettsia, was found only in two introduced supercolonies. Across an eight-year period of trophic reduction in one introduced population, we found no change in symbionts, arguing against a relationship between natural dietary change and microbiome composition. Overall, our findings thus argue against major changes in symbiotic bacteria in association with the invasion and trophic shift of L. humile. In addition, genome content from close relatives of the identified symbionts suggests that just one can synthesize most essential amino acids; this bacterium was only modestly abundant in introduced populations, providing little support for a major role of nitrogen-provisioning symbioses in Argentine ant's dietary shift.

  18. Floral visitation by the Argentine ant reduces bee visitation and plant seed set.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Cause; Naughton, Ida; Boser, Christina; Alarcón, Ruben; Hung, Keng-Lou James; Holway, David

    2015-01-01

    Ants often visit flowers, but have only seldom been documented to provide effective pollination services. Floral visitation by ants can also compromise plant reproduction in situations where ants interfere with more effective pollinators. Introduced ants may be especially likely to reduce plant reproductive success through floral visitation, but existing experimental studies have found little support for this hypothesis. Here, we combine experimental and observational approaches to examine the importance of floral visitation by the nonnative Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) on plant species native to Santa Cruz Island, California, USA. First, we determine how L. humile affects floral visitor diversity, bee visitation rates, and levels of pollen limitation for the common, focal plant species island morning glory (Calystegia macrostegia ssp. macrostegia). Second, we assess the broader ecological consequences of floral visitation by L. humile by comparing floral visitation networks between invaded and uninvaded sites. The Argentine ant and native ants both visited island morning glory flowers, but L. humile was much more likely to behave aggressively towards other floral visitors and to be the sole floral occupant. The presence of L. humile in morning glory flowers reduced floral visitor diversity, decreased rates of bee visitation, and increased levels of pollen limitation. Network comparisons between invaded and uninvaded. sites revealed differences in both network structure and species-level attributes. In. invaded sites, floral visitors were observed on fewer plant species, ants had a higher per-plant interaction strength relative to that of other visitors, and interaction strengths between bees and plants were weaker. These results illustrate that introduced ants can negatively affect plant reproduction and potentially disrupt pollination services at an ecosystem scale.

  19. Floral visitation by the Argentine ant reduces pollinator visitation and seed set in the coast barrel cactus, Ferocactus viridescens.

    PubMed

    LeVan, Katherine E; Hung, Keng-Lou James; McCann, Kyle R; Ludka, John T; Holway, David A

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that trade-offs between plant defense and reproduction arise not only from resource allocation but also from interactions among mutualists. Indirect costs of plant defense by ants, for example, can outweigh benefits if ants deter pollinators. Plants can dissuade ants from occupying flowers, but such arrangements may break down when novel ant partners infiltrate mutualisms. Here, we examine how floral visitation by ants affects pollination services when the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) replaces a native ant species in a food-for-protection mutualism with the coast barrel cactus (Ferocactus viridescens), which, like certain other barrel cacti, produces extrafloral nectar. We compared the effects of floral visitation by the Argentine ant with those of the most prevalent native ant species (Crematogaster californica). Compared to C. californica, the Argentine ant was present in higher numbers in flowers. Cactus bees (Diadasia spp.), the key pollinators in this system, spent less time in flowers when cacti were occupied by the Argentine ant compared to when cacti were occupied by C. californica. Presumably as a consequence of decreased duration of floral visits by Diadasia, cacti occupied by L. humile set fewer seeds per fruit and produced fewer seeds overall compared to cacti occupied by C. californica. These data illustrate the importance of mutualist identity in cases where plants balance multiple mutualisms. Moreover, as habitats become increasingly infiltrated by introduced species, the loss of native mutualists and their replacement by non-native species may alter the shape of trade-offs between plant defense and reproduction.

  20. Workers select mates for queens: a possible mechanism of gene flow restriction between supercolonies of the invasive Argentine ant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunamura, Eiriki; Hoshizaki, Sugihiko; Sakamoto, Hironori; Fujii, Takeshi; Nishisue, Koji; Suzuki, Shun; Terayama, Mamoru; Ishikawa, Yukio; Tatsuki, Sadahiro

    2011-05-01

    Some invasive ants form large networks of mutually non-aggressive nests, i.e., supercolonies. The Argentine ant Linepithema humile forms much larger supercolonies in introduced ranges than in its native range. In both cases, it has been shown that little gene flow occurs between supercolonies of this species, though the mechanism of gene flow restriction is unknown. In this species, queens do not undertake nuptial flight, and males have to travel to foreign nests and cope with workers before gaining access to alien queens. In this study, we hypothesized that male Argentine ants receive interference from workers of alien supercolonies. To test this hypothesis, we conducted behavioral and chemical experiments using ants from two supercolonies in Japan. Workers attacked males from alien supercolonies but not those from their own supercolonies. The level of aggression against alien males was similar to that against alien workers. The frequency of severe aggression against alien males increased as the number of recipient workers increased. Cuticular hydrocarbon profiles, which serve as cues for nestmate recognition, of workers and males from the same supercolony were very similar. Workers are likely to distinguish alien males from males of their own supercolony using the profiles. It is predicted that males are subject to considerable aggression from workers when they intrude into the nests of alien supercolonies. This may be a mechanism underlying the restricted gene flow between supercolonies of Argentine ants. The Argentine ant may possess a distinctive reproductive system, where workers participate in selecting mates for their queens. We argue that the aggression of workers against alien males is a novel form of reproductive interference.

  1. Patterns of spread in biological invasions dominated by long-distance jump dispersal: Insights from Argentine ants

    PubMed Central

    Suarez, Andrew V.; Holway, David A.; Case, Ted J.

    2001-01-01

    Invading organisms may spread through local movements (giving rise to a diffusion-like process) and by long-distance jumps, which are often human-mediated. The local spread of invading organisms has been fit with varying success to models that couple local population growth with diffusive spread, but to date no quantitative estimates exist for the relative importance of local dispersal relative to human-mediated long-distance jumps. Using a combination of literature review, museum records, and personal surveys, we reconstruct the invasion history of the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile), a widespread invasive species, at three spatial scales. Although the inherent dispersal abilities of Argentine ants are limited, in the last century, human-mediated dispersal has resulted in the establishment of this species on six continents and on many oceanic islands. Human-mediated jump dispersal has also been the primary mode of spread at a continental scale within the United States. The spread of the Argentine ant involves two discrete modes. Maximum distances spread by colonies undergoing budding reproduction averaged 150 m/year, whereas annual jump-dispersal distances averaged three orders of magnitude higher. Invasions that involve multiple dispersal processes, such as those documented here, are undoubtedly common. Detailed data on invasion dynamics are necessary to improve the predictive power of future modeling efforts. PMID:11158600

  2. Diet-related modification of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, diminishes intercolony aggression.

    PubMed

    Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Kumar, Ranjit; Suib, Steven L; Silverman, Jules

    2005-04-01

    Territorial boundaries between conspecific social insect colonies are maintained through a highly developed nestmate recognition system modulated by heritable and, in some instances, nonheritable cues. Argentine ants, Linepithema humile, use both genetic and environmentally derived cues to discriminate nestmates from nonnestmates. We explored the possibility that intraspecific aggression in the Argentine ant might diminish when colonies shared a common diet. After segregating recently field-collected colony pairs into high or moderate aggression categories, we examined the effect of one of three diets: two hydrocarbon-rich insect prey, Blattella germanica and Supella longipalpa, and an artificial (insect-free) diet, on the magnitude of aggression loss. Aggression diminished between colony pairs that were initially moderately aggressive. However, initially highly aggressive colony pairs maintained high levels of injurious aggression throughout the study, independent of diet type. Each diet altered the cuticular hydrocarbon profile by contributing unique, diet-specific cues. We suggest that acquisition of common exogenous nestmate recognition cues from shared food sources may diminish aggression and promote fusion in neighboring colonies of the Argentine ant.

  3. Palaeoceanographic significance of sedimentary features at the Argentine continental margin revealed by multichannel seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruetzner, Jens; Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele; Franke, Dieter

    2010-05-01

    The thermohaline circulation in the Argentine Basin today is characterized by the interaction of northward flowing Antarctic water masses (Antarctic Intermediate Water, AAIW; Circumpolar Deep Water, CDW; Antarctic Bottom Water, AABW) and southward flowing North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). The transfer of heat and energy via both AABW and NADW constitutes an important component in maintaining the global conveyor belt. We aim at a better understanding of both paths and intensity of this current system in the past by investigating an extensive (> 11000 km) set of high quality seismic reflection profiles from the Argentine continental margin. The profiles show a significant contourite system containing both erosive and depositional features that formed through the evolution of water masses and their modifications (path, physical and chemical properties) due to plate tectonic events such as the opening of the Drake Passage or the extensive emplacement of volcanic flows at the Rio Grande Rise. Overall the depositional features indicate that along slope (contour current) transport dominates over down slope (turbiditic) processes at the southern Argentine margin south of 45° S. Further to the North down slope transport was more extensive as indicated by the presence of submarine canyons crossing the slope down to a depth of ~3500 m. Here we present preliminary results from the southern part of the continental margin (42°-50° S) where we focus on a set of ~50 km wide terraces on the slope and rise separated by contouritic channels. The terraces developed over time in alternating constructional (depositional) and erosive phases. An initial age frame was developed by mapping regional reflectors and seismic units known from previous studies. The sedimentary layer between regional reflectors AR 4 and AR 5 spanning roughly the time interval from the Eocene/Oligocene boundary to the early middle Miocene is thin (0.1 - 0.4 s TWT) below the Valentine Feilberg Terrace but

  4. Characterization of Argentine honeys on the basis of their mineral content and some typical quality parameters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The levels of 19 elements (As, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Tl, U, V, Zn) from sixteen different Argentine production sites of unifloral [eucalyptus (Eucaliptus rostrata), chilca (Baccharis salicifolia), Algarrobo (Prosopis sp.), mistol (Ziziphus mistol) and citric] and multifloral honeys were measured with the aim to test the quality of the selected samples. Typical quality parameters of honeys were also determined (pH, sugar content, moisture). Mineral elements were determined by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS DRC). We also evaluated the suitability of honey as a possible biomonitor of environmental pollution. Thus, the sites were classified through cluster analysis (CA) and then pattern recognition methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were applied. Results Mean values for quality parameters were: pH, 4.12 and 3.81; sugar 82.1 and 82.0 °brix; moisture, 16.90 and 17.00% for unifloral and multifloral honeys respectively. The water content showed good maturity. Likewise, the other parameters confirmed the good quality of the honeys analysed. Potassium was quantitatively the most abundant metal, accounting for 92,5% of the total metal contents with an average concentration of 832.0 and 816.2 μg g-1 for unifloral and multifloral honeys respectively. Sodium was the second most abundant major metal in honeys with a mean value of 32.16 and 33.19 μg g-1 for unifloral and multifloral honeys respectively. Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were present at low-intermediate concentrations. For the other 11 trace elements determined in this study (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se, Tl, U and V), the mean concentrations were very low or below of the LODs. The sites were classified through CA by using elements’ and physicochemical parameters data, then DA on the PCA factors was applied. Dendrograms identified three main groups. PCA explained 52.03% of the total variability

  5. Emerging diseases and their impact on animal commerce: the Argentine lesson.

    PubMed

    Cané, B G; Leanes, L F; Mascitelli, L O

    2004-10-01

    As a result of the Argentine experience with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in 2001, a need was postulated for the establishment of efficient supranational schemes for continuous surveillance of the interrelations between tropical extractives livestock systems and the prairies that are optimal for the feeding of livestock in the southern region of South America. FMD in Argentina and in other countries, new or re-emerging risks from avian influenza with potential risks for public health, the spongiform encephalopathies, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, and classical swine fever, among other animal diseases, have generated a strong reaction and evolution within the veterinary services of the country. These present lessons will influence decision-making within countries and should be accepted by the technical and scientific community. From the perspective of the official animal health sector and with the FMD eradication plan as a basis within the national territory, we have worked not only to achieve international recognition and credibility within animal health systems, but also to realize the formation of a regional block of countries that can be recognized internationally as an area with equivalent animal health status. We emphasize not only that this lesson is useful in FMD, but also that it is possible to apply the valuable conclusions reached for other emerging or re-emerging diseases.

  6. Chromosomal variation in Argentine populations of Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913 (Rodentia, Cricetidae, Sigmodontinae)

    PubMed Central

    Malleret, Matías Maximiliano; Labaroni, Carolina Alicia; García, Gabriela Verónica; Ferro, Juan Martín; Martí, Dardo Andrea; Lanzone, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The genus Akodon Meyen, 1833 is one of the most species-rich among sigmodontine rodents and has great chromosome variability. Akodon montensis has a relatively broad distribution in South America, and Argentine populations are located in the southernmost region of its range. Brazilian populations have important chromosomal variability, but cytogenetic data from Argentina are scarce. We performed a chromosome characterization of natural populations of Akodon montensis using conventional staining, C-banding, Ag-NORs and base-specific fluorochromes. A total of 31 specimens from five localities of Misiones Province, in Argentina, were analyzed. The 2n=24 chromosomes was the most frequently observed karyotype. However, five individuals presented 25 chromosomes due to a supernumerary B-chromosome; and one individual had 2n=26 due to one B plus a trisomy for chromosome 11. Additionally, two XY females and two variants of the X chromosomes were found. C-positive centromeric bands occurred in all chromosomes; additional C-bands were observed in some autosomes, the X, Y and B chromosomes. Ag-NORs were observed in five autosomes, and the B chromosome was frequently marked. Fluorochrome banding was similar among karyotypes of the analyzed populations. Comparisons of cytogenetic data among populations of Argentina and Brazil showed the presence of high intraspecific variability in Akodon montensis and some differences among regions. PMID:27186343

  7. Bait preference by the Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Haleakala National Park, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krushelnycky, Paul D.; Reimer, Neil J.

    1998-01-01

    The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), has proven to be a threat to native arthropod species in Haleakala National Park, Maui, HI, and is also a potential threat to the park's native flora. As it continues to expand its range, an effort has been undertaken to eradicate it, or at the least, control its spread. The 1st part of this effort focused on finding a bait carrier for subsequent toxicant-based control tests. A year-long bait preference test was implemented at each of the ant's 2 infestation sites in Haleakala National Park, in which 6 solid baits and 2 liquid baits were assessed for attractiveness and feasibility for large scale control. At both sites, a toxicant-free formulation of Maxforce, a protein-based granular bait made from ground silkworm, Bombyx mori (L.), pupae, and a 25% sugar water solution were the most attractive baits. Ants took more Maxforce (without toxicant) and sugar water than all other baits, including honey granules and a fish protein bait. Sugar water, however, is difficult to distribute over large natural areas. Maxforce was therefore concluded to be the best bait carrier for toxicant-based control at Haleakala National Park because of its attractiveness and its ease for large scale broadcast dispersal.

  8. Development of a sperm cryopreservation protocol for the Argentine black and white tegu (Tupinambis merianae).

    PubMed

    Young, Carly; Ravida, Nicole; Curtis, Michelle; Mazzotti, Frank; Durrant, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Of the 934 lizard species evaluated by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), at least one-third is threatened with extinction. However, there are no reports of semen cryopreservation efforts for lizards. Invasive Argentine black and white tegus were captured in the Florida Everglades, and sperm was collected postmortem. Initial motility score (IMS; % motile × speed of progression(2) × 100), plasma membrane integrity (IPL), and acrosome integrity (IAC) were recorded. Sperm was diluted in TEST-yolk buffer with a final glycerol or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)concentration of 8%, 12%, or 16%, and frozen at 0.3 °C, 1.0 °C, or 6.3 °C/min. At thaw, all variables were expressed as the percentage of initial (%IMS, %IPL, and %IAC). The 0.3 °C freeze rate was more successful than 1.0 °C and 6.3 °C/min in preserving %IMS and %IPL. DMSO preserved %IMS, %IPL, and %IAC better than glycerol. To determine the best overall cryopreservation protocol, a sperm quality index was calculated, giving equal weight to each of the three indicators of cryosurvival. Because there were significant interactions between freeze rate and cryoprotectant concentration, each treatment was compared with all others. The sperm quality index analysis revealed that tegu sperm frozen at 0.3 °C/min with 12% DMSO exhibited the highest postthaw viability compared with all other treatments.

  9. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity by standardized hydroalcoholic extracts of four Asteraceae species from the Argentine Puna.

    PubMed

    Alberto, M R; Zampini, I C; Isla, M I

    2009-09-01

    We determined the anti-inflammatory activity of standardized extracts of four medicinal plant species (Baccharis incarum, B. boliviensis, Chuquiraga atacamensis, Parastrephia lucida) that grow in the Argentine Puna (3800 m above sea level) and that are used to reduce oxidative stress and alleviate gout and arthritic pain. The extracts of plant aerial parts were standardized in terms of total phenolic compounds and flavone/flavanone content and free radical scavenging activity. All extracts showed high phenolic compound concentration (0.5-1.6 mg/mL), mainly flavones and flavonols (0.1-0.8 mg/mL). The extracts showed hydrogen donating ability (DPPH and ABTS) and reactive oxygen species scavenging activity (O2-, OH-, H2O2). The ability of the extracts to inhibit cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX-1 and COX-2) was determined by calculating percent inhibition of PGE2 production measured by enzyme immunoassay. All extracts inhibited both enzymes with IC50 values of 2.0 to 16.7 microg/mL. The anti-inflammatory activity of B. incarum and C. atacamensis extracts was higher than that of B. boliviensis and P. lucida. The IC50 values obtained for indomethacin were 0.11 and 0.78 microM for COX-1 and COX-2, respectively. The present results are consistent with the anecdotal use of these species in phytotherapic preparations.

  10. Aeromonas hydrophila and its relation with drinking water indicators of microbiological quality in Argentine.

    PubMed

    Fernández, M C; Giampaolo, B N; Ibañez, S B; Guagliardo, M V; Esnaola, M M; Conca, L; Valdivia, P; Stagnaro, S M; Chiale, C; Frade, H

    2000-01-01

    In Argentine, water municipal supplies disinfection is carried out by chlorine. We have isolated Aeromonas hydrophila from a chlorinated water supply in Buenos Aires that fulfilled Argentinean microbiological quality standards. It is an aquatic organism that could produce cytotoxins and enterotoxins associated with acute gastroenteritis and wound infections in human and hemorrhagic septicaemia of fish, reptiles and amphibians. The isolated strain produced protein bands at isoelectric point in the range of 4.6-5.3 lightly labile at 56 degrees C and heat labile at 100 degrees C non cholera antitoxin reactive in electrofocusing assay (IEF) and showed hemolytic activity thermolabile at 56 degrees C and 100 degrees C in 5% rabbit erythrocytes in phosphate buffered saline. A cytotoxic effect thermolabile at 56 degrees C and 100 degrees C and a cytotonic activity were demonstrated in Vero cell cultures. Survival assay of A. hydrophila and indicator organisms would show no correlation between their contamination sources. Biofilms production could explain the persistence of this gram negative pathogen organism in chlorinated tap water. A water system supply maintenance program and pasteurisation may be performed in spite of water chlorination.

  11. [Candid#1 vaccine against Argentine hemorrhagic fever produced in Argentina. Immunogenicity and safety].

    PubMed

    Enria, Delia A; Ambrosio, Ana M; Briggiler, Ana M; Feuillade, María Rosa; Crivelli, Eleonora

    2010-01-01

    A clinical study in 946 human volunteers was done to compare Candid #1 vaccine manufactured in Argentina with the vaccine produced in USA that had been previously used. The efficacy was evaluated using immunogenicity measured by the detection of neutralizing antibodies as a subrogate marker. Safety was evaluated comparing the rate of adverse events. Both vaccines showed a comparable rate of seroconversion, slightly higher than the efficacy estimated from previous studies (95.5%). There were no severe adverse events related to the vaccines. The general events considered related to the vaccines were not clinically relevant and disappeared either spontaneously or with symptomatic treatment. Similar rates of adverse events (29.9% for the Argentine vaccine and 35.0% for the USA vaccine) were found for both vaccines. These included: headache, weakness, myalgias, mild low blood cell (< 4,000/mm(3)) and platelet (< 150,000/mm(3)) counts, nausea and/or vomiting, fever, retroocular pain, dizziness, microhematuria, low backache and exantema. These results indicate that the vaccine Candid#1 manufactured in Argentina is equivalent to the manufactured in USA. These results allowed the National Institute of Human Viral Diseases (INEVH) to register the vaccine produced locally under the National Regulatory Authority (ANMAT).

  12. Individual variation in exploratory behaviour improves speed and accuracy of collective nest selection by Argentine ants

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Ashley; Pinter-Wollman, Noa

    2014-01-01

    Collective behaviours are influenced by the behavioural composition of the group. For example, a collective behaviour may emerge from the average behaviour of the group's constituents, or be driven by a few key individuals that catalyse the behaviour of others in the group. When ant colonies collectively relocate to a new nest site, there is an inherent trade-off between the speed and accuracy of their decision of where to move due to the time it takes to gather information. Thus, variation among workers in exploratory behaviour, which allows gathering information about potential new nest sites, may impact the ability of a colony to move quickly into a suitable new nest. The invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, expands its range locally through the dispersal and establishment of propagules: groups of ants and queens. We examine whether the success of these groups in rapidly finding a suitable nest site is affected by their behavioural composition. We compared nest choice speed and accuracy among groups of all-exploratory, all-nonexploratory and half-exploratory–half-nonexploratory individuals. We show that exploratory individuals improve both the speed and accuracy of collective nest choice, and that exploratory individuals have additive, not synergistic, effects on nest site selection. By integrating an examination of behaviour into the study of invasive species we shed light on the mechanisms that impact the progression of invasion. PMID:25018558

  13. Transfer of the Argentine Precordillera terrane from Laurentia: Constraints from detrital-zircon geochronology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, W.A.; Astini, R.A.; Mueller, P.A.; Gehrels, G.E.; Wooden, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Ages from U-Pb and 207Pb/206Pb analyses of detrital zircons from synrift sandstone in the Lower Cambrian Cerro Totora Formation of the Argentine Precordillera have strong similarities to those from late synrift sandstones in the Lower Cambrian Rome Formation of southern Laurentia (Alabama). Ages of detrital zircons from the Cerro Totora sample cluster at 1160-970 Ma (60% of analyzed zircons , 1490-1300 Ma (24%), and 1890-1640 Ma (16%). Ages from two Rome samples cluster at 1240-970 Ma (32% of analyzed zircons), 1540-1270 Ma (31%), 1840-1610 Ma (14%), 1970-1890 Ma (5%), and 2930-2310 Ma (18%). The ages of detrital zircons from the Rome and Cerro Totora sandstones are consistent with sediment supply from the Grenville and older Proterozoic Laurentian provinces, and the older cluster in the Rome sandstones corresponds in age to the Laurentian Archean Superior province. Neither the Rome nor Cerro Totora samples include components younger than Grenville, and the lack of zircons from distinctly Gondwanan provinces is consistent with a Laurentian provenance. The detrital-zircon ages support previous interpretations that the Precordillera was rifted from the Ouachita embayment of Laurentia during Early Cambrian time and subsequently was transferred to Gondwana. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  14. [Survival capacity of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar ovis in different soil types from Chubut, Argentine Patagonia].

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Laura; William, Aillin; Castro, Isabel; Valenzuela, Fernanda; Estevao Belchior, Silvia

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is transmitted among sheep in Argentine Patagonia causing pseudotuberculosis. The bacterium penetrates the skin or mucous membrane wounds, infecting the superficial lymph nodes and viscera. When surface abscesses are cut during shearing, they drain their purulent contents and contaminate tools and the soil. The objective of this work was to evaluate the survival capacity of C. pseudotuberculosis over time, in soils from the extra-Andean Patagonia region. Five types of superficial soils were collected from different areas in Chubut province (extra-Andean Patagonia), having distinctive physicochemical properties including organic matter content (very high to nonexistent), pH (neutral to strongly alkaline), electrical conductivity (saline to non-saline) and texture (sandy, clayey, silty loam). Different aliquots of each type of soil were inoculated with C. pseudotuberculosis PAT10 strain isolated from a Patagonian sheep, and were stored at room temperature. The number of surviving bacteria was determined at various times. Sixty percent (60%) of the inoculated C. pseudotuberculosis population survived for 80 to 210 days in soils with moderate to high organic matter content respectively. Silty soils favored bacterial survival, whereas the variables pH and salinity had no effect on survival.

  15. [Cross-cultural adaptation and Argentine validation of the Lower Extremity Functional Scale Questionnaire].

    PubMed

    Dell'Era, Silvina; Dimaro, Mariana; Gamboa, Anabella; Spath, María Belén; Salzberg, Sandra; Hernández, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) is a self-report questionnaire created to evaluate a patient's functional status in a wide spectrum of lower extremity musculoskeletal conditions. Thus far, there is no valid version in Argentina. The aims of this study were to translate the LEFS, cross-culturally adapt it for use in the Argentine population, and validate it in our country by determining its psychometric properties in patients over the age of 18 with lower extremity musculoskeletal conditions, comparing it with the SF-36 and the following functional tests: step test and timed up and go. One hundred and thirty three patients were included between July 2010 and January 2012. The test-retest reliability was high, with an ICC of 0.91 (95% CI 0.85 - 0.94). The correlation of the LEFS with the physical functioning subscale and the physical component summary score of the SF-36 was high (p < 0.001) and showed moderate response with the timed up and go and step test at the baseline (p < 0.001). This version of the LEFS is a valid, reliable tool used in Argentina to measure functional status in patients with lower extremity musculoskeletal conditions that we recommend for future clinical research projects and daily clinical use.

  16. Using return on investment to maximize conservation effectiveness in Argentine grasslands.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, William; Ranganathan, Jai; Polasky, Stephen; Regetz, James

    2010-12-07

    The rapid global loss of natural habitats and biodiversity, and limited resources, place a premium on maximizing the expected benefits of conservation actions. The scarcity of information on the fine-grained distribution of species of conservation concern, on risks of loss, and on costs of conservation actions, especially in developing countries, makes efficient conservation difficult. The distribution of ecosystem types (unique ecological communities) is typically better known than species and arguably better represents the entirety of biodiversity than do well-known taxa, so we use conserving the diversity of ecosystem types as our conservation goal. We define conservation benefit to include risk of conversion, spatial effects that reward clumping of habitat, and diminishing returns to investment in any one ecosystem type. Using Argentine grasslands as an example, we compare three strategies: protecting the cheapest land ("minimize cost"), maximizing conservation benefit regardless of cost ("maximize benefit"), and maximizing conservation benefit per dollar ("return on investment"). We first show that the widely endorsed goal of saving some percentage (typically 10%) of a country or habitat type, although it may inspire conservation, is a poor operational goal. It either leads to the accumulation of areas with low conservation benefit or requires infeasibly large sums of money, and it distracts from the real problem: maximizing conservation benefit given limited resources. Second, given realistic budgets, return on investment is superior to the other conservation strategies. Surprisingly, however, over a wide range of budgets, minimizing cost provides more conservation benefit than does the maximize-benefit strategy.

  17. Characterization of pectinase activity for enology from yeasts occurring in Argentine Bonarda grape

    PubMed Central

    Merín, María Gabriela; Martín, María Carolina; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Cocolin, Luca; de Ambrosini, Vilma Inés Morata

    2015-01-01

    Pectinolytic enzymes are greatly important in winemaking due to their ability to degrade pectic polymers from grape, contributing to enhance process efficiency and wine quality. This study aimed to analyze the occurrence of pectinolytic yeasts during spontaneous fermentation of Argentine Bonarda grape, to select yeasts that produce extracellular pectinases and to characterize their pectinolytic activity under wine-like conditions. Isolated yeasts were grouped using PCR-DGGE and identified by partial sequencing of 26S rRNA gene. Isolates comprised 7 genera, with Aureobasidium pullulans as the most predominant pectinolytic species, followed by Rhodotorula dairenensis and Cryptococcus saitoi. No pectinolytic activity was detected among ascomycetous yeasts isolated on grapes and during fermentation, suggesting a low occurrence of pectinolytic yeast species in wine fermentation ecosystem. This is the first study reporting R. dairenensis and Cr. saitoi species with pectinolytic activity. R. dairenensis GM-15 produced pectinases that proved to be highly active at grape pH, at 12 °C, and under ethanol and SO2 concentrations usually found in vinifications (pectinase activity around 1.1 U/mL). This strain also produced cellulase activity at 12 °C and pH 3.5, but did not produce β-glucosidase activity under these conditions. The strain showed encouraging enological properties for its potential use in low-temperature winemaking. PMID:26413065

  18. Transfer of the Argentine Precordillera terrane from Laurentia: Constraints from detrital-zircon geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, William A.; Astini, Ricardo A.; Mueller, Paul A.; Gehrels, George E.; Wooden, Joseph L.

    2004-11-01

    Ages from U-Pb and 207Pb/206Pb analyses of detrital zircons from synrift sandstone in the Lower Cambrian Cerro Totora Formation of the Argentine Precordillera have strong similarities to those from late synrift sandstones in the Lower Cambrian Rome Formation of southern Laurentia (Alabama). Ages of detrital zircons from the Cerro Totora sample cluster at 1160 970 Ma (60% of analyzed zircons), 1490 1300 Ma (24%), and 1890 1640 Ma (16%). Ages from two Rome samples cluster at 1240 970 Ma (32% of analyzed zircons), 1540 1270 Ma (31%), 1840 1610 Ma (14%), 1970 1890 Ma (5%), and 2930 2310 Ma (18%). The ages of detrital zircons from the Rome and Cerro Totora sandstones are consistent with sediment supply from the Grenville and older Proterozoic Laurentian provinces, and the older cluster in the Rome sandstones corresponds in age to the Laurentian Archean Superior province. Neither the Rome nor Cerro Totora samples include components younger than Grenville, and the lack of zircons from distinctly Gondwanan provinces is consistent with a Laurentian provenance. The detrital-zircon ages support previous interpretations that the Precordillera was rifted from the Ouachita embayment of Laurentia during Early Cambrian time and subsequently was transferred to Gondwana.

  19. Potential biocontrol actinobacteria: Rhizospheric isolates from the Argentine Pampas lowlands legumes.

    PubMed

    Solans, Mariana; Scervino, Jose Martin; Messuti, María Inés; Vobis, Gernot; Wall, Luis Gabriel

    2016-11-01

    Control of fungal plant diseases by using naturally occurring non-pathogenic microorganisms represents a promising approach to biocontrol agents. This study reports the isolation, characterization, and fungal antagonistic activity of actinobacteria from forage soils in the Flooding Pampa, Argentina. A total of 32 saprophytic strains of actinobacteria were obtained by different isolation methods from rhizospheric soil of Lotus tenuis growing in the Salado River Basin. Based on physiological traits, eight isolates were selected for their biocontrol-related activities such as production of lytic extracellular enzymes, siderophores, hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and antagonistic activity against Cercospora sojina, Macrophomia phaseolina, Phomopsis sp., Fusarium oxysporum, and Fusarium verticilloides. These actinobacteria strains were characterized morphologically, physiologically, and identified by using molecular techniques. The characterization of biocontrol-related activities in vitro showed positive results for exoprotease, phospholipase, fungal growth inhibition, and siderophore production. However, none of the strains was positive for the production of hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Streptomyces sp. MM140 presented the highest index for biocontrol, and appear to be promising pathogenic fungi biocontrol agents. These results show the potential capacity of actinobacteria isolated from forage soils in the Argentine Pampas lowlands as promising biocontrol agents, and their future agronomic applications.

  20. Evaluation of an enzyme immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of Argentine haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Riera, L M; Feuillade, M R; Saavedra, M C; Ambrosio, A M

    1997-12-01

    To elaborate a set of serological tests for the diagnosis of Argentine haemorrhagic fever (AHF), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of specific anti-Junin virus (JV) IgG is described, and its performance is compared with that of the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). The reproducibility, sensitivity, specificity, and confidence limits for positive and negative results for ELISA were statistically analysed. The value of 800 was demonstrated as the lowest positive titer. Titers > or = 800 varied within one (two-fold) dilution in 95.6% of the tests, while the sensitivity and specificity were 99.2% and 98.8%, respectively. The assay yielded 1% of false positives and 0.05% of false negatives. A comparison of ELISA to PRNT in detecting the seroconversion for JV was studied by the chi square test (comparison of proportions in paired samples) and the K parameter for agreement proportion. Comparison of ELISA to PRNT showed no significant difference in the proportions of positive and negative results of these assays (P < 0.01), demonstrating an equivalent performance (K = 0.98) in the diagnosis of AHF. In addition, the simplicity and safety of the procedures involved make this ELISA the most suitable test to detect natural human JV infections.

  1. Activity of bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, fipronil, and thiamethoxam against Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Wiltz, B A; Suiter, D R; Gardner, W A

    2009-12-01

    Bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, fipronil, and thiamethoxam were evaluated for activity against the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Mobility impairment and lethal times were determined after topical treatments. Ants were immobilized most quickly by bifenthrin, followed by chlorfenapyr and thiamethoxam. After 2 h, the number of fipronil-treated ants unable to walk out of test arenas did not differ from control ants. Median lethal time (LT50) after topical treatment was lowest in the bifenthrin treatment, followed by thiamethoxam, chlorfenapyr, and then fipronil. Mortality due to horizontal exposure was evaluated at 10, 20, or 30 degrees C, with topically treated ant corpses serving as donors. There was low to moderate horizontal activity in bifenthrin and chlorfenapyr treatments, with no temperature effect in bifenthrin treatments and a positive temperature effect in chlorfenapyr treatments. Mortality in the fipronil treatments was highest and was positively correlated with temperature. Thiamethoxam treatments did not differ from controls at 10 degrees C, but mortality increased with temperature. To evaluate contact activity, either all of 20% of the ants in a cohort were exposed to insecticide-treated pine needles. In both tests, mortality was highest in fipronil and bifenthrin treatments, followed by thiamethoxam, with lowest mortality in chlorfenapyr treatments. Effectiveness as a barrier was evaluated by providing a choice between bridges treated with insecticide or water. Although bifenthrin did not provide an impenetrable barrier, it was the only treatment having fewer ants than its paired control. Mortality data suggest that lack of recruitment rather than repellency account for this result.

  2. Chromosomal variation in Argentine populations of Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913 (Rodentia, Cricetidae, Sigmodontinae).

    PubMed

    Malleret, Matías Maximiliano; Labaroni, Carolina Alicia; García, Gabriela Verónica; Ferro, Juan Martín; Martí, Dardo Andrea; Lanzone, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    The genus Akodon Meyen, 1833 is one of the most species-rich among sigmodontine rodents and has great chromosome variability. Akodon montensis has a relatively broad distribution in South America, and Argentine populations are located in the southernmost region of its range. Brazilian populations have important chromosomal variability, but cytogenetic data from Argentina are scarce. We performed a chromosome characterization of natural populations of Akodon montensis using conventional staining, C-banding, Ag-NORs and base-specific fluorochromes. A total of 31 specimens from five localities of Misiones Province, in Argentina, were analyzed. The 2n=24 chromosomes was the most frequently observed karyotype. However, five individuals presented 25 chromosomes due to a supernumerary B-chromosome; and one individual had 2n=26 due to one B plus a trisomy for chromosome 11. Additionally, two XY females and two variants of the X chromosomes were found. C-positive centromeric bands occurred in all chromosomes; additional C-bands were observed in some autosomes, the X, Y and B chromosomes. Ag-NORs were observed in five autosomes, and the B chromosome was frequently marked. Fluorochrome banding was similar among karyotypes of the analyzed populations. Comparisons of cytogenetic data among populations of Argentina and Brazil showed the presence of high intraspecific variability in Akodon montensis and some differences among regions.

  3. Quantifying uncertainty in the potential distribution of an invasive species: climate and the Argentine ant.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Stephen; Harris, Richard; Lester, Philip J

    2006-09-01

    Maps of a species' potential range make an important contribution to conservation and invasive species risk analysis. Spatial predictions, however, should be accompanied by an assessment of their uncertainty. Here, we use multimodel inference to generate confidence intervals that incorporate both the uncertainty involved in model selection as well as the error associated with model fitting. In the case of the invasive Argentine ant, we found that it was most likely to occur where the mean daily temperature in mid-winter was 7-14 degrees C and maximum daily temperatures during the hottest month averaged 19-30 degrees C. Uninvaded regions vulnerable to future establishment include: southern China, Taiwan, Zimbabwe, central Madagascar, Morocco, high-elevation Ethiopia, Yemen and a number of oceanic islands. Greatest uncertainty exists over predictions for China, north-east India, Angola, Bolivia, Lord Howe Island and New Caledonia. Quantifying the costs of different errors (false negatives vs. false positives) was considered central for connecting modelling to decision-making and management processes.

  4. Characterization of pectinase activity for enology from yeasts occurring in Argentine Bonarda grape.

    PubMed

    Merín, María Gabriela; Martín, María Carolina; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Cocolin, Luca; de Ambrosini, Vilma Inés Morata

    2015-01-01

    Pectinolytic enzymes are greatly important in winemaking due to their ability to degrade pectic polymers from grape, contributing to enhance process efficiency and wine quality. This study aimed to analyze the occurrence of pectinolytic yeasts during spontaneous fermentation of Argentine Bonarda grape, to select yeasts that produce extracellular pectinases and to characterize their pectinolytic activity under wine-like conditions. Isolated yeasts were grouped using PCR-DGGE and identified by partial sequencing of 26S rRNA gene. Isolates comprised 7 genera, with Aureobasidium pullulans as the most predominant pectinolytic species, followed by Rhodotorula dairenensis and Cryptococcus saitoi. No pectinolytic activity was detected among ascomycetous yeasts isolated on grapes and during fermentation, suggesting a low occurrence of pectinolytic yeast species in wine fermentation ecosystem. This is the first study reporting R. dairenensis and Cr. saitoi species with pectinolytic activity. R. dairenensis GM-15 produced pectinases that proved to be highly active at grape pH, at 12 °C, and under ethanol and SO2 concentrations usually found in vinifications (pectinase activity around 1.1 U/mL). This strain also produced cellulase activity at 12 °C and pH 3.5, but did not produce β-glucosidase activity under these conditions. The strain showed encouraging enological properties for its potential use in low-temperature winemaking.

  5. Are ant-aphid associations a tritrophic interaction? Oleander aphids and Argentine ants.

    PubMed

    Bristow, C M

    1991-09-01

    Oleander aphids, (Aphis nerii), which are sporadically tended by ants, were used as a moded system to examine whether host plant factors associated with feeding site influenced the formation of ant-aphid associations. Seasonal patterns of host plant utilization and association with attendant ants were examined through bi-weekly censuses of the aphid population feeding on thirty ornamental oleander plands (Nerium oleander) in northern California in 1985 and 1986. Colonies occurred on both developing and senescing plant terminals, including leaf tips, floral structures, and pods. Aphids preferentially colonized leaf terminals early in the season, but showed no preference for feeding site during later periods. Argentine ants (Iridomyrmex humilis) occasionally tended aphid colonies. Colonies on floral tips were three to four times more likely to attract ants than colonies on leaf tips, even though the latter frequently contained more aphids. Ants showed a positive recruitment response to colonies on floral tips, with a significant correlation between colony size and number of ants. There was no recruitment response to colonies on leaf tips. These patterns were reproducible over two years despite large fluctuations in both aphid population density and ant activity. In a laboratory bioassay of aphid palatability, the generalist predator,Hippodamia convergens, took significantly more aphids reared on floral tips compared to those reared on leaf tips. The patterns reported here support the hypothesis that tritrophic factors may be important in modifying higher level arthropod mutualisms.

  6. [Prevalence of hepatitis C antibodies in plasma donors for the treatment of Argentine hemorrhagic fever].

    PubMed

    Saavedra, M C; Briggiler, A M; Enría, D; Riera, L; Ambrosio, A M

    1997-01-01

    For Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever, a disease caused by Junin virus (JV), there is an effective treatment, consisting of the transfusion of immune plasma (IP). This plasma is obtained from individuals who have had the disease. Since Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is transmitted parenterally, this study was aimed to estimate the prevalence of anti-HCV in a population of IP donors. In this study, 376 donors (47 females and 329 males) were studied: 95 individuals (24 females and 71 males) who had had FHA but had not received treatment and 88 laboratory workers (57 females and 31 males) who were included as controls. Serum samples were tested by EIA (Abbott, Germany) for HCV, and later confirmed by LIATEK (Organon, Ireland). Antibodies to HCV were detected in 29/376 donors (7.7%), in only 1/95 (1.0%) untreated convalescents of AHF and in 1/ 88 (1.1%) of laboratory workers. Retrospective analysis of the seroconversion for HCV in these individuals demonstrated that in 16/24 donors (66.6%) the infection by HCV was probably associated with the IP transfusion. The data presented herein show how the infection with HCV was disseminated among donors of IP, stressing the risk associated to transfusional practices, and emphasizing the need of vaccination to prevent AHF and also the risk inherent to its treatment.

  7. Argentines' collective memories of the military Junta of 1976: differences and similarities across generations and ideology.

    PubMed

    Muller, Felipe; Bermejo, Federico; Hirst, William

    2016-08-01

    Although memories about a nation's past usually are semantic in nature, a distinction needs to be made between lived and distant semantic collective memories. The former refers to memories of community-relevant events occurring during the lifetime of the rememberer, whereas the latter to memories of distant events. Does the content of lived and distant semantic collective memories differ? Employing both free and cued recall, we examined the memories of younger and older Argentines of the Military Junta of 1976. We also examined the effects of political ideology. Content analysis indicated that (1) lived semantic collective memories were more likely to contain personal recollections than distant semantic collective memories, even though those with distant semantic collective memories could have incorporated memories of the parent's personal experience in their recollections, (2) lived semantic collective memories contained more causal statements, and (3) those on the Right with distant semantic collective memories were more likely to claim that they "Don't know" or offer positive accounts of the Junta, suggesting a need to "defend" the reputation of those on the Right. The results are discussed in terms of the goals and plans different generations might have when recollecting their nation's past.

  8. The role of abiotic conditions in shaping the long-term patterns of a high-elevation Argentine ant invasion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krushelnycky, P.D.; Joe, S.M.; Medeiros, A.C.; Daehler, C.C.; Loope, L.L.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of long-term patterns of invasion can reveal the importance of abiotic factors in influencing invasion dynamics, and can help predict future patterns of spread. In the case of the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile), most prior studies have investigated this species' limitations in hot and dry climates. However, spatial and temporal patterns of spread involving two ant populations over the course of 30 years at a high elevation site in Hawaii suggest that cold and wet conditions have influenced both the ant's distribution and its rate of invasion. In Haleakala National Park on Maui, we found that a population invading at lower elevation is limited by increasing rainfall and presumably by associated decreasing temperatures. A second, higher elevation population has spread outward in all directions, but rates of spread in different directions appear to have been strongly influenced by differences in elevation and temperature. Patterns of foraging activity were strongly tied to soil temperatures, supporting the hypothesis that variation in temperature can influence rates of spread. Based on past patterns of spread, we predicted a total potential range that covers nearly 50% of the park and 75% of the park's subalpine habitats. We compared this rough estimate with point predictions derived from a degree-day model for Argentine ant colony reproduction, and found that the two independent predictions match closely when soil temperatures are used in the model. The cold, wet conditions that have influenced Argentine ant invasion at this site are likely to be influential at other locations in this species' current and future worldwide distribution. ?? 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. A new genus and species of Platyischnopidae (Amphipoda: Gammaridea) from the Argentine sea, South-West Atlantic ocean.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, Ignacio L; Alonso, Gloria M

    2014-05-30

    The family Platyischnopidae is herein reported for the first time in the Argentine Sea, South-West Atlantic Ocean. A new genus and species, Platyisao holodividum gen. et. sp. nov., collected off the coast of Buenos Aires and Río Negro provinces, is fully described and illustrated. Platyisao gen. nov. is distinguished from the eight other genera of Platyischnopidae by the gnathopods subchelate, and the telson elongate, completely cleft. In addition, the distribution of Tiburonella viscana (Barnard J.L., 1964), up to now known in the South-West Atlantic Ocean from Brazilian waters, is extended to the coast off Buenos Aires province, Argentina.

  10. The Argentine Impact Record: Implications for Episodes of Increased Flux during the Last 10 Myr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, R. S.; Schultz, P. H.

    2009-12-01

    Schultz et al. [1-6] have identified 8 impact melt breccia deposits in late Cenozoic strata of the Argentine Pampas. 40Ar/39Ar and fission track dating, combined with sequence and biostratigraphic controls, demonstrate that they represent separate events between 9.24 Ma and 6 ka. These ejecta contain shocked minerals and excavated basement clasts indicative of crater-forming events rather than air blasts. If each involved iron bolides ≤ 50 m across, 8 impacts over ~1.1 x 106 km2 in 10 Myr does not represent an anomaly. However, the melt volumes and distributions observed suggest at least half of the collisions were much larger. One event close to the Miocene-Pliocene boundary (5.28 Ma) appears to have spread microtektites as far as the South Tasman Rise. And three deposits contain meteoritic debris linked to stony and stony-iron asteroids (including HED and angrite-like material) [6,7]. Consequently, one or more increases in the impact flux since the mid-Miocene may be required to account for the Argentine record [8]. Farley et al. [9,10] propose that the disruption of a large main-belt asteroid 8.3 Ma increased the IDP flux in the inner solar system leading to a positive 3He anomaly in late Miocene (~6.8-8.3 Ma) sediments. The anomaly is comparable to the late Eocene (~34.2-36.4 Ma) 3He enhancement attributed to a comet [11] or asteroid [12] shower, which increased both the abundance of IDPs and large asteroids reaching the surface. But Farley et al. discount such a scenario in the late Miocene based on a perceived absence of coincident crater-forming impacts. Preserved ejecta and geochemical signatures, however, indicate the contrary. We suggest that the late Miocene contains at least as rich a record of terrestrial impacts as the late Eocene. The patterns of elevated 3He, main-belt breakups, and significant impact events are very similar through both intervals. Two reported asteroid breakups during the Pliocene and mid-Pleistocene [13,14] also appear to

  11. Giant mudwaves in the Northern Argentine Basin: born and buried by bottom currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, Dmitrii; Murdmaa, Ivar; Ivanova, Elena; Levchenko, Oleg

    2014-05-01

    New sedimentary records and very high resolution seismic profiles collected during four cruises of the RV "Akademik Ioffe" (2011-2013) were correlated with seismic, multibeam and coring data obtained during cruises of the RV "Robert Conrad", "Knorr", "Meteor". A complex analysis of the geological-geophysical data revealed an extensive field of giant mudwaves (48 000 km2) in the northwestern Argentine Basin, South Atlantic. The symmetric waves up to 60 m in height and 4000 m in wavelength are oriented roughly parallel to contours. They partly cover the Santa Catarina Plateau and extend through the Santos Basin to the Sao Paulo Plateau. The mudwaves field is traced at the depth range from 3400 to 4000 m and divided into buried (northern) and non-buried (southern) parts. The non-buried sediment waves cover the surface of the huge drift in the Santa Catarina Plateau. The wave height increases from the drift summit to its flanks and decreases at the foot. Two cores retrieved from the drift top and its northern flank recovered muddy contourites with a greater amount of silt-size material in the core from the drift flank. The age of the recovered sediments is at least 130 ka. In the northern Santos basin, the sediment waves are buried under a large lens-like sediment body (drift?) inclined at the margins. Cores obtained from the buried part of the mudwaves field recovered an intercalation of hemipelagic clay and silty-clay contourite. The age of recovered sediments does not exceed 150 ka (Bleil et al., 1993). Contourites deposition in the study area is related to the activity of the Antarctic bottom water (AABW) contour current. The AABW flow is considered to be divided into two branches by the Santa Catarina Plateau. We suggest that this topographic obstacle causes a flow velocity increase. Wave height and grain-size variations indicate higher bottom current velocities at the plateau flanks and relative tranquil conditions at the flat summit of the plateau. The symmetric

  12. Fine-scale genetic structure of Triatoma infestans in the Argentine Chaco.

    PubMed

    Piccinali, Romina Valeria; Gürtler, Ricardo Esteban

    2015-08-01

    The patterns of genetic structure in natural populations provide essential information for the improvement of pest management strategies including those targeting arthropod vectors of human diseases. We analyzed the patterns of fine-scale genetic structure in Triatoma infestans in a well-defined rural area close to Pampa del Indio, in the Argentine Arid-Humid Chaco transition, where a longitudinal study on house infestation and wing geometric morphometry is being conducted since 2007. A total of 228 insects collected in 16 domestic and peridomestic sites from two rural communities was genotyped for 10 microsatellite loci and analyzed. We did not find departures from Hardy-Weinberg expectations in collection sites, with three exceptions probably due to null alleles and substructuring. Domestic sites were more variable than peridomestic sites suggesting the presence of older bug populations in domestic sites or higher effective population sizes. Significant genetic structure was detected using F-statistics, a discriminant analysis of principal components and Bayesian clustering algorithms in an area of only 6.32 km(2). Microsatellite markers detected population structuring at a finer geographic scale (180-6300 m) than a previous study based on wing geometric morphometry (>4000 m). The spatial distribution of genetic variability was more properly explained by a hierarchical island than by an isolation-by-distance model. This study illustrates that, despite more than a decade without vector control interventions enhancing differentiation, genetic structure can be detected in T. infestans populations, particularly applying spatial information. This supports the potential of genetic studies to provide key information for hypothesis testing of the origins of house reinfestation.

  13. Craniofacial morphology in the Argentine Center-West: consequences of the transition to food production.

    PubMed

    Sardi, Marina L; Novellino, Paula S; Pucciarelli, Héctor M

    2006-07-01

    The Argentine Center-West was the southernmost portion of the Andes where domestication of plants and animals evolved. Populations located in the southern portion of this area displayed a hunter-gatherer subsistence economy up to historical times, and coexisted with farmers located to the north. Archaeological and biological evidence suggests that the transition to food production was associated with the consumption of a softer diet and a more sedentary way of life. This study tests the hypothesis that diet-related factors influenced morphological differentiation, by comparing functional cranial components of farmers and hunter-gatherers. Three-dimensional changes on eight minor functional components (anteroneural, midneural, posteroneural, otic, optic, respiratory, masticatory, and alveolar) were measured on skulls derived from both subareas. Volumetric and morphometric indices were calculated to estimate the absolute and relative size of components, respectively. Results of a paired t-test indicated that farmers have a smaller craniofacial size than hunter-gatherers. The components that varied the most were masticatory and posteroneural, showing smaller absolute and relative sizes in farmers. Discriminant analyses indicated that lengths and widths were the most affected dimensions of these and other components. The pattern of differentiation, which involves specific components, enabled us to exclude differential gene flow and stochastic mechanisms as the main causes. Instead, results support the hypothesis that diet-related factors associated with both subsistence economies influenced craniofacial morphology. A proportion of the observed variation associated with size differences can be explained by two systemic factors: the lesser quality of nutrition due to a low protein content in the diet, and a decrease of growth hormone circulation induced by a lower mobility due to sedentism. However, differentiation is better explained by a localized factor: the reduction

  14. Ordovician K-bentonites in the Argentine Precordillera: relations to Gondwana margin evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, W.D.; Bergstrom, Stig M.; Kolata, Dennis R.; Cingolani, C.A.; Astini, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is included in the Special Publication entitled 'The proto- Andean margin of Gondwana', edited by R.J. Pankhurst and C.W. Rapela. Ordovician K-bentonites have now been recorded from >20 localities in the vicinity of the Argentine Precordillera. Most occur in the eastern thrust belts, in the San Juan Limestone and the overlying the Gualcamayo Formation, but a few ash beds are known also from the central thrust belts. The oldest occur in the middle Arenig I, victoriae lunatus graptolite (Oe. evae conodont) Zone, and the youngest in the middle Llanvirn P. elegans (P. suecicus) Zone. Mineralogical characteristics, typical of other Ordovician K-bentonites, include a matrix of illite/smectite mixed-layer clay and a typical felsic volcanic phenocryst assemblage: biotite, beta-form quartz, alkali and plagioclase feldspar, apatite, and zircon, with lesser amounts of hornblende, clinopyroxene, titanite and Fe-Ti oxides. The proportions of the mineral phases and variations in their crystal chemistry are commonly unique to individual (or small groups of) K-bentonite beds. Glass melt inclusions preserved in quartz are rhyolitic in composition. The sequence is unique in its abundance of K-bentonite beds, but a close association between the Precordillera and other Ordovician sedimentary basins cannot be established. The ash distribution is most consistent with palaeogeographical reconstructions in which early Ordovician drifting of the Precordillera occurred in proximity to one or more volcanic arcs, and with eventual collision along the Andean margin of Gondwana during the mid-Ordovician Ocloyic event of the Famatinian orogeny. The Puna-Famatina terrane northeast of the Precordillera might have served as the source of the K-bentonite ashes, possibly in concert with active arc magmatism on the Gondwana plate itself.

  15. Practical Pest Management Strategies to Reduce Pesticide Runoff for Argentine Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Control.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Les; Rust, Michael K; Richards, Jaben; Wu, Xiaoqin; Kabashima, John; Wilen, Cheryl; Gan, Jay; Choe, Dong-Hwan

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to involve pest management professionals in the design of application techniques and strategies that would be efficacious and also reduce insecticide runoff. Our study involved measuring both the efficacy of treatments for the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), and the concurrent runoff of fipronil and pyrethroids. Two collaborating companies used low-impact protocols for controlling ants while minimizing runoff. Protocol 1 involved bimonthly treatments, while Protocol 2 was monthly. Both protocols involved an initial treatment with a fipronil spray around the foundation. At the garage door-driveway interface, the fipronil application was done as a pin stream for Protocol 1, and as a crack and crevice application in the expansion joint near the garage for Protocol 2. Protocol 1 replaced most pyrethroid sprays with bifenthrin granules placed around bushes and away from the driveway. For the next treatment on day 63, Protocol 1 also included cyfluthrin spray treatments around the house foundation and crack and crevice applications around the edge of the driveway. For the first treatment in Protocol 2, the fipronil spray was supplemented with spot treatments of cyfluthrin. For subsequent Protocol 2 treatments, botanical insecticides were applied. For weeks 1 and 2 posttreatment combined, Protocol 1 had significantly higher reductions in ant numbers compared with Protocol 2. Thereafter there were no significant differences between the protocols. Runoff of bifenthrin from the granules used with Protocol 1 was much lower than in previous trials involving bifenthrin sprays. Day 1 fipronil runoff for Protocol 2 was significantly lower than that for Protocol 1. This difference may be because of the crack and crevice application applied in Protocol 2. Cyfluthrin runoff was minimal for Protocol 2, which involved spot treatments to supplement the fipronil on day 1, or the botanical insecticides for subsequent treatments. Protocol 1 had a

  16. The carbon budget of a large catchment in the Argentine Pampa plain through hydrochemical modeling.

    PubMed

    Glok Galli, M; Martínez, D E; Kruse, E E

    2014-09-15

    Mar Chiquita is a coastal lagoon located in the Argentine Buenos Aires province in South America. The aim of this study is to estimate the annual contribution of inland waters to the carbon cycle in this lagoon's catchment by estimating the corresponding local carbon budget. Fifteen pairs of water samples were chosen to carry out hydrogeochemical modeling using PHREEQC software. Groundwater samples were considered as recharge water (initial solutions), while streamwater samples were taken as groundwater discharge (final solutions for inverse modeling/reference solutions for direct modeling). Fifteen direct models were performed, where each groundwater sample was constrained to calcite equilibrium under two different carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) conditions: atmospheric conditions (log PCO2 (atm) = -3.5) and a PCO2 value of log PCO2 (atm) = -3. Groundwater samples are close to calcite equilibrium conditions. The calcite precipitation process is kinetically slower than gas diffusion, causing oversaturation of this reactant phase in streamwater samples. This was accompanied by a pH increase of approximately two units due to a PCO2 decrease. From the fifteen inverse models it was estimated that, of the total carbon that enters per year in the hydrological cycle of the study area, about 11.9% is delivered to the atmosphere as CO2 and around 6.7% is buried in sediments. This would indicate that 81.4% of the remaining carbon is retained in equilibrium within the system or discharged into the Mar Chiquita lagoon and/or directly to the ocean through regional flows.

  17. Occurrence and fate of pesticides in the Argentine stretch of the Paraguay-Paraná basin.

    PubMed

    Etchegoyen, M A; Ronco, A E; Almada, P; Abelando, M; Marino, D J

    2017-02-01

    The Argentine stretch of the del Plata basin crosses regions devoted to extensive and intensive agriculture mostly with chemical pest control. The utilization of pesticides in the region has increased 900% in the last two decades associated with the introduction of biotech crops and direct-seeding techniques. Our objective was to study the occurrence, concentration, and fate of pesticides in surface water and bottom sediments of the principal tributaries and main watercourse of the Paraguay-Paraná River. We sampled 22 sites in the distal positions of the main affluents and main watercourse of the Paraná and report here results from two monitoring campaigns (2010-2012). Surface water and bottom sediments were analyzed according to standardized methods by matrix-solid-phase dispersion and liquid-liquid extraction, respectively. Twenty-three pesticide compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography. The results from both campaigns indicated a generalized but variable distribution in the concentrations detected throughout the basin. The ranges of total measured pesticide concentrations in water and sediments were, respectively, 0.004-6.62 μg/l and 0.16-221.3 μg/kg dry weight. Endosulfans, cypermethrin, and chlorpyrifos were ubiquitous compounds in both environmental compartments and quantitatively the most relevant. All concentrations detected in water were over the recommended guidelines for the protection of aquatic biota. The partitioning indicated a higher affinity for the sediments. Agricultural activity is the source of pesticide-pollution loads, transported by tributaries that reach the main watercourse and alter the quality of the aquatic ecosystem.

  18. Rapid diagnosis of Argentine hemorrhagic fever by reverse transcriptase PCR-based assay.

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, M E; Enría, D; Maiztegui, J I; Grau, O; Romanowski, V

    1995-01-01

    Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF) is an endemo-epidemic disease caused by Junín virus. This report demonstrates that a reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR-based assay developed in our laboratory to detect Junín virus in whole blood samples is sensitive and specific. The experiments were conducted in a double-blinded manner using 94 clinical samples collected in the area in which AHF is endemic. The RT-PCR-based assay was compared with traditional methodologies, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, plaque neutralization tests, and occasionally viral isolation. The calculated parameters for RT-PCR diagnosis, with seroconversion as the "gold standard," were 98% sensitivity and 76% specificity. It is noteworthy that 94% of the patients with putative false-positive results (RT-PCR positive and no seroconversion detected) exhibited febrile syndromes of undefined etiology. These results could be interpreted to mean that most of those patients with febrile syndromes were actually infected with Junín virus but did not develop a detectable immune response. Furthermore, 8 laboratory-fabricated samples and 25 blood samples of patients outside the area in which AHF is endemic tested in a similar way were disclosed correctly (100% match). The RT-PCR assay is the only laboratory test available currently for the early and rapid diagnosis of AHF. It is sensitive enough to detect the low viremia found during the period in which immune plasma therapy can be used effectively, reducing mortality rates from 30% to less than 1%. PMID:7542268

  19. Feeding behavior and social interactions of the Argentine ant Linepithema humile change with sucrose concentration.

    PubMed

    Sola, F J; Josens, R

    2016-08-01

    Liquid sugar baits are well accepted by the Argentine ant Linepithema humile and are suitable for the chemical control of this invasive species. We evaluated how sugar concentrations affect the foraging behavior of L. humile individuals. We quantified feeding variables for individual foragers (ingested load, feeding time and solution intake rate) when feeding on sucrose solutions of different concentrations, as well as post-feeding interactions with nestmates. Solutions of intermediate sucrose concentrations (10-30%) were the most consumed and had the highest intake rates, whereas solutions of high sucrose concentrations (60 and 70%) resulted in extended feeding times, low intake rates and ants having smaller crop loads. In terms of post-feeding interactions, individuals fed solutions of intermediate sucrose concentrations (20%) had the highest probability of conducting trophallaxis and the smallest latency to drop exposure (i.e. lowest time delay). Trophallaxis duration increased with increasing sucrose concentrations. Behavioral motor displays, including contacts with head jerking and walking with a gaster waggle, were lowest for individuals that ingested the more dilute sucrose solution (5%). These behaviors have been previously suggested to act as a communication channel for the activation and/or recruitment of nestmates. We show here that sucrose concentration affects feeding dynamics and modulates decision making related to individual behavior and social interactions of foragers. Our results indicate that intermediate sucrose concentrations (ca. 20%), appear to be most appropriate for toxic baits because they promote rapid foraging cycles, a high crop load per individual, and a high degree of stimulation for recruitment.

  20. Circadian analysis of myocardial infarction incidence in an Argentine and Uruguayan population

    PubMed Central

    D'Negri, Carlos E; Nicola-Siri, Leonardo; Vigo, Daniel E; Girotti, Luis A; Cardinali, Daniel P

    2006-01-01

    Background The occurrence of variations in the spectrum of cardiovascular disease between different regions of the world and ethnic groups have been the subject of great interest. This study report the 24-h variation of myocardial infarction (MI) occurrence in patients recruited from CCU located in Argentina and Uruguay. Methods A cohort of 1063 patients admitted to the CCU within 24 h of the onset of symptoms of an acute MI was examined. MI incidence along the day was computed in 1 h-intervals. Results A minimal MI incidence between 03:00 and 07:00 h and the occurrence of a first maximum between 08:00 and 12:00 h and a second maximum between 15:00 and 22:00 h were verified. The best fit curve was a 24 h cosinor (acrophase ~ 19:00 h, accounting for 63 % of variance) together with a symmetrical gaussian bell (maximum at ~ 10:00 h, accounting for 37 % of variance). A similar picture was observed for MI frequencies among different excluding subgroups (older or younger than 70 years; with or without previous symptoms; diabetics or non diabetics; Q wave- or non-Q wave-type MI; anterior or inferior MI location). Proportion between cosinor and gaussian probabilities was maintained among most subgroups except for older patients who had more MI at the afternoon and patients with previous symptoms who were equally distributed among the morning and afternoon maxima. Conclusion The results support the existence of two maxima (at morning and afternoon hours) in MI incidence in the Argentine and Uruguayan population. PMID:16401349

  1. Variations in sediment transport at the central Argentine continental margin during the Cenozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruetzner, Jens; Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele; Franke, Dieter

    2012-10-01

    The construction of the sedimentary cover at most passive continental margins includes gravitational downslope transport and along-slope contourite deposition, which are controlled by tectonics, climate and oceanography. At the eastern continental margin of Argentina the history of deposition and erosion is intimately linked to the evolution of the South Atlantic and its water masses. Here we present a detailed seismic investigation of the mixed depositional system located between 41°S and 45°S. The study provides a northward complement to prior investigations from the southern Argentine margin and together with these may be used as background information for future ocean drilling in the region. Prominent features in our seismic cross sections are submarine canyons, mass wasting deposits, contourite channels, and sediment drifts. Four major seismic units above regional reflector PLe (˜65 Ma) are separated by distinct unconformities of regional extent. Using a dense grid of reflection seismic profiles, we mapped the depocenter geometries of the seismic units and derived a chronology of the depositional processes during the Cenozoic. While the Paleocene/Eocene (˜65-34 Ma) is characterized by hemipelagic sedimentation under relatively sluggish bottom water conditions, strong Antarctic bottom water (AABW) circulation led to widespread erosion on the slope and growth of a detached sediment drift during the Oligocene and early Miocene (˜34-17 Ma). After deposition of an aggradational seismic unit interpreted to represent the Mid-Miocene climatic optimum (˜17-14 Ma), gravitational downslope sediment transport increased during the middle to late Miocene (˜14-6 Ma) possibly related to tectonic uplift in South America. The Pliocene to Holocene unit (<˜6 Ma) is very heterogeneous and formed by interactions of downslope and along-slope sediment transport processes as indicated by the evolution of canyons, slope plastered drifts and channels.

  2. CELL WALL VARIABILITY IN THE GREEN SEAWEED CODIUM VERMILARA (BRYOPSIDALES CHLOROPHYTA) FROM THE ARGENTINE COAST(1).

    PubMed

    Fernández, Paula V; Ciancia, Marina; Estevez, José Manuel

    2011-08-01

    Cell wall chemistry in the coencocytic green seaweed Codium vermilara (Olivi) Delle Chiaje (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) is well understood. These cell walls are composed of major amounts of neutral β-(1→4)-D-mannans (Mn), sulfated polysaccharides (SPs), which include pyranosic arabinan sulfates (ArpS), pyruvylated galactan sulfates (pGaS), and mannan sulfates (MnS); also minor amounts of O-glycoproteins are present. In this study, cell wall samples of C. vermilara were investigated with regard to their monosaccharide composition and infrared spectra (using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy coupled to principal component [FTIR-PC] analysis). Samples from three different populations of C. vermilara from the Argentine coast showed: (i) an important variation in the relative arabinan content, which increases from north to south, and (ii) a measurable degree of cell wall variability in the sulfate distribution between the different sulfated polysaccharides, independent of the amount of each polysaccharide present and of total sulfate content. When cell wall composition was analyzed over three consecutive years in a single geographic location, the quantity of Mn and overall sulfate content on SPs remained constant, whereas the pGaS:ArpS molar ratio changed over the time. Besides, similar cell wall composition was found between actively growing and resting zones of the thallus, suggesting that cell wall composition is independent of growth stage and development. Overall, these results suggest that C. vermilara has developed a mechanism to adjust the total level of cell wall sulfation by modulating the ArpS:pGaS:MnS molar ratio and also by adjusting the sulfation level in each type of polymer, whereas nonsulfated Mn, as the main structural polysaccharide, did not change over the time or growing stage.

  3. Disabling injuries of the cervical spine in Argentine rugby over the last 20 years

    PubMed Central

    Secin, F. P.; Poggi, E. J.; Luzuriaga, F.; Laffaye, H. A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of disabling injuries to the cervical spine in rugby in Argentina. METHODS: A retrospective review of all cases reported to the Medical Committee of the Argentine Rugby Union (UAR) and Rugby Amistad Foundation was carried out including a follow up by phone. Cumulative binomial distribution, chi 2 test, Fisher test, and comparison of proportions were used to analyse relative incidence and risk of injury by position and by phase of play (Epi Info 6, Version 6.04a). RESULTS: Eighteen cases of disabling injury to the cervical spine were recorded from 1977 to 1997 (0.9 cases per year). The forwards (14 cases) were more prone to disabling injury of the cervical spine than the backs (four cases) (p = 0.03). Hookers (9/18) were at highest risk of injury (p < 0.01). The most frequent cervical injuries occurred at the 4th, 5th, and 6th vertebrae. Seventeen of the injuries occurred during match play. Set scrums were responsible for most of the injuries (11/18) but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.44). The mean age of the injured players was 22. Tetraplegia was initially found in all cases. Physical rehabilitation has been limited to the proximal muscles of the upper limbs, except for two cases of complete recovery. One death, on the seventh day after injury, was reported. CONCLUSIONS: The forwards suffered a higher number of injuries than the backs and this difference was statistically significant. The chance of injury for hookers was statistically higher than for the rest of the players and it was particularly linked to scrummaging. However, the number of injuries incurred in scrums was not statistically different from the number incurred in other phases of play. 


 PMID:10027055

  4. Suspending the next turn as a form of repair initiation: evidence from Argentine Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Elizabeth; Enfield, N J

    2015-01-01

    Practices of other-initiated repair deal with problems of hearing or understanding what another person has said in the fast-moving turn-by-turn flow of conversation. As such, other-initiated repair plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of intersubjectivity in social interaction. This study finds and analyses a special type of other-initiated repair that is used in turn-by-turn conversation in a sign language: Argentine Sign Language (Lengua de Señas Argentina or LSA). We describe a type of response termed a "freeze-look," which occurs when a person has just been asked a direct question: instead of answering the question in the next turn position, the person holds still while looking directly at the questioner. In these cases it is clear that the person is aware of having just been addressed and is not otherwise accounting for their delay in responding (e.g., by displaying a "thinking" face or hesitation, etc.). We find that this behavior functions as a way for an addressee to initiate repair by the person who asked the question. The "freeze-look" results in the questioner "re-doing" their action of asking a question, for example by repeating or rephrasing it. Thus, we argue that the "freeze-look" is a practice for other-initiation of repair. In addition, we argue that it is an "off-record" practice, thus contrasting with known on-record practices such as saying "Huh?" or equivalents. The findings aim to contribute to research on human understanding in everyday turn-by-turn conversation by looking at an understudied sign language, with possible implications for our understanding of visual bodily communication in spoken languages as well.

  5. Suspending the next turn as a form of repair initiation: evidence from Argentine Sign Language

    PubMed Central

    Manrique, Elizabeth; Enfield, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Practices of other-initiated repair deal with problems of hearing or understanding what another person has said in the fast-moving turn-by-turn flow of conversation. As such, other-initiated repair plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of intersubjectivity in social interaction. This study finds and analyses a special type of other-initiated repair that is used in turn-by-turn conversation in a sign language: Argentine Sign Language (Lengua de Señas Argentina or LSA). We describe a type of response termed a “freeze-look,” which occurs when a person has just been asked a direct question: instead of answering the question in the next turn position, the person holds still while looking directly at the questioner. In these cases it is clear that the person is aware of having just been addressed and is not otherwise accounting for their delay in responding (e.g., by displaying a “thinking” face or hesitation, etc.). We find that this behavior functions as a way for an addressee to initiate repair by the person who asked the question. The “freeze-look” results in the questioner “re-doing” their action of asking a question, for example by repeating or rephrasing it. Thus, we argue that the “freeze-look” is a practice for other-initiation of repair. In addition, we argue that it is an “off-record” practice, thus contrasting with known on-record practices such as saying “Huh?” or equivalents. The findings aim to contribute to research on human understanding in everyday turn-by-turn conversation by looking at an understudied sign language, with possible implications for our understanding of visual bodily communication in spoken languages as well. PMID:26441710

  6. Interaction between the Hawaiian dark-rumped petrel and the Argentine ant in Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krushelnycky, Paul D.; Hodges, Cathleen S.N.; Medeiros, Arthur C.; Loope, Lloyd L.

    2001-01-01

    The endemic biota of the Hawaiian islands is believed to have evolved in the absence of ant predation. However, it was suspected that this endemic biota is highly vulnerable to the effect of immigrant ants especially with regard to an aggressive predator known as the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile). First recorded in the Haleakala National Park on the island of Maui in 1967, this ant was believed to have reduced populations of native arthropods in high-elevation subalpine shrublands. In addition, concerns were raised that this immigrant ant may have also reduced the breeding success of the endangered Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia sandwichensis), a native seabird. If so, then it was believe that this ant could become another major threat to the survival of this endangered seabird in addition to the threat that was caused by the introduction of introduced mammals, the advent of hunting by the Polynesians, and a loss of breeding habitat. As a result, the purpose of this study was to determine if the Argentine ant affects the nesting success of this native Hawaiian seabird.

  7. A paleomagnetic and relative paleointensity record from the Argentine Basin (western South Atlantic Ocean) for the last ~125 kyrs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heil, C. W., Jr.; Stoner, J. S.; St-Onge, G.; King, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The paucity of paleomagnetic records from the western South Atlantic Ocean presents a significant gap in our understanding of the spatial variations in geomagnetic field dynamics as they relate to the occurrence of geomagnetic excursions and changes in field strength. As such, high quality records from this region can help build upon Holocene observations and extend the geographic and temporal data coverage for spherical harmonic models. To that end, we present paleomagnetic directional (inclination) and strength (relative paleointensity) records from two cores from the Argentine Basin (RC11-49 and RC16-88). Although the cores were collected more than 40 years ago, the sediments appear to hold a stable remanence and reliable magnetic directions, as evidenced by their reproducibility between the two cores that are separated by ~25 km. The records show evidence of 4 excursional features in the uppermost 16-m of the sediments from the basin. A comparison of the relative paleointensity records from these cores to the South Atlantic Paleointensity Stack (SAPIS) (Stoner et al., 2002) and the relative paleointensity record from ODP Site 1089 (Stoner et al., 2003) indicate that the sediments reliably record relative changes in geomagnetic field intensity and suggests that the longest record (RC11-49) spans the last ~125 kyrs. Our results indicate that the sediments of the Argentine Basin are an important sedimentary archive of geomagnetic field behavior and strength at least through the Holocene and Late Pleistocene and highlight the need for further studies of cores within the basin.

  8. Hydroacoustical evidence of the expansion of pelagic swarms of Munida gregaria (Decapoda, Munididae) in the Beagle Channel and the Argentine Patagonian Shelf, and its relationship with habitat features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, Mariano J.; Cabreira, Ariel G.; Madirolas, Adrián; Lovrich, Gustavo A.

    2016-08-01

    Squat lobsters are highly diversified and widespread decapods, of which only three species form pelagic swarms. Here we infer the expansion of Munida gregaria populations in the Beagle Channel and the Argentine Patagonian Shelf by means of acoustic surveys of pelagic swarms. We also describe the habitat characteristics in which these swarms occur. Acoustic data was collected during three multidisciplinary scientific cruises on board of the R/V Puerto Deseado during 2009, 2012 and 2014. Despite differences in the environmental conditions between the two surveyed areas, between 2009 and 2014 pelagic swarms increased their occurrence and abundance both in the Beagle Channel and on the Argentine Patagonian Shelf. Towards the end of the studied period, pelagic swarms of M. gregaria occurred in new locations, supporting the notion of a population expansion. Within the Beagle Channel swarm expansions were more marked than on the Patagonian Shelf. We here postulate that M. gregaria expansions occur in association with productive areas of the Argentine continental shelf, such as frontal zones, favoured by the squat lobster phenotypic plasticity that permit to exploit resources in both the neritic and benthic environments. At a regional scale on the Patagonian Shelf, three main groups of pelagic swarms of M. gregaria were clearly associated to respective frontal zones. The information presented here is necessary to understand fluctuations in both distribution and abundance patterns of a key species on the Argentine continental shelf. These fluctuations could be direct or indirect indicators of changes in the ecosystem.

  9. The Pacific-Atlantic connection: Biogeochemical signals in the southern end of the Argentine shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzón, J. E. Cardona; Martínez, A. M.; Barrera, F.; Pfaff, F.; Koch, B. P.; Freije, R. H.; Gómez, E. A.; Lara, R. J.

    2016-11-01

    The Cape Horn Current transports low-salinity waters from the SE Pacific Ocean into the Atlantic, which are transported further north by the Malvinas current. Biogeochemical signals of this connection were studied by characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by determination of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOMc), and DOM humification index (HIX). Further, inorganic nutrients, salinity, temperature, stable isotopic composition of particulate organic nitrogen (δ15N) and chlorophyll a (Chla) were measured in the southern end of the Argentine shelf in March 2012. Three water types were characterized: waters of the Beagle Channel (BCW), coastal waters (CW) and oceanic waters (OW). Highest values of ammonium, DOC, FDOMc and HIX were found in BCW, the lowest in OW, suggesting that terrigenous input is a main source of ammonium and refractory carbon, which is supported by a highly significant inverse correlation of these parameters with salinity. In turn, lowest concentrations of nitrate, silicate and phosphate were found in BCW and CW, and highest in OW, with highly significant correlations of these nutrients with salinity, indicating the contribution of the saltier, nutrient-rich Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) to the Pacific-Atlantic connection system. In general there was an inverse distribution pattern between Chla and those nutrients contributed by the ACC, which is consistent with the transition from coastal waters to the low-silicate, high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll, iron-limited setting of the Subantarctic oceanic waters north of the Polar Front. In contrast, in the low-salinity, internal BCW, high values of ammonium, DOC, HIX and FDOM indicate continental inputs, likely including iron complexes, which could have led to the observed high Chla values. δ15N values were positive in the study region, and same as ammonium, reached a maximum in the inner part of the BCW, declining towards OW. This does not support a

  10. Risk of introducing viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) to the Chilean South Pacific via sardine imports from Europe.

    PubMed

    Hervé-Claude, Luis Pablo; Carpenter, Tim E; Hedrick, Ronald P

    2008-01-24

    Chile imports from Spain 100s of metric tons of frozen sardine Sardina pilchardus fished in European oceans, which, with several other clupeids, are presumed susceptible to infection with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). The frozen sardines are directly introduced into the sea as bait to catch southern hake Merluccius australis in the same areas where wild and pen-raised salmonids are present. A simulation model was therefore developed to evaluate the potential risk of infection of wild Chilean southern hake with VHSV from imported bait. The model indicated that VHSV-susceptible fish species present in Chilean waters, like southern hake, are not at immediate risk of infection. However, sensitivity analyses showed that infectious doses at lower concentrations of VHSV combined with higher VHSV-prevalence import scenarios could likely result in VHSV infections of a moderate number of indigenous southern hake (> or =54 fish yr(-1)).

  11. Species composition and biogeography of diatoms in antarctic and subantarctic (Argentine shelf) waters (37-76°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olguín, Héctor F.; Alder, Viviana A.

    2011-03-01

    A large spatial scale study of the diatom species inhabiting waters from the subantarctic (Argentine shelf) to antarctic was made for the first time in order to understand the relationships between these two regions with regard to the fluctuations in diatom abundances in relation with environmental features, their floristic associations and the effect of the Polar Front as a biogeographic barrier. Species-specific diatom abundance, nutrient and chlorophyll- a concentration were assessed from 64 subsurface oceanographic stations carried out during the austral summer 2002, a period characterized by an anomalous sea-ice coverage corresponding to a "warm year". Significant relationships of both diatom density and biomass with chlorophyll- a (positive) and water temperature (negative) were found for the study area as a whole. Within the Subantarctic region, diatom density and biomass values were more uniform and significantly (in average: 35 and 11 times) lower than those of the Antarctic region, and did not correlate with chlorophyll- a. In antarctic waters, instead, biomass was directly related with chlorophyll- a, thus confirming the important contribution of diatoms to the Antarctic phytoplanktonic stock. A total of 167 taxa were recorded for the entire study area, with Chaetoceros and Thalassiosira being the best represented genera. Species richness was maximum in subantarctic waters (46; Argentine shelf) and minimum in the Antarctic region (21; Antarctic Peninsula), and showed a significant decrease with latitude. Floristic associations were examined both qualitatively (Jaccard Index) and quantitatively (correlation) by cluster analyses and results allowed differentiating a similar number of associations (12 vs. 13, respectively) and two main groups of stations. In the Drake Passage, the former revealed that the main floristic change was found at the Polar Front, while the latter reflected the Southern ACC Front as a main boundary, and yielded a higher number of

  12. Dubinectes infirmus, a new species of deep-water Munnopsidae (Crustacea, Isopoda, Asellota) from the Argentine Basin, South Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Malyutina, Marina; Brandt, Angelika

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Dubinectes infirmus sp. n., Munnopsidae, is described from the Argentine Basin, southwest Atlantic, at depths between 4586–4607 m. The new species is distinguished by a narrow rim of the pleotelson posterior margin which is not raising over its dorsal surface; article 3 of the antennula is subequal in length to article 2; distomedial lobes of male pleopod 1 are of same size as distolateral lobes; stylet of male pleopod 2 is subequal in length to protopod; uropod exopod is more than a half of endopod length. Some generic characters which are weakly pronounced in the new species or have different state are defined more precisely in the revised diagnosis of Dubinectes. The modified diagnosis of the genus, a key to the species of Dubinectes as well as the distribution of the genus are presented. PMID:22207784

  13. Structure, Composition and Metagenomic Profile of Soil Microbiomes Associated to Agricultural Land Use and Tillage Systems in Argentine Pampas

    PubMed Central

    Carbonetto, Belén; Rascovan, Nicolás; Álvarez, Roberto; Mentaberry, Alejandro; Vázquez, Martin P.

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is facing a major challenge nowadays: to increase crop production for food and energy while preserving ecosystem functioning and soil quality. Argentine Pampas is one of the main world producers of crops and one of the main adopters of conservation agriculture. Changes in soil chemical and physical properties of Pampas soils due to different tillage systems have been deeply studied. Still, not much evidence has been reported on the effects of agricultural practices on Pampas soil microbiomes. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of agricultural land use on community structure, composition and metabolic profiles on soil microbiomes of Argentine Pampas. We also compared the effects associated to conventional practices with the effects of no-tillage systems. Our results confirmed the impact on microbiome structure and composition due to agricultural practices. The phyla Verrucomicrobia, Plactomycetes, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi were more abundant in non cultivated soils while Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae and WS3 were more abundant in cultivated soils. Effects on metabolic metagenomic profiles were also observed. The relative abundance of genes assigned to transcription, protein modification, nucleotide transport and metabolism, wall and membrane biogenesis and intracellular trafficking and secretion were higher in cultivated fertilized soils than in non cultivated soils. We also observed significant differences in microbiome structure and taxonomic composition between soils under conventional and no- tillage systems. Overall, our results suggest that agronomical land use and the type of tillage system have induced microbiomes to shift their life-history strategies. Microbiomes of cultivated fertilized soils (i.e. higher nutrient amendment) presented tendencies to copiotrophy while microbiomes of non cultivated homogenous soils appeared to have a more oligotrophic life-style. Additionally, we propose that conventional tillage systems

  14. Structure, composition and metagenomic profile of soil microbiomes associated to agricultural land use and tillage systems in Argentine Pampas.

    PubMed

    Carbonetto, Belén; Rascovan, Nicolás; Álvarez, Roberto; Mentaberry, Alejandro; Vázquez, Martin P

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is facing a major challenge nowadays: to increase crop production for food and energy while preserving ecosystem functioning and soil quality. Argentine Pampas is one of the main world producers of crops and one of the main adopters of conservation agriculture. Changes in soil chemical and physical properties of Pampas soils due to different tillage systems have been deeply studied. Still, not much evidence has been reported on the effects of agricultural practices on Pampas soil microbiomes. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of agricultural land use on community structure, composition and metabolic profiles on soil microbiomes of Argentine Pampas. We also compared the effects associated to conventional practices with the effects of no-tillage systems. Our results confirmed the impact on microbiome structure and composition due to agricultural practices. The phyla Verrucomicrobia, Plactomycetes, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi were more abundant in non cultivated soils while Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae and WS3 were more abundant in cultivated soils. Effects on metabolic metagenomic profiles were also observed. The relative abundance of genes assigned to transcription, protein modification, nucleotide transport and metabolism, wall and membrane biogenesis and intracellular trafficking and secretion were higher in cultivated fertilized soils than in non cultivated soils. We also observed significant differences in microbiome structure and taxonomic composition between soils under conventional and no-tillage systems. Overall, our results suggest that agronomical land use and the type of tillage system have induced microbiomes to shift their life-history strategies. Microbiomes of cultivated fertilized soils (i.e. higher nutrient amendment) presented tendencies to copiotrophy while microbiomes of non cultivated homogenous soils appeared to have a more oligotrophic life-style. Additionally, we propose that conventional tillage systems may

  15. Integrating physiology, population dynamics and climate to make multi-scale predictions for the spread of an invasive insect: the Argentine ant at Haleakala National Park, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartley, Stephen; Krushelnycky, Paul D.; Lester, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    Mechanistic models for predicting species’ distribution patterns present particular advantages and challenges relative to models developed from statistical correlations between distribution and climate. They can be especially useful for predicting the range of invasive species whose distribution has not yet reached equilibrium. Here, we illustrate how a physiological model of development for the invasive Argentine ant can be connected to differences in micro-site suitability, population dynamics and climatic gradients; processes operating at quite different spatial scales. Our study is located in the subalpine shrubland of Haleakala National Park, Hawaii, where the spread of Argentine ants Linepithema humile has been documented for the past twenty-five years. We report four main results. First, at a microsite level, the accumulation of degree-days recorded in potential ant nest sites under bare ground or rocks was significantly greater than under a groundcover of grassy vegetation. Second, annual degree-days measured where population boundaries have not expanded (456-521 degree-days), were just above the developmental requirements identified from earlier laboratory studies (445 degree-days above 15.98C). Third, rates of population expansion showed a strong linear relationship with annual degree-days. Finally, an empirical relationship between soil degree-days and climate variables mapped at a broader scale predicts the potential for future range expansion of Argentine ants at Haleakala, particularly to the west of the lower colony and the east of the upper colony. Variation in the availability of suitable microsites, driven by changes in vegetation cover and ultimately climate, provide a hierarchical understanding of the distribution of Argentine ants close to their cold-wet limit of climatic tolerances. We conclude that the integration of physiology, population dynamics and climate mapping holds much promise for making more robust predictions about

  16. Trophic ecology of the invasive argentine ant: spatio-temporal variation in resource assimilation and isotopic enrichment.

    PubMed

    Menke, Sean B; Suarez, Andy V; Tillberg, Chadwick V; Chou, Cheng T; Holway, David A

    2010-11-01

    Studies of food webs often employ stable isotopic approaches to infer trophic position and interaction strength without consideration of spatio-temporal variation in resource assimilation by constituent species. Using results from laboratory diet manipulations and monthly sampling of field populations, we illustrate how nitrogen isotopes may be used to quantify spatio-temporal variation in resource assimilation in ants. First, we determined nitrogen enrichment using a controlled laboratory experiment with the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile). After 12 weeks, worker δ(15)N values from colonies fed an animal-based diet had δ(15)N values that were 5.51% greater compared to colonies fed a plant-based diet. The shift in δ(15)N values in response to the experimental diet occurred within 10 weeks. We next reared Argentine ant colonies with or without access to honeydew-producing aphids and found that after 8 weeks workers from colonies without access to aphids had δ(15)N values that were 6.31% larger compared to colonies with access to honeydew. Second, we sampled field populations over a 1-year period to quantify spatio-temporal variability in isotopic ratios of L. humile and those of a common native ant (Solenopsis xyloni). Samples from free-living colonies revealed that fluctuations in δ(15)N were 1.6-2.4‰ for L. humile and 1.8-2.9‰ for S. xyloni. Variation was also detected among L. humile castes: time averaged means of δ(15)N varied from 1.2 to 2.5‰ depending on the site, with δ(15)N values for queens ≥ workers > brood. The estimated trophic positions of L. humile and S. xyloni were similar within a site; however, trophic position for each species differed significantly at larger spatial scales. While stable isotopes are clearly useful for examining the trophic ecology of arthropod communities, our results suggest that caution is warranted when making ecological interpretations when stable isotope collections come from single time periods or

  17. Trophic ecology of the invasive argentine ant: spatio-temporal variation in resource assimilation and isotopic enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Suarez, Andy V.; Tillberg, Chadwick V.; Chou, Cheng T.; Holway, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of food webs often employ stable isotopic approaches to infer trophic position and interaction strength without consideration of spatio-temporal variation in resource assimilation by constituent species. Using results from laboratory diet manipulations and monthly sampling of field populations, we illustrate how nitrogen isotopes may be used to quantify spatio-temporal variation in resource assimilation in ants. First, we determined nitrogen enrichment using a controlled laboratory experiment with the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile). After 12 weeks, worker δ15N values from colonies fed an animal-based diet had δ15N values that were 5.51% greater compared to colonies fed a plant-based diet. The shift in δ15N values in response to the experimental diet occurred within 10 weeks. We next reared Argentine ant colonies with or without access to honeydew-producing aphids and found that after 8 weeks workers from colonies without access to aphids had δ15N values that were 6.31% larger compared to colonies with access to honeydew. Second, we sampled field populations over a 1-year period to quantify spatio-temporal variability in isotopic ratios of L. humile and those of a common native ant (Solenopsis xyloni). Samples from free-living colonies revealed that fluctuations in δ15N were 1.6–2.4‰ for L. humile and 1.8–2.9‰ for S. xyloni. Variation was also detected among L. humile castes: time averaged means of δ15N varied from 1.2 to 2.5‰ depending on the site, with δ15N values for queens ≥ workers > brood. The estimated trophic positions of L. humile and S. xyloni were similar within a site; however, trophic position for each species differed significantly at larger spatial scales. While stable isotopes are clearly useful for examining the trophic ecology of arthropod communities, our results suggest that caution is warranted when making ecological interpretations when stable isotope collections come from single time periods or

  18. Microgeographic Spatial Structuring of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Populations Using Wing Geometric Morphometry in the Argentine Chaco

    PubMed Central

    GASPE, M. S.; SCHACHTER-BROIDE, J.; GUREVITZ, J. M.; KITRON, U.; GÜRTLER, R. E.; DUJARDIN, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the occurrence of spatial structuring in Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) populations 12 yr after the last community-wide insecticide spraying campaign in rural Pampa del Indio, in the Gran Chaco of northeastern Argentina. In total, 172 male and 149 female right wings collected at 16 georeferenced sites with at least 10 individuals of the same sex were analyzed using geometric morphometry. Mean female body length and wing centroid size (CS) were significantly larger than for males. Log-transformed CS and length were significantly and positively correlated both for males and females. Males collected in domiciles had significantly smaller CS than those collected in peridomestic structures both closed (kitchens or storerooms) or open (chicken coops), in agreement with our previous results elsewhere in the dry Argentine Chaco. Female wing CS was not significantly different between ecotopes. Wing shape analyses showed the occurrence of significant geographic structuring in males and females combined and in males only. Male wings showed a strong association between Mahalanobis distance and geographic distance. In general, Mahalanobis distances were significantly different between collection sites located >4 km apart. For collection sites located <4 km apart, the greater the geographic distance the larger the difference in wing shape variables. Among females, only a partial correspondence between geographic groups and Mahalanobis distances was recorded. The strong spatial structuring found in T. infestans populations may be useful for the identification of putative reinfestation sources after vector control interventions. PMID:22679857

  19. Microgeographic spatial structuring of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) populations using wing geometric morphometry in the Argentine Chaco.

    PubMed

    Gaspe, M S; Schachter-Broide, J; Gurevitz, J m; Kitron, U; Gürtler, R E; Dujardin, J P

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the occurrence of spatial structuring in Triatoma infestans (KLug) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) populations 12 yr after the last community-wide insecticide spraying campaign in rural Pampa del Indio, in the Gran Chaco of northeastern Argentina. In total, 172 male and 149 female right wings collected at 16 georeferenced sites with at least 10 individuals of the same sex were analyzed using geometric morphometry. Mean female body length and wing centroid size (CS) were significantly larger than for males. Log-transformed CS and length were significantly and positively correlated both for males and females. Males collected in domiciles had significantly smaller CS than those collected in peridomestic structures both closed (kitchens or storerooms) or open (chicken coops), in agreement with our previous results elsewhere in the dry Argentine Chaco. Female wing CS was not significantly different between ecotopes. Wing shape analyses showed the occurrence of significant geographic structuring in males and females combined and in males only. Male wings showed a strong association between Mahalanobis distance and geographic distance. In general, Mahalanobis distances were significantly different between collection sites located > 4 km apart. For collection sites located < 4 km apart, the greater the geographic distance the larger the difference in wing shape variables. Among females, only a partial correspondence between geographic groups and Mahalanobis distances was recorded. The strong spatial structuring found in T. infestans populations may be useful for the identification of putative reinfestation sources after vector control interventions.

  20. The Usefulness of Edible and Medicinal Fabaceae in Argentine and Chilean Patagonia: Environmental Availability and Other Sources of Supply

    PubMed Central

    Molares, Soledad; Ladio, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Fabaceae is of great ethnobotanical importance in indigenous and urban communities throughout the world. This work presents a revision of the use of Fabaceae as a food and/or medicinal resource in Argentine-Chilean Patagonia. It is based on a bibliographical analysis of 27 ethnobotanical sources and catalogues of regional flora. Approximately 234 wild species grow in Patagonia, mainly (60%) in arid environments, whilst the remainder belong to Sub-Antarctic forest. It was found that 12.8% (30 species), mainly woody, conspicuous plants, are collected for food or medicines. Most of the species used grow in arid environments. Cultivation and purchase/barter enrich the Fabaceae offer, bringing it up to a total of 63 species. The richness of native and exotic species, and the existence of multiple strategies for obtaining these plants, indicates hybridization of knowledge and practices. Only 22% of the total species used are mentioned in bothcontexts of food and medicine, reflecting low-use complementation. This study suggests a significant ecological appearance and a high level of availability in shops and exchange networks in Patagonia, highlighting the need to consider the full set of environmental and socioeconomic factors in research related to the use and cultural importance of plants in regional contexts. PMID:22194774

  1. Modelling American trypanosomiasis in an endemic zone: application to the initial spread of household infection in the Argentine Chaco.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, M C; Schweigmann, N J; Bartoloni, N J

    2014-12-01

    The complex dynamics of Trypanosoma cruzi infection (Chagas disease) involves different actors and multiple transmission routes. Based on the information currently available, here, we propose a new and more comprehensive model to better understand the dynamics of the infection. This mathematical deterministic model was formulated considering: (i) the three clinical forms in humans: acute, chronic indeterminate and chronic with determinate pathology, (ii) the three main modes of transmission in the human population: vector-borne, congenital and transfusional, (iii) populations of triatomines and dogs as the main domestic reservoirs of T. cruzi and (iv) open populations. A numerical simulation was also performed to estimate the initial spread of the infection in a typical rural household in the endemic zone of the Argentine Gran Chaco. We also analysed the incidence of infected individuals corresponding to each of the three species (humans/triatomines/dogs) over times until the appearance of the first case in the other species. The model predicts that, in the absence of control measures, a few infected individuals are sufficient for the establishment and dispersion of the infection in all the inhabitants of the household. The model proposed and the results obtained allow describing the consequences of the presence of infected individuals in any of the three species considered in the dynamics and the output of the infection.

  2. The peri-urban interface and house infestation with Triatoma infestans in the Argentine Chaco: an underreported process?

    PubMed Central

    Provecho, Yael M; Gaspe, M Sol; del Pilar Fernández, M; Enriquez, Gustavo F; Weinberg, Diego; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2014-01-01

    Peri-urban infestations with triatomine bugs, their sources and their dynamics have rarely been investigated. Here, we corroborated the reported occurrence of Triatoma infestans in a peri-urban area and in neighbouring rural houses in Pampa del Indio, in the Argentine Chaco, and identified its putative sources using spatial analysis and demographic questionnaires. Peri-urban householders reported that 10% of their premises had triatomines, whereas T. infestans was collected by timed manual searches or community-based surveillance in only nine (3%) houses. Trypanosoma cruzi-infected T. infestans and Triatoma sordida were collected indoors only in peri-urban houses and were infected with TcV and TcI, respectively. The triatomines fed on chickens, cats and humans. Peri-urban infestations were most frequent in a squatter settlement and particularly within the recently built mud houses of rural immigrants, with large-sized households, more dogs and cats and more crowding. Several of the observed infestations were most likely associated with passive bug transport from other sources and with active bug dispersal from neighbouring foci. Thus, the households in the squatter settlement were at a greater risk of bug invasion and colonisation. In sum, the incipient process of domestic colonisation and transmission, along with persistent rural-to-urban migratory flows and unplanned urbanisation, indicate the need for active vector surveillance and control actions at the peri-urban interface of the Gran Chaco. PMID:25410997

  3. The peri-urban interface and house infestation with Triatoma infestans in the Argentine Chaco: an underreported process?

    PubMed

    Provecho, Yael M; Gaspe, M Sol; del Pilar Fernández, M; Enriquez, Gustavo F; Weinberg, Diego; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2014-11-01

    Peri-urban infestations with triatomine bugs, their sources and their dynamics have rarely been investigated. Here, we corroborated the reported occurrence of Triatoma infestans in a peri-urban area and in neighbouring rural houses in Pampa del Indio, in the Argentine Chaco, and identified its putative sources using spatial analysis and demographic questionnaires. Peri-urban householders reported that 10% of their premises had triatomines, whereas T. infestans was collected by timed manual searches or community-based surveillance in only nine (3%) houses. Trypanosoma cruzi-infected T. infestans and Triatoma sordida were collected indoors only in peri-urban houses and were infected with TcV and TcI, respectively. The triatomines fed on chickens, cats and humans. Peri-urban infestations were most frequent in a squatter settlement and particularly within the recently built mud houses of rural immigrants, with large-sized households, more dogs and cats and more crowding. Several of the observed infestations were most likely associated with passive bug transport from other sources and with active bug dispersal from neighbouring foci. Thus, the households in the squatter settlement were at a greater risk of bug invasion and colonisation. In sum, the incipient process of domestic colonisation and transmission, along with persistent rural-to-urban migratory flows and unplanned urbanisation, indicate the need for active vector surveillance and control actions at the peri-urban interface of the Gran Chaco.

  4. A longitudinal study of hantavirus infection in three sympatric reservoir species in agroecosystems on the Argentine Pampa.

    PubMed

    Mills, James N; Schmidt, Karina; Ellis, Barbara A; Calderón, Gladys; Enría, Delia A; Ksiazek, Thomas G

    2007-01-01

    Prevalence of antibody reactive with Sin Nombre hantavirus (SNV) was evaluated from rodents captured over 31 months (March 1988 to September 1990) from six mark-recapture grids on the central Argentine Pampa. The most frequently infected rodents were: Akodon azarae (31/459), Necromys benefactus (8/141), and Oligoryzomys flavescens (10/281), which are known hosts of Pergamino, Maciel, and Lechiguanas hantaviruses, respectively. Relative population density and antibody prevalence varied seasonally and from year to year, population densities were highest in fall and prevalences were highest in spring. A positive association between antibody prevalence and body weight corroborated findings from other studies suggesting that hantaviruses are maintained in reservoir populations by horizontal transmission. In two of three host species, transmission was more frequent among male than among female mice. We found no evidence for a detrimental effect of hantavirus infection on host body weight, growth, longevity, movement, or reproductive preparedness. This analysis, based on cryopreserved specimens, represents the earliest conducted longitudinal, mark-recapture study of the dynamics of infection of autochthonous American hantaviruses in their sigmodontine host populations.

  5. Reconciling tectonic shortening, sedimentation and spatial patterns of erosion from 10Be paleo-erosion rates in the Argentine Precordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Val, Pedro; Hoke, Gregory D.; Fosdick, Julie C.; Wittmann, Hella

    2016-09-01

    The temporal evolution of erosion over million-year timescales is key to understand the development of mountain ranges and adjacent fold-and-thrust belts. While models of orogenic wedge dynamics predict an instantaneous response of erosion to pulses of rock uplift, stream-power based models predict that catchment-wide erosion maxima significantly lag behind a pulse of rock uplift. Here, we explore the relationships between rock uplift, erosion, and sediment deposition in the Argentine Precordillera fold-and-thrust belt at 30°S. Using a combination of 10Be-derived paleo-erosion rates, constraints on re-exposure using 26Al/10Be ratios, geomorphic observations and detrital zircon provenance, we demonstrate that the attainment of maximum upland erosion rates lags the maximum rate of deformation over million-year timescales. The magnitudes and causes of the erosional delays shed new light on the catchment erosional response to tectonic deformation and rock uplift in orogenic wedges.

  6. Relationship between beak morphological variables and body size and mantle length of male and female Argentine shortfin squid ( Illex argentinus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xinjun; Lu, Huajie; Liu, Bilin; Fang, Zhou

    2012-12-01

    Beak of cephalopod is an important hard tissue. Understanding the morphology of beak can yield critical information on the role of cephalopods in the ecosystem. The south patagonic stock of the Argentine shortfin squid, Illex argentinus, is not only one of the most important fishing targets, but also one of the most important species in the marine eco-system of the southwest Atlantic. A total of 430 samples of I. argentinus, including 229 females 103-346mm in mantle length (ML) and 201 males 140-298mm in ML, were collected from the area off the Exclusive Economic Zone of Argentinean waters by Chinese squid jigging vessels during February to May 2007. The morphology of their beaks was evaluated. The relationships between beak morphological variables and ML differed significantly among males and females. They could be best described by logarithmic functions for females and linear functions for males except for upper wing length (UWL) and lower rostrum length (LRL), which followed exponential functions in their relationships with ML. The results showed the sexual dimorphism in the relationship between ML and beak morphology for the south patagonic stock of I. argentinus. However, no significant difference was found between males and females in the relationships of beak morphological variables (except for UWL) versus body weight (BW), suggesting that the relationship between beak morphological variables and BW can be used for estimating the biomass consumed by their predators.

  7. Evolution of the northern Argentine margin during the Cenozoic controlled by bottom current dynamics and gravitational processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruetzner, J.; Uenzelmann-Neben, G.; Franke, D.

    2016-08-01

    A detailed reflection seismic investigation on sediment deposition at the northern Argentine margin (37°S-42°S) resolves major modifications in oceanographic circulation during the Cenozoic, which resulted from variations in both climatic and tectonic processes. After an extensive erosional period following the onset of glaciation of Antartica at ˜34 Ma, which affected all water depth levels, a buried elongated mounded drift within the continental shelf was shaped by bottom current activity during the Miocene. This may represent the earliest deposits of the Malvinas Current that branches from the Antartic Circumpolar Current and today is part of a complex shallow water circulation system known as the Brazil-Malvinas confluence. At the same time, a major terrace grew to its present form on the upper slope indicating that a precursor of Antarctic Intermediate Water was also part of the Brazil-Malvinas confluence. After another major erosional phase inferred from a seismic unconformity at ˜6 Ma, sheeted drifts, mounded drifts, and sediment waves formed at the continental rise during the Pliocene/Pleistocene. These extensive contourite deposits are diagnostic for a steady north setting bottom flow at the depth level of today's Antarctic Bottom Water. Evidence for downslope transport mainly stems from the presence of buried turbidites and canyon-related depocenters. These features can be related to Andean uplift during the Eocene and to the activation of the canyon system during the Pliocene.

  8. The Major Determinant of Attenuation in Mice of the Candid1 Vaccine for Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever Is Located in the G2 Glycoprotein Transmembrane Domain▿

    PubMed Central

    Albariño, César G.; Bird, Brian H.; Chakrabarti, Ayan K.; Dodd, Kimberly A.; Flint, Mike; Bergeron, Éric; White, David M.; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2011-01-01

    Candid1, a live-attenuated Junin virus vaccine strain, was developed during the early 1980s to control Argentine hemorrhagic fever, a severe and frequently fatal human disease. Six amino acid substitutions were found to be unique to this vaccine strain, and their role in virulence attenuation in mice was analyzed using a series of recombinant viruses. Our results indicate that Candid1 is attenuated in mice through a single amino acid substitution in the transmembrane domain of the G2 glycoprotein. This work provides insight into the molecular mechanisms of attenuation of the only arenavirus vaccine currently available. PMID:21795336

  9. Interactive Effects of Large- and Small-Scale Sources of Feral Honey-Bees for Sunflower in the Argentine Pampas

    PubMed Central

    Sáez, Agustín; Sabatino, Malena; Aizen, Marcelo A.

    2012-01-01

    Pollinators for animal pollinated crops can be provided by natural and semi-natural habitats, ranging from large vegetation remnants to small areas of non-crop land in an otherwise highly modified landscape. It is unknown, however, how different small- and large-scale habitat patches interact as pollinator sources. In the intensively managed Argentine Pampas, we studied the additive and interactive effects of large expanses (up to 2200 ha) of natural habitat, represented by untilled isolated “sierras”, and narrow (3–7 m wide) strips of semi-natural habitat, represented by field margins, as pollinator sources for sunflower (Helianthus annus). We estimated visitation rates by feral honey-bees, Apis mellifera, and native flower visitors (as a group) at 1, 5, 25, 50 and 100 m from a field margin in 17 sunflower fields 0–10 km distant from the nearest sierra. Honey-bees dominated the pollinator assemblage accounting for >90% of all visits to sunflower inflorescences. Honey-bee visitation was strongly affected by proximity to the sierras decreasing by about 70% in the most isolated fields. There was also a decline in honey-bee visitation with distance from the field margin, which was apparent with increasing field isolation, but undetected in fields nearby large expanses of natural habitat. The probability of observing a native visitor decreased with isolation from the sierras, but in other respects visitation by flower visitors other than honey-bees was mostly unaffected by the habitat factors assessed in this study. Overall, we found strong hierarchical and interactive effects between the study large and small-scale pollinator sources. These results emphasize the importance of preserving natural habitats and managing actively field verges in the absence of large remnants of natural habitat for improving pollinator services. PMID:22303477

  10. Effect of latitudinal gradient and impact of logging on genetic diversity of Cedrela lilloi along the Argentine Yungas Rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Inza, Maria V; Zelener, Noga; Fornes, Luis; Gallo, Leonardo A

    2012-01-01

    Cedrela lilloi C. DC. (cedro coya, Meliaceae), an important south American timber species, has been historically overexploited through selective logging in Argentine Yungas Rainforest. Management and conservation programs of the species require knowledge of its genetic variation patterns; however, no information is available. Molecular genetic variability of the species was characterized to identify high-priority populations for conservation and domestication purposes. Fourteen native populations (160 individuals) along a latitudinal gradient and with different logging's intensities were assessed by 293 polymorphic AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) markers. Genetic diversity was low (Ht = 0.135), according to marginal location of the species in Argentina. Most of the diversity was distributed within populations (87%). Northern populations showed significant higher genetic diversity (R2= 0.69) that agreed with latitudinal pattern of distribution of taxonomic diversity in the Yungas. Three clusters were identified by Bayesian analysis in correspondence with northern, central, and southern Yungas. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed significant genetic differences among latitudinal clusters even when logging (ΦRT = 0.07) and unlogging populations (ΦPT = 0.10) were separately analyzed. Loss of genetic diversity with increasing logging intensity was observed between neighboring populations with different disturbance (ΦPT = 0.03–0.10). Bottlenecks in disturbed populations are suggested as the main cause. Our results emphasize both: the necessity of maintaining the genetic diversity in protected areas that appear as possible long-term refuges of the species; and to rescue for the national system of protected areas some high genetic diversity populations that are on private fields. PMID:23170208

  11. Influence of weeds on Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and obscure mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in a central California vineyard.

    PubMed

    Costello, Michael J; Welch, Mark D

    2014-06-01

    Obscure mealybug is a pest of grapes in the cool climate regions of coastal California, is found on some vineyard weeds, and is tended by the Argentine ant. A study was conducted at a vineyard in Arroyo Grande, CA, to evaluate the impact of weeds on ant activity on grapevines, and the role that ants and weeds have on obscure mealybug infestation in grape clusters. The incidence of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was recorded as well. Treatments were weed exclusion versus the presence of weeds, and ant exclusion versus the presence of ants. Ant activity was evaluated weekly using sugar-based monitoring stations, and mealybug infestation and Botrytis incidence of clusters were evaluated at harvest. Ant exclusion reduced the overall number of ant visits by 82%, and ants increased mealybug infestation of clusters by 53%. Ant activity was 33% higher in the weeds treatment, but there was no impact of weeds on mealybug infestation. We suggest that the higher ant activity recorded in the weeds treatment may have been an artifact of the sugar-based sampling method. Botrytis incidence was three times higher with ants, but did not differ between weeds and weed exclusion treatments. The study supports other research showing a relationship between mealybug infestation and the presence of ants, as well as the lack of impact of floor vegetation on mealybug infestation of grape clusters. It is the first report of a relationship between ants and Botrytis, although it is more likely that the higher Botrytis incidence found here is a result of increased mealybug density than a direct effect by ants.

  12. Is the Invasive Species Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (Argentine Stem Weevil) a Threat to New Zealand Natural Grassland Ecosystems?

    PubMed Central

    Barratt, Barbara I. P.; Barton, Diane M.; Philip, Bruce A.; Ferguson, Colin M.; Goldson, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    Listronotus bonariensis (Argentine stem weevil) is a stem-boring weevil that has become a major pasture pest in New Zealand, and cool climate turf grass in Australia. This species is also frequently found in native tussock grassland in New Zealand. Laboratory and field trials were established to determine the risk posed to both seedlings and established plants of three native grass species compared to what happens with a common host of this species, hybrid ryegrass (L. perenne X L. multiflorum). Adult weevil feeding damage scores were higher on Poa colensoi and Festuca novae-zelandiae than Chionochloa rigida. Oviposition was lower on P. colensoi than hybrid ryegrass, and no eggs were laid on F. novae-zelandiae. In field trials using the same four species established as spaced plants L. bonariensis laid more eggs per tiller in ryegrass in a low altitude pasture site than in ryegrass in a higher altitude site. No eggs were found on the three native grass species at the tussock sites, and only low numbers were found on other grasses at the low altitude pasture site. Despite this, numbers of adult weevils were extracted from the plants in the field trials. These may have comprised survivors of the original weevils added to the plants, together with new generation weevils that had emerged during the experiment. Irrespective, higher numbers were recovered from the tussock site plants than from those from the pasture site. It was concluded that L. bonariensis is likely to have little overall impact, but a greater impact on native grass seedling survival than on established plants. PMID:27507979

  13. Efficacy of Maxforce bait for control of the Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krushelnycky, Paul D.; Reimer, Neil J.

    1998-01-01

    In an effort to develop a chemical control strategy for the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), in Haleakala National Park, Maxforce, which is formulated with 0.9% hydramethylnon, was used in test plots to determine the efficacy of the ant bait in the field. Initially, Maxforce was tested at 2 application rates: broadcast at 2.25 kg/ha (2 lb/acre) and 4.5 kg/ha (4 lb/acre). Later, the following treatments were also tested: a Maxforce and honey granule mix, Maxforce with 0.5% hydramethylnon, Maxforce with a different solvent, Maxforce distributed in exposed piles, and Maxforce distributed in covered piles. Although there were significant differences in the magnitude of ant reduction among the various treatments, all yielded the same general result. Foraging ant numbers at monitoring bait stations declined an average maximum of 97.0% in the test plots, with no plots achieving 100% reduction. At 2 mo after treatment the mean number of foraging ants was reduced by 92.1%. Nest survival in the plots appeared to be affected to a lesser degree, but could not be monitored accurately over the longer term because of the phenomenon of nest movement. A 2nd identical application 1 mo after the initial application in plots treated with Maxforce at 2.25 and 4.5 kg/ha did not result in eradication. Bait molding, quick mortality, and toxicant breakdown from UV radiation created a short exposure time to the bait and toxicant, which may have been the main obstacle to achieving eradication.

  14. Selection and characterization of Argentine isolates of Trichoderma harzianum for effective biocontrol of Septoria leaf blotch of wheat.

    PubMed

    Stocco, Marina C; Mónaco, Cecilia I; Abramoff, Cecilia; Lampugnani, Gladys; Salerno, Graciela; Kripelz, Natalia; Cordo, Cristina A; Consolo, Verónica F

    2016-03-01

    Species of the genus Trichoderma are economically important as biocontrol agents, serving as a potential alternative to chemical control. The applicability of Trichoderma isolates to different ecozones will depend on the behavior of the strains selected from each zone. The present study was undertaken to isolate biocontrol populations of Trichoderma spp. from the Argentine wheat regions and to select and characterize the best strains of Trichoderma harzianum by means of molecular techniques. A total of 84 out of the 240 strains of Trichoderma were able to reduce the disease severity of the leaf blotch of wheat. Thirty-seven strains were selected for the reduction equal to or greater than 50% of the severity, compared with the control. The percentage values of reduction of the pycnidial coverage ranged between 45 and 80%. The same last strains were confirmed as T. harzianum by polymerase chain reaction amplification of internal transcribed spacers, followed by sequencing. Inter-simple sequence repeat was used to examine the genetic variability among isolates. This resulted in a total of 132 bands. Further numerical analysis revealed 19 haplotypes, grouped in three clusters (I, II, III). Shared strains, with different geographical origins and isolated in different years, were observed within each cluster. The origin of the isolates and the genetic group were partially related. All isolates from Paraná were in cluster I, all isolates from Lobería were in cluster II, and all isolates from Pergamino and Santa Fe were in cluster III. Our results suggest that the 37 native strains of T. harzianum are important in biocontrol programs and could be advantageous for the preparation of biopesticides adapted to the agroecological conditions of wheat culture.

  15. Is the Invasive Species Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (Argentine Stem Weevil) a Threat to New Zealand Natural Grassland Ecosystems?

    PubMed

    Barratt, Barbara I P; Barton, Diane M; Philip, Bruce A; Ferguson, Colin M; Goldson, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    Listronotus bonariensis (Argentine stem weevil) is a stem-boring weevil that has become a major pasture pest in New Zealand, and cool climate turf grass in Australia. This species is also frequently found in native tussock grassland in New Zealand. Laboratory and field trials were established to determine the risk posed to both seedlings and established plants of three native grass species compared to what happens with a common host of this species, hybrid ryegrass (L. perenne X L. multiflorum). Adult weevil feeding damage scores were higher on Poa colensoi and Festuca novae-zelandiae than Chionochloa rigida. Oviposition was lower on P. colensoi than hybrid ryegrass, and no eggs were laid on F. novae-zelandiae. In field trials using the same four species established as spaced plants L. bonariensis laid more eggs per tiller in ryegrass in a low altitude pasture site than in ryegrass in a higher altitude site. No eggs were found on the three native grass species at the tussock sites, and only low numbers were found on other grasses at the low altitude pasture site. Despite this, numbers of adult weevils were extracted from the plants in the field trials. These may have comprised survivors of the original weevils added to the plants, together with new generation weevils that had emerged during the experiment. Irrespective, higher numbers were recovered from the tussock site plants than from those from the pasture site. It was concluded that L. bonariensis is likely to have little overall impact, but a greater impact on native grass seedling survival than on established plants.

  16. Skeletal involvement in Gaucher disease: An observational multicenter study of prognostic factors in the Argentine Gaucher disease patients.

    PubMed

    Drelichman, Guillermo; Fernández Escobar, Nicolás; Basack, Nora; Aversa, Luis; Larroude, María Silvia; Aguilar, Gabriela; Szlago, Marina; Schenone, Andrea; Fynn, Alcyra; Cuello, María Fernanda; Aznar, Marcela; Fernández, Ramiro; Ruiz, Alba; Reichel, Paola; Guelbert, Norberto; Robledo, Hugo; Watman, Nora; Bolesina, Moira; Elena, Graciela; Veber, S Ernesto; Pujal, Graciela; Galván, Graciela; Chain, Juan José; Arizo, Adriana; Bietti, Julieta; Bar, Daniel; Dragosky, Marta; Marquez, Marisa; Feldman, Leonardo; Muller, Katja; Zirone, Sandra; Buchovsky, Greogorio; Lanza, Victoria; Sanabria, Alba; Fernández, Ignacio; Jaureguiberry, Rossana; Contte, Marcelo; Barbieri María, Angie; Maro, Alejandra; Zárate, Graciela; Fernández, Gabriel; Rapetti, María Cristina; Donato, Hugo; Degano, Adriana; Kantor, Gustavo; Albina, Roberto; Á Lvarez Bollea, María; Brun, María; Bacciedoni, Viviana; Del Río, Francis; Soberón, Bárbara; Boido, Nazario; Schweri, Maya; Borchichi, Sandra; Welsh, Victoria; Corrales, Marcela; Cedola, Alejandra; Carvani, Analía; Diez, Blanca; Richard, Lucía; Baduel, Ccecilia; Nuñez, Gabriela; Colimodio, Rubén; Barazzutti, Lucía; Medici, Hugo; Meschengieser, Susana; Damiani, Germán; Nucifora, María; Girardi, Beatriz; Gómez, Sergio; Papucci, Maura; Verón, David; Quiroga, Luis; Carro, Gustavo; De Ambrosio, Patricia; Ferro, José; Pujol, Marcelo; Castella, Cristina Cabral; Franco, Liliana; Nisnovich, Gisela; Veloso, María; Pacheco, Isabel; Savarino, Mario; Marino, Andrés; Saavedra, José Luis

    2016-10-01

    Patients with Gaucher type 1 (GD1) throughout Argentina were enrolled in the Argentine bone project to evaluate bone disease and its determinants. We focused on presence and predictors of bone lesions (BL) and their relationship to therapeutic goals (TG) with timing and dose of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). A total of 124 patients on ERT were enrolled in a multi-center study. All six TG were achieved by 82% of patients: 70.1% for bone pain and 91.1% for bone crisis. However, despite the fact that bone TGs were achieved, residual bone disease was present in 108 patients on ERT (87%) at time 0. 16% of patients showed new irreversible BL (bone infarcts and avascular osteonecrosis) despite ERT, suggesting that they appeared during ERT or were not detected at the moment of diagnosis. We observed 5 prognostic factors that predicted a higher probability of being free of bone disease: optimal ERT compliance; early diagnosis; timely initiation of therapy; ERT initiation dose ≥45 UI/kg/EOW; and the absence of history of splenectomy. Skeletal involvement was classified into 4 major phenotypic groups according to BL: group 1 (12.9%) without BL; group 2 (28.2%) with reversible BL; group 3 (41.9%) with reversible BL and irreversible chronic BL; and group 4 (16.9%) with acute irreversible BL. Our study identifies prognostic factors for achieving best therapeutic outcomes, introduces new risk stratification for patients and suggests the need for a redefinition of bone TG. Am. J. Hematol. 91:E448-E453, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Interactive effects of large- and small-scale sources of feral honey-bees for sunflower in the Argentine Pampas.

    PubMed

    Sáez, Agustín; Sabatino, Malena; Aizen, Marcelo A

    2012-01-01

    Pollinators for animal pollinated crops can be provided by natural and semi-natural habitats, ranging from large vegetation remnants to small areas of non-crop land in an otherwise highly modified landscape. It is unknown, however, how different small- and large-scale habitat patches interact as pollinator sources. In the intensively managed Argentine Pampas, we studied the additive and interactive effects of large expanses (up to 2200 ha) of natural habitat, represented by untilled isolated "sierras", and narrow (3-7 m wide) strips of semi-natural habitat, represented by field margins, as pollinator sources for sunflower (Helianthus annus). We estimated visitation rates by feral honey-bees, Apis mellifera, and native flower visitors (as a group) at 1, 5, 25, 50 and 100 m from a field margin in 17 sunflower fields 0-10 km distant from the nearest sierra. Honey-bees dominated the pollinator assemblage accounting for >90% of all visits to sunflower inflorescences. Honey-bee visitation was strongly affected by proximity to the sierras decreasing by about 70% in the most isolated fields. There was also a decline in honey-bee visitation with distance from the field margin, which was apparent with increasing field isolation, but undetected in fields nearby large expanses of natural habitat. The probability of observing a native visitor decreased with isolation from the sierras, but in other respects visitation by flower visitors other than honey-bees was mostly unaffected by the habitat factors assessed in this study. Overall, we found strong hierarchical and interactive effects between the study large and small-scale pollinator sources. These results emphasize the importance of preserving natural habitats and managing actively field verges in the absence of large remnants of natural habitat for improving pollinator services.

  18. On deep-current and hydrographic observations from a mudwave region and elsewhere in the Argentine Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weatherly, Georges L.

    Near-bottom current measurements from both sides of a mudwave, in an extensive mudwave region of the mid-Argentine Basin, are examined for evidence of lee waves. Such waves appear to exist when the across-crest flow exceeds a critical value [predicted by FLOOD (1988), Deep-Sea Research, 35, 973-983] of about 9 cm s -1. The observations agree with the predictions of BLUMSACK and WEATHERLY (1989, Deep-Sea Research, 36, 155-172) in three of four cases. However, if it is assumed that the flow perturbations induced by lee waves are shifted slightly downcurrent from that predicted by the Blumsack and Weatherly model, then there is agreement in all four cases. The mudwave region is characterized as having a strong (˜ 10 cm s -1), steady (eddy kinetic energy < mean kinetic energy) current. The westward flow is consistent with the anticyclonic abyssal gyre centered about the Zapiola Drift inferred by FLOOD and SHOR (1987, Deep-Sea Research, 35, 973-983). Near-bottom flow measurements made further to the west, in the region of confluence of the Brazil and Malvinas Current Extensions, reveal relatively energetic fluctuations, and equatorward flowing deep western boundary currents along the continental slope. Along the continental rise a poleward flow is observed, consistent with that inferred by REID (1989, Progress in Oceanography, 23, 149-244). Too-cold bottom layers were found to be common only on the lower continental slope (4000 m depth) and at the mid-basin, mudwave site.

  19. Isolation of Salmonella spp. from yacare caiman (Caiman yacare) and broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) from the Argentine Chaco.

    PubMed

    Uhart, Marcela; Ferreyra, Hebe; Mattiello, Rosana; Caffer, María Inés; Terragno, Raquel; Schettino, Adriana; Prado, Walter

    2011-04-01

    Presence of Salmonella spp. was evaluated in yacare caiman (Caiman yacare) and broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) from a ranching facility in the Argentine Chaco. Crocodilian ranching programs are based on captive breeding of wild-harvested eggs and release of excess hatchlings into the wild. Samples for bacterial isolation were collected from 102 captive (35 C. yacare and 67 C. latirostris) and seven free-ranging caiman (four C. yacare and three C. latirositris) between 2001 and 2005 and from three artificially incubated C. yacare wild eggs. Two Salmonella spp. of known zoonotic potential, S. infantis and S. nottingham, were isolated from captive caiman in 2001 and 2002, respectively. This is the first report for S. nottingham in reptiles and of S. infantis in caiman. Salmonella spp. prevalence varied significantly between years, with a 77% prevalence peak in 2002. Although the cause of this increase was not confirmed, we found no correlation with the type of enclosure, caiman species, or body weight. Deteriorated physical condition of caiman hatchlings due to dietary changes in 2002 could have influenced Salmonella spp. shedding. However, external sources such as food, water, or enclosures could not be ruled out. Pathogenic Salmonella spp. present a risk for human infection. Inadvertent introduction of Salmonella spp. or other bacteria into the environment when caiman are released could pose a threat to wild caiman populations. Prophylactic measures to detect and decrease Salmonella spp. presence in caiman ranching facilities are recommended to reduce risk to humans and make caiman-ranching a sound conservation strategy for crocodilian species.

  20. Faulting and erosion in the Argentine Precordillera during changes in subduction regime: Reconciling bedrock cooling and detrital records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosdick, Julie C.; Carrapa, Barbara; Ortíz, Gustavo

    2015-12-01

    The Argentine Precordillera is an archetypal retroarc fold-and-thrust belt that records tectonics associated with changing subduction regimes. The interactions between exhumation and faulting in the Precordillera were investigated using apatite and zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He and apatite fission track thermochronometry from the Precordillera and adjacent geologic domains. Inverse modeling of thermal histories constrains eastward in-sequence rock cooling associated with deformation and erosion from 18 to 2 Ma across the Central Precordillera tracking thrusting during this time. The youngest AHe ages (5-2 Ma) and highest erosion rates are located in the eastern and western extremities of the Precordillera and indicate that recent denudation is concentrated at its structural boundaries. Moreover, synchronous rapid Pliocene cooling of the Frontal Cordillera, Eastern Precordillera, and Sierra del Valle Fértil was coeval with initiation of basement-involved faulting in the foreland. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology from the ca. 16-8.1 Ma Bermejo foreland basin strata suggests fluvial connectivity westward beyond the Frontal Cordillera to the Main Cordillera and Coast Range followed by an important shift in sediment provenance at ca. 10 Ma. At this time, we suggest that a substantial decrease in Permo-Triassic igneous sources in the Frontal Cordillera and concurrent increase in recycled zircons signatures of Paleozoic strata are best explained by uplift and erosion of the Precordillera during widening of the thrust-belt. Bedrock thermochronology and modeling indicate a 2-6 Myr lag time between faulting-related cooling in the hinterland and the detrital record of deformation in the foreland basin, suggesting that for tectonically active semi-arid settings, bedrock cooling may be more sensitive to onset of faulting. We suggest that high erosion rates in the Frontal Cordillera and Eastern Precordillera are associated with increased interplate coupling during shallowing of the

  1. Activities with Argentina. Spring 1999. A U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Program with the National Atomic Energy Commission of the Argentine Republic

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    In 1989, the US Department of Energy (DOE) responded to the need to redirect resources from weapons production to environmental restoration and waste management by establishing the Office of Environmental Management (EM) and delegated to this office the responsibility of cleaning up the US nuclear weapons complex. Now in its eight year, EM`s mission has three central facets: (1) to assess, remediate, and monitor contaminated sites and facilities; (2) to store, treat, and dispose of waste from past and current operations; and (3) to develop and implement innovative technologies for environmental cleanup. To this end, EM has established domestic and international cooperative technology development programs, including one with the Republic of Argentina. Cooperating with Argentine scientific institutes and industries meets US cleanup objectives by: (1) identifying and accessing Argentine EM-related technologies, thereby leveraging investments and providing cost-savings; (2) improving access to technical information, scientific expertise, and technologies applicable to EM needs; and (3) fostering the development of innovative environmental technologies by increasing US private sector opportunities in Argentina in EM-related areas.

  2. Characterizing and predicting species distributions across environments and scales: Argentine ant occurrences in the eye of the beholder

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menke, S.B.; Holway, D.A.; Fisher, R.N.; Jetz, W.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Species distribution models (SDMs) or, more specifically, ecological niche models (ENMs) are a useful and rapidly proliferating tool in ecology and global change biology. ENMs attempt to capture associations between a species and its environment and are often used to draw biological inferences, to predict potential occurrences in unoccupied regions and to forecast future distributions under environmental change. The accuracy of ENMs, however, hinges critically on the quality of occurrence data. ENMs often use haphazardly collected data rather than data collected across the full spectrum of existing environmental conditions. Moreover, it remains unclear how processes affecting ENM predictions operate at different spatial scales. The scale (i.e. grain size) of analysis may be dictated more by the sampling regime than by biologically meaningful processes. The aim of our study is to jointly quantify how issues relating to region and scale affect ENM predictions using an economically important and ecologically damaging invasive species, the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile). Location: California, USA. Methods: We analysed the relationship between sampling sufficiency, regional differences in environmental parameter space and cell size of analysis and resampling environmental layers using two independently collected sets of presence/absence data. Differences in variable importance were determined using model averaging and logistic regression. Model accuracy was measured with area under the curve (AUC) and Cohen's kappa. Results: We first demonstrate that insufficient sampling of environmental parameter space can cause large errors in predicted distributions and biological interpretation. Models performed best when they were parametrized with data that sufficiently sampled environmental parameter space. Second, we show that altering the spatial grain of analysis changes the relative importance of different environmental variables. These changes apparently result

  3. Vestiges of an Ordovician west-vergent thin-skinned Ocloyic thrust belt in the Argentine Precordillera, southern Central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, William A.; Astini, Ricardo A.

    2007-08-01

    Collision of the down-going, Laurentia-derived Argentine Precordillera terrane with the Gondwanan margin drove the Ordovician Ocloyic orogeny, including subduction volcanism, metamorphism, and top-to-west shearing east of the Precordillera. In the Precordillera, above passive-margin carbonates (Lower Ordovician San Juan Limestone and older carbonates), a Middle to Upper Ordovician westward-prograding synorogenic clastic wedge of black shale (Gualcamayo Shale) and coarser clastic sediment (Las Vacas Conglomerate and Trapiche Formation) fills a peripheral foreland basin. New research has identified vestiges of a west-directed thin-skinned Ocloyic foreland thrust belt that has been fragmented by east-directed Andean thrusting. The El Corral thrust sheet, with hanging-wall detachment in the San Juan Limestone, extends over a west-directed footwall frontal ramp and extensive flat to low-angle footwall cutoff in the Gualcamayo and Las Vacas formations. Las Vacas conglomerates in the footwall include olistoliths (10-m scale) exclusively of San Juan Limestone and Gualcamayo Shale; the beds in some olistoliths are folded. The advancing El Corral thrust sheet successively supplied and overrode the stratigraphically restricted olistoliths. In the El Corral footwall, tight west-vergent folds and faults within an anticlinorium in the San Juan Limestone and Gualcamayo Shale suggest a deeper (unexposed) thrust fault, the Los Celestitos fault. West of the anticlinorium, easterly dip (restored to remove Andean deformation) beneath an angular unconformity between Las Vacas and Trapiche beds is consistent geometrically with the trailing limb of a west-vergent fault-propagation anticline in the hanging wall of the subsurface Los Celestitos fault. The same angular unconformity truncates the El Corral fault and hanging-wall strata. In the Trapiche Formation, contrasting sedimentary facies from sandy turbidites westward to limestone-clast megabeds and olistoliths suggest another frontal

  4. Coordination of the U.S. DOE-Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) science and technology implementing arrangement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    In 1989, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Environmental Management (EM) and delegated to the office the responsibility of cleaning up the US nuclear weapons complex. EM`s mission has three primary activities: (1) to assess, remediate, and monitor contaminated sites and facilities; (2) to store, treat, and dispose of wastes from past and current operations; and (3) to develop and implement innovative technologies for environmental remediation. To this end, EM has established domestic and international cooperative technology development programs, including one with the Republic of Argentina. Cooperating with Argentine scientific institutes and industry meets US cleanup objectives by: (1) identifying and accessing Argentine EM-related technologies, thereby leveraging investments and providing cost-savings; (2) improving access to technical information, scientific expertise, and technologies applicable to EM needs; and (3) fostering the development of innovative environmental technologies by increasing US private sector opportunities in Argentina in EM-related areas. Florida International University`s Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (FIU-HCET) serves as DOE-OST`s primary technology transfer agent. FIU-HCET acts as the coordinating and managing body for the Department of Energy (DOE)-Argentina National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) Arrangement. Activities include implementing standard operating procedures, tracking various technical projects, hosting visiting scientists, advising DOE of potential joint projects based on previous studies, and demonstrating/transferring desired technology. HCET hosts and directs the annual Joint Coordinating Committee for Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management meeting between the DOE and CNEA representatives. Additionally, HCET is evaluating the possibility of establishing similar arrangements with other Latin American countries.

  5. Successive reactivation of older structures under variable heat flow conditions evidenced by K-Ar fault gouge dating in Sierra de Ambato, northern Argentine broken foreland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nóbile, Julieta C.; Collo, Gilda; Dávila, Federico M.; Martina, Federico; Wemmer, Klaus

    2015-12-01

    The Argentine broken foreland has been the subject of continuous research to determine the uplift and exhumation history of the region. High-elevation mountains are the result of N-S reverse faults that disrupted a W-E Miocene Andean foreland basin. In the Sierra de Ambato (northern Argentine broken foreland) the reverse faults offset Neogene sedimentary rocks (Aconquija Fm., ˜9 Ma) and affect the basement comprising Paleozoic metamorphic rocks that have been dated at ˜477-470 Ma. In order to establish a chronology of these faults affecting the previous continuous basin we date the formation age of clay minerals associated with fault gouge using the K-Ar dating technique. Clay mineral formation is a fundamental process in the evolution of faults under the brittle regime (<<300 °C). K-Ar ages (9 fractions from 3 samples collected along a transect in the Sierra de Ambato) vary from Late Devonian to Late Triassic (˜360-220 Ma). This age distribution can be explained by a long lasting brittle deformation history with a minimum age of ˜360 Ma and a last clay minerals forming event at ˜220 Ma. Moreover, given the progression of apparent ages decreasing from coarse to fine size fractions (˜360-311 Ma for 2-1 μm grain size fraction, ˜326-286 Ma for 1-0.2 μm and ˜291-219 Ma of <0.2 μm), we modeled discrete deformation events at ˜417 Ma (ending of the Famatinian cycle), ˜317-326 Ma (end of Gondwanic orogeny), and ˜194-279 Ma (Early Permian - Jurassic deformation). According to our data, the Neogene reactivation would not have affected the K-Ar system neither generated a significant clay minerals crystallization in the fault gouge, although an exhumation of more than 2 Km is recorded in this period from stratigraphic data.

  6. Argentine Space Assets.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    Interview, December 1996. Perea, Mauricio, La CFI Invierte En La Empresa Encargada De Las Comunicaciones Por Satelite En Argentina. Corporacion Financiera...1 Attn: Servicio de Comunicaciones Navales 630 Indiana Avenue NW Washington, D.C. 20004-2989 13. A rgentine N

  7. Presence of harbour seals ( Phoca vitulina) may increase exploitable fish biomass in the Strait of Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lingbo; Ainsworth, Cameron; Pitcher, Tony

    2010-10-01

    We tested what degree harbour seal ( Phoca vitulina) populations compete with fisheries for commercially harvested species, and to what degree seal populations depend on exploited species as prey. In the Strait of Georgia (SoG), harbour seals mainly feed on fisheries target species, Pacific herring ( Clupea pallasii) and Pacific hake ( Merluccius productus), while herring is also a main prey of hake. Using an Ecopath model constructed based on 2005 conditions, we ran three scenarios: altering herring fishing mortality, removing seal populations and sensitivity analyses of the herring vulnerability parameter. Our results show that with more herring available, the seal population will increase greatly, but with less herring available, the seal populations in the SoG decreases gradually. Our model suggests that the total biomass of commercial fish populations in the SoG may decrease substantially with seals absent. A cull of harbour seals may not increase total fisheries catch in the SoG. Herring benefit from seal predation on herring’s largest predator, hake, so that herring may decline when seals are removed. However, this result is highly dependent on model parameterization. When juvenile herring are considered less vulnerable to hake predation (i.e., when we assume there are many refuges in which to hide), the herring population is less negatively impacted by seal removals. This indicates that survival during this crucial life-stage is important to herring abundance. The model also suggests that, with seals removed, the ecosystem would be dominated by hake.

  8. Discussion about decision support systems using continuous multi-criteria methods for planning in areas with hydro-basins, agriculture and forests, from examples in Argentine.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, J. M.; Grau, J. B.; Tarquis, A. M.; Andina, D.; Cisneros, J. M.; Sanchez, E.

    2012-04-01

    The authors were involved last years in projects considering diverse decision problems on the use of some regions in Argentine, and also related to rivers or rural services in them. They used sets of multi-criteria decision methods, first discrete when the problem included few distinct alternatives, such as e.g. forestry, traditional or intensive agriculture. For attributes they were different effects, classified then in environmental, economic and social criteria. Extending to other gentler areas, such as at South of the Province of Córdoba, Arg., they have balanced more delicately effects of continuous levels of actions, with a combination of Goal Programming linked methods, and they adopted compromises to have precise solutions. That has shown, and in part open, a line of research, as the setting of such models require various kinds of definitions and valuations, including optimizations, goals with penalties in deviations and restrictions. That can be in diverse detail level and horizon, in presence of various technical and human horizons, and that can influence politics of use of terrain and production that will require public and private agents. The research will consider consideration of use and conservation of soils, human systems and agro productions, and hence models for optimization, preferably in such Goal Programming ways. That will require considering various systems of models, first in theory to be reliable, and then in different areas to evaluate the quality of conclusions, and maybe that successively if results are found advantageous. The Bayesian ways will be considered, but they would require a prospective of sets of precise future states of nature or markets with elicited probabilities, which are neither evident nor decisive for the moment, as changes may occur in years but will be very unexpected or uncertain. The results will be lines of models to aid to establish policies of use of territories, by public agencies setting frames for private

  9. [Comparison of FRAX Score without bone mineral density determination and the criteria proposed by the Argentine Osteoporosis Society for the use of antiresorptive therapy in postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Camporro, Fernando; Redondo, Laura; Bulacio, Exequiel; Gutiérrez Magaldi, Ignacio; Chamale, Elías; Sáenz, Fabián

    2015-01-01

    To identify patients at high risk of fracture using clinical risk factors could reduce health costs arising from the realization of a bone densitometry. The aim of this study was to compare the FRAX score without bone mineral density (BMD) with the criteria proposed by the Argentine Society of Osteoporosis (SAO) to consider starting antiresorptive treatment. We conducted an observational, cross-sectional study where 330 postmenopausal women between 40 and 90 years of age were included. The number of treatments given if the FRAX tool without BMD had been followed was compared with the number of treatments indicated using the SAO criteria. Using the SAO criteria, 85 (25.8%) patients would initiate antiresorptive treatment compared with 15 (4.5%) using the FRAX without BMD (p = 0.0019). Among the 67 patients with a diagnosis of osteoporosis by BMD determination, all of them (100%) would have received treatment by using the SAO criteria compared with 10 (15%) using the FRAX score (p = 0.011). The use of FRAX without BMD significantly underestimates the number of patients who should receive antiresorptive treatment. In patients diagnosed with osteoporosis by BMD, the FRAX score underestimates the number of patients to be treated.

  10. The influence of disturbed habitat on the spatial ecology of Argentine black and white tegu (Tupinambis merianae), a recent invader in the Everglades ecosystem (Florida, USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klug, Page E.; Reed, Robert N.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; McEachern, Michelle A.; Vinci, Joy J.; Craven, Katelin K.; Yackel Adams, Amy A.

    2015-01-01

    The threat of invasive species is often intensified in disturbed habitat. To optimize control programs, it is necessary to understand how degraded habitat influences the behavior of invasive species. We conducted a radio telemetry study to characterize movement and habitat use of introduced male Argentine black and white tegus (Tupinambis merianae) in the Everglades of southern Florida from May to August 2012 at the core and periphery of the introduced range. Tegus at the periphery moved farther per day (mean 131.7 ± 11.6 m, n = 6) compared to tegus at the core (mean 50.3 ± 12.4 m, n = 6). However, activity ranges were not significantly smaller in the core (mean 19.4 ± 8.4 ha, n = 6) compared to periphery (mean 29.1 ± 5.2 ha, n = 6). Peripheral activity ranges were more linear due to activity being largely restricted to levee habitat surrounded by open water or marsh. Tegus were located in shrub or tree habitat (mean 96%) more often than expected based on random locations (mean 58%), and the percent cover of trees and shrubs was higher in activity ranges (mean 61%) than the general study area (17%). Our study highlighted the ability of tegus to spread across the Florida landscape, especially in linear disturbed habitats where increased movement occurred and in areas of altered hydrology where movement is not restricted by water.

  11. Paleogeographic significance of Clavohamulus hintzei Miller (Conodonta) and other Ibexian conodonts in an early Paleozoic carbonate platform facies of the Argentine Precordillera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lehnert, O.; Miller, J.F.; Repetski, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Pre-Tremadocian conodonts and trilobites and Tremadocian conodonts are reported from the Cambrian and Ordovician La Silla Formation in the Cerro La Silla section in east-southeast Ja??chal, San Juan Province, Argentina. A shallow marine conodont fauna contains elements of Clavohamulus hintzei Miller, a common species in North America, but reported for the first time from the early Paleozoic platform carbonates of the western Argentine Precordillera. The presence of this species suggests a correlation with the Clavohamulus hintzei conodont subbiozone of the Cordylodus intermedius conodont biozone in North America, considered Early Ordovician (Skullrockian Stage, Ibexian Series) in North America, but by South American and European standards, this biozone would be of latest Cambrian age. C. hintzei and associated conodonts of the La Silla Formation are typical of the tropical faunas of the North American Midcontinent Faunal Province; Late Cambrian trilobites from lower in the formation also are typical North American taxa. The presence of these faunas in the platform carbonates is consistent with plate reconstructions suggesting that the Precordillera was in a tropical or subtropical position close to Laurentia during the late Precambrian and early Paleozoic. These new paleontological data provide one more argument for recent models of the Precordillera as a displaced terrane derived from the Ouachita Embayment at the southern margin of Laurentia.

  12. Analysis of the pX region of bovine leukemia virus in different clinical stages of Enzootic Bovine Leukemia in Argentine Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Panei, Carlos Javier; Serena, María Soledad; Metz, Germán Ernesto; Bravi, María Emilia; González, Ester Teresa; Echeverría, María Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in cattle causes Enzootic Bovine Leukemia (EBL). About 30% of infected cattle develop persistent lymphocytosis (PL), a 0.1-5% develops tumors, and a 70% remains asymptomatic in an aleukemic stage (AL). Regulatory genes of BLV (Tax, Rex, R3 and G4) are located in a region known as pX(BLV). The variability of those genes had been postulated with the progression of the disease. The aim of this work was to compare the wild-type proviral pX(BLV) region at different stages of BLV natural infected cattle from Argentine Holstein. Pairs of primers were designed to amplify the proviral pX region of 12 cattle by PCR, and products were then sequenced, aligned and compared both with each other and with the reference sequence. Results show a divergence percentage from 0 to 6.1 for the Tax gene, from 0 to 9.4% for the Rex gene, from 0 to 12.1% for the R3 gene and finally from 0 to 6.5% for the G4 gene. Results obtained with hierarchical clustering showed two clusters well differentiated, where the members of each cluster are cattle that had tumor, PL and AL, not allowing differentiate those two cluster by clinical stage.

  13. [New transmission scenarios of the Argentine hemorrhagic fever since the introduction of the live attenuated junin virus vaccine (Candid #1): an experience in migrant workers].

    PubMed

    Briggiler, Ana; Sinchi, Anabel; Coronel, Florencia; Sánchez, Zaida; Levis, Silvana; Taylor, Jorge; Enria, Delia

    2015-01-01

    The Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF) is a severe acute viral disease caused by the Junin virus of the Arenaviridae family. The AHF endemic area coincides geographically with the largest grain export agro-industrial complex of the country [Argentina]. Since the implementation of vaccination with the Candid #1 vaccine, a significant reduction in incidence was achieved and risk patterns were modified. A previous study allowed characterizing these changes and identifying three transmission scenarios: classic, emergent-reemergent, and traveler. The latter scenario includes seasonal migrant workers who move each year, mainly from the province of Santiago del Estero, the endemic area to work in the detasseling of maize. With the objective of protecting this group of workers, a prevention campaign was initiated which included: capacity building of health personnel in the province, health education, and immunization with the vaccine Candid #1. 3,021 workers were vaccinated. Prior to vaccination, serum samples were taken from a group of 104 volunteers. Tests for neutralizing antibodies specific to the Junin virus were performed and 6 (5.76%) tested positive. The unexpected finding of a high percentage of workers with antibodies suggests the need to evaluate several hypotheses: a) that the result is the product of non-probabilistic sampling; b) that it could be people who fell ill in previous travels, c) or who were vaccinated in previous travels; or d) consider this region as an emerging scenario.

  14. [Quali-quantitative study of the social variables defining transmission scenarios of Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever in the provinces of Buenos Aires and Santa Fe, 2001-2010].

    PubMed

    Mastrangelo, Andrea; Tagliabue, Paula; Berro, Lorena; De Carolis, Darío; Sinchi, Anabel; Digilio, Clara; Enria, Delia

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to characterize transmission scenarios of Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever in the post-vaccination period (2001-2010). The study was made up of three phases. The first consisted of a quantitative analysis using the database of the Dr. Julio I. Maiztegui National Institute of Human Viral Diseases [Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Virales Humanas] regarding the confirmed cases in the period of study (221 cases). Taking into account the transmission site and the known endemic area, cases were grouped into three hypothetical transmission scenarios, identified as: a) classical, b) emerging-reemerging, c) traveling. In the second phase, in order to test these hypotheses, in-depth interviews were carried out from August to September 2011 within an intentionally selected sample of patients distributed proportionally among the three hypotheses. Finally, in the third stage, the data obtained for each hypothetical scenario were grouped into three spatiotemporal scales: the microscale (subject), the mesoscale (locality) and macroscale (region). The results show that new transmission sites are associated with the social dynamics of cereal production and port-bound routes.

  15. Passive acoustic monitoring, development of disturbance calls and differentiation of disturbance and advertisement calls in the Argentine croaker Umbrina canosai (Sciaenidae).

    PubMed

    Tellechea, J S; Fine, M L; Norbis, W

    2017-01-23

    Disturbance and advertisement calls of the Argentine croaker Umbrina canosai were recorded from coastal Uruguayan waters. Dissections indicate typical sciaenid extrinsic swimbladder muscles present exclusively in males. Disturbance calls were produced when captive U. canosai were startled, chased with a net or grabbed by the tail. Calls were unusual for sciaenids because each pulse consisted of multiple cycles. The number of cycles per pulse and dominant frequency did not change with U. canosai size, but pulse duration and interpulse interval increased. Advertisement calls were recorded from unseen choruses in the field and confirmed with captive individuals in a large tank. Advertisement calls were recorded throughout the known range of the species in Uruguay indicating a continuous belt of spawning populations. Tank recordings of the same individuals permitted explicit comparisons between the two calls. Advertisement call pulses averaged 2·4 more cycles (11·0-8·6) although pulses of both calls were basically similar as were durations and dominant frequencies. Pulse number, however, differed markedly, averaging 13·6 and 3·4 pulses for disturbance and advertisement calls respectively. Furthermore, disturbance calls were produced as a rapid series with an interpulse interval of 26-31 ms whereas advertisement call patterns were less stereotyped and ranged from <100 to 450 ms. Multicycle pulses distinguished U. canosai from other sympatric sciaenids.

  16. From fish chemical characterisation to the benefit-risk assessment--part A.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Cláudia; Lourenço, Helena Maria; Cardoso, Carlos; Bandarra, Narcisa Maria; Carvalho, Maria Luísa; Castro, Matilde; Nunes, Maria Leonor

    2013-04-15

    Proximate composition, fatty acid profile, cholesterol, α-tocoferol content and essential (K, Na, Cl, S, Mg, Ca, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Se) and contaminant element (Hg/MeHg, Cd, Pb, and As) levels in silver scabbardfish (Lepidopus caudatus), hake (Merluccius merluccius), and ray (Raja spp.) were investigated. Results showed that these species contain high protein, low cholesterol and energy levels, being its consumption recommended. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were the dominant group of the fatty acids, being 80% of the n-3 family. Attending to the dietary reference intakes (DRIs), these fish species are a good source of Se and the other minerals can give a relevant contribution to the DRIs in a balanced diet. More than one weekly meal of silver scabbardfish has to be avoided due to the organic mercury concentration. More accurate dietary recommendations require a probabilistic assessment, which will be the focus of this study's Part B.

  17. Molecular identification, morphological characterization and new insights into the ecology of larval Pseudoterranova cattani in fishes from the Argentine coast with its differentiation from the Antarctic species, P. decipiens sp. E (Nematoda: Anisakidae).

    PubMed

    Timi, Juan T; Paoletti, Michela; Cimmaruta, Roberta; Lanfranchi, Ana L; Alarcos, Ana J; Garbin, Lucas; George-Nascimento, Mario; Rodríguez, Diego H; Giardino, Gisela V; Mattiucci, Simonetta

    2014-01-17

    Larvae of the genus Pseudoterranova constitute a risk for human health when ingested through raw or undercooked fish. They can provoke pseudoterranovosis in humans, a fish-borne zoonotic disease whose pathogenicity varies with the species involved, making their correct specific identification a necessary step in the knowledge of this zoonosis. Larvae of Pseudoterranova decipiens s.l. have been reported in several fish species from off the Argentine coasts; however, there are no studies dealing with their specific identification in this region. Here, a genetic identification and morphological characterization of larval Pseudoterranova spp. from three fish species sampled from Argentine waters and from Notothenia coriiceps from Antarctic waters was carried out. Larvae were sequenced for their genetic/molecular identification, including the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (mtDNA cox2), the first (ITS-1) and the second (ITS-2) internal transcribed spacers of the nuclear ribosomal DNA, and compared with all species of the P. decipiens (sensu lato) species complex (sequences available in GenBank). Further, adults of Pseudoterranova spp. from the definitive host, the southern sea lion, Otaria flavescens, from Argentine and Chilean coasts were sequenced at the same genes. The sequences obtained at the ITS-1 and ITS-2 genes from all the larvae examined from fish of Argentine waters, as well as the adult worms, matched 100% the sequences for the species P. cattani. The sequences obtained at mtDNA cox2 gene for Antarctic larvae matched 99% those available in GenBank for the sibling P. decipiens sp. E. Both MP and BI phylogenetic trees strongly supported P. cattani and P. decipiens sp. E as two distinct phylogenetic lineages and depicted the species P. decipiens sp. E as sister taxon to the remaining taxa of the P. decipiens complex. Larval morphometry was similar between specimens of P. cattani from Argentina, but significantly different from those of P

  18. The Development of Low-Level Measurement Capabilities for Total and Isotopic Uranium in Environmental Samples at Brazilian and Argentine Laboratories by ABACC

    SciTech Connect

    Guidicini, Olga M.; Olsen, Khris B.; Hembree, Doyle M.; Carter, Joel A.; Whitaker, Michael; Hayes, Susan M.

    2005-07-01

    In June 1998, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC), with assistance from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), began a program to assess environmental sampling and analysis capabilities at laboratories in Argentina and Brazil. The program began with staff training conducted in South America and the United States by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Both laboratories are participating members of DOE’s Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL) that support IAEA’s environmental sampling program. During the initial planning meeting, representatives from ABACC and all the participating analytical laboratories supporting ABACC were briefed on how the first exercise would be managed and on key aspects necessary to analyze low-level environmental samples for uranium. Subsequent to this training, a laboratory evaluation exercise (Exercise 1) was conducted using standard swipe samples prepared for this exercise by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The results of Exercise 1 determined that sample contamination was a major factor in the analysis, and a thorough review of laboratory procedures was required to reduce the level of contamination to acceptable levels. Following modification of sample preparation procedures, the laboratories performed Exercise 2, an analysis of a National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1547, Peach Leaves. The results of Exercise 2 demonstrated that several laboratories were capable of accurately determining the total uranium and uranium isotopic distribution in the peach leaves. To build on these successes, Exercise 3 was performed using a series of standard swipe samples prepared by the IAEA and distributed to laboratories supporting ABACC and to PNNL and ORNL. The results of Exercise 3 demonstrate that ABACC now has support laboratories in both Argentina and Brazil, which are capable

  19. Gravimetric determination of the continental-oceanic boundary of the Argentine continental margin (from 36°S to 50°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arecco, María Alejandra; Ruiz, Francisco; Pizarro, Guillermo; Giménez, Mario; Martínez, Patricia; Ramos, Víctor A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the gravimetric analysis together with seismic data as an integral application in order to identify the continental-oceanic crust boundary (COB) of the Argentine continental margin from 36°S to 50°S in a continuous way. The gravimetric and seismic data are made up of large grids of data obtained from satellite altimetry and marine research. The methodology consists of three distinct methods: (i) the application of enhancement techniques to gravimetric anomalies, (ii) the calculation of crustal thinning from 3-D gravity inversion modelling of the crust-mantle discontinuity and (iii) 2-D gravimetric modelling supported by multichannel reflection and refraction seismic profiles. In the first method, the analytic signal, Theta map, and tilt angle and its horizontal derivative were applied. In the second method, crustal thickness was obtained as the difference in the depths of the crystalline basement and the crust-mantle discontinuity; the latter was obtained via gravimetric inversion. Finally, 2-D modelling was performed from free-air anomalies in two representative sections by considering as restriction surfaces those coming from the interpretation of seismic data. The results of the joint application of enhancement techniques and 2-D and 3-D modelling have enabled continuous interpretation of the COB. In this study, the COB was determined continuously from the integration of 2-D profiles of the enhancement techniques, taking account of crustal thickness and performing 2-D gravimetric modelling. The modelling technique was complemented by regional studies integrated with multichannel seismic reflection and seismic refraction lines, resulting in consistent enhancement techniques.

  20. Effects of cigarette smoking on early arthritis: a cross-sectional study-data from the Argentine Consortium for Early Arthritis (CONAART).

    PubMed

    Haye Salinas, María Jezabel; Retamozo, Soledad; Alvarez, Ana Cecilia; Maldonado Ficco, Hernán; Dal Pra, Fernando; Citera, Gustavo; Benegas, Mariana; Chaparro del Moral, Rafael; Rillo, Oscar; Secco, Anastasia; Marino Claverie, Lucila; Catalan Pellet, Antonio; Marcos, Josefina; García, Mercedes Argentina; Marcos, Juan Carlos; Barbaglia, Ana; Bellomio, Verónica; Berman, Alberto; Quiroz, Cristian; Soriano, Enrique R; Ceccato, Federico; Paira, Sergio; Vazquez, Doralia; Juarez, Vicente Ricardo; Velozo, Edson Javier; Salvatierra, Gabriela; Caeiro, Francisco

    2015-05-01

    Our objective was to analyze the effects of cigarette smoking on disease activity, functional capacity, radiographic damage, serology and presence of extraarticular manifestations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and undifferentiated arthritis. This is a cross-sectional study of 1,305 patients (729 with rheumatoid arthritis and 576 with undifferentiated arthritis) from CONAART, the Argentine Consortium for Early Arthritis that includes patients older than 16 years with <2 years of disease. Sociodemographic data, clinical characteristics of the disease and smoking history were collected. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis the disease activity score of 28 joints was 5.4 ± 1.3 in current smokers, 5.2 ± 1.4 in former smokers and 5.1 ± 1.4 in never smokers (p = 0.011). The simple erosion narrowing score was higher in current smokers and former smokers than in never smokers (M 14.0, R Q 6.0-21.0; M 15.0, R Q 7.0-24.0; M 10.0, R Q 5.0-17.0; p = 0.006). Current smokers had higher rheumatoid factor titer (M 160.0, R Q 80.0-341.0) than former smokers (M 146.8, R Q 6.03-255.5) and never smokers (M 15.0, R Q 9.0-80.0) (p = 0.004). The variable independently associated with tobacco exposure was simple erosion narrowing score (OR = 1.03, 95 % CI 1.00-1.05; p = 0.012). In patients with undifferentiated arthritis, an association between smoking status and parameters of activity or radiographic damage was not observed. Neither was tobacco exposure related to the presence of extraarticular manifestations or to the degree of disability in any of the two groups of patients. No relation was found between disease activity and severity, and number of packs smoked per year. Tobacco.

  1. A comparative study of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in sylvatic mammals from a protected and a disturbed area in the Argentine Chaco.

    PubMed

    Orozco, M M; Enriquez, G F; Cardinal, M V; Piccinali, R V; Gürtler, R E

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the complex epidemiology of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles requires comparative studies in widely different environments. We assessed the occurrence of T. cruzi infection in sylvatic mammals, their infectiousness to the vector, and parasite genotypes in a protected area of the Argentine Chaco, and compared them with information obtained similarly in a nearby disturbed area. A total of 278 mammals from >23 species in the protected area were diagnosed for T. cruzi infection using xenodiagnosis, kDNA-PCR and nuclear satellite DNA-PCR (SAT) from blood samples. The relative abundance and species composition differed substantially between areas. Didelphis albiventris opossums were less abundant in the protected area; had a significantly lower body mass index, and a stage structure biased toward earlier stages. The capture of armadillos was lower in the protected area. The composite prevalence of T. cruzi infection across host species was significantly lower in the protected area (11.1%) than in the disturbed area (22.1%), and heterogeneous across species groups. The prevalence of infection in D. albiventris and Thylamys pusilla opossums was significantly lower in the protected area (nil for D. albiventris), whereas infection in sigmodontine rodents was three times higher in the protected area (17.5 versus 5.7%). Parasite isolates from the two xenodiagnosis-positive mammals (1 Dasypus novemcinctus and 1 Conepatus chinga) were typed as TcIII; both specimens were highly infectious to Triatoma infestans. Fat-tailed opossums, bats and rodents were kDNA-PCR-positive and xenodiagnosis-negative. Desmodus rotundus and Myotis bats were found infected with T. cruzi for the first time in the Gran Chaco.

  2. Assessing potential for community-based management of peccaries through common pool resource theory in the rural area of the Argentine Chaco.

    PubMed

    Altrichter, Mariana

    2008-03-01

    Community-based management (CBM) has been recognized as an appropriate approach to conservation, assuming that local communities have higher stakes than the state in their natural resources and have better knowledge of local resources and, therefore, can manage them more efficiently. However, the implementation of CBM has not always been successful. The objective of this research was to assess the potential for the implementation of a governmental proposal for community-based management of peccaries (Tayassuidae) in the Impenetrable northern Argentine, through the examination of the reasons why arrangements to avoid overexploitation have not evolved in this region. I used the theory of common pool resources (CPRs) as a framework for this analysis. CPRs theory explains the conditions under which appropriators of a resource are likely to engage in devising and altering governing arrangements and the conditions under which such arrangements are likely to succeed. Fieldwork was conducted between June 2000 and August 2003 using a mixed methods approach. It was found that most of the condition of the resource and users identified by the CPR theory as associated with an increased likelihood of successful management of natural resources are absent or scarcely developed in the Impenetrable. Thus, the situation in the Impenetrable does not seem appropriate for the implementation of CBM of peccaries. It is first necessary to invest in training and development of local institutions' capacities and social capital. It is also important to increase the flow of relevant information, which will enable institutions to be effective, responsible, and accountable to the community. For the moment, a more appropriate approach will have to include a mixture of protectionism and comanagement of collared peccaries while the propitious conditions for a complete local management of the resource are developed.

  3. Deep-water fisheries at the Atlantic Frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, J. D. M.

    2001-05-01

    ( Micromesistius poutassou). The other semipelagic fishery is on spawning aggregations of the greater silver smelt or argentine ( Argentina silus). Spanish and UK vessels that target mainly hake ( Merluccius merluccius) and a Norwegian fleet that targets ling ( Molva molva), blue ling and tusk ( Brosme brosme) dominate the upper slope longline fishery. West of Shetland, the fishery on the upper slope has some similarities with that of the Hebridean slope, with anglerfish and blue ling being important target species. A quite different fishery occurs in the transition zone between the Atlantic and Norwegian Sea waters. Here the main target species is Greenland halibut ( Reinhardtius hippoglossoides). Below the transition zone biomass decreases rapidly and there is no fishery. It is generally agreed that many deep-water species have slow growth, a high age at first maturity and a low fecundity, which makes them vulnerable to over-exploitation. Other features of these fishes such as high mortality of discards and escapees will add to the problems. Despite this the only management procedures in place are general limitation of effort measures within the area of jurisdiction of the European Union.

  4. Assessment of the F9 genotype-specific FIX inhibitor risks and characterization of 10 novel severe F9 defects in the first molecular series of Argentine patients with haemophilia B

    PubMed Central

    Radic, Claudia Pamela; Rossetti, Liliana Carmen; Abelleyro, Miguel Martín; Candela, Miguel; Bianco, Raúl Pérez; Pinto, Miguel de Tezanos; Larripa, Irene Beatriz; Goodeve, Anne; De Brasi, Carlos Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In Haemophilia B (HB) (factor IX (FIX) deficiency), F9 genotype largely determines clinical phenotype. Aimed to characterise Argentine families with HB, this study presents F9 genotype frequencies and their specific FIX inhibitor risk and 10 novel F9 mutations. Ninety-one DNA samples from HB patients and relatives were subjected to a new scheme: a primary screen for large deletions, a secondary screen for point mutations using conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis, DNA-sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. Our unbiased HB population (N=52)(77% with severe, 11.5% moderate and 11.5% mild HB) showed 32 missense (61.5%) including three novel mutations predicting specific structural/functional defects in silico, 7 nonsense (13.5%)(one novel), 5 large deletions, 4 splice including three novel mutations affecting predicted splicing scores, 3 indels (two novel) and one Leiden mutation. Our comprehensive HB population included five patients with long-lasting FIX inhibitors: three nonsense (p.E35* (novel), p.R75*, p.W240*) and two entire-F9 deletions. A further patient with an indel (p.A26Rfs*14) developed transient inhibitors. A case-control analysis, based on our global prevalence of 3.05% for developing inhibitors in HB revealed that missense mutations were associated with a low risk odds ratio (OR) of 0.05 and a prevalence of 0.39%, whereas nonsense and entire-F9 deletions had significantly higher risks (OR 11.0 and 32.7) and prevalence (14.3% and 44.5%, respectively). Our cost-effective practical approach enabled identification of the causative mutation in all 55 Argentine families with HB, analysis of the molecular pathology of novel F9 defects and determination of mutation-associated FIX inhibitor risks. PMID:23093250

  5. Drought Analysis in Northeastern Argentine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, N. O.

    2005-12-01

    The objetive of the present work was analyze the occurrence of droughts in the context of the climatic variability, in a wide region of the Argentinean territory that encompass the six provinces of the northeastern (Misiones, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Santa Fe, Chaco and Formosa). In order to define the droughts a decilic analysis of the monthly precipitation records was used, and the temporal and spatial variability were analyzed with Spectral Analysis of the composite dry year (From January of the year of droughts onset until December of the following year), this period contain the complete hydrologic dry-year. It was observed that the occurrence of annual droughts change along the last century, verifying an average of one drought each three years up to 1969 and one drought each five year from 1970. From the point of view of the relative amount of fallen water, it was observed that the extreme dry periods take place in autumn, winter and spring and weak dry period during the summer or to along the complete hydrologic year. The spatial and temporal behavior of the dry periods showed that the composite dry-years are more significant in amplitude and phase than composite LA NIÑA years. So much the rains of summer like the winters droughts accentuate the second harmonic amplitude, that contains information of the amount of fallen water and also represent the annual cycle of the precipitations, while the droughts of summer attenuate it. The harmonic dials in the analyzed region showed that the second spectral component is the most significant, while the first component indicates their relationship with the region EL NIÑO, in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean. The results indicate a regional homogeneous characterization regarding the first harmonic in the north, the same as the area center-eastern, while the southwest and south area has a behavior with characteristic very particular characteristics during the dry events (second harmonic not significant).

  6. [Argentine Consensus of Respiratory Rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Sívori, Martín; Benzo, Roberto; Rhodius, Edgardo; Jolly, Enrique; Boim, Clarisa; Saadia, Marcela; Conti, Ernesto; Guevara, Ivan; Carles, Daniel; Victorio, Carlos; Santini, Fabian; Ratto, Patricia; Capparelli, Ignacio; Prieto, Ernesto; Azvalinsky, Marcos; Alais, Maria

    2004-01-01

    A group of pulmonologists and physical therapists from the Asociacion Argentina de Medicina Respiratoria revised the scientific literature on Respiratory Rehabilitation (RR) to elaborate evidence-based national recommendations to promote its use. RR is a multidisciplinary program of care for patients with chronic respiratory impairment, individually tailored, designed to optimize physical and social performance and autonomy of patients. It is particularly indicated in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) with exercise intolerance. Inclusion and exclusion criteria, guidelines for initial evaluation and follow up have been defined. The resources needed were defined. It was recommended a hospital ambulatory program with domiciliary complement. A pulmonologist and physical therapist were required for the program as minimum. Aerobic training was recommended for lower limb (LL) (Evidence A) and upper limb (UL) (Evidence B), strength training for LL and UL (Evidence C), as well as respiratory muscles training by resistive inspiratory threshold load (Evidence D) and other physiotherapy techniques were recommended for specific patients. In addition recommendations have been made for educational objectives of the program, nutritional and psychological support. The positive impact of RR on health care was analyzed through the reduction in exacerbation of COPD, length of hospital stay and cost. RR is a key component in the treatment of COPD patients. This evidenced-based consensus statement was prepared to provide recommendations to be implemented nationally.

  7. Predicting Argentine Jet Fuel Prices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    statistic proposed by 32 Mallows (Freund et al, 2003:129). The R2 coefficient is a measure of how well the predicted values from a forecast model "fit...statistics are coincident with the least squares methods applied to calculate the regression coefficients. Cp values defined by Mallows have also been...used as a tool to help analysts to look for a decent model. Mallows defined this coefficient as (Freund et al. 2003:129- 131

  8. Silver Hake Tracks Changes in Northwest Atlantic Circulation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies documenting shifts in spatial distribution of many organisms in response to a warming climate highlight the need to understand the mechanisms underlying species distribution at large spatial scales. Here we present one noteworthy example of remote oceanographic pro...

  9. Rescue from Cloned cDNAs and In Vivo Characterization of Recombinant Pathogenic Romero and Live-Attenuated Candid #1 Strains of Junin Virus, the Causative Agent of Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever Disease ▿

    PubMed Central

    Emonet, Sebastien F.; Seregin, Alexey V.; Yun, Nadezhda E.; Poussard, Allison L.; Walker, Aida G.; de la Torre, Juan C.; Paessler, Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    The New World arenavirus Junin virus (JUNV) is the causative agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF), which is associated with high morbidity and significant mortality. Several pathogenic strains of JUNV have been documented, and a highly attenuated vaccine strain (Candid #1) was generated and used to vaccinate the human population at risk. The identification and functional characterization of viral genetic determinants associated with AHF and Candid #1 attenuation would contribute to the elucidation of the mechanisms contributing to AHF and the development of better vaccines and therapeutics. To this end, we used reverse genetics to rescue the pathogenic Romero and the attenuated Candid #1 strains of JUNV from cloned cDNAs. Both recombinant Candid #1 (rCandid #1) and Romero (rRomero) had the same growth properties and phenotypic features in cultured cells and in vivo as their corresponding parental viruses. Infection with rRomero caused 100% lethality in guinea pigs, whereas rCandid #1 infection was asymptomatic and provided protection against a lethal challenge with Romero. Notably, Romero and Candid #1 trans-acting proteins, L and NP, required for virus RNA replication and gene expression were exchangeable in a minigenome rescue assay. These findings support the feasibility of studies aimed at determining the contribution of each viral gene to JUNV pathogenesis and attenuation. In addition, we rescued Candid #1 viruses with three segments that efficiently expressed foreign genes introduced into their genomes. This finding opens the way for the development of a safe multivalent arenavirus vaccine. PMID:21123388

  10. [First Argentine consensus guidelines for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria in humans/ Anaerobic Subcommittee of the Asociación Argentina de Microbiología].

    PubMed

    Legaria, María C; Bianchini, Hebe M; Castello, Liliana; Carloni, Graciela; Di Martino, Ana; Fernández Canigia, Liliana; Litterio, Mirta; Rollet, Raquel; Rossetti, Adelaida; Predari, Silvia C

    2011-01-01

    Through time, anaerobic bacteria have shown good susceptibility to clinically useful antianaerobic agents. Nevertheless, the antimicrobial resistance profile of most of the anaerobic species related to severe infections in humans has been modified in the last years and different kinds of resistance to the most active agents have emerged, making their effectiveness less predictable. With the aim of finding an answer and for the purpose of facilitating the detection of anaerobic antimicrobial resistance, the Anaerobic Subcommittee of the Asociación Argentina de Microbiología developed the First Argentine consensus guidelines for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria in humans. This document resulted from the compatibilization of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations, the international literature and the work and experience of the Subcommittee. The Consensus document provides a brief taxonomy review, and exposes why and when anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility tests should be conducted, and which antimicrobial agents can be used according to the species involved. The recommendations on how to perform, read and interpret in vitro anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility tests with each method are exposed. Finally, the antibiotic susceptibility profile, the classification of antibiotics according to their in vitro activities, the natural and acquired mechanisms of resistance, the emerging resistance and the regional antibiotic resistance profile of clinically relevant anaerobic species are shown.

  11. Hummocky cross-stratification-like structures and combined-flow ripples in the Punta Negra Formation (Lower-Middle Devonian, Argentine Precordillera): A turbiditic deep-water or storm-dominated prodelta inner-shelf system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilici, Giorgio; de Luca, Pedro Henrique Vieira; Poiré, Daniel G.

    2012-08-01

    Turbidity-current and storm-induced deposits may exhibit similarities, in particularly when the latter is laid down by a combination of oscillatory and unidirectional flows. Recent progress in facies analysis helps to discriminate the sedimentary effects of oscillatory from unidirectional components of the flow. On the basis of detailed analysis of sedimentary facies, strata geometry, and palaeocurrent data, the present study reinterprets the Punta Negra Formation (PNF) (Lower-Middle Devonian, Argentine Precordillera), previously considered as a depositional system of deep-water, as a storm-dominated prodeltaic shelf depositional system. In the sandstone beds of the PNF, planar, low-angle and undulating laminations with weakly asymmetric hummocky and swaley bedforms, combined-flow ripples, accretionary hummocky cross-stratification-like (HCS-like), and anisotropic HCS-like suggest the action of oscillatory currents combined with unidirectional currents in forming the deposits. Different hypotheses on the origin of the oscillatory currents have been examined. The most convincing interpretation is that the oscillatory component of the velocity is attributed to storm-induced waves. The palaeocurrent data indicate offshore current directions, suggesting that the unidirectional flow was a gravity-induced bottom current. Inverse grading at the base and overlying normally graded divisions of the sandstone beds testify to waxing-waning behaviour of the depositional flows; interbedding of sedimentary structures (undulating laminations, low-angle and parallel laminations, and combined-flow ripples) in the lower and intermediate divisions of the beds indicate fluctuations of flow velocity. This organisation of the sedimentary structures permits association of the unidirectional component with hyperpycnal bottom currents. The terrestrial origin of the hyperpycnal flows is suggested by the abundance of terrestrial plant remains, the mineralogical and textural immaturity of the

  12. Absence of an N-Linked Glycosylation Motif in the Glycoprotein of the Live-Attenuated Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever Vaccine, Candid #1, Results in Its Improper Processing, and Reduced Surface Expression

    PubMed Central

    Manning, John T.; Seregin, Alexey V.; Yun, Nadezhda E.; Koma, Takaaki; Huang, Cheng; Barral, José; de la Torre, Juan C.; Paessler, Slobodan

    2017-01-01

    Junin virus (JUNV), a highly pathogenic New World arenavirus, is the causative agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF). The live-attenuated Candid #1 (Can) strain currently serves as a vaccine for at-risk populations. We have previously shown that the Can glycoprotein (GPC) gene is the primary gene responsible for attenuation in a guinea pig model of AHF. However, the mechanisms through which the GPC contributes to the attenuation of the Can strain remain unknown. A more complete understanding of the mechanisms underlying the attenuation and immunogenicity of the Can strain will potentially allow for the rational design of additional safe and novel vaccines. Here, we provide a detailed comparison of both RNA and protein expression profiles between both inter- and intra-segment chimeric JUNV recombinant clones expressing combinations of genes from the Can strain and the pathogenic Romero (Rom) strain. The recombinant viruses that express Can GPC, which were shown to be attenuated in guinea pigs, displayed different RNA levels and GPC processing patterns as determined by Northern and Western blot analyses, respectively. Analysis of recombinant viruses containing amino acid substitutions selected at different mouse brain passages during the generation of Can revealed that altered Can GPC processing was primarily due to the T168A substitution within G1, which eliminates an N-linked glycosylation motif. Incorporation of the T168A substitution in the Rom GPC resulted in a Can-like processing pattern of Rom GPC. In addition, JUNV GPCs containing T168A substitution were retained within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and displayed significantly lower cell surface expression than wild-type Rom GPC. Interestingly, the reversion A168T in Can GPC significantly increased GPC expression at the cell surface. Our results demonstrate that recombinant JUNV (rJUNV) expressing Can GPC display markedly different protein expression and elevated genomic RNA expression when compared to

  13. 77 FR 66169 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery Management Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-02

    ... silver hake, northern red hake, southern red hake, and offshore hake), and is managed through a series of... 25th percentile for both silver hake stocks. In order to account for offshore hake, which are caught.... There is no overfishing definition for offshore hake because there is insufficient information for...

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine organisms from the Gulf of Naples, Tyrrhenian Sea.

    PubMed

    Perugini, Monia; Visciano, Pierina; Manera, Maurizio; Turno, Giuseppe; Lucisano, Antonia; Amorena, Michele

    2007-03-07

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined by an HPLC method with fluorescence detection in bivalves (Mitylus galloprovincialis), cephalopods (Todarodes sagittatus), crustaceans (Aristeus antennatus), and fish (Mullus surmeletus, Scomber scombrus, Micromesistius poutassou, and Merluccius merluccius) caught in the Gulf of Naples (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). Anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, and benzo(k)fluoranthene were detected, at different concentrations, in all of the examined marine organisms, whereas benzo(a)pyrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene were found only in Mediterranean mussels. Of mussels collected in winter 71.43% exceeded the maximum residual levels (MRL) fixed for the benzo(a)pyrene in European Regulation 208/2005/EC, whereas all samples collected in summer reported values lower than this limit. In comparison to the other marine organisms, the mussels showed the highest PAH concentrations (p < 0.01). Fish showed total PAH levels lower than those of cephalopods and, in particular, European hake showed the lowest values (6.06 ng/g of fresh weight).

  15. Trophic structure of pelagic species in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albo-Puigserver, Marta; Navarro, Joan; Coll, Marta; Layman, Craig A.; Palomera, Isabel

    2016-11-01

    Ecological knowledge of food web interactions within pelagic marine communities is often limited, impairing our capabilities to manage these ecologically and economically important marine fish species. Here we used stable isotope analyses to investigate trophic interactions in the pelagic ecosystem of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea during 2012 and 2013. Our results suggest that European sardine, Sardina pilchardus, and anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, are consumers located at relatively low levels of the pelagic food web. Unexpectedly, the round sardinella, Sardinella aurita, appeared to be located at a higher trophic level than the other small pelagic fish species, although previous studies found similarity in their diets. Isotope data suggested that trophic niches of species within the genera Trachurus spp. and Scomber spp., were distinct. Atlantic bonito Sarda sarda, European hake Merluccius merluccius and European squid Loligo vulgaris, appeared to feed at higher trophic levels than other species. Despite some intraspecific seasonal variability for some species, community trophic structure appeared relatively stable through the year. These data provide an important step for developing models of food web dynamics in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

  16. Behaviour of fish by-catch in the mouth of a crustacean trawl.

    PubMed

    Queirolo, D; Gaete, E; Montenegro, I; Soriguer, M C; Erzini, K

    2012-06-01

    The behaviour of fish by-catch was recorded and characterized by in situ observations in the mouth of a crustacean trawl using an underwater camera system with artificial light, at depths between 106 and 461 m, along the central coast of Chile. The groups or species studied were rattails (family Macrouridae), Chilean hake Merluccius gayi gayi, sharks (orders Carcharhiniformes and Squaliformes), skates (family Rajidae), flatfishes (genus Hippoglossina) and small benthopelagic and demersal fishes (orders Osmeriformes, Stomiiformes, Gadiformes, Ophidiiformes and Perciformes). The fish behaviour was categorized in terms of (1) position in the water column, (2) initial orientation with respect to the trawl, (3) locomotion and (4) swimming speed with respect to the trawl. Rattails, sharks, skates and flatfishes were passive in response to the trawl and showed similar behavioural patterns, with most fishes observed sitting or touching the bottom with no swimming or other activity. Merluccius gayi gayi was the most active species, displaying a wide combination of behavioural responses when the trawl approached. This species showed several behavioural patterns, mainly characterized by swimming forward at variable speed. A fraction of small bentho-pelagic and demersal fishes also showed an active behaviour but always at lower speed than the trawl. The species-specific differences in behaviour in the mouth of the trawl suggest that improvements at the level of the footrope can be made to reduce by-catch, especially of passive species.

  17. Argentine plant increases capacity, improves NGL recoveries

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, J.T.; Fernandez, C.L.

    1997-10-06

    Total cryogenic processing capacity at Transportadora de Gas del Sur S.A.`s (TGS) Cerri complex in Bahia Blanca, Argentina, is being increased from 22 MMcmd to 40 MMcmd (776 to 1,410 MMcfd) with a future ethane-recovery capacity of 1,900 metric tons/day (mtd; 33,600 b/d) using Ortloff technology. Very high propane recovery can be maintained as the ethane recovery is controlled over a range of 1,000--1,900 mtd as needed to meet local ethane demand. Total NGL recovery can be increased from 2,600 mtd to 4,500 mtd without additional compression. The paper describes current operations, inlet-residue compression, train retrofit, C{sub 3} recovery, C{sub 2} rejection, C{sub 2} recovery, and the final dual-mode design.

  18. Transformation of the Argentine wholesale electricity market

    SciTech Connect

    Caruso, L.M. )

    1994-06-01

    The electricity industry in Argentina has undertaken a very deep restructuring in recent years, from a 100% state-owned, integrated activity to a true market of electricity, in which more than seventy free private agents (generators, transmission companies, distribution companies, and big customers) operate in a framework of rules completely different from those in force at the beginning of the transformation. Today, almost 3 years later, an observer can notice a number of changes already in place. As a consequence, there is an increased interest from companies and government as well, in old and new issues such as electrical markets integration, or global business. The purpose of this presentation is to examine this emergent market, its rules, and its players, and to assess which of the patterns associated with the integration of business, markets, and culture are for the benefit of final users.

  19. Four Argentine crudes in world market

    SciTech Connect

    Aalund, L.R.

    1995-04-17

    The deregulation of Argentina`s oil industry and the privatization of its state-owned oil company are putting more of the country`s crude oil into the international oil market. Analyses, furnished by YPF, of the four major export crudes--Rincon de los Sauces, Canadon Seco, Medanito, and Escalante--are given in this article. Also presented are true boiling point curves for all except Canadon Seco. The producing areas and supply systems for moving these crude to shipping terminals were described in OGJ, Feb. 13, pp. 50--52. Information is given on the shipping facilities for the crudes.

  20. Bechtel team to study Argentine oil complex

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-23

    A US joint venture has won a contract for a feasibility study that could lead to a $1-billion petrochemical complex in Argentina. Bechtel International Inc., San Francisco, is teamed with Chem Systems, New York City, on the $430,000 study. Under contract with the Province of Neuquen's Counsel for Planning and Development and the US Trade and Development Agency, the consultant will evaluate the economic, financial and environmental feasibility of the proposed project, conduct a market analysis and advise on site selection. The study is expected in six months. Bechtel and Chem Systems will explore the feasibility of extracting liquids from natural gas and transporting them by pipeline from the province's extensive gas fields.

  1. Argentine Air Power in the Falklands War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    p. 161 8 local tactical air support, and forward air control. Tht; Comando Aviacion Naval Argentina (CANA), or the aviation element of the Navy, was... Aviacion del Ejercito (CAE), the aviation element of the Army, also made no new organizational changes for the war. CAE deployed from its main base at

  2. [Argentine guidelines for urticaria and angioedema].

    PubMed

    Máspero, Jorge; Cabrera, Hugo; Ardusso, Ledit; De Gennaro, Mónica; Fernández Bussy, Ramón; Galimany, José; Galimberti, Daniel; Label, Marcelo; La Forgia, Marta; Medina, Iris; Neffen, Hugo; Troielli, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    This interdisciplinary paper summarizes the news in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic urticaria (CU), and provides concepts, definitions and evidence-based suggestions for its management. Urticaria occurs in at least 20% of the population at some point in their lives. Acute urticaria (less than 6 weeks' duration), differs from CU in its etiology, but the onset of this disease is always acute. CU may occur as spontaneous (SCU) or induced (ICU). The diagnosis is simple, although a careful evaluation is necessary for differential diagnosis. ICU's diagnosis is mainly clinical, even if provocation tests can be useful. Supplementary studies should be limited and based on the clinical suspicion. Treatment may be divided into three approaches: avoidance, elimination or treatment of the cause, and pharmacological treatment. Recently treatment has been modified with the use of second-generation antihistamines as first-line and increased doses of nonsedating H1 antihistamines, up to 4 times, as second line. Antihistamines are essential to treat CU; however, 40% of patients do not achieve good control despite increased doses and require additional treatment. The most recent evidence indicates a group of drugs to be used as third line in these cases, to improve quality of life and to limit toxicity from frequent or chronic use of systemic steroids. Only 3 drugs are recommended as third line: omalizumab, cyclosporin A or anti-leukotrienes.

  3. The basins on the Argentine continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Urien, C.M.

    1996-08-01

    After the stabilization of the central Gondwana Craton, orogenic belts were accreted, as a result of convergence events and an extensive passive margin developed in southwestern Gondwana. Thermal subsidence in Parana, Karoo-Ventania basins and the Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic rifts, were modified by the Gondwana breakup and the South Atlantic opening. Early Paleozoic marine transgressions deposited the Table Mountain Group in Ventania. In southwestern Patagonia foreland clastics were deposited. Magmatic arcs and marine units indicate a tectonic trough was formed, alternating with continental sequences, over Late Paleozoic metamorphics and intrusives, resulting from plastered terrains along the Gondwana margin. In Patagonia, Permo-Carboniferous continental and glacio marine clastics infill the basins, while in Ventania, paralic sequences, grade from neritic to continental to the northeast, extending beneath the continental margin. The Triassic-Jurassic rift basins progressed onto regional widespread acid lavas and were infilled by lagoonal organic-rich sequences. Early drift phase built basins transverse to the margin, with fluvio-lacustrine sequences: Salado, Colorado, Valdes-Rawson, San Julian and North Malvinas intracratonic basins, which underwent transtensional faulting. Post-Oxfordian to Neocomian brackish sequences, onlapped the conjugate basins during the margin`s drift, with petroleum systems, as in Austral and Malvinas. In the Valanginian, basic extrusions commenced to form on the continental border, heralding the oceanic phase. Due to thermal subsidence, offlaping sediments prograded onto the remaining half-grabens. Several petroleum systems, proven and hypothetical, are identified in this region.

  4. The Southern Argentine Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janches, Diego

    2014-11-01

    The Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER) is a new generation system deployed in Rio Grande, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina (53 S) in May 2008. SAAMER transmits 10 times more power than regular meteor radars, and uses a newly developed transmitting array, which focuses power upward instead of the traditional single-antenna-all-sky configuration. The system is configured such that the transmitter array can also be utilized as a receiver. The new design greatly increases the sensitivity of the radar enabling the detection of large number of particles at low zenith angles. The more concentrated transmitted power enables additional meteor studies besides those typical of these systems based on the detection of specular reflections, such as routine detections of head echoes and non-specular trails, previously only possible with High Power and Large Aperture radars. In August 2010, SAAMER was upgraded to a system capable to determine meteoroid orbital parameters. This was achieved by adding two remote receiving stations approximately 10 km away from the main site in near perpendicular directions. The upgrade significantly expands the science that is achieved with this new radar enabling us to study the orbital properties of the interplanetary dust environment. Because of the unique geographical location, SAAMER allows for additional inter-hemispheric comparison with measurements from Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar, which is geographically conjugate. Initial surveys show, for example, that SAAMER observes a very strong contribution of the South Toroidal Sporadic meteor source, of which limited observational data is available. In addition, SAAMER offers similar unique capabilities for meteor showers and streams studies given the range of ecliptic latitudes that the system enables detailed study of showers at high southern latitudes (e.g July Phoenicids or Puppids complex). Finally, SAAMER is ideal for the deployment of complementary instrumentation in both, permanent and campaign, operational mode. Results from various radar meteor investigations as well as radar/optical observation campaign will be presented in this paper.

  5. Variation in wind and piscivorous predator fields affecting the survival of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in the Gulf of Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedland, K.D.; Manning, J.P.; Link, Jason S.; Gilbert, J.R.; Gilbert, A.T.; O'Connell, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Observations relevant to the North American stock complex of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., suggest that marine mortality is influenced by variation in predation pressure affecting post-smolts during the first months at sea. This hypothesis was tested for Gulf of Maine (GOM) stocks by examining wind pseudostress and the distribution of piscivorous predator fields potentially affecting post-smolts. Marine survival has declined over recent decades with a change in the direction of spring winds, which is likely extending the migration of post-smolts by favouring routes using the western GOM. In addition to changes in spring wind patterns, higher spring sea surface temperatures have been associated with shifting distributions of a range of fish species. The abundance of several pelagic piscivores, which based on their feeding habits may predate on salmon post-smolts, has increased in the areas that serve as migration corridors for post-smolts. In particular, populations of silver hake, Merluccius bilinearis (Mitchell), red hake, Urophycis chuss (Walbaum), and spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias L., increased in size in the portion of the GOM used by post-smolts. Climate variation and shifting predator distributions in the GOM are consistent with the predator hypothesis of recruitment control suggested for the stock complex.

  6. Identification of gadoid species in fish meat by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on genomic DNA.

    PubMed

    Hubalkova, Zora; Kralik, Petr; Kasalova, Janka; Rencova, Eva

    2008-05-28

    Identification of fish species is significant due to the increasing interest of consumers in the meat of sea fish. Methods focusing on fish species identification help to reveal fraudulent substitution among economically important gadoid species in commercial seafood products. The objective of this work was to develop a conventional PCR method for the differentiation of the following gadoid fish species in fish products: Alaska pollack ( Theragra chalcogramma), blue whiting ( Micromesistius poutassou), hake spp. ( Merluccius spp.), Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua), saithe ( Pollachius virens), and whiting ( Merlangius merlangus). The species-specific primer pairs for gadoid species determination were based on the partial pantophysin I ( PanI) genomic sequence. Sequence identification was confirmed by cloning and sequencing of the PCR products obtained from the species considered. For the simultaneous detection of Alaska pollack, blue whiting, and hake spp., a quadruplex PCR system was constructed. Other gadoid species were detected in separate PCR reactions. After optimization of the reactions, the developed PCR systems were used for the analysis of codfish samples obtained from the Czech market and the customs' laboratories. This method represents an alternative approach in the use of genomic DNA for the identification of fish species. This method is rapid, simple, and reliable without the need for further confirmative methods. Furthermore, the identification of a mixture of more than one species is possible. The PCR system has been optimized for routine diagnostic purposes.

  7. Acoustical Scattering, Propagation, and Attenuation Caused by Two Abundant Pacific Schooling Species: Humboldt Squid and Hake

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    surrounding these aggregations to identify key parameters related to the distribution and behavior of these animals . These parameters will be used to...large sample size combined with careful measures of swimbladder shape, reproductive condition, stomach fullness, and other independent variables will...allow us to examine the effects of biological variability on acoustic characteristics of these animals . Finally, a number of these individual animals

  8. Acoustical Scattering, Propagation, and Attenuation Caused by Two Abundant Pacific Schooling Species: Humboldt Squid and Hake

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    larval fish and squid, and gelatinous zooplankton ). Two manuscripts detailing these results are undergoing internal revision and are planned to be...primarily different zooplankton species. Zooplankton density contrast values varied both within and among different species (Figure 5) as well as for...different zooplankton taxa. The lower line of each box represents the 1st quartile, the middle bolded line represents the median, and the top line of the box

  9. Acoustical Scattering, Propagation, and Attenuation Caused by Two Abundant Pacific Schooling Species: Humboldt Squid and Hake

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    other crustaceans, larval fish and squid, and gelatinous zooplankton ; Becker and Warren, 2014; Becker and Warren, in review). Figure...did examine some of these relationships for the animals that we did catch enough individuals of which were primarily different zooplankton species... Zooplankton density contrast values varied both within and among different species (Figure 5) as well as for euphausiids from different geographic

  10. Strategies to increase the hygienic and economic value of fresh fish: Biopreservation using lactic acid bacteria of marine origin.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sala, Beatriz; Herranz, Carmen; Díaz-Freitas, Belén; Hernández, Pablo E; Sala, Ana; Cintas, Luis M

    2016-04-16

    In this work we describe the development of a biopreservation strategy for fresh fish based on the use of bacteriocinogenic LAB of marine origin. For this purpose, two multibacteriocinogenic LAB strains, Lactobacillus curvatus BCS35 and Enterococcus faecium BNM58, previously isolated from fish and fish products were selected owing to their capability to inhibit the growth of several fish-spoilage and food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Two commercially important fish species were chosen, young hake (Merluccius merluccius) and megrim (Lepidorhombus boscii), and the specimens were acquired at the Marín (Pontevedra, Spain) retail fish market, after one night in the chilled hold of a near-shore fishing vessel. The biopreservation potential and the application strategies of these two LAB strains were first tested at a laboratory scale, where several batches of fresh fish were inoculated with: (i) the multibacteriocinogenic LAB culture(s) as protective culture(s); and/or (ii) their cell-free culture supernatant(s) as food ingredient(s), and (iii) the lyophilized bacteriocin preparation(s) as lyophilized food ingredient(s). All batches were stored in polystyrene boxes, permanently filled with ice at 0-2 °C, for 14 days. Microbiological analyses, as well as sensorial analyses, were carried out during the biopreservation trials. Subsequently, Lb. curvatus BCS35 was selected to up-scale the trials, and combinations of the three application methods were assayed. For this purpose, this strain was grown in a semi-industrial scale fermentor (150l) in modified MRS broth, and three batches of fresh fish were inoculated with the protective culture and/or food ingredient, and stored on ice in a chilled chamber at 0-2 °C at the Marín retail fish market for 14 days. Microbiological analyses were carried out during the storage period, showing that when Lb. curvatus BCS35 culture or the corresponding cell-free culture supernatant was used as protective culture or food ingredient

  11. Food web and fish stock changes in central Chile: comparing the roles of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) predation, the environment, and fisheries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neira, Sergio; Arancibia, Hugo

    2013-10-01

    We analyzed recent food web and fish stock changes in the central Chile marine ecosystem, comparing the roles of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) as predator, the environment, and fishing. To accomplish this we used food web modeling and the Ecopath with Ecosim software (EwE). The principal fish stocks have experienced wide decadal fluctuations in the past 30 years, including stock collapses of horse mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) and hake (Merluccius gayi), and there was a large influx of jumbo squid during the mid-2000s. We used two EwE models representing the food web off central Chile to test the hypothesis that predation by jumbo squid has been significant in explaining the dynamics of the main fishing resources and other species in the study area. Results indicate that predation by jumbo squid on fish stocks is lower than that of other predators (e.g. hake) and the fishery. Long-term fluctuations (1978-2004) in the biomass of the main fish stocks (as well as other components of the food web) seem to be related to fishing and to variation in primary production, rather than to predation by jumbo squid alone. Jumbo squid seems to play a role as predator rather than prey in the system, but its impacts are low when compared with the impacts of other predators and fishing. Therefore, we conclude that jumbo squid predation on its prey was not the primary force behind the collapse of important fish stocks off central Chile. Future efforts should be directed to better understanding factors that trigger sudden increases in jumbo squid abundance off central Chile, as well as modeling its trophic impacts.

  12. Biases in determining the diet of jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (D' Orbigny 1835) (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) off southern-central Chile (34°S-40°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibáñez, Christian M.; Arancibia, Hugo; Cubillos, Luis A.

    2008-12-01

    The diet of jumbo squid ( Dosidicus gigas) off southern-central Chile is described to examine potential biases in the determination of their main prey. Specimens were collected from catches using different fishing gear (jigging, trawl and purse-seine), from July 2003 to January 2004, and from December 2005 to October 2006. The stomach contents were analyzed in terms of frequency of occurrence, number, and weight of prey items and the diet composition was analyzed using Detrended Correspondence Analysis. In the industrial purse-seine fleet for jack mackerel ( Trachurus murphyi), the dominant prey of D. gigas was T. murphyi. In the industrial mid-trawl fishery for Patagonian grenadier ( Macruronus magellanicus), the dominant species in the diet of D. gigas was M. magellanicus. Similarly, Chilean hake ( Merluccius gayi) was the main prey in the diet of D. gigas obtained in the industrial trawl fishery for Chilean hake; and, in both artisanal fisheries (purse-seine for small pelagics and jigging), small pelagic fish and D. gigas were the main prey in the stomach contents of D. gigas. Cannibalism in D. gigas varied between different fleets and probably is related to stress behavior during fishing. The Detrended Correspondence Analysis ordination showed that the main prey in the diet of D. gigas is associated with the target species of the respective fishery. Consequently, biases are associated with fishing gear, leading to an overestimate in the occurrence of the target species in the diet. We recommend analyzing samples from jigging taken at the same time and place where the trawl and purse-seine fleets are operating to avoid this problem, and the application of new tools like stable isotope, heavy metal, and fatty acid signature analyses.

  13. Material properties of zooplankton and nekton from the California current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Kaylyn

    This study measured the material properties of zooplankton, Pacific hake (Merluccius productus), Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas), and two species of myctophids (Symbolophorus californiensis and Diaphus theta) collected from the California Current ecosystem. The density contrast (g) was measured for euphausiids, decapods (Sergestes similis), amphipods (Primno macropa, Phronima sp., and Hyperiid spp.), siphonophore bracts, chaetognaths, larval fish, crab megalopae, larval squid, and medusae. Morphometric data (length, width, and height) were collected for these taxa. Density contrasts varied within and between zooplankton taxa. The mean and standard deviation for euphausiid density contrast were 1.059 +/- 0.009. Relationships between zooplankton density contrast and morphometric measurements, geographic location, and environmental conditions were investigated. Site had a significant effect on euphausiid density contrast. Density contrasts of euphausiids collected in the same geographic area approximately 4-10 days apart were significantly higher (p < 0.001). Sound speed contrast (h) was measured for euphausiids and pelagic decapods (S. similis) and it varied between taxa. The mean and standard deviation for euphausiid sound speed were 1.019 +/- 0.009. Euphausiid mass was calculated from density measurements and volume, and a relationship between euphausiid mass and length was produced. We determined that euphausiid from volumes could be accurately estimated two dimensional measurements of animal body shape, and that biomass (or biovolume) could be accurately calculated from digital photographs of animals. Density contrast (g) was measured for zooplankton, pieces of hake flesh, myctophid flesh, and of the following Humboldt squid body parts: mantle, arms, tentacle, braincase, eyes, pen, and beak. The density contrasts varied within and between fish taxa, as well as among squid body parts. Effects of animal length and environmental conditions on nekton density

  14. Fault detection system for Argentine Research Reactor instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Polenta, H.P. ); Bernard, J.A. ); Ray, A. )

    1993-01-20

    The design and implementation of a redundancy management scheme for the on-line detection and isolation of faulty sensors is presented. Such a device is potentially useful in reactor-powered spacecraft for enhancing the processing capabilities of the main computer. The fault detection device can be used as an integral part of intelligent instrumentation systems. The device has been built using an 8-bit microcontroller and commercially available electronic hardware. The software is completely portable. The operation of this device has been successfully demonstrated for real-time validation of sensor data on Argentina's RA-1 Research Reactor.

  15. Bench-Scale Studies with Argentine Ion Exchange Material

    SciTech Connect

    Cicero-Herman, C.A.

    2002-06-28

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), as well as international atomic energy commission, facilities use ion exchange materials for purification of aqueous streams in the nuclear industry. Unfortunately, the use of the ion exchange materials creates a waste stream that can be very high in both organic and radioactive constituents. Therefore, disposal of the spent resins often becomes an economic problem because of the large volumes of resin produced and the relatively few technologies that are capable of economically stabilizing this waste. Vitrification of this waste stream presents a reasonable disposable alternative because of its inherent destruction capabilities, the volume reductions obtainable, and the durable product that it produces.

  16. Promoting global safeguards cooperation: Argentine-U.S. technical achievements

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, L.; Smith, C.

    1996-04-01

    The bilateral ENREN (Argentina National Nuclear Regulatory Board)-DOE Safeguards Agreement was signed by Dr. Dan Beninson, ENREN, and Dr. Kenneth Baker, DOE, at the Peaceful Uses Conference in Bariloche in 1994. Two major activities identified for immediate cooperation were: nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques for Pilcaniyeu, and advanced containment and surveillance at Embalse. Both of these are discussed here. While the activities of the past year and a half are significant, many more opportunities remain for valuable cooperative partnering to discover more effective and efficient ways to apply safeguards. Several that have been identified by ENREN and DOE for 1996 are: (1) environmental monitoring as a safeguards technique; (2) Pilcaniyeu measurement studies and joint IAEA support program activities; (3) information management and analysis tools; (4) safeguards analytical laboratory support; (5) study of the safeguards approach for Embalse; (6) expansion of the remote monitoring system at Embalse; (7) use of ground-penetrating radar technology at Embalse; and (8) computerized material control and accounting tools for Pilcaniyeu.

  17. Argentine drilling equipment to go on auction block

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-27

    Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales (YPF) is preparing to sell all state owned drilling rigs and related assets as part of a plan to privatize Argnetina's oil and gas industry. YPF expects to offer the equipment to private companies by summer in a sealed bid auction in Buenos Aires. More than 30 mostly late model U.S. and Romanian rigs rated to 1,800-7,000 m will be included in the sale. Drilling contracts covering all major Argentina exploration areas will be offered with many of the rigs being sold. This paper reports that the YPF sale will include well completion units, drill pipe and collars, large equipment yards, shops, and warehouses, and possibly the largest inventory of fishing tools in South America, says a company helping to organize the sale. YPF will set up a data room in Buenos Aires to provide information about drilling, conditions, rigs and equipment, and other assets.

  18. Argentine gas plant expansion makes most of existing infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Kernan, K.; Carranza, D.

    1997-05-26

    Expansion currently under way at a large gas-processing plant near Bahia Blanca, Argentina, illustrates how incremental projects leveraged off existing facilities can be built at reduced investment. For $60 million, Transportadora de Gas del Sur S.A. (TGS) is increasing capacity at the General Cerri gas-processing plant by a net 17 million cu m/day (490 MMcfd) and storage capacity by 45,000 cu m. To build these facilities from scratch would cost as much as $150 million. By taking advantage of, or leveraging off, the infrastructure in place (land, compression, pipelines, water, and electricity), the project is capitalizing on existing gas flows. The paper describes current operations, the expansion, the addition of aftercoolers, and storage expansion.

  19. Triatominae in furnariid nests of the Argentine Gran Chaco.

    PubMed

    Marti, G A; Echeverria, M G; Waleckx, E; Susevich, M L; Balsalobre, A; Gorla, D E

    2014-06-01

    Triatomines (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) are bloodsucking insects involved in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, an important public health problem in Latin America. The triatomine species found in sylvatic habitats generally play a limited epidemiological role compared to domestic species, but they may act as a reinfestation source of dwellings after insecticide spraying and have to be carefully considered in control strategies of Chagas disease transmission. The objectives of this work were to carry out a survey of the sylvatic triatomine species colonizing Furnariidae nests in a typical area of the Chaco region of Argentina during the winter and to study the parasites and natural enemies associated with the collected triatomines. Sixty-three triatomine specimens were collected from Furnariidae nests (Coryphistera alaudina and Phacellodomus sibilatrix) randomly selected within the study area. Fifty-four were identified as Psammolestes coreodes, seven as Triatoma platensis, and two as Triatoma infestans. Specimens of T. infestans and T. platensis were found in one nest. The first finding of instar nymphs of T. infestans x T. platensis in a sylvatic habitat is reported. For the first time, sylvatic collected specimens of T. platensis were found infected by T. cruzi. Triatoma virus was found in one Ps. coreodes specimen.

  20. [Children enteroparasitosis in north east Argentine urban area].

    PubMed

    Milano, Alicia M F; Oscherov, Elena B; Palladino, Alberto C; Bar, Anibal R

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the importance of enteroparasitosis in a young urban population. The relationship between enteroparasitosis in this population and biological and environmental conditions was established for 113 infants between 0 and 14 years. Serial stool samples were analyzed and Graham tests were performed in each infant. The degree of nutrition of each infant was also assessed. Environmental data were collected via semi-structured surveys. Soil samples were tested to determine the degree of soil contamination. The following species were identified: Blastocystis hominis, Enterobius vermicularis, coccidios, Giardia intestinalis, hookworms, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana and Taenia sp. Children infection prevalence was 73.5%. The frequency of enteroparasitosis was largest in the population from 3 to 8 years. The homes of the children analyzed were brick houses with tin roof and access to tap water. A 79.5% of these houses had bathrooms. The remaining used outdoors latrines. In 95.5% of these houses, the residents lived with one or more dogs and cats. The soil collected from nine houses was contaminated with infectious forms of Toxocara canis and ancilostomideos. The relationship between parasitosis and latrines and overcrowding was verified. Five cases of malnutrition were detected (4.4%). The relevance of physical and cultural factors in relation to enteric parasitosis suggests that the pharmacological treatment should be accompanied with preventive measures regarding hygiene and proper elimination of human and pet faeces.

  1. The first record of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the Argentine northwest.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Andrea Gómez; Quintana, María Gabriela; Abril, Marcelo; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2013-12-01

    In 2004, the urban presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis was recorded for the first time in Formosa province. In 2006, the first autochthonous case of human urban visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was recorded in Misiones in the presence of the vector, along with some canine VL cases. After this first case, the vector began to spread primarily in northeast Argentina. Between 2008-2011, three human VL cases were reported in Salta province, but the presence of Lu. longipalpis was not recorded. Captures of Phlebotominae were made in Tartagal, Salta, in 2013, and the presence of Lu. longipalpis was first recorded in northwest Argentina at that time. Systematic sampling is recommended to observe the distribution and dispersion patterns of Lu. longipalpis and consider the risk of VL transmission in the region.

  2. Epidemiology of enteric adenovirus infection in prospectively monitored Argentine families.

    PubMed Central

    Mistchenko, A. S.; Huberman, K. H.; Gomez, J. A.; Grinstein, S.

    1992-01-01

    To examine the role of enteric adenoviruses (EAV) in an urban area of Buenos Aires (Argentina), we prospectively studied faecal samples from 49 families of newborns. These were monitored weekly for diarrhoea for 2 years. A total of 180 samples from cases of diarrhoea and 766 samples obtained during diarrhoea-free periods were studied by dot-blot hybridization with an EAV-specific DNA probe. EAV were found in 6/180 (3.3%) cases of diarrhoea and 6/766 (0.8%) asymptomatic samples (P < 0.015). Incidence of EAV was 3.9 cases per 100 person-years in children < 60 months old. EAV-related diarrhoeas were slight and of short duration. In addition, 129 faeces from hospital out-patients, 1-30 months old, were also studied. EAV was identified in 7/129 cases (5.4%). These cases were 9.5 +/- 3.5 months old and the diarrhoea was mild or severe, of 3 +/- 1.5 days of duration. We suggest that EAV are low-risk causes of diarrhoea under natural conditions, although a few children may develop more severe diarrhoea. The diagnosis of EAV needs to be considered in these patients. PMID:1468536

  3. Extremist Media and the Rise of Terrorism: The Argentine Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, J. Laurence

    In the 20 months that Isabel Peron served as the first female chief of state of a South American country, the mass media in Argentina underwent extreme stress. The Montoneros, a militant leftist organization, called for mass demonstrations against the orthodox Peronist people in their tabloid "La Causa Peronista." The tabloid's…

  4. [Epidemiological status of mycoses in the Argentine Republic].

    PubMed

    Davel, G; Canteros, C E

    2007-01-01

    We herein report the results of a retrospective nationwide survey on mycoses diagnosed between January and December, 2004. The study included data provided by 72 laboratories located in 19 provinces and in Buenos Aires City. Out of 801,805 microbiological specimens processed that year, only 62,681 (8%) were submitted to mycological studies. A total of 23,600 mycoses cases were diagnosed: 11,107 (47%) superficial mycoses, 10,830 (46%) mucosal candidiasis and 1,663 (7%) deep mycoses. Relative frequencies of superficial mycoses did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) from frequencies observed in a previous study covering Buenos Aires City and Province (1993), and from two countrywide surveys conducted by the National Network of Mycology Laboratories and National Quality Control Program (NNML and NQCP) in 1999 and 2002. The most frequent deep mycoses were yeast fungaemia (34%), cryptococcosis (20%), broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis (13%), histoplasmosis (11%), paracoccidioidomycosis (7%) and pneumocystosis (5%). In contrast with results of four previous nationwide studies on broncho-pulmonary mycoses including a survey performed by NNML and NQCP in 2002, our study revealed that histoplasmosis prevailed over paracoccidioidomycosis, thus ranking for the first time as the most frequent endemic mycosis in Argentina.

  5. [Argentine consensus on sleep-related respiratory disorders].

    PubMed

    Sala, H; Nigro, C; Rabec, C; Guardia, A S; Smurra, M

    2001-01-01

    Due to the increased interest of the medical community in sleep disorders an experts meeting was called to establish common criteria for diagnosis, treatment and management of these disorders. Adult prevalence of sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SA/HS) is about 2-4% and increases in the elderly. Snoring and excessive daytime somnolence (EDS) are habitual symptoms. Increased risk to cardiovascular disorders and traffic accidents are the major complications. Increased upper airways resistance syndrome is a recently described syndrome which also involves EDS. A standardized questionnaire was developed and its use was recommended in order to evaluate patients with respiratory sleep disorders (RSD). Polysomnography was established as gold standard in the diagnosis of RSD. Minimal requirement of split night studies and screening studies was also standardized and specific indications were summarized. Medical treatment of obesity in relationship to RSD was analyzed. Nasal continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) was established as the first choice treatment of SA/HS. Titration of CPAP was standardized. Oral appliances with mandibular advancement could be considered in the treatment of snoring patients without SA/HS and in patients with increased upper airways resistance syndrome. Uvulopalatopharingoplasty can only be performed in snoring patients in whom the presence of SA/HS has been dismissed by polysomnography. Management of patients must include periodic clinical control. EDS must be determined by Epworth test. In order to evaluate CPAP compliance the use of time-controlled devices is highly recommended.

  6. Quaternary Glaciations in the Rio Mendoza Valley, Argentine Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espizua, Lydia E.

    1993-09-01

    In the Rio Mendoza valley, five Pleistocene drifts and one Holocene drift are distinguished by multiple relative-age criteria, including surface-rock weathering, development of rock varnish, moraine morphology, soil-profile development, and stratigraphic relationships. Several absolute ages suggest a preliminary chronology. During the oldest (Uspallata) glaciation, a system of valley glaciers flowed 110 km from the Andean drainage divide and 80 km from Cerro Aconcagua to terminate at 1850 m. Drift of this ice advance is older than a widespread tephra dated by fission-track at 360,000 ± 36,000 yr. During the Punta de Vacas advance, ice terminated at 2350 m, while during the subsequent Penitentes advance, the glacier system ended at 2500 m. A travertine layer overlying Penitentes Drift has U-series age of 24,200 ± 2000 yr B.P. The distribution of Horcones Drift, which is inferred to represent the last glacial maximum, delimits an independent ice stream that flowed 22 km down Horcones valley to 2750 m. A later readvance (Almacenes) reached 3250 m. Confluencia Drift is considered to be Neoglacial in age and extends downvalley to 3300 m. The moraine sequence is compared with those studied by Caviedes (1972) along Rio Aconcagua on the Chilean flank of the Andes.

  7. Argentine folk medicine: genotoxic effects of Chenopodiaceae family.

    PubMed

    Gadano, A B; Gurni, A A; Carballo, M A

    2006-01-16

    Chenopodium ambrosioides L. and Chenopodium multifidum L. (Chenopodiaceae), common name: Paico, are medicinal plants. They are aromatic shrubs growing in South America. For centuries, they have been used due to its medicinal properties. However, there are few reports in literature about the genotoxic effects of these plants. There for, the aim of these work is the evaluation of genetic damage induced by decoction and infusion of this plants which were assayed in different concentrations (1, 10, 100, 1,000 microL extract/mL culture), by addition of the extract to human lymphocyte cell cultures, negative controls were included. The endpoints evaluated were chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), cell proliferation kinetics (CPK) and mitotic index (MI). The repeated measure analysis of variance was used for statistic evaluation of the results. The results showed: (a) statistical increase in the percentage of cells with CA and in the frequency of SCE when cultures were exposed to both aromatic plants, (b) a decrease in MI of both Paicos assayed, although no modification in the CPK values was observed, (c) no effect was noticed in the analysis of Chenopodium album L., which was used as negative control of the essential oil. These results suggest a cyto and genotoxic effect of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Chenopodium multifidum aqueous extracts related to the essential oil of the plant (as Chenopodium album did not perform).

  8. The first record of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the Argentine northwest

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Andrea Gómez; Quintana, María Gabriela; Abril, Marcelo; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In 2004, the urban presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis was recorded for the first time in Formosa province. In 2006, the first autochthonous case of human urban visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was recorded in Misiones in the presence of the vector, along with some canine VL cases. After this first case, the vector began to spread primarily in northeast Argentina. Between 2008-2011, three human VL cases were reported in Salta province, but the presence of Lu. longipalpis was not recorded. Captures of Phlebotominae were made in Tartagal, Salta, in 2013, and the presence of Lu. longipalpis was first recorded in northwest Argentina at that time. Systematic sampling is recommended to observe the distribution and dispersion patterns of Lu. longipalpis and consider the risk of VL transmission in the region. PMID:24402160

  9. Current trends in Latin America and the Argentine perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Laredo, V.G.

    1992-12-31

    The authors discusses the changes that are taking place in Argentina as well as in all of Latin America today -- privatization, deregulation, and the modernization of the economy, changes which will serve to strengthen the governments and provide a better quality of life for all of them. He gives an insight into the factors which helped bring about these changes, the support they are receiving, the problems which persist, and the measures that still must be taken so that these positive changes remain in place. He offers some useful information that will perhaps contribute to their understanding of the vast area which he refers to as Latin America, and more specifically, gives a thumbnail sketch of what is happening today in the Republic of Argentina. For many years now, Latin American leaders have travelled to other parts of the world and spoken about the plans and expectations for the region`s future. When these well-intentioned projects and plans never materialized, partners and supporters in the United States and other countries were frustrated and disappointed by the failure to make things work. The author`s intention here today is to describe things as they are, not as they might be, to tell about what is already happening in the sphere of business and growth of the economies in Latin America.

  10. Phloroglucinols from the argentine ferns Elaphoglossum gayanum and E. piloselloides.

    PubMed

    Socolsky, Cecilia; Borkosky, Susana A; Hernández de Terán, Marcela; Asakawa, Yoshinori; Bardón, Alicia

    2010-05-28

    Five new prenylated phloroglucinols were isolated from the diethyl ether extracts of the ferns Elaphoglossum gayanum and E. piloselloides. Their structures were established by analysis of their spectroscopic data (1D and 2D NMR, HRMS, and IR) and chemical derivatization. The two major compounds exhibited moderate molluscicidal activity against the snail Biomphalaria peregrina, a vector of the tropical disease schistosomiasis, with LD(50) 7.2 microg/mL (14.4 microM) and 11.7 microg/mL (22.2 microM).

  11. Argentine Civil-Military Relations. From Alfonsin to Menem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-11-01

    occupy the Defense portfolio. As a result of a scandal involving members of the intelligence services working in his Ministry, López was forced to...the Joint Staff to operationalize the concept of jointness: Personnel and Logistics, Operations and Intelligence , and Policy and Strategy, which...were rarely held. A little progress was made in coordinating logistics (common items) and intelligence information, and one army general on the Joint

  12. Education for Citizenship: The Argentine Case in Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astiz, M. Fernanda; Mendez, Gabriela

    2006-01-01

    This article considers how Argentina produces its citizens following its transition to democracy in the early 1980s. We ask how the schooling system is preparing the next generation to participate in the democratic political process, and the responsibilities of nation building in a world that has become more politically and economically entangled.…

  13. The Malvinas Conflict: Argentine Practice of the Operational Art

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-25

    January 1983), p. 175. 5. Clausewitz, p. IG4. E. Comision de analisis y evaluacion de las responrsa- bilidades politicas y estrategico militares en el...War. ed. arnd trans by Micha:2 Howard and Peter Paret. P;-irnceto:- Prir ce t on, iv..ity Press, 1976. Comnision de Analisis y Evaluacion de las

  14. Ribavirin Prophylaxis and Therapy for Experimental Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    cessation, values began to patients with Lassa fever in Sierra Leone. where mortality increase, progressively returning toward the base line. The reductions...similar to Bo- Virus isolation and serology. Virus was recovered from all livian hemorrhagic fever than to Lassa fever in humans (18). placebo-treated...clinical re- pti- d for use in Lassa fever patient%. Trisicol. Appi. Phama- spofl5c. J Infect. Dis. 152:218-221. cl 41519 16. McKee, K. T., Jr., IL. G

  15. Effect of processing conditions on trace elements in fish roe from six commercial new zealand fish species.

    PubMed

    Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Morton, James D; Dawson, Chris O

    2008-06-25

    The concentrations of trace elements in fish roes and the effect of processing conditions (karasumi-like or karashi mentaiko) were investigated in six commercial fish species from New Zealand. The studied elements were As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn, and the roes were from the following species: chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), hoki ( Macruronus novaezelandiae), southern blue whiting ( Micromesistius australis), hake ( Merluccius australis), blue warehou ( Seriolella brama), and barracouta ( Thyrsites atun). The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb in the roes were lower than literature values for fish muscles. Only Zn in barracouta roe and Cu in salmon roe and their products were relatively higher than the generally accepted levels in fish muscles and could be of safety concern. Hence, the consumption of barracouta and salmon roes among certain parts of the population needs to be monitored and assessed. Dry salting (karasumi-like) processing increased ( P < 0.001) the concentrations of the studied trace elements while salting fermentation (karashi mentaiko) processing tended to decrease the levels of trace elements. Fermentation may be a useful process to decrease the level of toxic trace elements.

  16. Benzo[a]pyrene and Benzo[k]fluoranthene in Some Processed Fish and Fish Products

    PubMed Central

    Olatunji, Olatunde S.; Fatoki, Olalekan S.; Opeolu, Beatrice O.; Ximba, Bhekumusa J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the concentration levels of the probable carcinogenic PAH fractions, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and benzo[k]fluoranthrene (BkF) in fillets of some processed fish species were investigated. Fish species comprising Merluccius poli (hake), Tyrsites atun (snoek), Seriola lalandi (yellow-tail) and Brama brama (angel fish) were bought in fish shops at Gordon’s Bay, Western Cape, South Africa. The fish were gutted, filleted and prepared for edibility by frying, grilling and boiling. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were extracted from each homogenized fish sample, cleaned-up using solid phase extraction (SPE), and analysed for the PAH fractions, BaP and BkF using a Gas Chromatograph coupled with a Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID). The sum of the two PAHs (∑2PAH) i.e., BaP and BkF ranged between 0.56 and 1.46 µg/kg, in all boiled, grilled and fried fish species. The fried fish extracts showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) abundance of ∑2PAH, than grilled and boiled fish. Dietary safety and PAHs toxicity was also discussed. PMID:25607603

  17. Seafloor habitat mapping of the New York Bight incorporating sidescan sonar data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lathrop, R.G.; Cole, M.; Senyk, N.; Butman, B.

    2006-01-01

    The efficacy of using sidescan sonar imagery, image classification algorithms and geographic information system (GIS) techniques to characterize the seafloor bottom of the New York Bight were assessed. The resulting seafloor bottom type map was compared with fish trawl survey data to determine whether there were any discernable habitat associations. An unsupervised classification with 20 spectral classes was produced using the sidescan sonar imagery, bathymetry and secondarily derived spatial heterogeneity to characterize homogenous regions within the study area. The spectral classes, geologic interpretations of the study region, bathymetry and a bottom landform index were used to produce a seafloor bottom type map of 9 different bottom types. Examination of sediment sample data by bottom type indicated that each bottom type class had a distinct composition of sediments. Analysis of adult summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, and adult silver hake, Merluccius bilinearis, presence/absence data from trawl surveys did not show evidence of strong associations between the species distributions and seafloor bottom type. However, the absence of strong habitat associations may be more attributable to the coarse scale and geographic uncertainty of the trawl sampling data than conclusive evidence that no habitat associations exist for these two species. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Why are there few publications by the Argentine gastroenterology? Considerations on a bibliometric analysis of Argentine publications on gastroenterology].

    PubMed

    Barreyro, Fernando J; Krabshuis, Justus; Planzer del Campo, Marcela; Bai, Julio C

    2009-03-01

    The publication of scientific findings is the main way to communicate advances. Our aim was to perform a bibliometric and comparative analysis of the Argentinean gastroenterological research output. We analyzed Argentinean gastroenterological publications selectively retrieved from LILACS (between years 1982-2006) and EMBASE (1996-2007) databases by means of specially constructed filter based on author address and subject headings. The global Argentinean scientific research output is far below that of developed countries and has been affected in direct manner by economic, political and social disturbances in the country. The gastroenterological research output from Argentina represent about 6% of national biomedical research. While 54% belongs to gastroenterology and 46% to hepatology, 65% are based on clinical research and 67% were originally contributions. Only 11% have been published in high impact factor journals. The comparative analysis within countries with health indicators similarities has shown a low biomedical and gastroenterology research output, however, the rate of acceptance at the 18 top gastroenterological journals is acceptable (15%). The contributions of registered specialists were lower for gastroenterologists compared with those from hepatologists (8.7% and 16.4% respectively). The research projects at public hospital funded by the pharmaceutical industry overcome those funded independently. Indeed, it seems that the independent research is being progressively replaced by that supported by the industry due to economic benefits for researchers even when there is a very low participation rate in publications (3%) by Argentinean researchers. We conclude that the Argentinean biomedical and gastroenterological research output is scanty compared with developed countries and countries with comparable health indicators. Our analysis suggests that efforts must be taken to attain objectives directed to develop and improve the Argentinean biomedical and gastroenterological scientific work and publication.

  19. Characteristics of Fishes with the Potential to Cause Acoustic Clutter off Oregon and Washington during the Summer of 2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-10

    except for hake are landed ashore. A significant portion of the hake catch is processed offshore. Offshore hake catches were obtained from Reference 10...are not generally very revealing for hake because they only count hake landed ashore and a high percentage of the catch is processed offshore. The...caught and processed at sea. However, the fact that 2012 shore-based catches off Oregon were significantly higher than off Washington matches the

  20. Extending Vulnerability Assessment to Include Life Stages Considerations.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Emma E; Essington, Timothy E; Kaplan, Isaac C

    2016-01-01

    Species are experiencing a suite of novel stressors from anthropogenic activities that have impacts at multiple scales. Vulnerability assessment is one tool to evaluate the likely impacts that these stressors pose to species so that high-vulnerability cases can be identified and prioritized for monitoring, protection, or mitigation. Commonly used semi-quantitative methods lack a framework to explicitly account for differences in exposure to stressors and organism responses across life stages. Here we propose a modification to commonly used spatial vulnerability assessment methods that includes such an approach, using ocean acidification in the California Current as an illustrative case study. Life stage considerations were included by assessing vulnerability of each life stage to ocean acidification and were used to estimate population vulnerability in two ways. We set population vulnerability equal to: (1) the maximum stage vulnerability and (2) a weighted mean across all stages, with weights calculated using Lefkovitch matrix models. Vulnerability was found to vary across life stages for the six species explored in this case study: two krill-Euphausia pacifica and Thysanoessa spinifera, pteropod-Limacina helicina, pink shrimp-Pandalus jordani, Dungeness crab-Metacarcinus magister and Pacific hake-Merluccius productus. The maximum vulnerability estimates ranged from larval to subadult and adult stages with no consistent stage having maximum vulnerability across species. Similarly, integrated vulnerability metrics varied greatly across species. A comparison showed that some species had vulnerabilities that were similar between the two metrics, while other species' vulnerabilities varied substantially between the two metrics. These differences primarily resulted from cases where the most vulnerable stage had a low relative weight. We compare these methods and explore circumstances where each method may be appropriate.

  1. Long-term variation in a central California pelagic forage assemblage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralston, Stephen; Field, John C.; Sakuma, Keith M.

    2015-06-01

    A continuous 23 year midwater trawl survey (1990-2012) of the epipelagic forage assemblage off the coast of central California (lat. 36°30‧-38°20‧ N) is described and analyzed. Twenty taxa occurred in ≥ 10% of the 2037 trawls that were completed at 40 distinct station locations. The dominant taxa sampled by the 9.5 mm mesh net included a suite of young-of-the-year (YOY) groundfish, including rockfish (Sebastes spp.) and Pacific hake (Merluccius productus), two clupeoids (Engraulis mordax and Sardinops sagax), krill (Euphausiacea), cephalopods (Doryteuthis opalescens and Octopus sp.), and a variety of mesopelagic species, i.e., Diaphus theta, Tarltonbeania crenularis, "other" lanternfish (Myctophidae), deep-sea smelts (Bathylagidae), and sergestid shrimp. Annual abundance estimates of the 20 taxa were obtained from analysis of variance models, which included year and station as main effects. Principal components analysis of the abundance estimates revealed that 61% of assemblage variance was explained by the first three components. The first component revealed a strong contrast in the abundance of: (a) YOY groundfish, market squid (D. opalescens), and krill with (b) mesopelagics and clupeoids; the second component was associated with long-term trends in abundance. An evaluation of 10 different published oceanographic data sets and CTD data collected during the survey indicated that seawater properties encountered each year were significantly correlated with abundance patterns, as were annual sea-level anomalies obtained from an analysis of AVISO satellite information. A comparison of our findings with several other recent studies of biological communities occurring in the California Current revealed a consistent structuring of forage assemblages, which we conjecture is primarily attributable to large-scale advection patterns in the California Current ecosystem.

  2. Spatio-temporal genetic structure and the effects of long-term fishing in two partially sympatric offshore demersal fishes.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Romina; von der Heyden, Sophie; Lipinski, Marek R; du Toit, Nina; Kainge, Paulus; Bloomer, Paulette; Matthee, Conrad A

    2016-12-01

    Environmental gradients have been shown to disrupt gene flow in marine species, yet their influence in structuring populations at depth remains poorly understood. The Cape hakes (Merluccius paradoxus and M. capensis) are demersal species co-occurring in the Benguela Current system, where decades of intense fishing resulted in severely depleted stocks in the past. Previous studies identified conflicting mtDNA genetic substructuring patterns and thus contrasting evolutionary trajectories for both species. Using 10 microsatellite loci, the control region of mtDNA and employing a seascape genetics approach, we investigated genetic connectivity and the impact of prolonged exploitation in the two species, which are characterized by different patterns of fishing pressure. Three consecutive years were sampled covering the entire distribution (N = 2100 fishes). Despite large estimated population sizes, both species exhibited low levels of contemporary genetic diversity (0.581 < HE  < 0.692), implying that fishing has had a significant impact on their genetic composition and evolutionary trajectories. Further, for M. paradoxus, significant temporal, but not spatial, divergence points to the presence of genetic chaotic patchiness. In contrast, M. capensis exhibited a clear latitudinal cline in genetic differentiation between Namibia and South Africa (FST  = 0.063, P < 0.05), with low (0.2% per generation) estimates of contemporary gene flow. Seascape analyses reveal an association with bathymetry and upwelling events, suggesting that adaptation to local environmental conditions may drive genetic differentiation in M. capensis. Importantly, our results highlight the need for temporal sampling in disentangling the complex factors that impact population divergence in marine fishes.

  3. Spatial overlap of Black-browed albatrosses with longline and trawl fisheries in the Patagonian Shelf during the non-breeding season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copello, Sofía; Seco Pon, Juan Pablo; Favero, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Incidental mortality in fisheries is the main at-sea threat albatrosses are facing nowadays. In this study we used remote sensing techniques to model the degree of spatial overlapping between the Black-browed albatross (Thalassarche melanophris) and Argentine fisheries, assuming this as a proxy of risk for albatrosses. Eleven tags were deployed on albatrosses during the non-breeding seasons 2011 and 2012 in the Patagonian Shelf. Their distribution overlapped to different extents with the two coastal trawl, three offshore trawl and one demersal longline fisheries. The overlap index showed highest values with both coastal fleets, followed by the ice-chilling trawl fleet. These intersections were located in the Argentinean-Uruguayan Common Fishing Zone, in coastal areas of the SE of Buenos Aires province, El Rincón estuary and over the shelf break. The analysis of intersections of focal areas from albatrosses and all fisheries allowed the identification of thirty-four fishing management units (1° by 1° grid within the Argentine EEZ) classified as of medium, high or very high conservation priority. Very high priority units were placed between 35 and 38°S in the external mouth of Rio de la Plata, and between 45 and 47°S in neighboring waters East to the hake fishing closure. Although there were possible biases due to the limited number of tracked birds and the locations where albatrosses were captured and instrumented, the information presented in this study provides a comprehensive picture of important areas of overlapping during winter that could be used by the fishery administration to prioritize conservation actions under limited resource scenarios.

  4. 78 FR 64889 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Emergency Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... and White Hake Catch Limits and GOM Cod Carryover Revisions AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...) yellowtail flounder and white hake specifications for fishing year (FY) 2013 and the GOM cod sector carryover... yellowtail flounder and white hake, and the 1.85-percent allowable carryover of unused FY 2012 GOM cod...

  5. Quaternary tectonic movements in the Argentine Puna, 24/sup 0/ to 27/sup 0/ s latitude

    SciTech Connect

    Strecker, M.R.; Alonso, R.; Rivelli, F.; Mon, R.

    1985-01-01

    The Puna of NW Argentina, one of the highest plateaus in the world, is the southern continuation of the Andean Altiplano geomorphic province of Peru and Bolivia. The region is not seismically active and reports of neotectonic movements are scarce. However, the areas of Salar de los Pastos Grandes, Salar del Hombre Muerto and Sierra Calalaste clearly have experienced Quaternary tectonic movements. At Salar de los Pastos Grandes, early Pleistocene lake sediments are offset by reverse faulting. At Salar del Hombre Muerto, Quaternary pyroclastic and debris-flow deposits are unconformable over sediments 5.86 m.y. old that were folded during the Pliocene-Pleistocene Diaguita deformation. Within the Quaternary sediments two separate deformational phases with reverse faulting and shallow thrusting are recognized. The timing of movement is well defined since the deformed strata are covered by a basalt flow 0.75 m.y. old. The flow in turn is affected by normal faulting. Similar normal faults associated with basalt flows were found at Sierra Calalaste. These observations are in accord with pronounced extensional movements and basaltic volcanism at the Calama-Olacapato-Toro Lineament (0.2 m.y. old flows) and might document the Quaternary transition from a compressive to an extensional tectonic regime in the southern Puna.

  6. Effects of dose limits reduction on the Argentine nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Palacios, E.; Curti, A.; Massera, G.; Spano, F.; Boutet, L. )

    1993-11-01

    Occupational doses are evaluated in different stages of the fuel cycle and in the operation of nuclear power plants. Trends in individual dose distribution and collective doses are analyzed. The most contributive working conditions to collective dose are identified and the implications of dose limit reduction recommended by the ICRP in 1990 are assessed. It is concluded that no relevant difficulties should appear in accomplishing the new recommendations except for implementation at Atucha I, a nuclear power plant designed in the 1960s. Some options to reduce individual and collective doses in this plant are analyzed. The change of fuel channels by new ones free from cobalt is essential to get effective improvement of occupational exposures.

  7. New Argentine Central-West Line taps rich Neuquen gas field

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, J.

    1982-02-01

    Argentina's Centro-Oeste (Central-West) Gas Pipeline is now a reality, carrying gas from the extensive Loma de la Lata (Hill of Tin) field in Neuquen State to cities which had been relying on bottled gas. The project is impressive, but hardly seems unique. A pipeline consisting of 697 miles of 30-in. line and 451 miles of smaller diameter gathering and distribution lines is a big project but nothing that has not been done before. Sometimes figures and statistics hide more than they reveal. A discussion is provided of project financing, logistics, pipeline outlets, treatment plants, route, construction, other lines, compressor stations, and suppliers.

  8. New Argentine Central-West line taps rich Neuquen gas field

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, J.

    1982-02-01

    Argentina's new Central-West gas pipeline consists of 697 miles of 30-in. line and 451 miles of smaller gathering and distribution lines that link the rich Neuquen gas field with cities to the north. A financing package drawn up by 21 banks in the US and Europe allowed Cogasco S.A. to build the line for Gas del Estado across the roadless pampas east of the Andes. Primarily an agricultural country, Argentina had to import all the equipment and materials for the project. Site work began in July, 1980 with 800 workers employed on three spreads; the line was commissioned in November, 1981, 15 months ahead of the contract schedule.

  9. Morphological and speleothemic development in Brujas Cave (Southern Andean Range, Argentine): palaeoenvironmental significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sancho, Carlos; Peña, José Luis; Mikkan, Raúl; Osácar, Cinta; Quinif, Yves

    2004-02-01

    Brujas Cave, in the Southern Andean Range, is a well-known endokarstic site in Argentina. However, the origin and evolution of this cave system are poorly known. Based on morphological cave features as well as characteristics of cave deposits, we propose a meteogene drawdown cave genesis, including a change from phreatic to vadose conditions related to the high rate of fluvial downcutting in the area. During the vadose period, various cave-related deposits, including authogenic calcite and gypsum speleothems, allogenic volcanic ash and external tufas were deposited. Gypsum crusts are the oldest cave deposits identified (90.2-64.3 ky BP). Their origin, deduced from isotopic characteristics ( ∂34S=9.6‰), is related to the oxidation of pyrite contained in the Jurassic limestone bedrock as well as the dissolution of overlying Jurassic-Triassic evaporite formations. Gypsum crust deposition is associated with evaporation of water flowing and seeping into the cave during arid environmental conditions. Calcite deposits precipitated from flowing water under equilibrium conditions represent the main speleothem growth period (67.6-34 ky BP in age). Their stable isotope values ( ∂13C=-3‰ to -5‰ and ∂18O=-9‰ to -11‰) may indicate slightly humid and warm conditions related to the regional Minchin lacustrine phase and global oxygen isotope stage 3. Following this stage, a seismic event is evidenced by accumulations of broken stalactites. Seepage calcite speleothems covering cave walls were deposited under disequilibrium conditions by evaporation, probably during Holocene time. Finally, another more recent gypsum deposition period represented by gypsum balls has been differentiated. Micromorphological as well as isotopic ( ∂34S=5.6‰) data indicate that these gypsum forms are related to cyclic processes (solution-deposition) from water seeping into the cave under arid conditions. In addition, intense volcanic activity in the area during Holocene time is deduced from allogenic volcanic ash and lapilli located mainly at the entrance cave. At present, limited hydrological activity is observed in the cave and small tufa deposits at karstic discharge points are evidenced. We conclude that the geomorphological evolution of Brujas Cave was controlled by climatic changes (wet and dry stages) under semiarid environmental conditions in a very active tectonic and volcanic setting during Late Quaternary time.

  10. A Basis for a Command, Control and Communications (C3) System Architecture for the Argentine Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    needed on the bat- tlefield, Most commanders derive important situational clues by listening to how their subordinates sound in their verbal reports. F...0142 2 Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5002 3. Estado Mayor General del Ejercito Argentino 5 Direccion de Comunicaciones Azopardo 250

  11. Infrared Thermographic Measurement of Long Term Circulatory Compromise in Trenchfoot Injured Argentine Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-17

    surface pain, cold sensitivity or hyperhidrosis . Equipment The subject’s temperatures were monitored by utilizing an AGEMA TIC-8000 Infrared System...injury; the patient’s reports of cold intolerance, weight bearing surface pain and hyperhidrosis six years post injury support this conclusion. It

  12. Science Information Programs: The Argentine Telex Network for Scientific and Technical Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    This document reports on two projects jointly sponsored by the National Academy of Science (NAS) (USA) and the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (ARGENTINA). The first is the creation of a telex network for scientific libraries and documentation centers in Argentina, designed to improve access to, and delivery…

  13. Essential Oils of Plants as Biocides against Microorganisms Isolated from Cuban and Argentine Documentary Heritage.

    PubMed

    Borrego, Sofía; Valdés, Oderlaise; Vivar, Isbel; Lavin, Paola; Guiamet, Patricia; Battistoni, Patricia; Gómez de Saravia, Sandra; Borges, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Natural products obtained from plants with biocidal activity represent an alternative and useful source in the control of biodeterioration of documentary heritage, without negative environmental and human impacts. In this work, we studied the antimicrobial activity of seven essential oils against microorganisms associated with the biodeterioration of documentary heritage. The essential oils were obtained by steam distillation. The antimicrobial activity was analyzed using the agar diffusion method against 4 strains of fungi and 6 bacterial strains isolated from repositories air and documents of the National Archive of the Republic of Cuba and the Historical Archive of the Museum of La Plata, Argentina. Anise and garlic oils showed the best antifungal activity at all concentrations studied, while oregano oil not only was effective against fungi tested but also prevented sporulation of them all. Orange sweet and laurel oils were ineffective against fungi. Clove, garlic, and oregano oils showed the highest antibacterial activity at 25% against Enterobacter agglomerans and Streptomyces sp., while only clove and oregano oils were effective against Bacillus sp. at all concentrations studied. This study has an important implication for the possible use of the natural products from plants in the control of biodeterioration of documentary heritage.

  14. Modernization of the Defense Sector. Principles and Characteristics of the Argentine Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Supply of Common Items (Pro- grama de Abastecimiento Conjunto de Insumos Comunes , PACIC) was created and implemented. Such program is intended to...interdisci- plinary learning . The Ministry of Defense, following the deep sense of public service contained in the military func- tion, consolidated

  15. Deforestation of "degraded" rangelands: The Argentine Chaco enters the next stage of the Anthropocene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty years ago I completed my Master’s work in the Chaco forests of northern Argentina. The native forests are, in fact, rangelands. In addition to livestock grazing, there is timber extraction, wildlife harvest (think tegu lizard cowboy boots), and charcoal production. I took part in a project co...

  16. Salvadora persica agro-ecological suitability for oil production in Argentine dryland salinity.

    PubMed

    Falasca, Silvia; Pitta-Alvarez, Sandra; del Fresno, Carolina Miranda

    2015-12-15

    One of the major causes of crop stress is soil or water salinity. Thus, selection of the best species for cultivation in semiarid and arid climates is fundamental. Salvadora persica is an evergreen perennial halophyte that can grow under extreme conditions, from very dry environments to highly saline soils. Based on international bibliography, the authors outlined an agro-ecological zoning model to determine the potential cultivation zones for S. persica in Argentina. This model may be applied to any part of the world, using the agro-ecological limits presented in this work. All the maps were developed by the implementation of a geographic information system (GIS) that can be updated by the further incorporation of complementary information, with the consequent improvement of the original database. The overlap of the agroclimatic suitability map on the drylands' saline soils and the drylands' alkaline soils maps, determined the agro-ecological zoning. Since some areas in the agro-ecological zoning can overlap with land that is already assigned for other uses, protected areas, current land use/cover of the different zones, and urban areas maps were incorporated into the GIS and subtracted by a mask. This resulted in the delimitation of "potential cultivation zoning", thus avoiding possible conflicts surrounding the use of land and making the agro-ecological zonation more efficient. There is a broad agro-ecological zone for cultivation of S. persica that extends from Northern Argentina to approximately 41° South latitude, under dry-subhumid to semiarid climates. Lands classified with different degrees of suitability in the potential cultivation zoning could be used for production of this species for energy purposes on lands that are either unsuitable for food production or currently assigned for other purposes. This paper represents pioneering work since there are no previous studies concerning the introduction of S. persica in Argentina.

  17. Vector Competence of Argentine Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) for West Nile virus (Flaviviridae: Flavivirus)

    PubMed Central

    MICIELI, MARÍA V.; MATACCHIERO, AMY C.; MUTTIS, EVANGELINA; FONSECA, DINA M.; ALIOTA, MATTHEW T.; KRAMER, LAURA D.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the ability of Culex pipiens L. complex mosquitoes from Argentina to vector West Nile virus (WNV) to assess their role in the transmission of WNV in South America. Several egg rafts of Culex spp. were collected from different breeding sites in the suburbs of the city of La Plata, Argentina, and a subset of each progeny was scored with morphological and genetic species indicators. Surprisingly, we did not find Cx. pipiens form pipiens, but found evidence of genetic hybrids of Culex quinquefasciatus and Cx. pipiens f. molestus. We then used morphological traits to create two colonies predominantly composed of one of these two taxa, although some hybrids are likely to have been included in both. These colonies were used in vector competence studies using NY99 and WN02 genotype strains of WNV obtained in New York State. As controls, we also tested colonies of U.S. Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. pipiens f. molestus. Additional Culex larvae from three drainage ditches near the cities of La Plata and Berisso, Argentina, were identified by morphological and high-resolution molecular markers (microsatellites) as Cx. quinquefasciatus Say, Cx. pipiens form molestus, and hybrids. Results indicate that Argentinian Culex are competent but only moderately efficient vectors of WNV and are less susceptible to this virus than comparable U.S. mosquito strains. Studies of vertical transmission of NY99 virus by Cx. pipiens f. molestus hybrids from Argentina yielded a minimal filial infection rate of 1.19 from females feeding during their second and later bloodmeals. PMID:23926785

  18. Viral Strain Dependent Differences in Experimental Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever (Junin Virus) Infection of Guinea Pigs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    with hema- stains as Romero (P3235), Coronel (P3827), Espin - toxylin and eosin for light microscopy. dola (P3790), and Ledesma (P3406) strains. Blood...Gonzalez, P.H.: Maiztegui. J. I.: plaques. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. Med. 130:1013 1019 Laguens, R.P.: Estudio morfologico de la medula (1969). osea humana en

  19. Changing cocaine use practices: neo-liberalism, HIV-AIDS, and death in an Argentine shantytown.

    PubMed

    Epele, María E

    2003-07-01

    Cocaine consuming patterns are changing among young drug users who live in "The Villa," a shantytown located in Greater Buenos Aires. After years of drug injection dominance, cocaine snorting became the preferred drug consuming practice while deep and fast structural and cultural transformations have been taken place as part of the neoliberal program implemented in Argentina during the 1990s and the final economic default in 2001-2002. In this article, I analyze how drug users understand and explain these changing practices, including the following aspects: deteriorating economic conditions, the transformations of survival strategies, moral codes, social network organization, violence regulating mechanisms, criminal activity, and police repression. Based on an ethnographic study carried out during the last eight months in "The Villa," I suggest that intense and generalized cocaine injection in shantytowns has logistic, organizational, and structural requirements that cocaine snorting does not have. Particularly, I explore two main aspects associated with these changing cocaine consumption practices: the consequences of the many Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-related deaths, which occurred among older drug injectors, and the progressive social fragmentation tied to the extreme economic deprivation, deepened social exclusion, and growing everyday violence.

  20. Insect Herbivores Associated With Ludwigia Species, Oligospermum Section, in Their Argentine Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, M. Cristina; Cabrera Walsh, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    The South American water primroses, Ludwigia grandiflora (Michx.) Greuter & Burdet, L. grandiflora subsp. hexapetala (Hook. & Arn.) G.L. Nesom & Kartesz, Ludwigia peploides (Kunth) P.H. Raven, and L. p. subsp. montevidensis (Spreng.) P.H. Raven (Onagraceae, Section Oligospermum), have become invasive in several watersheds of the United States and Europe. Surveys were carried out in center-east of Argentina to find insect species that might serve as biological control agents for L. g. subsp. hexapetala in California and elsewhere. Stems (0.5–0.6 m) of Ludwigia species, Sect. Oligospermum, were collected in 41 sites and analyzed in the laboratory; immature insects were reared to adults. The plant species found in the area were L. grandiflora (2 sites), L. g. subsp. hexapetala (33 sites), and L. p. subsp. montevidensis (4 sites). There was a variety of insect guilds feeding on L. g. subsp. hexapetala, including six species with stem-borer larvae, one species with fruit-feeding larvae, four species with defoliating larvae, two species with defoliating larvae on young leaves and axil meristems, one species of cell content feeder, and three species of sap feeders. Nine of these species also have defoliating adults. Biological information on most of them is provided. Of these insect herbivores, only two species were also found on L. grandiflora, and one on L. peploides. Several of the species found on L. g. hexapetala, such as the cell-content feeder Liothrips ludwigi (Thysanoptera), the stem-borers Merocnemus binotatus (Boheman) and Tyloderma spp. (Coleoptera), are promising candidates for biocontrol agents. PMID:25502037

  1. The Key Role of Cultural Preservation in Maize Diversity Conservation in the Argentine Yungas

    PubMed Central

    Hilgert, Norma I.; Zamudio, Fernando; Cariola, Lucía

    2013-01-01

    Farmers' decisions on what to grow and why can contribute in understanding the conservation of agrobiodiversity. Culture and ethnicity are indicated as first-class factors leading preservation of heirloom cultivars but this has been little considered in studies examining factors that influence the loss or preservation of agrobiodiversity. We propose that corn's ethnotaxa of less diverse uses, which are also key partners in local cultural reproduction, are usually cultivated by a few households. We analyse if there is a relationship between uses and richness of cultivated ethnotaxa at household level and describe corn's medicinal and ritual uses. We found 25 cultivated ethnotaxa, heterogeneously distributed in the region, and we also found that ethnotaxa with less diverse uses are cultivated in fewer households. We identified that, at regional scale, richness is related with food use diversity. The most frequently cited medicinal uses were urinary and tract infections, diarrhoea, and liver disorders. Medicinal recipes involve combinations with other elements. Maize is an indispensable resource in the rituals that propitiate productive activity, to augur prosperity or misfortune according to signals. We have identified the vulnerability in preserving the richness of corn in the region and the factors that shape its cultivation at different scales. PMID:24078829

  2. RED MEAT, MICRONUTRIENTS AND ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF ARGENTINE ADULT PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Secchi, Dante Gustavo; Aballay, Laura Rosana; Galíndez, María Fernanda; Piccini, Daniel; Lanfranchi, Héctor; Brunotto, Mabel

    2015-09-01

    Introducción: la detección de grupos de riesgo de cáncer oral permite reducir las tasas de morbilidad y mortalidad típicas de esta patología. Objetivo: se analizó el rol de carnes rojas, macronutrientes y micronutrientes en pacientes con carcinoma oral de células escamosas (COCE) en un estudio de casos y controles llevado a cabo en Córdoba, Argentina. Métodos: estudio de casos y controles 3:1, ambos sexos, con edades comprendidas entre 24-80 años. La información sobre la dieta fue recogida mediante un cuestionario de frecuencia de alimentos cuali-cuantitativo. La regresión logística se aplicó para evaluar la asociación entre el estado caso/control y la ingesta diaria de carne roja/ macronutrientes/micronutrientes/energía. Resultados: los micronutrientes y minerales de la dieta que mostraron valores medios significativos de consumo común en los casos relativos a los controles eran hierro, fósforo, vitaminas B1, B5, B6, E y K y selenio. La medición de la asociación estimada por regresión logística mostró una asociación significativa entre carne roja, grasas, energía diaria, fósforo, vitamina B5, vitamina E, ingesta de selenio y presencia de COCE. Conclusión: un alto consumo de grasas, fósforo, vitamina B5, vitamina E, selenio y carne roja parece estar relacionado con la presencia de COCE en Córdoba, Argentina. En relación con el consumo de carne roja y el riesgo de COCE, la investigación futura debería centrar su atención en la reducción de la complejidad de las relaciones de la dieta y la enfermedad, así como en reducir la variabilidad de los datos de ingesta mediante la estandarización de los criterios de admisión a fin de aplicar estrategias sencillas en salud pública para el reconocimiento de grupos de riesgo de COCE.

  3. Epidemiology of rotavirus infection and gastroenteritis in prospectively monitored Argentine families with young children.

    PubMed

    Grinstein, S; Gómez, J A; Bercovich, J A; Biscotti, E L

    1989-08-01

    A prospective study was carried out in 49 families of newborns in Avellaneda District, Argentina, recruited when the mother was in the last trimester of pregnancy and followed until the newborn was aged two years, to study the epidemiology of rotavirus infection under natural conditions. Weekly surveillance of all family members for diarrhea and rotavirus-related diarrhea was carried out from May 1983 to July 1986. Serum samples were also collected every six months to study the incidence of rotavirus infection in all family members. The peak of diarrhea incidence was observed in children aged less than two years (2.1 cases per person-year). Rotavirus infection was a common rather than a sporadic phenomenon (0.63 cases per person-year, on average) in all age groups, and at least 61% of rotavirus infections were reinfections. In contrast, the peak of rotavirus infection in seronegative persons (0.58 cases per person-year) and the peak of rotavirus-related diarrhea incidence (0.25 cases per person-year) were found during the first year of life. These results showed that infants aged less than one year are the most appropriate candidates for a rotavirus vaccine in the Avellaneda population. However, improvements in sanitary conditions and personal hygiene and education of the high-risk population should be considered the primary means of reducing infectious diarrhea in Argentina.

  4. [Effect of high altitude on birth weight and adverse perinatal outcomes in two Argentine populations].

    PubMed

    Grandi, Carlos; Dipierri, José; Luchtenberg, Guillermo; Moresco, Angélica; Alfaro, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: existe poca información sobre la relación entre tamaño al nacer y altura geográfica ajustada para factores maternos y obstétricos potencialmente confusores. Objetivo: analizar la variación, en función de la altitud geográfica, del Peso al Nacimiento (PN) y resultados perinatales adversos, en dos poblaciones argentinas. Material y Métodos: 4000 registros de recién nacidos (RN) de Jujuy y 4000 de Buenos Aires (Maternidad Sardá) (1996-2000), seleccionados y aleatorizados del Sistema Informático Perinatal. Los datos provenían de la Maternidad Sarda (20 msnm) y las regiones jujeñas: Ramal (500 msnm), Valle (1200 msnm), Quebrada (2500 msnm) y Puna (3500 msnm). Variables resultado: PN >3000 g, PN <2500 g, Índice Ponderal (IP), prematurez, pequeño para edad gestacional (PEG) y restricción del crecimiento intrauterino (FGR). Variables confusoras: edad, tipo de pareja, educación, sobrepeso-obesidad, tabaquismo, hipertensión arterial, preeclampsia, infección urinaria, restricción del crecimiento y terminación cesárea. Resultados: Se observó un gradiente altitudinal creciente para madres adolescentes y decreciente para las variables obstétrico-maternas. El PN, PN >3000 g, PN <2500 g e Índice Ponderal se asociaron negativamente con altitud (p<0.001). La prevalencia de prematurez, PEG y FGR mostraron un comportamiento opuesto (p<0.001). Ajustados para variables confusoras el PN<3000 g, PEG, FGR < 0.90 e IP<2.53 mostraron mayor riesgo con la altitud geográfica (p<0.05). Conclusiones: La altitud se asoció independientemente con restricción del PN y resultados perinatales adversos. Dado el impacto de la reducción del PN en el riesgo de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, se debería evaluar esta relación en otras poblaciones, independientemente de su localización altitudinal.

  5. [Argentine guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, 2015].

    PubMed

    Schurman, León; Galich, Ana M; González, Claudio; González, Diana; Messina, Osvaldo D; Sedlinsky, Claudia; Uñas, Claudia R; Sánchez, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    Osteoporosis is an evolving disease which affects over 200 million people worldwide. Our recommendations are guidelines for its diagnosis, prevention and treatment, but they do not constitute standards for clinical decisions in individual cases. The physician must adapt them to individual special situations, incorporating personal factors that transcend the limits of these guidelines and are dependent on the knowledge and art of the practice of Medicine. These guidelines should be reviewed and updated periodically as new, better and more effective diagnostic and therapeutic tools become available.

  6. The Domuyo volcanic system: An enormous geothermal resource in Argentine Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiodini, Giovanni; Liccioli, Caterina; Vaselli, Orlando; Calabrese, Sergio; Tassi, Franco; Caliro, Stefano; Caselli, Alberto; Agusto, Mariano; D'Alessandro, Walter

    2014-03-01

    A geochemical survey of the main thermal waters discharging in the southwestern part of the Domuyo volcanic complex (Argentina), where the latest volcanic activity dates to 0.11 Ma, has highlighted the extraordinarily high heat loss from this remote site in Patagonia. The thermal water discharges are mostly Na-Cl in composition and have TDS values up to 3.78 g L- 1 (El Humazo). A simple hydrogeochemical approach shows that 1,100 to 1,300 kg s- 1 of boiling waters, which have been affected by shallow steam separation, flow into the main drainage of the area (Rio Varvarco). A dramatic increase of the most conservative species such as Na, Cl and Li from the Rio Varvarco from upstream to downstream was observed and related solely to the contribution of hydrothermal fluids. The equilibrium temperatures of the discharging thermal fluids, calculated on the basis of the Na-K-Mg geothermometer, are between 190 °C and 230 °C. If we refer to a liquid originally at 220 °C (enthalpy = 944 J g- 1), the thermal energy release can be estimated as high as 1.1 ± 0.2 GW, a value that is much higher than the natural release of heat in other important geothermal fields worldwide, e.g., Mutnovsky (Russia), Wairakei (New Zealand) and Lassen Peak (USA). This value is the second highest measured advective heat flux from any hydrothermal system on Earth after Yellowstone.

  7. Carbon mapping of Argentine savannas: Using fractional tree cover to scale from field to region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Roglich, M.; Swenson, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Programs which intend to maintain or enhance carbon (C) stocks in natural ecosystems are promising, but require detailed and spatially explicit C distribution models to monitor the effectiveness of management interventions. Savanna ecosystems are significant components of the global C cycle, covering about one fifth of the global land mass, but they have received less attention in C monitoring protocols. Our goal was to estimate C storage across a broad savanna ecosystem using field surveys and freely available satellite images. We first mapped tree canopies at 2.5 m resolution with a spatial subset of high resolution panchromatic images to then predict regional wall-to-wall tree percent cover using 30-m Landsat imagery and the Random Forests algorithms. We found that a model with summer and winter spectral indices from Landsat, climate and topography performed best. Using a linear relationship between C and % tree cover, we then predicted tree C stocks across the gradient of tree cover, explaining 87 % of the variability. The spatially explicit validation of the tree C model with field-measured C-stocks revealed an RMSE of 8.2 tC/ha which represented ~30% of the mean C stock for areas with tree cover, comparable to studies based on more advanced remote sensing methods, such as LiDAR and RADAR. Sample spatial distribution highly affected the performance of the RF models in predicting tree cover, raising concerns regarding the predictive capabilities of the model in areas for which training data is not present. The 50,000 km2 has ~41 Tg C, which could be released to the atmosphere if agricultural pressure intensifies in this semiarid savanna.

  8. Sources and distribution of aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from the Neuquen River, Argentine Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Monza, Liliana B; Loewy, Ruth M; Savini, Mónica C; Pechen de d'Angelo, Ana M

    2013-01-01

    Spatial distribution and probable sources of aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (AHs, PAHs) were investigated in surface sediments collected along the bank of the Neuquen River, Argentina. Total concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons ranged between 0.41 and 125 μg/g dw. Six stations presented low values of resolved aliphatic hydrocarbons and the n-alkane distribution indexes applied suggested a clear biogenic source. These values can be considered the baseline levels of aliphatic hydrocarbons for the river sediments. This constitutes important information for the assessment of future impacts since a strong impulse in the exploitation of shale gas and shale oil in these zones is nowadays undergoing. For the other 11 stations, a mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons of petrogenic and biogenic origin was observed. The spatial distribution reflects local inputs of these pollutants with a significant increase in concentrations in the lower course, where two major cities are located. The highest values of total aliphatic hydrocarbons were found in this sector which, in turn, was the only one where individual PAHs were detected.

  9. The effect of Zuccagnia punctata, an Argentine medicinal plant, on virulence factors from candida species.

    PubMed

    Gabriela, Nuño; Rosa, Alberto María; Catiana, Zampini Iris; Soledad, Cuello; Mabel, Ordoñez Roxana; Esteban, Sayago Jorge; Veronica, Baroni; Daniel, Wunderlin; Ines, Isla María

    2014-07-01

    Zuccagnia punctata Cav. has been used as a traditional medicine in Argentina for the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections. In this study, we evaluated the ability of Z. punctata extract (ZpE) and compounds isolated from it to inhibit the growth and virulence factors of Candida species. ZpE showed inhibitory activity against planktonic cells of all assayed Candida species with MIC values of 400 microg/mL and with MFC values between 400 and 1,200 microg/mL. The principal identified compounds by HPLC-MS/MS and UV-VIS were chalcones (2',4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxychalcone, 2',4'- dihydroxychalcone), flavones (galangin, 3,7-dihydroxyflavone and chrysin) and flavanones (naringenin, 7-hydroxyflavanone and pinocembrine). These compounds were more effective as inhibitors than the extracts upon biofilm formation as well as on preformed Candida biofilm and yeast germ tube formation. Furthermore, ZpE and chalcones are able to inhibit exoenzymes, which are responsible for the invasion mechanisms of the pathogens. All these effects could moderate colonization, thereby suppressing the pathogen invasive potential. Our results indicate that ZpE and chalcones could be used in antifungal therapy.

  10. Deep structure of the Argentine margin inferred from 3D gravity and temperature modelling, Colorado Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autin, J.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Götze, H.-J.; Reichert, C.; Marchal, D.

    2016-04-01

    Following previous work on the Colorado Basin using a 3D crustal structural model, we now investigate the presence of lower crustal bodies at the base of the crust using 3D lithospheric gravity modelling and calculations of the conductive thermal field. Our first study highlighted two fault directions and depocentres associated with thinned crust (NW-SE in the West and NE-SW at the distal margin). Fault relative chronology argues for two periods of extension: (1) NW-SE faulting and thinning in the western Colorado Basin and (2) NE-SW faulting and thinning related to the continental breakup and formation of the NE-SW-striking volcanic margins of the Atlantic Ocean. In this study, the geometry of modelled high-density Lower Crustal Bodies (LCBs) enables the reproduction of the gravimetric field as well as of the temperature measured in wells down to 4500 m. The modelled LCBs correlate with geological observations: (1) NW-SE LCBs below the deepest depocentres in the West, (2) NE-SW LCBs below the distal margin faults and the seaward dipping reflectors. Thus the proposed poly-phased evolution of the margin could as well correspond to two emplacement phases of the LCBs. The calculated conductive thermal field fits the measured temperatures best if the thermal properties (thermal conductivity and radiogenic heat production) assigned to the LCBs correspond to either high-grade metamorphic rocks or to mafic magmatic intrusions. To explain the possible lithology of the LCBs, we propose that the two successive phases of extension are accompanied by magma supply, emplaced (1) in the thinnest crust below the older NW-SE depocentres, then (2) along the NE-SW continentward boundary of the distal margin and below the volcanic seaward dipping reflectors. The South African conjugate margin records only the second NE-SW event and we discuss hypotheses which could explain these differences between the conjugate margins.

  11. A comparative study of oral lichen planus and leukoplakia in two Argentine populations.

    PubMed

    Femopase, F L; Binagui, M V; López de Blanc, S; Gandolfo, M; Lanfranchi, H E

    1997-01-01

    Oral Lichen Planus and Leukoplakia are two precancerous lesions of great relevance in oral pathology. A total of 4183 patients from the National University of Córdoba (UNC) and 4838 patients from the University of Buenos Aires (UBA) who had been admitted to the corresponding Oral Pathology Departments were analyzed. Of the total number of patients, 476 corresponded to Lichen Planus cases and 418 to Leukoplakia cases. Of the 476 Lichen Planus cases, 330 came from UBA and 146 from UNC, whereas of the 418 cases of Leukoplakia, 284 came from UNC and 134 from UBA. These differences were statistically significant (p < 0.02). Distribution according to sex and age was similar for Lichen Planus and Leukoplakia patients from both Oral Pathology Departments. The association between diabetes and Lichen Planus was similar for both centers, 11.5% for UNC and 14% for UBA. Similarly, no differences were found in terms of the association with tobacco consumption and dental microtrauma. Twenty-two percent of UNC patients were smokers whereas only 11% of UBA patients were smokers. This finding could explain the larger amount of Leukoplakia in UNC. The differences in the incidence of Lichen Planus could be attributed to the fact that the Buenos Aires population is under greater stress and the higher incidence of Leukoplakia in UNC could be related to the smoking habits of this population.

  12. Long-term Outcome of Lupus Nephritis Class II in Argentine Patients

    PubMed Central

    Collado, Maria Victoria; Dorado, Enrique; Rausch, Silvia; Gomez, Graciela; Khoury, Marina; Zazzetti, Federico; Gargiulo, María; Suarez, Lorena; Chaparro, Rafael; Paira, Sergio; Galvan, Laura; Juarez, Vicente; Pisoni, Cecilia; Garcia, Mercedes; Martinez, Liliana; Alvarez, Analia; Alvarez, Clarisa; Barreira, Juan; Sarano, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Background There is controversy in medical literature over the outcome of patients with lupus nephritis (LN) class II. The aim of this study was to explore the risk of histological transformation (HT) and possible factors related to negative response to treatment in patients with mesangial LN class II. Methods A retrospective and multicenter study was carried out that includes patients who had received a diagnosis of LN class II on their first renal biopsy. Creatinine, urine sediment, and proteinuria were recorded at the time of the first biopsy, 6 months, and 1, 2, and 5 years after the first biopsy. Response to treatment, HT, and long-term outcome were evaluated. Results Forty-one patients were included. The manifestation at first biopsy was proteinuria greater than 0.5 g/d in 28 patients (68.29%; 8 [28.57%] of 28 patients had nephrotic syndrome), hematuria in 18 patients (43.90%), and deterioration of renal function in 3 patients (7.31%). During the follow-up (median, 8 years; range, 1–35 years), a new biopsy was performed in 18 patients (43.90%), and in 17 patients (17/18 [94.44%]), there was HT. Median time at rebiopsy was 32 months (range, 11–305 months). Of the 18 patients who had a second biopsy, 10 (55.55%) were on hydroxychloroquine versus 100% (19/19) of patients who did not undergo the procedure (P = 0.001). A year after the first renal biopsy, there are data available from 34 patients; of them, 24 patients (70.58%) had achieved response, and 10 patients (29.41%) had no response (NR) (missing data in 7). A higher 24-hour urinary protein at 6 months was predictor of worse outcome at 1 year, with statistical significance difference for the nonresponder group (median proteinuria, 2.3 g/d [range, 0–4.7 g/d]) compared with responders (median proteinuria, 0.28 g/d [range, 0–1.7 g/d]) (P = 0.0133). In the long-term follow-up (5 years), HT was the main cause of unfavorable outcome and was measured in 78.57% of patients (11/14 patients). Conclusions This series shows a high rate of HT in long-term follow-up. Proteinuria at 6 months made it possible to set aside patients who will have an unfavorable outcome in the long term and who will thus benefit from a more aggressive treatment. The results suggest that hydroxychloroquine had a nephroprotective effect. PMID:27152693

  13. Cytotoxic effect of Argentine medicinal plant extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Ruffa, M J; Ferraro, G; Wagner, M L; Calcagno, M L; Campos, R H; Cavallaro, L

    2002-03-01

    Methanolic extracts from Achyrocline satureioides (Dc.) Lam, Aristolochia macroura Gomez, Lithraea molleoides (Vell.) Engl., Schinus molle L., unlike those from Celtis spinosa Spreng, Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Petiveria alliacea L., and Plantago major L. showed cytotoxic activity against a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, Hep G2. Schinus molle L. was the most active (IC50=50+/-7 microg/ml). These results call for further studies of these extracts.

  14. The Falklands War: Understanding the Power of Context in Shaping Argentine Strategic Decisions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Provinces of Rio de la Plata, later to become Argentina, declared their independence from Spain and claimed all the territorial rights of Spain. A...international scale in 1964 when the United Nations Committee on Decolonization added the islands to its list of “ territories that ought to be...Freedman and Gamba-Stonehouse, 147. 79 Arquilla and Rasmussen, 764. 80 Zellem, 30. 81 Selected Extracts from Conflicto Malvinas: Official

  15. Risky Invasions: Decisions Made by the Argentine Junta Regarding Disputed Islands, 1978-1982

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    both sides, Argentina’s ruling military junta pulled back just short of attacking the territory occupied by Chile, and eventually both sides reached...Chile, Territorial Disputes, Beagle Channel, Falkland Islands, Malvinas, Junta, Governmental Decision Making, Prospect Theory 15. NUMBER OF PAGES...junta pulled back just short of attacking the territory occupied by Chile, and eventually both sides reached a peaceful settlement. Only four years

  16. The key role of cultural preservation in maize diversity conservation in the argentine yungas.

    PubMed

    Hilgert, Norma I; Zamudio, Fernando; Furlan, Violeta; Cariola, Lucía

    2013-01-01

    Farmers' decisions on what to grow and why can contribute in understanding the conservation of agrobiodiversity. Culture and ethnicity are indicated as first-class factors leading preservation of heirloom cultivars but this has been little considered in studies examining factors that influence the loss or preservation of agrobiodiversity. We propose that corn's ethnotaxa of less diverse uses, which are also key partners in local cultural reproduction, are usually cultivated by a few households. We analyse if there is a relationship between uses and richness of cultivated ethnotaxa at household level and describe corn's medicinal and ritual uses. We found 25 cultivated ethnotaxa, heterogeneously distributed in the region, and we also found that ethnotaxa with less diverse uses are cultivated in fewer households. We identified that, at regional scale, richness is related with food use diversity. The most frequently cited medicinal uses were urinary and tract infections, diarrhoea, and liver disorders. Medicinal recipes involve combinations with other elements. Maize is an indispensable resource in the rituals that propitiate productive activity, to augur prosperity or misfortune according to signals. We have identified the vulnerability in preserving the richness of corn in the region and the factors that shape its cultivation at different scales.

  17. [Severe spotted fever by Rickettsia rickettsii, in tourist in the Argentine Northwest].

    PubMed

    Seijo, Alfredo; Giamperetti, Sergio; Ortiz Mayor, Sonia M; González, María B; Ortega, Eugenia S; González, Rossana C

    2016-01-01

    On the fifth day after leaving the Parque Nacional El Rey, province of Salta, Argentina, where she made rural tourism, a woman of Italian origin, aged 47, developed an acute fever followed by a petechial and purpuric rash that progressed rapidly to multiorgan failure. She died on the sixth day after hospitalization. There were references to tick bites and a skin lesion similar to tache noire was found. The autopsy showed generalized vasculitis, ascites, pulmonary edema, acute tubular necrosis and portal centrilobular necrosis. Spleen and liver tissue were processed for PCR Rickettsia spp, based on the detection of the gltA gene. The result was positive. The amplicons obtained were sequenced and the results were compared with the preset sequences on the BLAST program, 99% coinciding with R. rickettsii. The low sensitivity of the health system to recognize this disease and the insufficient information generated from tourism-related media are factors that affect the delay to implement effective treatment and appropriate prevention standards.

  18. The Natural Sciences in The Schools: Tension in the Modernization Process of Argentine Society (1870 1960)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvirtz, Silvina; Aisenstein, Angela; Cornejo, Jorge N.; Alaerani, Alejandra

    In this paper, we analyze one of the issues that has historically influenced the primary and secondary schools in Argentina: the politicization of the Natural Sciences curriculum. Here we present research findings for two particularly important cases: (a) the evolutionist theories, and (b) the teaching of Astronomy and Cosmography. These findings make it possible to reconsider the complex relationship which exists between the Natural Sciences, the scholastic institution, and politics. We conclude that the ways in which contents are selected and arranged into disciplines arise as a solution to ideological conflicts. The role of the school in these conflicts was not that of a passive spectator but that of an active participant in the construction of knowledge.

  19. State Terror, Economic Policy, and Social Rupture during the Argentine ’Proceso,’ 1976-1981

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    enacted. This included the works of Althusser , Freud, Marx, Lacan , Foucault, Neruda, Cortazar, Garcia Marquez, and Upton Sinclair, vmong others. The...apparatuses" (or what Gramsci called hegemonic apparatuses) in the achievement of hegemony see Louis Althusser , Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays

  20. Lead gunshot pellet ingestion and tissue lead levels in wild ducks from Argentine hunting hotspots.

    PubMed

    Ferreyra, Hebe; Romano, Marcelo; Beldomenico, Pablo; Caselli, Andrea; Correa, Ana; Uhart, Marcela

    2014-05-01

    Lead poisoning in waterfowl due to ingestion of lead pellets is a long recognized worldwide problem but poorly studied in South America, particularly in Argentinean wetlands where duck hunting with lead gunshot is extensive. In 2008, we found high pellet ingestion rates in a small sample of hunted ducks. To expand our knowledge on the extent of lead exposure and to assess health risks from spent shot intake, during 2011 and 2012 we sampled 415 hunter-killed ducks and 96 live-trapped ducks. We determined the incidence of lead shot ingestion and lead concentrations in bone, liver and blood in five duck species: whistling duck (Dendrocygna bicolor), white-faced tree duck (D. viduata), black-bellied whistling-duck (D. autumnalis), rosy-billed pochard (Netta peposaca) and Brazilian duck (Amazonetta brasiliensis). The ingestion of lead shot was confirmed in 10.4% of the ducks examined (43/415), with a prevalence that varied by site and year, from 7.6% to 50%. All bone samples (n=382) and over 60% of liver samples (249/412) contained lead concentrations above the detection limit. The geometric mean lead concentration in tissues (mg/kg dry weight) was 0.31 (GSD=3.93) and 3.61 (GSD=4.02) for liver and bone, respectively, and 0.20 (GSD=2.55) in blood (mg/kg wet weight). Lead levels surpassed toxicity thresholds at which clinical poisoning is expected in 3.15% of liver samples, 23.8% of bones and 28% of blood samples. Ducks with ingested lead pellets were much more likely to have high levels of lead in their liver. Rosy-billed pochards were consistently more prone to ingesting lead shot than other duck species sampled. However, whistling ducks showed higher levels of lead in liver and bone. Our results suggest that lead from ammunition could become a substantial threat for the conservation of wild duck populations in Argentina. The replacement of lead by non-toxic shot would be a reasonable and effective solution to this problem.

  1. Selective Attention: A Comparative Study on Argentine Students from Different Socioeconomic Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ison, Mirta S.; Greco, Carolina; Korzeniowski, Celina; Morelato, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Attentional Efficiency (AE) is defined as the accuracy with which a child discriminates, from a group of similar stimuli, those which are identical to a model, within a certain time period. Various factors may be associated with a higher or lower AE, among which is socioeconomic context. The goals of this study were: 1) To describe…

  2. Nutritive and xenobiotic compounds in the alien algae Undaria pinnatifida from Argentine Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Gil, M N; Torres, A I; Commendatore, M G; Marinho, C; Arias, A; Giarratano, E; Casas, G N

    2015-04-01

    Seaweeds have been used as food since ancient times. The edible brown algae Undaria pinnatifida is native to northeast Asia; however, in 1992, the first specimens in Patagonian environments were found and, since then, have rapidly expanded. The main object of this study was to determine, for the first time in Argentina, the nutritive composition and concentrations of trace elements and hydrocarbons in these alien algae and evaluate their usefulness as food. Sexually mature U. pinnatifida samples were collected at 10-m depth in the Nuevo and San José gulfs. The first site is influenced by activities from Puerto Madryn city, and the latter place was considered as the control. Protein, dietary fiber, and mineral concentrations were similar in both gulfs and in the same order as in eastern countries. Crude protein, indigestible fiber, and calcium and magnesium concentrations were greatest in blade; lipid concentration was greatest in sporophyll; and sodium and potassium concentrations were greatest in midrib. Amino acids showed the greatest concentrations in blades, and these were greater than those reported in kelp from Japan. Cadmium (Cd), arsenic, mercury, and hydrocarbons were detected, but only Cd showed concentrations that could be a risk for consumption. In Argentina, maximum acceptable levels of these contaminants in seaweeds are not established.

  3. Joint German-Argentine project: Comparative testing of solar flat plate collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiner, W.

    1986-01-01

    Six different water or air collectors were tested using ASHRAE Standards and BSE Guidelines. Results vary, owing to differences in wind speed and global radiation, especially for single-glazed collectors. In heating collectors, leakages between ambient air and heat-transferring air occur. The resulting errors of calculated efficiency may be greater than the relative change of mass flow from collector inlet to outlet by the leak. Modifications of standardized test procedures are suggested.

  4. Azadinium poporum from the Argentine Continental Shelf, Southwestern Atlantic, produces azaspiracid-2 and azaspiracid-2 phosphate.

    PubMed

    Tillmann, Urban; Borel, C Marcela; Barrera, Facundo; Lara, Rubén; Krock, Bernd; Almandoz, Gastón O; Witt, Matthias; Trefault, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The marine dinophycean genus Azadinium has been identified as the primary source of azaspiracids (AZA), a group of lipophilic phycotoxins known to accumulate in shellfish. Blooms of Azadinium in the southern Atlantic off Argentina have been described from the 1990s, but due to a lack of cultures, the diversity of South-Atlantic Azadinium has not yet been fully explored and their toxin production potential is completely unknown. During a spring 2010 research cruise covering the El Rincón (ER) estuarine system (North Patagonian coast, Argentina, Southwestern Atlantic) a search was conducted for the presence of Azadinium. Although neither Azadinium cells nor AZA in field plankton samples were detected, 10 clonal strains of Azadinium poporum were successfuly established by incubation of sediment samples. Argentinean A. poporum were more variable in size and shape than the type description but conformed to it by the presence of multiple pyrenoids with starch sheath, in plate pattern and arrangement, and in the position of the ventral pore located on the left side of the pore plate. In contrast to all previous description of A. poporum, isolates of the Argentinean A. poporum possessed a distinct field of pores on the second antapical plate. Conspecificity of the Argentinean isolates with A. poporum was confirmed by molecular phylogeny of concatenated ITS and LSU rDNA sequences, where all Argentinean isolates together with some Chinese A. poporum strains formed a well-supported ribotype clade within A. poporum. All isolates produced AZA with the same profile, consisting of AZA-2 as the major compound and, to a lesser extent, its phosphated form. This is the first report of a phosphated marine algal toxin. This first confirmation of the presence of AZA producing Azadinium in the Argentinean coastal area underlines the risk of AZA shellfish contamination episodes in the Southwestern Atlantic region.

  5. Anthobothrium galeorhini n. sp. (Eucestoda: Tetraphyllidea) a parasite of Galeorhinus galeus (Triakidae) from the Argentine coast.

    PubMed

    Suriano, D M

    2002-06-01

    Anthobothrium galeorhini n. sp. (Eucestoda: Phyllobothriidae) collected from the spiral intestine of Galeorhinus galeus (Linnaeus, 1758) at the Puerto Madryn (Atlantic coastal region) is described. The new species differs from A. cornucopia as described by Euzet (1959) by the size of body, bothridia, gravid proglottids and eggs; by the neck length and by the different number of testes and proglottids. The size of bothridia and the gravid proglottids, the cirrus length and the number of testes allow differentiating the species here proposed from A. laciniatum Linton, 1890 as described by Euzel (1959). The body and cirrus sac size, the bothridia shape and the number of testes separate the species here described from A. parvum Stossich, 1895 as described by Yamaguti (1952). The anatomic differences between the cestode described by Arandas Rego (1977) and located laxonomycally under the name Anthobothrium laciniatum are listed and the systematic position of the cestode is discussed. Species parasitic of skates listed in scientific literature must be taxonomically reaccommodated, since their characteristics are not consistent with the diagnosis of Anthobothrium.

  6. Safety and Immunogenicity of a Live-Attenuated Junin (Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever) Vaccine in Rhesus Macaques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    virus from animals in every dose group. vetted 1-2.5 weeks after initial virus recovery. That the viruses recovered were Junin virus is certain: all...wild-type strains (LI 1.25). When vivo neutralization and virus clearance are com- we used this system to examine viruses recovered plex and multi...Fredertcktfarniand Abstract. The safety and immunogenicity of Candid #1. a live-attenuated Junin- virus vaccine, were evaluated in rhesus macaques. Candid #1 was

  7. Expert opinions of demographic rates of Argentine black and white tegus in South Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.

    2017-01-01

    We illustrate the utility of expert elicitation, explicit recognition of uncertainty, and the value of information for directing management and research efforts for invasive species, using tegu lizards (Salvator merianae) in southern Florida as a case study.  We posited a post-birth pulse, matrix model, which was parameterized using a 3-point process to elicit estimates of tegu demographic rates from herpetology experts.  We fit statistical distributions for each parameter and for each expert, then drew and pooled a large number of replicate samples from these to form a distribution for each demographic parameter.  Using these distributions, we generated a large sample of matrix models to infer how the tegu population might respond to control efforts.  We used the concepts of Pareto efficiency and stochastic dominance to conclude that targeting older age classes at relatively high rates appears to have the best chance of minimizing tegu abundance and control costs.  Expert opinion combined with an explicit consideration of uncertainty can be valuable for conducting an initial assessment of the effort needed to control the invader.  The value of information can be used to focus research in a way that not only helps increases the efficacy of control, but minimizes costs as well.

  8. Saprolegnia oliviae sp. nov. isolated from an Argentine river (Tierra del Fuego Province, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Steciow, Mónica Mirta

    2003-02-28

    Saprolegnia oliviae sp. nov. is described from litter (floating dead twigs, leaves and roots) in the Olivia River, Ushuaia Department, Tierra del Fuego Province (Argentina). The new species is illustrated and compared with other species of the genus. Distinguishing characteristics of S. oliviae are the production of smooth oogonia (with some lateral or terminal projections) and the absence of antheridial branches on the majority of the oogonia, but when present, they are mostly diclinous, at times oogonia are supplied with androgynous and monoclinous antheridial branches. The oogonial stalks are predominantly short and straight or long and bent, curved or many times coiled; oospores are distinctive subcentric, (1-) 15-50 (-70) per oogonium. Morphological details of the new species and its comparison with other described species are discussed here.

  9. A first shallow firn-core record from Glaciar La Ollada, Cerro Mercedario, central Argentine Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolius, David; Schwikowski, Margit; Jenk, Theo; Gäggeler, Heinz W.; Casassa, Gino; Rivera, Andrés

    In January 2003, shallow firn cores were recovered from Glaciar Esmeralda on Cerro del Plomo (33°14‧ S, 70°13‧ W; 5300 ma.s.l.), central Chile, and from Glaciar La Ollada on Cerro Mercedario (31°58‧ S, 70°07‧ W; 6070 ma.s.l.), Argentina, in order to find a suitable archive for paleoclimate reconstruction in a region strongly influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. In the area between 28° S and 35° S, the amount of winter precipitation is significantly correlated to the Southern Oscillation Index, with higher values during El Niño years. Glaciochemical analysis indicates that the paleo-record at Glaciar La Ollada is well preserved, whereas at Glaciar Esmeralda the record is strongly influenced by meltwater formation and percolation. A preliminary dating of the Mercedario core by annual-layer counting results in a time-span of 17 years (1986-2002), yielding an average annual net accumulation of 0.45 m w.e.

  10. Generational Change in the Argentine Academic Profession through the Analysis of "Life Courses"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquina, Monica; Yuni, Jose; Ferreiro, Mariela

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze the effects of the socio-political processes on the academic profession in Argentina from the life course perspective. The analysis of differences in the individuals' life course was made by dividing them into three groups, representing different generations of academics: the novel, the intermediate, and the…

  11. Socio-economic Segregation in the Argentine Education System: School Choice without Vouchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narodowski, Mariano

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the case of school choice in Argentina, in view of recent research on socioeconomic segregation in the educational system. Reveals that Argentina has neither demand subsidy programs or voucher systems. Argues that Argentina's strong regulations encourage parents with greater economic or political capacity to choose how their children are…

  12. Images of Democracy: An Analysis of Photos Published during and after Argentine Military Rule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Jeffrey Alan

    Noting that efforts of governments to control newspapers are more problematic where news photographs are concerned, a study compared the news photos printed in an English-language Argentinian newspaper during and after a period of totalitarian rule. The study sample was a simulated "week" of issues, consisting of one day from each month…

  13. Essential Oils of Plants as Biocides against Microorganisms Isolated from Cuban and Argentine Documentary Heritage

    PubMed Central

    Borrego, Sofía; Valdés, Oderlaise; Vivar, Isbel; Lavin, Paola; Guiamet, Patricia; Battistoni, Patricia; Gómez de Saravia, Sandra; Borges, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Natural products obtained from plants with biocidal activity represent an alternative and useful source in the control of biodeterioration of documentary heritage, without negative environmental and human impacts. In this work, we studied the antimicrobial activity of seven essential oils against microorganisms associated with the biodeterioration of documentary heritage. The essential oils were obtained by steam distillation. The antimicrobial activity was analyzed using the agar diffusion method against 4 strains of fungi and 6 bacterial strains isolated from repositories air and documents of the National Archive of the Republic of Cuba and the Historical Archive of the Museum of La Plata, Argentina. Anise and garlic oils showed the best antifungal activity at all concentrations studied, while oregano oil not only was effective against fungi tested but also prevented sporulation of them all. Orange sweet and laurel oils were ineffective against fungi. Clove, garlic, and oregano oils showed the highest antibacterial activity at 25% against Enterobacter agglomerans and Streptomyces sp., while only clove and oregano oils were effective against Bacillus sp. at all concentrations studied. This study has an important implication for the possible use of the natural products from plants in the control of biodeterioration of documentary heritage. PMID:23762760

  14. [The case of Brazilian, Peruvian, Argentine, Bolivian, and Paraguayan labor migrants of Japanese origin in Japan].

    PubMed

    Tajima, H

    1995-08-01

    "Over 190,700 Latin American Dekasegi Nikkeis live currently in Japan. The flow of Dekasegi, or labor migrants, [began] in 1988 and increased dramatically as from 1990 in reaction to new immigration laws in Japan and worsening of economic conditions in Latin American countries. Cultural likeness contributed to attract Nikkeis and their descent to the land of their ancestors. These Dekasegi Nikkeis, especially those coming from Peru, and to a much lesser extent some Bolivians and Paraguayans, have started forming minority ethnic communities bound by cultural networks throughout the country." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  15. New Combined L-band Active/Passive Soil Moisture Retrieval Algorithm Optimized for Argentine Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruscantini, C. A.; Grings, F. M.; Salvia, M.; Ferrazzoli, P.; Karszenbaum, H.

    2015-12-01

    The ability of L-band passive microwave satellite observations to provide soil moisture (mv) measurements is well known. Despite its high sensitivity to near-surface mv, radiometric technology suffers from having a relatively low spatial resolution. Conversely active microwave observations, although their finer resolution, are difficult to be interpreted for mv content due to the confounding effects of vegetation and roughness. There have been and there are strong motivations for the realization of satellite missions that carry passive and active microwave instruments on board. This has also led to important contributions in algorithm development. In this line of work, NASA-CONAE SAC-D/Aquarius mission had on board an L band radiometer and scatterometer. This was followed by the launch of NASA SMAP mission (Soil Moisture Active Passive), as well as several airborne campaigns that provide active and passive measurements. Within this frame, a new combined active/passive mv retrieval algorithm is proposed by deriving an analytical expression of brightness temperature and radar backscattering relation using explicit semi-empirical models. Simple models (i.e. that can be easily inverted and have relatively low amount of ancillary parameters) were selected: ω-τ model (Jackson et al., 1982, Water Resources Research) and radar-only model (Narvekar et al., 2015, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing). A major challenge involves coupling the active and passive models to be consistent with observations. Coupling equations can be derived using theoretical active/passive high-order radiative transfer models, such as 3D Numerical Method of Maxwell equations (Zhou et al., 2004, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing) and Tor Vergata (Ferrazzoli et al., 1995,Remote Sensing of Environment) models. In this context, different coupling equations can be optimized for different land covers using theoretical forward models with specific parametrization for each land cover type. The quality of the coupling equations derived is discussed in relation with different land surface conditions using Aquarius/SAC-D observations. This is done in preparation for SMAP and future SAOCOM data.

  16. Origins of house reinfestation with Triatoma infestans after insecticide spraying in the Argentine Chaco using wing geometric morphometry.

    PubMed

    Gaspe, M Sol; Gurevitz, Juan M; Gürtler, Ricardo E; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre

    2013-07-01

    Identifying the origins of insect vectors collected after community-wide residual insecticide applications is a relevant challenge in the Gran Chaco region where the main vector of Chagas disease Triatoma infestans usually reinfests human dwellings. Wing geometric morphometry was used to compare the right wings of 63 males and 54 females collected at 4 months post-spraying (MPS) with those from 165 males and 111 females collected before full-coverage spraying with pyrethroids in a well-defined rural area in Northeastern Argentina. Male and female wing centroid size resulted significantly larger at 4MPS than before interventions, but no significant changes in shape were detected. Metric disparity (variance of shape) varied significantly in males but not in females. Using shape variables, a relatively large fraction of post-spraying males (70%) and females (54%) could not be differentiated from those collected at the same source house or at the nearest infested house before interventions. Bugs collected at 4 and 8MPS in a persistently infested house were mainly assigned to the source house. These results support the hypothesis of persistent bug populations that survived the insecticide application at local spatial scales, and are consistent with the occurrence of vector control failures most likely related to moderate pyrethroid resistance. Wing geometric morphometry is a useful tool for identifying sources of reinfestation, but it is limited by the spatial structure found in the reference populations. Combined with field and genetic data, this approach may contribute to the understanding of the reinfestation process and improvement of vector control strategies.

  17. Origins of house reinfestation with Triatoma infestans after insecticide spraying in the Argentine Chaco using wing geometric morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Gaspe, M. Sol; Gurevitz, Juan M.; Gürtler, Ricardo E.; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Identifying the origins of insect vectors collected after community-wide residual insecticide applications is a relevant challenge in the Gran Chaco region where the main vector of Chagas disease Triatoma infestans usually reinfests human dwellings. Wing geometric morphometry was used to compare the right wings of 63 males and 54 females collected at 4 months post-spraying (MPS) with those from 165 males and 111 females collected before full-coverage spraying with pyrethroids in a well-defined rural area in northeastern Argentina. Male and female wing centroid size resulted significantly larger at 4 MPS than before interventions, but no significant changes in shape were detected. Metric disparity (variance of shape) varied significantly in males but not in females. Using shape variables, a relatively large fraction of post-spraying males (70%) and females (54%) could not be differentiated from those collected at the same source house or at the nearest infested house before interventions. Bugs collected at 4 and 8 MPS in a persistently infested house were mainly assigned to the source house. These results support the hypothesis of persistent bug populations that survived the insecticide application at local spatial scales, and are consistent with the occurrence of vector control failures most likely related to moderate pyrethroid resistance. Wing geometric morphometry is a useful tool for identifying sources of reinfestation, but it is limited by the spatial structure found in the reference populations. Combined with field and genetic data, this approach may contribute to the understanding of the reinfestation process and improvement of vector control strategies. PMID:23557838

  18. Development of Low-Level Environmental Sampling Capabilities for Uranium at Brazilian and Argentine Laboratories by ABACC

    SciTech Connect

    Guidicini, Olga M.; Hembree, Doyle M.; Carter, Joel A.; Olsen, Khris B.; Hayes, Susan M.; Whitaker, Michael

    2003-07-01

    This paper discusses the results of the latest exercises to demonstrate that laboratories in both Argentina and Brazil have the capability to measure both the amount and isotopic composition of urnaium at the levels expected in typical environmental samples.

  19. Magnetostratigraphic constraints on the development of paired fold-thrust belts/foreland basins in the Argentine Andes

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.H. ); Damanti, J.F. ); Jordan, T.E. )

    1991-03-01

    Development of a paired fold thrust-thrust belt/foreland basin is correlated to the flattening of the subducting Nazca plate between 28-33{degree}S. Magnetostratigraphic studies in neogene basin-filling continental strata determine local basin subsidence rates and provide relatively precise chronostratigraphic correlation between different depositional environments. The data demonstrate that most existing lithostratigraphic units are diachronous and require new tectonic interpretations. Increases in sediment accumulation rates closely correspond to changes in provenance and indicate that the Frontal Cordillera, on the Chile-Argentina border was a positive topographic province by 18 Ma. The Precordillera evolved from {approx}16 Ma to the present as thrusting migrated from west to east. Published ages from intercalated airfall tuffs constrain some sedimentary sections in the eastern Sierras Pampeanas where the earliest uplift occurred since 10 Ma. The youngest uplifts are on the west side close to continuing thrusting in the Precordillera. Not all fold-thrust belt/foreland basin pairs are associated with flat subduction, suggesting that tectonic controls exceeding the scale of individual plate segments may be important. The hydrocarbon-producing Subandean fold-thrust belt/foreland basin, located in the area of 'steep' subduction that underlies northern Argentina and Bolivia (18-24{degree}S), is also believed to have evolved since middle Miocene time. Recently initiated magnetostratigraphic studies in the Subandean foreland basin will attempt to temporally constrain the Neogene tectonic evolution for comparison with the southern region.

  20. Treatment of Spent Argentine Ion Exchange Resin Using Vitrification - Results of FY01 Testing at the Savannah River Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.L.

    2002-08-14

    Under the Science and Technology Implementing Arrangement for Cooperation on Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management (JCCRM), the Department of Energy (DOE) is helping to transfer waste treatment technology to international atomic energy commissions. In 1996, as part of the JCCRM, DOE established a collaborative research agreement with Argentina's Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA). A primary mission of the CNEA is to direct waste management activities for Argentina's nuclear industry.

  1. Argentine experience on immobilization of simulated high-level liquid wastes in sintered borosilicate and aluminoborosilicate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Bevilacqua, A.M.; Bernasaconi, N.B.M. de; Russo, D.O.; Audero, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    A research and development program on sintering for the immobilization of high-level liquid wastes (HLLW) is carried out since 1984 at the Division Materiales Nucleares of the Centro Atomico Bariloche. Sintered samples were produced with glasses from diverse sources and with different compositions: a German borosilicate glass (VG98/12), its local counterpart (Simil VG) and a German aluminoborosilicate glass (SG7). Simulated HLLW, light water reactor (LWR) and heavy water reactor (PHWR) types, were immobilized in these glasses with a waste loading of 10 wt.%. The behavior, including thermal stability and chemical corrosion, was studied for the sintered glasses with and without simulated HLLW. Borosilicate and aluminoborosilicate glass samples were obtained by cold pressing and sintering (CP+S), also known as pressureless sintering. Borosilicate glass samples were also produced by uniaxial hot pressing (UBP), also known as pressure sintering, in graphite dies or in the final metal container (in-can). Devitrification studies were carried out on SG7 and VG98/12 with and without simulated PHWR wastes. The microstructure of both cold pressed and sintered VG98/12-10LWR and Simil VG-IOLWR, in which calcined waste particles were immobilized, shows that the particles did not dissolve in the glass, but were homogeneously dispersed. Leaching tests (MCC-IP) were carried out at temperatures lower than 373 K. The gamma radiation damage was produced by a {sup 60}Co gamma field (Division Fuentes Intensas, Centro Atomico Ezeiza, C.N.E.A.). The dose rate was 4.34x 10{sup 4} Gy/h and the total doses ranging from 1.4 x 10{sup 6} GY to 2.0 x 10{sup 8} Gy. The density, the degree of devitrification, the microstructure and the leaching rate in ADI remained unaffected by the gamma irradiation. After leaching tests, the waste zones were more affected than the glass matrix and there was no global difference with the irradiation dose.

  2. An Investigation of Commercial Off-the-Shelf Wireless in Support of Complex Humanitarian Disaster Operations in the Argentine Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Global Access Network ( BGAN ) ..................................36  2.  InmarSat BGAN HUGHES 9201 and 9202 Terminals ..................37  3.   InmarSat... BGAN HUGHES 9450 On-the-Move..............................38  4.   InmarSat BGAN Thrane & Thrane Explorer 700..........................39  D...48  a.  BGAN ......................................................................................48  b.  WiMAX

  3. Faculty and Student Engagement in the Argentine Grassroots Rebellion: Toward a Democratic and Emancipatory Vision of the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slocum, Jenee; Rhoads, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Following Argentina's economic collapse of December 2001, the authors examine the engagement of university faculty and students in various grassroots movements. Based on a qualitative study involving 24 formal structured interviews, 18 informal interviews, observation-based field work, and document analysis, the authors identify key forms of…

  4. Modeling excitation-emission fluorescence matrices with pattern recognition algorithms for classification of Argentine white wines according grape variety.

    PubMed

    Azcarate, Silvana M; de Araújo Gomes, Adriano; Alcaraz, Mirta R; Ugulino de Araújo, Mário C; Camiña, José M; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the modeling of excitation-emission matrices for classification of Argentinean white wines according to the grape variety employing chemometric tools for pattern recognition. The discriminative power of the data was first investigated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC). The score plots showed strong overlapping between classes. A forty-one samples set was partitioned into training and test sets by the Kennard-Stone algorithm. The algorithms evaluated were SIMCA, N- and U-PLS-DA and SPA-LDA. The fit of the implemented models was assessed by mean of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. These models were then used to assign the type of grape of the wines corresponding to the twenty samples test set. The best results were obtained for U-PLS-DA and SPA-LDA with 76% and 80% accuracy.

  5. Glycoprotein-Specific Antibodies Produced by DNA Vaccination Protect Guinea Pigs from Lethal Argentine and Venezuelan Hemorrhagic Fever

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Joseph W.; Maes, Piet; Kwilas, Steven A.; Ballantyne, John

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several members of the Arenaviridae can cause acute febrile diseases in humans, often resulting in lethality. The use of convalescent-phase human plasma is an effective treatment in humans infected with arenaviruses, particularly species found in South America. Despite this, little work has focused on developing potent and defined immunotherapeutics against arenaviruses. In the present study, we produced arenavirus neutralizing antibodies by DNA vaccination of rabbits with plasmids encoding the full-length glycoprotein precursors of Junín virus (JUNV), Machupo virus (MACV), and Guanarito virus (GTOV). Geometric mean neutralizing antibody titers, as measured by the 50% plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT50), exceeded 5,000 against homologous viruses. Antisera against each targeted virus exhibited limited cross-species binding and, to a lesser extent, cross-neutralization. Anti-JUNV glycoprotein rabbit antiserum protected Hartley guinea pigs from lethal intraperitoneal infection with JUNV strain Romero when the antiserum was administered 2 days after challenge and provided some protection (∼30%) when administered 4 days after challenge. Treatment starting on day 6 did not protect animals. We further formulated an IgG antibody cocktail by combining anti-JUNV, -MACV, and -GTOV antibodies produced in DNA-vaccinated rabbits. This cocktail protected 100% of guinea pigs against JUNV and GTOV lethal disease. We then expanded on this cocktail approach by simultaneously vaccinating rabbits with a combination of plasmids encoding glycoproteins from JUNV, MACV, GTOV, and Sabia virus (SABV). Sera collected from rabbits vaccinated with the combination vaccine neutralized all four targets. These findings support the concept of using a DNA vaccine approach to generate a potent pan-arenavirus immunotherapeutic. IMPORTANCE Arenaviruses are an important family of emerging viruses. In infected humans, convalescent-phase plasma containing neutralizing antibodies can mitigate the severity of disease caused by arenaviruses, particularly species found in South America. Because of variations in potency of the human-derived product, limited availability, and safety concerns, this treatment option has essentially been abandoned. Accordingly, despite this approach being an effective postinfection treatment option, research on novel approaches to produce potent polyclonal antibody-based therapies have been deficient. Here we show that DNA-based vaccine technology can be used to make potently neutralizing antibodies in rabbits that exclusively target the glycoproteins of several human-pathogenic arenaviruses found in South America, including JUNV, MACV, GTOV, and SABV. These antibodies protected guinea pigs from lethal disease when given post-virus challenge. We also generated a purified antibody cocktail with antibodies targeting three arenaviruses and demonstrated protective efficacy against all three targets. Our findings demonstrate that use of the DNA vaccine technology could be used to produce candidate antiarenavirus neutralizing antibody-based products. PMID:26792737

  6. Hereditary angioedema. Long-term follow-up of 88 patients. Experience of the Argentine Allergy and Immunology Institute.

    PubMed

    Fabiani, J E; Avigliano, A; Dupont, J C; Fabiana, J E

    2000-01-01

    Since the detection of the first patient with hereditary angioedema (HA) in 1978, 88 new patients belonging to 16 families have been referred to our clinic. Eighty patients had Type I disease, 5 Type II, and 3 Type III (secondary). We describe the clinical onset, frequent complications, diagnostic tests of the complement system, and abnormalities of the coagulation pathway linked to complement activation. Particular attention was paid to family members who could present succedaneum symptoms. The results of danazole and other therapies and protective and preventive treatment for surgery also are discussed.

  7. Association between weather conditions and the number of patients at the emergency room in an Argentine hospital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusticucci, Matilde; Bettolli, Laura M.; de los Angeles Harris, M.

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the relationships between hospital emergencies and weather conditions by analysing summer and winter cases of patients requiring attention at the emergency room of a hospital in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Hospital data have been sorted into seven different diagnostic groups as follows: (1) respiratory, cardiovascular and chest-pain complaints; (2) digestive, genitourinary and abdominal complaints; (3) neurological and psychopathological disorders; (4) infections; (5) contusion and crushing, bone and muscle complaints; (6) skin and allergies and (7) miscellaneous complaints. In general, there is an increase of 16.7% in winter while, for group 2 and group 6, there are more patients in summer, 54% and 75% respectively. In summer, the total number of patients for group 6 shows a significant positive correlation with temperature and dew-point temperature, and a negative correlation with the sea-level pressure for the same day. In winter, the same relationship exists, however its correlation is not as strong. The lags observed between these three variables: maximum dew-point temperature, maximum temperature, minimum air pressure and the peaks in admissions are 1, 2 and 4 days respectively. In winter, increases in temperature and dew point and decreases in pressure are followed by a peak in admissions for group 2. In winter, there are significantly more cases in group 5 on warm, dry days and on warm, wet days in the summer.

  8. Effect of a community-based Argentine tango dance program on functional balance and confidence in older adults.

    PubMed

    McKinley, Patricia; Jacobson, Allison; Leroux, Alain; Bednarczyk, Victoria; Rossignol, Michel; Fung, Joyce

    2008-10-01

    Tango-dancing and walking programs are compared in nondemented seniors at risk for falls. Fallers (N = 30) age 62-91 were randomly assigned to a 10-wk (40 hr, 2 hr 2x/wk) tango class or walk group. The Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale, sit-to-stand scores, and normal and fast walk were measured pre-, post-, and 1 month postintervention. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVAs indicated a significant main effect (p < .01) for time on all measures. Group and interaction effects for ABC led to improvement only in tango because of high baseline mean for the walk group. Clinical improvements measured using Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly scoring were greater for the tango group. From these preliminary results it is suggested that although both interventions are effective activities for increasing strength and walk speed, tango might result in greater improvements than walking in balance skills and in walking speed in the 10-wk intervention. The study needs to be repeated with a greater sample size to determine the effectiveness of walking on fear of falling.

  9. Distribution of CCR5-Delta 32 and CCR2-64I alleles in an Argentine Amerindian population.

    PubMed

    Mangano, A; Theiler, G; Sala, L; Capucchio, M; Fainboim, L; Sen, L

    2001-08-01

    In order to evaluate the frequency distributions of CCR5-Delta 32 and CCR2-64I polymorphisms in an Amerindian population, we tested a total of 42 Chiriguanos individuals that are aboriginal inhabitants of the north west of Argentina. Only one carried the CCR5-Delta 32 allele (0.0238), while 17 out of 35 carried the CCR2-64I mutation, including one homozygous for the mutated allele (0.2571). Although the cohort studied is considered highly endogamic, the HLA genotyping revealed that 8 out of 42 subjects had a gene flow from Caucasian populations. The only heterozygous CCR5+/Delta 32 found and three heterozygous CCR2+/64I belonged to the admix group. In conclusion, the protective deletion CCR5-Delta 32 is practically absent in Chiriguanos whereas the CCR2-64I allele is highly frequent.

  10. Benchmarking Prehospital and Emergency Department Care for Argentine Children with Traumatic Brain Injury: For the South American Guideline Adherence Group

    PubMed Central

    Vavilala, Monica S.; Lujan, Silvia B.; Qiu, Qian; Petroni, Gustavo J.; Ballarini, Nicolás M.; Guadagnoli, Nahuel; Depetris, María Alejandra; Faguaga, Gabriela A.; Baggio, Gloria M.; Busso, Leonardo O.; García, Mirta E.; González Carrillo, Osvaldo R.; Medici, Paula L.; Sáenz, Silvia S.; Vanella, Elida E.; Fabio, Anthony; Bell, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is little information on the type of early care provided to children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in low middle income countries. We benchmarked early prehospital [PH] and emergency department [ED] pediatric TBI care in Argentina. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of data from patients previously enrolled in a prospective seven center study of children with TBI. Eligible participants were patients 0–18 years, and had diagnosis of TBI (admission Glasgow Coma scale score [GCS] < 13 or with GCS 14–15 and abnormal head CT scan within 48 hours of admission, and head AIS > 0). Outcomes were transport type, transport time, PH and ED adherence to best practice, and discharge Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category Scale (PCPC) and Pediatric Overall Performance category Scale (POPC). Results Of the 366 children, mean age was 8.7 (5.0) years, 58% were male, 90% had isolated TBI and 45.4% were transported by private vehicle. 50 (34.7%) of the 144 children with severe TBI (39.3% of all TBI patients) were transported by private vehicle. Most (267; 73%) patients received initial TBI care at an index hospital prior to study center admission, including children with severe (81.9%) TBI. Transport times were shorter for those patients who were directly transported by ambulance to study center than for the whole cohort (1.4 vs.5.5 hours). Ambulance blood pressure data were recorded in 30.9%. ED guideline adherence rate was higher than PH guideline adherence rate (84.8% vs. 26.4%). For patients directly transferred from scene to study trauma centers, longer transport time was associated with worse discharge outcome (PCPC aOR 1.10 [1.04, 1.18] and (POPC aOR 1.10 [1.04, 1.18]). There was no relationship between PH or ED TBI guideline adherence rate and discharge POPC and PCPC. Conclusion This study benchmarks early pediatric TBI care in Argentina and shows that many critically injured children with TBI do not receive timely or best practice PH care, that PH guideline adherence rate is low and that longer transport time was associated with poor discharge outcomes for patients with direct transfer status. There is an urgent need to improve the early care of children with TBI in Argentina, especially timely transportation to a hospital. PMID:28005912

  11. Screening of Argentine plant extracts: impact on growth parameters and aflatoxin B1 accumulation by Aspergillus section Flavi.

    PubMed

    Bluma, R; Amaiden, M R; Etcheverry, M

    2008-02-29

    The effect of essential oils, ethanolic and aqueous extract of 41 vegetable species on Aspergillus section Flavi growth was evaluated. The in vitro screen was a two-stage process. A wide-spectrum initial screen which identified promising antifungal plant extracts was carried out first. After that, identified extracts were studied in more detail by in vitro assays. A total of 96 plant extracts were screened. Essential oils were found to be the most effective extract controlling aflatoxigenic strains. Clove, mountain thyme, poleo and eucalyptus essential oils were selected to study their antifungal effect. Studies on percentage of germination, germ-tube elongation rate, growth rate, and aflatoxin B1 accumulation were carried out. Clove, mountain thyme and poleo essential oils showed the most antifungal effect under all growth parameters analyzed as well as aflatoxin B1 accumulation. Our results suggest that mountain thyme and poleo, which are native vegetal species of Argentina, and clove essential oils could be used alone or in conjunction with other substances to control the presence of aflatoxigenic fungi in stored maize.

  12. Pollen:ovule ratio and its relationship with other floral traits in Papilionoideae (Leguminosae): an evaluation with Argentine species.

    PubMed

    Etcheverry, A V; Alemán, M M; Figueroa-Fleming, T; López-Spahr, D; Gómez, C A; Yáñez, C; Figueroa-Castro, D M; Ortega-Baes, P

    2012-01-01

    The pollen:ovule ratio (P/O) has traditionally been used as a rough estimator of plant breeding systems. It has been shown that plant breeding systems are associated with particular floral traits. In this study, we determined the P/O in 21 Leguminosae species from Argentina and explored relationships between P/O and taxonomic position, flower size, floral rewards, pollen presentation and pollination mechanisms. According to the results, 15 out of the 21 species classified were obligate xenogamous, although some of them have been recorded as facultative xenogamous in previous studies. There was a significant effect of taxonomic position (genus), reward type and pollination mechanism on P/O. Species offering only nectar as a floral reward (which were species with a brush mechanism) had a significantly lower P/O than species offering pollen or pollen and nectar. Species with the brush pollination mechanism had the lowest P/O, while species with valvular and pump mechanism had the highest P/O. However, pollen presentation (primary and secondary) and flower size did not have a significant effect on P/O. Our results demonstrate that P/O variability is determined by taxonomic position and pollination mechanism in this plant group.

  13. Ecological and Sociodemographic Determinants of House Infestation by Triatoma infestans in Indigenous Communities of the Argentine Chaco

    PubMed Central

    Gaspe, M. Sol; Provecho, Yael M.; Cardinal, M. Victoria; del Pilar Fernández, M.; Gürtler, Ricardo E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Gran Chaco ecoregion, a hotspot for Chagas and other neglected tropical diseases, is home to >20 indigenous peoples. Our objective was to identify the main ecological and sociodemographic determinants of house infestation and abundance of Triatoma infestans in traditional Qom populations including a Creole minority in Pampa del Indio, northeastern Argentina. Methods A cross-sectional survey determined house infestation by timed-manual searches with a dislodging aerosol in 386 inhabited houses and administered questionnaires on selected variables before full-coverage insecticide spraying and annual vector surveillance. We fitted generalized linear models to two global models of domestic infestation and bug abundance, and estimated coefficients via multimodel inference with model averaging. Principal Findings Most Qom households were larger and lived in small-sized, recently-built, precarious houses with fewer peridomestic structures, and fewer livestock and poultry than Creoles’. Qom households had lower educational level and unexpectedly high residential mobility. House infestation (31.9%) was much lower than expected from lack of recent insecticide spraying campaigns and was spatially aggregated. Nearly half of the infested houses examined had infected vectors. Qom households had higher prevalence of domestic infestation (29.2%) than Creoles’ (10.0%), although there is large uncertainty around the adjusted OR. Factors with high relative importance for domestic infestation and/or bug abundance were refuge availability, distance to the nearest infested house, domestic insecticide use, indoor presence of poultry, residential overcrowding, and household educational level. Conclusions and Significance Our study highlights the importance of sociodemographic determinants of domestic infestation such as overcrowding, education and proximity to the nearest infested house, and corroborates the role of refuge availability, domestic use of insecticides and household size. These factors may be used for designing improved interventions for sustainable disease control and risk stratification. Housing instability, household mobility and migration patterns are key to understanding the process of house (re)infestation in the Gran Chaco. PMID:25785439

  14. Corrigendum to ``Early Gondwanan connection for the Argentine Precordillera terrane'' [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 205 (2003) 349-359

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finney, S. C.; Gleason, J. D.; Gehrels, G. E.; Peralta, S.; Acenolaza, G.

    2004-03-01

    We have recently discovered a significant mistake in this paper. In the original data set used for our interpretation, U-Pb detrital zircon ages for two samples were inadvertently switched. The error was caught after new data were obtained on similar rocks. The error evidently occurred during uploading of data from laboratory computers into spreadsheets. The mix-up has been verified by re-analyzing a subset of zircons from each of the original samples. As a consequence, in the original paper, the formation names for two samples - La Cebila and Cerro Totora - are switched.

  15. Linking Childhood Poverty and Cognition: Environmental Mediators of Non-Verbal Executive Control in an Argentine Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipina, Sebastián; Segretin, Soledad; Hermida, Julia; Prats, Lucía; Fracchia, Carolina; Camelo, Jorge López; Colombo, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Tests of attentional control, working memory, and planning were administered to compare the non-verbal executive control performance of healthy children from different socioeconomic backgrounds. In addition, mediations of several sociodemographic variables, identified in the literature as part of the experience of child poverty, between…

  16. Ion Exchange Modeling of Crystalline Silicotitanate (IONSIV(R) IE-911) Column for Cesium Removal from Argentine Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, T.

    2003-07-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA) have a collaborative project to separate cesium/strontium from waste resulting from the production of Mo-99. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is assisting DOE on this joint project by providing technical guidance to CNEA scientists. As part of the collaboration, PNNL staff works with staff at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to run the VERSE-LC model for removal of cesium from the Mo-99 waste using the crystalline silicotitanate (CST) material (IONSIV(R) IE-911, UOP LLC, DesPlaines, IL) based on technical data provided by CNEA. This report discusses the VERSE-LC ion-exchange-column model and the predicted results of CNEA test cases.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF CELL WALL POLYSACCHARIDES OF THE COENCOCYTIC GREEN SEAWEED BRYOPSIS PLUMOSA (BRYOPSIDACEAE, CHLOROPHYTA) FROM THE ARGENTINE COAST(1).

    PubMed

    Ciancia, Marina; Alberghina, Josefina; Arata, Paula Ximena; Benavides, Hugo; Leliaert, Frederik; Verbruggen, Heroen; Estevez, Jose Manuel

    2012-04-01

    Bryopsis sp. from a restricted area of the rocky shore of Mar del Plata (Argentina) on the Atlantic coast was identified as Bryopsis plumosa (Hudson) C. Agardh (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) based on morphological characters and rbcL and tufA DNA barcodes. To analyze the cell wall polysaccharides of this seaweed, the major room temperature (B1) and 90°C (X1) water extracts were studied. By linkage analysis and NMR spectroscopy, the structure of a sulfated galactan was determined, and putative sulfated rhamnan structures and furanosidic nonsulfated arabinan structures were also found. By anion exchange chromatography of X1, a fraction (F4), comprising a sulfated galactan as major structure was isolated. Structural analysis showed a linear backbone constituted of 3-linked β-d-galactose units, partially sulfated on C-6 and partially substituted with pyruvic acid forming an acetal linked to O-4 and O-6. This galactan has common structural features with those of green seaweeds of the genus Codium (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta), but some important differences were also found. This is the first report about the structure of the water-soluble polysaccharides biosynthesized by seaweeds of the genus Bryopsis. These sulfated galactans and rhamnans were in situ localized mostly in two layers, one close to the plasma membrane and the other close to the apoplast, leaving a middle amorphous, unstained cell wall zone. In addition, fibrillar polysaccharides, comprising (1→3)-β-d-xylans and cellulose, were obtained by treatment of the residue from the water extractions with an LiCl/DMSO solution at high temperature. These polymers were also localized in a bilayer arrangement.

  18. Three Members of the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Cryptic Species Complex Occur Sympatrically in Argentine Horticultural Crops.

    PubMed

    Alemandri, V; Vaghi Medina, C G; Dumón, A D; Argüello Caro, E B; Mattio, M F; García Medina, S; López Lambertini, P M; Truol, G

    2015-04-01

    The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), is a cryptic species complex that attacks >600 different species of plants and transmits several plant viruses causing severe economic losses. Until 2010, the B. tabaci complex comprised 24 distinct putative species. Recently, at least 15 new species have been reported. The objective of this study was to identify B. tabaci species present in bean, melon, and tomato crops in Argentina by applying phylogenetic analyses and pairwise comparison of genetic distances of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) sequences. The 39 proposed whitefly species were identified with both analyses, and the presence in Argentina of one indigenous species, New World 2 (NW2), and two introduced species, Middle East-Asia Minor one (MEAM1) and Mediterranean, was confirmed. Common bean crop presented the three whitefly species detected, with NW2, MEAM1, and Mediterranean being present all together under field conditions. Also, Mediterranean was the only species identified in tomato, whereas MEAM1 was found in melon. To the best of our knowledge, Mediterranean is a recent invasive species in open-field agriculture in the American continent and in greenhouse tomato in Argentina. Additionally, we provide the first report of MEAM1 in common bean and melon. These findings raise several questions on the future scenario of B. tabaci and the viruses it transmits in Argentina.

  19. Prevalence and trends of markers of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human Immunodeficiency virus in Argentine blood donors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transfusion-transmitted infections are a major problem associated with blood transfusion. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence and trends of HBV, HCV and HIV in blood donors in Argentina. Methods A retrospective study was carried out in blood donors of 27 transfusion centers covering the whole country over a period of eight years (2004-2011). Serologic screening assays for HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV were performed in all centers and nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) was performed in 2 out of the 27 centers. Results The 2,595,852 samples tested nationwide from 2004 to 2011 showed that the prevalence of HBsAg decreased from 0.336% to 0.198% (p < 0.0001), that of anti-HBc from 2.391% to 2.007% (p < 0.0001), that of anti-HCV from 0.721% to 0.460%, (p < 0.0001) and that of anti-HIV from 0.208% to 0.200 (p = 0.075). The prevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV was unevenly distributed among the different regions of the country. Two out of 74,838 screening- negative samples were positive in NAT assays (1 HIV-RNA and 1 HCV-RNA); moreover, HBV-DNA, HCV-RNA and HIV-RNA were detected in 60.29, 24.54 and 66.67% of screening-positive samples of the corresponding assays. As regards donors age, positive HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA donors were significantly older than healthy donors (46.6, 50.5 and 39.5 y respectively, p < 0.001). Conclusions Argentina has a low prevalence of HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV in blood donors, with a decreasing trend for HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HCV but not for anti-HIV over the last 8 years. The uneven distribution of transfusion-transmitted infections prevalence among the different regions of the country highlights the need to implement regional awareness campaigns and prevention. The discrepancy between samples testing positive for screening assays and negative for NAT assays highlights the problem of blood donors who test repeatedly reactive in screening assays but are not confirmed as positive upon further testing. The uneven distribution of age between healthy donors and NAT-positive donors could be related to changes in risks of these pathogens in the general population and might be attributed to a longer exposure to transmission risk factors in elderly people. PMID:24755089

  20. Rainfall variability and trends of the past six decades (1950-2014) in the subtropical NW Argentine Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castino, F.; Bookhagen, B.; Strecker, M. R.

    2017-02-01

    The eastern flanks of the Central Andes are characterized by deep convection, exposing them to hydrometeorological extreme events, often resulting in floods and a variety of mass movements. We assessed the spatiotemporal pattern of rainfall trends and the changes in the magnitude and frequency of extreme events (≥95th percentile) along an E-W traverse across the southern Central Andes using rain-gauge and high-resolution gridded datasets (CPC-uni and TRMM 3B42 V7). We generated different climate indices and made three key observations: (1) an increase of the annual rainfall has occurred at the transition between low (<0.5 km) and intermediate (0.5-3 km) elevations between 1950 and 2014. Also, rainfall increases during the wet season and, to a lesser degree, decreases during the dry season. Increasing trends in annual total amounts characterize the period 1979-2014 in the arid, high-elevation southern Andean Plateau, whereas trend reversals with decreasing annual total amounts were found at low elevations. (2) For all analyzed periods, we observed small or no changes in the median values of the rainfall-frequency distribution, but significant trends with intensification or attenuation in the 95th percentile. (3) In the southern Andean Plateau, extreme rainfall events exhibit trends towards increasing magnitude and, to a lesser degree, frequency during the wet season, at least since 1979. Our analysis revealed that low (<0.5 km), intermediate (0.5-3 km), and high-elevation (>3 km) areas respond differently to changing climate conditions, and the transition zone between low and intermediate elevations is characterized by the most significant changes.

  1. 25-Day Period Large-Scale Oscillations in the Argentine Basin Revealed by the TOPEX/POSEIDON Altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, L-L.; Cheng, B.; Qiu, B.

    1999-01-01

    The measurement of global sea surface height made by the TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite has provided the first synoptic view of large-scale oceanic variability at the intraseasonal scales from weeks to months.

  2. Where do these bugs come from? Phenotypic structure of Triatoma infestans populations after control interventions in the Argentine Chaco

    PubMed Central

    Gaspe, María Sol; Provecho, Yael Mariana; Piccinali, Romina Valeria; Gürtler/, Ricardo Esteban

    2015-01-01

    House re-invasion by native triatomines after insecticide-based control campaigns represents a major threat for Chagas disease vector control. We conducted a longitudinal intervention study in a rural section (Area III, 407 houses) of Pampa del Indio, northeastern Argentina, and used wing geometric morphometry to compare pre-spray and post-spray (re-infestant bugs) Triatoma infestans populations. The community-wide spraying with pyrethroids reduced the prevalence of house infestation by T. infestans from 31.9% to < 1% during a four-year follow-up, unlike our previous studies in the neighbouring Area I. Two groups of bug collection sites differing in wing shape variables before interventions (including 221 adults from 11 domiciles) were used as a reference for assigning 44 post-spray adults. Wing shape variables from post-spray, high-density bug colonies and pre-spray groups were significantly different, suggesting that re-infestant insects had an external origin. Insects from one house differed strongly in wing shape variables from all other specimens. A further comparison between insects from both areas supported the existence of independent re-infestation processes within the same district. These results point to local heterogeneities in house re-infestation dynamics and emphasise the need to expand the geographic coverage of vector surveillance and control operations to the affected region. PMID:25946158

  3. Spore loads of Paranosema locustae (Microsporidia) in heavily infected grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) of the Argentine Pampas and Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Plischuk, Santiago; Bardi, Christian J; Lange, Carlos E

    2013-09-01

    Paranosema locustae, an entomopathogen of grasshoppers and locusts, remains the only microsporidium registered as a biocontrol agent. After introductions from North America, it became established in grasshopper communities of Argentina. We measured the infection intensity of field collected, heavily infected male and female adults of individuals belonging to six grasshopper species, five melanoplines (Melanoplinae) (Baeacris pseudopunctulatus, Dichroplus maculipennis, Dichroplus vittatus, Neopedies brunneri, Scotussa lemniscata), and one gomphocerine (Gomphocerinae) (Staurorhectus longicornis). Average spore load among heavily infected grasshoppers ranged from 8.7±0.5×10(7) to 1.1±0.7×10(9). Only females of B. pseudopunctulatus and S. longicornis showed significantly higher spore loads than the males.

  4. Invasive breast cancer in Argentine women: association between risk and prognostic factors with antigens of a peptidic and carbohydrate nature

    PubMed Central

    Demichelis, Sandra O; Isla-Larrain, Marina T; Cermignani, Luciano; Alberdi, Cecilio G; Segal-Eiras, Amada; Croce, María Virginia

    2011-01-01

    Objective In breast cancer, several tumor markers have been identified. The marker most extensively associated with breast cancer is MUC1. The objective of the study was to analyze prognostic and risk factors in relation to tumor markers in order to clarify breast cancer biology. A total of 349 primary tumor samples and lymph nodes from breast cancer patients were studied. Risk and prognostic factors were considered. An immunohistochemical approach was applied and an extensive statistical analysis was performed, including frequency analysis and analysis of variance. Correlation among variables was performed with principal component analysis. Results All the antigens showed an increased expression according to tumor size increment; moreover, sialyl Lewis x expression showed a significant increase in relation to disease stage, whereas Tn and TF presented a positive tendency. Vascular invasion was related to sialyl Lewis x expression and number of metastatic lymph nodes. Taking into account risk factors, when a patient had at least one child, Lewis antigens diminished their expression. In relation to breastfeeding, sialyl Lewis x expression diminished, although its apical expression increased. Conclusion Associations between MUC1 and carbohydrate antigens and risk and prognostic factors show the complexity of the cellular biological behavior that these antigens modulate in breast cancer. PMID:24367185

  5. The agro-ecological suitability of Atriplex nummularia and A. halimus for biomass production in Argentine saline drylands.

    PubMed

    Falasca, Silvia Liliana; Pizarro, María José; Mezher, Romina Nahir

    2014-09-01

    The choice of the best species to cultivate in semi-arid and arid climates is of fundamental importance, and is determined by many factors, including temperature and rainfall, soil type, water availability for irrigation and crop purposes. Soil or water salinity represents one of the major causes of crop stress. Species of the genus Atriplex are characterized by high biomass productivity, high tolerance to drought and salinity, and high efficiency in use of solar radiation and water. Based on a search of the international literature, the authors outline an agro-climatic zoning model to determine potential production areas in Argentina for Atriplex halimus and Atriplex numularia. Using the agroclimatic limits presented in this work, this model may be applied to any part of the world. When superimposed on the saline areas map, the agroclimatic map shows the suitability of agro-ecological zoning for both species for energy purposes on land unsuitable for food production. This innovative study was based on the implementation of a geographic information system that can be updated by further incorporation of complementary information, with consequent improvement of the original database.

  6. The agro-ecological suitability of Atriplex nummularia and A. halimus for biomass production in Argentine saline drylands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falasca, Silvia Liliana; Pizarro, María José; Mezher, Romina Nahir

    2014-09-01

    The choice of the best species to cultivate in semi-arid and arid climates is of fundamental importance, and is determined by many factors, including temperature and rainfall, soil type, water availability for irrigation and crop purposes. Soil or water salinity represents one of the major causes of crop stress. Species of the genus Atriplex are characterized by high biomass productivity, high tolerance to drought and salinity, and high efficiency in use of solar radiation and water. Based on a search of the international literature, the authors outline an agro-climatic zoning model to determine potential production areas in Argentina for Atriplex halimus and Atriplex numularia. Using the agroclimatic limits presented in this work, this model may be applied to any part of the world. When superimposed on the saline areas map, the agroclimatic map shows the suitability of agro-ecological zoning for both species for energy purposes on land unsuitable for food production. This innovative study was based on the implementation of a geographic information system that can be updated by further incorporation of complementary information, with consequent improvement of the original database.

  7. 50 CFR 600.520 - Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the shore at 44°22′ N. lat., 67°52′ W. long. and intersecting the boundary of the EEZ at 44°11′12″ N..., Atlantic salmon, all marlin, all spearfish, sailfish, swordfish, black sea bass, bluefish, croaker, haddock, ocean pout, pollock, red hake, scup, sea turtles, sharks (except dogfish), silver hake, spot,...

  8. Occurrence of Nematodes of the Genus Anisakis in Mediterranean and Atlantic Fish Marketed in Sardinia

    PubMed Central

    Casti, Daniele; Scarano, Christian; Piras, Maria Cristina; Merella, Paolo; Muglia, Sonia; Piras, Francesca; Garippa, Giovanni; Spanu, Carlo; De Santis, Enrico Pietro Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Anisakiasis is a gastrointestinal fish-borne zoonosis caused by the ingestion of third stage larvae of the genus Anisakis. Between January and December 2013, 1112 specimens of four commercial fish species (Engraulis encrasicolus, Merluccius merluccius, Scomber colias and Trachurus mediterraneus) marketed in Sardinia (Italy) were examined for Anisakis sp. The overall prevalence of Anisakis spp larvae was 39.9%, all morphologically identified as Type I. Scomber colias showed the highest prevalence (100%), followed by M. merluccius (Atlantic 91.0%, Mediterranean 71.2%), T. mediterraneus (32.7%) and E. encrasicolus (25.9%). All the larvae found in Mediterranean hosts were genetically identified as Anisakis pegreffii, whereas 90.0% of the larvae found in the Atlantic M. merluccius belonged to Anisakis simplex sensu stricto and 10.0% to A. pegreffii. The mean abundance of Anisakis sp. larvae was positively correlated with fish size in E. encrasicolus, Atlantic M. merluccius and local M. merluccius. The prevalence of infection was greater in the body cavity (37.9%) than in the edible muscle (9.4%). However, 1.8% of the examined fish were infected exclusively in the muscle. Therefore, the risk associated to the consumption of raw or undercooked fishery products poses the need of measures such as visual inspection and preventive treatments to guarantee consumers’ health. PMID:28299289

  9. Occurrence of Nematodes of the Genus Anisakis in Mediterranean and Atlantic Fish Marketed in Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Casti, Daniele; Scarano, Christian; Piras, Maria Cristina; Merella, Paolo; Muglia, Sonia; Piras, Francesca; Garippa, Giovanni; Spanu, Carlo; De Santis, Enrico Pietro Luigi

    2017-01-24

    Anisakiasis is a gastrointestinal fish-borne zoonosis caused by the ingestion of third stage larvae of the genus Anisakis. Between January and December 2013, 1112 specimens of four commercial fish species (Engraulis encrasicolus, Merluccius merluccius, Scomber colias and Trachurus mediterraneus) marketed in Sardinia (Italy) were examined for Anisakis sp. The overall prevalence of Anisakis spp larvae was 39.9%, all morphologically identified as Type I. Scomber colias showed the highest prevalence (100%), followed by M. merluccius (Atlantic 91.0%, Mediterranean 71.2%), T. mediterraneus (32.7%) and E. encrasicolus (25.9%). All the larvae found in Mediterranean hosts were genetically identified as Anisakis pegreffii, whereas 90.0% of the larvae found in the Atlantic M. merluccius belonged to Anisakis simplex sensu stricto and 10.0% to A. pegreffii. The mean abundance of Anisakis sp. larvae was positively correlated with fish size in E. encrasicolus, Atlantic M. merluccius and local M. merluccius. The prevalence of infection was greater in the body cavity (37.9%) than in the edible muscle (9.4%). However, 1.8% of the examined fish were infected exclusively in the muscle. Therefore, the risk associated to the consumption of raw or undercooked fishery products poses the need of measures such as visual inspection and preventive treatments to guarantee consumers' health.

  10. Direct molecular identification of Trypanosoma cruzi discrete typing units in domestic and peridomestic Triatoma infestans and Triatoma sordida from the Argentine Chaco.

    PubMed

    Maffey, L; Cardinal, M V; Ordóñez-Krasnowski, P C; Lanati, L A; Lauricella, M A; Schijman, A G; Gürtler, R E

    2012-10-01

    We assessed the distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) in domestic and peridomestic Triatoma infestans and Triatoma sordida specimens collected in a well-defined rural area in Pampa del Indio, northeastern Argentina. Microscopically-positive bugs were randomly selected with a multi-level sampling design, and DTUs were identified using direct PCR strategies. TcVI predominated in 61% of 69 T. infestans and in 56% of 9 T. sordida. TcV was the secondary DTU in T. infestans (16%) and was found in 1 T. sordida specimen (11%). Three T. sordida (33%) were found infected with TcI, a DTU also identified in local Didelphis albiventris opossums. Mixed DTU infections occurred rarely (5%) and were detected both directly from the bugs' rectal ampoule and parasite cultures. The identified DTUs and bug collection sites of T. infestans were significantly associated. Bugs infected with TcV were almost exclusively captured in domiciles whereas those with TcVI were found similarly in domiciles and peridomiciles. All mixed infections occurred in domiciles. TcV-infected bugs fed more often on humans than on dogs, whereas TcVI-infected bugs showed the reverse pattern. T. sordida is a probable sylvatic vector of TcI linked to D. albiventris, and could represent a secondary vector of TcVI and TcV in the domestic/peridomestic cycle.

  11. Direct molecular identification of Trypanosoma cruzi Discrete Typing Units in domestic and peridomestic Triatoma infestans and Triatoma sordida from the Argentine Chaco

    PubMed Central

    MAFFEY, L.; CARDINAL, M.V.; ORDÓÑEZ-KRASNOWSKI, P.C.; LANATI, L.A.; LAURICELLA, M.A.; SCHIJMAN, A.G.; GÜRTLER, R.E.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY We assessed the distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) in domestic and peridomestic Triatoma infestans and Triatoma sordida specimens collected in a well-defined rural area in Pampa del Indio, northeastern Argentina. Microscopically-positive bugs were randomly selected with a multi-level sampling design, and DTUs were identified using direct PCR strategies. TcVI predominated in 61% of 69 T. infestans and in 56% of 9 T. sordida. TcV was the secondary DTU in T. infestans (16%) and was found in one T. sordida specimen (11%). Three T. sordida (33%) were found infected with TcI, a DTU also identified in local Didelphis albiventris opossums. Mixed DTU infections occurred rarely (5%) and were detected both directly from the bugs’ rectal ampoule and parasite cultures. The identified DTUs and bug collection sites of T. infestans were significantly associated. Bugs infected with TcV were almost exclusively captured in domiciles whereas those with TcVI were found similarly in domiciles and peridomiciles. All mixed infections occurred in domiciles. TcV-infected bugs fed more often on humans than on dogs, whereas TcVI-infected bugs showed the reverse pattern. T. sordida is a probable sylvatic vector of TcI linked to D. albiventris, and could represent a secondary vector of TcVI and TcV in the domestic/peridomestic cycle. PMID:23036510

  12. Improving access to Chagas disease diagnosis and etiologic treatment in remote rural communities of the Argentine Chaco through strengthened primary health care and broad social participation

    PubMed Central

    Sartor, Paula; Colaianni, Ivana; Cardinal, M. Victoria; Bua, Jacqueline; Freilij, Héctor; Gürtler, Ricardo E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Rural populations in the Gran Chaco region have large prevalence rates of Trypanosoma cruzi infection and very limited access to diagnosis and treatment. We implemented an innovative strategy to bridge these gaps in 13 rural villages of Pampa del Indio held under sustained vector surveillance and control. Methodology The non-randomized treatment program included participatory workshops, capacity strengthening of local health personnel, serodiagnosis, qualitative and quantitative PCRs, a 60-day treatment course with benznidazole and follow-up. Parents and healthcare agents were instructed on drug administration and early detection and notification of adverse drug-related reactions (ADR). Healthcare agents monitored medication adherence and ADRs at village level. Principal findings The seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection was 24.1% among 395 residents up to 18 years of age examined. Serodiagnostic (70%) and treatment coverage (82%) largely exceeded local historical levels. Sixty-six (85%) of 78 eligible patients completed treatment with 97% medication adherence. ADRs occurred in 32% of patients, but most were mild and manageable. Four patients showing severe or moderate ADRs required treatment withdrawal. T. cruzi DNA was detected by qPCR in 47 (76%) patients before treatment, and persistently occurred in only one patient over 20–180 days posttreatment. Conclusions and significance Our results demonstrate that diagnosis and treatment of T. cruzi infection in remote, impoverished rural areas can be effectively addressed through strengthened primary healthcare attention and broad social participation with adequate external support. This strategy secured high treatment coverage and adherence; effectively managed ADRs, and provided early evidence of positive therapeutic responses. PMID:28192425

  13. A "Necessary" Dictatorship: The "Age of Rosas" in Argentine History Textbooks Published between 1956 and 1983 and the Defence of Authoritarianism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Amezola, Gonzalo

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate that two traditionally opposed approaches--the official view and a revisionist approach--conflate in defence of authoritarianism in the teaching of History. The main focus is on school textbooks published between 1956, the year when an educational reform was introduced following President Peron's overthrow, and 1983,…

  14. The Use of Gamma Radiation for the Treatment of Cultural Heritage in the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Ana Maria Del Carmen; Docters, Andrea; Miranda, María Virginia; Saparrat, Mario Carlos Nazareno

    2017-02-01

    The use of gamma radiation for treating biodeteriorated cultural heritage on paper has been studied at the Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica-CNEA (Argentina) since 2001. In order to preserve books, publications, and documents that have been attacked by insects or fungi, gamma radiation techniques have been used at CNEA. The activities include basic research as well as their applications in infected documents and papers currently used in libraries and archives. New papers were subjected to accelerated ageing in order to evaluate the effects of gamma radiation on their physical and mechanical properties. Current studies include resistance to radiation in two batches of highly cellulolytic fungi, associated with indoor environment. They are present in papers and adhesives used for conservation purposes at the Laboratory of Preventive Conservation and Restoration of Documents. A joint study has been started in CNEA with the National University of La Plata.

  15. Timing of uplift in the Argentine Frontal Cordillera (34-32.5°S), through (U-Th)/He Thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graber, N. R.; Hoke, G. D.; Metcalf, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    We use the apatite (U-Th)/He low temperature thermochronometer to study the rock uplift history in the Frontal Cordillera of Argentina between 32.5-34°S, where an abrupt transition in the subduction angle of the Nazca Plate occurs. The Andes in our study area are composed of three major physiographic and tectonic provinces, which have been uplifted as the deformation front stepped eastward over the last 20 Ma. From west to east they are the Principal Cordillera, Frontal Cordillera and Precordillera. The thin-skinned Aconcagua fold-thrust-belt, which today comprises the Principal Cordillera was active between ~20-8 Ma. The thick-skinned Frontal Cordillera began uplifting around 9 Ma. Finally, in the northern part of the study area, uplift and deformation of the Precordillera commenced between 5-2 Ma. South of 33°S, in the absence of the Precordillera, the total amount of crustal shortening is half that of the north, despite similar average and peak range elevations. Remnants of a regionally extensive paleolandscape are preserved in both areas. Two age-elevation profiles were collected from the granitic Permo-Triassic Choiyoi Group in the headwaters of the Rio Tunuyán (south of 33°S) and Rio Mendoza (north of 33°S). In the Tunyán area, 7 samples were collected between 2600 and 4500 m, with paleolandscape remnants at an elevation of ~5000 m. Total local relief in the Río Mendoza sampling area is 2800 m, from which the lower 1400 m were sampled between elevations of 2100 and 3500 m. We aim to constrain 1) the timing of the initiation of deformation-related exhumation of the proximal foredeep associated with the Aconcagua fold and thrust belt and 2) the rate of rock uplift induced river incision of the Rio Mendoza and Rio Tunyán as a proxy for surface uplift.

  16. Sr-Nd isotope data of basement rocks from the northernmost argentine Precordillera and its implications for the early Paleozoic evolution of SW Gondwana margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martina, Federico; Astini, Ricardo A.; Pimentel, Marcio M.

    2014-12-01

    The Precordillera terrane (Cuyania) in western Argentina is commonly accepted as an exotic fragment derived from Laurentia in the Early Paleozoic. Evidence supporting such an interpretation is manly based on similarities in the sedimentary cover successions and their paleontological content. Little is known about the basement of the Precordillera terrane. Its isotopic characterization is essential to better constrain the present areal distribution of the terrane and it may provide more insight into the pre-rifting evolution of the Precordillera terrane along the Iapetan margin of Laurentia. We present new Sr and Nd isotope data of pre-Late Ordovician meta-igneous rocks from the Río Bonete region in NW Argentina, interpreted as the northernmost extent of the Precordillera. The Nd systematics of the Río Bonete basement rocks including greenschists and metagabbros (ɛNd(470) = +2.14--0.19; TDM = 0.99-1.2 Ga), a garnet-amphibolite (ɛNd(470) = -0.53; TDM = 1.32 Ga) and a quartz-phyllite (ɛNd(470) = -3.83; TDM = 1.55 Ga), are similar to other pre-Ordovician meta-igneous rocks from Sierra de Umango, Pie de Palo and the Ullum xenoliths, usually interpreted as the basement of the Precordillera terrane. Nd model ages around 1.2 Ga are also typical from the Mesoproterozoic Grenvillian basement of southern North America, currently exposed in the Llano region. In addition, the greenschists and metagabbros show a robust correlation with the Late Neoproterozoic Catoctin volcanics in the central Appalachians. The Sr isotope data (when not disturbed) also supports this novel interpretation and suggests the presence of the Blue Ridge rifting event in Precordillera. According to our interpretation, some lithotypes included within the basement complex of the Río Bonete area belonged to the basement of the Precordillera terrane supporting previous correlation between both regions.

  17. Distribution and stable isotope composition of leaf wax n-alkanes as tracers for organic matter transport along hydrological transects in the NW Argentine Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofelde, Stefanie; Sachse, Dirk; Schildgen, Taylor; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2015-04-01

    The burial of organic matter in marine sediments represents the main long-term sink for reduced carbon in the global carbon cycle, with the fluvial system being the predominant transport mechanism. Organic matter deposited in marine and continental sediments contains valuable information on ecological and climatic conditions, and organic proxy data is thus often used in paleoclimate research. To use sedimentary records to investigate past environmental conditions in the terrestrial realm, processes dictating the transport of organic matter, including spatial and temporal resolution as well as the influence of climatic and tectonic processes, have to be understood. In this study, we test if a lipid biomarker based approach can be used to trace present-day organic matter sources in a fluvial watershed draining two intermontane basins in the southern-central Andes of NW Argentina, a tectonically active region with pronounced topographic, rainfall, and vegetation gradients. We investigated the distribution of long-chain leaf-wax n-alkanes, a terrestrial plant biomarker (and as such representative of terrestrially sourced carbon), in river sediments and coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) along two altitudinal and hydrological gradients. We used n-alkane abundances and their stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic values as three independent parameters for source discrimination. Additionally, we analyzed the control of environmental parameters on the isotopic signatures in leaf-wax n-alkanes. The general pattern of n-alkane distribution in river sediments and CPOM samples in our study area suggest that vascular plants are the major source of riverine organic matter. The stable carbon isotopic composition of nC29 alkanes suggests a nearly exclusive input of C3 vegetation. Although C4 plants are present in the lower catchment areas, the total percentage is too low to have a detectable influence on the carbon isotopic composition in river sediment and CPOM samples. Considering environmental parameters, nC29 alkane δ13C values are significantly correlated with mean annual rainfall in the respective catchment area, with less negative δ13C values in drier areas (r = - 0.63, p < 0.01). The variability in stable hydrogen isotopic composition (δD) of nC29 alkanes is determined mostly by the δD value of the source water and aridity. We find that the apparent fractionation (?app), defined as the difference in hydrogen isotopic composition of plant source waters and synthesized leaf-wax n-alkanes, is significantly correlated with aridity (r = -0.65, p < 0.005), with a smaller apparent fractionation in drier areas, as well as with mean annual rainfall (r = -0.59, p < 0.01), relative humidity (r = -0.56, p < 0.02), and actual evapotranspiration (r = -0.53, p < 0.05). Our data indicate that vascular plants are the major source of riverine organic matter, with their stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions influenced by climatic parameters. Thus, on spatial scales covering large gradients in environmental parameters, the analysis of leaf-wax n-alkanes can be used for organic matter source assessment in orogenic settings.

  18. Unusual Naturally Occurring Humoral and Cellular Mutated Epitopes of Hepatitis B Virus in a Chronically Infected Argentine Patient with Anti-HBs Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Cuestas, María L.; Mathet, Verónica L.; Ruiz, Vanesa; Minassian, María L.; Rivero, Cintia; Sala, Andrea; Corach, Daniel; Alessio, Analía; Pozzati, Marcia; Frider, Bernardo; Oubiña, José R.

    2006-01-01

    Serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA was extracted from a chronically infected patient with cocirculation of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HBs antibodies. Direct PCR and clone-derived sequences of the S and overlapped P genes were obtained. DNA sequences and phylogenetic analysis ascribed this isolate to genotype A (serotype adw2). Five of six HBV DNA clones exhibited point mutations inside and outside the major hydrophilic region, while the sixth clone exhibited a genotype A “wild-type” amino acid sequence. Observed replacements included both humoral and/or cellular (major histocompatibility complex class I [MHC-I] and MHC-II) HBV mutated epitopes, such as S45A, P46H, L49H, C107R, T125A, M133K, I152F, P153T, T161S, G185E, A194T, G202R, and I213L. None of these mutants were individually present within a given clone. The I213L replacement was the only one observed in the five clones carrying nonsynonymous mutations in the S gene. Some of the amino acid substitutions are reportedly known to be responsible for the emergence of immune escape mutants. C107R replacement prevents disulfide bonding, thus disrupting the first loop of the HBsAg. Circulation of some of these mutants may represent a potential risk for the community, since neither current hepatitis B vaccines nor hyperimmune hepatitis B immune globulin are effectively prevent the liver disease thereto associated. Moreover, some of the recorded HBsAg variants may influence the accuracy of the results obtained with currently used diagnostic tests. PMID:16757620

  19. Durability of five native Argentine wood species of the genera Prosopis and Acacia decayed by rot fungi and its relationship with extractive content.

    PubMed

    Pometti, Carolina L; Palanti, Sabrina; Pizzo, Benedetto; Charpentier, Jean-Paul; Boizot, Nathalie; Resio, Claudio; Saidman, Beatriz O

    2010-09-01

    The natural durability of four Argentinean species of Prosopis and one of Acacia was evaluated in laboratory tests, according to European standards, using three brown rot and one white rot fungi. These tests were complemented by assessing the wood chemical composition. All the species were from moderately slightly durable to very durable (classes 4-1), and in all cases the heartwood was the most resistant to fungal attack. Chemical extractives content (organic, aqueous, tannic and phenolic) was higher in the heartwood. However, species durability was not related to extractive contents nor with wood density. Instead, it is possible that extractives could contribute to natural durability in different ways, including the effects related to the antioxidant properties of some of them.

  20. [Cultural adaptation and Argentine validation of the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire in the hospitals of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Mariana V; Rodríguez, Matias G; Clarett, Martín; Iribarne, Juan I; Martínez, Marianela; Battistotti, Romina; López de Arcaute, Ana S; Adarves, Romina; Orsini, Esteban

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: realizar la adaptación cultural y validación del Cuestionario Northwick Park (NPQ) en Argentina, determinando sus propiedades psicométricas, en pacientes con dolor cervical de origen mecánico derivados al Servicio de Kinesiología del Hospital D. F. Santojanni. Materiales y Métodos: Se solicitó la autorización del autor original del NPQ, luego se realizó la adaptación lingüística y prueba piloto. Las propiedades psicométricas incluyeron: confiabilidad test-retest (coeficiente de correlación intraclase, CCI), validez (coeficiente de correlación de Pearson NPQ-Escala Análoga Visual, EVA), consistencia interna (alfa de Cronbach) y sensibilidad al cambio (prueba T para pruebas pareadas NPQ-EVA). Se incluyeron consecutivamente 60 pacientes de septiembre de 2007 a febrero de 2009 con dolor cervical mecánico. Se midieron las variables porcentaje de discapacidad (NPQ) y dolor (EVA) al día del ingreso, a las 24 horas y al alta. Resultados: Veintiséis pacientes completaron el estudio, 4 fueron eliminados y 30 no completaron la 3° medición. Se obtuvo una buena confiabilidad test-retest (ICC 0.8979) y una alta consistencia interna (alfa de Cronbach 0.86). La validez mostró una buena correlación (r= 0,678). La sensibilidad al cambio fue buena (r=0.661). Conclusión: El NPQ es un instrumento válido, confiable y sensible para evaluar la discapacidad asociada al dolor cervical de origen mecánico en pacientes atendidos en el ámbito hospitalario de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires.

  1. What the Iberian Conquest Bequeathed to Us: The Fruit Trees Introduced in Argentine Subtropic—Their History and Importance in Present Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Stampella, Pablo C.; Lambaré, Daniela Alejandra; Hilgert, Norma I.

    2013-01-01

    This contribution presents information about the history of introduction, establishment, and local appropriation of Eurasian fruit trees—species and varieties of the genera Prunus and Citrus—from 15th century in two rural areas of Northern Argentina. By means of an ethnobotanical and ethnohistorical approach, our study was aimed at analysing how this process influenced local medicine and the design of cultural landscape that they are still part of. As a first step, local diversity, knowledge, and management practices of these fruit tree species were surveyed. In a second moment, medicinal properties attributed to them were documented. A historical literature was consulted referring to different aspects on introduction of peaches and citric species into America and their uses in the past. The appropriation of these fruit-trees gave place to new applications and a particular status for introduced species that are seen as identitary and contribute to the definition of the communities and daily life landscapes. Besides, these plants, introduced in a relatively short period and with written record, allow the researcher to understand and to design landscape domestication, as a multidimensional result of physical, social, and symbolic environment. PMID:24348725

  2. Impact of community-based vector control on house infestation and Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Triatoma infestans, dogs and cats in the Argentine Chaco.

    PubMed

    Cardinal, M V; Lauricella, M A; Marcet, P L; Orozco, M M; Kitron, U; Gürtler, R E

    2007-09-01

    The relative impact of two community-based vector control strategies on house infestation by Triatoma infestans and Trypanosoma cruzi infection in bugs, domestic dogs and cats was assessed in two neighboring rural areas comprising 40 small villages and 323 houses in one of the regions most endemic for Chagas disease in northern Argentina. The prevalence and abundance of domestic infestation were 1.5- and 6.5-fold higher, respectively, in the area under pulsed, non-supervised control actions operating under the guidelines of the National Vector Control Program (NCVP) than in the area under sustained, supervised surveillance carried out jointly by the UBA research team and NCVP. The prevalence of infestation and infection varied widely among village groups within each area. In the pulsed control area, the prevalence of infection in bugs, dogs and cats was two- to three-fold higher than in the area under sustained surveillance, most of the infected animals qualified as autochthonous cases, and evidence of recent transmission was observed. Infection was highly aggregated at the household level and fell close to the 80/20 rule. Using multiple logistic regression analysis clustered by household, infection in dogs was associated positively and significantly with variables reflecting local exposure to infected T. infestans, thus demonstrating weak performance of the vector surveillance system. For high-risk areas in the Gran Chaco region, interruption of vector-mediated domestic transmission of T. cruzi requires residual insecticide spraying that is more intense, of a higher quality and sustained in time, combined with community participation and environmental management measures.

  3. Medicinal plants in the cultural landscape of a Mapuche-Tehuelche community in arid Argentine Patagonia: an eco-sensorial approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The taste and smell of medicinal plants and their relation to the cultural landscape of a Mapuche-Tehuelche community in the Patagonian steppe was investigated. We assume that the landscapes as a source of therapeutic resources is perceived, classified and named according to different symbolic, ecological and utilitarian criteria which are influenced by chemosensorial appearance of medicinal plants which are valued by inhabitants. Methods Information relating to the cultural landscape experienced by 18 inhabitants, all representing 85% of the families, in terms of medicinal plants, knowledge of species and their organoleptic perception was obtained through participant observation, interviews and free listing. The data were examined using cualitative and quantitative approach, including discourse analysis and non-parametric statistics. Results Informants use 121 medicinal species, obtained from both wild and non-wild environments, most of which (66%) present aroma and/or taste. It was found that the plants with highest use consensus used for digestive, respiratory, cardio-vascular, analgesic-anti-inflammatory, obstetric-gynaecological and genito-unrinary complaints, have the highest frequencies of cites reporting flavor; and those with the highest frequencies relating to digestive, analgesic-anti-inflammatory and cultural syndromes present the highest frequencies of aroma. Flavor and/or aroma are interpreted as strong or soft, and the strongest are associated with treatment of supernatural ailments. Also, taste is a distinctive trait for the most of the species collected in all natural units of the landscape, while aroma is more closely associated with species growing at higher altitudes. The local pharmacopeia is also enriched with plants that come from more distant phytogeographical environments, such as the Andean forest and the Patagonian Monte, which are obtained through barter with neighboring populations. Herbal products are also obtained in regional shop. The practices of barter and purchase extend the limits of the landscape as a provider of therapeutic resources, improving the dynamics of its functions and structure, leading to more effective solutions to the various health needs that arise in the community. Conclusions Herbal landscape perceived by the community exhibits notable eco sensorial and spatial heterogeneity. Local inhabitants’ sensorial interpretations play a role as heuristic tools in the recreation and redefinition of old and new available resources. PMID:25159153

  4. [Aluminum content in individual components, used to prepare adult total parenteral nutrition mixtures in Argentine, and in comparison with international regulation].

    PubMed

    Menéndez, A M; Farías, S S; Servant, R; Morisio, Y; Misischia, Y; Simón, S; Weisstaub, A R; Martín de Portela, M L Pita

    2014-06-01

    Introducción: aluminio (Al) es un elemento tóxico que puede ser contaminante de productos farmacéuticos utilizados para preparar mezclas de nutrición parenteral (NP). Objetivos: 1) determinar la concentración de Al en componentes individuales utilizados para preparar mezclas de NP; 2) comparar las cantidades detectadas con los límites de la regulación internacional (FDA); 3) calcular la cantidad de Al administrada en fórmulas habituales de NP para neonatos, niños y adultos. Materiales y métodos: El Aluminio fue determinado por Espectroscopía de Emisión Atómica-Plasma-Inductivo de Argón (Perkin Elmer 5100 DV) en 44 productos comerciales, de diferentes laboratorios y lotes, correspondientes a 16 componentes individuales: dextrosa; aminoácidos para adultos y pediátricos; lípidos; cloruro de potasio; cloruro de sodio, sulfato de magnesio; fosfato de sodio; gluconato de calcio; glicerofosfato de sodio; sulfato de zinc; elementos multitraza; agua estéril en ampollas y de gran volumen. Resultados: Todos los componentes de gran volumen, excepto el agua, contenían entre 249 y 1.580 μg/L, superando entre 4 y 180 veces mas que los niveles establecidos por la FDA (25 μg/L). Los componentes de pequeño volumen contenían entre 85 y 4.909 μg/L, no declarados en los rótulos. Conclusiones: 1) La mayor cantidad de aluminio se encontró en el gluconato de calcio, fosfato de sodio y elementos multitraza. 2) Las mezclas de uso habitual para NP presentan niveles de Al mayores al límite de FDA. Los componentes que aportan mayor cantidad de aluminio en las mezclas de NP para adultos son: glucosa, aminoácidos y lípidos, pero en las de neonatos, el mayor aporte proviene de la dextrosa y gluconato de calcio. 3) En las mezclas de NP para neonatos, niños y adultos la cantidad de aluminio administrado por kg de peso supera la recomendación de FDA (5 μg/kg de peso /día). Los productos comerciales deberían declarar el contenido de Al para no comprometer la evolución de los pacientes graves.

  5. Unusual naturally occurring humoral and cellular mutated epitopes of hepatitis B virus in a chronically infected argentine patient with anti-HBs antibodies.

    PubMed

    Cuestas, María L; Mathet, Verónica L; Ruiz, Vanesa; Minassian, María L; Rivero, Cintia; Sala, Andrea; Corach, Daniel; Alessio, Analía; Pozzati, Marcia; Frider, Bernardo; Oubiña, José R

    2006-06-01

    Serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA was extracted from a chronically infected patient with cocirculation of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HBs antibodies. Direct PCR and clone-derived sequences of the S and overlapped P genes were obtained. DNA sequences and phylogenetic analysis ascribed this isolate to genotype A (serotype adw2). Five of six HBV DNA clones exhibited point mutations inside and outside the major hydrophilic region, while the sixth clone exhibited a genotype A "wild-type" amino acid sequence. Observed replacements included both humoral and/or cellular (major histocompatibility complex class I [MHC-I] and MHC-II) HBV mutated epitopes, such as S45A, P46H, L49H, C107R, T125A, M133K, I152F, P153T, T161S, G185E, A194T, G202R, and I213L. None of these mutants were individually present within a given clone. The I213L replacement was the only one observed in the five clones carrying nonsynonymous mutations in the S gene. Some of the amino acid substitutions are reportedly known to be responsible for the emergence of immune escape mutants. C107R replacement prevents disulfide bonding, thus disrupting the first loop of the HBsAg. Circulation of some of these mutants may represent a potential risk for the community, since neither current hepatitis B vaccines nor hyperimmune hepatitis B immune globulin are effectively prevent the liver disease thereto associated. Moreover, some of the recorded HBsAg variants may influence the accuracy of the results obtained with currently used diagnostic tests.

  6. Frequency of family history of acute myocardial infarction in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Argentine FRICAS (Factores de Riesgo Coronario en America del Sur) Investigators.

    PubMed

    Ciruzzi, M; Schargrodsky, H; Rozlosnik, J; Pramparo, P; Delmonte, H; Rudich, V; Piskorz, D; Negri, E; Soifer, S; La Vecchia, C

    1997-07-15

    The relation between family history of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the risk of AMI was analyzed using data of a case-control study conducted in Argentina between 1992 and 1994. Case patients were 1,060 subjects with AMI admitted to 35 coronary care units, and controls were 1,071 subjects admitted to the same network of hospitals where cases had been identified, for a wide spectrum of acute conditions unrelated to known or likely risk factors for AMI: 31% of cases versus 15% of controls reported > or = 1 first-degree relative with history of AMI. Compared with subjects without family history of AMI, the odds ratio (OR) of AMI, after allowance for age, sex, cholesterolemia, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, body mass index, education, social class, and physical exercise, was 2.18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.74 to 2.74) for those with family history of AMI. The OR was 2.04 (95% CI 1.60 to 2.60) for subjects with 1 relative, and 3.18 (95% C 1.86 to 5.44) for those reporting > or = 2 relatives with AMI. In women the OR for any family history of AMI was 2.83, and in men 2.01. The association was of similar magnitude if the mother (OR 1.98), the father (OR 2.13), or a sibling (OR 2.48) had had an AMI. The association with family history was stronger at a younger age because the OR for subjects reporting > or = 2 more relatives with a history of AMI was 4.42 for subjects aged < 55 years, and 3.00 for those aged > or = 55 years. The association between AMI and family history of AMI was consistent across separate strata of education, social class, smoking, and serum cholesterol, but was less strong in subjects with history of diabetes and hypertension. When the interaction of known risk factors with family history of AMI was analyzed, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and smoking had approximately multiplicative effects on the relative risk. The OR was 4.50 for subjects with family history and cholesterol > or = 240 ml/dl, 4.52 for those with hypertension, and 5.77 for current smokers with family history of AMI. Thus, this study confirms that a family history of AMI is a strong and independent risk factor for AMI. In this population from Argentina, family history accounted for 14% of all cases of AMI in men and 26% in women.

  7. What the iberian conquest bequeathed to us: the fruit trees introduced in argentine subtropic-their history and importance in present traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Stampella, Pablo C; Lambaré, Daniela Alejandra; Hilgert, Norma I; Pochettino, María Lelia

    2013-01-01

    This contribution presents information about the history of introduction, establishment, and local appropriation of Eurasian fruit trees-species and varieties of the genera Prunus and Citrus-from 15th century in two rural areas of Northern Argentina. By means of an ethnobotanical and ethnohistorical approach, our study was aimed at analysing how this process influenced local medicine and the design of cultural landscape that they are still part of. As a first step, local diversity, knowledge, and management practices of these fruit tree species were surveyed. In a second moment, medicinal properties attributed to them were documented. A historical literature was consulted referring to different aspects on introduction of peaches and citric species into America and their uses in the past. The appropriation of these fruit-trees gave place to new applications and a particular status for introduced species that are seen as identitary and contribute to the definition of the communities and daily life landscapes. Besides, these plants, introduced in a relatively short period and with written record, allow the researcher to understand and to design landscape domestication, as a multidimensional result of physical, social, and symbolic environment.

  8. Mathematical model to select the optimal alternative for an integral plan to fight against desertification and erosion in the Chaco area in Salta Province of Argentine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, J. M.; Grau, J. B.; Colombo, F.; de Los Rios, L.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2009-04-01

    That area in the Province of Salta at North West of Argentina has a size not smaller than Belgium and low growing population, and is a specific example of combined natural, ecologic, agricultural and human evolution, where a main restriction is the necessity to avoid desertification, that is the soil quality loss studied now in several forums, the U.N.O. having said "Desertification has a very high incidence in the environmental and food security, socioeconomic stability and world sustained development". It is one of FAO's most important preoccupations as hunger in the world is increasing. Multiple factors are involved on it. Ones are in relation with natural phenomena like water and wind erosion. Others with human activities linked to soil use and water management, and finally with inappropriate activities. The parallel 24° S is central and sun is intense, annual rain is between 1000mm to 600mm being lower at East, and climate is agreable for humans specially at dry season from May to November. The soils came mostly as large deposits from rivers, from Andes Mountains, the large study area is rather flat with low mountains at SW, otherwise altitude is from 500m at NW to 200 at SE. The Bermejo is the greater river and at cross from NW to SE and has elevated land and consequently has migrated 50-100 km to NE letting a smaller channel in previous course. The city of Salta is out at West, organized since about 1588, and a main road runs N-S at the higher West of the area communicating it with Salta and towards distant Rio de la Plata for commerce, and with Bolivia at Nord. The use of land changes from West, which is now intensely cultivated and uses somewhere water from rivers, to East were the Wichi Indians live primitively and freely in a very large natural area using goats and "chanchos" (pigs) of European origin that grow in big numbers undomesticated, having somehow degraded original natural vegetation that contains now specific shrubs and small trees in areas more or less inundated by Bermejo in rainy season that is roughly from November to May. The Indians have at disposal schools and the limits of the organized area are moving to east with care for them and to prevent desertification. The authors from UPM and UCS consider diverse alternative possibilities of future use of soil, taking into account economical, environmental, cultural and sociological criteria. They have elaborated for this presentation a multicriteria model to select among different alternatives to prepare an integral plan in order to solve this problem in each area. Eight criteria and six alternatives have been introduced in the model. Six subzones have been established following previous studies.

  9. Mathematical model to select the optimal alternative for an integral plan to desertification and erosion control for the Chaco Area in Salta Province (Argentine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grau, J. B.; Anton, J. M.; Tarquis, A. M.; Colombo, F.; de Los Rios, L.; Cisneros, J. M.

    2010-04-01

    Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) is concerned with identifying the values, uncertainties and other issues relevant in a given decision, its rationality, and the resulting optimal decision. These decisions are difficult because the complexity of the system or because of determining the optimal situation or behavior. This work will illustrate how MCDA is applied in practice to a complex problem to resolve such us soil erosion and degradation. Desertification is a global problem and recently it has been studied in several forums as ONU that literally says: "Desertification has a very high incidence in the environmental and food security, socioeconomic stability and world sustained development". Desertification is the soil quality loss and one of FAO's most important preoccupations as hunger in the world is increasing. Multiple factors are involved of diverse nature related to: natural phenomena (water and wind erosion), human activities linked to soil and water management, and others not related to the former. In the whole world this problem exists, but its effects and solutions are different. It is necessary to take into account economical, environmental, cultural and sociological criteria. A multi-criteria model to select among different alternatives to prepare an integral plan to ameliorate or/and solve this problem in each area has been elaborated taking in account eight criteria and six alternatives. Six sub zones have been established following previous studies and in each one the initial matrix and weights have been defined to apply on different criteria. Three Multicriteria Decision Methods have been used for the different sub zones: ELECTRE, PROMETHEE and AHP. The results show a high level of consistency among the three different multicriteria methods despite the complexity of the system studied. The methods are described for La Estrella sub zone, indicating election of weights, Initial Matrixes, the MATHCAD8 algorithms used for PROMETHEE, and the Graph of Expert Choice showing the results of AHP. A brief schema of the actions recommended for each of the six different sub zones is reported in Conclusions, with "We can combine Autochthonous and High Value Forest" for La Estrella.

  10. [The social model of disability in Argentina: Paradigm of decision-making support and safeguards in the new Argentine Civil Code].

    PubMed

    Toro-Martínez, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    There has been a new framework with new laws and a new Code in Argentina in recent years in order to put its legal system in congruence with International Convenants on Human Rights and in particular with the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Through this new laws Argentina legal system recognize that persons with disabilities enjoy capacity on an equal basis with others in all aspects of life and the State shall take appropiate measures to provide access by persons with disabilities to the support they may require in excercising their legal capacity with safeguards.

  11. The IAF's Argentine Grantees: Caught in the Crisis. Indigenous Awakening; Self-Help and the Cities; Storm Clouds and Hope on the Pampa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durbin, Paula

    2003-01-01

    Examines how Inter-American Foundation's grantees in Argentina are coping with the country's economic crisis of 2001. Describes community development projects in Indigenous regions, the role of urban schools as the only functioning public institution providing human services, literacy education in Patagonia, job training and support for…

  12. Impact of community-based vector control on house infestation and Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Triatoma infestans, dogs and cats in the Argentine Chaco

    PubMed Central

    CARDINAL, M.V.; LAURICELLA, M.A.; MARCET, P.L.; OROZCO, M.M.; KITRON, U.; GÜRTLER, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    The relative impact of two community-based vector control strategies on house infestation by Triatoma infestans and Trypanosoma cruzi infection in bugs, domestic dogs and cats was assessed in two neighboring rural areas comprising 40 small villages and 323 houses in one of the regions most endemic for Chagas disease in northern Argentina. The prevalence and abundance of domestic infestation were 1.5- and 6.5-fold higher, respectively, in the area under pulsed, non-supervised control actions operating under the guidelines of the National Vector Control Program (NCVP) than in the area under sustained, supervised surveillance carried out jointly by the UBA research team and NCVP. The prevalence of infestation and infection varied widely among village groups within each area. In the pulsed control area, the prevalence of infection in bugs, dogs and cats was two- to three-fold higher than in the area under sustained surveillance, most of the infected animals qualified as autochthonous cases, and evidence of recent transmission was observed. Infection was highly aggregated at the household level and fell close to the 80/20 rule. Using multiple logistic regression analysis clustered by household, infection in dogs was associated positively and significantly with variables reflecting local exposure to infected T. infestans, thus demonstrating weak performance of the vector surveillance system. For high-risk areas in the Gran Chaco region, interruption of vector-mediated domestic transmission of T. cruzi requires residual insecticide spraying that is more intense, of a higher quality and sustained in time, combined with community participation and environmental management measures. PMID:17686448

  13. Residence time distribution in a large unconfined-semiconfined aquifer in the Argentine Pampas using 3H/3He and CFC tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, D. E.; Fourré, E.; Londoño, O. M. Quiroz; Jean-Baptiste, P.; Galli, M. Glok; Dapoigny, A.; Grondona, S. I.

    2016-08-01

    The Pampa region in Argentina includes vast unconfined-semiconfined aquifers that local economies depend upon, but detailed knowledge of the associated water resources is still lacking. The Pampeano aquifer in the Pampa plain of Argentina covers around 1.5 million km2. In order to achieve a better understanding of the hydrogeological system through the estimation of mean residence times (MRT), water samples were taken from 12 monitoring wells, drilled at different depths in four locations, and analyzed for environmental tracers. The concentrations of 3H, tritiogenic 3He and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) can be explained by mixtures of young waters adjusted to exponential piston flow models (EPM) or dispersion models (DM), and different proportions of tracer-free waters (dead water). The sampling site located very close to the water divide shows a dominance of young waters: 85 % of water best represented by a DM model with a MRT of 3 years. For the shallow wells at other sites, best-fitting models result in a DM with MRT between 20 and 35 years, and proportions of dead water between 40 and 60 %. These results lead to important updates in the conceptual model of the Pampeano aquifer. Large proportions of dead water at a few meters depth can be the consequence of upward flows in a multilayered aquifer or diffusive retardation in the inter-bedded clay layers.

  14. A high-altitude peatland record of environmental changes in the NW Argentine Andes (24 ° S) over the last 2100 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schittek, Karsten; Kock, Sebastian T.; Lücke, Andreas; Hense, Jonathan; Ohlendorf, Christian; Kulemeyer, Julio J.; Lupo, Liliana C.; Schäbitz, Frank

    2016-05-01

    High-altitude cushion peatlands are versatile archives for high-resolution palaeoenvironmental studies, due to their high accumulation rates, range of proxies, and sensitivity to climatic and/or human-induced changes. Especially within the Central Andes, the knowledge about climate conditions during the Holocene is limited. In this study, we present the environmental and climatic history for the last 2100 years of Cerro Tuzgle peatland (CTP), located in the dry Puna of NW Argentina, based on a multi-proxy approach. X-ray fluorescence (XRF), stable isotope and element content analyses (δ13C, δ15N, TN and TOC) were conducted to analyse the inorganic geochemistry throughout the sequence, revealing changes in the peatlands' past redox conditions. Pollen assemblages give an insight into substantial environmental changes on a regional scale. The palaeoclimate varied significantly during the last 2100 years. The results reflect prominent late Holocene climate anomalies and provide evidence that in situ moisture changes were coupled to the migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). A period of sustained dry conditions prevailed from around 150 BC to around AD 150. A more humid phase dominated between AD 200 and AD 550. Afterwards, the climate was characterised by changes between drier and wetter conditions, with droughts at around AD 650-800 and AD 1000-1100. Volcanic forcing at the beginning of the 19th century (1815 Tambora eruption) seems to have had an impact on climatic settings in the Central Andes. In the past, the peatland recovered from climatic perturbations. Today, CTP is heavily degraded by human interventions, and the peat deposit is becoming increasingly susceptible to erosion and incision.

  15. Nuclear reactors for research and radioisotope production in Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    In Argentina, the construction, operation, and use of research and radioisotope production reactors is and has been an important method of personnel preparation for the nuclear power program. Moreover, it is a very suitable means for technology transfer to countries developing their own nuclear programs. At present, the following research reactors are in operation in Argentina: Argentine Reactor 0 (RA-0); Argentine Reactor 1 (RA-1); Argentine Reactor 2 (RA-2); Argentine Reactor 3 (RA-3); Argentine Reactor 4 (RA-4). The Argentine Reactor 6 (RA-6), under construction, should reach criticality in 1981.

  16. Endoparasite fauna of five Gadiformes fish species from the coast of Chile: host ecology versus phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Chávez, R A; González, M T; Oliva, M E; Valdivia, I M

    2012-03-01

    The aims of the present study were to compare, using multivariate analyses, the degree of similarity of the endoparasite fauna of five fish species belonging to the order Gadiformes: Merluccius gayi, Merluccius australis, Macruronus magellanicus (Gadoidei) and Micromesistius australis and Nezumia pulchella (Macrouroidei), from the southern and central Chilean coast, and to evaluate whether the composition of the endoparasite fauna was determined by phylogenetic or ecological relationships. We employed our database of Merluccius australis, M. magellanicus and Micromesistius australis, which was complemented with published information for M. magellanicus, Merluccius australis, Micromesistius australis, M. gayi and N. pulchella. A higher number of endoparasite species was recorded for Merluccius australis, Micromesistius australis and M. magellanicus, namely Anisakis sp. and Hepatoxylon trichiuri, which is the most prevalent parasite among these hosts. Aporocotyle wilhelmi and Hysterothylacium sp. were detected only in M. gayi, whereas Lepidapedon sp. was found exclusively in N. pulchella. These results suggest that fish ecology rather than host phylogeny was the most important factor for the determination of similarity in parasite composition. This result could be explained by the similar trophic patterns of hosts and by the predominance of generalist larval species among these fish parasite communities.

  17. 75 FR 2488 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... actions will be decided by the Panel. The Panel's role will be development of recommendations and reports... pertinent information for Pacific hake/whiting, work with the Stock Assessment Team to make...

  18. 50 CFR 648.124 - Scup commercial season and commercial fishery area restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-exempt species: Longfin squid; black sea bass; and silver hake (whiting). (b) Northern Gear Restricted... are fishing for, or in possession of, the following non-exempt species: Longfin squid squid; black...

  19. 50 CFR 648.124 - Minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... following non-exempt species: Loligo squid; black sea bass; and silver hake (whiting). (b) Northern Gear... that are fishing for, or in possession of, the following non-exempt species: Loligo squid; black...

  20. 78 FR 71565 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ..., December 17th and Wednesday, December 18th. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the DoubleTree by Hilton... (ACL) for white hake, the 2014-15 OFL, ABC and ACL for Georges Bank yellowtail flounder, ACLs...

  1. Bio-Alpha off the West Coast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Barbara Channel ( SBC ) (Diachok, 2005a), particularly at low frequencies. To isolate the effects of the bottom on TL at low frequencies, we developed a...remain in schools at shallow depths at night (Diachok, 1999). The percentage of sardines in schools at night in the SBC may be anomalously high due...directed at hake, and no hake were caught, but they may have been present in large numbers in the SBC during this experiment. We expect to measure

  2. Changements climatiques et variations du champ magnetique terrestre dans le sud de la Patagonie (Argentine) depuis 51 200 ans reconstitues a partir des proprietes magnetiques des sediments du lac Laguna Potrok Aike

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lise-Pronovost, Agathe

    Rock magnetism is influenced by climate and by the Earth's magnetic field. The goal of this thesis is to use the rock magnetic properties of the long sedimentary sequence from the lake Laguna Potrok Aike (106 m, 51200 cal BP) to derive paleomagnetic and paleoclimatic records in a key area of the Southern Hemisphere that is poorly documented. Laguna Potrok Aike (52°S, 70°W) is located in southeastern Patagonia (Argentina) in the path of the strong Southern Hemisphere westerly winds and in the source area of the dust deposited in Antarctica during Glacial periods. The lake geographical location is therefore ideal to reconstruct past changes in aeolian activity and climate changes in Patagonia. It is also a key location to reconstruct past changes of the geomagnetic field because the Southern Hemisphere is significantly under-documented relative to the Northern Hemisphere. In addition, the proximity of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) as well as the Southern Hemisphere high flux lobes could allow identifying differences in the paleomagnetic field evolution in southern South America relative to the much more documented Northern Hemisphere. For his strong potential to provide high-resolution climatic, aeolian and paleomagnetic records beyond the last climatic transition, the maar lake Laguna Potrok Aike was drilled in the framework of the International scientific Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) for the Potrok Aike maar lake Sediment Archive Drilling prOject (PASADO). In this thesis, high-resolution rock-magnetic and physical properties are used in order to reconstruct paleoclimate and paleomagnetic records from the southernmost part of South America. In the first chapter, the full-vector paleomagnetic record (inclination, declination and relative paleointensity) derived from the sediments of Laguna Potrok Aike. A grain size influence on the relative paleointensity record (NRM/ARM) was corrected using the median destructive field of the natural remanent magnetisation (MDFNRM). Full-vector comparison of the new paleomagnetic record with other records from southern South America, elsewhere in the Southern Hemisphere, as well as dipole field models and compilations reveal similar millennial-scale variability. The Laschamp geomagnetic excursion and possibly the Mono Lake as well as the Hilina Pali excursions are recorded and suggest the global nature of these events. Nevertheless comparison with the Lake Baikal and Biwa records located on the opposite side of the globe in Siberia and Japan respectively reveals a different behaviour at ca. 46000 cal BP in Laguna Potrok Aike and in southern South America, hinting at a non-dipolar origin. In the second chapter, rock-magnetic proxies of dust and wind intensity since 51200 cal BP are constructed. The combined use of rock magnetism and grain size data allowed identifying the median destructive field of the isothermal remanent magnetisation (MDFIRM) as best reflecting silt-sized magnetite typically transported by wind in suspension over short distances. The MDF IRM displays similar variability than other wind intensity proxies derived from marine and lacustrine sediments, peat bug and speleothem records from Patagonia since the last climatic transition and from the Southern Hemisphere since 51200 cal BP. In addition, estimation of the flux of magnetite to the lake, investigation of the grain size influence on magnetic susceptibility and comparison with distal Patagonian dust records from the Southern Ocean and Antarctica indicate that the magnetic susceptibility signal from Laguna Potrok Aike is a dust record at the multi-millennial scale. In the third chapter, rock-magnetic proxies of runoff events associated with extreme precipitation and permafrost melt since 51200 cal BP are presented. The runoff events are identified by the presence of high coercivity magnetic mineral (such as hematite and goethite) which its pedogenic origin is inferred from geological, limnological, stratigraphic and climatic evidence. The runoff events are generally associated with mass movement deposits during time of enhanced lake productivity in Laguna Potrok Aike and are also coeval within the limit of the chronology to warm atmospheric conditions recorded in Antarctica. In addition, we show that the authigenic formation of iron sulfide such as greigite is strictly associated to reworked sands and tephra layers providing the required suboxic conditions and dissolved sulfate. As a whole, rock magnetism of the sediment from Laguna Potrok Aike provides a high quality full-vector paleomagnetic record as well as rock-magnetic proxies of past climate changes in southeastern Patagonia that are also associated with climate changes in Antarctica. Keywords: [Paleomagnetism, sediment magnetism, paleoclimatology, Laguna Potrok Aike, Patagonia, Southern Hemisphere, millennial- to centennial-scale variability, last Glacial period, Holocene, wind intensity].

  3. Genetic data on 11 STRs (CSF1PO, TPOX, TH01, F13A01, FESFPS, vWA, D16S539, D7S820, D13S317, F13B, LPL) in an Argentine northeast population.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Gustavo; Vázquez, Estefanía; Schaller, Cecilia; Quevedo, Natalia

    2003-05-05

    Allele frequencies for 11 short tandem repeats (STRs) loci (CSF1PO, TPOX, TH01, F13A01, FESFPS, vWA, D16S539, D7S820, D13S317, F13B and LPL) were obtained from a sample of 225 unrelated individuals born in the Entre Ríos state of Argentina.

  4. Chemical and functional characterization of seed, pulp and skin powder from chilto (Solanum betaceum), an Argentine native fruit. Phenolic fractions affect key enzymes involved in metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Orqueda, María Eugenia; Rivas, Marisa; Zampini, Iris Catiana; Alberto, María Rosa; Torres, Sebastian; Cuello, Soledad; Sayago, Jorge; Thomas-Valdes, Samanta; Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Isla, María Inés

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the nutritional and functional components of powder obtained by lyophilization of whole fruits, seeds, pulp and skin from chilto (Solanum betaceum Cav) cultivated in the ecoregion of Yungas, Argentina. The powders have low carbohydrate and sodium content and are a source of vitamin C, carotenoid, phenolics, potassium and fiber. The HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of the fractions enriched in phenolics allowed the identification of 12 caffeic acid derivatives and related phenolics, 10 rosmarinic acid derivatives and 7 flavonoids. The polyphenols enriched extracts before and after simulated gastroduodenal digestion inhibited enzymes associated with metabolic syndrome, including α-glucosidase, amylase and lipase and exhibited antioxidant activity by different mechanisms. None of the analyzed fruit powders showed acute toxicity or genotoxicity. The powders from the three parts of S. betaceum fruit may be a potential functional food and the polyphenol enriched extract of seed and skin may have nutraceutical properties.

  5. The role of carrion supply in the abundance of deep-water fish off California.

    PubMed

    Drazen, Jeffrey C; Bailey, David M; Ruhl, Henry A; Smith, Kenneth L

    2012-01-01

    Few time series of deep-sea systems exist from which the factors affecting abyssal fish populations can be evaluated. Previous analysis showed an increase in grenadier abundance, in the eastern North Pacific, which lagged epibenthic megafaunal abundance, mostly echinoderms, by 9-20 months. Subsequent diet studies suggested that carrion is the grenadier's most important food. Our goal was to evaluate if changes in carrion supply might drive the temporal changes in grenadier abundance. We analyzed a unique 17 year time series of abyssal grenadier abundance and size, collected at Station M (4100 m, 220 km offshore of Pt. Conception, California), and reaffirmed the increase in abundance and also showed an increase in mean size resulting in a ∼6 fold change in grenadier biomass. We compared this data with abundance estimates for surface living nekton (pacific hake and jack mackerel) eaten by the grenadiers as carrion. A significant positive correlation between Pacific hake (but not jack mackerel) and grenadiers was found. Hake seasonally migrate to the waters offshore of California to spawn. They are the most abundant nekton species in the region and the target of the largest commercial fishery off the west coast. The correlation to grenadier abundance was strongest when using hake abundance metrics from the area within 100 nmi of Station M. No significant correlation between grenadier abundance and hake biomass for the entire California current region was found. Given the results and grenadier longevity, migration is likely responsible for the results and the location of hake spawning probably is more important than the size of the spawning stock in understanding the dynamics of abyssal grenadier populations. Our results suggest that some abyssal fishes' population dynamics are controlled by the flux of large particles of carrion. Climate and fishing pressures affecting epipelagic fish stocks could readily modulate deep-sea fish dynamics.

  6. The Role of Carrion Supply in the Abundance of Deep-Water Fish off California

    PubMed Central

    Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Bailey, David M.; Ruhl, Henry A.; Smith, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    Few time series of deep-sea systems exist from which the factors affecting abyssal fish populations can be evaluated. Previous analysis showed an increase in grenadier abundance, in the eastern North Pacific, which lagged epibenthic megafaunal abundance, mostly echinoderms, by 9–20 months. Subsequent diet studies suggested that carrion is the grenadier's most important food. Our goal was to evaluate if changes in carrion supply might drive the temporal changes in grenadier abundance. We analyzed a unique 17 year time series of abyssal grenadier abundance and size, collected at Station M (4100 m, 220 km offshore of Pt. Conception, California), and reaffirmed the increase in abundance and also showed an increase in mean size resulting in a ∼6 fold change in grenadier biomass. We compared this data with abundance estimates for surface living nekton (pacific hake and jack mackerel) eaten by the grenadiers as carrion. A significant positive correlation between Pacific hake (but not jack mackerel) and grenadiers was found. Hake seasonally migrate to the waters offshore of California to spawn. They are the most abundant nekton species in the region and the target of the largest commercial fishery off the west coast. The correlation to grenadier abundance was strongest when using hake abundance metrics from the area within 100 nmi of Station M. No significant correlation between grenadier abundance and hake biomass for the entire California current region was found. Given the results and grenadier longevity, migration is likely responsible for the results and the location of hake spawning probably is more important than the size of the spawning stock in understanding the dynamics of abyssal grenadier populations. Our results suggest that some abyssal fishes' population dynamics are controlled by the flux of large particles of carrion. Climate and fishing pressures affecting epipelagic fish stocks could readily modulate deep-sea fish dynamics. PMID:23133679

  7. The Battle of the Malvinas: The Argentinian Version,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-16

    waters, where the shallow water depth prevent submarine attack. The Argentine submarine SAN LUIS (Class 209) fired one or more torpedoes at a range of...Coast Guard personnel and 13 civilian seamen were killed. On the same day, the Argentine submarine SAN LUIS fired 4 14 torpedoes at two targets at a...aircraft missile launchers of the British The reports of one or more attacks of the Argentine SEA CAT type. It is unclear submarine SAN LUIS (Class

  8. When the Balloon Goes Up: Barrage Balloons for Low-Level Air Defense.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    the British and the Argentines in the Falkland Islands War offer a fairly recent example of fast, ultra low-flying aircraft negating air defenses and...34 (11:45) Against ground targets the Argentine pilots used the same tactics, hugging the contours of the land to shield them against early warning...bottoms for the last two to three hours of daylight. . . .(25:88) The Argentine Air Force scored some noticeable victories during the war despite the long

  9. Molecular and epidemiological data on Anisakis spp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in commercial fish caught off northern Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Piras, M C; Tedde, T; Garippa, G; Virgilio, S; Sanna, D; Farjallah, S; Merella, P

    2014-06-16

    Anisakiasis is a fish-borne zoonosis caused by third stage larvae of the nematode Anisakis sp. present in fish or cephalopods. This is the first contribution to the molecular identification and epidemiology of Anisakis spp. in commercial fish from the Gulf of Asinara (Sardinia, western Mediterranean Sea). Between April 2006 to November 2011, 777 specimens of 10 fish species (Engraulis encrasicolus, Merluccius merluccius, Micromesistius poutassou, Phycis blennoides, Sardina pilchardus, Sardinella aurita, Scomber colias, Sphyraena viridensis, Trachurus mediterraneus, Trachurus trachurus) were examined for Anisakis sp. larvae. A total of 1286 larvae were found in 218 fish. The great majority of larvae were located in the body cavity, and only a small part (60, 4.7%) in the muscle. All the Type I larvae (1272) were identified as Anisakis pegreffii and all the Type II (14) as Anisakis physeteris, confirming that A. pegreffii is the dominant species and the most important agent of human anisakiasis in the western Mediterranean Sea.

  10. Correcting the Normalized Gain for Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John; Stewart, Gay

    2010-01-01

    The normalized gain, "g", has been an important tool for the characterization of conceptual improvement in physics courses since its use in Hake's extensive study on conceptual learning in introductory physics. The normalized gain is calculated from the score on a pre-test administered before instruction and a post-test administered…

  11. Adult Education between Cultures. Encounters and Identities in European Adult Education since 1890. Leeds Studies in Continuing Education. Cross-Cultural Studies in the Education of Adults, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hake, Barry J., Ed.; Marriott, Stuart, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers from a European research seminar examining the history and theory of cross-cultural communication in adult education: "Introduction: Encounters and Identities in European Adult Education since 1890" (Barry J. Hake, Stuart Marriott); "The University Extension Movement (1892-1914) in Ghent,…

  12. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest). Pacific Herring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    these times are salmon, seals, abnormalities developed in the lower jaws of sea lions, killer whales, dogfish , and birds larvae from eggs incubated at 4.0...offshore, important predators include Optimal temperatures for juvenile and adult hake, sablefish, dogfish , Pacific cod, and salmon. Pacific herring

  13. 76 FR 16619 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) will peer review work completed by the Council's Skate Plan Development Team. The review is being convened on April 12, 2011 for the purpose of providing expert technical... discuss the Council's Whiting/Hake Plan Development Team's evaluation of ABC-setting options....

  14. 78 FR 20618 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... recent correspondence that requests a review of the impacts of climate change on groundfish status... update about Northeast Regional Ocean Council activities. Prior to the lunch break, an open period for... surf calms and ocean quahogs and white hake. The Transboundary Management Guidance Committee will...

  15. Through the stomach of a predator: Regional patterns of forage in the diet of albacore tuna in the California Current System and metrics needed for ecosystem-based management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Sarah M.; Waechter, Katrina E.; Bransome, Nicole C.

    2015-06-01

    Foraging habits of predators can reveal patterns in prey ecology and guide ecosystem-based management by informing species interactions. This study describes the diet habits of albacore tuna in three regions (north, central, south) of the California Current System (CCS) and estimates the total predation mortality imposed on twenty prey taxa. The northern CCS was defined by predation on decapods, euphausiids, anchovy and hake. The central CCS was defined by predation on squid, hake and Pacific saury. The southern CCS was defined by predation on anchovy. We estimate North Pacific albacore consumed each year, on average, 54,000 mt of decapods and euphausiids, 43,000 mt of cephalopods, 84,000 mt of juvenile hake, 1600 mt of myctophids, 21,000 mt of juvenile sardine, 10,000 mt of juvenile rockfishes, almost 43,000 mt of Pacific saury, and over 107,000 mt of juvenile anchovy. While variability in predation certainly exists, this and prior studies show that diet habits of albacore are fairly stable through time. The northern CCS appears to be a more significant source of energy for albacore. When designing ecosystem-based approaches to the management of CCS-based fisheries, we recommend that the forage contribution of saury, hake and anchovy to the albacore population be considered.

  16. Utilization of Polyethylene Waste and Polypropylene Wastes for Formation of Fine Copper Ore Concentrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szyszka, Danuta; Więckowska, Jadwiga

    2016-10-01

    The possibilities for utilization of polyethylene waste and polypropylene waste as a binding material for formation of fine grain of copper ore concentrate in Hake Rheomix were examined. The optimum parameters of the formation processes were established. Strength, thermal and microscopic properties the products obtained were determined.

  17. 77 FR 70988 - Control Date To Limit Excessive Accumulation of Control, Qualifying Landings History, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ... Excessive Accumulation of Control, Qualifying Landings History, and Referendum Eligibility in the Small... limited to, qualifying landings and permit history for a limited access or allocation-based management... permits and other fishing privileges, as well as red, silver, and offshore hake, collectively known...

  18. 76 FR 14923 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ..., chlorophyll fluorescence, and irradiance near bottom). The research would benefit listed species by increasing... acoustically-detected organisms. The research would benefit listed species by helping make the West Coast hake... meters. The proposed research would benefit listed species by generating information that,...

  19. 78 FR 48420 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... from the Council's Monkfish Plan Development Team (PDT) and develop acceptable biological catch (ABC... information provided by the Groundfish PDT and develop ABC recommendations for white hake for fishing years 2014-15; and review information provided by the Groundfish PDT and develop ABC recommendations for...

  20. Worldwide Natural Gas Supply and Demand and the Outlook for Global LNG Trade

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    This article is adapted from testimony by Jay Hakes, Administrator of the Energy Information Administration, before the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee on July 23, 1997. The hearing focused on the examination of certain aspects of natural gas into the next century with special emphasis on world natural gas supply and demand to 2015.

  1. Cultural and Intercultural Experiences in European Adult Education. Essays on Popular and Higher Education since 1890. Leeds Studies in Continuing Education. Cross-Cultural Studies in the Education of Adults, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marriott, Stuart, Ed.; Hake, Barry J., Ed.

    This book contains the following papers from a European research seminar examining the history and theory of cross-cultural communication in adult education: "Introduction" (Stuart Marriott, Barry J. Hake); "Formative Periods in the History of Adult Education: The Role of Social and Cultural Movements in Cross-Cultural…

  2. 77 FR 37387 - New England Fishery Management Council; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Notice of Intent to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... endangered distinct population segments of Atlantic sturgeon. This notice is to alert the interested public... sturgeon that interact with the NE multispecies fisheries. These potential measures are described in...); American plaice; witch flounder; Acadian redfish; white hake; windowpane flounder (GOM/GB and SNE/MA...

  3. International Perspectives on Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holford, John, Ed.; Jarvis, Peter, Ed.; Griffin, Colin, Ed.

    This book contains 30 papers providing international perspectives on lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "Edgar Faure after 25 Years" (Roger Boshier); "Public Rhetoric and Public Policy" (Colin Griffin); "Lifelong Learning and the European Union" (Barry J. Hake); "Critical Perspectives and New…

  4. Ribavirin, Interferon, and Antibody Approaches to Prophylaxis and Therapy for Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Arenavirus Lassa fever virus Lassa fever High Junin virus Argentine hemorrhagic fever High Machupo virus Bolivian hemorrhagic fever High Bunyaviridae...assumes aerosol against respiratory syncytial virus was demon- its greatest importance in the case of Lassa fever (dis- strated in experimentally...hemorrhagic fevers and efficacy of various therapeutic approaches Arenavirus infections Bunyavirus infections Argentine

  5. Density-Dependent Effects of an Invasive Ant on a Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Community.

    PubMed

    Cooling, M; Sim, D A; Lester, P J

    2015-02-01

    It is frequently assumed that an invasive species that is ecologically or economically damaging in one region, will typically be so in other environments. The Argentine ant Linepithema humile (Mayr) is listed among the world's worst invaders. It commonly displaces resident ant species where it occurs at high population densities, and may also reduce densities of other ground-dwelling arthropods. We investigated the effect of varying Argentine ant abundance on resident ant and nonant arthropod species richness and abundance in seven cities across its range in New Zealand. Pitfall traps were used to compare an invaded and uninvaded site in each city. Invaded sites were selected based on natural varying abundance of Argentine ant populations. Argentine ant density had a significant negative effect on epigaeic ant abundance and species richness, but hypogaeic ant abundance and species richness was unaffected. We observed a significant decrease in Diplopoda abundance with increasing Argentine ant abundance, while Coleoptera abundance increased. The effect on Amphipoda and Isopoda depended strongly on climate. The severity of the impact on negatively affected taxa was reduced in areas where Argentine ant densities were low. Surprisingly, Argentine ants had no effect on the abundance of the other arthropod taxa examined. Morphospecies richness for all nonant arthropod taxa was unaffected by Argentine ant abundance. Species that are established as invasive in one location therefore cannot be assumed to be invasive in other locations based on presence alone. Appropriate management decisions should reflect this knowledge.

  6. A novel recombinant variant of latent membrane protein 1 from Epstein Barr virus in Argentina denotes phylogeographical association

    PubMed Central

    Gantuz, Magdalena; Lorenzetti, Mario Alejandro; Chabay, Paola Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infection in Argentina occurs at an early age and occasionally develops infectious mononucleosis (IM). EBV is also related with lymphomas. LMP1, the viral oncoprotein is polymorphic and is used to define viral variants. Aim To study LMP1 variants distribution among children with EBV+ malignant and benign conditions as well as in healthy carriers. Methods Oral secretions and blood cells from 31 children with IM, and biopsies from 14 EBV+ reactive lymphoid hyperplasia and 33 EBV+ lymphomas were included. LMP1 was amplified by nested PCR and sequenced. Phylogenetic reconstructions were made under Maximun Likelihood, Bayesian and coalescent algorithms. Results Six clades were defined (China1, China2, Med-, Alaskan, B95.8 and Argentine). Argentine variants, the most prevalent (46%), harbored 3 distinctive mutations and were a recombination between Raji and China1. Despite no pathology or compartment associations were observed for LMP1, the Argentine clade showed a phylogeographic association with our region. LMP1 estimated evolution rate was 8.591x10-5s/s/y and the estimated tMRCA for Raji and Argentine was 136ybp. Conclusions An LMP1 Argentine clade was defined. LMP1 evolutionary rate was higher than expected for herpesviruses. The tMRCA for Raji and the Argentine agrees with African immigration and could explain the recombinant nature of the Argentine variant. PMID:28328987

  7. Horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism among college students in the United States, Taiwan, and Argentina.

    PubMed

    Chiou, J S

    2001-10-01

    Among college students in the United States, Taiwan, and Argentina, the author examined the strength of 4 cultural patterns (horizontal collectivism, vertical collectivism, horizontal individualism, vertical individualism; H. C. Triandis, 1995). A 3-group confirmatory factor analysis established the measurement equivalence among the 3 samples before the comparison. The Taiwanese and the Argentine samples were more vertically collectivist than the U.S. sample. The U.S. and the Taiwanese samples were more vertically individualistic than the Argentine sample. The U.S. sample was more horizontally individualistic than the Argentine sample, which, in turn, was more horizontally individualistic than the Taiwanese sample.

  8. 76 FR 17407 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... and the Argentine Republic Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. DATES: This subsequent... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... of Energy. ACTION: Proposed subsequent arrangement. SUMMARY: This notice is being issued under...

  9. 76 FR 17407 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... and the Argentine Republic Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. DATES: This subsequent... Energy. Anne M. Harrington, Deputy Administrator, Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation. BILLING CODE 6450-01... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF...

  10. Activity of Bifenthrin, Chlorfenapyr, Fipronil, and Thiamethoxam against Red Imported Fire Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, fipronil, and thiamethoxam were evaluated for activity against the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr). Mobility impairment and lethal times were determined following topical treatments. Ants were immobilized most quickly by bifenthrin, followed by chlorfenapyr and thi...

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of the long terminal repeat of feline immunodeficiency viruses from Japan, Argentina and Australia.

    PubMed

    Yamada, H; Miyazawa, T; Tomonaga, K; Kawaguchi, Y; Maeda, K; Castellano, M C; Kai, C; Tohya, Y; Mikami, T

    1995-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the long terminal repeat of five Japanese, five Argentine and three Australian isolates of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) were determined and compared with those of isolates previously described. The results revealed that the Japanese isolates were found to cluster with nucleotide sequence similarity of 95.6%-99.4%. The Australian isolates also clustered with nucleotide sequence similarity of 97.2%-99.4%. The Argentine isolates formed two groups; the LP9 isolate is closely related to the Japanese isolates, whereas the LP1, LP3, LP20 and LP24 isolates are distant from both the Japanese and Australian isolates. From these results, FIV can be divided into three groups, namely: (I) the Californian, Australian and British isolates; (II) the Japanese isolates and one Argentine LP9 isolate; (III) the other Argentine isolates.

  12. [Bioethics in the new Argentinian Civil and Commercial Code].

    PubMed

    Bergel, Salvador Darío

    2015-01-01

    Argentine has a new Civil and Commercial Code that will enter into force in August. This Code contains a series of rules relating to bioethics that have served to illustrate a brief comment on its contents.

  13. Approval Letter for an Alternative Renewable Biomass Tracking Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This January 27, 2015 letter and decision document from EPA approves the Argentine Chamber of Biofuel's (CARBIO) Alternate Biomass Traking Program meeting all the requirements outlined in 40 CFR § 80.1454, including elements determined necessary to achieve

  14. 76 FR 65763 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Add...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Mexican States, the Bolivian Republic of Venezuela, and the Argentine Republic. If ICC determines to list... entities (the Federative Republic of Brazil, the United Mexican States, the Bolivian Republic of...

  15. [Monica Garrido on the Executive Council of the International Council of Museums].

    PubMed

    Garrido, M

    1999-01-01

    Monica Garrido, an important personality of the Argentine culture, was chosen as a member of the Executive Council of the ICOM. That is the reason her important work in the cultural life of her Mother Country is described here.

  16. Quantification of Anisakis simplex allergens in fresh, long-term frozen, and cooked fish muscle.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Mahillo, Ana Isabel; González-Muñoz, Miguel; de las Heras, Cristina; Tejada, Margarita; Moneo, Ignacio

    2010-08-01

    Fish-borne parasitic zoonoses such as Anisakiasis were once limited to people living in countries where raw or undercooked fish is traditionally consumed. Nowadays, several factors, such as the growing international markets, the improved transportation systems, the population movements, and the expansion of ethnic ways of cooking in developed countries, have increased the population exposed to these parasites. Improved diagnosis technology and a better knowledge of the symptoms by clinicians have increased the Anisakiasis cases worldwide. Dietary recommendations to Anisakis-sensitized patients include the consumption of frozen or well-cooked fish, but these probably do not defend sensitized patients from allergen exposure. The aim of our work was to develop a sensitive and specific method to detect and quantify Anisakis simplex allergens in fish muscle and its derivatives. Protein extraction was made in saline buffer followed by preparation under acid conditions. A. simplex antigens were detected by IgG immunoblot and quantified by dot blot. The allergenic properties of the extracts were assessed by IgE immunoblotting and basophil activation test. We were able to detect less than 1 ppm of A. simplex antigens, among them the allergen Ani s 4, in fish muscle with no cross-reactions and with a recovery rate of 82.5%. A. simplex antigens were detected in hakes and anchovies but not in sardines, red mullets, or shellfish. We detected A. simplex allergens in cooked hakes and also in hake stock. We proved that A. simplex allergens are preserved in long-term frozen storage (-20 degrees C +/- 2 degrees C for 11 months) of parasitized hakes. Basophil activation tests have proven the capability of the A. simplex-positive fish extracts to induce allergic symptoms.

  17. [Dietetic canned food using ocean fish and plant components].

    PubMed

    Serpunina, L T; Kniazeva, N S; Perova, L I; Slavgorodskaia, I P; Shatniuk, L N; Pokrovskaia, G R; Aleshko-Ozhevskiĭ, Iu P; Amanova, I Iu; Grigor'eva, M P

    2000-01-01

    The results of the creating canned ground goods of a new kind are described in this article. The main character references of food value of hake and the canned ground foods based on it. It has been established that the new products of safety. Clinical tests have been showed the efficiency of including these canned goods in the menu of fat patients, also with heavy obesity. Dietetic canned ground foods on the base of oceanic fishes with plant additives.

  18. Reorganization of the electric transmission system in Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Sbertoli, L.V. )

    1994-06-01

    The Argentine electric system was developed from isolated local services, and, as the years went by, it became a well-integrated grid. Except for some services in the southernmost region, the national interconnected system supplies electric power to final users throughout the country. The paper discusses: Argentine interconnected system; private companies and public service; electric power sector transformation; transmission network privatization; transmission rates; concession (license) contract; extensions and other transmission concessions.

  19. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe & Latin America, Argentina: Specifications of ARGOS 380 MW Reactor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-18

    in the market. ENACE the Empresa Nuclear Argentina dc Ccntralcs Flöctricas, or Argentine Nu- clear Power Plant Corporation is stepping out into the...and economy in operation. ENACE is an acronym for Empresa Nuclear Argentina de Centrales Electricas, or Argentine Nuclear Power Plant Corporation...de Energia Atömica; Buenos Aires, Argentina. Consejo Aso- sor para el Licenciamiento do Instalaciones Nucleares. "Criterios generales de seguridad en

  20. Campaigning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-08-01

    to lower, in fact the command struc- ture is often more like a spider web: a tug at any point may have an impact throughout the structure...Strategy. the Argentine mainland or to overthrow its government in order to recover the disputed islands. In the area of operations, how- ever, the...British isolated and annihilated the Argentine forces. Strategies of annihilation have the virtue of conceptual sim- plicity. The focus of our