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  1. Activities with Argentina. Spring 1999. A U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Program with the National Atomic Energy Commission of the Argentine Republic

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    In 1989, the US Department of Energy (DOE) responded to the need to redirect resources from weapons production to environmental restoration and waste management by establishing the Office of Environmental Management (EM) and delegated to this office the responsibility of cleaning up the US nuclear weapons complex. Now in its eight year, EM`s mission has three central facets: (1) to assess, remediate, and monitor contaminated sites and facilities; (2) to store, treat, and dispose of waste from past and current operations; and (3) to develop and implement innovative technologies for environmental cleanup. To this end, EM has established domestic and international cooperative technology development programs, including one with the Republic of Argentina. Cooperating with Argentine scientific institutes and industries meets US cleanup objectives by: (1) identifying and accessing Argentine EM-related technologies, thereby leveraging investments and providing cost-savings; (2) improving access to technical information, scientific expertise, and technologies applicable to EM needs; and (3) fostering the development of innovative environmental technologies by increasing US private sector opportunities in Argentina in EM-related areas.

  2. SAC-B, Argentine scientific satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulich, J. M.; White, C.

    1994-01-01

    The project and the missions of the Argentine scientific satellite, SAC-B, are summarized. SAC-B is an international cooperative project between NASA and the Secretariat of State of Science and Technology of the Argentine Republic. The objective of SAC-B is to advance the study of solar physics and astrophysics through the examination of solar flares, gamma ray burst sources and the diffuse soft X-ray cosmic background. The scientific payload comprises an instrument to measure the temporal evolution of X-ray emissions from solar flares as well as nonsolar gamma ray bursts, a combined soft X-ray and gamma ray burst detector, a diffuse X-ray background detector, and an energetic neutral atoms detector.

  3. Contemporary Argentine Cinema during Neoliberalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Carolina

    2009-01-01

    In this article I analyze contemporary Argentine cinematic production assessing the impact of Law 24,377 that was implemented in 1995 and that provided much-needed funds for national productions. By looking at film production and consumption, the emergence of young filmmakers and the performance of both commercial films and those belonging to the…

  4. Selection of the Argentine indicator region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, C. J.; Reed, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Determined from available Argentine crop statistics, selection of the Indicator Region was based on the highest wheat, corn, and soybean producing provinces, which were: Buenos Aires, Cordoba, Entre Rios, and Santa Fe. Each province in Argentina was examined for the availability of LANDSAT data; area, yield and production statistics; crop calendars; and other ancillary data. The Argentine Indicator Region is described.

  5. Trap-mulching Argentine ants.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Jules; Sorenson, Clyde E; Waldvogel, Michael G

    2006-10-01

    Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), management is constrained, in large part, by polydomy where nestmates are distributed extensively across urban landscapes, particularly within mulch. Management with trap-mulching is a novel approach derived from trap-cropping where ants are repelled from a broad domain of nest sites to smaller defined areas, which are subsequently treated with insecticide. This concept was field-tested with mulch surrounding ornamental trees replaced with a narrow band of pine (Pinus spp.) needle mulch (trap) within a much larger patch of repellent aromatic cedar (Juniperus spp.) mulch. After ants reestablished around the trees, the pine needle mulch band was treated with 0.06% fipronil (Termidor). Poor results were obtained when the trap extended from the tree trunk to the edge of the mulched area. When the trap was applied as a circular band around the tree trunk reductions in the number of foraging ants were recorded through 14 d compared with an untreated mulch control, but not for longer periods. Reductions in the number of ant nests within mulch were no different between the trap mulch and any of the other treatments. We conclude that trap-mulching offers limited benefits, and that successful management of Argentine ants will require implementation of complementary or perhaps alternative strategies.

  6. Terpenoids and bibenzyls from three Argentine liverworts.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Fumihiro; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2011-12-16

    A new rosane diterpenoid, 3a-hydroxy-5,15-rosadien-11-one (3), was isolated, together with a known rosane diterpenoid, 5,15-rosadiene-3,11-dione (4), and an aromadendrane sesquiterpenoid, ent-cyclocolorenone (5), from the Et(2)O extract of an unidentified Argentine liverwort Anastrophyllum species. Moreover, four known sesquiterpene lactones 6-9 and two known bibenzyls 10, 11 were isolated from the Et(2)O extracts of Argentine Frullania brasiliensis and Radula voluta, respectively. The structures of compounds 3-11 were determined by the use of NMR techniques.

  7. Argentine hemorrhagic fever: a primate model.

    PubMed

    Weissenbacher, M C; Calello, M A; Colillas, O J; Rondinone, S N; Frigerio, M J

    1979-01-01

    Experimental Junin virus infection of a New World primate, Callithrix jacchus, was evaluated. The virus produced anorexia, loss of weight, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and hemorrhagic and neurological symptoms and terminated in death. Virus was recovered from urine, blood samples and all tissues taken at autopsy. These preliminary observations show that several aspects of the experimental disease in C. jacchus are quite similar to severe natural Argentine hemorrhagic fever of man.

  8. Exploration of Possible Astroblemes in the Argentine Puna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acevedo, R. D.; Alonso, R.; Rocca, M.; Klajnik, K.; Tálamo, E.

    2014-09-01

    Potential three new astrobleme sites have been detected by remote sensors and checked in situ in Argentine Puna: an elevated plateau that it has remained stable and invariable across long geological periods.

  9. A Descriptive Study of the Argentine Music Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratzer, Dina; Sima, Marta

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a research study which examined the professional status of music teachers in Argentina. Describes various areas of concern for Argentine music teachers including general training, the workplace, teacher training and musical activities. (RKM)

  10. Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Manning, L.M.; Stringer, L.D.; Cappadonna, J.; El-Sayed, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m2) to 1- and 4-m2 plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  11. Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity.

    PubMed

    Suckling, D M; Peck, R W; Manning, L M; Stringer, L D; Cappadonna, J; El-Sayed, A M

    2008-12-01

    Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m(2)) to 1- and 4-m(2) plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. PMID:19034574

  12. Carbohydrate supply limits invasion of natural communities by Argentine ants.

    PubMed

    Rowles, Alexei D; Silverman, Jules

    2009-08-01

    The ability of species to invade new habitats is often limited by various biotic and physical factors or interactions between the two. Invasive ants, frequently associated with human activities, flourish in disturbed urban and agricultural environments. However, their ability to invade and establish in natural habitats is more variable. This is particularly so for the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile). While biotic resistance and low soil moisture limits their invasion of natural habitats in some instances, the effect of food availability has been poorly explored. We conducted field experiments to determine if resource availability limits the spread and persistence of Argentine ants in remnant natural forest in North Carolina. Replicated transects paired with and without sucrose solution feeding stations were run from invaded urban edges into forest remnants and compared over time using baits and direct counts at feeding stations. Repeated under different timing regimes in 2006 and 2007, access to sucrose increased local Argentine ant abundances (1.6-2.5 fold) and facilitated their progression into the forest up to 73 +/- 21% of 50-m transects. Resource removal caused an expected decrease in Argentine ant densities in 2006, in conjunction with their retreat to the urban/forest boundary. However, in 2007, Argentine ant numbers unexpectedly continued to increase in the absence of sugar stations, possibly through access to alternative resources or conditions not available the previous year such as honeydew-excreting Hemiptera. Our results showed that supplementing carbohydrate supply facilitates invasion of natural habitat by Argentine ants. This is particularly evident where Argentine ants continued to thrive following sugar station removal.

  13. [The Argentine Health System: organization and financial features].

    PubMed

    Arce, Hugo E

    2012-01-01

    The Argentine health system is defined by the following features: a) federal country organization; b) coexistence of public and private services with either outpatients or inpatients; c) fragmented entities of social security, most of these originated outside of the state organization. Components of the system are described and weighed; making decisions strength between national and provincial health authorities is analyzed and the Argentine system is compared with that of other countries. Statistical data on distribution of health expenditures and coverage of health services are presented as well as financial flow among diverse funding sources, insurers, providers and users of each sector. PMID:23089118

  14. The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) in an Argentine Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montes, Silvana Andrea; Ledesma, Rubén Daniel; García, Natalia Mariana; Poó, Fernando Martín

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide evidence of validity for the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale scores in an Argentine sample (Spanish-language version). Results indicated satisfactory psychometric properties (a one-factor structure, good item discrimination, high reliability, and significant correlations with additional measures). This…

  15. Different Argentine Rural Extensionists' Mindsets and Their Practical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landini, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reflects upon the practice of Argentine rural extensionists working in the extension public system through the process of identifying different rural extensionists' types of mindsets and comparing them with transfer of technology extension approach, dialogical processes of horizontal knowledge exchange, participatory…

  16. The Argentine ant persists through unfavorable winters via a mutualism facilitated by a native tree.

    PubMed

    Brightwell, Robert J; Silverman, Jules

    2011-10-01

    Mutualisms and facilitations can fundamentally change the relationship between an organism's realized and fundamental niche. Invasive species may prove particularly suitable models for investigating this relationship as many are dependent on finding new partners for successful establishment. We conducted field-based experiments testing whether a native tree facilitates the successful survival of the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), through unfavorable winter conditions in the southeastern United States. We found Argentine ant nests aggregated around the native loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., during the winter months. The bark of this tree absorbed enough radiant solar energy to reach temperatures suitable for Argentine ant foraging even when ambient temperatures should have curtailed all foraging. Conversely, foraging ceased when the trunk was shaded. The sun-warmed bark of this tree gave the Argentine ant access to a stable honeydew resource. Argentine ants were not found on or near deciduous trees even though bark temperatures were warm enough to permit Argentine ant foraging on cold winter days. Augmenting deciduous trees with sucrose water through the winter months lead to Argentine ant nests remaining at their base and Argentine ants foraging on the tree. The Argentine ant requires both foraging opportunity and a reliable winter food source to survive through unfavorable winter conditions in the southeastern United States. The loblolly pine provided both of these requirements extending the realized niche of Argentine ants beyond its fundamental niche.

  17. [Argentine consensus on the treatment of bipolar disorders].

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Gustavo Héctor; Strejilevich, Sergio; García Bonetto, Gerardo; Cetkovich-Bakmas, Marcelo; Zaratiegui, Rodolfo; Lagomarsino, Alejandro; Goldchluk, Aníbal; Kalina, Eduardo; Herbst, Luis; Gutiérrez, Benigno

    2005-01-01

    The consensus guidelines of argentine experts in the treatment of bipolar disorders are the result of three days of work of the 10 main local experts under the organization of the Argentine Association of Biological Psychiatry (AAPB). It was adopted a mixed criterion for its preparation: all the recent data of the evidence medicine based published until now were discussed and were balanced with the knowledge acquired from clinical experience of the local experts on the bipolar field. It presents general recommendations and suggested therapeutic sequences for the phase of maintenance, the manic/hypomanic or mixed episode and the depressive episode. These have been divided according to the classification in type I and II; with or without rapid cycling. Since the group of experts identified the delay and miss-diagnoses like the most important barrier for a suitable treatment enclosed a series of recommendations for differential diagnosis of bipolar disorders.

  18. Fast and Flexible: Argentine Ants Recruit from Nearby Trails

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Tatiana P.; Pinter-Wollman, Noa M.; Moses, Melanie E.; Gordon, Deborah M.

    2013-01-01

    Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) live in groups of nests connected by trails to each other and to stable food sources. In a field study, we investigated whether some ants recruit directly from established, persistent trails to food sources, thus accelerating food collection. Our results indicate that Argentine ants recruit nestmates to food directly from persistent trails, and that the exponential increase in the arrival rate of ants at baits is faster than would be possible if recruited ants traveled from distant nests. Once ants find a new food source, they walk back and forth between the bait and sometimes share food by trophallaxis with nestmates on the trail. Recruiting ants from nearby persistent trails creates a dynamic circuit, like those found in other distributed systems, which facilitates a quick response to changes in available resources. PMID:23967129

  19. Ribavirin prophylaxis and therapy for experimental argentine hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed Central

    McKee, K T; Huggins, J W; Trahan, C J; Mahlandt, B G

    1988-01-01

    Junin virus-infected rhesus macaques received prophylactic and therapeutic ribavirin to assess the potential of this drug for treating humans with Argentine hemorrhagic fever. When ribavirin was administered intramuscularly at the time of experimental infection with the lethal P3790 strain of Junin virus, all animals were protected from clinical disease. A delay in the initiation of therapy until after the onset of illness resulted in improvement and resolution of systemic signs of disease; however, survivors subsequently developed a late-onset central nervous system infection which was fatal in two of three animals. Side effects of ribavirin included thrombocytosis and severe anemia, both of which resolved promptly on withdrawal of drug therapy. Results of this study suggest that ribavirin may prove useful in treating humans with Argentine hemorrhagic fever. PMID:2848441

  20. [Behavior of Argentine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus strains in rodents].

    PubMed

    Saavedra, María del Cármen; Ambrosio, Ana M; Riera, Laura; Sabattini, Marta S

    2007-01-01

    The activity of LCM virus was first reported in Argentina at the beginning of the seventies and only five strains have been isolated from rodents Mus domesticus and two from humans. The objective of this paper was to find differential biological characteristics of Argentine strains of LCM virus comparing them in relation to the historical strains WE and Armstrong. Regarding the results obtained in tissue culture, when L 929 cells were used, plaque forming units (PFU) were obtained with human and mouse strains, whilst on Vero cells only human strains developed PFU. Differentials characteristics of historical and Argentine strain's plates were not found, neither differences related to the strain's origin. Neither historical nor Argentine strains were lethal to new-born mice giving a persistent infection, that was demonstrated when we inoculated new-born mouse by intracranial route with different strains of LCM virus and virus was isolated from brains harvested at different days post inoculation. The only exception was Cba An 13065 strain that exhibited virulence in new-born mice, only with 0.026 PFU was obtained 1 DL50. All the strains resulted lethal to adult mice. The mouse strains were more virulent than human strains, being Cba An 13065 the most virulent. These results demonstrate a different behavior in tissue culture between human and mouse strains and allow the identification of virulence markers by intracranial inoculation into new-born or adult mice.

  1. Argentine Population Genetic Structure: Large Variance in Amerindian Contribution

    PubMed Central

    Seldin, Michael F.; Tian, Chao; Shigeta, Russell; Scherbarth, Hugo R.; Silva, Gabriel; Belmont, John W.; Kittles, Rick; Gamron, Susana; Allevi, Alberto; Palatnik, Simon A.; Alvarellos, Alejandro; Paira, Sergio; Caprarulo, Cesar; Guillerón, Carolina; Catoggio, Luis J.; Prigione, Cristina; Berbotto, Guillermo A.; García, Mercedes A.; Perandones, Carlos E.; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta E.

    2011-01-01

    Argentine population genetic structure was examined using a set of 78 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to assess the contributions of European, Amerindian, and African ancestry in 94 individuals members of this population. Using the Bayesian clustering algorithm STRUCTURE, the mean European contribution was 78%, the Amerindian contribution was 19.4%, and the African contribution was 2.5%. Similar results were found using weighted least mean square method: European, 80.2%; Amerindian, 18.1%; and African, 1.7%. Consistent with previous studies the current results showed very few individuals (four of 94) with greater than 10% African admixture. Notably, when individual admixture was examined, the Amerindian and European admixture showed a very large variance and individual Amerindian contribution ranged from 1.5 to 84.5% in the 94 individual Argentine subjects. These results indicate that admixture must be considered when clinical epidemiology or case control genetic analyses are studied in this population. Moreover, the current study provides a set of informative SNPs that can be used to ascertain or control for this potentially hidden stratification. In addition, the large variance in admixture proportions in individual Argentine subjects shown by this study suggests that this population is appropriate for future admixture mapping studies. PMID:17177183

  2. Trail pheromone of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Villafuerte, David B; Tsutsui, Neil D

    2012-01-01

    The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) is recognized as one of the world's most damaging invasive species. One reason for the ecological dominance of introduced Argentine ant populations is their ability to dominate food and habitat resources through the rapid mobilization and recruitment of thousands of workers. More than 30 years ago, studies showed that (Z)-9-hexadecenal strongly attracted Argentine ant workers in a multi-choice olfactometer, suggesting that (Z)-9-hexadecenal might be the trail pheromone, or a component of a trail pheromone mixture. Since then, numerous studies have considered (Z)-9-hexadecenal as the key component of the Argentine ant trails. Here, we report the first chemical analyses of the trails laid by living Argentine ants and find that (Z)-9-hexadecenal is not present in a detectible quantity. Instead, two iridoids, dolichodial and iridomyrmecin, appear to be the primary chemical constituents of the trails. Laboratory choice tests confirmed that Argentine ants were attracted to artificial trails comprised of these two chemicals significantly more often than control trails. Although (Z)-9-hexadecenal was not detected in natural trails, supplementation of artificial dolichodial+iridomyrmecin trails with an extremely low concentraion of (Z)-9-hexadecenal did increase the efficacy of the trail-following behavior. In stark contrast with previous dogma, our study suggests that dolichodial and iridomyrmecin are major components of the Argentine ant trail pheromone. (Z)-9-hexadecenal may act in an additive manner with these iridoids, but it does not occur in detectable quantities in Argentine ant recruitment trails. PMID:23028739

  3. Trail Pheromone Disruption of Argentine Ant Trail Formation and Foraging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Stringer, L.D.; Snook, K.; Banko, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    Trail pheromone disruption of invasive ants is a novel tactic that builds on the development of pheromone-based pest management in other insects. Argentine ant trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, was formulated as a micro-encapsulated sprayable particle and applied against Argentine ant populations in 400 m2 field plots in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. A widely dispersed point source strategy for trail pheromone disruption was used. Traffic rates of ants in bioassays of treated filter paper, protected from rainfall and sunlight, indicated the presence of behaviorally significant quantities of pheromone being released from the formulation for up to 59 days. The proportion of plots, under trade wind conditions (2-3 m s-1), with visible trails was reduced for up to 14 days following treatment, and the number of foraging ants at randomly placed tuna-bait cards was similarly reduced. The success of these trail pheromone disruption trials in a natural ecosystem highlights the potential of this method for control of invasive ant species in this and other environments. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.

  4. Trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail formation and foraging.

    PubMed

    Suckling, David Maxwell; Peck, Robert W; Stringer, Lloyd D; Snook, Kirsten; Banko, Paul C

    2010-01-01

    Trail pheromone disruption of invasive ants is a novel tactic that builds on the development of pheromone-based pest management in other insects. Argentine ant trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, was formulated as a micro-encapsulated sprayable particle and applied against Argentine ant populations in 400 m2 field plots in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. A widely dispersed point source strategy for trail pheromone disruption was used. Traffic rates of ants in bioassays of treated filter paper, protected from rainfall and sunlight, indicated the presence of behaviorally significant quantities of pheromone being released from the formulation for up to 59 days. The proportion of plots, under trade wind conditions (2–3 m s−1), with visible trails was reduced for up to 14 days following treatment, and the number of foraging ants at randomly placed tuna-bait cards was similarly reduced. The success of these trail pheromone disruption trials in a natural ecosystem highlights the potential of this method for control of invasive ant species in this and other environments. PMID:20077128

  5. 75 FR 53731 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Contemporary Argentine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Contemporary Argentine Masterworks... of August 28, 2000, I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition..., are of cultural significance. The objects are imported pursuant to loan agreements with the...

  6. Activity of Bifenthrin, Chlorfenapyr, Fipronil, and Thiamethoxam against Argentine Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, fipronil, and thiamethoxam were evaluated for activity against the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr). Mobility impairment and lethal times were determined following topical treatments. Ants were immobilized most quickly by bifenthrin, followed by chlorfenapyr and th...

  7. Fecundity and longevity of Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) queens in response to irradiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irradiation is a postharvest quarantine treatment option to control ants and other hitchhiker pests on fresh horticultural products traded between countries. As little is known about irradiation effects on ants, radiotolerance of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae...

  8. Tectonics of the Argentine and Chilean Andes: An introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folguera, Andrés; Alvarado, Patricia; Arriagada, César; Ramos, Victor A.

    2015-12-01

    This Special Issue gathers a series of contributions derived from presentations at the 19° Congreso Geológico Argentino held in Córdoba in 2-6 June 2014. Specific subjects cover a wide variety of topics and regions of the Argentine and Chilean Andes, varying from sedimentological analyses and U/Pb dating of detrital zircons in different rocks to determine source areas for different times and regions along the southern Andes; satellite gravity data for monitoring earthquakes at the subduction zone to understand their complex rupture structure; fission track data from the Andes to the foreland region; use of seismic tomographies and conventional seismic reflection data for analyzing crustal structure; to paleomagnetic data and structural and morphological analyses (Fig. 1).

  9. [How do we heal the Argentine health care system?].

    PubMed

    Tobar, Federico

    2002-04-01

    This article proposes a set of measures to reform the Argentine health care system and turn the country's current crisis into an opportunity for progressive, sustainable change. The proposal consists of a model for the intergovernmental division of health responsibilities. The national government would be responsible for strengthening its leadership role and for developing national insurance for low-prevalence high-cost diseases. With the provincial governments, the insurance role would be strengthened, with public health insurance making certain that there is universal coverage. Public hospitals would function as autonomous entities financed by social insurance, private insurance, and provincial public insurance. Municipalities would have an active role in disease prevention and health promotion, principally through primary care.

  10. The prevalence of chromosomal aberrations in Argentine air crew members.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Julio César; Picco, Sebastián Julio; Macintyre, Carlos; Dulout, Fernando Noel; Lopez-Larraza, Daniel Mario

    2009-01-01

    The authors analyzed the effects of chronic exposure of Argentine air crew members to low doses of ionizing radiations. Genetic damage induced by either low doses or low rates of ionizing radiation was higher than expected. Seventy-one heparinized blood samples were obtained from technical ground workers (group A; n = 10), pilots of domestic flights (group B; n = 14), pilots of transequatorial flights (group C; n = 17;), pilots of transpolar flights (group D; n = 17) and retired pilots (group E; n = 10) The frequency of dicentric chromosomes was higher in groups B and C compared with groups D and E. These observations suggest that the exposure of the aircraft to ionizing radiations may induce chromosomal aberrations. However, dicentric chromosomes in both domestic and retired pilots are still high compared with dicentric control participants. PMID:19395340

  11. Colorado Basin Structure and Rifting, Argentine passive margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autin, Julia; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Loegering, Markus; Anka, Zahie; Vallejo, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Jorge; Marchal, Denis; Reichert, Christian; di Primio, Rolando

    2010-05-01

    The Argentine margin presents a strong segmentation with considerable strike-slip movements along the fracture zones. We focus on the volcanic segment (between the Salado and Colorado transfer zones), which is characterized by seaward dipping reflectors (SDR) all along the ocean-continent transition [e.g. Franke et al., 2006; Gladczenko et al., 1997; Hinz et al., 1999]. The segment is structured by E-W trending basins, which differs from the South African margin basins and cannot be explained by classical models of rifting. Thus the study of the relationship between the basins and the Argentine margin itself will allow the understanding of their contemporary development. Moreover the comparison of the conjugate margins suggests a particular evolution of rifting and break-up. We firstly focus on the Colorado Basin, which is thought to be the conjugate of the well studied Orange Basin [Hirsch et al., 2009] at the South African margin [e.g. Franke et al., 2006]. This work presents results of a combined approach using seismic interpretation and structural, isostatic and thermal modelling highlighting the structure of the crust. The seismic interpretation shows two rift-related discordances: one intra syn-rift and the break-up unconformity. The overlying sediments of the sag phase are less deformed (no sedimentary wedges) and accumulated before the generation of oceanic crust. The axis of the Colorado Basin trends E-W in the western part, where the deepest pre-rift series are preserved. In contrast, the basin axis turns to a NW-SE direction in its eastern part, where mainly post-rift sediments accumulated. The most distal part reaches the margin slope and opens into the oceanic basin. The general basin direction is almost orthogonal to the present-day margin trend. The most frequent hypothesis explaining this geometry is that the Colorado Basin is an aborted rift resulting from a previous RRR triple junction [e.g. Franke et al., 2002]. The structural interpretation

  12. Space Weather Impact on Pipeline in La Plata City, Argentine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianibelli, J. C.; Dovico, R. O.; Peirtti, R. O.; Pretel, R. O.; Garcia, R. E.; Quaglino, N. M.

    2007-05-01

    In the Sun-Earth connection, some of the most important characteristic events involved are the Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) and the high speed particle streams events coming from the Coronal Holes at the Sun. These interplanetary events produce effects on space and ground-based technology. In the present work, the geomagnetic storm recorded at Las Acacias Digital Magnetic Observatory (LAS, Lat.:-35º.0; Long.: 302º.3) produced by a particle stream from a solar coronal hole and their relationship with the induction effects caused on a pipeline in the shore of La Plata city, Argentine. The result shows an increase of the induced current correlated with the registered geomagnetic storm. Also, the magnetically calm days are analized. It is concluded that the amplitude of induced current intensity verifies a logarithmic relation with the amplitude of total magnetic intensity recorded in Las Acacias Observatory.

  13. Testing baits to control Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in vineyards.

    PubMed

    Daane, Kent M; Cooper, Monica L; Sime, Karen R; Nelson, Erik H; Battany, Mark C; Rust, Michael K

    2008-06-01

    Liquid baits were evaluated for control of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and associated mealybug and soft scale pests in California vineyards. In 2003, liquid baits with small doses ofimidacloprid, boric acid, or thiamethoxam dissolved in 25% sucrose water resulted in lower ant and mealybug densities and fruit damage, compared with an untreated control. Similar treatments in a soft scale-infested vineyard showed only a reduction of ant density and fruit infestation in only the boric acid and thiamethoxam treatments. In 2004, commercial and noncommercial formulations of liquid baits reduced ant densities in three separate trials, but they had inconsistent effects on mealybug densities and fruit infestation; granular protein bait had no effect. Using large plots and commercial application methodologies, liquid bait deployed in June resulted in lower ant density and fruit infestation, but it had no effect on mealybug density. Across all trials, liquid bait treatments resulted in lower ant density (12 of 14 trials) and fruit damage (11 of 14 sites), presenting the first report of liquid baits applied using commercial methodologies that resulted in a reduction of ants and their associated hemipteran crop damage. For commercialization of liquid baits, we showed that any of the tested insecticides can suppress Argentine ants when properly delivered in the crop system. For imidacloprid, bait dispensers must be protected from sunlight to reduce photodegradation. Results suggest that incomplete ant suppression can suppress mealybug densities. However, after ant populations are suppressed, there may be a longer period before hemipteran populations are effectively suppressed. Therefore, liquid baits should be considered part of a multiseason program rather than a direct, in-season control of hemipteran pest populations.

  14. Soils of the Galindez Island, Argentine archipelago, Western Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abakumov, Evgeny; Parnikoza, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Antarctic Peninsula is a part of Antarctica which is characterized by increased soil diversity, caused by specific of parent materials and diversity of non-vascular and vascular plants. Soils of Galindez Island have been investigated during the 18-th Ukranian Antarctic Expedition 2013/14. This Island situated in Argentine archipelago (coastal part of Antarctic Peninsula). Soils of Galindez Island presented by following types: Leptosols, Lithosols, Histic Lithosols and Leptosols and some Gleyic soils, located in lowlands and coastal parts. An average solum profile thickness is 3-19 cm which result from the small depth of debris's, underplayed by massive crystallic rocks. The permafrost layer is located within the massive rock, but not in coarse friable parent material. The soils with bird influence are widely spread both in coastal and central part of Island. In the coastal parts we can find typical Ornithosols in the penguin rockeries areas. The main aim of our investigation was characterization of soils formed under vegetation, exactly under Deschampsia antarctica Desv. localities. Argentine Islands is the central part of D. antarctica spreading area in region of Antarctic peninsula. Probably, these islands colonized by hairgrass mainly due to ornitogenic activity. So, coastal population appearance related with Larus dominicanus nest areas and feeding activity. Thus, we found typical post ornithogenic soils here. This kind of soils we also observed in population of hairgrass of Galindez mainland where it was connected with the other Antarctic bird - Catharacta maccormicki activity. Thus, the soil diversity and soil geochemistry of the Galindez Island are closely related to the activity of birds. The spatial pattern of soils, their chemistry and organic matter quality is discussed in relation with distribution of bird nesting and feeding activity.

  15. The crustal structure of the southern Argentine margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Katharina; Franke, Dieter; Schnabel, Michael; Schreckenberger, Bernd; Heyde, Ingo; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.

    2012-06-01

    Multichannel reflection seismic profiles, combined with gravimetric and magnetic data provide insight into the crustal structure of the southernmost Argentine margin, at the transition from a rifted to a transform margin and outline the extent of the North Falkland Graben. Based on these data, we establish a regional stratigraphic model for the post-rift sediments, comprising six marker horizons with a new formation in the Barremian/Lower Cretaceous. Our observations support that a N-S trending subsidiary branch of the North Falkland Graben continues along the continental shelf and slope to the Argentine basin. During the rift phase, a wide shelf area was affected by the E-W extension, subsequently forming the North Falkland Graben and the subsidiary branch along which finally breakup occurred. We propose the division of the margin in two segments: a N-S trending rifted margin and an E-W trending transform margin. This is further underpinned by crustal scale gravity modelling. Three different tectono-dynamic processes shaped the study area. (1) The Triassic/Early Jurassic extensional phase resulting in the formation of the North Falkland Graben and additional narrower rift grabens ended synchronously with the breakup of the South Atlantic in the early Valanginian. (2) Extensional phase related to the opening of the South Atlantic. (3) The transform margin was active in the study area from about Hauterivian times and activity lasted until late Cretaceous/early Cenozoic. Both, the rifted margin and the transform margin are magma-poor. Very limited structures may have a volcanic origin but are suggested to be post-rift. The oceanic crust was found to be unusually thin, indicating a deficit in magma supply during formation. These findings in combination with the proposed breakup age in the early Valanginian that considerably predates the formation of the Paraná-Etendeka continental flood basalt provinces in Brazil and Namibia question the influence of the Tristan da

  16. Fragile-X mental retardation: molecular diagnosis in Argentine patients.

    PubMed

    Florencia, Giliberto; Irene, Szijan; Veronica, Ferreiro

    2006-11-30

    Fragile-X-syndrome (FXS) is the most common type of inherited cognitive impairment. The underlying molecular alteration consists of a CGG-repeat amplification within the FMR-1 gene. The phenotype is only apparent once a threshold in the number of repeats has been exceeded (full mutation). The aim of this study was to characterize the FMR-1 CGG-repeat status in Argentine patients exhibiting mental retardation. A total of 330 blood samples from patients were analyzed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Initially, DNA from 78 affected individuals were studied by PCR. Since this method is unable to detect high molecular weight alleles, however, we undertook a second approach using the Southern blotting technique to analyze the CGG repeat number and methylation status. Southern blot analysis showed an altered pattern in 14 out of 240 (6%) unrelated patients, with half of them presenting a mosaic pattern. Eight out of 17 families (47%) showed a (suggest deleting highlight). The characteristic FXS pattern was identified in 8/17 families (47%), and in 4 of these families 25% of the individuals presented with a mosaic model. The expansion from pre-mutation to full mutation was shown to occur both at the pre and post zygotic levels. The detection of FXS mutations has allowed us to offer more informed genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis and reliable patient follow-up.

  17. Antibiotic sensitivity of an Argentine strain collection of Moraxella bovis.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, G; Piscitelli, H; Perez-Monti, H; Stobbs, L A

    2000-01-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibility of 88 isolates of Moraxella bovis of Argentine origin was evaluated for 12 antimicrobials by broth microdilution procedures. The isolates had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC90) of < or = 0.06 microg/mL to enrofloxacin; < or = 0.12 microg/mL to ceftiofur; < or = 0.25 microg/mL to ampicillin; < or = 0.5 microg/mL to florfenicol and gentamicin; < or = 1.0 microg/mL to tilmicosin, erythromycin, and oxytetracycline; < or = 4.0 microg/mL to tylosin; < or = 8.0 microg/mL to spectinomycin; < or = 0.25/4.75 microg/mL to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole; and > or = 32 microg/mL to lincomycin. Modal MIC values for these antimicrobials were as follows: enrofloxacin, 0.03 microg/mL; ceftiofur, 0.06 pg/mL; ampicillin, 0.25 microg/mL; florfenicol, gentamicin, erythromycin, and oxytetracycline, 0.5 microg/mL; tilmicosin, 1.0 microg/mL; tylosin and spectinomycin, 4.0 microg/mL; lincomycin and erythromycin, 16 microg/mL; and trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole, < or = 0.25/4.75 microg/mL. These data show that all antimicrobials except lincomycin have MICs suggestive of sensitivity in vitro, though confirmation of clinical efficacy can only be properly assessed based on pharmacologic and/or clinical data to support the MIC values. PMID:19757583

  18. Insecticide Transfer Efficiency and Lethal Load in Argentine Ants

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hooper-Bui, L. M.; Kwok, E S.C.; Buchholz, B. A.; Rust, M. K.; Eastmond, D. A.; Vogel, J. S.

    2015-07-03

    Trophallaxis between individual worker ants and the toxicant load in dead and live Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in colonies exposed to fipronil and hydramethylnon experimental baits were examined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). About 50% of the content of the crop containing trace levels of 14C-sucrose, 14C-hydramethylnon, and 14C-fipronil was shared between single donor and recipient ants. Dead workers and queens contained significantly more hydramethylnon (122.7 and 22.4 amol/μg ant, respectively) than did live workers and queens (96.3 and 10.4 amol/μg ant, respectively). Dead workers had significantly more fipronil (420.3 amol/μg ant) than did live workers (208.5 amol/μg ant), butmore » dead and live queens had equal fipronil levels (59.5 and 54.3 amol/μg ant, respectively). Moreover, the distribution of fipronil differed within the bodies of dead and live queens; the highest amounts of fipronil were recovered in the thorax of dead queens whereas live queens had the highest levels in the head. Resurgence of polygynous ant colonies treated with hydramethylnon baits may be explained by queen survival resulting from sublethal doses due to a slowing of trophallaxis throughout the colony. The bait strategies and dose levels for controlling insect pests need to be based on the specific toxicant properties and trophic strategies for targeting the entire colony.« less

  19. Insecticide Transfer Efficiency and Lethal Load in Argentine Ants

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper-Bui, L. M.; Kwok, E S.C.; Buchholz, B. A.; Rust, M. K.; Eastmond, D. A.; Vogel, J. S.

    2015-07-03

    Trophallaxis between individual worker ants and the toxicant load in dead and live Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in colonies exposed to fipronil and hydramethylnon experimental baits were examined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). About 50% of the content of the crop containing trace levels of 14C-sucrose, 14C-hydramethylnon, and 14C-fipronil was shared between single donor and recipient ants. Dead workers and queens contained significantly more hydramethylnon (122.7 and 22.4 amol/μg ant, respectively) than did live workers and queens (96.3 and 10.4 amol/μg ant, respectively). Dead workers had significantly more fipronil (420.3 amol/μg ant) than did live workers (208.5 amol/μg ant), but dead and live queens had equal fipronil levels (59.5 and 54.3 amol/μg ant, respectively). Moreover, the distribution of fipronil differed within the bodies of dead and live queens; the highest amounts of fipronil were recovered in the thorax of dead queens whereas live queens had the highest levels in the head. Resurgence of polygynous ant colonies treated with hydramethylnon baits may be explained by queen survival resulting from sublethal doses due to a slowing of trophallaxis throughout the colony. The bait strategies and dose levels for controlling insect pests need to be based on the specific toxicant properties and trophic strategies for targeting the entire colony.

  20. [Distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the Argentine Mesopotamia, 2010].

    PubMed

    Salomon, Oscar D; Fernandez, Maria S; Santini, María S; Saavedra, Silvina; Montiel, Natalia; Ramos, Marina A; Rosa, Juan R; Szelag, Enrique A; Martinez, Mariela F

    2011-01-01

    The first case of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Argentina was reported in 2006 in Posadas, Misiones. During the summer 2008-2009 Lutzomyia longipalpis, the VL vector, and canine VL cases were already spread along the province of Corrientes. In order to know the distribution of VL risk, systematic captures of the vector were performed between February and March 2010, in 18 areas of the provinces of Entre Ríos and Corrientes, and the city of Puerto Iguazú, Misiones, with a total of 313 traps/night. We confirmed the presence of Lu. longipalpis, for the first time in Chajarí (Entre Ríos), Alvear, La Cruz, Curuzú Cuatiá and Bella Vista (Corrientes), and Puerto Iguazú (Misiones). In Santo Tome and Monte Caseros (Corrientes), where the vector had been previously reported, traps with more samples were obtained with 830 and 126 Lu. Longipalpis trap/site/night respectively. These results show that the vector of urban VL continues spreading in the Argentine territory. Simultaneously, the spread of the parasite and the resulting human VL cases are associated with the dispersion of reservoirs, infected dogs, with or without clinical symptoms or signs, due to human transit. PMID:21296716

  1. Argentine ant trail pheromone disruption is mediated by trail concentration.

    PubMed

    Suckling, David Maxwell; Stringer, Lloyd D; Corn, Joshua E

    2011-10-01

    Argentine ant trail pheromone disruption, using continuous release of the trail pheromone compound (Z)-9-hexadecanal, reduces the incidence of trails and foraging rates of field populations. However, little is known about the concentrations of pheromone required for successful disruption. We hypothesized that higher pheromone quantities would be necessary to disrupt larger ant populations. To test this, we laid a 30-cm long base trail of (Z)-9-hexadecanal on a glass surface at low and high rates (1 and 100 pg/cm) (Trail 1), and laid a second, shorter trail (Trail 2, 10 cm long, located 1.5 cm upwind) near the middle of Trail 1 at six rates (1, 10, 100, 1,000, 10,000, and 100,000 pg/cm). We then recorded and digitized movements of individual ants following Trail 1, and derived a regression statistic, r (2), as an index of trail integrity, and also recorded arrival success at the other end of the trail (30 cm) near a food supply. Disruption of trails required 100 fold more pheromone upwind, independent of base-trail concentration. This implies that in the field, trail disruption is likely to be less successful against high ant-trail densities (greater concentration of trail pheromone), and more successful against newly formed or weak trails, as could be expected along invasion fronts. PMID:21964852

  2. Feeding strategy and cannibalism of the Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi.

    PubMed

    Ocampo Reinaldo, M; González, R; Romero, M A

    2011-12-01

    The diet composition and feeding strategy of the Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi in the San Matías Gulf were analysed in order to use this information for the sustainable management of the fishery. Merluccius hubbsi behaved as an opportunistic predator. Small M. hubbsi consumed planktonic crustaceans, whereas medium and large fish ate numerous prey taxa with low frequency of occurrence and variable specific abundance. Intra- and intercohort cannibalism were detected in all size groups and were particularly significant in large M. hubbsi. Medium-sized M. hubbsi consumed small conspecifics and large-sized M. hubbsi consumed both small and medium M. hubbsi. These results indicate that the removal of large M. hubbsi by fishing may increase the risk of overfishing by two combined effects: a direct effect of recruitment-overfishing and an indirect effect of growth-overfishing through an enhanced cannibalism of medium M. hubbsi on small M. hubbsi. Intra- and intercohort cannibalism and other trophic relationships in the M. hubbsi should therefore be considered explicitly in stock assessment models.

  3. Clinical and epidemiological patterns of Argentine haemorrhagic fever

    PubMed Central

    Maiztegui, J. I.

    1975-01-01

    The epidemiology of Argentine haemorrhagic fever (AHF) is closely related to cricetine rodents acting as natural hosts of Junin virus. The endemo-epidemic area, which has increased 5 times since the disease was first recognized 15-20 years ago, is located in a densely populated region of Argentina. It has been shown that the virus of LCM is active in humans and rodents of the AHF endemic area; this demonstrates the simultaneous presence of two arenaviruses pathogenic for man in a given geographic location. The disease is characterized by haematological, renal, neurological and cardiovascular changes. Electron microscopy and immunohistochemical studies have shown cytopathic changes, characteristic intracellular virus-like particles, and antigenic determinants of Junin virus in different organs from 9 cases of AHF. No deposits of immunoglobulins or C3 were found in the kidneys; in addition, an absence of fibrinogen and C3 in the hepatocytes and of immunoglobulins in the spleen was observed. These findings suggest a direct viral pathogenic action in the human disease. Ultrastructural and immunofluorescence studies in tissues of guinea-pigs inoculated with two strains of Junin virus revealed the presence of the same types of virus-like particles and antigenic determinants of Junin virus as were encountered in the human subjects with AHF. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:1085212

  4. SLR and GPS spatial techniques in ITRF. Argentine results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Actis, Eloy Vicente; Huang, Dongping; Márquez, Raúl; Adarvez, Sonia; Flores, Matías; Brizuela, Diego; Nievas, Jesica; Podestá, Ricardo; Pacheco, Ana M.; Rojas, Hernán Alvis; Yin, Zhiqiang; Li, Jinzeng; Han, Yanben; Liu, Weidong; Wang, Rui

    2012-08-01

    Along the late 30 years spatial geodetic techniques enable us to measure horizontal and vertical deformations of the Earth’s surface with a very high precision. Performing this task we made Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and Global Positioning System (GPS) observations in South America ILRS 7406 Station placed at Observatorio Astronómico Félix Aguilar (OAFA) in San Juan, Argentina, accomplishing a Cooperation Agreement between CAS - NAOC and OAFA - UNSJ. Trough LAGEOS II Satellite observations we obtain rectangular coordinates of San Juan ILRS Station in the Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITR 2000), standing out that Argentine Station data were included in the late arrangements ITRF given by International Earth Rotation and Reference System Service (IERS). Spatial and temporary variations of the epoch 2010 - 2011 were evaluated finding out remarkable displacements, of about a half meter, related with seismic events on the region. We confirm these deformations by means of GP S determinations referred to Permanent GPS Station placed nearby the SLR Station.

  5. Insecticide transfer efficiency and lethal load in Argentine ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper-Bui, L. M.; Kwok, E. S. C.; Buchholz, B. A.; Rust, M. K.; Eastmond, D. A.; Vogel, J. S.

    2015-10-01

    Trophallaxis between individual worker ants and the toxicant load in dead and live Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in colonies exposed to fipronil and hydramethylnon experimental baits were examined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). About 50% of the content of the crop containing trace levels of 14C-sucrose, 14C-hydramethylnon, and 14C-fipronil was shared between single donor and recipient ants. Dead workers and queens contained significantly more hydramethylnon (122.7 and 22.4 amol/μg ant, respectively) than did live workers and queens (96.3 and 10.4 amol/μg ant, respectively). Dead workers had significantly more fipronil (420.3 amol/μg ant) than did live workers (208.5 amol/μg ant), but dead and live queens had equal fipronil levels (59.5 and 54.3 amol/μg ant, respectively). The distribution of fipronil differed within the bodies of dead and live queens; the highest amounts of fipronil were recovered in the thorax of dead queens whereas live queens had the highest levels in the head. Resurgence of polygynous ant colonies treated with hydramethylnon baits may be explained by queen survival resulting from sublethal doses due to a slowing of trophallaxis throughout the colony. Bait strategies and dose levels for controlling insect pests need to be based on the specific toxicant properties and trophic strategies for targeting the entire colony.

  6. Coordination of the U.S. DOE-Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) science and technology implementing arrangement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    In 1989, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Environmental Management (EM) and delegated to the office the responsibility of cleaning up the US nuclear weapons complex. EM`s mission has three primary activities: (1) to assess, remediate, and monitor contaminated sites and facilities; (2) to store, treat, and dispose of wastes from past and current operations; and (3) to develop and implement innovative technologies for environmental remediation. To this end, EM has established domestic and international cooperative technology development programs, including one with the Republic of Argentina. Cooperating with Argentine scientific institutes and industry meets US cleanup objectives by: (1) identifying and accessing Argentine EM-related technologies, thereby leveraging investments and providing cost-savings; (2) improving access to technical information, scientific expertise, and technologies applicable to EM needs; and (3) fostering the development of innovative environmental technologies by increasing US private sector opportunities in Argentina in EM-related areas. Florida International University`s Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (FIU-HCET) serves as DOE-OST`s primary technology transfer agent. FIU-HCET acts as the coordinating and managing body for the Department of Energy (DOE)-Argentina National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) Arrangement. Activities include implementing standard operating procedures, tracking various technical projects, hosting visiting scientists, advising DOE of potential joint projects based on previous studies, and demonstrating/transferring desired technology. HCET hosts and directs the annual Joint Coordinating Committee for Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management meeting between the DOE and CNEA representatives. Additionally, HCET is evaluating the possibility of establishing similar arrangements with other Latin American countries.

  7. Combined effect of hemipteran control and liquid bait on Argentine ant populations.

    PubMed

    Brightwell, R J; Bambara, S B; Silverman, J

    2010-10-01

    The invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), has become a worldwide problem capable of inflicting significant ecological and economic injury on urban, agricultural, and natural environments. The mobility of this pest ant has long been noted, rapidly moving nests to new food resources and then away as resources are depleted. This ant, like many pest ant species, has a special affinity for honeydew excreted by phloem-feeding Hemiptera. We investigated the effect of various hemipteran control strategies on terrapin scale densities and measured their indirect effect on local Argentine ant densities and foraging effort. We then determined whether this indirect treatment strategy improved the performance of an ant bait. We predicted that Argentine ants would move nests away from trees treated for Hemiptera and then move nests back when a liquid bait was offered, followed by a decline in ant numbers due to intake of the toxicant. A horticultural oil spray and soil application of the systemic insecticide, imidacloprid, had no effect on terrapin scale numbers. However, trunk-injected dicrotophos caused a reduction in scale and a decline in local Argentine ant nest density and canopy foraging effort. We also recorded a reduction in local Argentine ant ground foraging when large amounts of liquid bait were applied, and we found no evidence that combining dicrotophos with liquid ant bait performed better than each treatment alone. We suggest that a strategy of combined hemipteran control plus application of liquid ant bait can reduce local Argentine ant densities, when both components of this system are highly efficacious. PMID:21061981

  8. Biotic and abiotic controls of argentine ant invasion success at local and landscape scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menke, S.B.; Fisher, R.N.; Jetz, W.; Holway, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Although the ecological success of introduced species hinges on biotic interactions and physical conditions, few experimental studies - especially on animals - have simultaneously investigated the relative importance of both types of factors. The lack of such research may stem from the common assumption that native and introduced species exhibit similar environmental tolerances. Here we combine experimental and spatial modeling approaches (1) to determine the relative importance of biotic and abiotic controls of Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) invasion success, (2) to examine how the importance of these factors changes with spatial scale in southern California (USA), and (3) to assess how Argentine ants differ from native ants in their environmental tolerances. A factorial field experiment that combined native ant removal with irrigation revealed that Argentine ants failed to invade any dry plots (even those lacking native ants) but readily invaded all moist plots. Native ants slowed the spread of Argentine ants into irrigated plots but did not prevent invasion. In areas without Argentine ants, native ant species showed variable responses to irrigation. At the landscape scale, Argentine ant occurrence was positively correlated with minimum winter temperature (but not precipitation), whereas native ant diversity increased with precipitation and was negatively correlated with minimum winter temperature. These results are of interest for several reasons. First, they demonstrate that fine-scale differences in the physical environment can eclipse biotic resistance from native competitors in determining community susceptibility to invasion. Second, our results illustrate surprising complexities with respect to how the abiotic factors limiting invasion can change with spatial scale, and third, how native and invasive species can differ in their responses to the physical environment. Idiosyncratic and scale-dependent processes complicate attempts to forecast where

  9. Agronomic characterization of the Argentina Indicator Region. [U.S. corn belt and Argentine pampas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, D. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    An overview of the Argentina indicator region including information on topography, climate, soils and vegetation is presented followed by a regionalization of crop livestock land use. Corn/soybean production and exports as well as agricultural practices are discussed. Similarities and differences in the physical agronomic scene, crop livestock land use and agricultural practices between the U.S. corn belt and the Argentine pampa are considered. The Argentine agricultural economy is described. Crop calendars for the Argentina indicator region, an accompanying description, notes on crop-livestock zones, wheat production, field size, and agricultural problems and practices are included.

  10. [Oxygen therapy during Argentine-based national and international flights].

    PubMed

    Martínez Fraga, Alejandro; Sívori, Martín; Alonso, Mariana

    2008-01-01

    There are no data about supplemental oxygen in flight in our country. The objective of our study was to evaluate arranging in-flight-oxygen required by a simulated traveler, system of administration and costs, and to compare the results between Argentine-based (A) and international (I) airlines. The questionnaire used was similar to that of Stoller et al12. Data collection consisted of telephone calls placed by one of the authors to all commercial air carriers listed in our two Buenos Aires City airports during July 2007. A structured interview with questions was addressed on issues that an oxygen-using air traveler would need to arrange in-flight oxygen. Of the 25 airlines, 6 were discarded because of lack of information (24%, three A -60%- and one I -16%-). All A allowed in-flight-oxygen vs. 80% of I (p<0.05), 100% of A and 94% of I required a medical certificate (p=NS); 71% of A and 100% of I required previous notification (p<0.05); 50% of A and 87% of I provided patient interphases of oxygen administration (p=NS). Free of charge oxygen could be provided by 100% of A and 50% of I, with airline charge between 70 to 300 dollars. In conclusion, we observed different policies, rules, availability, and a pronounced lack of standardization of airline information. The cost of oxygen was very different between airlines and it was superior on I. It will be necessary to carry out actions to facilitate patient access to oxygentherapy and to standardize medical information among airlines in our country.

  11. Argentine experience in the field of illegal immigration.

    PubMed

    Villar, J M

    1984-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of Argentine policy toward migratory flows from neighboring countries and Europe, and concludes with statistics on the number of foreigners in Argentina in the 1970-80 period. Measures passed during the 1940s and 1950s were aimed at providing amnesty for foreigners who were residing in Argentina without immigrant status. However, the lack of an adequate administrative structure to regulate foreigners at the borders was a drawback for migration authorities and limited the possiblility of applying admission criteria effectively. By 1970, there were 583,000 foreigners from neighboring countries living in Argentina, which represented a 25% increase from 1960. 42% of these migrants were in the metropolitan region of the country, indicative of a shift away from employment in agriculture. Decree No. 87, passed in 1974, represented an extension of a migration policy aimed at granting ample facilities for permanent residence to aliens from contiguous countries and was designed to prevent abuse of clandestine workers by employers. As a result of this measure, 150,000 foreigners were able to settle legally in the country. A 1981 law, yet to be implemented, establishes a new legal framework aimed at fostering immigration and regulating the admission of foreigners. To attain the objective of settling workers in areas of the country considered of prime importance to economic development, the law provides for infrastructural investments and promotional measures in areas such as tax exemption and the granting of credit. The 1980 National Population Census indicated there were 677,000 foreigners from neighboring countries in Argentina. In that year, foreigners comprised 2.4% of the country's population and 3.1% of the inhabitants of the metropolitan region. These figures are indicative of a decline in the growth of immigration, most likely due to the decline in the purchasing power of workers' salaries in the late 1970s.

  12. Argentine experience in the field of illegal immigration.

    PubMed

    Villar, J M

    1984-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of Argentine policy toward migratory flows from neighboring countries and Europe, and concludes with statistics on the number of foreigners in Argentina in the 1970-80 period. Measures passed during the 1940s and 1950s were aimed at providing amnesty for foreigners who were residing in Argentina without immigrant status. However, the lack of an adequate administrative structure to regulate foreigners at the borders was a drawback for migration authorities and limited the possiblility of applying admission criteria effectively. By 1970, there were 583,000 foreigners from neighboring countries living in Argentina, which represented a 25% increase from 1960. 42% of these migrants were in the metropolitan region of the country, indicative of a shift away from employment in agriculture. Decree No. 87, passed in 1974, represented an extension of a migration policy aimed at granting ample facilities for permanent residence to aliens from contiguous countries and was designed to prevent abuse of clandestine workers by employers. As a result of this measure, 150,000 foreigners were able to settle legally in the country. A 1981 law, yet to be implemented, establishes a new legal framework aimed at fostering immigration and regulating the admission of foreigners. To attain the objective of settling workers in areas of the country considered of prime importance to economic development, the law provides for infrastructural investments and promotional measures in areas such as tax exemption and the granting of credit. The 1980 National Population Census indicated there were 677,000 foreigners from neighboring countries in Argentina. In that year, foreigners comprised 2.4% of the country's population and 3.1% of the inhabitants of the metropolitan region. These figures are indicative of a decline in the growth of immigration, most likely due to the decline in the purchasing power of workers' salaries in the late 1970s. PMID:12339919

  13. Argentine Hydrellia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Ephydridae): new species and key to identification.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Júnior, Francisco De Assis; Mathis, Wayne Nielsen; Hauser, Martin

    2015-05-13

    Hydrellia egeriae sp. nov., a new species of Hydrellia from Campana (34 14' 04 S, 58 52' 32 W) and Hurlingham (3435'14 S, 5838'27 W), Buenos Aires province, Argentina is described. A key to the Argentine Hydrellia species is presented.

  14. Library Networks in Less-Developed Countries: Two Argentine Cases and Some Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Donna Taxco

    As an American Library Association/USIA International Library Fellow in Argentina from March to September 1989, the author worked with the Argentine National Protective Commission for People's Libraries. Included in her assignment was a charge "to assist in the development of a popular libraries network in Patagonia," the southernmost region of…

  15. Schooling and Governance: Pedagogical Knowledge and Bureaucratic Expertise in the Genesis of the Argentine Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwell, Myriam

    2013-01-01

    The consolidation of the Argentine Federal Government by the 1870s aimed to modernise local society, establish state institutions and reach political stabilisation. Building a modern schooling system articulated both utopia and bureaucracy by establishing the use of knowledge as an instrument of social intervention, vindicating and legitimising…

  16. Self-Assessment of Governance Teams in an Argentine Private University: Adapting to Difficult Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durand, Julio; Pujadas, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    Argentine Universities like similar institutions all around the world are facing a complex and challenging environment that demands a more sophisticated leadership and the development of complex managerial skills. In this paper we propose that enhancing the quality of collective decision making, and building more complex teams as a way to preserve…

  17. English as an Instrumental Language: Language Displacement in the Anglo-Argentine Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes-Conde, Florencia

    1994-01-01

    Surveyed 99 Anglo-Argentine students aged 10 through 18 at five Spanish-English bilingual schools in Buenos Aires about their language attitudes and usage. It found that, despite the prestige of the English language, Spanish had become the dominant language for most. Age and place of residency in Buenos Aires also had a significant effect on…

  18. Powerful motors: Kinship, citizenship and the transformation of the Argentine oil industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shever, Elana

    The privatization of the Argentine oil industry has been described as an unprecedented transfer of property, capital and control from the state to the corporate sphere, but this study demonstrates that the privatization process is better understood as a transformation of the historical configurations of oil-fueled development, political communities and human subjectivities. This dissertation probes the development of the state-led oil industry, and the shift to a corporate-led one, through an ethnography of Argentines differently positioned in relation to the global oil industry. The ethnography explores the lives of middle class oil workers and their families in Northwest Patagonia, impoverished residents of the shanty neighborhoods near the refineries in metropolitan Buenos Aires, and affluent employees of the translocal corporations operating in the Argentine oil fields. After the Introduction delineates this study's four principal interventions into anthropological scholarship, each subsequent chapter engages a particular problem that cuts across the Argentine oil fields and the anthropological theoretical fields. Chapter Two scrutinizes the historical construction of the Argentine subterritory as a "natural" space of value. Chapters Three and Four investigate the articulation of capitalist production and filial reproduction. These chapters argue that sentiment is a crucial generative force that has shaped the oil industry, company towns and worker families from the founding of the state-owned oil company in beginning of the twentieth century to its conversion into a corporate-owned one at the century's close. Chapters Five and Six examine the emergence of consumer citizenship and corporate citizenship out of Argentine neoliberalismo and its transformation of the oil industry. They argue that consumer and corporate citizenship are both reformulations of the older traditions of liberalism and Peronism. All the chapters of this dissertation illustrate that the

  19. Abiotic factors control invasion by Argentine ants at the community scale.

    PubMed

    Menke, Sean B; Holway, David A

    2006-03-01

    1. A prominent and unresolved question in ecology concerns why communities differ in their susceptibility to invasion. While studies often emphasize biotic resistance, it is less widely appreciated how the physical environment affects community vulnerability to invasion. 2. In this study we performed field experiments to test how abiotic variation directly and indirectly influences the extent to which Linepithema humile Mayr (Argentine ants) invade seasonally dry environments in southern California. 3. In controlled and replicated experiments involving drip irrigation, we demonstrate (i) that elevated levels of soil moisture increased both the abundance of Argentine ants and their ability to invade native ant communities and (ii) that cessation of irrigation caused declines in the abundance of Argentine ants and led to their withdrawal from previously occupied areas. 4. Because drip irrigation stimulated plant growth, in an additional experiment we manipulated both soil moisture and plant cover to assess the direct vs. indirect effects of added water on the abundance of L. humile. 5. Local abundance of Argentine ants increased in irrigated plots but was 38% higher in irrigated plots with plants compared to irrigated plots where plant growth was suppressed. The results of this experiment thus argue for a direct role of soil moisture in influencing Argentine ant abundance but suggest that that the indirect effects of added water may also be important. 6. Our study illustrates more generally that fine-scale variation in the physical environment can control whether communities become invaded by non-native species and suggests that an understanding of community susceptibility to invasion will be improved by a better appreciation of interactions between the biotic and abiotic environment.

  20. Long-term field trial to control the invasive Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with synthetic trail pheromone.

    PubMed

    Nishisue, K; Sunamura, E; Tanaka, Y; Sakamoto, H; Suzuki, S; Fukumoto, T; Terayama, M; Tatsuki, S

    2010-10-01

    Previous short-term experiments showed that trail following behavior of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), can be disrupted by a high concentration of synthetic trail pheromone component (Z)-9-hexadecenal. In this study, a long-term field trial was conducted in 100-m2 plots of house gardens in an urban area of Japan to see whether the control effect on Argentine ants can be obtained by permeating synthetic trail pheromone from dispensers. The dispensers were placed in the experimental plots during the ant's active season (April-November) for 2 yr with monthly renewal. To estimate Argentine ant population density, foraging activity of Argentine ants in the study plots was monitored by monthly bait surveys. Throughout the study period, Argentine ant foraging activity was suppressed in the presence of the dispensers, presumably via trail forming inhibition. In contrast, the level of foraging activity was not different between treatment and no-treatment plots when the dispensers were temporarily removed, suggesting that treatment with pheromone dispensers did not suppress Argentine ant density in the treatment plots. Population decline may be expected with larger-scale treatment that covers a significant portion of the ant colony or with improvement in the potency of the disruptant. PMID:21061980

  1. Beneficios de cuidados paliativos desde el principio

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo del blog Temas y Relatos del NCI acerca de un estudio clínico que muestra que los pacientes con cáncer avanzado que recibieron cuidados paliativos desde el principio tuvieron mejor calidad de vida y estado de ánimo.

  2. Highlights on DESD Progress to Date

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2007

    2007-01-01

    This brief report, delivered after the completion of the 1st year of the United Nations (UN) Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) (2005-2014), highlights the recent developments regarding the Decade (2005). It reports on the documents prepared, the regional and national launches of the Decade held so far and presents relevant…

  3. Current trends in Latin America and the Argentine perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Laredo, V.G.

    1992-12-31

    The authors discusses the changes that are taking place in Argentina as well as in all of Latin America today -- privatization, deregulation, and the modernization of the economy, changes which will serve to strengthen the governments and provide a better quality of life for all of them. He gives an insight into the factors which helped bring about these changes, the support they are receiving, the problems which persist, and the measures that still must be taken so that these positive changes remain in place. He offers some useful information that will perhaps contribute to their understanding of the vast area which he refers to as Latin America, and more specifically, gives a thumbnail sketch of what is happening today in the Republic of Argentina. For many years now, Latin American leaders have travelled to other parts of the world and spoken about the plans and expectations for the region`s future. When these well-intentioned projects and plans never materialized, partners and supporters in the United States and other countries were frustrated and disappointed by the failure to make things work. The author`s intention here today is to describe things as they are, not as they might be, to tell about what is already happening in the sphere of business and growth of the economies in Latin America.

  4. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Enterococcus faecium Strains Isolated from Argentine Cheese.

    PubMed

    Martino, Gabriela P; Quintana, Ingrid M; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S; Gallina Nizo, Gabriel; Esteban, Luis; Magni, Christian

    2016-02-04

    We report the draft genome sequences of four Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from Argentine regional cheeses. These strains were selected based on their technological properties, i.e., their ability to produce aroma compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol) from citrate. The goal of our study is to provide further genetic evidence for the rational selection of enterococci strains based on their pheno- and genotype in order to be used in cheese production.

  5. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Enterococcus faecium Strains Isolated from Argentine Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Martino, Gabriela P.; Quintana, Ingrid M.; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S.; Gallina Nizo, Gabriel; Esteban, Luis

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequences of four Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from Argentine regional cheeses. These strains were selected based on their technological properties, i.e., their ability to produce aroma compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol) from citrate. The goal of our study is to provide further genetic evidence for the rational selection of enterococci strains based on their pheno- and genotype in order to be used in cheese production. PMID:26847907

  6. Survey of Argentine Health Researchers on the Use of Evidence in Policymaking

    PubMed Central

    Corluka, Adrijana; Hyder, Adnan A.; Segura, Elsa; Winch, Peter; McLean, Robert K. D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this study, Argentine health researchers were surveyed regarding their perceptions of facilitators and barriers to evidence-based policymaking in Argentina, as well as their publication activities, and research environment satisfaction. Methods A self-administered online survey was sent to health researchers in Argentina. The survey questions were based on a preceding qualitative study of Argentine health researchers, as well as the scientific literature. Results Of the 647 researchers that were reached, 226 accessed the survey, for a response rate of 34.9%. Over 80% of researchers surveyed had never been involved in or contributed to decision-making, while over 90% of researchers indicated they would like to be involved in the decision-making process. Decision-maker self-interest was perceived to be the driving factor in the development of health and healthcare policies. Research conducted by a research leader was seen to be the most influential factor in influencing health policy, followed by policy relevance of the research. With respect to their occupational environment, researchers rated highest and most favourably the opportunities available to present, discuss and publish research results and their ability to further their education and training. Argentine researchers surveyed demonstrated a strong interest and willingness to contribute their work and expertise to inform Argentine health policy development. Conclusion Despite Argentina’s long scientific tradition, there are relatively few institutionalized linkages between health research results and health policymaking. Based on the results of this study, the disconnect between political decision-making and the health research system, coupled with fewer opportunities for formalized or informal researcher/decision-maker interaction, contribute to the challenges in evidence informing health policymaking in Argentina. Improving personal contact and the building of relationships between

  7. Toxicity and repellency of borate-sucrose water baits to Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Klotz, J H; Greenberg, L; Amrhein, C; Rust, M K

    2000-08-01

    The oral toxicity of boron compounds to the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), was evaluated in laboratory tests. The ants were provided 25% sucrose water containing 0.5 and 1% boric acid, disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, and borax. Lethal times of these solutions were a function of the concentration of boron. In field tests, the ants showed no discrimination between disodium octaborate tetrahydrate and boric acid. There was a significant reduction in consumption of sucrose water with > 1% boric acid.

  8. The Haleakala Argentine ant project: a synthesis of past research and prospects for the future.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krushelnycky, Paul; Haines, William; Loope, Lloyd; Van Gelder, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    1. The Haleakala Argentine Ant Project is an ongoing effort to study the ecology of the invasive Argentine ant in the park, and if possible to develop a strategy to control this destructive species. 2. Past research has demonstrated that the Argentine ant causes very significant impacts on native arthropods where it invades, threatening a large portion of the park’s biodiversity in subalpine shrubland and alpine aeolian ecosystems. 3. Patterns of spread over the past 30+ years indicate that the invasion process is influenced to a substantial degree by abiotic factors such as elevation, rainfall and temperature, and that the ant has not reached its potential range. Predictions of total range in the park suggest that it has only invaded a small fraction of available suitable habitat, confirming that this species is one of most serious threats to the park’s natural resources. 4. Numerous experiments have been conducted since 1994 in an attempt to develop a method for eradicating the Argentine ant at Haleakala using pesticidal ant baits. Thirty baits have been screened for attractiveness to ants in the park, and ten of these were tested for effectiveness of control in field plots. While some of these baits have been very effective in reducing numbers of ants, none has been able to eliminate all nests in experimental plots. 5. Research into a secondary management goal of ant population containment was initiated in 1996. By treating only expanding margins of the park’s two ant populations with an ant pesticide, rates of outward spread were substantially reduced in some areas. While this strategy was implemented from 1997 to 2004, it was ultimately discontinued after 2004 because of the difficulty and insufficient effectiveness of the technique. 6. In order to achieve the types of results necessary for eradication, the project would probably need to explore the possibility of developing a specialized bait, rather than relying on a commercially produced bait. An

  9. Hydrological cycles and trends in the NW Argentine Andes since 1940

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castino, Fabiana; Bookhagen, Bodo; Strecker, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    Strong spatiotemporal variability characterizes the hydrometeorological pattern in the NW Argentine Andes, draining parts of the most populated and economically important areas of South America. During the summer monsoon season (DJF), the eastern flanks of the central Andes are characterized by deep convection, exposing them to extreme hydrometeorological events. These often result in floods and landslides with disastrous effects on the local populations. Here, we analyze river discharge to explore long-term hydrological variability in NW Argentine Andes and the linked climate controlling processes. We rely on 13 daily river discharge time series relevant to drainage basins spanning several size orders (102-104 km2) starting in 1914 and define different hydro-climate indices both for the mean and the extreme hydrological events. We apply quantile regression to investigate long-term trends and spectral analysis associated with cross-correlation with SST-based climate indices to identify links to large-scale climate variability modes. River discharge presents a pronounced and coherent variability signal in South America, particularly for wide drainage basins, such as the Amazon and Paraná/La Plata rivers, strongly associated to Pacific and Atlantic Oceans Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies (i.e. ENSO, PDO, AMO). Our analysis evidences that in the NW Argentine Andes, mean discharge values are characterized by statistically significant, mostly positive, long-term trends since 1940, whereas the extreme events present a more non-unidirectional trend pattern. Also, coherent multi-annual to multi-decadal cycles characterizing the discharge pattern have been identified, suggesting that processes linked to SST anomaly-modes strongly control the hydrometeorology variability in the NW Argentina Andes.

  10. Crustal-scale architecture and segmentation of the Argentine margin and its conjugate off South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaich, Olav A.; Faleide, Jan Inge; Tsikalas, Filippos; Franke, Dieter; León, Enric

    2009-07-01

    Integration of regional seismic reflection and refraction profiles and potential field data across the Argentine margin and its conjugate off South Africa, complemented by crustal-scale gravity modelling, is used to reveal and illustrate the whole-crust architecture, onshore-offshore crustal structure correlations, the character of the continent-ocean boundary/transition and the relationship of crustal structure to regional variation of potential field anomalies. The study reveals, within these two provinces, distinct along-margin structural and magmatic changes that are spatially related to a number of conjugate transfer systems governing the margin segmentation and evolution, clearly implying structural inheritance. In particular, the Colorado transfer system on the Argentina margin, marks a distinct along-margin boundary in the distribution and volume of breakup-related magmatism. Similarly, the Hope transfer system on the conjugate South Africa margin also marks a distinct along-margin transition from a zone of relative magnetic quiescence to a zone of prominent magnetic anomalies. Furthermore, the study indicates that the `G-magnetic anomaly' along the South Africa margin probably defines the eastern limit of the continent-ocean transition (COT) rather than a discrete continent-ocean boundary (COB). Potential field plate reconstructions of the South Atlantic suggest conjugate margin asymmetry, characterized by a rather broad Argentine margin conjugate to a narrow South Africa margin. In detail, the Argentine margin is characterized by a sharp and relatively constant COT, whereas the COT along the conjugate South Africa margin is considerably wider. An along-strike tectonomagmatic asymmetry variation is also observed and is expressed by the northward increase in width of the COT on the South African margin. The study clearly shows that integration of regional seismic reflection and refraction profiles, potential field data and gravity modelling provide a

  11. Hantavirus reservoir Oligoryzomys longicaudatus spatial distribution sensitivity to climate change scenarios in Argentine Patagonia

    PubMed Central

    Carbajo, Aníbal E; Vera, Carolina; González, Paula LM

    2009-01-01

    Background Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (colilargo) is the rodent responsible for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in Argentine Patagonia. In past decades (1967–1998), trends of precipitation reduction and surface air temperature increase have been observed in western Patagonia. We explore how the potential distribution of the hantavirus reservoir would change under different climate change scenarios based on the observed trends. Methods Four scenarios of potential climate change were constructed using temperature and precipitation changes observed in Argentine Patagonia between 1967 and 1998: Scenario 1 assumed no change in precipitation but a temperature trend as observed; scenario 2 assumed no changes in temperature but a precipitation trend as observed; Scenario 3 included changes in both temperature and precipitation trends as observed; Scenario 4 assumed changes in both temperature and precipitation trends as observed but doubled. We used a validated spatial distribution model of O. longicaudatus as a function of temperature and precipitation. From the model probability of the rodent presence was calculated for each scenario. Results If changes in precipitation follow previous trends, the probability of the colilargo presence would fall in the HPS transmission zone of northern Patagonia. If temperature and precipitation trends remain at current levels for 60 years or double in the future 30 years, the probability of the rodent presence and the associated total area of potential distribution would diminish throughout Patagonia; the areas of potential distribution for colilargos would shift eastwards. These results suggest that future changes in Patagonia climate may lower transmission risk through a reduction in the potential distribution of the rodent reservoir. Conclusion According to our model the rates of temperature and precipitation changes observed between 1967 and 1998 may produce significant changes in the rodent distribution in an equivalent

  12. Republic P-47B Thunderbolt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1942-01-01

    Republic P-47B Thunderbolt: The Republic P-47B Thunderbolt was one of the great fighters used by the U. S. Army Air Force in World War II, and crews praised its ability to absorb punishment. This P-47B was used by NACA engineers to study the horizontal tail loads experienced by a fighter during abrupt maneuvers.

  13. Republic P-47C Thunderbolt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1943-01-01

    Republic P-47C Thunderbolt: Republic's P-47 was one example of a perfect marriage of airframe and power plant. The engine of this P-47C was still under study, as can be ascertained by the survey rake for measuring propeller thrust. This rake protrudes from the fuselage just behind the cowling ahead and in front of the wing.

  14. Republic P-47C Thunderbolt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1943-01-01

    Republic P-47C Thunderbolt: Republic's P-47 was one example of a perfect marriage of airframe and power plant. The engine of this P-47C was still under study, as can ascertained by the survey rake for measuring propeller thrust. This rake protrudes from the fuselage just behind the cowling ahead and in front of the wing.

  15. ``You are what you eat'': Diet modifies cuticular hydrocarbons and nestmate recognition in the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, D.; Silverman, J.

    2000-10-01

    Nestmate recognition plays a key role in the behavior and evolution of social insects. We demonstrated that hydrocarbons are the chemical cues used in Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, nestmate recognition, and that these hydrocarbons can be acquired from insect prey. Consequently, Argentine ant cuticular hydrocarbon patterns reveal the same hydrocarbons present in their diet. Diet alters both the recognition cues present on the cuticular surface and the response of nestmates to this new colony odor, resulting in aggression between former nestmates reared on different insect prey.

  16. A new species of Havelockia Pearson, 1903 from the Argentine Sea (Holothuroidea: Dendrochirotida: Sclerodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Martinez, Mariano I; Thandar, Ahmed S; Penchaszadeh, Pablo E

    2013-01-01

    Havelockia pegi sp. nov., is here described from shallow waters of the Argentine Sea. This new species is distinctive in the purple colouration of its tentacles, scarcity of body wall ossicles and the presence of rosette-shaped ossicles in both the introvert and the tentacles. It is not closely related to any of its congenors. This is the first record of a true sclerodactylid from Argentina. Thandarum hernandezi Martinez & Brogger, 2012, described in the family Sclerodactylidae, is now classified in the family Sclerothyonidae. PMID:24699619

  17. Equity during an economic crisis: financing of the Argentine health system.

    PubMed

    Cavagnero, Eleonora; Bilger, Marcel

    2010-07-01

    This article analyses the redistributive effect caused by health financing and the distribution of healthcare utilization in Argentina before and during the severe 2001/2002 economic crisis. Both dramatically changed during this period: the redistributive effect became much more positive and utilization shifted from pro-poor to pro-rich. This clearly demonstrates that when utilization is contingent on financing, changes can occur rapidly; and that an integrated approach is required when monitoring equity. From a policy perspective, the Argentine health system appears vulnerable to economic downturns mainly due to high reliance on out-of-pocket payments and the strong link between health insurance and employment. PMID:20452070

  18. Equity during an economic crisis: financing of the Argentine health system.

    PubMed

    Cavagnero, Eleonora; Bilger, Marcel

    2010-07-01

    This article analyses the redistributive effect caused by health financing and the distribution of healthcare utilization in Argentina before and during the severe 2001/2002 economic crisis. Both dramatically changed during this period: the redistributive effect became much more positive and utilization shifted from pro-poor to pro-rich. This clearly demonstrates that when utilization is contingent on financing, changes can occur rapidly; and that an integrated approach is required when monitoring equity. From a policy perspective, the Argentine health system appears vulnerable to economic downturns mainly due to high reliance on out-of-pocket payments and the strong link between health insurance and employment.

  19. Surface Uplift and Erosion of the Southernmost Argentine Precordillera Range, constrained two ways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walcek, A. A.; Hoke, G. D.

    2010-12-01

    Studying the geomorphology of actively deforming mountain ranges in distinct plate tectonic settings provides the potential to unlock important clues related to the growth and destruction of topography. We work here to estimate the timing and magnitude of uplift in the southern Argentine Precordillera by quantifying the response of the landscape to uplift. The southern Argentine Precordillera retains vast remnants of a paleolandscape, which are broad areas of pre-uplift topography. The exposure history of these desert pavement surfaces can provide information on the uplift history of the area. The locations of the paleosurfaces, clearly visible in the Argentine Precordillera, have been mapped using satellite images and digital elevation models with confirmation in the field. This map provides valuable information about the extent to which the surfaces have been eroded. All rivers draining the paleolandscape are bounded by pronounced knickpoints. The downstream projection of stream profiles that originate above the major knickpoints provide an independent constraint on the magnitude of surface uplift due to the predictable relationship between drainage area and channel slope. The erosion rates above and below knickpoints were measured from stream sediment using the cosmogenic nuclides 26Al and 10Be. The erosion rates below the knickpoint show order of magnitude differences in erosion rates than those above. Using the cosmogenic nuclides 26Al, 10Be, and 21Ne measured from surface samples of desert pavements, we estimate the uplift history of the paleosurfaces through modeling various uplift histories and their corresponding cosmogenic nuclide production rates. From multiple nuclides, both age and erosion rate is determined. The preliminary 21Ne data shows that the paleosurfaces are older than 1 Ma and slowly eroding at less than 10 m/Ma, with a second population of ages around 300,000 years. However, since the area has been uplifted, the elevation is changing through

  20. Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the aim, contents and significance of the education for sustainability (ESD) , together with the background of the Japanese proposal at WSSD. In 2002, a worldwide activity for the education for sustainable development was proposed by the Japanese Government in the occasion of World Summit of Sustainable Development (WSSD) which was held at Johannesburg. The proposal was formally adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 2005 and then the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) was inaugurated by UNESCO which was designated its lead agency. Prior to the Japanese proposal, there have been discussions about the necessity of the education of sustainable development, because it requests people to think nature and society in considerably different manner from the traditional way. The characters of the traditional education such as disciplinary structure of knowledge, the basic aspects of science that are directed to analysis and separation of natural sciences and social sciences ; reveal the insufficiency of educating people who would act and confront the difficult challenges of sustainability. The Japanese proposal has given a timely trigger for the world to start cooperative actions for the ESD. We are now on the half way of DESD and must step into the phase of integrating our achievements cooperatively, not only within Japan but also internationally.

  1. Improving liquid bait programs for Argentine ant control: bait station density.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Erik H; Daane, Kent M

    2007-12-01

    Argentine ants, Linepithema humile (Mayr), have a positive effect on populations of mealybugs (Pseudococcus spp.) in California vineyards. Previous studies have shown reductions in both ant activity and mealybug numbers after liquid ant baits were deployed in vineyards at densities of 85-620 bait stations/ha. However, bait station densities may need to be <85 bait stations/ha before bait-based strategies for ant control are economically comparable to spray-based insecticide treatments-a condition that, if met, will encourage the commercial adoption of liquid baits for ant control. This research assessed the effectiveness of baits deployed at lower densities. Two field experiments were conducted in commercial vineyards. In experiment 1, baits were deployed at 54-225 bait stations/ha in 2005 and 2006. In experiment 2, baits were deployed at 34-205 bait stations/ha in 2006 only. In both experiments, ant activity and the density of mealybugs in grape fruit clusters at harvest time declined with increasing bait station density. In 2005 only, European fruit lecanium scale [Parthenolecanium corni (Bouché)] were also present in fruit clusters, and scale densities were negatively related to bait station density. The results indicate that the amount of ant and mealybug control achieved by an incremental increase in the number of bait stations per hectare is constant across a broad range of bait station densities. The results are discussed in the context of commercializing liquid ant baits to provide a more sustainable Argentine ant control strategy.

  2. Laboratory and Field Evaluations of Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Baits Against Argentine Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Rust, Michael K; Soeprono, Andrew; Wright, Sarajean; Greenberg, Les; Choe, Dong-Hwan; Boser, Christina L; Cory, Coleen; Hanna, Cause

    2015-06-01

    The development of effective baits to control the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), has been problematic because foragers prefer sweet liquids, while many toxicants are insoluble in water and liquid baits are generally difficult to deliver. The incorporation of thiamethoxam and sucrose solutions into a water-absorbing polyacrylamide hydrogel provides a unique and novel carrier and method of application for liquid baits. Formulations of thiamethoxam affected the size of the hydrogels, and sucrose solutions containing 0.0003% technical thiamethoxam provided hydrogels as large as those made with 25% sucrose solution or deionized water. Concentrations of thiamethoxam as low as 0.000075% in the hydrogels provided 50% kill of workers within 3 d in a laboratory setting. In small colony studies, baiting with 0.00015 and 0.000075% thiamethoxam hydrogels provided 100% mortality of workers and queens within 8 d. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated that thiamethoxam was absorbed into the interior of the polyacrylamide matrix. The water loss rates of the hydrogels were dependent upon the relative humidity. Polyacrylamide hydrogels with >50% water loss were less attractive to ants. Field studies in highly infested areas indicated that concentrations of 0.0006 or 0.0018% thiamethoxam were more effective than 0.00015%. Hydrogels may provide a cost-effective alternative to providing aqueous baits to control Argentine ants. PMID:26470250

  3. Potential application of Northern Argentine propolis to control some phytopathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, R M; Zampini, I C; Moreno, M I Nieva; Isla, M I

    2011-10-20

    The antimicrobial activity of samples of Northern Argentine propolis (Tucumán, Santiago del Estero and Chaco) against phytopathogenic bacteria was assessed and the most active samples were identified. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined by agar macrodilution and broth microdilution assays. Strong antibacterial activity was detected against Erwinia carotovora spp carotovora CECT 225, Pseudomonas syringae pvar tomato CECT 126, Pseudomonas corrugata CECT 124 and Xanthomonas campestris pvar vesicatoria CECT 792. The most active propolis extract (Tucumán, T1) was selected to bioguide isolation and identified for antimicrobial compound (2',4'-dihydroxychalcone). The antibacterial chalcone was more active than the propolis ethanolic extract (MIC values of 0.5-1 μg ml(-1) and 9.5-15 μg ml(-1), respectively). Phytotoxicity assays were realized and the propolis extracts did not retard germination of lettuce seeds or the growth of onion roots. Propolis solutions applied as sprays on tomato fruits infected with P. syringae reduced the severity of disease. Application of the Argentine propolis extracts diluted with water may be promising for the management of post harvest diseases of fruits.

  4. Portrayals of character smoking and drinking in Argentine-, Mexican- and US-produced films.

    PubMed

    Kollath-Cattano, Christy; Abad-Vivero, Erika N; Mejia, Raul; Perez-Hernandez, Rosaura; Sargent, James D; Thrasher, James F

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess film character portrayals of tobacco and alcohol use in US and nationally-produced films that were popular in Argentina and Mexico from 2004-2012. We performed a content analysis of these films (n=82 Argentine, 91 Mexican, and 908 US films, respectively). Chi-squares and t-tests were used to compare characteristics of characters who smoked or drank by country of movie production. Then data from all countries were pooled, and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to determine independent correlates of character smoking or drinking. There were 480 major characters for Argentine-, 364 for Mexican-, and 4962 for US-produced films. Smoking prevalence among movie characters was similar to population smoking prevalence in Mexico (21%) and Argentina (26%), but about half in the US (11%), where movie product placements are restricted. Movie smoking declined over the period in all three countries. Movie alcohol prevalence was 40-50% across all countries and did not change with time. Demographic predictors of character smoking included: being male, 18 and older, having negative character valence. Movie smoking was not associated with lower SES. Predictors of character drinking included: being age 18 and older and positive character valence. Smoking and drinking predicted each other, illicit drug use, and higher scores for other risk behaviors. This suggests that policy development in Mexico and Argentina may be necessary to reduce the amount of character tobacco and alcohol use in films. PMID:27404576

  5. Potential application of Northern Argentine propolis to control some phytopathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, R M; Zampini, I C; Moreno, M I Nieva; Isla, M I

    2011-10-20

    The antimicrobial activity of samples of Northern Argentine propolis (Tucumán, Santiago del Estero and Chaco) against phytopathogenic bacteria was assessed and the most active samples were identified. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined by agar macrodilution and broth microdilution assays. Strong antibacterial activity was detected against Erwinia carotovora spp carotovora CECT 225, Pseudomonas syringae pvar tomato CECT 126, Pseudomonas corrugata CECT 124 and Xanthomonas campestris pvar vesicatoria CECT 792. The most active propolis extract (Tucumán, T1) was selected to bioguide isolation and identified for antimicrobial compound (2',4'-dihydroxychalcone). The antibacterial chalcone was more active than the propolis ethanolic extract (MIC values of 0.5-1 μg ml(-1) and 9.5-15 μg ml(-1), respectively). Phytotoxicity assays were realized and the propolis extracts did not retard germination of lettuce seeds or the growth of onion roots. Propolis solutions applied as sprays on tomato fruits infected with P. syringae reduced the severity of disease. Application of the Argentine propolis extracts diluted with water may be promising for the management of post harvest diseases of fruits. PMID:21237629

  6. Viral strain dependent differences in experimental Argentine hemorrhagic fever (Junin virus) infection of guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, R H; Green, D E; Maiztegui, J I; Peters, C J

    1988-01-01

    Guinea pigs infected with low-passage Junin virus of human origin showed viral strain dependent differences in mortality, LD50, time to death, and in viral spread and distribution. Different Junin strains appeared to cause at least two broad patterns of Argentine hemorrhagic fever in guinea pigs. A number of strains of Junin virus caused a viscerotropic type of illness in which virus replicated predominantly in lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow. With the most severe visceral forms of Argentine hemorrhagic fever, the guinea pigs became viremic, developed necrosis of spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow, showed gastric hemorrhages, and all animals died within 13-15 days. Other Junin strains induced a neurological type of illness with transient viral replication in and lymphocyte depletion of spleen and lymph nodes, with no detectable viremia or viral replication in bone marrow. Subsequently, virus was found in the brain with varying severities of polioencephalitis, and the guinea pigs frequently showed rear leg paralysis before death occurred 28-34 days after inoculation. Not all animals infected with a neurotropic strain developed all these signs. One viral strain induced some signs characteristic of both patterns of illness. Although the disease forms in the guinea pig model did not strictly correlate with those observed in the humans from which these strains were obtained, the different strains of Junin virus consistently caused very different patterns of illness in infected guinea pigs.

  7. Laboratory and Field Evaluations of Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Baits Against Argentine Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Rust, Michael K; Soeprono, Andrew; Wright, Sarajean; Greenberg, Les; Choe, Dong-Hwan; Boser, Christina L; Cory, Coleen; Hanna, Cause

    2015-06-01

    The development of effective baits to control the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), has been problematic because foragers prefer sweet liquids, while many toxicants are insoluble in water and liquid baits are generally difficult to deliver. The incorporation of thiamethoxam and sucrose solutions into a water-absorbing polyacrylamide hydrogel provides a unique and novel carrier and method of application for liquid baits. Formulations of thiamethoxam affected the size of the hydrogels, and sucrose solutions containing 0.0003% technical thiamethoxam provided hydrogels as large as those made with 25% sucrose solution or deionized water. Concentrations of thiamethoxam as low as 0.000075% in the hydrogels provided 50% kill of workers within 3 d in a laboratory setting. In small colony studies, baiting with 0.00015 and 0.000075% thiamethoxam hydrogels provided 100% mortality of workers and queens within 8 d. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated that thiamethoxam was absorbed into the interior of the polyacrylamide matrix. The water loss rates of the hydrogels were dependent upon the relative humidity. Polyacrylamide hydrogels with >50% water loss were less attractive to ants. Field studies in highly infested areas indicated that concentrations of 0.0006 or 0.0018% thiamethoxam were more effective than 0.00015%. Hydrogels may provide a cost-effective alternative to providing aqueous baits to control Argentine ants.

  8. Development of virtual bait stations to control Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in environmentally sensitive habitats.

    PubMed

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Vetter, Richard S; Rust, Michael K

    2010-10-01

    A novel bait station referred to as a virtual bait station was developed and tested against field populations of the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), at White Beach, Camp Pendleton, in Oceanside, CA. White Beach is a nesting habitat for an endangered seabird, the California least tern (Sterna antillarum browni Mearns). The beach is heavily infested with Argentine ants, one of the threats for the California least tern chicks. Conventional pest control strategies are prohibited because of the existence of the protected bird species and the site's proximity to the ocean. The bait station consisted of a polyvinyl chloride pipe that was treated on the inside with fipronil insecticide at low concentrations to obtain delayed toxicity against ants. The pipe was provisioned with an inverted bottle of 25% sucrose solution, then capped, and buried in the sand. Foraging ants crossed the treated surface to consume the sucrose solution. The delayed toxicity of fipronil deposits allowed the ants to continue foraging on the sucrose solution and to interact with their nestmates, killing them within 3-5 d after exposure. Further modification of the bait station design minimized the accumulation of dead ants in the sucrose solution, significantly improving the longevity and efficacy of the bait station. The virtual bait station exploits the foraging behavior of the ants and provides a low impact approach to control ants in environmentally sensitive habitats. It excluded all insects except ants, required only milligram quantities of toxicant, and eliminated the problem of formulating toxicants into aqueous sugar baits.

  9. Nutrition and interference competition have interactive effects on the behavior and performance of Argentine ants.

    PubMed

    Kay, Adam D; Zumbusch, Taylor; Heinen, Justa L; Marsh, Tom C; Holway, David A

    2010-01-01

    Food availability often influences competitive outcomes through effects on consumer growth. Although it has received less attention, food availability may also affect competition through nutritional effects on behavior. One hypothesis linking nutrition and competition in ants posits that increased access to carbohydrates favors greater investment in worker traits that underlie behavioral dominance. We tested this hypothesis by varying dietary protein:carbohydrate (P:C) ratios and levels of interspecific interference for Argentine ants (Linepithema humile), a widespread invasive species. As predicted, colonies facing interference increased patrolling more when reared on low P:C diets; this result is the first demonstration of an interactive effect of nutrition and interference on ant colonies. Several results suggest that this dietary effect on patrolling was due primarily to changes in colony size rather than worker behavior. Colonies on lower P:C diets had lower worker mortality and larger final colony sizes. Diet had little effect on per capita patrolling, and worker behavior in performance assays depended more on previous exposure to interference than on diet. Our findings indicate that dietary P:C ratios can influence Argentine ant performance in a competitive environment and suggest a mechanism by which monopolization of carbohydrate-rich resources can help invasive ants displace native ant competitors.

  10. Quantitative analysis of the effects of the exotic Argentine ant on seed-dispersal mutualisms

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Cabal, Mariano A.; Stuble, Katharine L.; Nuñez, Martin A.; Sanders, Nathan J.

    2009-01-01

    Although it is increasingly clear that exotic invasive species affect seed-dispersal mutualisms, a synthetic examination of the effect of exotic invasive species on seed-dispersal mutualisms is lacking. Here, we review the impacts of the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) on seed dispersal. We found that sites with L. humile had 92 per cent fewer native ant seed dispersers than did sites where L. humile was absent. In addition, L. humile did not replace native seed dispersers, as rates of seed removal and seedling establishment were all lower in the presence of L. humile than in its absence. We conclude that potential shifts in plant diversity and concomitant changes in ecosystem function may be a consequence of Argentine ant invasions, as well as invasions by other ant species. Because very few studies have examined the effects of non-ant invasive species on seed-dispersal mutualisms, the prevalence of disruption of seed-dispersal mutualisms by invasive species is unclear. PMID:19465575

  11. Differential use of the Argentine shelf by wintering adults and juveniles southern giant petrels, Macronectes giganteus, from Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Gabriela S.; Quintana, Flavio

    2014-08-01

    To study habitat use and at-sea movements of southern giant petrels (SGP) during non-breeding period, we deployed 15 satellite transmitters (six adults, nine juveniles) at Isla Arce and Isla Gran Robredo colonies in Patagonia, Argentina. Birds were instrumented during 81.4 ± 37 days. Adult birds used 74% of the Argentine shelf concentrating mainly at the shelf break, middle shelf waters, and the surroundings of the colony. After fledging, juveniles spread to the Argentine, Uruguayan and Brazilian shelves within the South Atlantic. Adults alternated at-sea excursions (12 ± 5 days) with periods at the colony of 3 ± 0.3 days. Contrarily, juveniles moved first to the shelf break and then traveled northwards reaching the south of Brazil. There was some spatial overlap between age classes, but only during the first 30 days after juveniles had fledged; thereafter there was not overlap between the areas used by both age classes. The Argentine shelf is widely used by different species offering a suitable environment for foraging; this may be why adults SGP from Patagonian colonies spend all year-round within the Argentine shelf. The identification of used areas of non-breeding SGP fills a gap in the species knowledge contributing not only to the preservation the species, but also to the management of marine areas globally recognized as important for many other Procellariiformes.

  12. Yemen Arab Republic.

    PubMed

    1985-07-01

    The government of the Yemen Arab Republic does not have a population policy, but promotes family planning for health reasons since one of its goals is to reduce maternal and child mortality and morbidity. The 2nd 5-Year Plan (1982-86) aims for increased gross domestic product and per capita income, regional development, infrastructure development, job creation, and human resources mobilization. The population increased from 4.8 million in 1970 to 5.8 million in 1980 and is projected to reach 6.5 million by 1985 (indicating a 2.4% growth rate from 1980-1985). Life expectancy is 44 years for both sexes; infant mortality now stands at a high 156/1000 due largely to early marriage and little maternal care. The government concentrates on improving health care, mainly through its national health plans, by emphasizing immunization, education, and training doctors abroad. Current total fertility is 6.7, the birth rate is 48.5/1000, and the average age at marriage for girls is 13. Contraceptives and sterilization are available; abortion for contraceptive purposes is illegal. Up to 30% of Yemen's labor force may have emigrated to neighboring Gulf states and Saudi Arabia. The shortage in labor is partially made up by immigrants from the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, but the government still considers emigration too high since many of those who leave are the most skilled. There is no policy on international migration, due to the great value of remittances, but the government would like to encourage return migration. Yemen's urban population increased from 1.9% in 1950 to 15.3% in 1980. 4/5 of the population live in 5 of Yemen's 10 governorates. The government's policy seeks to strengthen the agricultural sector, improve living quality in rural areas, build up a balanced regional infrastructure, and establish more educational opportunities in small cities and villages. PMID:12314236

  13. Educational Ethics and the DESD: Considering Trade-Offs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlottmann, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The United Nation's Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) aims to prepare students for pressing economic and environmental problems. In this article, I argue that an exclusive emphasis on an ambiguous goal, sustainable development, raises important questions for educational ethics. Specifically, I argue that DESD mission…

  14. Valvulopathy consistent with endocarditis in an Argentine boa (Boa constrictor occidentalis).

    PubMed

    Wernick, Morena B; Novo-Matos, José; Ebling, Alessia; Kühn, Karolin; Ruetten, Maja; Hilbe, Monika; Howard, Judith; Chang, Rita; Prohaska, Sarah; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2015-03-01

    An Argentine boa (Boa constrictor occidentalis) of 5 yr 7 mo of age was presented for respiratory problems and regurgitation. Radiographs revealed evidence of cardiomegaly and pneumonia. Blood smear examination revealed the presence of intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in peripheral lymphocytes, consistent with inclusion body disease. Cultures of a tracheal wash sample resulted in growth of Ochrobactrum intermedium and Pseudomonas putida. Echocardiographic examination revealed a large vegetative lesion on the right atrioventricular valve with valvular insufficiency, a mildly dilated right atrium, and pulmonary hypertension. Postmortem examination confirmed the presence of pneumonia and bacterial endocarditis with dystrophic mineralization of the right atrioventricular valve, associated with different bacteria than those cultured from the tracheal wash. The present case is the first report of endocarditis in a boa constrictor and contributes to the rare reports of cardiac disease in snakes.

  15. Organochlorinated pesticides in the Argentine Antarctic sector and Atlantic coastline waters.

    PubMed

    García Fernández, J C; Casabella, A N; Marzi, A A; Astolfi, E; Roses, O; Donnewald, H; Villamil, E

    1979-01-01

    The presence of organochlorinated pesticides in water samples drawn in the Argentine Antarctic Sector and Atlantic coastline has been proved. In general, these samples showed quantities that varied between a few hundredths of a ppmm to slightly more than 1 ppmm, although in some cases and for certain pesticides, depending on the locations, the levels found were definitely higher. With the exception of Dieldrin, which appeared in only one sample/in what would seem to be its course few hundredths of a ppm, to slightly more than 1 ppmm, although in some cases and for certain pesticides found were the same as those reported in previous investigations. The isolated cases of high pesticide contents in water samples drawn at wharves and of snow in the vicinity of Almirante Brown Base show up clearly the influence of human activity on the contamination of the environment.

  16. Basis for the implementation of digital signature in Argentine's health environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, P. P.; Formica, M.

    2007-11-01

    The growth of telemedical applications and electronic transactions in health environments is paced by the constant technology evolution. This implies a big cultural change in traditional medicine and in hospital information systems' users which arrival is delayed, basically, by the lack of solid laws and a well defined role-based infrastructure. The use of digital signature as a mean of identification, authentication, confidentiality and non-repudiation is the most suitable tool for assuring the electronic transactions and patient's data protection. The implementation of a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) in health environment allows for authentication, encryption and use of digital signature for assuring confidentiality and control of the movement of sensitive information. This work defines the minimum technological, legal and procedural basis for a successful PKI implementation and establishes the roles for the different actors in the chain of confidence in the public health environment of Argentine.

  17. The widespread collapse of an invasive species: Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Cooling, Meghan; Hartley, Stephen; Sim, Dalice A; Lester, Philip J

    2012-06-23

    Synergies between invasive species and climate change are widely considered to be a major biodiversity threat. However, invasive species are also hypothesized to be susceptible to population collapse, as we demonstrate for a globally important invasive species in New Zealand. We observed Argentine ant populations to have collapsed in 40 per cent of surveyed sites. Populations had a mean survival time of 14.1 years (95% CI = 12.9-15.3 years). Resident ant communities had recovered or partly recovered after their collapse. Our models suggest that climate change will delay colony collapse, as increasing temperature and decreasing rainfall significantly increased their longevity, but only by a few years. Economic and environmental costs of invasive species may be small if populations collapse on their own accord.

  18. Adjective checklist to assess the big five personality factors in the Argentine population.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, Rubén D; Sánchez, Roberto; Díaz-Lázaro, Carlos M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop an adjective checklist to assess the Big Five personality factors in the Argentine population. The new instrument was administered to pilot (n= 112), validation (n= 372), and replication (n= 309) samples. The final version of the checklist included 67 adjectives encompassing its 5 dimensions. Factor analysis results were consistent with the Five-factor model. Internal consistency of scales was very good and convergent correlations with the Big Five Inventory (BFI; John, Donahue, & Kentle, 1991) were substantial. Face validity, as evaluated by 2 independent raters, was good. Preliminary evidence of validity for the checklist is presented. Finally, the Adjective Checklist for Personality Assessment and BFI are compared, taking into consideration their psychometric properties in our cultural context. Study limitations and future research are discussed.

  19. Use of remote sensing and GIS to identify Flamingo habitat in the Argentine Altiplano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyle, Susan C.; Hoffer, Roger M.; Boyle, Terence P.; Bucher, Enrique H.

    1992-01-01

    The Argentine altiplano is a remote area which has never been adequately mapped. It is an arid region with harsh climate, little vegetation, sparse population, and an average elevation of over 3,500 feet. Little is known about the large populations of three species of flamingos which nest and feed in the altiplano lakes. In a study funded by the National Geographic Society satellite data (Landsat MSS and TM data) were used to map the location of major water bodies and to analyze the spectral characteristics of the aquatic ecosystems in the altiplano. A comparison of the two images revealed dramatic changes in the size, depth, and spectral reflectance of the lakes utilized by the flamingos.

  20. A mathematical model of foraging in a dynamic environment by trail-laying Argentine ants.

    PubMed

    Ramsch, Kai; Reid, Chris R; Beekman, Madeleine; Middendorf, Martin

    2012-08-01

    Ants live in dynamically changing environments, where food sources become depleted and alternative sources appear. Yet most mathematical models of ant foraging assume that the ants' foraging environment is static. Here we describe a mathematical model of ant foraging in a dynamic environment. Our model attempts to explain recent empirical data on dynamic foraging in the Argentine ant Linepithema humile (Mayr). The ants are able to find the shortest path in a Towers of Hanoi maze, a complex network containing 32,768 alternative paths, even when the maze is altered dynamically. We modify existing models developed to explain ant foraging in static environments, to elucidate what possible mechanisms allow the ants to quickly adapt to changes in their foraging environment. Our results suggest that navigation of individual ants based on a combination of one pheromone deposited during foraging and directional information enables the ants to adapt their foraging trails and recreates the experimental results. PMID:22575583

  1. Early markers of blood coagulation and fibrinolysis activation in Argentine hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Heller, M V; Marta, R F; Sturk, A; Maiztegui, J I; Hack, C E; Cate, J W; Molinas, F C

    1995-03-01

    Junin virus, an arenaviridae, is the etiological agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever. In addition to thrombocytopenia, patients present several alterations in both the blood coagulation and the fibrinolytic system, but diffuse intravascular coagulation could not be demonstrated. To investigate further the activation status of the two systems, levels of thrombin-antithrombin complexes (TAT), prothrombin fragment 1 + 2, protein C, total and free protein S, C4bBP, antithrombin III, t-PA, PAI-1 and D-dimer were measured. Fourteen patients with a confirmed diagnosis of Argentine hemorrhagic fever were included in the study, 2 were severe, 3 moderate and 9 mild clinical cases, but hemorrhages were slight throughout. Blood samples were collected for 6 consecutive days on admission and on remission. At admission TAT and F1 + 2 levels were increased in 13/14 patients, reaching 0.33 nM (0.06-0.87) and 2.16 nM (0.96-6.5), respectively. PC was low in 4 cases, fPS in 6 and tPS in 2, whereas C4bBP and ATIII values were within normal range. t-PA and D-dimer levels were high in 11/14 patients, reaching 20 ng/ml (2.7-106) and 1660 ng/ml (877-3780) respectively, while PAI-1 was considerably increased in the 2 severe cases and normal in the remainder. These results suggest low level though persistent process of blood coagulation and fibrinolysis activation in this viral hemorrhagic disease. We believe these abnormalities may lead to the well described bleeding manifestations in these patients.

  2. First Finding of Melanic Sylvatic Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Colonies in the Argentine Chaco

    PubMed Central

    CEBALLOS, L. A.; PICCINALI, R. V.; BERKUNSKY, I.; KITRON, U.; GÜRTLER, R. E.

    2009-01-01

    Triatoma infestans (Klug), the most important vector of Chagas disease in southern South America, is a highly domiciliated species with well-known sylvatic foci only in the Bolivian Andean valleys and in the Bolivian Chaco, where melanic insects designated as “dark morphs” were found. After the tentative identification of two melanic bugs collected from parrot nests in a forest reserve in the Argentine Chaco as T. infestans, we conducted an intensive search there using mouse-baited sticky traps in summer 2006 and 2007. Four live T. infestans bugs were collected in trees without parrot nests in 288 trap-nights, whereas no bug was collected from inside trees with active parrot nests in 51 trap-nights. To increase bug captures, hollow tree trunks that recently had had Amazona aestiva (Berlepsch) and Aratinga acuticaudata (Vieillot) parrot nests were treated with insecticide fumigant canisters exhibiting strong knockdown power. Four (22%) of 18 trees were positive for T. infestans with a dark phenotype. A fragment of the mitochondrial gene COI of 8 of the 14 triatomine bugs collected was successfully sequenced and confirmed as T. infestans. Most of the bugs were captured from Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco (Schlechter) hollow tree trunks harboring parrot nests. All of the T. infestans collected from the nearest house located at 10 km from the sylvatic foci displayed normal chromatic characters. The repeated finding of T. infestans in sylvatic habitats, albeit at very low density, shows that this species is capable of maintaining viable sylvatic foci in the absence of human hosts and immigration from domestic populations. These are the first confirmed findings of sylvatic T. infestans colonies in Argentina and of dark morphs in the Argentine Chaco. PMID:19769054

  3. Marine fronts are important fishing areas for demersal species at the Argentine Sea (Southwest Atlantic Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemany, Daniela; Acha, Eduardo M.; Iribarne, Oscar O.

    2014-03-01

    The high primary and secondary production associated with frontal systems attract a diversity of organisms due to high prey availability; this is why a strong relationship between fronts and pelagic fisheries has been shown worldwide. In the Argentine Sea, demersal resources are the most important, both in economical and in ecological sense; so we hypothesize that fronts are also preferred fishing areas for demersal resources. We evaluated the relationship between spatial distribution of fishing effort and oceanographic fronts, analyzing three of the most important frontal systems located in the Argentine Sea: the shelf-break front, the southern Patagonia front and the mid-shelf front. Individual vessel satellite monitoring system data (VMS; grouped by fleet type: ice-trawlers, freezer-trawlers and jigging fleet) were studied and fishing events were identified. Fishing events per area were used as a proxy of fishing effort and its spatial distribution by fleet type was visualized and analyzed with Geographic Information Systems. Oceanographic fronts were defined using polygons based on satellite chlorophyll amplitude values, and the percentage of fishing events within each polygon was calculated. Results showed a positive association between fronts and fishing activities of the different fleets, which suggests the aggregation of target species in these zones. The coupling of the freezer-trawler and jigging fleets (that operate on lower trophic level species; Macruronus magellanicus and Illex argentinus respectively) with fronts was higher than the ice-trawler fleet, targeting species of higher trophic level (Merluccius hubbsi). Marine fronts represent important fishing areas, even for demersal resources, as the distribution of fishing fleets and fishing effort are positively associated with frontal zones.

  4. A Host-Oriented Inhibitor of Junin Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Egress

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jianhong; Han, Ziying; Liu, Yuliang; Liu, Wenbo; Lee, Michael S.; Olson, Mark A.; Ruthel, Gordon; Freedman, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT There are currently no U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved vaccines or therapeutics to prevent or treat Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF). The causative agent of AHF is Junin virus (JUNV); a New World arenavirus classified as a National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention category A priority pathogen. The PTAP late (L) domain motif within JUNV Z protein facilitates virion egress and transmission by recruiting host Tsg101 and other ESCRT complex proteins to promote scission of the virus particle from the plasma membrane. Here, we describe a novel compound (compound 0013) that blocks the JUNV Z-Tsg101 interaction and inhibits budding of virus-like particles (VLPs) driven by ectopic expression of the Z protein and live-attenuated JUNV Candid-1 strain in cell culture. Since inhibition of the PTAP-Tsg101 interaction inhibits JUNV egress, compound 0013 serves as a prototype therapeutic that could reduce virus dissemination and disease progression in infected individuals. Moreover, since PTAP l-domain-mediated Tsg101 recruitment is utilized by other RNA virus pathogens (e.g., Ebola virus and HIV-1), PTAP inhibitors such as compound 0013 have the potential to function as potent broad-spectrum, host-oriented antiviral drugs. IMPORTANCE There are currently no FDA-approved vaccines or therapeutics to prevent or treat Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF). The causative agent of AHF is Junin virus (JUNV); a New World arenavirus classified as an NIAID/CDC category A priority pathogen. Here, we describe a prototype therapeutic that blocks budding of JUNV and has the potential to function as a broad-spectrum antiviral drug. PMID:24522922

  5. Can the Argentine ant ( Linepithema humile Mayr) replace native ants in myrmecochory?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Crisanto; Oliveras, Jordi

    2003-04-01

    We analyse the influence of the Argentine ant ( Linepithema humile Mayr) on the seed dispersal process of the myrmecochorous plants Euphorbia characias, E. biumbellata, Genista linifolia, G. triflora, G. monspessulana and Sarothamnus arboreus. The observations were made in two study plots of Mediterranean cork-oak secondary forest (invaded and non-invaded by L. humile). The presence of L. humile implies the displacement of all native ant species that disperse seeds. Seed transports in the non-invaded zone were carried out by eight ant species. In the invaded zone, L. humile workers removed and transported seeds to the nest. In vertebrate exclusion trials, we observed the same level of seed removal in the invaded and non-invaded zones. Two findings could explain this result. Although mean time to seed localization was higher for native ants (431.7 s) than that for L. humile (150.5 s), the mean proportion of seeds transported after being detected was higher (50.1%) in non-invaded than in invaded (16.8%) zones. The proportion of seeds removed and transported into an ant nest after an ant-seed interaction had dramatically reduced from non-invaded (41.9%) to invaded (7.4%) zones. The levels of seed dispersal by ants found prior to invasion are unlikely to be maintained in invaded zones. However, total replacement of seed dispersal function is possible if contact iteration finally offers similar levels or quantities of seeds reaching the nests. The results obtained confirm that the Argentine ant invasion may affect myrmecochory dramatically in the Mediterranean biome.

  6. Consequences of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), invasion on pollination of Euphorbia characias (L.) (Euphorbiaceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blancafort, Xavier; Gómez, Crisanto

    2005-07-01

    We have studied the influence of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, on the pollination of Euphorbia characias, a deciduous insect-pollinated shrub. The observations were made in two adjacent areas (invaded and non-invaded by L. humile) in a Mediterranean cork-oak forest. In the invaded area, L. humile has replaced most of the native ants that climb up this plant's inflorescences. Five native ant species were detected in the non-invaded areas and only one in the invaded area. The number of visitors to infested inflorescences (1.54 ± 1.86 visitors/10 min observation) was lower than in non-infested inflorescences in the invaded area (3.74 ± 4.19 visitors/10'), and in the non-invaded areas (4.16 ± 5.00 visits/10'). For several species of flower-visiting insects, no differences were detected between the time spent in the flowers and the number of flowers visited in the two areas, except for Eristalis tenax, a dipteran which visited more flowers (15.2 ± 11.1 flowers visited/10') and spent more time (9.4 ± 5.8 sec) in the non-invaded area than in the invaded area (7.8 ± 8.2 flowers visited/10' and 5.3 ± 2.1 sec, respectively). The relative representation of insect orders in the two areas was not different. A significant reduction in fruit-set and seed-set was detected in the invaded area. These results suggest that the Argentine ant may greatly affect the reproductive success of components of the Mediterranean flora.

  7. Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    1989-11-01

    The Central African Republic contains 242,000 square miles, which rolling terrain almost 2000 feet above sea level. The climate is tropical, and it has a population of 2.8 million people with a 2.5% growth rate. There are more than 80 ethnic groups including Baya 34%, Banda 28%, Sara 10%, Mandja 9%, Mboum 9%, and M'Baka 7%. The religions are traditional African 35%, protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, and Muslim 15%, and the languages are French and Sangho. The infant mortality rate is 143/1000, with expectancy at 49 years and a 40% literacy rate. The work force of 1 million is 70% agricultural, industry 6% and commerce and service 6% and government 3%. The government consists of a president assisted by cabinet ministers and a single party. Natural resources include diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, and oil, and major industries are beverages, textiles, and soap. Agricultural products feature coffee, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, food crops and livestock. Most of the population live in rural areas and most of the 80 ethnic groups have their own language. This is one of the world's least developed countries, with a per capita income of $375/year. The main problems with development are the poor transportation infrastructure, and the weak internal and international marketing systems. The US and various international organizations have aided in agriculture development, health programs, and family planning. US investment is mainly in diamond and gold mining, and although oil drilling has been successful it is not economically feasible at current prices.

  8. Situation Reports--Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Kenya, Lebanese Republic, Malagasy Republic, Malaysia (West), People's Democratic Republic of Yemen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Kenya, Lebanese Republic, Malagasy Republic (Madagascar), Malaysia (West), and People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. Information is provided under two topics, general background and…

  9. Republication of: Observations in cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristian, Jerome; Sachs, Rainer K.

    2011-01-01

    This is a reprinting of a paper by Jerome Kristian and Rainer K. Sachs, first published in 1966, in which they proposed a power-series scheme for reading out various parameters of the Universe directly from observations in a model-independent way. The paper has been selected by the Editors of General Relativity and Gravitation for re-publication in the Golden Oldies series of the journal. This republication is accompanied by an editorial note written by George Ellis and by a brief biography of J. Kristian, compiled by A. Krasiński from internet sources.

  10. Workers select mates for queens: a possible mechanism of gene flow restriction between supercolonies of the invasive Argentine ant.

    PubMed

    Sunamura, Eiriki; Hoshizaki, Sugihiko; Sakamoto, Hironori; Fujii, Takeshi; Nishisue, Koji; Suzuki, Shun; Terayama, Mamoru; Ishikawa, Yukio; Tatsuki, Sadahiro

    2011-05-01

    Some invasive ants form large networks of mutually non-aggressive nests, i.e., supercolonies. The Argentine ant Linepithema humile forms much larger supercolonies in introduced ranges than in its native range. In both cases, it has been shown that little gene flow occurs between supercolonies of this species, though the mechanism of gene flow restriction is unknown. In this species, queens do not undertake nuptial flight, and males have to travel to foreign nests and cope with workers before gaining access to alien queens. In this study, we hypothesized that male Argentine ants receive interference from workers of alien supercolonies. To test this hypothesis, we conducted behavioral and chemical experiments using ants from two supercolonies in Japan. Workers attacked males from alien supercolonies but not those from their own supercolonies. The level of aggression against alien males was similar to that against alien workers. The frequency of severe aggression against alien males increased as the number of recipient workers increased. Cuticular hydrocarbon profiles, which serve as cues for nestmate recognition, of workers and males from the same supercolony were very similar. Workers are likely to distinguish alien males from males of their own supercolony using the profiles. It is predicted that males are subject to considerable aggression from workers when they intrude into the nests of alien supercolonies. This may be a mechanism underlying the restricted gene flow between supercolonies of Argentine ants. The Argentine ant may possess a distinctive reproductive system, where workers participate in selecting mates for their queens. We argue that the aggression of workers against alien males is a novel form of reproductive interference.

  11. Workers select mates for queens: a possible mechanism of gene flow restriction between supercolonies of the invasive Argentine ant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunamura, Eiriki; Hoshizaki, Sugihiko; Sakamoto, Hironori; Fujii, Takeshi; Nishisue, Koji; Suzuki, Shun; Terayama, Mamoru; Ishikawa, Yukio; Tatsuki, Sadahiro

    2011-05-01

    Some invasive ants form large networks of mutually non-aggressive nests, i.e., supercolonies. The Argentine ant Linepithema humile forms much larger supercolonies in introduced ranges than in its native range. In both cases, it has been shown that little gene flow occurs between supercolonies of this species, though the mechanism of gene flow restriction is unknown. In this species, queens do not undertake nuptial flight, and males have to travel to foreign nests and cope with workers before gaining access to alien queens. In this study, we hypothesized that male Argentine ants receive interference from workers of alien supercolonies. To test this hypothesis, we conducted behavioral and chemical experiments using ants from two supercolonies in Japan. Workers attacked males from alien supercolonies but not those from their own supercolonies. The level of aggression against alien males was similar to that against alien workers. The frequency of severe aggression against alien males increased as the number of recipient workers increased. Cuticular hydrocarbon profiles, which serve as cues for nestmate recognition, of workers and males from the same supercolony were very similar. Workers are likely to distinguish alien males from males of their own supercolony using the profiles. It is predicted that males are subject to considerable aggression from workers when they intrude into the nests of alien supercolonies. This may be a mechanism underlying the restricted gene flow between supercolonies of Argentine ants. The Argentine ant may possess a distinctive reproductive system, where workers participate in selecting mates for their queens. We argue that the aggression of workers against alien males is a novel form of reproductive interference.

  12. Floral visitation by the Argentine ant reduces pollinator visitation and seed set in the coast barrel cactus, Ferocactus viridescens.

    PubMed

    LeVan, Katherine E; Hung, Keng-Lou James; McCann, Kyle R; Ludka, John T; Holway, David A

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that trade-offs between plant defense and reproduction arise not only from resource allocation but also from interactions among mutualists. Indirect costs of plant defense by ants, for example, can outweigh benefits if ants deter pollinators. Plants can dissuade ants from occupying flowers, but such arrangements may break down when novel ant partners infiltrate mutualisms. Here, we examine how floral visitation by ants affects pollination services when the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) replaces a native ant species in a food-for-protection mutualism with the coast barrel cactus (Ferocactus viridescens), which, like certain other barrel cacti, produces extrafloral nectar. We compared the effects of floral visitation by the Argentine ant with those of the most prevalent native ant species (Crematogaster californica). Compared to C. californica, the Argentine ant was present in higher numbers in flowers. Cactus bees (Diadasia spp.), the key pollinators in this system, spent less time in flowers when cacti were occupied by the Argentine ant compared to when cacti were occupied by C. californica. Presumably as a consequence of decreased duration of floral visits by Diadasia, cacti occupied by L. humile set fewer seeds per fruit and produced fewer seeds overall compared to cacti occupied by C. californica. These data illustrate the importance of mutualist identity in cases where plants balance multiple mutualisms. Moreover, as habitats become increasingly infiltrated by introduced species, the loss of native mutualists and their replacement by non-native species may alter the shape of trade-offs between plant defense and reproduction.

  13. Patterns of spread in biological invasions dominated by long-distance jump dispersal: Insights from Argentine ants

    PubMed Central

    Suarez, Andrew V.; Holway, David A.; Case, Ted J.

    2001-01-01

    Invading organisms may spread through local movements (giving rise to a diffusion-like process) and by long-distance jumps, which are often human-mediated. The local spread of invading organisms has been fit with varying success to models that couple local population growth with diffusive spread, but to date no quantitative estimates exist for the relative importance of local dispersal relative to human-mediated long-distance jumps. Using a combination of literature review, museum records, and personal surveys, we reconstruct the invasion history of the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile), a widespread invasive species, at three spatial scales. Although the inherent dispersal abilities of Argentine ants are limited, in the last century, human-mediated dispersal has resulted in the establishment of this species on six continents and on many oceanic islands. Human-mediated jump dispersal has also been the primary mode of spread at a continental scale within the United States. The spread of the Argentine ant involves two discrete modes. Maximum distances spread by colonies undergoing budding reproduction averaged 150 m/year, whereas annual jump-dispersal distances averaged three orders of magnitude higher. Invasions that involve multiple dispersal processes, such as those documented here, are undoubtedly common. Detailed data on invasion dynamics are necessary to improve the predictive power of future modeling efforts. PMID:11158600

  14. Palaeoceanographic significance of sedimentary features at the Argentine continental margin revealed by multichannel seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruetzner, Jens; Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele; Franke, Dieter

    2010-05-01

    The thermohaline circulation in the Argentine Basin today is characterized by the interaction of northward flowing Antarctic water masses (Antarctic Intermediate Water, AAIW; Circumpolar Deep Water, CDW; Antarctic Bottom Water, AABW) and southward flowing North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). The transfer of heat and energy via both AABW and NADW constitutes an important component in maintaining the global conveyor belt. We aim at a better understanding of both paths and intensity of this current system in the past by investigating an extensive (> 11000 km) set of high quality seismic reflection profiles from the Argentine continental margin. The profiles show a significant contourite system containing both erosive and depositional features that formed through the evolution of water masses and their modifications (path, physical and chemical properties) due to plate tectonic events such as the opening of the Drake Passage or the extensive emplacement of volcanic flows at the Rio Grande Rise. Overall the depositional features indicate that along slope (contour current) transport dominates over down slope (turbiditic) processes at the southern Argentine margin south of 45° S. Further to the North down slope transport was more extensive as indicated by the presence of submarine canyons crossing the slope down to a depth of ~3500 m. Here we present preliminary results from the southern part of the continental margin (42°-50° S) where we focus on a set of ~50 km wide terraces on the slope and rise separated by contouritic channels. The terraces developed over time in alternating constructional (depositional) and erosive phases. An initial age frame was developed by mapping regional reflectors and seismic units known from previous studies. The sedimentary layer between regional reflectors AR 4 and AR 5 spanning roughly the time interval from the Eocene/Oligocene boundary to the early middle Miocene is thin (0.1 - 0.4 s TWT) below the Valentine Feilberg Terrace but

  15. Aging in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Andel, Ross

    2014-12-01

    The goal was to provide an overview of main issues relevant to aging in the Czech Republic. The Czech Republic is a former Eastern Bloc nation of about 10.5 million. Older adults are overrepresented relative to those under age 15. Life expectancy currently hovers around 78 years (75 for men/81 for women), a number slightly higher than most of Eastern Europe but lower than most of Western Europe. Cardiovascular diseases account for about 50% of all mortality, which is one of the highest rates in Europe and therefore of particular concern. Lifestyle habits, especially high alcohol consumption, a high rate of smokers, and high-fat diet relative to most other European countries and the United States, combined with relatively low expenditures for health promotion, appear important in the context of high cardiovascular mortality. Long-term care is funded mostly by state and local governments. The country has tried to address issues associated with insufficient capacity and low quality in long-term care, a particularly prominent problem in the Czech Republic compared with other European countries. The recently established International Clinical Research Center brings new possibilities for collaborative research in the Czech Republic, including research specific to aging. Improving long-term care and establishing methodologically sound longitudinal data sets are among the most pressing issues, although sustaining the pension system strained by increasing life expectancy, low retirement age, and extensive government-sponsored benefits has also recently emerged as a critical issue.

  16. Country Profiles, United Arab Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croley, H. T.

    A profile of the United Arab Republic is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition,…

  17. [Argentine migration policy and movements of the European population (1876-1925)].

    PubMed

    Devoto, F J

    1989-04-01

    This work examines changes in Argentine migration policy from 1876-1925 and the relationship between public policy and population movements. Promoting immigration from Europe as proposed in article 25 of the Argentine constitution of 1853 was 1 of the most enduring objectives of Argentina's leadership. When Law of Immigration and Colonization (Law 817) was passed by the Chamber of Senators in 1876, the flow of immigration was at its lowest point in 8 years. Many of the provisions of Law 817 had already been put into practice occasionally or systematically, but the intent to use the law to attract a far greater number of immigrants and to select qualities seen as desirable were novel elements and the principal motives of the legislation. The unstated aim of reducing the preponderance of Italian immigration from about 2/3 was not immediately achieved. Argentina's immigration policy and actions were in competition with those of other Latin American countries and with the US. Information offices for prospective immigrants were opened in the 1880s in Paris, London, Brussels, Berlin, Vienna, Bern, and New York, and in 1887 legislation was passed permitting subsidized passages on a large scale. The continued predominance of Italian immigration demonstrated the limits of government policy influence, even when large sums of money were invested. The informal network of Italian immigrants already in Argentina and the activities of interested shipping companies on the other hand played major roles in maintaining Italian immigration. The total number of immigrants and the diversity of national origins were increased by the subsidized passages, but in 1891 the combination of a financial crisis and an end to subsidized passages decisively reduced the total flow. Changes occurred in the 1890s in regional flows within countries and in the occupational composition of immigrants from agricultors to day laborers, unskilled workers, and artisans. By about 1910 the conservative elements

  18. Characterization of Argentine honeys on the basis of their mineral content and some typical quality parameters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The levels of 19 elements (As, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Tl, U, V, Zn) from sixteen different Argentine production sites of unifloral [eucalyptus (Eucaliptus rostrata), chilca (Baccharis salicifolia), Algarrobo (Prosopis sp.), mistol (Ziziphus mistol) and citric] and multifloral honeys were measured with the aim to test the quality of the selected samples. Typical quality parameters of honeys were also determined (pH, sugar content, moisture). Mineral elements were determined by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS DRC). We also evaluated the suitability of honey as a possible biomonitor of environmental pollution. Thus, the sites were classified through cluster analysis (CA) and then pattern recognition methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were applied. Results Mean values for quality parameters were: pH, 4.12 and 3.81; sugar 82.1 and 82.0 °brix; moisture, 16.90 and 17.00% for unifloral and multifloral honeys respectively. The water content showed good maturity. Likewise, the other parameters confirmed the good quality of the honeys analysed. Potassium was quantitatively the most abundant metal, accounting for 92,5% of the total metal contents with an average concentration of 832.0 and 816.2 μg g-1 for unifloral and multifloral honeys respectively. Sodium was the second most abundant major metal in honeys with a mean value of 32.16 and 33.19 μg g-1 for unifloral and multifloral honeys respectively. Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were present at low-intermediate concentrations. For the other 11 trace elements determined in this study (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se, Tl, U and V), the mean concentrations were very low or below of the LODs. The sites were classified through CA by using elements’ and physicochemical parameters data, then DA on the PCA factors was applied. Dendrograms identified three main groups. PCA explained 52.03% of the total variability

  19. An independent test of thermal subsidence and asthenosphere flow beneath the Argentine Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohertz, Warren L.; Carlson, Richard L.

    1998-09-01

    We have used primary precision depth recorder and single channel seismic data from three cruises of the R/V Conrad to test thermal subsidence and asthenosphere flow models for seafloor depth versus age in the Argentine Basin in the western South Atlantic. We found a region in the west central part of the basin where anomalously shallow depths, that can not be explained by any simple thermal or dynamic model, are associated with a local free-air gravity anomaly. Elsewhere, over ages ranging from 1 to 104 Ma, there is no evidence of the "flattening" of the depth/age trend that is characteristic of the plate cooling model for the thermal subsidence of the oceanic lithosphere. The halfspace thermal subsidence model accounts for nearly 98% of the variance of seafloor depth, but the slope, b=425±10 m Ma -1/2, implies improbably high mantle temperatures and/or low mantle densities. Moreover, there is some systematic misfit between the data and the halfspace model. A thermal subsidence model in which initial conditions vary with age accounts for the misfit, but also requires an implausible variation of mantle temperature and/or density. Alternatively, a model that includes the effect of induced flow in the asthenosphere eliminates the misfit and yields a reasonable rate of thermal subsidence b=330±20 m Ma -1/2. That the mantle temperature ( Tm˜1150±70)°C implied by the subsidence rate is slightly lower than normal is consistent with the hypothesis that this region has not been affected by hot spots or mantle plumes. The viscosity of the asthenosphere derived from the model (3-4 × 10 19 Pa s) is high, but consistent with viscosities estimated from plate dynamics models when the low mantle temperature is taken into account. Finally, the PMS flow model is consistent with measured heat flow in the region. These results lend weight to the hypothesis that the bathymetry of the Argentine Basin is influenced by induced flow in the asthenosphere, as well as by halfspace

  20. Development of The Argentine Continental Margin: Rift Basins and Volcanic Episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neben, S.; Franke, D.; Hinz, K.; Meyer, H.; Roeser, H.; Schreckenberger, B.

    With the objective to contribute to a better understanding of the processes of rifting and magmatism/volcanism during the Early Cretaceous break-up of Gondwana, the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) acquired 12,000 km of MCS data and two wide-angle reflection/refraction lines on the Argentine continen- tal margin between 38S and 44S in 1998/1999. Together with already existing data sets, we know have 22,000 km of MCS data available. The seismic data document the presence of a narrow, north-west striking half-graben system beneath the present upper slope. This buried half-graben system developed during the final stage of rifting in Early Cretaceous time, whereas the east-west trending Colorado-Basin probably formed earlier. However, this wide sedimentary basin was superimposed and reacti- vated by the rifting process that led to the opening of the South Atlantic. Continental break-up and initial sea-floor spreading were accompanied by large-scale magmatism and volcanism. This is manifested in the seismic data by a huge wedge of seaward dipping reflectors (SDRS), and a distinct high-velocity (average value 7.3 km/s) lower crustal body beneath the SDRS. Extrapolating DSDP/ODP-drilling results from other volcanic margins, especially in the North Atlantic, we infer that the SDRS consist of tholeitic basalts. The emplacement of the deeply buried, 60-120km wide SDRS was episodic documented by at least three superimposed SDRS units. From our dense grid of new magnetic data we infer further that the emplacement of the volcanic units was diachronous (older units in the south and younger units in the north). The presence of the volcanic edifices at the continental margin of Argentine is related to the activity of the Tristan da Cunha hot spot which led to the emplacement of the Parana-Etendeka Flood basalts on South America and South Africa and to the Rio-Grande-Rise/Walvis- Ridge complex. The drift deposits, locally more than 6,000m thick, and

  1. Response of Argentine ants and red imported fire ants to permethrin-impregnated plastic strips: foraging rates, colonization of potted soil, and differential mortality.

    PubMed

    Costa, Heather S; Greenberg, Les; Klotz, John; Rust, Michael K

    2005-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of the permethrin-impregnated plastic on ant mortality and foraging rates, and tested its potential for preventing ants from colonizing potted soil. Direct exposure to the plastic for as short as 1 min caused significant mortality of both red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, and Argentine ants, Linepithema humile (Mayr); however, red imported fire ants were more susceptible than Argentine ants. Knockdown of virtually all ants initially occurred within 15 min after exposure. However, some moribund ants recovered from the effects within 24 h. For example, after 1 min of direct exposure to the permethrin-impregnated plastic, 70% of Argentine ants and 5% of red imported fire ants recovered from the treatment. In established colonies of Argentine ants, significantly fewer ants foraged for food up posts treated with the plastic compared with untreated posts. In addition, colonies responded to introduction of the treatment by significantly reducing their overall foraging rates, even on untreated posts. When pots filled with moistened soil were introduced into established ant colonies, 82% of Argentine ants and 99% of red imported fire ants moved into the soil. In contrast, when a 1-cm-wide coil of the plastic was placed under the pot, no ants moved into the soil. The potential for use of these materials in nursery production is discussed. PMID:16539136

  2. Dynamics and genetic structure of Argentine ant supercolonies in their native range.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Valérie; Pedersen, Jes S; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Lehmann, Laurent; Keller, Laurent

    2009-06-01

    Some introduced ant populations have an extraordinary social organization, called unicoloniality, whereby individuals mix freely within large supercolonies. We investigated whether this mode of social organization also exists in native populations of the Argentine ant Linepithema humile. Behavioral analyses revealed the presence of 11 supercolonies (width 1 to 515 m) over a 3-km transect. As in the introduced range, there was always strong aggression between but never within supercolonies. The genetic data were in perfect agreement with the behavioral tests, all nests being assigned to identical supercolonies with the different methods. There was strong genetic differentiation between supercolonies but no genetic differentiation among nests within supercolonies. We never found more than a single mitochondrial haplotype per supercolony, further supporting the view that supercolonies are closed breeding units. Genetic and chemical distances between supercolonies were positively correlated, but there were no other significant associations between geographic, genetic, chemical, and behavioral distances. A comparison of supercolonies sampled in 1999 and 2005 revealed a very high turnover, with about one-third of the supercolonies being replaced yearly. This dynamic is likely to involve strong competition between supercolonies and thus act as a potent selective force maintaining unicoloniality over evolutionary time. PMID:19154388

  3. Immune response to vaccination against Argentine hemorrhagic Fever in an area where different arenaviruses coexist.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Ana M; Riera, Laura M; Saavedra, María Del Carmen; Sabattini, Marta S

    2006-01-01

    Neutralizing antibody (NT Ab) titers to Candid #1 (C#1) vaccine against Argentine hemorrhagic fever were studied for 2 years post-vaccination in 330 volunteers, to assess whether the kinetics and/or magnitude of this immune response is modified by previous infection with the arena viruses Junin (JUN) and lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM). A total of 160 volunteers received C#1, distributed as follows: without detectable pre-infection with arenaviruses (n = 54); with pre-existing antibodies to JUN (n = 55); with pre-existing antibodies to LCM (n = 51). The remaining 170 individuals received placebo. Levels of anti-JUN NT Ab displayed a trend in which titers increased with the virulence of the infecting strain, from C#1 (X = 49), through subclinical JUN infection (X = 229), vaccination following subclinical infection (X = 367) to JUN clinical infection (X =773). It was also found that the mean titer of NT Ab to C#1 did not vary significantly during 2 years of study and was: a) significantly lower than that elicited by wild strains of JUN, both clinical and subclinical infections (p < 0.01); b) significantly increased the titers of pre-existing anti-JUN Ab (p < 0.01); and c) was not modified by pre-existing anti-LCM Ab (p > 0.05). These data indicate that the immune response to C#1 boosts pre-existing immunity to JUN virus and is not changed by previous experience with LCM virus.

  4. Proinflammatory cytokines and elastase-alpha-1-antitrypsin in Argentine hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Marta, R F; Montero, V S; Hack, C E; Sturk, A; Maiztegui, J I; Molinas, F C

    1999-01-01

    Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF) is a disease caused by Junin virus. In the acute phase, patients present hematologic and neurologic involvement with high levels of interferon-alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha. Nineteen patients with a confirmed diagnosis of AHF were studied: six severe, four moderate and nine mild cases. Serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-6 soluble receptor (IL-6sR), IL-8, IL-10, and elastase-alpha1-antitrypsin complex (E-alpha 1AT) were assayed by ELISAs. Levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 were high in nine, 12, and 13 patients, respectively, while levels of IL-6sR were high in two patients and low in one patient. Seven patients had increased levels of E-alpha1AT. Significant correlations were found between levels of both IL-8 and IL-10 with those of TNF-alpha as well as between IL-8 and E-alpha 1AT. These data demonstrate activation of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine pathways, and statistical analysis showed differences among the clinical forms of illness. This study shows that IL-8 plays an essential role in neutrophil activation in AHF patients as demonstrated in other infectious diseases.

  5. Characteristics of pica practice during pregnancy in a sample of Argentine women.

    PubMed

    López, L B; Marigual, M; Martín, N; Mallorga, M; Villagrán, E; Zadorozne, M E; Martín De Portela, M L P; Ortega Soler, C R

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the practice of pica during pregnancy in Argentine women. Maternal and fetal characteristics as well as the practice of pica were evaluated during the puerperium in a sample of 1,014 women from five different geographical areas. Pica prevalence for the total sample was 23.2% (95% CI 20.6-25.8). Pagophagia (ice consumption) was the main type of pica practice, followed by geophagia (earth intake) and the ingestion of soap, toothpaste and chalk. The onset of the practice was mainly in the first months of pregnancy. A total of 49.8% of women revealed a family history of pica; 30.6% had pica in childhood and 13.2% suffered from polypica. Women with pica during pregnancy had similar age, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), parity, neonatal birth weight and gestational age compared with non-pica mothers, although maternal haemoglobin concentration was lower in women with pica than in non-pica mothers (p = 0.0001).

  6. Genetic structure, behaviour and invasion history of the Argentine ant supercolony in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Suhr, Elissa L; O'Dowd, Dennis J; McKechnie, Stephen W; Mackay, Duncan A

    2011-01-01

    Biological invasions have significant ecological, evolutionary and economic consequences. Ants are exemplary invaders and their invasion success is frequently attributed to a shift in social structure between native and introduced populations. Here, we use a multidisciplinary approach to determine the social structure, origin and expansion of the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, in Australia by linking behavioural and genetic studies with indicators of dispersal pathways and propagule pressure. Behavioural assays revealed a complete absence of aggression within and between three cities – Melbourne, Adelaide and Perth – spanning 2700 km across Australia. Microsatellite analyses showed intracity genetic homogeneity and limited but significant intercity genetic differentiation. Exceptions were two Perth nests that likely represent independent translocations from Adelaide. These patterns suggest efficient local gene flow with more limited jump dispersal via transport corridors between cities. Microsatellite analyses of L. humile from potential source regions, combined with data from port interceptions, trade pathways and the timeline of spread within Australia, implicate the main European supercolony as the source of L. humile in Melbourne. Such an introduction probably then redistributed across Australia and spread to New Zealand to form an expansive Australasian supercolony. PMID:25567996

  7. Quantifying uncertainty in the potential distribution of an invasive species: climate and the Argentine ant.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Stephen; Harris, Richard; Lester, Philip J

    2006-09-01

    Maps of a species' potential range make an important contribution to conservation and invasive species risk analysis. Spatial predictions, however, should be accompanied by an assessment of their uncertainty. Here, we use multimodel inference to generate confidence intervals that incorporate both the uncertainty involved in model selection as well as the error associated with model fitting. In the case of the invasive Argentine ant, we found that it was most likely to occur where the mean daily temperature in mid-winter was 7-14 degrees C and maximum daily temperatures during the hottest month averaged 19-30 degrees C. Uninvaded regions vulnerable to future establishment include: southern China, Taiwan, Zimbabwe, central Madagascar, Morocco, high-elevation Ethiopia, Yemen and a number of oceanic islands. Greatest uncertainty exists over predictions for China, north-east India, Angola, Bolivia, Lord Howe Island and New Caledonia. Quantifying the costs of different errors (false negatives vs. false positives) was considered central for connecting modelling to decision-making and management processes.

  8. Diet and genotype effects on the quality index of beef produced in the Argentine Pampeana region.

    PubMed

    Latimori, N J; Kloster, A M; García, P T; Carduza, F J; Grigioni, G; Pensel, N A

    2008-07-01

    Steers of varying genotypes (Aberdeen Angus, Charolais x AA and Argentine Holstein) in four feeding systems were evaluated. Feeding systems were: S1=a diet based on pastures only; S2=a similar forage base as S1 plus a daily supplementation with cracked corn, at 0.7% of l.w./head/day; S3=a similar forage base as S1 plus a daily supplementation with cracked corn, at 1.0% of l.w./head/day; and S4=a regular feedlot diet. Tenderness and marbling were not affected by the feeding system. Feedlot meat showed an n-6/n-3 ratio significantly higher than meat produced with the diets based on pastures (S1=2.1; S2=3.1; S3=4.5; S4=14.2) (P<0.05), whereas CLA content had an inverse behavior, showing S1 (0.67%) and S2 (0.64%) higher concentrations than S3 (0.55%) and S4 (0.28%) (P<0.05). Diet based on pastures plus a low level of supplementation produced meat with better nutritional characteristics than other productive alternatives, without significant effects of the biotypes. PMID:22062907

  9. Argentines' collective memories of the military Junta of 1976: differences and similarities across generations and ideology.

    PubMed

    Muller, Felipe; Bermejo, Federico; Hirst, William

    2016-08-01

    Although memories about a nation's past usually are semantic in nature, a distinction needs to be made between lived and distant semantic collective memories. The former refers to memories of community-relevant events occurring during the lifetime of the rememberer, whereas the latter to memories of distant events. Does the content of lived and distant semantic collective memories differ? Employing both free and cued recall, we examined the memories of younger and older Argentines of the Military Junta of 1976. We also examined the effects of political ideology. Content analysis indicated that (1) lived semantic collective memories were more likely to contain personal recollections than distant semantic collective memories, even though those with distant semantic collective memories could have incorporated memories of the parent's personal experience in their recollections, (2) lived semantic collective memories contained more causal statements, and (3) those on the Right with distant semantic collective memories were more likely to claim that they "Don't know" or offer positive accounts of the Junta, suggesting a need to "defend" the reputation of those on the Right. The results are discussed in terms of the goals and plans different generations might have when recollecting their nation's past.

  10. Characterization of pectinase activity for enology from yeasts occurring in Argentine Bonarda grape.

    PubMed

    Merín, María Gabriela; Martín, María Carolina; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Cocolin, Luca; de Ambrosini, Vilma Inés Morata

    2015-01-01

    Pectinolytic enzymes are greatly important in winemaking due to their ability to degrade pectic polymers from grape, contributing to enhance process efficiency and wine quality. This study aimed to analyze the occurrence of pectinolytic yeasts during spontaneous fermentation of Argentine Bonarda grape, to select yeasts that produce extracellular pectinases and to characterize their pectinolytic activity under wine-like conditions. Isolated yeasts were grouped using PCR-DGGE and identified by partial sequencing of 26S rRNA gene. Isolates comprised 7 genera, with Aureobasidium pullulans as the most predominant pectinolytic species, followed by Rhodotorula dairenensis and Cryptococcus saitoi. No pectinolytic activity was detected among ascomycetous yeasts isolated on grapes and during fermentation, suggesting a low occurrence of pectinolytic yeast species in wine fermentation ecosystem. This is the first study reporting R. dairenensis and Cr. saitoi species with pectinolytic activity. R. dairenensis GM-15 produced pectinases that proved to be highly active at grape pH, at 12 °C, and under ethanol and SO2 concentrations usually found in vinifications (pectinase activity around 1.1 U/mL). This strain also produced cellulase activity at 12 °C and pH 3.5, but did not produce β-glucosidase activity under these conditions. The strain showed encouraging enological properties for its potential use in low-temperature winemaking. PMID:26413065

  11. Characterization of pectinase activity for enology from yeasts occurring in Argentine Bonarda grape

    PubMed Central

    Merín, María Gabriela; Martín, María Carolina; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Cocolin, Luca; de Ambrosini, Vilma Inés Morata

    2015-01-01

    Pectinolytic enzymes are greatly important in winemaking due to their ability to degrade pectic polymers from grape, contributing to enhance process efficiency and wine quality. This study aimed to analyze the occurrence of pectinolytic yeasts during spontaneous fermentation of Argentine Bonarda grape, to select yeasts that produce extracellular pectinases and to characterize their pectinolytic activity under wine-like conditions. Isolated yeasts were grouped using PCR-DGGE and identified by partial sequencing of 26S rRNA gene. Isolates comprised 7 genera, with Aureobasidium pullulans as the most predominant pectinolytic species, followed by Rhodotorula dairenensis and Cryptococcus saitoi. No pectinolytic activity was detected among ascomycetous yeasts isolated on grapes and during fermentation, suggesting a low occurrence of pectinolytic yeast species in wine fermentation ecosystem. This is the first study reporting R. dairenensis and Cr. saitoi species with pectinolytic activity. R. dairenensis GM-15 produced pectinases that proved to be highly active at grape pH, at 12 °C, and under ethanol and SO2 concentrations usually found in vinifications (pectinase activity around 1.1 U/mL). This strain also produced cellulase activity at 12 °C and pH 3.5, but did not produce β-glucosidase activity under these conditions. The strain showed encouraging enological properties for its potential use in low-temperature winemaking. PMID:26413065

  12. Screening of FSH receptor gene in Argentine women with premature ovarian failure (POF).

    PubMed

    Sundblad, Victoria; Chiauzzi, Violeta A; Escobar, Maria Eugenia; Dain, Liliana; Charreau, Eduardo H

    2004-07-30

    Diverse mutations in FSH-receptor (FSHR) gene have been described as possible cause of premature ovarian failure (POF). To investigate the presence of mutations and/or polymorphisms in FSHR gene, DNA from 20 POF, 5 of which were diagnosed as resistant ovary syndrome (ROS), and from 44 controls was isolated from peripheral lymphocytes. The complete coding sequence was analysed by PCR followed by SSCP, direct sequencing or restriction enzyme analysis. No mutations in FSHR gene were identified in the patients studied. The two already described polymorphisms in exon 10, A919G and A2039G, cosegregated in all the homozygous individuals, indicating that FSHR presents two isoforms: Ala307-Ser680 and Thr307-Asn680. OR results suggest that the 919G-2039G allelic variant or the homozygous genotype is not associated to disease risk. In addition, a heterozygous substitution T1022C (Val341Ala) was found in two control subjects. We suggest that mutations in FSHR gene are rare in women with POF in Argentine. Presence of a particular FSHR isoform does not appear to be associated with this disease.

  13. Argentines' collective memories of the military Junta of 1976: differences and similarities across generations and ideology.

    PubMed

    Muller, Felipe; Bermejo, Federico; Hirst, William

    2016-08-01

    Although memories about a nation's past usually are semantic in nature, a distinction needs to be made between lived and distant semantic collective memories. The former refers to memories of community-relevant events occurring during the lifetime of the rememberer, whereas the latter to memories of distant events. Does the content of lived and distant semantic collective memories differ? Employing both free and cued recall, we examined the memories of younger and older Argentines of the Military Junta of 1976. We also examined the effects of political ideology. Content analysis indicated that (1) lived semantic collective memories were more likely to contain personal recollections than distant semantic collective memories, even though those with distant semantic collective memories could have incorporated memories of the parent's personal experience in their recollections, (2) lived semantic collective memories contained more causal statements, and (3) those on the Right with distant semantic collective memories were more likely to claim that they "Don't know" or offer positive accounts of the Junta, suggesting a need to "defend" the reputation of those on the Right. The results are discussed in terms of the goals and plans different generations might have when recollecting their nation's past. PMID:26293779

  14. Chromosomal variation in Argentine populations of Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913 (Rodentia, Cricetidae, Sigmodontinae)

    PubMed Central

    Malleret, Matías Maximiliano; Labaroni, Carolina Alicia; García, Gabriela Verónica; Ferro, Juan Martín; Martí, Dardo Andrea; Lanzone, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The genus Akodon Meyen, 1833 is one of the most species-rich among sigmodontine rodents and has great chromosome variability. Akodon montensis has a relatively broad distribution in South America, and Argentine populations are located in the southernmost region of its range. Brazilian populations have important chromosomal variability, but cytogenetic data from Argentina are scarce. We performed a chromosome characterization of natural populations of Akodon montensis using conventional staining, C-banding, Ag-NORs and base-specific fluorochromes. A total of 31 specimens from five localities of Misiones Province, in Argentina, were analyzed. The 2n=24 chromosomes was the most frequently observed karyotype. However, five individuals presented 25 chromosomes due to a supernumerary B-chromosome; and one individual had 2n=26 due to one B plus a trisomy for chromosome 11. Additionally, two XY females and two variants of the X chromosomes were found. C-positive centromeric bands occurred in all chromosomes; additional C-bands were observed in some autosomes, the X, Y and B chromosomes. Ag-NORs were observed in five autosomes, and the B chromosome was frequently marked. Fluorochrome banding was similar among karyotypes of the analyzed populations. Comparisons of cytogenetic data among populations of Argentina and Brazil showed the presence of high intraspecific variability in Akodon montensis and some differences among regions. PMID:27186343

  15. Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) trail pheromone enhances consumption of liquid sucrose solution.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, L; Klotz, J H

    2000-02-01

    We investigated whether the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), trail pheromone, Z9-16:Ald, could enhance recruitment to and consumption of liquid sucrose solutions. All tests were done as paired comparisons with a 10% sucrose solution as food. In the laboratory, mixing 20 microl of a 10-microg/ml solution of the pheromone with 50 microl of the 10% sucrose solution increased the number of ants feeding by >150%. In a field test, we combined the trail pheromone with a 10% sucrose solution in 50-ml vials. These vials were covered with a plastic membrane that has 1.5-mm-diameter holes punched uniformly across its surface. Ants could drink from the holes after the vials were inverted. For half of the vials, 1 microg of the pheromone was put onto the plastic membrane before the vials were filled with a 10% sucrose solution. The remaining vials had no pheromone on the plastic membrane. After 4 h we measured the consumption in each vial. Bait consumption with the pheromone was enhanced by 29%. In a 2nd series of tests, vials were left outside for 24 h. The consumption rate was 33% higher with the pheromone compared with the controls that didn't have pheromone. PMID:14658521

  16. Myxozoans as biological tags for stock identification of the Argentine hake, Merluccius hubbsi (Gadiformes: Merlucciidae).

    PubMed

    Cantatore, D M P; Irigoitia, M M; Holzer, A S; Timi, J T

    2016-05-01

    Myxozoans have been successfully used as tags for fish stock identification around the world. However, few studies using myxozoan tags have been carried out in the Southern Atlantic, a region with complex oceanography that constitutes a potentially suitable scenario for testing the utility of myxozoans as indicators. Its usefulness was tested using six samples of Merluccius hubbsi in two different regions of the Argentine Sea. Generalized linear models were performed to assess the effects of fish size and sex, and year and region of capture and selected using the Information Theoretic approach. Three myxozoan species were recorded: Kudoa rosenbuschi, Myxoproteus meridionalis and Fabespora sp. Results of modelling species individually showed differential capabilities for detecting geographical population structure at different spatial scales, with K. rosenbuschi and Fabespora sp. allowing the discrimination of northern and southern stocks, but Fabespora sp. also as a promissory indicator of intrapopulation sub-structure due to different migratory routes during non-reproductive periods. This work confirms that myxozoans offer a set of suitable markers at different spatial scales, which can be selected individually or in any combination, depending on the geographical extent of the study, constituting tools adaptable to the objectives of further research on fish population structure.

  17. Aeromonas hydrophila and its relation with drinking water indicators of microbiological quality in Argentine.

    PubMed

    Fernández, M C; Giampaolo, B N; Ibañez, S B; Guagliardo, M V; Esnaola, M M; Conca, L; Valdivia, P; Stagnaro, S M; Chiale, C; Frade, H

    2000-01-01

    In Argentine, water municipal supplies disinfection is carried out by chlorine. We have isolated Aeromonas hydrophila from a chlorinated water supply in Buenos Aires that fulfilled Argentinean microbiological quality standards. It is an aquatic organism that could produce cytotoxins and enterotoxins associated with acute gastroenteritis and wound infections in human and hemorrhagic septicaemia of fish, reptiles and amphibians. The isolated strain produced protein bands at isoelectric point in the range of 4.6-5.3 lightly labile at 56 degrees C and heat labile at 100 degrees C non cholera antitoxin reactive in electrofocusing assay (IEF) and showed hemolytic activity thermolabile at 56 degrees C and 100 degrees C in 5% rabbit erythrocytes in phosphate buffered saline. A cytotoxic effect thermolabile at 56 degrees C and 100 degrees C and a cytotonic activity were demonstrated in Vero cell cultures. Survival assay of A. hydrophila and indicator organisms would show no correlation between their contamination sources. Biofilms production could explain the persistence of this gram negative pathogen organism in chlorinated tap water. A water system supply maintenance program and pasteurisation may be performed in spite of water chlorination.

  18. Transfer of the Argentine Precordillera terrane from Laurentia: Constraints from detrital-zircon geochronology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, W.A.; Astini, R.A.; Mueller, P.A.; Gehrels, G.E.; Wooden, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Ages from U-Pb and 207Pb/206Pb analyses of detrital zircons from synrift sandstone in the Lower Cambrian Cerro Totora Formation of the Argentine Precordillera have strong similarities to those from late synrift sandstones in the Lower Cambrian Rome Formation of southern Laurentia (Alabama). Ages of detrital zircons from the Cerro Totora sample cluster at 1160-970 Ma (60% of analyzed zircons , 1490-1300 Ma (24%), and 1890-1640 Ma (16%). Ages from two Rome samples cluster at 1240-970 Ma (32% of analyzed zircons), 1540-1270 Ma (31%), 1840-1610 Ma (14%), 1970-1890 Ma (5%), and 2930-2310 Ma (18%). The ages of detrital zircons from the Rome and Cerro Totora sandstones are consistent with sediment supply from the Grenville and older Proterozoic Laurentian provinces, and the older cluster in the Rome sandstones corresponds in age to the Laurentian Archean Superior province. Neither the Rome nor Cerro Totora samples include components younger than Grenville, and the lack of zircons from distinctly Gondwanan provinces is consistent with a Laurentian provenance. The detrital-zircon ages support previous interpretations that the Precordillera was rifted from the Ouachita embayment of Laurentia during Early Cambrian time and subsequently was transferred to Gondwana. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  19. Emerging diseases and their impact on animal commerce: the Argentine lesson.

    PubMed

    Cané, B G; Leanes, L F; Mascitelli, L O

    2004-10-01

    As a result of the Argentine experience with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in 2001, a need was postulated for the establishment of efficient supranational schemes for continuous surveillance of the interrelations between tropical extractives livestock systems and the prairies that are optimal for the feeding of livestock in the southern region of South America. FMD in Argentina and in other countries, new or re-emerging risks from avian influenza with potential risks for public health, the spongiform encephalopathies, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, and classical swine fever, among other animal diseases, have generated a strong reaction and evolution within the veterinary services of the country. These present lessons will influence decision-making within countries and should be accepted by the technical and scientific community. From the perspective of the official animal health sector and with the FMD eradication plan as a basis within the national territory, we have worked not only to achieve international recognition and credibility within animal health systems, but also to realize the formation of a regional block of countries that can be recognized internationally as an area with equivalent animal health status. We emphasize not only that this lesson is useful in FMD, but also that it is possible to apply the valuable conclusions reached for other emerging or re-emerging diseases.

  20. Linking nutrition and behavioural dominance: carbohydrate scarcity limits aggression and activity in Argentine ants.

    PubMed

    Grover, Crystal D; Kay, Adam D; Monson, Jessica A; Marsh, Thomas C; Holway, David A

    2007-12-01

    Predicting the outcome of competitive interactions is a fundamental goal in ecology. Ecological stoichiometry, which relates nutrient balance to ecological processes, provides a framework for identifying mechanistic links among macronutrient availability, nutritional physiology and competitive performance. Because carbohydrates serve as a principal metabolic fuel, carbohydrate scarcity may impinge upon behaviours affecting competitive dominance (e.g. aggression, activity) to a greater extent than deficiencies of protein or other nutrients used preferentially for growth. Here, we tested this prediction with a diet manipulation study involving laboratory colonies of Argentine ants (Linepithema humile), a widespread and aggressive invasive species. The availability of both sucrose and insect prey influenced brood production and worker survival after three months. However, colonies became less aggressive and less active only when deprived of sucrose (but not prey). Scarcity of sucrose (but not prey) was also associated with reduced fat mass in individual workers. These data provide the first experimental support that carbohydrate scarcity compromises aggression and activity in ants, and illustrate, in principle, how access to carbohydrate-rich resources (e.g. plant exudates, hemipteran honeydew) might influence behavioural investments that contribute to competitive performance. Such investments might be especially important for invasive ants, given their aggressiveness and tendency to interact with honeydew-producing Hemiptera.

  1. Effect of Temperature on the Development and Survival of the Argentine Ant, Linepithema humile

    PubMed Central

    Abril, Silvia; Oliveras, Jordi; Gómez, Crisanto

    2010-01-01

    The influence of temperature on the developmental times and survival of insects can largely determine their distribution. For invasive species, like the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), these data are essential for predicting their potential range based on mechanistic models. In the case of this species, such data are too scarce and incomplete to make accurate predictions based on its physiological needs. This research provides comprehensive new data about brood survival and developmental times at a wide range of temperatures under laboratory conditions. Temperature affected both the complete brood development from egg to adult worker and each of the immature stages separately. The higher the temperature, the shorter the development times. Brood survival from egg to adult was low, with the maximum survival rate being only 16% at 26° C. Temperature also affected survival of each of the immature stages differently: eggs were negatively affected by high temperatures, while larvae were negatively affected by low temperatures, and the survival of pupae was apparently independent of environmental temperature. At 32° C no eggs survived, while at 18° C less than 2% of the eggs hatched into larva. The data from the present study are essential for developing prediction models about the distribution range of this tramp species based on its physiological needs in relation to temperature. PMID:20673121

  2. The Argentine Continental Margin: Rift Basins, Crustal Architecture, and Sedimentation Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neben, S.; Franke, D.; Hinz, K.; Meyer, H.; Roeser, H. A.; Schreckenberger, B.; Nevistic, V. A.; Mancilla, O.

    2001-12-01

    With the objective to contribute to a better understanding of the processes of rifting and magmatism/volcanism during the Early Cretaceous breakup of Gondwana, the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) acquired 12,000 km of MCS data and two wide-angle reflection/refraction lines on the Argentine continental margin between 38° S and 44° S in 1998/1999. The new seismic data document the presence of a narrow, north-east striking half-graben system beneath the present upper slope. This buried half-graben system developed during the final stage of rifting in Early Cretaceous time, whereas the east-west trending Colorado-Basin probably formed earlier. However, this wide sedimentary basin was superimposed by the rifting process that led to the opening of the South Atlantic. Continental breakup and initial sea-floor spreading were accompanied by large-scale magmatism and volcanism manifested in the seismic data by a huge wedge of seaward dipping reflectors (SDRS), and a distinct high-velocity (average value 7.3 km/s) lower crustal body beneath the SDRS. Emplacement of the deeply buried, 60-120km wide SDRS was episodic documented by at least three superimposed SDRS units. The drift deposits, locally more than 6,000m thick, and subdivided by five seismic unconformities, were mapped along the shelf, slope, and deep sea.

  3. Individual variation in exploratory behaviour improves speed and accuracy of collective nest selection by Argentine ants

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Ashley; Pinter-Wollman, Noa

    2014-01-01

    Collective behaviours are influenced by the behavioural composition of the group. For example, a collective behaviour may emerge from the average behaviour of the group's constituents, or be driven by a few key individuals that catalyse the behaviour of others in the group. When ant colonies collectively relocate to a new nest site, there is an inherent trade-off between the speed and accuracy of their decision of where to move due to the time it takes to gather information. Thus, variation among workers in exploratory behaviour, which allows gathering information about potential new nest sites, may impact the ability of a colony to move quickly into a suitable new nest. The invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, expands its range locally through the dispersal and establishment of propagules: groups of ants and queens. We examine whether the success of these groups in rapidly finding a suitable nest site is affected by their behavioural composition. We compared nest choice speed and accuracy among groups of all-exploratory, all-nonexploratory and half-exploratory–half-nonexploratory individuals. We show that exploratory individuals improve both the speed and accuracy of collective nest choice, and that exploratory individuals have additive, not synergistic, effects on nest site selection. By integrating an examination of behaviour into the study of invasive species we shed light on the mechanisms that impact the progression of invasion. PMID:25018558

  4. The role of abiotic conditions in shaping the long-term patterns of a high-elevation Argentine ant invasion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krushelnycky, P.D.; Joe, S.M.; Medeiros, A.C.; Daehler, C.C.; Loope, L.L.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of long-term patterns of invasion can reveal the importance of abiotic factors in influencing invasion dynamics, and can help predict future patterns of spread. In the case of the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile), most prior studies have investigated this species' limitations in hot and dry climates. However, spatial and temporal patterns of spread involving two ant populations over the course of 30 years at a high elevation site in Hawaii suggest that cold and wet conditions have influenced both the ant's distribution and its rate of invasion. In Haleakala National Park on Maui, we found that a population invading at lower elevation is limited by increasing rainfall and presumably by associated decreasing temperatures. A second, higher elevation population has spread outward in all directions, but rates of spread in different directions appear to have been strongly influenced by differences in elevation and temperature. Patterns of foraging activity were strongly tied to soil temperatures, supporting the hypothesis that variation in temperature can influence rates of spread. Based on past patterns of spread, we predicted a total potential range that covers nearly 50% of the park and 75% of the park's subalpine habitats. We compared this rough estimate with point predictions derived from a degree-day model for Argentine ant colony reproduction, and found that the two independent predictions match closely when soil temperatures are used in the model. The cold, wet conditions that have influenced Argentine ant invasion at this site are likely to be influential at other locations in this species' current and future worldwide distribution. ?? 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Giant mudwaves in the Northern Argentine Basin: born and buried by bottom currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, Dmitrii; Murdmaa, Ivar; Ivanova, Elena; Levchenko, Oleg

    2014-05-01

    New sedimentary records and very high resolution seismic profiles collected during four cruises of the RV "Akademik Ioffe" (2011-2013) were correlated with seismic, multibeam and coring data obtained during cruises of the RV "Robert Conrad", "Knorr", "Meteor". A complex analysis of the geological-geophysical data revealed an extensive field of giant mudwaves (48 000 km2) in the northwestern Argentine Basin, South Atlantic. The symmetric waves up to 60 m in height and 4000 m in wavelength are oriented roughly parallel to contours. They partly cover the Santa Catarina Plateau and extend through the Santos Basin to the Sao Paulo Plateau. The mudwaves field is traced at the depth range from 3400 to 4000 m and divided into buried (northern) and non-buried (southern) parts. The non-buried sediment waves cover the surface of the huge drift in the Santa Catarina Plateau. The wave height increases from the drift summit to its flanks and decreases at the foot. Two cores retrieved from the drift top and its northern flank recovered muddy contourites with a greater amount of silt-size material in the core from the drift flank. The age of the recovered sediments is at least 130 ka. In the northern Santos basin, the sediment waves are buried under a large lens-like sediment body (drift?) inclined at the margins. Cores obtained from the buried part of the mudwaves field recovered an intercalation of hemipelagic clay and silty-clay contourite. The age of recovered sediments does not exceed 150 ka (Bleil et al., 1993). Contourites deposition in the study area is related to the activity of the Antarctic bottom water (AABW) contour current. The AABW flow is considered to be divided into two branches by the Santa Catarina Plateau. We suggest that this topographic obstacle causes a flow velocity increase. Wave height and grain-size variations indicate higher bottom current velocities at the plateau flanks and relative tranquil conditions at the flat summit of the plateau. The symmetric

  6. The Argentine Impact Record: Implications for Episodes of Increased Flux during the Last 10 Myr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, R. S.; Schultz, P. H.

    2009-12-01

    Schultz et al. [1-6] have identified 8 impact melt breccia deposits in late Cenozoic strata of the Argentine Pampas. 40Ar/39Ar and fission track dating, combined with sequence and biostratigraphic controls, demonstrate that they represent separate events between 9.24 Ma and 6 ka. These ejecta contain shocked minerals and excavated basement clasts indicative of crater-forming events rather than air blasts. If each involved iron bolides ≤ 50 m across, 8 impacts over ~1.1 x 106 km2 in 10 Myr does not represent an anomaly. However, the melt volumes and distributions observed suggest at least half of the collisions were much larger. One event close to the Miocene-Pliocene boundary (5.28 Ma) appears to have spread microtektites as far as the South Tasman Rise. And three deposits contain meteoritic debris linked to stony and stony-iron asteroids (including HED and angrite-like material) [6,7]. Consequently, one or more increases in the impact flux since the mid-Miocene may be required to account for the Argentine record [8]. Farley et al. [9,10] propose that the disruption of a large main-belt asteroid 8.3 Ma increased the IDP flux in the inner solar system leading to a positive 3He anomaly in late Miocene (~6.8-8.3 Ma) sediments. The anomaly is comparable to the late Eocene (~34.2-36.4 Ma) 3He enhancement attributed to a comet [11] or asteroid [12] shower, which increased both the abundance of IDPs and large asteroids reaching the surface. But Farley et al. discount such a scenario in the late Miocene based on a perceived absence of coincident crater-forming impacts. Preserved ejecta and geochemical signatures, however, indicate the contrary. We suggest that the late Miocene contains at least as rich a record of terrestrial impacts as the late Eocene. The patterns of elevated 3He, main-belt breakups, and significant impact events are very similar through both intervals. Two reported asteroid breakups during the Pliocene and mid-Pleistocene [13,14] also appear to

  7. A new genus and species of Platyischnopidae (Amphipoda: Gammaridea) from the Argentine sea, South-West Atlantic ocean.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, Ignacio L; Alonso, Gloria M

    2014-05-30

    The family Platyischnopidae is herein reported for the first time in the Argentine Sea, South-West Atlantic Ocean. A new genus and species, Platyisao holodividum gen. et. sp. nov., collected off the coast of Buenos Aires and Río Negro provinces, is fully described and illustrated. Platyisao gen. nov. is distinguished from the eight other genera of Platyischnopidae by the gnathopods subchelate, and the telson elongate, completely cleft. In addition, the distribution of Tiburonella viscana (Barnard J.L., 1964), up to now known in the South-West Atlantic Ocean from Brazilian waters, is extended to the coast off Buenos Aires province, Argentina.

  8. Individual Rules for Trail Pattern Formation in Argentine Ants (Linepithema humile)

    PubMed Central

    Perna, Andrea; Granovskiy, Boris; Garnier, Simon; Nicolis, Stamatios C.; Labédan, Marjorie; Theraulaz, Guy; Fourcassié, Vincent; Sumpter, David J. T.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the formation of trail patterns by Argentine ants exploring an empty arena. Using a novel imaging and analysis technique we estimated pheromone concentrations at all spatial positions in the experimental arena and at different times. Then we derived the response function of individual ants to pheromone concentrations by looking at correlations between concentrations and changes in speed or direction of the ants. Ants were found to turn in response to local pheromone concentrations, while their speed was largely unaffected by these concentrations. Ants did not integrate pheromone concentrations over time, with the concentration of pheromone in a 1 cm radius in front of the ant determining the turning angle. The response to pheromone was found to follow a Weber's Law, such that the difference between quantities of pheromone on the two sides of the ant divided by their sum determines the magnitude of the turning angle. This proportional response is in apparent contradiction with the well-established non-linear choice function used in the literature to model the results of binary bridge experiments in ant colonies (Deneubourg et al. 1990). However, agent based simulations implementing the Weber's Law response function led to the formation of trails and reproduced results reported in the literature. We show analytically that a sigmoidal response, analogous to that in the classical Deneubourg model for collective decision making, can be derived from the individual Weber-type response to pheromone concentrations that we have established in our experiments when directional noise around the preferred direction of movement of the ants is assumed. PMID:22829756

  9. Genotypes and clinical aspects associated with bone mineral density in Argentine postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Adriana; Ulla, María; García, Beatriz; Lavezzo, María; Elías, Eliana; Binci, Miriam; Rivoira, María; Centeno, Viviana; Alisio, Arturo; Tolosa de Talamoni, Nori

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine genotypes and clinical aspects associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women from Córdoba, Argentina. Polymorphisms were assessed by RFLP-PCR technique using BsmI and FokI for vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) and XbaI and PvuII for estrogen receptor-alpha gene (ERalpha) as restrictases. Sixty-eight healthy, 54 osteopenic, and 64 osteoporotic postmenopausal women were recruited. Femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD were inversely correlated with age in the entire analyzed population. Height was lower in osteopenic and osteoporotic women as compared to healthy women (P < 0.05). Weight and body mass index (BMI) were the lowest in osteoporotic women (P < 0.01 versus healthy group). Serum procollagen type I Nterminal propeptide (PINP) was higher in osteoporotic women as compared to the other groups. Distribution of VDR and ERalpha genotypes was similar in the three groups. Genotype bb (VDR) was associated with low values of lumbar BMD in the healthy group (P < 0.05 versus genotype Bb), and with low values of femoral BMD (P < 0.05 versus genotype BB) in osteoporotic women. BB*Pp interaction was associated with the highest femoral neck BMD (P < 0.05), whereas the bb*xx interaction was associated with the lowest femoral neck BMD in the total population analyzed (P < 0.05). In conclusion, parameters such as age, height, weight, BMI, serum PINP, VDR genotypes, and interactions between VDR and ERalpha genotypes could be useful to predict a decrease in BMD in Argentine postmenopausal women. PMID:18600402

  10. The Utility of Seasonal Climate Forecasts: Understanding Argentine Farmers' Attribute Priorities and Trade-Offs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seipt, E. C.; Easterling, W. E.

    2007-05-01

    A distinct El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signal and its impacts have been confirmed in the Argentine Pampas, and precipitation variability is currently recognized as the region's most marked ENSO-driven influence. In the Pampas, precipitation is also a major limiting factor for agricultural production given spatial differences in soil water storage capacities and the region's relatively minimal use of irrigation. Seasonal climate forecasts that provide advanced knowledge of expected ENSO-driven precipitation anomalies may benefit farm management decision-making by helping to either mitigate potentially negative consequences or to take advantage of potentially positive influences. To be useful and applicable, however, these forecasts must suit the decisions that they are meant to inform. In this research, a case study is presented that investigates how farmers in the Pampas prioritize and trade off specific attributes of a seasonal climate forecast (i.e., mode of distribution, spatial resolution, lead time, and forecast performance) when judging its utility. A conjoint analysis evaluation decomposes holistic evaluations of forecasts into the part-worth utilities associated with their different attributes. Part-worth utilities combine to reveal the structure of farmers' forecast utility preferences - a model of the decision-making process. Utility preference structures are analyzed to compute the importance value of each attribute and to determine the trade-offs that farmers find acceptable between different attributes. Analysis indicates that, on average, spatial resolution is the most influential attribute in determining climate forecast utility. Attribute trade-off values suggest that advances in spatial resolution, forecast performance, and/or product dissemination via the Internet offer the greatest potential for increasing the utility of future seasonal climate forecasts for farmers in the Pampas.

  11. Adaptation to Interannual and Interdecadal Climate Variability in Agricultural Production Systems of the Argentine Pampas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podestá, G. P.; Bert, F.; Weber, E.; Laciana, C.; Rajagopalan, B.; Letson, D.

    2007-05-01

    Agricultural ecosystems play a central role in world food production and food security, and involve one of the most climate-sensitive sectors of society-agriculture. We focus on crop production in the Argentine Pampas, one of the world's major agricultural regions. Climate of the Pampas shows marked variability at both interannual and decadal time scales. We explored the scope for adaptive management in response to climate information on interannual scales. We show that different assumptions about what decision makers are trying to achieve (i.e., their objective functions) may change what actions are considered as "optimal" for a given climate context. Optimal actions also were used to estimate the economic value of forecasts of an ENSO phase. Decision constraints (e.g., crop rotations) have critical influence on value of the forecasting system. Gaps in knowledge or misconceptions about climate variability were identified in open-ended "mental model" interviews. Results were used to design educational interventions. A marked increase in precipitation since the 1970s, together with new production technologies, led to major changes in land use patterns in the Pampas. Continuous cropping has widely replaced agriculture-pasture rotations. Nevertheless, production systems that evolved partly in response to increased rainfall may not be viable if climate reverts to a drier epoch. We use historical data to define a range of plausible climate trajectories 20-30 years hence. Regional scenarios are downscaled using semi-parametric weather generators to produce multiple realizations of daily weather consistent with decadal scenarios. Finally, we use the synthetic climate, crop growth models, and realistic models of decision-making under risk to compute risk metrics (e.g., probability of yields or profits being below a threshold). Climatically optimal and marginal locations show differential responses: probabilities of negative economic results are much higher in currently

  12. Feeding behavior and social interactions of the Argentine ant Linepithema humile change with sucrose concentration.

    PubMed

    Sola, F J; Josens, R

    2016-08-01

    Liquid sugar baits are well accepted by the Argentine ant Linepithema humile and are suitable for the chemical control of this invasive species. We evaluated how sugar concentrations affect the foraging behavior of L. humile individuals. We quantified feeding variables for individual foragers (ingested load, feeding time and solution intake rate) when feeding on sucrose solutions of different concentrations, as well as post-feeding interactions with nestmates. Solutions of intermediate sucrose concentrations (10-30%) were the most consumed and had the highest intake rates, whereas solutions of high sucrose concentrations (60 and 70%) resulted in extended feeding times, low intake rates and ants having smaller crop loads. In terms of post-feeding interactions, individuals fed solutions of intermediate sucrose concentrations (20%) had the highest probability of conducting trophallaxis and the smallest latency to drop exposure (i.e. lowest time delay). Trophallaxis duration increased with increasing sucrose concentrations. Behavioral motor displays, including contacts with head jerking and walking with a gaster waggle, were lowest for individuals that ingested the more dilute sucrose solution (5%). These behaviors have been previously suggested to act as a communication channel for the activation and/or recruitment of nestmates. We show here that sucrose concentration affects feeding dynamics and modulates decision making related to individual behavior and social interactions of foragers. Our results indicate that intermediate sucrose concentrations (ca. 20%), appear to be most appropriate for toxic baits because they promote rapid foraging cycles, a high crop load per individual, and a high degree of stimulation for recruitment.

  13. Feeding behavior and social interactions of the Argentine ant Linepithema humile change with sucrose concentration.

    PubMed

    Sola, F J; Josens, R

    2016-08-01

    Liquid sugar baits are well accepted by the Argentine ant Linepithema humile and are suitable for the chemical control of this invasive species. We evaluated how sugar concentrations affect the foraging behavior of L. humile individuals. We quantified feeding variables for individual foragers (ingested load, feeding time and solution intake rate) when feeding on sucrose solutions of different concentrations, as well as post-feeding interactions with nestmates. Solutions of intermediate sucrose concentrations (10-30%) were the most consumed and had the highest intake rates, whereas solutions of high sucrose concentrations (60 and 70%) resulted in extended feeding times, low intake rates and ants having smaller crop loads. In terms of post-feeding interactions, individuals fed solutions of intermediate sucrose concentrations (20%) had the highest probability of conducting trophallaxis and the smallest latency to drop exposure (i.e. lowest time delay). Trophallaxis duration increased with increasing sucrose concentrations. Behavioral motor displays, including contacts with head jerking and walking with a gaster waggle, were lowest for individuals that ingested the more dilute sucrose solution (5%). These behaviors have been previously suggested to act as a communication channel for the activation and/or recruitment of nestmates. We show here that sucrose concentration affects feeding dynamics and modulates decision making related to individual behavior and social interactions of foragers. Our results indicate that intermediate sucrose concentrations (ca. 20%), appear to be most appropriate for toxic baits because they promote rapid foraging cycles, a high crop load per individual, and a high degree of stimulation for recruitment. PMID:27063551

  14. Individual rules for trail pattern formation in Argentine ants (Linepithema humile).

    PubMed

    Perna, Andrea; Granovskiy, Boris; Garnier, Simon; Nicolis, Stamatios C; Labédan, Marjorie; Theraulaz, Guy; Fourcassié, Vincent; Sumpter, David J T

    2012-01-01

    We studied the formation of trail patterns by Argentine ants exploring an empty arena. Using a novel imaging and analysis technique we estimated pheromone concentrations at all spatial positions in the experimental arena and at different times. Then we derived the response function of individual ants to pheromone concentrations by looking at correlations between concentrations and changes in speed or direction of the ants. Ants were found to turn in response to local pheromone concentrations, while their speed was largely unaffected by these concentrations. Ants did not integrate pheromone concentrations over time, with the concentration of pheromone in a 1 cm radius in front of the ant determining the turning angle. The response to pheromone was found to follow a Weber's Law, such that the difference between quantities of pheromone on the two sides of the ant divided by their sum determines the magnitude of the turning angle. This proportional response is in apparent contradiction with the well-established non-linear choice function used in the literature to model the results of binary bridge experiments in ant colonies (Deneubourg et al. 1990). However, agent based simulations implementing the Weber's Law response function led to the formation of trails and reproduced results reported in the literature. We show analytically that a sigmoidal response, analogous to that in the classical Deneubourg model for collective decision making, can be derived from the individual Weber-type response to pheromone concentrations that we have established in our experiments when directional noise around the preferred direction of movement of the ants is assumed. PMID:22829756

  15. Rapid diagnosis of Argentine hemorrhagic fever by reverse transcriptase PCR-based assay.

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, M E; Enría, D; Maiztegui, J I; Grau, O; Romanowski, V

    1995-01-01

    Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF) is an endemo-epidemic disease caused by Junín virus. This report demonstrates that a reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR-based assay developed in our laboratory to detect Junín virus in whole blood samples is sensitive and specific. The experiments were conducted in a double-blinded manner using 94 clinical samples collected in the area in which AHF is endemic. The RT-PCR-based assay was compared with traditional methodologies, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, plaque neutralization tests, and occasionally viral isolation. The calculated parameters for RT-PCR diagnosis, with seroconversion as the "gold standard," were 98% sensitivity and 76% specificity. It is noteworthy that 94% of the patients with putative false-positive results (RT-PCR positive and no seroconversion detected) exhibited febrile syndromes of undefined etiology. These results could be interpreted to mean that most of those patients with febrile syndromes were actually infected with Junín virus but did not develop a detectable immune response. Furthermore, 8 laboratory-fabricated samples and 25 blood samples of patients outside the area in which AHF is endemic tested in a similar way were disclosed correctly (100% match). The RT-PCR assay is the only laboratory test available currently for the early and rapid diagnosis of AHF. It is sensitive enough to detect the low viremia found during the period in which immune plasma therapy can be used effectively, reducing mortality rates from 30% to less than 1%. PMID:7542268

  16. Individual rules for trail pattern formation in Argentine ants (Linepithema humile).

    PubMed

    Perna, Andrea; Granovskiy, Boris; Garnier, Simon; Nicolis, Stamatios C; Labédan, Marjorie; Theraulaz, Guy; Fourcassié, Vincent; Sumpter, David J T

    2012-01-01

    We studied the formation of trail patterns by Argentine ants exploring an empty arena. Using a novel imaging and analysis technique we estimated pheromone concentrations at all spatial positions in the experimental arena and at different times. Then we derived the response function of individual ants to pheromone concentrations by looking at correlations between concentrations and changes in speed or direction of the ants. Ants were found to turn in response to local pheromone concentrations, while their speed was largely unaffected by these concentrations. Ants did not integrate pheromone concentrations over time, with the concentration of pheromone in a 1 cm radius in front of the ant determining the turning angle. The response to pheromone was found to follow a Weber's Law, such that the difference between quantities of pheromone on the two sides of the ant divided by their sum determines the magnitude of the turning angle. This proportional response is in apparent contradiction with the well-established non-linear choice function used in the literature to model the results of binary bridge experiments in ant colonies (Deneubourg et al. 1990). However, agent based simulations implementing the Weber's Law response function led to the formation of trails and reproduced results reported in the literature. We show analytically that a sigmoidal response, analogous to that in the classical Deneubourg model for collective decision making, can be derived from the individual Weber-type response to pheromone concentrations that we have established in our experiments when directional noise around the preferred direction of movement of the ants is assumed.

  17. Circadian analysis of myocardial infarction incidence in an Argentine and Uruguayan population

    PubMed Central

    D'Negri, Carlos E; Nicola-Siri, Leonardo; Vigo, Daniel E; Girotti, Luis A; Cardinali, Daniel P

    2006-01-01

    Background The occurrence of variations in the spectrum of cardiovascular disease between different regions of the world and ethnic groups have been the subject of great interest. This study report the 24-h variation of myocardial infarction (MI) occurrence in patients recruited from CCU located in Argentina and Uruguay. Methods A cohort of 1063 patients admitted to the CCU within 24 h of the onset of symptoms of an acute MI was examined. MI incidence along the day was computed in 1 h-intervals. Results A minimal MI incidence between 03:00 and 07:00 h and the occurrence of a first maximum between 08:00 and 12:00 h and a second maximum between 15:00 and 22:00 h were verified. The best fit curve was a 24 h cosinor (acrophase ~ 19:00 h, accounting for 63 % of variance) together with a symmetrical gaussian bell (maximum at ~ 10:00 h, accounting for 37 % of variance). A similar picture was observed for MI frequencies among different excluding subgroups (older or younger than 70 years; with or without previous symptoms; diabetics or non diabetics; Q wave- or non-Q wave-type MI; anterior or inferior MI location). Proportion between cosinor and gaussian probabilities was maintained among most subgroups except for older patients who had more MI at the afternoon and patients with previous symptoms who were equally distributed among the morning and afternoon maxima. Conclusion The results support the existence of two maxima (at morning and afternoon hours) in MI incidence in the Argentine and Uruguayan population. PMID:16401349

  18. Suspending the next turn as a form of repair initiation: evidence from Argentine Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Elizabeth; Enfield, N J

    2015-01-01

    Practices of other-initiated repair deal with problems of hearing or understanding what another person has said in the fast-moving turn-by-turn flow of conversation. As such, other-initiated repair plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of intersubjectivity in social interaction. This study finds and analyses a special type of other-initiated repair that is used in turn-by-turn conversation in a sign language: Argentine Sign Language (Lengua de Señas Argentina or LSA). We describe a type of response termed a "freeze-look," which occurs when a person has just been asked a direct question: instead of answering the question in the next turn position, the person holds still while looking directly at the questioner. In these cases it is clear that the person is aware of having just been addressed and is not otherwise accounting for their delay in responding (e.g., by displaying a "thinking" face or hesitation, etc.). We find that this behavior functions as a way for an addressee to initiate repair by the person who asked the question. The "freeze-look" results in the questioner "re-doing" their action of asking a question, for example by repeating or rephrasing it. Thus, we argue that the "freeze-look" is a practice for other-initiation of repair. In addition, we argue that it is an "off-record" practice, thus contrasting with known on-record practices such as saying "Huh?" or equivalents. The findings aim to contribute to research on human understanding in everyday turn-by-turn conversation by looking at an understudied sign language, with possible implications for our understanding of visual bodily communication in spoken languages as well. PMID:26441710

  19. Suspending the next turn as a form of repair initiation: evidence from Argentine Sign Language

    PubMed Central

    Manrique, Elizabeth; Enfield, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Practices of other-initiated repair deal with problems of hearing or understanding what another person has said in the fast-moving turn-by-turn flow of conversation. As such, other-initiated repair plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of intersubjectivity in social interaction. This study finds and analyses a special type of other-initiated repair that is used in turn-by-turn conversation in a sign language: Argentine Sign Language (Lengua de Señas Argentina or LSA). We describe a type of response termed a “freeze-look,” which occurs when a person has just been asked a direct question: instead of answering the question in the next turn position, the person holds still while looking directly at the questioner. In these cases it is clear that the person is aware of having just been addressed and is not otherwise accounting for their delay in responding (e.g., by displaying a “thinking” face or hesitation, etc.). We find that this behavior functions as a way for an addressee to initiate repair by the person who asked the question. The “freeze-look” results in the questioner “re-doing” their action of asking a question, for example by repeating or rephrasing it. Thus, we argue that the “freeze-look” is a practice for other-initiation of repair. In addition, we argue that it is an “off-record” practice, thus contrasting with known on-record practices such as saying “Huh?” or equivalents. The findings aim to contribute to research on human understanding in everyday turn-by-turn conversation by looking at an understudied sign language, with possible implications for our understanding of visual bodily communication in spoken languages as well. PMID:26441710

  20. An experimental study of competition between fire ants and Argentine ants in their native range.

    PubMed

    LeBrun, E G; Tillberg, C V; Suarez, A V; Folgarait, P J; Smith, C R; Holway, D A

    2007-01-01

    An understanding of why introduced species achieve ecological success in novel environments often requires information about the factors that limit the abundance of these taxa in their native ranges. Although numerous recent studies have evaluated the importance of natural enemies in this context, relatively few have examined how ecological success may result from differences in the magnitude of interference competition between communities in the native and introduced ranges of nonnative species. Here we examine how native-range competitive environments may relate to invasion success for two important invasive species, the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) and the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile), in a region of native-range sympatry. At two study sites in northern Argentina, we used stable-isotope analysis, a variety of observational approaches, and two different reciprocal removal experiments to test (1) whether S. invicta competes asymmetrically with L. humile (as suggested by the 20th century pattern of replacement in the southeastern United States) and (2) the extent to which these two species achieve behavioral and numerical dominance. Stable-isotope analysis and activity surveys indicated that S. invicta and L. humile are both omnivores and forage during broadly overlapping portions of the diel cycle. Short-term removal experiments at baits revealed no competitive asymmetry between S. invicta and L. humile. Longer-term colony removal experiments illustrated that S. invicta and L. humile experience an approximately equal competitive release upon removal of the other. Our results indicate that neither S. invicta nor L. humile achieves the same degree of behavioral or ecological dominance where they co-occur in native populations as they do in areas where either is common in their introduced range. These results strongly suggest that interspecific competition is an important limiting factor for both S. invicta and L. humile in South America.

  1. Ordovician K-bentonites in the Argentine Precordillera: relations to Gondwana margin evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, W.D.; Bergstrom, Stig M.; Kolata, Dennis R.; Cingolani, C.A.; Astini, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is included in the Special Publication entitled 'The proto- Andean margin of Gondwana', edited by R.J. Pankhurst and C.W. Rapela. Ordovician K-bentonites have now been recorded from >20 localities in the vicinity of the Argentine Precordillera. Most occur in the eastern thrust belts, in the San Juan Limestone and the overlying the Gualcamayo Formation, but a few ash beds are known also from the central thrust belts. The oldest occur in the middle Arenig I, victoriae lunatus graptolite (Oe. evae conodont) Zone, and the youngest in the middle Llanvirn P. elegans (P. suecicus) Zone. Mineralogical characteristics, typical of other Ordovician K-bentonites, include a matrix of illite/smectite mixed-layer clay and a typical felsic volcanic phenocryst assemblage: biotite, beta-form quartz, alkali and plagioclase feldspar, apatite, and zircon, with lesser amounts of hornblende, clinopyroxene, titanite and Fe-Ti oxides. The proportions of the mineral phases and variations in their crystal chemistry are commonly unique to individual (or small groups of) K-bentonite beds. Glass melt inclusions preserved in quartz are rhyolitic in composition. The sequence is unique in its abundance of K-bentonite beds, but a close association between the Precordillera and other Ordovician sedimentary basins cannot be established. The ash distribution is most consistent with palaeogeographical reconstructions in which early Ordovician drifting of the Precordillera occurred in proximity to one or more volcanic arcs, and with eventual collision along the Andean margin of Gondwana during the mid-Ordovician Ocloyic event of the Famatinian orogeny. The Puna-Famatina terrane northeast of the Precordillera might have served as the source of the K-bentonite ashes, possibly in concert with active arc magmatism on the Gondwana plate itself.

  2. Scheme of 3 interfaces with local isostatic compensation on the Argentine continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedraza De Marchi, A. C.; Ghidella, M. E.; Tocho, C.

    2013-05-01

    The segment of Argentine continental margin located between 39°S and the Malvinas platform (~49°S) is of passive type and volcanic characteristics revealed by seaward-dipping seismic reflectors sequences (SDRs). The free air gravity edge-effect associated with passive continental margins is one of the most distinctive characteristics of gravity in marine regions. This effect is in large part due to the transition between continental and oceanic crusts, because of their different thicknesses. In this presentation we investigate the Airy type isostatic compensation scheme by using three interfaces in a forward calculation with different approximations of Parker's expression to obtain the isostatic anomaly. After that we perform the inversion of the anomaly thus obtained in order to find the Moho's deflection necessary to compensate it (or minimize it) by using the same scheme of interfaces and the iterative Parker-Oldenburg method (Oldenburg, D., 1974) with more terms in the inversion. The crust-mantle interface (Moho) thus calculated represents a more realistic surface than the one calculated using one term in the inversion and the surface estimated with topographic data and sediment thickness. Even considering that the experiment constitutes a schematic assumption just to test the numerical methods involved, we find that in the comparison with the only available digitized refraction profile, the inverted Moho interface reproduces fairly well the Moho that the seismic profile yields, for the case of the iterative method. This suggests that the inverse calculation with the iterative method is sensible to the presence of the SDRS, at least for this sole profile. Keywords: isostatic anomaly, Moho, passive continental margins Oldenburg, D., 1974. The inversion and interpretation of gravity anomalíes, Geophysics, vol. 39, no. 4, p. 526-536.

  3. Queen execution increases relatedness among workers of the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Maki N; Ito, Fuminori; Goka, Koichi

    2015-09-01

    Polygyny in social insects can greatly reduce within-nest genetic relatedness. In polygynous ant species, potential rival queens in colonies with multiple queens are often executed by other queens, workers, or both. The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, native to South America, forms a "supercolony" that is composed of a large number of nests and is considered to contribute to the ant's invasion success. Currently, four mutually antagonistic supercolonies are contiguously distributed within a small area of Japan. Here, we analyzed the genetic structure and relatedness within and among the four supercolonies using microsatellite markers to clarify how L. humile maintains its supercoloniality. The results of AMOVA and BASP, the F ST values, and the existence of several private alleles indicated that the L. humile population in the Kobe area had a characteristic genetic structure. Within a given supercolony, there was significant genetic differentiation (F ST) among workers collected in May and those collected in September. The significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium increased, and the relatedness among workers significantly increased from May to September in all supercolonies. This result suggested that the supercolonies replaced old queens with new ones during the reproductive season, thus supporting the plausibility of queen execution. From the perspective of kin selection, workers collectively eliminate queens, thereby increasing their own inclusive fitness. Restricted gene flow among supercolonies, together with mating with sib and queen execution, could help to maintain the unique social structure of L. humile, the distribution of which is expanding worldwide. PMID:26445661

  4. A Mid-DESD Review: Key Findings and Ways Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wals, Arjen E. J.

    2009-01-01

    This article lists the key outcomes and recommendations of Phase I of the monitoring and evaluation of the DESD. Phase I focused on a review of the structures, provisions and conditions countries and regions have put in place in order to facilitate the development and implementation of ESD. The author also touches upon the constraints and…

  5. Star of the Republic Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    The Star of the Republic Museum (Washington, Texas), the Historical Museum of the Texas Republic, has created lesson plans to enhance student understanding of Texas state history. Regardless of the opportunity to visit the museum, the lessons can enrich the classroom experience by making objects from the museum accessible to students. The…

  6. A paleomagnetic and relative paleointensity record from the Argentine Basin (western South Atlantic Ocean) for the last ~125 kyrs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heil, C. W., Jr.; Stoner, J. S.; St-Onge, G.; King, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The paucity of paleomagnetic records from the western South Atlantic Ocean presents a significant gap in our understanding of the spatial variations in geomagnetic field dynamics as they relate to the occurrence of geomagnetic excursions and changes in field strength. As such, high quality records from this region can help build upon Holocene observations and extend the geographic and temporal data coverage for spherical harmonic models. To that end, we present paleomagnetic directional (inclination) and strength (relative paleointensity) records from two cores from the Argentine Basin (RC11-49 and RC16-88). Although the cores were collected more than 40 years ago, the sediments appear to hold a stable remanence and reliable magnetic directions, as evidenced by their reproducibility between the two cores that are separated by ~25 km. The records show evidence of 4 excursional features in the uppermost 16-m of the sediments from the basin. A comparison of the relative paleointensity records from these cores to the South Atlantic Paleointensity Stack (SAPIS) (Stoner et al., 2002) and the relative paleointensity record from ODP Site 1089 (Stoner et al., 2003) indicate that the sediments reliably record relative changes in geomagnetic field intensity and suggests that the longest record (RC11-49) spans the last ~125 kyrs. Our results indicate that the sediments of the Argentine Basin are an important sedimentary archive of geomagnetic field behavior and strength at least through the Holocene and Late Pleistocene and highlight the need for further studies of cores within the basin.

  7. Eddy-driven sediment transport in the Argentine Basin: Is the height of the Zapiola Rise hydrodynamically controlled?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weijer, Wilbert; Maltrud, Mathew E.; Homoky, William B.; Polzin, Kurt L.; Maas, Leo R. M.

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we address the question whether eddy-driven transports in the Argentine Basin can be held responsible for enhanced sediment accumulation over the Zapiola Rise, hence accounting for the existence and growth of this sediment drift. To address this question, we perform a 6 year simulation with a strongly eddying ocean model. We release two passive tracers, with settling velocities that are consistent with silt and clay size particles. Our experiments show contrasting behavior between the silt fraction and the lighter clay. Due to its larger settling velocity, the silt fraction reaches a quasisteady state within a few years, with abyssal sedimentation rates that match net input. In contrast, clay settles only slowly, and its distribution is heavily stratified, being transported mainly along isopycnals. Yet, both size classes display a significant and persistent concentration minimum over the Zapiola Rise. We show that the Zapiola Anticyclone, a strong eddy-driven vortex that circulates around the Zapiola Rise, is a barrier to sediment transport, and hence prevents significant accumulation of sediments on the Rise. We conclude that sediment transport by the turbulent circulation in the Argentine Basin alone cannot account for the preferred sediment accumulation over the Rise. We speculate that resuspension is a critical process in the formation and maintenance of the Zapiola Rise.

  8. Interaction between the Hawaiian dark-rumped petrel and the Argentine ant in Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krushelnycky, Paul D.; Hodges, Cathleen S.N.; Medeiros, Arthur C.; Loope, Lloyd L.

    2001-01-01

    The endemic biota of the Hawaiian islands is believed to have evolved in the absence of ant predation. However, it was suspected that this endemic biota is highly vulnerable to the effect of immigrant ants especially with regard to an aggressive predator known as the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile). First recorded in the Haleakala National Park on the island of Maui in 1967, this ant was believed to have reduced populations of native arthropods in high-elevation subalpine shrublands. In addition, concerns were raised that this immigrant ant may have also reduced the breeding success of the endangered Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia sandwichensis), a native seabird. If so, then it was believe that this ant could become another major threat to the survival of this endangered seabird in addition to the threat that was caused by the introduction of introduced mammals, the advent of hunting by the Polynesians, and a loss of breeding habitat. As a result, the purpose of this study was to determine if the Argentine ant affects the nesting success of this native Hawaiian seabird.

  9. Delayed toxicity as a critical factor in the efficacy of aqueous baits for controlling Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Rust, Michael K; Reierson, Donald A; Klotz, John H

    2004-06-01

    Boric acid, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam in sucrose aqueous baits had different delayed toxicities to worker Argentine ants, Linepithema humile (Mayr). The concentrations required to produce an LT50 (time required to produce 50% mortality) within 1-4 d were 3.63-0.55% boric acid, 9.2 x 10(-3) to 7.1 x 10(-4)% imidacloprid, and 3 x 10(-4) to 2 x 10(-5)% thiamethoxam. The three toxicants were not repellent. Other laboratory trials showed that 1% boric acid, 5 x 10(-4) to 5 x 10(-3)% imidacloprid, and 1 x 10(-5) to 1 x 10(-3)% thiamethoxam had delayed toxic effects, whereas 0.5% boric acid and < 5 x 10(-3)% imidacloprid did not. Baits that provided an LT50 between days 1 and 4 were considered to have delayed toxic effects. The utility of aqueous sucrose baits and toxicants soluble in such systems and the negative impact of fast-acting toxicants on trail following, recruitment, trophallaxis, and control of Argentine ants are discussed.

  10. Hydroacoustical evidence of the expansion of pelagic swarms of Munida gregaria (Decapoda, Munididae) in the Beagle Channel and the Argentine Patagonian Shelf, and its relationship with habitat features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, Mariano J.; Cabreira, Ariel G.; Madirolas, Adrián; Lovrich, Gustavo A.

    2016-08-01

    Squat lobsters are highly diversified and widespread decapods, of which only three species form pelagic swarms. Here we infer the expansion of Munida gregaria populations in the Beagle Channel and the Argentine Patagonian Shelf by means of acoustic surveys of pelagic swarms. We also describe the habitat characteristics in which these swarms occur. Acoustic data was collected during three multidisciplinary scientific cruises on board of the R/V Puerto Deseado during 2009, 2012 and 2014. Despite differences in the environmental conditions between the two surveyed areas, between 2009 and 2014 pelagic swarms increased their occurrence and abundance both in the Beagle Channel and on the Argentine Patagonian Shelf. Towards the end of the studied period, pelagic swarms of M. gregaria occurred in new locations, supporting the notion of a population expansion. Within the Beagle Channel swarm expansions were more marked than on the Patagonian Shelf. We here postulate that M. gregaria expansions occur in association with productive areas of the Argentine continental shelf, such as frontal zones, favoured by the squat lobster phenotypic plasticity that permit to exploit resources in both the neritic and benthic environments. At a regional scale on the Patagonian Shelf, three main groups of pelagic swarms of M. gregaria were clearly associated to respective frontal zones. The information presented here is necessary to understand fluctuations in both distribution and abundance patterns of a key species on the Argentine continental shelf. These fluctuations could be direct or indirect indicators of changes in the ecosystem.

  11. The Pacific-Atlantic connection: Biogeochemical signals in the southern end of the Argentine shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzón, J. E. Cardona; Martínez, A. M.; Barrera, F.; Pfaff, F.; Koch, B. P.; Freije, R. H.; Gómez, E. A.; Lara, R. J.

    2016-11-01

    The Cape Horn Current transports low-salinity waters from the SE Pacific Ocean into the Atlantic, which are transported further north by the Malvinas current. Biogeochemical signals of this connection were studied by characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by determination of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOMc), and DOM humification index (HIX). Further, inorganic nutrients, salinity, temperature, stable isotopic composition of particulate organic nitrogen (δ15N) and chlorophyll a (Chla) were measured in the southern end of the Argentine shelf in March 2012. Three water types were characterized: waters of the Beagle Channel (BCW), coastal waters (CW) and oceanic waters (OW). Highest values of ammonium, DOC, FDOMc and HIX were found in BCW, the lowest in OW, suggesting that terrigenous input is a main source of ammonium and refractory carbon, which is supported by a highly significant inverse correlation of these parameters with salinity. In turn, lowest concentrations of nitrate, silicate and phosphate were found in BCW and CW, and highest in OW, with highly significant correlations of these nutrients with salinity, indicating the contribution of the saltier, nutrient-rich Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) to the Pacific-Atlantic connection system. In general there was an inverse distribution pattern between Chla and those nutrients contributed by the ACC, which is consistent with the transition from coastal waters to the low-silicate, high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll, iron-limited setting of the Subantarctic oceanic waters north of the Polar Front. In contrast, in the low-salinity, internal BCW, high values of ammonium, DOC, HIX and FDOM indicate continental inputs, likely including iron complexes, which could have led to the observed high Chla values. δ15N values were positive in the study region, and same as ammonium, reached a maximum in the inner part of the BCW, declining towards OW. This does not support a

  12. Radon program of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Petrová, K; Pravdová, E

    2014-07-01

    The Radon Program of the Czech Republic 2010-2019--Action Plan is based on Governmental Decision No. 594/2009 (Radon Program of the Czech Republic 2010-2019--Action Plan, Government of the Czech Republic, Decision No. 594/2009, May 4 2009) and is coordinated by the State Office for Nuclear Safety. It covers both prevention in new house construction and intervention in existing houses with high indoor radon concentration. The Program is aimed at developing an effective public information system. It takes advantage of long-term experience and good scientific and technological background-staff, methods, standards and technologies.

  13. 75 FR 969 - Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof From the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Korea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ...'s Republic of China and the Republic of Korea: Antidumping Duty Orders, 74 FR 57145 (November 4... International Trade Administration Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof From the People's Republic of China and... investigations of diamond sawblades and parts thereof (``diamond sawblades'') from the People's Republic of...

  14. Medical Education in Peoples's Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, John A. D.; Yingang, Lin

    1987-01-01

    The three types of physicians trained in the People's Republic of China (practitioners in Chinese medicine, traditional Mongolian medicine, and western-style medicine) and the design of the medical schools and programs are discussed. (MSE)

  15. Dubinectes infirmus, a new species of deep-water Munnopsidae (Crustacea, Isopoda, Asellota) from the Argentine Basin, South Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Malyutina, Marina; Brandt, Angelika

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Dubinectes infirmus sp. n., Munnopsidae, is described from the Argentine Basin, southwest Atlantic, at depths between 4586–4607 m. The new species is distinguished by a narrow rim of the pleotelson posterior margin which is not raising over its dorsal surface; article 3 of the antennula is subequal in length to article 2; distomedial lobes of male pleopod 1 are of same size as distolateral lobes; stylet of male pleopod 2 is subequal in length to protopod; uropod exopod is more than a half of endopod length. Some generic characters which are weakly pronounced in the new species or have different state are defined more precisely in the revised diagnosis of Dubinectes. The modified diagnosis of the genus, a key to the species of Dubinectes as well as the distribution of the genus are presented. PMID:22207784

  16. Structure, composition and metagenomic profile of soil microbiomes associated to agricultural land use and tillage systems in Argentine Pampas.

    PubMed

    Carbonetto, Belén; Rascovan, Nicolás; Álvarez, Roberto; Mentaberry, Alejandro; Vázquez, Martin P

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is facing a major challenge nowadays: to increase crop production for food and energy while preserving ecosystem functioning and soil quality. Argentine Pampas is one of the main world producers of crops and one of the main adopters of conservation agriculture. Changes in soil chemical and physical properties of Pampas soils due to different tillage systems have been deeply studied. Still, not much evidence has been reported on the effects of agricultural practices on Pampas soil microbiomes. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of agricultural land use on community structure, composition and metabolic profiles on soil microbiomes of Argentine Pampas. We also compared the effects associated to conventional practices with the effects of no-tillage systems. Our results confirmed the impact on microbiome structure and composition due to agricultural practices. The phyla Verrucomicrobia, Plactomycetes, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi were more abundant in non cultivated soils while Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae and WS3 were more abundant in cultivated soils. Effects on metabolic metagenomic profiles were also observed. The relative abundance of genes assigned to transcription, protein modification, nucleotide transport and metabolism, wall and membrane biogenesis and intracellular trafficking and secretion were higher in cultivated fertilized soils than in non cultivated soils. We also observed significant differences in microbiome structure and taxonomic composition between soils under conventional and no-tillage systems. Overall, our results suggest that agronomical land use and the type of tillage system have induced microbiomes to shift their life-history strategies. Microbiomes of cultivated fertilized soils (i.e. higher nutrient amendment) presented tendencies to copiotrophy while microbiomes of non cultivated homogenous soils appeared to have a more oligotrophic life-style. Additionally, we propose that conventional tillage systems may

  17. Structure, composition and metagenomic profile of soil microbiomes associated to agricultural land use and tillage systems in Argentine Pampas.

    PubMed

    Carbonetto, Belén; Rascovan, Nicolás; Álvarez, Roberto; Mentaberry, Alejandro; Vázquez, Martin P

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is facing a major challenge nowadays: to increase crop production for food and energy while preserving ecosystem functioning and soil quality. Argentine Pampas is one of the main world producers of crops and one of the main adopters of conservation agriculture. Changes in soil chemical and physical properties of Pampas soils due to different tillage systems have been deeply studied. Still, not much evidence has been reported on the effects of agricultural practices on Pampas soil microbiomes. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of agricultural land use on community structure, composition and metabolic profiles on soil microbiomes of Argentine Pampas. We also compared the effects associated to conventional practices with the effects of no-tillage systems. Our results confirmed the impact on microbiome structure and composition due to agricultural practices. The phyla Verrucomicrobia, Plactomycetes, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi were more abundant in non cultivated soils while Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae and WS3 were more abundant in cultivated soils. Effects on metabolic metagenomic profiles were also observed. The relative abundance of genes assigned to transcription, protein modification, nucleotide transport and metabolism, wall and membrane biogenesis and intracellular trafficking and secretion were higher in cultivated fertilized soils than in non cultivated soils. We also observed significant differences in microbiome structure and taxonomic composition between soils under conventional and no-tillage systems. Overall, our results suggest that agronomical land use and the type of tillage system have induced microbiomes to shift their life-history strategies. Microbiomes of cultivated fertilized soils (i.e. higher nutrient amendment) presented tendencies to copiotrophy while microbiomes of non cultivated homogenous soils appeared to have a more oligotrophic life-style. Additionally, we propose that conventional tillage systems may

  18. Structure, Composition and Metagenomic Profile of Soil Microbiomes Associated to Agricultural Land Use and Tillage Systems in Argentine Pampas

    PubMed Central

    Carbonetto, Belén; Rascovan, Nicolás; Álvarez, Roberto; Mentaberry, Alejandro; Vázquez, Martin P.

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is facing a major challenge nowadays: to increase crop production for food and energy while preserving ecosystem functioning and soil quality. Argentine Pampas is one of the main world producers of crops and one of the main adopters of conservation agriculture. Changes in soil chemical and physical properties of Pampas soils due to different tillage systems have been deeply studied. Still, not much evidence has been reported on the effects of agricultural practices on Pampas soil microbiomes. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of agricultural land use on community structure, composition and metabolic profiles on soil microbiomes of Argentine Pampas. We also compared the effects associated to conventional practices with the effects of no-tillage systems. Our results confirmed the impact on microbiome structure and composition due to agricultural practices. The phyla Verrucomicrobia, Plactomycetes, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi were more abundant in non cultivated soils while Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae and WS3 were more abundant in cultivated soils. Effects on metabolic metagenomic profiles were also observed. The relative abundance of genes assigned to transcription, protein modification, nucleotide transport and metabolism, wall and membrane biogenesis and intracellular trafficking and secretion were higher in cultivated fertilized soils than in non cultivated soils. We also observed significant differences in microbiome structure and taxonomic composition between soils under conventional and no- tillage systems. Overall, our results suggest that agronomical land use and the type of tillage system have induced microbiomes to shift their life-history strategies. Microbiomes of cultivated fertilized soils (i.e. higher nutrient amendment) presented tendencies to copiotrophy while microbiomes of non cultivated homogenous soils appeared to have a more oligotrophic life-style. Additionally, we propose that conventional tillage systems

  19. Czech Republic: health system review.

    PubMed

    Alexa, Jan; Recka, Lukas; Votapkova, Jana; van Ginneken, Ewout; Spranger, Anne; Wittenbecher, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    This analysis of the Czech health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The Czech health-care system is based on compulsory statutory health insurance providing virtually universal coverage and a broad range of benefits, and doing so at 7.7 % of GDP in 2012 - well below the EU average - of which a comparatively high 85 % was publicly funded. Some important health indicators are better than the EU averages (such as mortality due to respiratory disease) or even among the best in the world (in terms of infant mortality, for example). On the other hand, mortality rates for diseases of the circulatory system and malignant neoplasms are well above the EU average, as are a range of health-care utilization rates, such as outpatient contacts and average length of stay in acute care hospitals. In short, there is substantial potential in the Czech Republic for efficiency gains and to improve health outcomes. Furthermore, the need for reform in order to financially sustain the system became evident again after the global financial crisis, but there is as yet no consensus about how to achieve this. PMID:26106825

  20. Republic of Ireland: abortion controversy.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    The problems associated with illegal abortion dominate public discussion in Ireland. While abortion is illegal in Ireland, the Supreme Court directed in 1992 that Irish women can go to Britain for abortions when their lives are thought to be at risk. Abortion was a constant feature during the Irish Presidential election campaign in October, while a dispute about the future of a 13-year-old girl's pregnancy dominated the headlines in November. The presidential election on October 30 resulted in a victory for one of the two openly anti-choice candidates, Mary McAleese, a lawyer from Northern Ireland. With a voter turnout of 47.6%, McAleese polled 45.2% of the votes cast. Although the president may refuse to sign bills which have been passed by parliament, McAleese has said that she will sign whatever bill is placed before her, even if it liberalizes abortion law in the republic. As for the case of the 13-year-old pregnant girl, she was taken into the care of Irish health authority officials once the case was reported to the police. However, the health board, as a state agency, is prevented by Irish law from helping anyone travel abroad for abortion. The girl was eventually given leave in a judgement by a High Court Judicial Review on November 28 to travel to England for an abortion.

  1. Essential Oils of Plants as Biocides against Microorganisms Isolated from Cuban and Argentine Documentary Heritage.

    PubMed

    Borrego, Sofía; Valdés, Oderlaise; Vivar, Isbel; Lavin, Paola; Guiamet, Patricia; Battistoni, Patricia; Gómez de Saravia, Sandra; Borges, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Natural products obtained from plants with biocidal activity represent an alternative and useful source in the control of biodeterioration of documentary heritage, without negative environmental and human impacts. In this work, we studied the antimicrobial activity of seven essential oils against microorganisms associated with the biodeterioration of documentary heritage. The essential oils were obtained by steam distillation. The antimicrobial activity was analyzed using the agar diffusion method against 4 strains of fungi and 6 bacterial strains isolated from repositories air and documents of the National Archive of the Republic of Cuba and the Historical Archive of the Museum of La Plata, Argentina. Anise and garlic oils showed the best antifungal activity at all concentrations studied, while oregano oil not only was effective against fungi tested but also prevented sporulation of them all. Orange sweet and laurel oils were ineffective against fungi. Clove, garlic, and oregano oils showed the highest antibacterial activity at 25% against Enterobacter agglomerans and Streptomyces sp., while only clove and oregano oils were effective against Bacillus sp. at all concentrations studied. This study has an important implication for the possible use of the natural products from plants in the control of biodeterioration of documentary heritage. PMID:23762760

  2. Essential Oils of Plants as Biocides against Microorganisms Isolated from Cuban and Argentine Documentary Heritage

    PubMed Central

    Borrego, Sofía; Valdés, Oderlaise; Vivar, Isbel; Lavin, Paola; Guiamet, Patricia; Battistoni, Patricia; Gómez de Saravia, Sandra; Borges, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Natural products obtained from plants with biocidal activity represent an alternative and useful source in the control of biodeterioration of documentary heritage, without negative environmental and human impacts. In this work, we studied the antimicrobial activity of seven essential oils against microorganisms associated with the biodeterioration of documentary heritage. The essential oils were obtained by steam distillation. The antimicrobial activity was analyzed using the agar diffusion method against 4 strains of fungi and 6 bacterial strains isolated from repositories air and documents of the National Archive of the Republic of Cuba and the Historical Archive of the Museum of La Plata, Argentina. Anise and garlic oils showed the best antifungal activity at all concentrations studied, while oregano oil not only was effective against fungi tested but also prevented sporulation of them all. Orange sweet and laurel oils were ineffective against fungi. Clove, garlic, and oregano oils showed the highest antibacterial activity at 25% against Enterobacter agglomerans and Streptomyces sp., while only clove and oregano oils were effective against Bacillus sp. at all concentrations studied. This study has an important implication for the possible use of the natural products from plants in the control of biodeterioration of documentary heritage. PMID:23762760

  3. Integrating physiology, population dynamics and climate to make multi-scale predictions for the spread of an invasive insect: the Argentine ant at Haleakala National Park, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartley, Stephen; Krushelnycky, Paul D.; Lester, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    Mechanistic models for predicting species’ distribution patterns present particular advantages and challenges relative to models developed from statistical correlations between distribution and climate. They can be especially useful for predicting the range of invasive species whose distribution has not yet reached equilibrium. Here, we illustrate how a physiological model of development for the invasive Argentine ant can be connected to differences in micro-site suitability, population dynamics and climatic gradients; processes operating at quite different spatial scales. Our study is located in the subalpine shrubland of Haleakala National Park, Hawaii, where the spread of Argentine ants Linepithema humile has been documented for the past twenty-five years. We report four main results. First, at a microsite level, the accumulation of degree-days recorded in potential ant nest sites under bare ground or rocks was significantly greater than under a groundcover of grassy vegetation. Second, annual degree-days measured where population boundaries have not expanded (456-521 degree-days), were just above the developmental requirements identified from earlier laboratory studies (445 degree-days above 15.98C). Third, rates of population expansion showed a strong linear relationship with annual degree-days. Finally, an empirical relationship between soil degree-days and climate variables mapped at a broader scale predicts the potential for future range expansion of Argentine ants at Haleakala, particularly to the west of the lower colony and the east of the upper colony. Variation in the availability of suitable microsites, driven by changes in vegetation cover and ultimately climate, provide a hierarchical understanding of the distribution of Argentine ants close to their cold-wet limit of climatic tolerances. We conclude that the integration of physiology, population dynamics and climate mapping holds much promise for making more robust predictions about

  4. People's Democratic Republic of Yemen.

    PubMed

    1985-08-01

    The population of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen grew from 992,000 in 1950 to 1.7 million in 1975, and the total fertility rate has remained relatively constant at 7 since 1950. The Government has not adopted a population policy per se, but has included sectoral policies that have implications for the size, growth, composition, and distribution of the population. The Government maintains that population issues should be viewed comprehensively within the framework of economic and social development. Measures to achieve economic growth, combined with the expansion of health, education, cultural, and social services, as well as the eradication of illiteracy and the emancipation of women, are expected to have a major impact on the society's demographic structure. The Government's main concern with regard to population growth is a reduction in morbidity and mortality. The rate of growth is projected to increase from 2.7% in 1980-85 to 2.9 in the year 2000, at which point it should begin to decline. The crude death rate is presently 18.8/1000 and is expected to drop to 13.1/1000 by 2000. Infant mortality stood at 138/1000 in 1980-85. Morbidity and mortality are unacceptably high among infants, children, nomads, and rural residents. Priorities for the health sector include the development and expansion of health services, intensive preventive health care for mothers and children, development of a safe drinking water system, nutrition and health education campaigns, and training of health personnel. Measures that are expected to decrease fertility include family planning education, an expansion of facilities to rural areas, and improvements in the status of women. Family planning services are freely available from maternal and child health centers, mainly in urban areas. A mass literacy campaign seeks to increase the female literacy rate to 90%, and women's participation in wage labor is being encouraged. A further goal of population policy is to modify spatial

  5. Comparative study of spawning pattern and reproductive potential of the Northern and Southern stocks of Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Karina A.; Macchi, Gustavo J.; Militelli, Maria I.

    2015-08-01

    The reproductive biology of the Northern (Bonaerense) and Southern (Patagonian) stocks of Merluccius hubbsi in the Argentinean Sea is analyzed, including information on spawning areas, estimates of abundance and size composition of spawning females, fecundity, spawning frequency and egg quality. Samples of Argentine hake were obtained during the period of peak reproductive activity; May and January for the Northern and Southern stocks, respectively. The size of the reproductive area for the Northern stock (35-38°S) was clearly smaller than the one estimated for the Southern population (43°30‧-46°S), being 23,770 km2 and 52,460 km2 respectively. Spawning females from the Northern reproductive area were smaller (modal values between 35 and 40 cm TL) than those from the Southern stock (modal values between 38 and 50 cm TL), and they were also less abundant in number and had a lower spawning frequency (8-13 days and 5-7 days between partial spawning for the Northern and Southern stocks respectively). No differences in batch and relative fecundity between stocks were recorded (mean values of 526 and 530 hydrated oocytes g- 1), but the dry weights of hydrated oocytes from females of the Northern group were higher (3.08 mg for 100 hydrated oocytes) than those of the Patagonian stock (2.84 mg) for the same total length range. The egg production during the month of peak spawning of the Northern group depended mostly on the smaller females (< 50 cm TL) and was in average 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower than that estimated for the Southern stock (9 × 1012-22 × 1012 eggs and 692 × 1012-1295 × 1012 eggs for the Northern and Southern stocks respectively). Those differences in egg production and the high productivity and retentive characteristics described for the spawning area and nursery ground in Patagonian waters would justify the greater abundance and resilience of the Southern stock of Argentine hake. The low abundance of females in spawning capable stage observed

  6. Two basins explored in Dominican Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, G.M.

    1996-04-29

    Exploration companies are exploring two tracts in separate basins of the Dominican Republic. Drilling is under way or planned in the eastern Cibao basin in the northeastern part of the country, where Petrolera Once Once SA holds a 1,001,287 ha concession, and the Azua-Bani basin in the southwester, where Mobil-Murfin holds a 2,266,197 ha concession. About 75 wells have been drilled onshore in Dominican Republic, but commercial production has not been established. This paper summarizes the exploration history and geology of the area.

  7. Dominican Republic Wind Energy Resource Atlas Development

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.

    1999-09-09

    A wind resource analysis and mapping study was conducted for the Dominican Republic. The purpose of this study was to identify most favorable wind resource areas and quantify the value of that resource within those areas. This was a major study and the first of its kind undertaken for the Dominican Republic. The key to the successful completion of the study was an automated wind resource mapping program recently developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), a US Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory.

  8. Republication of: On Hamilton's canonical equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ślebodziński, Władysław

    2010-10-01

    This is an English translation of a paper by Władysław Ślebodziński, first published in French in 1931, in which he introduced the general definition of what is today called the Lie derivative of tensors (strangely enough, he gave no name to this object). The paper has been selected by the Editors of General Relativity and Gravitation for re-publication in the Golden Oldies series of the journal. This republication is accompanied by an editorial note written by Andrzej Trautman and Ślebodziński’s brief biography written by Witold Roter.

  9. 78 FR 65268 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, the Republic of Korea, the Republic of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ..., and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 78 FR 45505... Republic of the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, the Republic of Turkey, Ukraine, and the... (202) 482-3870 (Ukraine); or Fred Baker at (202) 482-2924 (Vietnam), AD/CVD Operations, Enforcement...

  10. Microgeographic Spatial Structuring of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Populations Using Wing Geometric Morphometry in the Argentine Chaco

    PubMed Central

    GASPE, M. S.; SCHACHTER-BROIDE, J.; GUREVITZ, J. M.; KITRON, U.; GÜRTLER, R. E.; DUJARDIN, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the occurrence of spatial structuring in Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) populations 12 yr after the last community-wide insecticide spraying campaign in rural Pampa del Indio, in the Gran Chaco of northeastern Argentina. In total, 172 male and 149 female right wings collected at 16 georeferenced sites with at least 10 individuals of the same sex were analyzed using geometric morphometry. Mean female body length and wing centroid size (CS) were significantly larger than for males. Log-transformed CS and length were significantly and positively correlated both for males and females. Males collected in domiciles had significantly smaller CS than those collected in peridomestic structures both closed (kitchens or storerooms) or open (chicken coops), in agreement with our previous results elsewhere in the dry Argentine Chaco. Female wing CS was not significantly different between ecotopes. Wing shape analyses showed the occurrence of significant geographic structuring in males and females combined and in males only. Male wings showed a strong association between Mahalanobis distance and geographic distance. In general, Mahalanobis distances were significantly different between collection sites located >4 km apart. For collection sites located <4 km apart, the greater the geographic distance the larger the difference in wing shape variables. Among females, only a partial correspondence between geographic groups and Mahalanobis distances was recorded. The strong spatial structuring found in T. infestans populations may be useful for the identification of putative reinfestation sources after vector control interventions. PMID:22679857

  11. Reconciling tectonic shortening, sedimentation and spatial patterns of erosion from 10Be paleo-erosion rates in the Argentine Precordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Val, Pedro; Hoke, Gregory D.; Fosdick, Julie C.; Wittmann, Hella

    2016-09-01

    The temporal evolution of erosion over million-year timescales is key to understand the development of mountain ranges and adjacent fold-and-thrust belts. While models of orogenic wedge dynamics predict an instantaneous response of erosion to pulses of rock uplift, stream-power based models predict that catchment-wide erosion maxima significantly lag behind a pulse of rock uplift. Here, we explore the relationships between rock uplift, erosion, and sediment deposition in the Argentine Precordillera fold-and-thrust belt at 30°S. Using a combination of 10Be-derived paleo-erosion rates, constraints on re-exposure using 26Al/10Be ratios, geomorphic observations and detrital zircon provenance, we demonstrate that the attainment of maximum upland erosion rates lags the maximum rate of deformation over million-year timescales. The magnitudes and causes of the erosional delays shed new light on the catchment erosional response to tectonic deformation and rock uplift in orogenic wedges.

  12. Cell-mediated immunity and lymphocyte populations in experimental Argentine hemorrhagic fever (Junín Virus).

    PubMed Central

    Carballal, G; Oubiña, J R; Rondinone, S N; Elsner, B; Frigerio, M J

    1981-01-01

    Guinea pigs infected with the XJ prototype strain of Junín virus reproduce the main features of Argentine hemorrhagic fever, showing hemorrhages, leukothrombocytopenia, and focal lymphoid tissue necrosis. Viral lymphotropism is shown by the presence of viral antigens, severe cytopathic effect, and high virus titers in lymphoid organs. A pronounced depression of humoral immune response to sheep erythrocytes as well as to the virus is described. This study was carried out to determine whether cellular immune response was also modified and which cell populations were affected. Delayed hypersensitivity skin reaction to purified protein derivative was found to be markedly depressed after infection. A noticeable decrease in both percentages and absolute T lymphocyte numbers, detected by E rosettes, in spleen and lymph nodes, together with a low absolute T cell number in peripheral blood, were observed. Total cell counts in spleen, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood were also reduced. On the contrary, no modification in percentages of B lymphocytes, as measured by EAC rosettes, was found. These results indicate that cell-mediated immunity is markedly impaired in guinea pigs infected with the XJ strain of Junín virus. Its relationship with the pathogenesis of the disease is discussed. PMID:6273314

  13. Identification of PSEN2 mutation p.N141I in Argentine pedigrees with early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Muchnik, Carolina; Olivar, Natividad; Dalmasso, María Carolina; Azurmendi, Pablo Javier; Liberczuk, Cynthia; Morelli, Laura; Brusco, Luis Ignacio

    2015-10-01

    Presenilin 2 gene (PSEN2) mutations account for <5% of all early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (EOFAD) cases and only 13 have strong evidence for pathogenicity. We aimed to investigate the presence of PSEN2 mutation p.N141I and characterize the clinical phenotypes in 2 Argentine pedigrees (AR2 and AR3) with clinical symptoms of EOFAD. Detailed clinical assessments and genetic screening for PSEN2 and APOE genes were carried out in 19 individuals of AR2 and AR3 families. The p.N141I mutation was identified in all affected subjects and was associated with prominent early onset, rapidly progressive dementia, neurologic, and behavioral symptoms. AR2 and AR3 families share the same Volga German ancestry as all the families reported presenting this mutation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PSEN2 mutation p.N141I in Argentina and even more, in South America. Our contribution increases the total number of described families carrying this mutation and help to improve the characterization of clinical phenotype in EOFAD associated to PSEN2 mutations.

  14. Evolution of the northern Argentine margin during the Cenozoic controlled by bottom current dynamics and gravitational processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruetzner, J.; Uenzelmann-Neben, G.; Franke, D.

    2016-08-01

    A detailed reflection seismic investigation on sediment deposition at the northern Argentine margin (37°S-42°S) resolves major modifications in oceanographic circulation during the Cenozoic, which resulted from variations in both climatic and tectonic processes. After an extensive erosional period following the onset of glaciation of Antartica at ˜34 Ma, which affected all water depth levels, a buried elongated mounded drift within the continental shelf was shaped by bottom current activity during the Miocene. This may represent the earliest deposits of the Malvinas Current that branches from the Antartic Circumpolar Current and today is part of a complex shallow water circulation system known as the Brazil-Malvinas confluence. At the same time, a major terrace grew to its present form on the upper slope indicating that a precursor of Antarctic Intermediate Water was also part of the Brazil-Malvinas confluence. After another major erosional phase inferred from a seismic unconformity at ˜6 Ma, sheeted drifts, mounded drifts, and sediment waves formed at the continental rise during the Pliocene/Pleistocene. These extensive contourite deposits are diagnostic for a steady north setting bottom flow at the depth level of today's Antarctic Bottom Water. Evidence for downslope transport mainly stems from the presence of buried turbidites and canyon-related depocenters. These features can be related to Andean uplift during the Eocene and to the activation of the canyon system during the Pliocene.

  15. Relationship between beak morphological variables and body size and mantle length of male and female Argentine shortfin squid ( Illex argentinus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xinjun; Lu, Huajie; Liu, Bilin; Fang, Zhou

    2012-12-01

    Beak of cephalopod is an important hard tissue. Understanding the morphology of beak can yield critical information on the role of cephalopods in the ecosystem. The south patagonic stock of the Argentine shortfin squid, Illex argentinus, is not only one of the most important fishing targets, but also one of the most important species in the marine eco-system of the southwest Atlantic. A total of 430 samples of I. argentinus, including 229 females 103-346mm in mantle length (ML) and 201 males 140-298mm in ML, were collected from the area off the Exclusive Economic Zone of Argentinean waters by Chinese squid jigging vessels during February to May 2007. The morphology of their beaks was evaluated. The relationships between beak morphological variables and ML differed significantly among males and females. They could be best described by logarithmic functions for females and linear functions for males except for upper wing length (UWL) and lower rostrum length (LRL), which followed exponential functions in their relationships with ML. The results showed the sexual dimorphism in the relationship between ML and beak morphology for the south patagonic stock of I. argentinus. However, no significant difference was found between males and females in the relationships of beak morphological variables (except for UWL) versus body weight (BW), suggesting that the relationship between beak morphological variables and BW can be used for estimating the biomass consumed by their predators.

  16. The peri-urban interface and house infestation with Triatoma infestans in the Argentine Chaco: an underreported process?

    PubMed Central

    Provecho, Yael M; Gaspe, M Sol; del Pilar Fernández, M; Enriquez, Gustavo F; Weinberg, Diego; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2014-01-01

    Peri-urban infestations with triatomine bugs, their sources and their dynamics have rarely been investigated. Here, we corroborated the reported occurrence of Triatoma infestans in a peri-urban area and in neighbouring rural houses in Pampa del Indio, in the Argentine Chaco, and identified its putative sources using spatial analysis and demographic questionnaires. Peri-urban householders reported that 10% of their premises had triatomines, whereas T. infestans was collected by timed manual searches or community-based surveillance in only nine (3%) houses. Trypanosoma cruzi-infected T. infestans and Triatoma sordida were collected indoors only in peri-urban houses and were infected with TcV and TcI, respectively. The triatomines fed on chickens, cats and humans. Peri-urban infestations were most frequent in a squatter settlement and particularly within the recently built mud houses of rural immigrants, with large-sized households, more dogs and cats and more crowding. Several of the observed infestations were most likely associated with passive bug transport from other sources and with active bug dispersal from neighbouring foci. Thus, the households in the squatter settlement were at a greater risk of bug invasion and colonisation. In sum, the incipient process of domestic colonisation and transmission, along with persistent rural-to-urban migratory flows and unplanned urbanisation, indicate the need for active vector surveillance and control actions at the peri-urban interface of the Gran Chaco. PMID:25410997

  17. Effect of seasonality on chemical composition and antibacterial and anticandida activities of Argentine propolis. Design of a topical formulation.

    PubMed

    Isla, María Inés; Dantur, Yanina; Salas, Ana; Danert, Carolina; Zampini, Catiana; Arias, Myriam; Ordóñez, Roxana; Maldonado, Luis; Bedascarrasbure, Enrique; Nieva Moreno, María Inés

    2012-10-01

    The effect of seasonality on Argentine propolis collected during one year on its phenolic and flavonoid content and on the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative antibiotic resistant bacteria and Candida species was evaluated. Extracts of propolis samples collected in the summer and spring showed higher phenolic and flavonoid contents than the samples collected in other seasons (5.86 to 6.06 mg GAE/mL and 3.77 to 4.23 mg QE/mL, respectively). The propolis collected in summer and autumn showed higher antibacterial activity (30 microg/mL) than the other samples (MIC values between 30 and 120 microg/mL). No antibacterial activity was detected against Gram-negative bacteria. Also, these extracts were able to inhibit the development of five Candida species, with MFC values of 15-120 microg/mL. Pharmaceutical formulations containing the more active propolis extract were prepared. The hydrogel of acrylic acid polymer containing summer propolis extract as an antimicrobial agent showed microbiological, physical and functional stability during storage for 180 days. The pharmaceutical preparation, as well as the propolis extracts, was active against Candida sp. and antibiotic-multi-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. These results reveal that propolis samples collected by scraping in four seasons, especially in summer in Calingasta, San Juan, Argentina, can be used to obtain tinctures and hydrogels with antibacterial and antimycotic potential for topical use.

  18. Strength in numbers: large and permanent colonies have higher queen oviposition rates in the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile, Mayr).

    PubMed

    Abril, Sílvia; Gómez, Crisanto

    2014-03-01

    Polydomy associated with unicoloniality is a common trait of invasive species. In the invasive Argentine ant, colonies are seasonally polydomous. Most follow a seasonal fission-fussion pattern: they disperse in the spring and summer and aggregate in the fall and winter. However, a small proportion of colonies do not migrate; instead, they inhabit permanent nesting sites. These colonies are large and highly polydomous. The aim of this study was to (1) search for differences in the fecundity of queens between mother colonies (large and permanent) and satellite colonies (small and temporal), (2) determine if queens in mother and satellite colonies have different diets to clarify if colony size influences social organization and queen feeding, and (3) examine if colony location relative to the invasion front results in differences in the queen's diet. Our results indicate that queens from mother nests are more fertile than queens from satellite nests and that colony location does not affect queen oviposition rate. Ovarian dissections suggest that differences in ovarian morphology are not responsible for the higher queen oviposition rate in mother vs. satellite nests, since there were no differences in the number and length of ovarioles in queens from the two types of colonies. In contrast, the higher δ(15)N values of queens from mother nests imply that greater carnivorous source intake accounts for the higher oviposition rates.

  19. Modelling American trypanosomiasis in an endemic zone: application to the initial spread of household infection in the Argentine Chaco.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, M C; Schweigmann, N J; Bartoloni, N J

    2014-12-01

    The complex dynamics of Trypanosoma cruzi infection (Chagas disease) involves different actors and multiple transmission routes. Based on the information currently available, here, we propose a new and more comprehensive model to better understand the dynamics of the infection. This mathematical deterministic model was formulated considering: (i) the three clinical forms in humans: acute, chronic indeterminate and chronic with determinate pathology, (ii) the three main modes of transmission in the human population: vector-borne, congenital and transfusional, (iii) populations of triatomines and dogs as the main domestic reservoirs of T. cruzi and (iv) open populations. A numerical simulation was also performed to estimate the initial spread of the infection in a typical rural household in the endemic zone of the Argentine Gran Chaco. We also analysed the incidence of infected individuals corresponding to each of the three species (humans/triatomines/dogs) over times until the appearance of the first case in the other species. The model predicts that, in the absence of control measures, a few infected individuals are sufficient for the establishment and dispersion of the infection in all the inhabitants of the household. The model proposed and the results obtained allow describing the consequences of the presence of infected individuals in any of the three species considered in the dynamics and the output of the infection. PMID:24528489

  20. The Usefulness of Edible and Medicinal Fabaceae in Argentine and Chilean Patagonia: Environmental Availability and Other Sources of Supply

    PubMed Central

    Molares, Soledad; Ladio, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Fabaceae is of great ethnobotanical importance in indigenous and urban communities throughout the world. This work presents a revision of the use of Fabaceae as a food and/or medicinal resource in Argentine-Chilean Patagonia. It is based on a bibliographical analysis of 27 ethnobotanical sources and catalogues of regional flora. Approximately 234 wild species grow in Patagonia, mainly (60%) in arid environments, whilst the remainder belong to Sub-Antarctic forest. It was found that 12.8% (30 species), mainly woody, conspicuous plants, are collected for food or medicines. Most of the species used grow in arid environments. Cultivation and purchase/barter enrich the Fabaceae offer, bringing it up to a total of 63 species. The richness of native and exotic species, and the existence of multiple strategies for obtaining these plants, indicates hybridization of knowledge and practices. Only 22% of the total species used are mentioned in bothcontexts of food and medicine, reflecting low-use complementation. This study suggests a significant ecological appearance and a high level of availability in shops and exchange networks in Patagonia, highlighting the need to consider the full set of environmental and socioeconomic factors in research related to the use and cultural importance of plants in regional contexts. PMID:22194774

  1. Using ZooImage automated system for the estimation of biovolume of copepods from the northern Argentine Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mauro, R.; Cepeda, G.; Capitanio, F.; Viñas, M. D.

    2011-08-01

    A total of 46 samples from coastal and shelf sectors from the northern Argentine Sea (34°-41° S) were digitized to compare the performance of the new ZooImage analysis method for copepod abundance and biovolume estimations. A training set of 1437 objects were used for automatic discrimination using a Random Forest algorithm with a general accuracy of 83.92%. A total of 11 taxa were automatically classified. Copepods were divided in three categories: Large calanoids, small calanoids and cyclopoids and identified with an accuracy of 83.15%, 79.5% and 85.7% respectively. The discriminant analysis revealed both the equivalent circular diameter (ECD) and the area were the best variables to differentiate the three copepod categories. Samples were previously quantified by optical methods in order to compare with automated results. Automated copepod biovolume measurements were estimated from individual calculations applying new ZooImage allometric parameters, and were compared with manual calculations using specific size/biovolume equations. It was demonstrated that ZooImage can potentially be used as a tool for abundance and biovolume estimations of calanoid and cyclopoid copepods and allow us to obtain results more rapidly by reducing the time lag involved using traditional measuring methods.

  2. Language Management in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neustupny, J. V.; Nekvapil, Jiri

    2003-01-01

    This monograph, based on the Language Management model, provides information on both the "simple" (discourse-based) and "organised" modes of attention to language problems in the Czech Republic. This includes but is not limited to the language policy of the State. This approach does not satisfy itself with discussing problems of language varieties…

  3. Interpretive Challenges in the Dominican Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Clinton L.

    1984-01-01

    Addresses challenges facing many developing countries in establishing and maintaining a comprehensive natural resource management policy when environmental conservation takes a back seat to agricultural production. Examines current environmental education and interpretation efforts in the Dominican Republic and offers suggestions for developing an…

  4. Education in the Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Taipei (Taiwan).

    This document describes in detail the history and structure of the Republic of China's educational system. Section 1 includes charts detailing school density and changes in school population since 1950. Section 2 addresses the aim of education and its legal background. Section 3 presents a synopsis of current school regulations at all levels.…

  5. Education in the Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education (Republic of China).

    Beginning with a general history of education in the Republic of China since 1911, this pamphlet then states the aims of Chinese education and gives its legal background under China's Constitution. The current school system and each different type of school are briefly described and examples of the school organization of a public university, high…

  6. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Slovak Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Paulo; Halász, Gábor; Levacic, Rosalind; Shewbridge, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This report for the Slovak Republic forms part of the OECD Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the Review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. School resources are understood in…

  7. Ritual Kinship in a Dominican Republic Plantation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alum, Rolando A., II

    This paper presents an anthropological description of "compadrazgo" (cogodparenthood) as a sociocultural institution in a state owned sugar cane plantation in the southeastern part of the Dominican Republic. The enthnohistory of the compadrazgo cultural complex is outlined and the institution's roots in ancient Europe before its establishment in…

  8. English Teaching Profile: Yemen Arab Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A description of the role and status of the English language in the Yemen Arab Republic begins with a general statement concerning the distribution of English speakers and the use of English language materials. Subsequent sections outline: (1) the use and status of English within the educational system at all levels, including teacher education;…

  9. LANDSAT activities in the Republic of Zaire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilunga, S.

    1975-01-01

    An overview of the LANDSAT data utilization program of the Republic of Zaire is presented. The program emphasizes topics of economic significance to the national development program of Zaire: (1) agricultural land use capability analysis, including evaluation of the effects of large-scale burnings; (2) mineral resources evaluation; and (3) production of mapping materials for poorly covered regions.

  10. Country Profiles, The Republic of Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Dae Woo; And Others

    A profile of the Republic of Korea is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition,…

  11. Republic of Senegal. Country profile.

    PubMed

    Gold, D

    1985-04-01

    The demographic and economic characteristics and some of the cultural traditions of the Republic of Senegal are described. Senegal obtained its independence from France in 1960. Despite the fact that the majority of the population derives its living from agriculture, the country must import additional food staples to feed its population. Conditions contributing to poor crop yields in recent years include 1) the frequent occurrence of droughts, 2) soil depletion caused by overintensive cultivation practices, and 3) land dessication caused by poor forestry management. In 1984 crop yields were only 10% of the normal crop yields. The government under the leadership of the president, Adbou Diouf, is currently developing plans to improve agricultural conditions and to encourage the industrial development of the country. The tourist industry is also growing. In 1976 Senegal conducted it 1st national census. According to the census the total population was 5,068,741 and the population growth rate was 2.6%. The US Census Bureau estimates that the population growth rate is now 3.2% and that 654,000 people were added to the population between 1976 and 1985. 27% of the population is urban, and the majority of the urban population resides in Dakar. In recent years, the rate of rural to urban migration increased rapidly as a result of the deteriorating agricultural conditions. The population is unevenly distributed throughout the country; 82% of the population lives in 39% of the country's territory. In 1977, 18% of the population lived in housing with electricity, and in 1983, 37% of the population lived in housing with running water. Most rural residents live in villages consisting of clusters of clay structures with thatched roofs and dirt floors. Most of the urban poor live in crowded shantytowns, which lack urban services. More than 1/2 of the population is under the age of 18. According to the 1978 World Fertility Survey, 83% of all women of reproductive age are married

  12. Tracking Our Progress: A Global Monitoring and Evaluation Framework for the UN DESD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilbury, Daniella

    2009-01-01

    The sustainability agenda is a concern of several UN agencies that appreciate how well-being, social justice, human development and the health of our planet are inextricably linked. This remit underpinned the launch of the UN Decade in Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) in 2005. As the DESD reaches its mid-point, mechanisms for assessing…

  13. A new species of Dendromonocotyle Hargis, 1955 (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) from the skin of Zearaja chilensis (Guichenot) (Rajiformes: Rajidae) from the Argentine Sea.

    PubMed

    Irigoitia, Manuel M; Chisholm, Leslie A; Timi, Juan T

    2016-05-01

    Dendromonocotyle rajidicola n. sp. is described from the dorsal surface of the yellownose skate Zearaja chilensis (Guichenot) (Rajiformes) caught on the Argentine shelf. Dendromonocotyle rajidicola n. sp. can be distinguished from the other 17 species in the genus by the morphology of the distal portion of the male copulatory organ and by the unique morphology of the sclerotised proximal portion of the vagina. This is the first species of Dendromonocotyle to be described from a host in the Rajiformes and also the first record of this genus in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. PMID:27095665

  14. A new species of Dendromonocotyle Hargis, 1955 (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) from the skin of Zearaja chilensis (Guichenot) (Rajiformes: Rajidae) from the Argentine Sea.

    PubMed

    Irigoitia, Manuel M; Chisholm, Leslie A; Timi, Juan T

    2016-05-01

    Dendromonocotyle rajidicola n. sp. is described from the dorsal surface of the yellownose skate Zearaja chilensis (Guichenot) (Rajiformes) caught on the Argentine shelf. Dendromonocotyle rajidicola n. sp. can be distinguished from the other 17 species in the genus by the morphology of the distal portion of the male copulatory organ and by the unique morphology of the sclerotised proximal portion of the vagina. This is the first species of Dendromonocotyle to be described from a host in the Rajiformes and also the first record of this genus in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean.

  15. Skeletal involvement in Gaucher disease: An observational multicenter study of prognostic factors in the Argentine Gaucher disease patients.

    PubMed

    Drelichman, Guillermo; Fernández Escobar, Nicolás; Basack, Nora; Aversa, Luis; Larroude, María Silvia; Aguilar, Gabriela; Szlago, Marina; Schenone, Andrea; Fynn, Alcyra; Cuello, María Fernanda; Aznar, Marcela; Fernández, Ramiro; Ruiz, Alba; Reichel, Paola; Guelbert, Norberto; Robledo, Hugo; Watman, Nora; Bolesina, Moira; Elena, Graciela; Veber, S Ernesto; Pujal, Graciela; Galván, Graciela; Chain, Juan José; Arizo, Adriana; Bietti, Julieta; Bar, Daniel; Dragosky, Marta; Marquez, Marisa; Feldman, Leonardo; Muller, Katja; Zirone, Sandra; Buchovsky, Greogorio; Lanza, Victoria; Sanabria, Alba; Fernández, Ignacio; Jaureguiberry, Rossana; Contte, Marcelo; Barbieri María, Angie; Maro, Alejandra; Zárate, Graciela; Fernández, Gabriel; Rapetti, María Cristina; Donato, Hugo; Degano, Adriana; Kantor, Gustavo; Albina, Roberto; Á Lvarez Bollea, María; Brun, María; Bacciedoni, Viviana; Del Río, Francis; Soberón, Bárbara; Boido, Nazario; Schweri, Maya; Borchichi, Sandra; Welsh, Victoria; Corrales, Marcela; Cedola, Alejandra; Carvani, Analía; Diez, Blanca; Richard, Lucía; Baduel, Ccecilia; Nuñez, Gabriela; Colimodio, Rubén; Barazzutti, Lucía; Medici, Hugo; Meschengieser, Susana; Damiani, Germán; Nucifora, María; Girardi, Beatriz; Gómez, Sergio; Papucci, Maura; Verón, David; Quiroga, Luis; Carro, Gustavo; De Ambrosio, Patricia; Ferro, José; Pujol, Marcelo; Castella, Cristina Cabral; Franco, Liliana; Nisnovich, Gisela; Veloso, María; Pacheco, Isabel; Savarino, Mario; Marino, Andrés; Saavedra, José Luis

    2016-10-01

    Patients with Gaucher type 1 (GD1) throughout Argentina were enrolled in the Argentine bone project to evaluate bone disease and its determinants. We focused on presence and predictors of bone lesions (BL) and their relationship to therapeutic goals (TG) with timing and dose of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). A total of 124 patients on ERT were enrolled in a multi-center study. All six TG were achieved by 82% of patients: 70.1% for bone pain and 91.1% for bone crisis. However, despite the fact that bone TGs were achieved, residual bone disease was present in 108 patients on ERT (87%) at time 0. 16% of patients showed new irreversible BL (bone infarcts and avascular osteonecrosis) despite ERT, suggesting that they appeared during ERT or were not detected at the moment of diagnosis. We observed 5 prognostic factors that predicted a higher probability of being free of bone disease: optimal ERT compliance; early diagnosis; timely initiation of therapy; ERT initiation dose ≥45 UI/kg/EOW; and the absence of history of splenectomy. Skeletal involvement was classified into 4 major phenotypic groups according to BL: group 1 (12.9%) without BL; group 2 (28.2%) with reversible BL; group 3 (41.9%) with reversible BL and irreversible chronic BL; and group 4 (16.9%) with acute irreversible BL. Our study identifies prognostic factors for achieving best therapeutic outcomes, introduces new risk stratification for patients and suggests the need for a redefinition of bone TG. Am. J. Hematol. 91:E448-E453, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Faulting and erosion in the Argentine Precordillera during changes in subduction regime: Reconciling bedrock cooling and detrital records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosdick, Julie C.; Carrapa, Barbara; Ortíz, Gustavo

    2015-12-01

    The Argentine Precordillera is an archetypal retroarc fold-and-thrust belt that records tectonics associated with changing subduction regimes. The interactions between exhumation and faulting in the Precordillera were investigated using apatite and zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He and apatite fission track thermochronometry from the Precordillera and adjacent geologic domains. Inverse modeling of thermal histories constrains eastward in-sequence rock cooling associated with deformation and erosion from 18 to 2 Ma across the Central Precordillera tracking thrusting during this time. The youngest AHe ages (5-2 Ma) and highest erosion rates are located in the eastern and western extremities of the Precordillera and indicate that recent denudation is concentrated at its structural boundaries. Moreover, synchronous rapid Pliocene cooling of the Frontal Cordillera, Eastern Precordillera, and Sierra del Valle Fértil was coeval with initiation of basement-involved faulting in the foreland. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology from the ca. 16-8.1 Ma Bermejo foreland basin strata suggests fluvial connectivity westward beyond the Frontal Cordillera to the Main Cordillera and Coast Range followed by an important shift in sediment provenance at ca. 10 Ma. At this time, we suggest that a substantial decrease in Permo-Triassic igneous sources in the Frontal Cordillera and concurrent increase in recycled zircons signatures of Paleozoic strata are best explained by uplift and erosion of the Precordillera during widening of the thrust-belt. Bedrock thermochronology and modeling indicate a 2-6 Myr lag time between faulting-related cooling in the hinterland and the detrital record of deformation in the foreland basin, suggesting that for tectonically active semi-arid settings, bedrock cooling may be more sensitive to onset of faulting. We suggest that high erosion rates in the Frontal Cordillera and Eastern Precordillera are associated with increased interplate coupling during shallowing of the

  17. Selection and characterization of Argentine isolates of Trichoderma harzianum for effective biocontrol of Septoria leaf blotch of wheat.

    PubMed

    Stocco, Marina C; Mónaco, Cecilia I; Abramoff, Cecilia; Lampugnani, Gladys; Salerno, Graciela; Kripelz, Natalia; Cordo, Cristina A; Consolo, Verónica F

    2016-03-01

    Species of the genus Trichoderma are economically important as biocontrol agents, serving as a potential alternative to chemical control. The applicability of Trichoderma isolates to different ecozones will depend on the behavior of the strains selected from each zone. The present study was undertaken to isolate biocontrol populations of Trichoderma spp. from the Argentine wheat regions and to select and characterize the best strains of Trichoderma harzianum by means of molecular techniques. A total of 84 out of the 240 strains of Trichoderma were able to reduce the disease severity of the leaf blotch of wheat. Thirty-seven strains were selected for the reduction equal to or greater than 50% of the severity, compared with the control. The percentage values of reduction of the pycnidial coverage ranged between 45 and 80%. The same last strains were confirmed as T. harzianum by polymerase chain reaction amplification of internal transcribed spacers, followed by sequencing. Inter-simple sequence repeat was used to examine the genetic variability among isolates. This resulted in a total of 132 bands. Further numerical analysis revealed 19 haplotypes, grouped in three clusters (I, II, III). Shared strains, with different geographical origins and isolated in different years, were observed within each cluster. The origin of the isolates and the genetic group were partially related. All isolates from Paraná were in cluster I, all isolates from Lobería were in cluster II, and all isolates from Pergamino and Santa Fe were in cluster III. Our results suggest that the 37 native strains of T. harzianum are important in biocontrol programs and could be advantageous for the preparation of biopesticides adapted to the agroecological conditions of wheat culture. PMID:26873560

  18. Interactive Effects of Large- and Small-Scale Sources of Feral Honey-Bees for Sunflower in the Argentine Pampas

    PubMed Central

    Sáez, Agustín; Sabatino, Malena; Aizen, Marcelo A.

    2012-01-01

    Pollinators for animal pollinated crops can be provided by natural and semi-natural habitats, ranging from large vegetation remnants to small areas of non-crop land in an otherwise highly modified landscape. It is unknown, however, how different small- and large-scale habitat patches interact as pollinator sources. In the intensively managed Argentine Pampas, we studied the additive and interactive effects of large expanses (up to 2200 ha) of natural habitat, represented by untilled isolated “sierras”, and narrow (3–7 m wide) strips of semi-natural habitat, represented by field margins, as pollinator sources for sunflower (Helianthus annus). We estimated visitation rates by feral honey-bees, Apis mellifera, and native flower visitors (as a group) at 1, 5, 25, 50 and 100 m from a field margin in 17 sunflower fields 0–10 km distant from the nearest sierra. Honey-bees dominated the pollinator assemblage accounting for >90% of all visits to sunflower inflorescences. Honey-bee visitation was strongly affected by proximity to the sierras decreasing by about 70% in the most isolated fields. There was also a decline in honey-bee visitation with distance from the field margin, which was apparent with increasing field isolation, but undetected in fields nearby large expanses of natural habitat. The probability of observing a native visitor decreased with isolation from the sierras, but in other respects visitation by flower visitors other than honey-bees was mostly unaffected by the habitat factors assessed in this study. Overall, we found strong hierarchical and interactive effects between the study large and small-scale pollinator sources. These results emphasize the importance of preserving natural habitats and managing actively field verges in the absence of large remnants of natural habitat for improving pollinator services. PMID:22303477

  19. Skeletal involvement in Gaucher disease: An observational multicenter study of prognostic factors in the Argentine Gaucher disease patients.

    PubMed

    Drelichman, Guillermo; Fernández Escobar, Nicolás; Basack, Nora; Aversa, Luis; Larroude, María Silvia; Aguilar, Gabriela; Szlago, Marina; Schenone, Andrea; Fynn, Alcyra; Cuello, María Fernanda; Aznar, Marcela; Fernández, Ramiro; Ruiz, Alba; Reichel, Paola; Guelbert, Norberto; Robledo, Hugo; Watman, Nora; Bolesina, Moira; Elena, Graciela; Veber, S Ernesto; Pujal, Graciela; Galván, Graciela; Chain, Juan José; Arizo, Adriana; Bietti, Julieta; Bar, Daniel; Dragosky, Marta; Marquez, Marisa; Feldman, Leonardo; Muller, Katja; Zirone, Sandra; Buchovsky, Greogorio; Lanza, Victoria; Sanabria, Alba; Fernández, Ignacio; Jaureguiberry, Rossana; Contte, Marcelo; Barbieri María, Angie; Maro, Alejandra; Zárate, Graciela; Fernández, Gabriel; Rapetti, María Cristina; Donato, Hugo; Degano, Adriana; Kantor, Gustavo; Albina, Roberto; Á Lvarez Bollea, María; Brun, María; Bacciedoni, Viviana; Del Río, Francis; Soberón, Bárbara; Boido, Nazario; Schweri, Maya; Borchichi, Sandra; Welsh, Victoria; Corrales, Marcela; Cedola, Alejandra; Carvani, Analía; Diez, Blanca; Richard, Lucía; Baduel, Ccecilia; Nuñez, Gabriela; Colimodio, Rubén; Barazzutti, Lucía; Medici, Hugo; Meschengieser, Susana; Damiani, Germán; Nucifora, María; Girardi, Beatriz; Gómez, Sergio; Papucci, Maura; Verón, David; Quiroga, Luis; Carro, Gustavo; De Ambrosio, Patricia; Ferro, José; Pujol, Marcelo; Castella, Cristina Cabral; Franco, Liliana; Nisnovich, Gisela; Veloso, María; Pacheco, Isabel; Savarino, Mario; Marino, Andrés; Saavedra, José Luis

    2016-10-01

    Patients with Gaucher type 1 (GD1) throughout Argentina were enrolled in the Argentine bone project to evaluate bone disease and its determinants. We focused on presence and predictors of bone lesions (BL) and their relationship to therapeutic goals (TG) with timing and dose of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). A total of 124 patients on ERT were enrolled in a multi-center study. All six TG were achieved by 82% of patients: 70.1% for bone pain and 91.1% for bone crisis. However, despite the fact that bone TGs were achieved, residual bone disease was present in 108 patients on ERT (87%) at time 0. 16% of patients showed new irreversible BL (bone infarcts and avascular osteonecrosis) despite ERT, suggesting that they appeared during ERT or were not detected at the moment of diagnosis. We observed 5 prognostic factors that predicted a higher probability of being free of bone disease: optimal ERT compliance; early diagnosis; timely initiation of therapy; ERT initiation dose ≥45 UI/kg/EOW; and the absence of history of splenectomy. Skeletal involvement was classified into 4 major phenotypic groups according to BL: group 1 (12.9%) without BL; group 2 (28.2%) with reversible BL; group 3 (41.9%) with reversible BL and irreversible chronic BL; and group 4 (16.9%) with acute irreversible BL. Our study identifies prognostic factors for achieving best therapeutic outcomes, introduces new risk stratification for patients and suggests the need for a redefinition of bone TG. Am. J. Hematol. 91:E448-E453, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27420181

  20. Is the Invasive Species Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (Argentine Stem Weevil) a Threat to New Zealand Natural Grassland Ecosystems?

    PubMed

    Barratt, Barbara I P; Barton, Diane M; Philip, Bruce A; Ferguson, Colin M; Goldson, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    Listronotus bonariensis (Argentine stem weevil) is a stem-boring weevil that has become a major pasture pest in New Zealand, and cool climate turf grass in Australia. This species is also frequently found in native tussock grassland in New Zealand. Laboratory and field trials were established to determine the risk posed to both seedlings and established plants of three native grass species compared to what happens with a common host of this species, hybrid ryegrass (L. perenne X L. multiflorum). Adult weevil feeding damage scores were higher on Poa colensoi and Festuca novae-zelandiae than Chionochloa rigida. Oviposition was lower on P. colensoi than hybrid ryegrass, and no eggs were laid on F. novae-zelandiae. In field trials using the same four species established as spaced plants L. bonariensis laid more eggs per tiller in ryegrass in a low altitude pasture site than in ryegrass in a higher altitude site. No eggs were found on the three native grass species at the tussock sites, and only low numbers were found on other grasses at the low altitude pasture site. Despite this, numbers of adult weevils were extracted from the plants in the field trials. These may have comprised survivors of the original weevils added to the plants, together with new generation weevils that had emerged during the experiment. Irrespective, higher numbers were recovered from the tussock site plants than from those from the pasture site. It was concluded that L. bonariensis is likely to have little overall impact, but a greater impact on native grass seedling survival than on established plants.

  1. Selection and characterization of Argentine isolates of Trichoderma harzianum for effective biocontrol of Septoria leaf blotch of wheat.

    PubMed

    Stocco, Marina C; Mónaco, Cecilia I; Abramoff, Cecilia; Lampugnani, Gladys; Salerno, Graciela; Kripelz, Natalia; Cordo, Cristina A; Consolo, Verónica F

    2016-03-01

    Species of the genus Trichoderma are economically important as biocontrol agents, serving as a potential alternative to chemical control. The applicability of Trichoderma isolates to different ecozones will depend on the behavior of the strains selected from each zone. The present study was undertaken to isolate biocontrol populations of Trichoderma spp. from the Argentine wheat regions and to select and characterize the best strains of Trichoderma harzianum by means of molecular techniques. A total of 84 out of the 240 strains of Trichoderma were able to reduce the disease severity of the leaf blotch of wheat. Thirty-seven strains were selected for the reduction equal to or greater than 50% of the severity, compared with the control. The percentage values of reduction of the pycnidial coverage ranged between 45 and 80%. The same last strains were confirmed as T. harzianum by polymerase chain reaction amplification of internal transcribed spacers, followed by sequencing. Inter-simple sequence repeat was used to examine the genetic variability among isolates. This resulted in a total of 132 bands. Further numerical analysis revealed 19 haplotypes, grouped in three clusters (I, II, III). Shared strains, with different geographical origins and isolated in different years, were observed within each cluster. The origin of the isolates and the genetic group were partially related. All isolates from Paraná were in cluster I, all isolates from Lobería were in cluster II, and all isolates from Pergamino and Santa Fe were in cluster III. Our results suggest that the 37 native strains of T. harzianum are important in biocontrol programs and could be advantageous for the preparation of biopesticides adapted to the agroecological conditions of wheat culture.

  2. Is the Invasive Species Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (Argentine Stem Weevil) a Threat to New Zealand Natural Grassland Ecosystems?

    PubMed Central

    Barratt, Barbara I. P.; Barton, Diane M.; Philip, Bruce A.; Ferguson, Colin M.; Goldson, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    Listronotus bonariensis (Argentine stem weevil) is a stem-boring weevil that has become a major pasture pest in New Zealand, and cool climate turf grass in Australia. This species is also frequently found in native tussock grassland in New Zealand. Laboratory and field trials were established to determine the risk posed to both seedlings and established plants of three native grass species compared to what happens with a common host of this species, hybrid ryegrass (L. perenne X L. multiflorum). Adult weevil feeding damage scores were higher on Poa colensoi and Festuca novae-zelandiae than Chionochloa rigida. Oviposition was lower on P. colensoi than hybrid ryegrass, and no eggs were laid on F. novae-zelandiae. In field trials using the same four species established as spaced plants L. bonariensis laid more eggs per tiller in ryegrass in a low altitude pasture site than in ryegrass in a higher altitude site. No eggs were found on the three native grass species at the tussock sites, and only low numbers were found on other grasses at the low altitude pasture site. Despite this, numbers of adult weevils were extracted from the plants in the field trials. These may have comprised survivors of the original weevils added to the plants, together with new generation weevils that had emerged during the experiment. Irrespective, higher numbers were recovered from the tussock site plants than from those from the pasture site. It was concluded that L. bonariensis is likely to have little overall impact, but a greater impact on native grass seedling survival than on established plants. PMID:27507979

  3. Influence of weeds on Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and obscure mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in a central California vineyard.

    PubMed

    Costello, Michael J; Welch, Mark D

    2014-06-01

    Obscure mealybug is a pest of grapes in the cool climate regions of coastal California, is found on some vineyard weeds, and is tended by the Argentine ant. A study was conducted at a vineyard in Arroyo Grande, CA, to evaluate the impact of weeds on ant activity on grapevines, and the role that ants and weeds have on obscure mealybug infestation in grape clusters. The incidence of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was recorded as well. Treatments were weed exclusion versus the presence of weeds, and ant exclusion versus the presence of ants. Ant activity was evaluated weekly using sugar-based monitoring stations, and mealybug infestation and Botrytis incidence of clusters were evaluated at harvest. Ant exclusion reduced the overall number of ant visits by 82%, and ants increased mealybug infestation of clusters by 53%. Ant activity was 33% higher in the weeds treatment, but there was no impact of weeds on mealybug infestation. We suggest that the higher ant activity recorded in the weeds treatment may have been an artifact of the sugar-based sampling method. Botrytis incidence was three times higher with ants, but did not differ between weeds and weed exclusion treatments. The study supports other research showing a relationship between mealybug infestation and the presence of ants, as well as the lack of impact of floor vegetation on mealybug infestation of grape clusters. It is the first report of a relationship between ants and Botrytis, although it is more likely that the higher Botrytis incidence found here is a result of increased mealybug density than a direct effect by ants. PMID:25026682

  4. Effect of latitudinal gradient and impact of logging on genetic diversity of Cedrela lilloi along the Argentine Yungas Rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Inza, Maria V; Zelener, Noga; Fornes, Luis; Gallo, Leonardo A

    2012-01-01

    Cedrela lilloi C. DC. (cedro coya, Meliaceae), an important south American timber species, has been historically overexploited through selective logging in Argentine Yungas Rainforest. Management and conservation programs of the species require knowledge of its genetic variation patterns; however, no information is available. Molecular genetic variability of the species was characterized to identify high-priority populations for conservation and domestication purposes. Fourteen native populations (160 individuals) along a latitudinal gradient and with different logging's intensities were assessed by 293 polymorphic AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) markers. Genetic diversity was low (Ht = 0.135), according to marginal location of the species in Argentina. Most of the diversity was distributed within populations (87%). Northern populations showed significant higher genetic diversity (R2= 0.69) that agreed with latitudinal pattern of distribution of taxonomic diversity in the Yungas. Three clusters were identified by Bayesian analysis in correspondence with northern, central, and southern Yungas. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed significant genetic differences among latitudinal clusters even when logging (ΦRT = 0.07) and unlogging populations (ΦPT = 0.10) were separately analyzed. Loss of genetic diversity with increasing logging intensity was observed between neighboring populations with different disturbance (ΦPT = 0.03–0.10). Bottlenecks in disturbed populations are suggested as the main cause. Our results emphasize both: the necessity of maintaining the genetic diversity in protected areas that appear as possible long-term refuges of the species; and to rescue for the national system of protected areas some high genetic diversity populations that are on private fields. PMID:23170208

  5. Influence of weeds on Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and obscure mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in a central California vineyard.

    PubMed

    Costello, Michael J; Welch, Mark D

    2014-06-01

    Obscure mealybug is a pest of grapes in the cool climate regions of coastal California, is found on some vineyard weeds, and is tended by the Argentine ant. A study was conducted at a vineyard in Arroyo Grande, CA, to evaluate the impact of weeds on ant activity on grapevines, and the role that ants and weeds have on obscure mealybug infestation in grape clusters. The incidence of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was recorded as well. Treatments were weed exclusion versus the presence of weeds, and ant exclusion versus the presence of ants. Ant activity was evaluated weekly using sugar-based monitoring stations, and mealybug infestation and Botrytis incidence of clusters were evaluated at harvest. Ant exclusion reduced the overall number of ant visits by 82%, and ants increased mealybug infestation of clusters by 53%. Ant activity was 33% higher in the weeds treatment, but there was no impact of weeds on mealybug infestation. We suggest that the higher ant activity recorded in the weeds treatment may have been an artifact of the sugar-based sampling method. Botrytis incidence was three times higher with ants, but did not differ between weeds and weed exclusion treatments. The study supports other research showing a relationship between mealybug infestation and the presence of ants, as well as the lack of impact of floor vegetation on mealybug infestation of grape clusters. It is the first report of a relationship between ants and Botrytis, although it is more likely that the higher Botrytis incidence found here is a result of increased mealybug density than a direct effect by ants.

  6. Czech Republic to Become Member of ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Today, an agreement was signed in Prague between ESO and the Czech Republic, aiming to make the latter become a full member of ESO as of 1 January 2007. "The future membership of the Czech Republic in ESO opens for the Czech astronomers completely new opportunities and possibilities. It will foster this discipline on the highest quality level and open new opportunities for Czech industry to actively cooperate in research and development of high-tech instruments for astronomical research," said Miroslava Kopicová, Minister of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic. ESO PR Photo 52/06 ESO PR Photo 52/06 Signing Ceremony "We warmly welcome the Czech Republic as the thirteenth member of ESO," said Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's Director General. "The timing couldn't be better chosen: with the Very Large Telescope, Europe is now at the forefront of ground-based astronomy, and with the construction of ALMA and the final studies for the European Extremely Large Telescope, we will ensure that this will remain so for several decades. We look forward to working together with our Czech colleagues towards these successes." The signing event took place at the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports in Prague. Following ratification by the Czech Parliament, the Czech Republic with thus join the twelve present member states of ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere: Belgium, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The Czech Republic is the first country from Central and Eastern Europe to join ESO. Astronomy in the Czech Republic has a very long tradition that dates from as far back as 3500 BC. Four centuries ago, Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler established themselves in Prague at the invitation of the emperor Rudolph II, laying the ground for the first golden age in astronomy. Later, eminent scientists such as Christian Doppler, Ernst Mach and

  7. Energy policy of the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Cerny, M.

    1995-12-01

    On February 16, 1992, the Government of the Czech Republic sanctioned, by its Decree No. 112/82, its first Energy Policy. Since that time, a number of conditions have changed: first of all, there was the partition of the former Federal Czechoslovak Republic, then the privatization of most of energy producing corporations, the deregulation of a significant proportion of power and energy commodities, the decision to bring to an end the construction of the Temelin nuclear power station, the creation of conditions for the construction of the Ingoldstadt oil pipeline, etc. These steps, on which the final decisions have been made, have brought about the necessity of updating the existing general Energy Policy. The updated Energy Policy is based on the Programme Statement by the Government of the Czech Republic of July 1992, as well as on other materials associated with energy and power generation, either approved or negotiated by the Government, in particular the State Environmental Policy the Rules of the State Raw Materials Policy, the European Association Agreement, the European Energy Charter, the results of the Uruguayan Round of GATT, the Convention on Climate Changes, the Ecological Action Programme for central and East-European countries, and other international documents that have either been, or are likely to be sanctioned by the Czech Government (especially the European Energy Charter Treaty, and the protocol on Trans-boundary Air Pollution and on Further Reduction of Sulphur Oxide Emissions).

  8. Extreme wind climate in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, L.; Hanslian, D.; Jiri, H.

    2011-12-01

    Extreme wind events belong to the most damaging weather-related hazards in Czech Republic. Therefore a complex survey is performed to exploit the wind data available over the period of industrial measurements in Czech Republic for extreme wind analysis. The object of the survey is to find the limitations of wind data available, to analyze the conditions for extreme wind events and to try to enhance the knowledge about the statistical behavior of extreme wind. The data quality showed itself as a major issue. The homogeneity of extreme wind data is broken in many cases as the extreme wind values are highly dependent on the measuring instrumentation and changes in neighborhood. It also may be difficult to distinguish between correct high wind data and erroneous values. The individual analysis and quality assessment of wind data used in extremal analysis is therefore essential. There are generally two basic groups of extreme wind events typical in the Czech Republic and generally over the mid-latitudes: The "convective" events (can be also called as "squalls") are primarily initiated by deep convection, whereas the primary cause for "non-convective" (synoptic) events is large-scale pressure gradient. The subject is, however, a bit more complex, as the pressure gradient inducing high wind in higher atmospheric levels or wind shear can be a significant factor in convective events; on the other hand, convection may increase wind speeds in otherwise "non-convective" synoptic-scale windstorms. In addition, there are some special phenomena that should be treated individually: the physical principle and climatological behavior (frequency, magnitude and area affected) of tornadoes make them very different from common convective straight winds; this is in lesser scale also the case of "foehn" or "bora" effects belonging to non-convective events. These effects, however, do not play major role over the Czech Republic. In Czech Republic, the overall impact of convective and non

  9. New paleomagnetic data from Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene rocks of the Northern Argentine Puna-Southern Bolivian Altiplano: Constraining the age of vertical axis rotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prezzi, Claudia B.; Caffe, Pablo J.; Iglesia Llanos, María P.; Orgeira, María J.

    2014-08-01

    Along the Central Andes a pattern of vertical axis rotations has been paleomagnetically identified. Such rotations are counterclockwise north of Arica Deflection (∼19° S) and clockwise to the south. Different hypothesis and models have been proposed to explain the Central Andean Rotation Pattern (CARP). However, the origin of the CARP is a subject of ongoing debate. Recently, different authors have proposed the possible existence of a close correlation between the time-space distribution of deformation and the amount of registered vertical axis rotations in the Southern Central Andes. In order to further investigate such relationship, new paleomagnetic studies were carried out in Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene rocks of the Northern Argentine Puna and the Southern Bolivian Altiplano. Our results indicate that while one of the sampled localities did not undergo significant vertical axis rotations, the other two recorded clockwise vertical axis rotations larger than 30°. These results suggest the occurrence of small-block rotations in the Southern Bolivian Altiplano-Northern Argentine Puna prior to 15 Ma, which would correspond to the local accommodation of the regional deformation field.

  10. Astronomía Gamma desde El Leoncito

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovero, A. C.; Colombo, E.; Sahade, J.; Weekes, T. C.

    La astronomía gamma, en el extremo de energías detectadas hasta el presente, se encuentra en desarrollo en muchas partes del mundo y proporciona resultados sorprendentes a medida que la tecnología avanza en el desarrollo de nuevos detectores. La técnica Cherenkov Atmosférica es la utilizada para la detección, mediante telescopios en tierra, del efecto secundario causado por la radiación gamma de muy altas energías (E ≈ TeV). Por medio de telescopios o arreglos de detectores y utilizando la técnica mencionada, se han podido detectar algunas fuentes puntuales de mucha importancia astrofísica como la Nebulosa del Cangrejo y la galaxia de núcleo activo Markarian 421. El sistema instalado en San Juan, en cooperación con el grupo de Radiación Gamma del Observatorio Whipple, está constituído por tres colectores de 1.5m que registran pulsos de luz generados por las cascadas de partículas producidas por rayos cósmicos de todo tipo al entrar en la atmósfera terrestre. El sistema opera por barrido en ascención recta de la fuente observada que, para esta etapa del experimento, es el Centro Galáctico. Esta fuente extensa es conocida como emisor gamma de energías inferiores al TeV y ha sido observada anteriormente en este rango de energía desde el hemisferio norte pero con elevaciones bajas, situación no óptima para este tipo de técnica. Se presentan los primeros resultados del análisis de los datos obtenidos observando la región del Centro Galáctico, luego de dos años de observaciones, así como una descripción de la técnica Cherenkov Atmosférica y del equipo utilizado en la experiencia.

  11. Characterizing and predicting species distributions across environments and scales: Argentine ant occurrences in the eye of the beholder

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menke, S.B.; Holway, D.A.; Fisher, R.N.; Jetz, W.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Species distribution models (SDMs) or, more specifically, ecological niche models (ENMs) are a useful and rapidly proliferating tool in ecology and global change biology. ENMs attempt to capture associations between a species and its environment and are often used to draw biological inferences, to predict potential occurrences in unoccupied regions and to forecast future distributions under environmental change. The accuracy of ENMs, however, hinges critically on the quality of occurrence data. ENMs often use haphazardly collected data rather than data collected across the full spectrum of existing environmental conditions. Moreover, it remains unclear how processes affecting ENM predictions operate at different spatial scales. The scale (i.e. grain size) of analysis may be dictated more by the sampling regime than by biologically meaningful processes. The aim of our study is to jointly quantify how issues relating to region and scale affect ENM predictions using an economically important and ecologically damaging invasive species, the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile). Location: California, USA. Methods: We analysed the relationship between sampling sufficiency, regional differences in environmental parameter space and cell size of analysis and resampling environmental layers using two independently collected sets of presence/absence data. Differences in variable importance were determined using model averaging and logistic regression. Model accuracy was measured with area under the curve (AUC) and Cohen's kappa. Results: We first demonstrate that insufficient sampling of environmental parameter space can cause large errors in predicted distributions and biological interpretation. Models performed best when they were parametrized with data that sufficiently sampled environmental parameter space. Second, we show that altering the spatial grain of analysis changes the relative importance of different environmental variables. These changes apparently result

  12. Vestiges of an Ordovician west-vergent thin-skinned Ocloyic thrust belt in the Argentine Precordillera, southern Central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, William A.; Astini, Ricardo A.

    2007-08-01

    Collision of the down-going, Laurentia-derived Argentine Precordillera terrane with the Gondwanan margin drove the Ordovician Ocloyic orogeny, including subduction volcanism, metamorphism, and top-to-west shearing east of the Precordillera. In the Precordillera, above passive-margin carbonates (Lower Ordovician San Juan Limestone and older carbonates), a Middle to Upper Ordovician westward-prograding synorogenic clastic wedge of black shale (Gualcamayo Shale) and coarser clastic sediment (Las Vacas Conglomerate and Trapiche Formation) fills a peripheral foreland basin. New research has identified vestiges of a west-directed thin-skinned Ocloyic foreland thrust belt that has been fragmented by east-directed Andean thrusting. The El Corral thrust sheet, with hanging-wall detachment in the San Juan Limestone, extends over a west-directed footwall frontal ramp and extensive flat to low-angle footwall cutoff in the Gualcamayo and Las Vacas formations. Las Vacas conglomerates in the footwall include olistoliths (10-m scale) exclusively of San Juan Limestone and Gualcamayo Shale; the beds in some olistoliths are folded. The advancing El Corral thrust sheet successively supplied and overrode the stratigraphically restricted olistoliths. In the El Corral footwall, tight west-vergent folds and faults within an anticlinorium in the San Juan Limestone and Gualcamayo Shale suggest a deeper (unexposed) thrust fault, the Los Celestitos fault. West of the anticlinorium, easterly dip (restored to remove Andean deformation) beneath an angular unconformity between Las Vacas and Trapiche beds is consistent geometrically with the trailing limb of a west-vergent fault-propagation anticline in the hanging wall of the subsurface Los Celestitos fault. The same angular unconformity truncates the El Corral fault and hanging-wall strata. In the Trapiche Formation, contrasting sedimentary facies from sandy turbidites westward to limestone-clast megabeds and olistoliths suggest another frontal

  13. Bringing the "Republic" to Life: Teaching Plato's "Republic" to First-Year Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Thom

    2008-01-01

    I have taught Plato's "Republic" for several years although seminars on this text can be difficult and pose certain challenges, most especially with first year students new to university: the ancient Greeks seem a long way from the technocratic society we live in today. More importantly, the complexity of our relationship to each other as citizens…

  14. 78 FR 74115 - Monosodium Glutamate From the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Indonesia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... China and the Republic of Indonesia: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigations, 78 FR 65269... Administrative Determination Deadlines Pursuant to the Tariff Act of 1930, as Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005... Indonesia: Postponement of Preliminary Determination in the Countervailing Duty Investigations...

  15. [Patients' rights in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Haskovcová, H

    1992-07-10

    The ethical code, the so-called Patients' rights, was published on February 25, 1992 and applies in Bohemia and Moravia. The initiative in this matter was taken by the Central ethical commission of the Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic. The latter commission prepared a draft of the Czech version and after comments supplemented the text approved and proclaimed it. In the submitted paper the text of the document is presented in extenso and the author explains the history of patients' rights in Europe.

  16. Renewable energy projects in the Dominican Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Viani, B.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a US/Dominican Republic program to develop renewable energy projects in the country. The objective is to demonstrate the commercial viability of renewable energy generation projects, primarily small-scale wind and hydropower. Preliminary studies are completed for three micro-hydro projects with a total capacity of 262 kWe, and two small wind power projects for water pumping. In addition wind resource assessment is ongoing, and professional training and technical assistance to potential investors is ongoing. Projects goals include not less than ten small firms actively involved in installation of such systems by September 1998.

  17. Health care in the Yemen Arab Republic.

    PubMed

    Lambeth, S

    1988-01-01

    The Yemen Arab Republic has health-care problems similar to other developing countries yet lacks the abundant oil reserves of its Arabian peninsula neighbors to address these problems. An ambitious 5 year health plan developed in 1977 has been impeded by a lack of material and human resources. The infant mortality rate remains one of the highest in the world, schistosomiasis drains the energy of the people, and tuberculosis and malaria remain endemic. Progress is, however, being made in health-care educational programs within Sanaa University and the Health Manpower Institutes to develop the resources of the Yemeni people to meet the health-care needs of their country. PMID:3225123

  18. Czech Republic 20 years after Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Rosina, Jozef; Kvasnák, Eugen; Suta, Daniel; Kostrhun, Tomás; Drábová, Dana

    2008-01-01

    The territory of the Czech Republic was contaminated as a result of the breakdown in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The Czech population received low doses of ionising radiation which, though it could not cause a deterministic impact, could have had stochastic effects expressed in the years following the accident. Twenty years after the accident is a long enough time to assess its stochastic effects, primarily tumours and genetic impairment. The moderate amount of radioactive fallout received by the Czech population in 1986 increased thyroid cancer in the following years; on the other hand, no obvious genetic impact was found.

  19. Vocational Education and Training Reform in the Czech Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report on vocational education and training (VET) in the Czech Republic consists of a condensed description of the present situation in VET and analysis of the main challenges facing VET reform in the country. Chapter 1 offers basic data on the Czech Republic. Chapter 2 describes main features of the VET system, strategic objectives for VET,…

  20. Striving for Inclusive Education in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strnadova, Iva; Hajkova, Vanda

    2012-01-01

    Inclusive education does not have a strong history in the Czech Republic. Initial efforts to educate students with different types of disabilities within the mainstream education system in the Czech Republic date back to the mid-20th century. These efforts were primarily from parent initiatives, which in some cases resulted in ensuring that the…

  1. EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, BUFFALO PLANT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM ROLL SHOP. 8" BAR MILL DESIGNED AND BUILT BY DONNER STEEL CO. (PREDECESSOR OF REPUBLIC), 1919-1920. FOR DESCRIPTION OF ORIGINAL MILL SEE "IRON AGE", 116\\4 (23 JULY 1925): 201-204. - LTV Steel, 8-inch Bar Mill, Buffalo Plant, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  2. Teaching Writing in the Republic of Colombia, 1800-1850

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Meri L.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the enduring importance of handwriting in the early republic of Colombia. Colonial practice informed writing instruction but Colombians re-established it in national terms from the 1820s onward. Teaching writing became a critical tool of state formation: an ideal republic of virtuous functionaries depended on uniform…

  3. Staphylococcus aureus ST398, New York City and Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Meera; Dumortier, Caroline; Taylor, Barbara S.; Miller, Maureen; Vasquez, Glenny; Yunen, Jose; Brudney, Karen; Rodriguez-Taveras, Carlos; Rojas, Rita; Leon, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Closely related Staphylococcus aureus strains of ST398, an animal-associated strain, were identified in samples collected from humans in northern Manhattan, New York, NY, USA, and in the Dominican Republic. A large population in northern Manhattan has close ties to the Dominican Republic, suggesting international transmission. PMID:19193274

  4. Situation Report--Argentina, Colombia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Republic, Oman, Syrian Arab Republic, and Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to pupulation and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Argentina, Colombia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Republic, Oman, Syrian Arab Republic, and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

  5. Situation Report--Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Laos, Liberia, Republic of Vietnam, Seychelles, Tahiti (French Polynesia).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Dominical Republic, Ethiopia, Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Laos, Liberia, Republic of Vietnam, Seychelles, and Tahiti (French Polynesia). Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  6. Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  7. AIDS heterosexual predominance in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Garris, I; Rodriguez, E M; De Moya, E A; Guerrero, E; Peña, C; Puello, E; Gomez, E; Monterroso, E R; Weissenbacher, M; Vermund, S H

    1991-01-01

    AIDS surveillance data from the Dominican Republic are described for 1983-89. A positive serologic test for HIV was required, and standard clinical criteria were used for defining AIDS. There were 1,202 AIDS cases (820 men, 372 women, 10 of unknown gender) reported to the Ministry of Health, for a cumulative case rate of 17 per 100,000 persons. Rapid growth of the epidemic is noted, with 43% of the total cases reported in 1989. Heterosexual exposure accounts for 53% (593) of all cases, with a male-to-female ratio of 2.2:1, resembling a World Health Organization Pattern I/II country. Prevalence is highest in and surrounding the urbanized tourist areas of Santo Domingo and Puerto Plata and in districts with a high concentration of sugar plantation barracks, where laborers from Haiti and the Dominican Republic work and live. The distribution of AIDS cases is described by transmission exposure category, age, sex, year of diagnosis, and district. The National AIDS Surveillance Program can be improved by validation of exposure transmission categories through selected case investigation and by better reporting through training of health care providers. Surveillance data will assist in targeting future public health efforts to regions and persons at highest risk.

  8. [Gene therapy in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Vonka, V

    2003-01-01

    Gene therapy represents one of the most promising applications of molecular biology and genetic engineering in medicine. At present its introduction meets series of problems which are of technical, methodological and ethical nature. Although the research in the field of gene therapy in the Czech Republic is on a good level, there is little hope that its achievements will be tested in clinical trials in the near future. In the Czech Republic a law enabling the use of preparations based on the newest biotechnologies in human medicine is missing. Similarly, a production unit capable of preparing the new gene-based drugs according to the Good Manufactory Praxis is not available and the State Institute for Control of Drugs has not any working group fully qualified for their control. The paper proposes actions aimed at solving the present unfavourable situation. The fact that the interest of clinicians in gene therapy is rapidly growing, and that there are signs of increasing interest of public in its achievements, gives good prospects for the introduction of gene therapy into medical praxis in this country in the not very distant future.

  9. Terrorism in Taiwan, Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Che; Chuang, Chia-Chang; Arnold, Jeffrey; Lee, Mau-Hwa; Hsu, Sun-Chieh; Chi, Chih-Hsien

    2003-01-01

    The Republic of China on the island of Taiwan has experienced at least 20 terrorist events since 1979, including 13 aircraft hijackings and five bombings. Factors responsible for the relatively small burden of terrorism on Taiwan in the past include tight military control over political dissent until 1987, a warming relationship with the People's Republic of China in the 1990s, political inclusion of major internal cultural groups, geographic isolation, and a lack of other significant international enemies. Nevertheless, today Taiwan faces a new prospect of terrorism by adversaries of the United States and its allies and by an international paradigm shift in the types of weapons used by terrorists. National emergency management has been enhanced significantly since the Ji Ji earthquake in 1999, including the assignment of lead government agencies to the planning and preparedness for specific types of terrorist events involving nuclear, biological, and/or chemical releases. Other significant improvements at the operations level, include the establishment of two national disaster medical assistance teams, four urban search and rescue teams, 13 local disaster medical assistance teams, and eight chemical emergency response hospitals. Future challenges include improving the coordination of inter-agency response at the national level and the quantity and quality of local disaster response assets. PMID:15074495

  10. Digitization of Cultural Heritage of Slovak Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehovská, J.; Brunčák, P.; Dedík, L.; Kravjanská, I.; Sučíková, A.

    2016-06-01

    The Monuments Board of the Slovak Republic within the Operational Programme Information Society from 2012, is digital documenting selected national cultural monuments of the Slovak Republic. Within this project 1,855 architectural objects in Slovakia has been digitized by internal component of the The Monuments Board SR and external suppliers. For measurement there were used the most modern surveying technologies - digital photogrammetry (DP) of land and aerial images and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). The outputs of digitization are point cloud, highly detailed polygon models, orthoimages, gigapixel images and 2D drawing documentations. During the project, arose the need to process the huge number of images (thousands or tens of thousands) and also need a TLS connection to DP. For this reason, started Slovak commercial firm developing of new software which enable this processing and connection. The outcomes are unique spatial models of large architectural complexes (castles, monasteries, churches...) with high detail and accuracy up to 1 cm. Article is devoted to the project description and the method of digitization for the specific types of the cultural monuments.

  11. 75 FR 56988 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Socialist Republic of Vietnam and the People's Republic of China, 75 FR 18154 (April 9, 2010). The... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China... frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The review covers the...

  12. 9 CFR 93.432 - Cattle from the Republic of Ireland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle from the Republic of Ireland... Cattle from the Republic of Ireland. (a) All cattle to be imported from the Republic of Ireland shall be... that the cattle originated from a herd which is officially certified by the Republic of Ireland as...

  13. Successive reactivation of older structures under variable heat flow conditions evidenced by K-Ar fault gouge dating in Sierra de Ambato, northern Argentine broken foreland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nóbile, Julieta C.; Collo, Gilda; Dávila, Federico M.; Martina, Federico; Wemmer, Klaus

    2015-12-01

    The Argentine broken foreland has been the subject of continuous research to determine the uplift and exhumation history of the region. High-elevation mountains are the result of N-S reverse faults that disrupted a W-E Miocene Andean foreland basin. In the Sierra de Ambato (northern Argentine broken foreland) the reverse faults offset Neogene sedimentary rocks (Aconquija Fm., ˜9 Ma) and affect the basement comprising Paleozoic metamorphic rocks that have been dated at ˜477-470 Ma. In order to establish a chronology of these faults affecting the previous continuous basin we date the formation age of clay minerals associated with fault gouge using the K-Ar dating technique. Clay mineral formation is a fundamental process in the evolution of faults under the brittle regime (<<300 °C). K-Ar ages (9 fractions from 3 samples collected along a transect in the Sierra de Ambato) vary from Late Devonian to Late Triassic (˜360-220 Ma). This age distribution can be explained by a long lasting brittle deformation history with a minimum age of ˜360 Ma and a last clay minerals forming event at ˜220 Ma. Moreover, given the progression of apparent ages decreasing from coarse to fine size fractions (˜360-311 Ma for 2-1 μm grain size fraction, ˜326-286 Ma for 1-0.2 μm and ˜291-219 Ma of <0.2 μm), we modeled discrete deformation events at ˜417 Ma (ending of the Famatinian cycle), ˜317-326 Ma (end of Gondwanic orogeny), and ˜194-279 Ma (Early Permian - Jurassic deformation). According to our data, the Neogene reactivation would not have affected the K-Ar system neither generated a significant clay minerals crystallization in the fault gouge, although an exhumation of more than 2 Km is recorded in this period from stratigraphic data.

  14. Broadband Seismic Study of the Dominican Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulliam, J.; Polanco Rivera, E.; Pujols Guridy, R.; Huerfano Moreno, V. A.; Lopez, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Northeast Caribbean Plate Boundary Zone (NCPBZ) is characterized by oblique subduction of oceanic crust belonging to the North American Plate, a broad zone of deformation to accommodate strain, and the development of transform and normal faults on and around the island of Hispaniola. Other features may include the formation of a new microplates, rearrangement and aggregation of crustal fragments into new islands, and rotations of the microplates. Numerous issues regarding the nature and timing of formation of the features described above, their roles in regional tectonics and even whether they exist at all, remain unresolved. Our short-term goal is to better constraint lithospheric structure and identify active earthquake faults with a temporary broadband seismic network in the Dominican Republic. The oblique-subduction-to-strike-slip transition found in the NCPBZ is representative of numerous locales around the world, so lessons learned here may inform our understanding of plate tectonics broadly. In 2013-2014 we installed sixteen broadband seismic stations in the Dominican Republic. The temporary network will remain in place for two years. Data acquired by the temporary network will be integrated with data recorded by existing seismic facilities in the region and the combined dataset will be used for a series of analyses that will, collectively, allow us to image lithospheric structure and aid seismic hazard assessment for the island of Hispaniola. Preliminary results will be presented from the deployment, including regional earthquake locations and improved 1D Earth structure as well as plans for collaborations between regional seismic networks and local capacity-building.

  15. Extraterrestrial research in the Federal Republic of Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This German program for basic extraterrestrial research is an essential, successful, and worldwide recognized part of the space program and has the same attributes for basic research in the Federal Republic of Germany. It covers all major scientific disciplines.

  16. Agricultural Education in the People's Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Janet L.; He, Changxia

    1987-01-01

    Describes the system of agricultural education in the People's Republic of China. Topics include (1) the modernization of Chinese agriculture, (2) policy issues, (3) types of vocational agriculture schools, and (4) needs for the future. (CH)

  17. [Export agriculture, class formation, and migration in the Dominican Republic].

    PubMed

    Bray, D

    1985-01-01

    The relationships among export agriculture, class formation, and migration in the Dominican Republic are analyzed. The author discusses the impact of successive strategies of economic development on internal migration and on international migration, primarily to the United States. The transition from subsistence agriculture to export agriculture and the consequent differentiation of classes are examined. Implications for economic development in the Dominican Republic and for U.S. labor policy are considered.

  18. Gaps in health research in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Canario, Julio Arturo; Lizardo, Jefrey; Espinal, Roberto; Colomé, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Objective To provide a basic profile of health research in the Dominican Republic by identifying health problems or diseases that have been addressed by studies implemented during the period 2009-2013 and to determine how well that research correlates with the burden of disease in the Dominican population. Methods This was a descriptive study that searched for primary and secondary data sources to identify health research implemented in the Dominican Republic in the years 2009 to 2013. Data about these projects were collected from the registries of clinicaltrials.gov and the Consejo Nacional de Bioética en Salud, as well as from a questionnaire directed to researchers and managers. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were derived from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 for males and females of all ages in the Dominican Republic and then compared with the number of research studies conducted on each specific health condition. Results This study identified 313 health research projects conducted in the Dominican Republic during the years 2009-2013. HIV/AIDS and lower respiratory infections were the two main topics researched; however, they accounted for a relatively small percentage of total DALYs in males and females of all ages in the Dominican Republic in 2013. Conclusions Limited research is directed toward addressing the health needs of Dominicans. The ongoing process of setting priorities for health research in the Dominican Republic should direct its efforts toward fixing this imbalance. PMID:27657182

  19. Gaps in health research in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Canario, Julio Arturo; Lizardo, Jefrey; Espinal, Roberto; Colomé, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Objective To provide a basic profile of health research in the Dominican Republic by identifying health problems or diseases that have been addressed by studies implemented during the period 2009-2013 and to determine how well that research correlates with the burden of disease in the Dominican population. Methods This was a descriptive study that searched for primary and secondary data sources to identify health research implemented in the Dominican Republic in the years 2009 to 2013. Data about these projects were collected from the registries of clinicaltrials.gov and the Consejo Nacional de Bioética en Salud, as well as from a questionnaire directed to researchers and managers. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were derived from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 for males and females of all ages in the Dominican Republic and then compared with the number of research studies conducted on each specific health condition. Results This study identified 313 health research projects conducted in the Dominican Republic during the years 2009-2013. HIV/AIDS and lower respiratory infections were the two main topics researched; however, they accounted for a relatively small percentage of total DALYs in males and females of all ages in the Dominican Republic in 2013. Conclusions Limited research is directed toward addressing the health needs of Dominicans. The ongoing process of setting priorities for health research in the Dominican Republic should direct its efforts toward fixing this imbalance.

  20. Implementing the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD): Achievements, Open Questions and Strategies for the Way Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pigozzi, Mary Joy

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at the implementation of the DESD from a global perspective. It takes the position that quality education is fundamental for learning how to live sustainably, and that the DESD needs to be better positioned in the education landscape and conceived as a global social movement that must be fostered and nurtured for the well-being of…

  1. [Darwin in the Republic of Letters].

    PubMed

    Bertani, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    For those accustomed to thinking that the modern cultural dimension arose under the banner of a clash between the so-called "two cultures," the figure of Darwin the "humanist" could reserve numerous surprises. It was above all the well-known paleontologist S.J. Gould who pointed them out. He went so far as to track down, in the Italian cultural roots from Saint Francis to Galileo, an element of continuity between his own Darwinism and our literary tradition that passes through the writing of the masterpieces of the nineteenth-century natural sciences. On the basis of a similar, and also audacious, rereading of the cultural history, the essay proposes to indicate some possible developments of the new dialogue undertaken, beginning with the insertion of the scientist Darwin in the European horizon of the Republic of Letters. There are then indicated some historical-cultural categories that would merit reconsideration: the new figure of intellectual of the twenty-first century, the idea of a science immersed in the historical contingency and in the concrete pleasure of the subject that knows, the role of "sweetness" and of "wonder" also in the most rigorous study, and lastly the need of an in-depth knowledge of the Darwinian writing, not as a curiosity for the educational trend of the era of positivism, but as an indispensable epistemological requisite for a correct understanding of its science.

  2. [Human prion diseases in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Rohan, Z; Rusina, R; Marešová, M; Matěj, R

    2015-09-01

    Human prion diseases are a group of very rare diseases with a unique pathogenesis and, due to an inauspicious prognosis and unavailability of therapy, with fatal consequences. The etiopathogenetic background is the presence of pathologically misfolded prion protein, highly resistant to denaturation, the aggregation and presence of which in the brain tissue causes irreversible neuronal damage. The most frequent prion disease in humans is Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) which occurs in sporadic, hereditary/familial, or acquired/infectious/iatrogenic forms. A new form of CJD, variant CJD, is considered to be linked to dietary exposure to beef products from cattle infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and to infection via blood transfusion. The clinical picture of these diseases is characterized by a rapidly progressing dementia, cerebellar and extrapyramidal symptoms, and rather specific MRI, EEG, and CSF findings. Clinically, the diagnosis is described as possible or probable prion disease and needs to be confirmed by neuropathological or immunological investigation of the brain tissue. Epidemiological data from the Czech Republic spanning the last decade are presented. PMID:26448298

  3. Canadian tourist and Dominican Republic sex workers.

    PubMed

    Herold, E S

    1992-01-01

    The Dominican Republic is a popular tourist destination for Canadians. The country's sex industry for tourists developed markedly in the 1980s. The Puerto Plata/Sosua area is currently one of the most popular tourist sites and claimed the highest incidence of AIDS in 1989 at 23.2 cases/100,000 people. Two pilot phases of the Dominican Sex Workers and Canadian Tourists Study have been conducted to obtain methodological and empirical data to use in developing a major study of sex and tourism. First phase interviews were held only with beachboys who make money by having relations with female tourists, while phase two interviews were held with beachboys, female sex workers, and female and male tourists. Results indicate that female tourists consider their relations with male sex workers to be primarily social, while male tourists see their relations with female sex workers as more casual, sexual, and monetarily based. Further, women are more likely than men to continue their relationships with sex workers after returning to Canada; many help their men to immigrate and some get married. To learn more about the dynamics of tourism, sex, and AIDS prevention, the author proposes individual studies exploring the characteristics of each of the following four populations: male and female sex workers and male and female tourists.

  4. [Darwin in the Republic of Letters].

    PubMed

    Bertani, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    For those accustomed to thinking that the modern cultural dimension arose under the banner of a clash between the so-called "two cultures," the figure of Darwin the "humanist" could reserve numerous surprises. It was above all the well-known paleontologist S.J. Gould who pointed them out. He went so far as to track down, in the Italian cultural roots from Saint Francis to Galileo, an element of continuity between his own Darwinism and our literary tradition that passes through the writing of the masterpieces of the nineteenth-century natural sciences. On the basis of a similar, and also audacious, rereading of the cultural history, the essay proposes to indicate some possible developments of the new dialogue undertaken, beginning with the insertion of the scientist Darwin in the European horizon of the Republic of Letters. There are then indicated some historical-cultural categories that would merit reconsideration: the new figure of intellectual of the twenty-first century, the idea of a science immersed in the historical contingency and in the concrete pleasure of the subject that knows, the role of "sweetness" and of "wonder" also in the most rigorous study, and lastly the need of an in-depth knowledge of the Darwinian writing, not as a curiosity for the educational trend of the era of positivism, but as an indispensable epistemological requisite for a correct understanding of its science. PMID:26915234

  5. Republic Act No. 6766, 23 October 1989.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of the 1989 Republic Act setting forth the Organic Act for the Cordillera Autonomous Region in the Philippines. Article 2 contains guiding principles and policies which call for 1) ensuring equal access to resources, employment, and services; 2) minimizing inequities and disparities; 3) preventing sex discrimination in the work place; and 4) protecting children from abuse or harmful employment. Article 10 covers personal, family, tribal, and property relations and recognizes customary law in these areas (including marriage) among members of indigenous groups or cultural communities. Article 9 deals with ancestral domain and ancestral lands and directs the Regional Government to protect the same. Article 16 discusses social justice and welfare and provides for a living wage, profit-sharing schemes, and occupational safety. In the area of health care, this article calls for establishment of a primary health care delivery system, health education, training for health care workers, establishment of a food and drug regulatory system, research into traditional medicine, financing schemes to lower health care costs, and protection of vulnerable groups. Housing programs will be instituted where needed, women's status will be enhanced, child care support systems will be established, and women will receive education in regard to their rights and responsibilities to correct stereotypes. PMID:12344445

  6. Republic Act No. 6734, 1 August 1989.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This document contains provisions of the Republic Act No. 6734 of August 1989 which sets forth the Organic Act for the Autonomous Region of Mindanao. Article 9 creates a Shari'ah Appellate Court for the Region which will have jurisdiction over cases involving persons, family, and property relations. Article 11 calls on the Regional Government to protect the ancestral domain and lands of the indigenous population. The Regional Assembly is directed to enact legislation covering child health and development, the condition of women and status of the indigenous population, and the registration of vital statistics. The Regional Government is also to create a housing program that will provide adequate, low-cost housing and other basic services. The family is recognized as the foundation of the nation, and the role of women in nation-building and regional development is acknowledged. Women will be adequately represented in appropriate decision- and policy-making bodies, and the government will take appropriate action against all forms of exploitation of and discrimination against women. PMID:12344444

  7. Discussion about decision support systems using continuous multi-criteria methods for planning in areas with hydro-basins, agriculture and forests, from examples in Argentine.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, J. M.; Grau, J. B.; Tarquis, A. M.; Andina, D.; Cisneros, J. M.; Sanchez, E.

    2012-04-01

    The authors were involved last years in projects considering diverse decision problems on the use of some regions in Argentine, and also related to rivers or rural services in them. They used sets of multi-criteria decision methods, first discrete when the problem included few distinct alternatives, such as e.g. forestry, traditional or intensive agriculture. For attributes they were different effects, classified then in environmental, economic and social criteria. Extending to other gentler areas, such as at South of the Province of Córdoba, Arg., they have balanced more delicately effects of continuous levels of actions, with a combination of Goal Programming linked methods, and they adopted compromises to have precise solutions. That has shown, and in part open, a line of research, as the setting of such models require various kinds of definitions and valuations, including optimizations, goals with penalties in deviations and restrictions. That can be in diverse detail level and horizon, in presence of various technical and human horizons, and that can influence politics of use of terrain and production that will require public and private agents. The research will consider consideration of use and conservation of soils, human systems and agro productions, and hence models for optimization, preferably in such Goal Programming ways. That will require considering various systems of models, first in theory to be reliable, and then in different areas to evaluate the quality of conclusions, and maybe that successively if results are found advantageous. The Bayesian ways will be considered, but they would require a prospective of sets of precise future states of nature or markets with elicited probabilities, which are neither evident nor decisive for the moment, as changes may occur in years but will be very unexpected or uncertain. The results will be lines of models to aid to establish policies of use of territories, by public agencies setting frames for private

  8. Republic of Moldova health system review.

    PubMed

    Turcanu, Ghenadie; Domente, Silviu; Buga, Mircea; Richardson, Erica

    2012-01-01

    The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The reform of health financing in the Republic of Moldova began in earnest in 2004 with the introduction of a mandatory health insurance (MHI) system. Since then, MHI has become a sustainable financing mechanism that has improved the technical and allocative efficiency of the system as well as overall transparency. This has helped to further consolidate the prioritization of primary care in the system, which has been bas ed on a family medicine model since the 1990s. Hospital stock in the country has been reduced since independence as the country inherited a Semashko health system with excessive infrastructure, but there is still room for efficiency gains, particularly through the consolidation of specialist services in the capital city. The rationalization of duplicated specialized services, therefore, remains a key challenge facing the Moldovan health system. Other challenges include health workforce shortages (particularly in rural areas) and improving equity in financing and access to care by reducing out of pocket (OOP) payments. OOP spending on health is dominated by the cost of pharmaceuticals and this is currently a core focus of reform efforts.

  9. Astronomy Education in the Republic of Macedonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbova, O.; Apostolovska, G.

    2006-08-01

    The general structure of the astronomy education and activities for the improvement of astronomy education in the Republic of Macedonia are presented. Since 2005 for the first time at the Institute of Physics, the faculty of Natural Sciences at the University Kiril i Metodij, the new specialization -- Astronomy -- has been introduced. Included in the last year of the new reformed secondary education are selected topics in astrophysics. Bearing in mind that the knowledge in astrophysics for most of the physics teachers is missing, the staff from the Institute of Physics has been organiizing courses and preparing the educational materials for the continuing education of physics teachers. For the public education, most of the activities are performed by the Macedonian Astronomical Society (MAS) established in 1996. The society participates in raising the educational and professional level through affirmation and presentation of cultural and scientific values of astronomy and in the supervision of the process of establishing astronomical sections and clubs in schools and their initial activities. The young astronomers from two regional astronomical societas (from Skopje and Bitola) are very active during interesting astronomical phenomena. Considering that no astronomical observatory exists in the country and that astronomy education was missing, the astronomical literacy in the country is very low. On the other hand, the interest in astronomy is surprisingly high, as evidenced by the huge number of children that participate in the Winter schools of astronomy organized by the MAS at the Institute of Physics in Skopje. The help of the astronomers from our neighboring countries is very important for the success of our activities for the improvement of astronomy literacy. Currently, our contacts with the Bulgarian astronomers from the National Astronomical Observatory Rozhen are extremely useful.

  10. Paleogeographic significance of Clavohamulus hintzei Miller (Conodonta) and other Ibexian conodonts in an early Paleozoic carbonate platform facies of the Argentine Precordillera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lehnert, O.; Miller, J.F.; Repetski, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Pre-Tremadocian conodonts and trilobites and Tremadocian conodonts are reported from the Cambrian and Ordovician La Silla Formation in the Cerro La Silla section in east-southeast Ja??chal, San Juan Province, Argentina. A shallow marine conodont fauna contains elements of Clavohamulus hintzei Miller, a common species in North America, but reported for the first time from the early Paleozoic platform carbonates of the western Argentine Precordillera. The presence of this species suggests a correlation with the Clavohamulus hintzei conodont subbiozone of the Cordylodus intermedius conodont biozone in North America, considered Early Ordovician (Skullrockian Stage, Ibexian Series) in North America, but by South American and European standards, this biozone would be of latest Cambrian age. C. hintzei and associated conodonts of the La Silla Formation are typical of the tropical faunas of the North American Midcontinent Faunal Province; Late Cambrian trilobites from lower in the formation also are typical North American taxa. The presence of these faunas in the platform carbonates is consistent with plate reconstructions suggesting that the Precordillera was in a tropical or subtropical position close to Laurentia during the late Precambrian and early Paleozoic. These new paleontological data provide one more argument for recent models of the Precordillera as a displaced terrane derived from the Ouachita Embayment at the southern margin of Laurentia.

  11. [Quali-quantitative study of the social variables defining transmission scenarios of Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever in the provinces of Buenos Aires and Santa Fe, 2001-2010].

    PubMed

    Mastrangelo, Andrea; Tagliabue, Paula; Berro, Lorena; De Carolis, Darío; Sinchi, Anabel; Digilio, Clara; Enria, Delia

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to characterize transmission scenarios of Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever in the post-vaccination period (2001-2010). The study was made up of three phases. The first consisted of a quantitative analysis using the database of the Dr. Julio I. Maiztegui National Institute of Human Viral Diseases [Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Virales Humanas] regarding the confirmed cases in the period of study (221 cases). Taking into account the transmission site and the known endemic area, cases were grouped into three hypothetical transmission scenarios, identified as: a) classical, b) emerging-reemerging, c) traveling. In the second phase, in order to test these hypotheses, in-depth interviews were carried out from August to September 2011 within an intentionally selected sample of patients distributed proportionally among the three hypotheses. Finally, in the third stage, the data obtained for each hypothetical scenario were grouped into three spatiotemporal scales: the microscale (subject), the mesoscale (locality) and macroscale (region). The results show that new transmission sites are associated with the social dynamics of cereal production and port-bound routes. PMID:25237798

  12. The influence of disturbed habitat on the spatial ecology of Argentine black and white tegu (Tupinambis merianae), a recent invader in the Everglades ecosystem (Florida, USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klug, Page E.; Reed, Robert N.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; McEachern, Michelle A.; Vinci, Joy J.; Craven, Katelin K.; Yackel Adams, Amy A.

    2015-01-01

    The threat of invasive species is often intensified in disturbed habitat. To optimize control programs, it is necessary to understand how degraded habitat influences the behavior of invasive species. We conducted a radio telemetry study to characterize movement and habitat use of introduced male Argentine black and white tegus (Tupinambis merianae) in the Everglades of southern Florida from May to August 2012 at the core and periphery of the introduced range. Tegus at the periphery moved farther per day (mean 131.7 ± 11.6 m, n = 6) compared to tegus at the core (mean 50.3 ± 12.4 m, n = 6). However, activity ranges were not significantly smaller in the core (mean 19.4 ± 8.4 ha, n = 6) compared to periphery (mean 29.1 ± 5.2 ha, n = 6). Peripheral activity ranges were more linear due to activity being largely restricted to levee habitat surrounded by open water or marsh. Tegus were located in shrub or tree habitat (mean 96%) more often than expected based on random locations (mean 58%), and the percent cover of trees and shrubs was higher in activity ranges (mean 61%) than the general study area (17%). Our study highlighted the ability of tegus to spread across the Florida landscape, especially in linear disturbed habitats where increased movement occurred and in areas of altered hydrology where movement is not restricted by water.

  13. [Comparison of FRAX Score without bone mineral density determination and the criteria proposed by the Argentine Osteoporosis Society for the use of antiresorptive therapy in postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Camporro, Fernando; Redondo, Laura; Bulacio, Exequiel; Gutiérrez Magaldi, Ignacio; Chamale, Elías; Sáenz, Fabián

    2015-01-01

    To identify patients at high risk of fracture using clinical risk factors could reduce health costs arising from the realization of a bone densitometry. The aim of this study was to compare the FRAX score without bone mineral density (BMD) with the criteria proposed by the Argentine Society of Osteoporosis (SAO) to consider starting antiresorptive treatment. We conducted an observational, cross-sectional study where 330 postmenopausal women between 40 and 90 years of age were included. The number of treatments given if the FRAX tool without BMD had been followed was compared with the number of treatments indicated using the SAO criteria. Using the SAO criteria, 85 (25.8%) patients would initiate antiresorptive treatment compared with 15 (4.5%) using the FRAX without BMD (p = 0.0019). Among the 67 patients with a diagnosis of osteoporosis by BMD determination, all of them (100%) would have received treatment by using the SAO criteria compared with 10 (15%) using the FRAX score (p = 0.011). The use of FRAX without BMD significantly underestimates the number of patients who should receive antiresorptive treatment. In patients diagnosed with osteoporosis by BMD, the FRAX score underestimates the number of patients to be treated.

  14. 76 FR 75893 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Dominican Republic... information collection requirement concerning the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade... soliciting comments concerning the following information collection: Title: Dominican...

  15. Transplanting Literacy Methods across Cultures: A Case Study in the Dominican Republic (Reading around the World).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Charles; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes an effort in the Dominican Republic to write, study, and publish a new curriculum of basic language and literacy which includes some teaching approaches familiar in the English-speaking world but new to the Dominican Republic. (SR)

  16. 76 FR 30653 - Aluminum Extrusions From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination, 76 FR 18521... Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination, 75 FR 54302 (September 7, 2010) (Preliminary Determination). In... International Trade Administration Aluminum Extrusions From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing...

  17. 78 FR 13325 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ...: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigations, 78 FR 5416 (January 25, 2013) (Initiation Notice...-815] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia... frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia,...

  18. 77 FR 72324 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks from the People's Republic of China: Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Administrative Review; 2010, 77 FR 61396... International Trade Administration Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks from the People's Republic of... rescission of administrative review concerning the countervailing duty order on certain kitchen...

  19. 76 FR 52313 - Bottom Mount Combination Refrigerator-Freezers From the Republic of Korea and Mexico...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... Republic of Korea and Mexico: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 76 FR 23281 (April 26, 2011...: Henry Almond (Republic of Korea) (202) 482-0049 or David Goldberger (Mexico) (202) 482-4136;...

  20. [Socioeconomic problems of regulating migration in the mountain regions of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic].

    PubMed

    Sulaberidze, A V

    1991-01-01

    Migration trends in the former Soviet republic of Georgia for the period 1959-1979 are analyzed and compared with those in other former Soviet republics. The influences of agriculture and kinship ties are noted. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  1. [Toxocariasis in the Republic of Altai. Geoinformation mapping simulation].

    PubMed

    Pautova, E A; Kurepina, N Iu; Dovgalev, A S

    2012-01-01

    Toxocariasis is one of the most important zooanthroponotic natural-focal parasitic diseases in the Republic of Altai. The prevalence of their invasion among the inhabitants of the Republic has increased by more than 7 times. The data of the authors' observations ofToxocara infection in animals (cats, dogs), soil contamination with helminth eggs, and prevalence of human toxocariasis in the Republic of Altai, by considering the results of tests for antibodies against its pathogen in the inhabitants of the region, were automatically processed using geoinformation mapping simulation, which yielded a mapping model to rank the region's area by morbidity rates. The use of up-to-date computers and geo information systems makes it possible to systematize information on this invasion and to see major foci of the disease to reveal the reasons for their assignment to the specific type of the region's landscape. PMID:23437715

  2. Successful control of lymphatic filariasis in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Cheun, Hyeng-Il; Kong, Yoon; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Jong-Soo; Chai, Jong-Yil; Lee, Joo-Shil; Lee, Jong-Koo; Kim, Tong-Soo

    2009-12-01

    A successful experience of lymphatic filariasis control in the Republic of Korea is briefly reviewed. Filariasis in the Republic of Korea was exclusively caused by infection with Brugia malayi. Over the past several decades from the 1950s to 2006, many investigators exerted their efforts to detection, treatment, and follow-up of filariasis patients in endemic areas, and to control filariasis. Mass, combined with selective, treatments with diethylcarbamazine to microfilaria positive persons had been made them free from microfilaremia and contributed to significant decrease of the microfilarial density in previously endemic areas. Significant decrease of microfilaria positive cases in an area influenced eventually to the endemicity of filariasis in the relevant locality. Together with remarkable economic growth followed by improvement of environmental and personal hygiene and living standards, the factors stated above have contributed to blocking the transmission cycle of B. malayi and led to disappearance of this mosquito-borne ancient disease in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19967079

  3. Successful Control of Lymphatic Filariasis in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cheun, Hyeng-Il; Kong, Yoon; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Jong-Soo; Chai, Jong-Yil; Lee, Joo-Shil; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2009-01-01

    A successful experience of lymphatic filariasis control in the Republic of Korea is briefly reviewed. Filariasis in the Republic of Korea was exclusively caused by infection with Brugia malayi. Over the past several decades from the 1950s to 2006, many investigators exerted their efforts to detection, treatment, and follow-up of filariasis patients in endemic areas, and to control filariasis. Mass, combined with selective, treatments with diethylcarbamazine to microfilaria positive persons had been made them free from microfilaremia and contributed to significant decrease of the microfilarial density in previously endemic areas. Significant decrease of microfilaria positive cases in an area influenced eventually to the endemicity of filariasis in the relevant locality. Together with remarkable economic growth followed by improvement of environmental and personal hygiene and living standards, the factors stated above have contributed to blocking the transmission cycle of B. malayi and led to disappearance of this mosquito-borne ancient disease in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19967079

  4. 76 FR 42682 - High Pressure Steel Cylinders From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... pressure steel ] cylinders from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). See High Pressure Steel Cylinders From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation, 76 FR 33239 (June... International Trade Administration High Pressure Steel Cylinders From the People's Republic of...

  5. 76 FR 59658 - High Pressure Steel Cylinders From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation, 76 FR 33213 (June 8, 2011... International Trade Administration High Pressure Steel Cylinders From the People's Republic of China... antidumping duty investigation on high pressure steel cylinders from the People's Republic of China.\\1\\...

  6. Making Meaning on the Screen: Digital Video Production about the Dominican Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranker, Jason

    2008-01-01

    As part of an inquiry and digital documentary video project, two 12-year-old students studied the Dominican Republic. Over the course of their research, the boys (one of whose parents moved from the Dominican Republic) focused their project on two aspects of the culture of the Dominican Republic: contemporary music (bachata and merengue) and…

  7. 76 FR 19325 - 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ...-Diphosphonic Acid from India and the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Orders, 74 FR 19197 (April 28... Less Than Fair Value: Sparklers From the People's Republic of China, 56 FR 20588, 20589 (May 6, 1991... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Silicon Carbide From the People's Republic of China, 59 FR......

  8. 77 FR 21966 - Saccharin From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... People's Republic of China; Final Results of Antidumping Administrative Review, 60 FR 48687 (September 20... International Trade Administration Saccharin From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of... on saccharin from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for the period of review (``POR'') July...

  9. 75 FR 64695 - First Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... Metal Tables and Chairs From the People's Republic of China, 70 FR 3187 (January 21, 2005); see also I&D... Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary Results of... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review of Sodium Hexametaphosphate from the People's Republic of...

  10. 75 FR 55740 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... Vietnam and the People's Republic of China, 75 FR 18154 (April 9, 2010). The preliminary results of the... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers...

  11. 78 FR 59650 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005) (``Order''). \\2\\ See, generally, Goldenquality... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') meets the statutory and...

  12. 75 FR 60730 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ...: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of...

  13. 75 FR 34982 - Aluminum Extrusions from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Postponement of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... countervailing duty investigation of aluminum extrusions from the People's Republic of China. See Aluminum Extrusions From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation, 75 FR 22114... International Trade Administration Aluminum Extrusions from the People's Republic of China: Notice...

  14. 78 FR 12716 - Laminated Woven Sacks From the People's Republic of China: Negative Final Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... International Trade Administration Laminated Woven Sacks From the People's Republic of China: Negative Final...: Laminated Woven Sacks From the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 45941 (August 7, 2008); see also Laminated Woven Sacks From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Order, 73 FR 45955 (August 7,...

  15. 78 FR 1200 - Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... People's Republic of China and the Republic of Korea: Antidumping Duty Orders, 74 FR 57145 (November 4... Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: 2010-2011, 77 FR 73417 (December 10, 2012), is... International Trade Administration Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof From the People's Republic of...

  16. 75 FR 60409 - Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Critical Circumstances: Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof from the People's Republic of China, 71 FR... and the Republic of Korea: Antidumping Duty Orders, 74 FR 57145 (November 4, 2009) (``Order''). \\3... Republic of China: Initiation of Changed Circumstances Review, 75 FR 51002 (August 18, 2010). \\9\\ See,...

  17. 76 FR 13357 - Multilayered Wood Flooring from the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ...'s Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation, 75 FR 70714 (November 18, 2010.... International Trade Administration Multilayered Wood Flooring from the People's Republic of China: Postponement...'') initiated an antidumping duty investigation on multilayered wood flooring from the People's Republic...

  18. 31 CFR 585.313 - Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro); FRY (S&M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Serbia and Montenegro); FRY (S&M). 585.313 Section 585.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO) AND BOSNIAN SERB-CONTROLLED AREAS OF THE REPUBLIC... Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro); FRY (S&M). The term Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and...

  19. 31 CFR 586.304 - Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia & Montenegro); FRY (S&M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Serbia & Montenegro); FRY (S&M). 586.304 Section 586.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.304 Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia & Montenegro); FRY (S&M). The term Federal Republic of...

  20. 78 FR 21106 - Silica Bricks and Shapes From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation, 77 FR 73982 (December 12, 2012). On March... International Trade Administration Silica Bricks and Shapes From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of... of silica bricks and shapes from the People's Republic of China.\\1\\ The period of investigation...

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-42 - Peppers from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with the conditions in 7 CFR 319.56-42 and were inspected and found free from Agrotis segetum... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-42 Section... Peppers from the Republic of Korea. Peppers (Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum) from the Republic of...

  2. 76 FR 16384 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005) (``Order''). Pursuant to section 751... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of...

  3. 75 FR 15416 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 68 FR 47909 (August 12, 2003) (``Antidumping Duty Order''). On February 19... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... order on certain frozen fish fillets (``fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of...

  4. 76 FR 68148 - Certain Stilbenic Optical Brightening Agents From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 68 FR 4986 (January 31, 2003), unchanged in Final... Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 68 FR 37116 (June 23, 2003). \\28\\ See Statement of... Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 69 FR 42672, 42682 (July 16, 2004), unchanged...

  5. 75 FR 7566 - Saccharin from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Changed Circumstances Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Changed Circumstances Review, 74 FR 62745... Republic of China, 68 FR 40906 (June 9, 2003) (``Saccharin Order''). \\3\\ See Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order on Saccharin from the People's Republic of China, 74 FR 27089 (June 8, 2009). On July...

  6. 75 FR 12206 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005) (``Order''). On February 4, 2009, the... Request Administrative Review, 74 FR 6013 (February 4, 2009). From February 23, 2009, through March 2... From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and the People's Republic of China, 74 FR 13178 (March 26,...

  7. 76 FR 41760 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 76 FR 20627... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers the period...

  8. 76 FR 36519 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Socialist Republic of Vietnam and the People's Republic of China, 75 FR 18154 (April 9, 2010). On March 4... Rescission, and Request for Revocation, In Part, of the Fifth Administrative Review, 76 FR 12054 (March 4... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of...

  9. 77 FR 60675 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 68 FR 47909 (August 12, 2003). \\2\\ See Request for New Shipper Review... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets (``fish'') from the Socialist Republic of...

  10. 75 FR 844 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ... Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 74 FR 13416 (March 27... Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 74 FR 47190... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of...

  11. 77 FR 20008 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 68 FR 47909 (August 12, 2003). Pursuant to section 751(a... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets (``fish'') from the Socialist Republic of...

  12. 9 CFR 93.432 - Cattle from the Republic of Ireland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... importation. In addition: (1) Such herd unit may include cattle which were born and raised within such herd... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle from the Republic of Ireland... Cattle from the Republic of Ireland. (a) All cattle to be imported from the Republic of Ireland shall...

  13. 9 CFR 93.432 - Cattle from the Republic of Ireland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... importation. In addition: (1) Such herd unit may include cattle which were born and raised within such herd... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle from the Republic of Ireland... Cattle from the Republic of Ireland. (a) All cattle to be imported from the Republic of Ireland shall...

  14. 77 FR 266 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ..., 1994. See Antidumping Duty Order: Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China, 59 FR 59209... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper...) under the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC), meet...

  15. 75 FR 343 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...: Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China, 59 FR 59209 (November 16, 1994) (Order). On November... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper... shipper review of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China...

  16. 75 FR 11855 - Fourth Administrative Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... Socialist Republic of Vietnam and the People's Republic of China, 74 FR 13178 (March 26, 2009) (``Initiation... production (``FOPs''). On September 4, 2009, Hilltop submitted surrogate value comments regarding various... Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Reviews, 74 FR...

  17. Wind Energy Resource Atlas of the Dominican Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; George, R.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; Scott, G.; Kline, J.

    2001-10-01

    The Wind Energy Resource Atlas of the Dominican Republic identifies the wind characteristics and the distribution of the wind resource in this country. This major project is the first of its kind undertaken for the Dominican Republic. The information contained in the atlas is necessary to facilitate the use of wind energy technologies, both for utility-scale power generation and off-grid wind energy applications. A computerized wind mapping system developed by NREL generated detailed wind resource maps for the entire country. This technique uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to produce high-resolution (1-square kilometer) annual average wind resource maps.

  18. [Helminthofauna of reptiles in the Republic of Belarus].

    PubMed

    Shimalov, V V

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of original long-term investigation (1980-2006) and literary data on the helminthofauna of reptiles in the Republic of Belarus is carried out. Seven species of reptiles were examined on Southern Belarus, 32 species of helminthes were found with total infestation 72.7%. It is established that the helminthofauna of reptiles in the Republic of Belarus includes 33 species (18 trematodes, two cestodes, 12 nematodes, and one acanthocephalan). The largest number of helminth species (26) was recorded in the common water snake Natrix natrix, and the least number of species (four) was recorded in the turtle Emys orbicularis and snake Coronella austriaca.

  19. Republication of: Contributions to Einstein's theory of gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flamm, Ludwig

    2015-06-01

    This is the English translation by Jörg Frauendiener of a paper by Ludwig Flamm, first published in 1916, in which the author aims to render the conclusions of Einstein's paper on the perihelion shift of Mercury and Schwarzschild's (1916) papers clearer, more transparent and, in particular those relating to photon orbits, more accurate. The paper has been selected by the Editors of General Relativity and Gravitation for re-publication in the Golden Oldies series of the journal. This republication is accompanied by an editorial note written by Gary W. Gibbons, and by a brief biography of L. Flamm, written by Hubert Goenner and Malcolm A.H. MacCallum.

  20. Republication of: The geometry of free fall and light propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, Jürgen; Pirani, Felix A. E.; Schild, Alfred

    2012-06-01

    This is a reprinting of the paper by Jürgen Ehlers, Felix Pirani and Alfred Schild, first published in 1972 in a separate volume containing articles written in hounour of J. L. Synge. The original book is long out of print and almost forgotten by today. The authors present a method of deriving the Lorentzian geometry from compatible conformal and projective structures on a four dimensional manifold. The paper has been selected by the Editors of General Relativity and Gravitation for re-publication in the Golden Oldies series of the journal. This republication is accompanied by an editorial note written by Andrzej Trautman.

  1. Interpretation of satellite images of the Republic of Niger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, F.; Bannert, D.

    1981-01-01

    Interpretations of LANDSAT pictures were carried out for an area located in the west of the Niger Republic in the geological, hydrogeological and pedological sectors. Checking of the extent of vegetation and use of the soils and effects of desertification for the purpose of yearly map making was carried out. The proposed control of land use may be optimized by the direct reception of LANDSAT data by the receiving station planned for Ouagadougou. Since that station will not be operating before 1983, the establishment of a mobile reception station in the Republic of Niger to enable the installation of the required control system is advised.

  2. Hydrogeology of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, Michael J.; Finn, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogeologic maps were constructed for the Islamic Republic of Mauritania. The ground-water flow system in the country can best be described as two interconnected regional systems: the porous Continental Terminal coastal system and the interior, fractured sedimentary Taoudeni Basin system. In these systems, ground-water flow occurs in fill deposits and carbonate, clastic, metasedimentary, and metavolcanic rocks. Based on an evaluation of the potentiometric surface, there are three areas of ground-water recharge in the Taoudeni Basin system. One region occurs in the northwest at the edge of the Shield, one occurs to the south overlying the Tillites, and one is centered at the city of Tidjikdja. In contrast to the flow system in the Taoudeni Basin, the potentiometric surfaces reveal two areas of discharge in the Continental Terminal system but no localized recharge areas; the recharge is more likely to be areal. In addition to these recharge and discharge areas, ground water flows across the country's borders. Specifically, ground water from the Atlantic Ocean flows into Mauritania, transporting dissolved sodium from the west as a salt water intrusion, whereas fresh ground water discharges from the east into Mali. To the north, there is a relatively low gradient with inflow of fresh water to Mauritania, whereas ground-water flow discharges to the Senegal River to the south. A geographical information system (GIS) was used to digitize, manage, store, and analyze geologic data used to develop the hydrogeologic map. The data acquired for map development included existing digital GIS files, published maps, tabulated data in reports and public-access files, and the SIPPE2 Access database. Once in digital formats, regional geologic and hydrologic features were converted to a common coordinate system and combined into one map. The 42 regional geologic map units were then reclassified into 13 hydrogeologic units, each having considerable lateral extent and distinct

  3. [Tuberculosis in the Czech Republic in 1999].

    PubMed

    Trnka, L; Danková, D; Krejbich, F; Svandová, E

    2000-11-01

    Report is given on the tuberculosis (TB) prevalence and the new diseases monitoring in Czech Republic (CR) in 1999 using the register of notifiable TB diseases. 1631 new TB cases and relapse were notified (15.9/100,000 citizens). Majority TB cases, 1369 (13.3/100,000 citizens) were of the respiratory system and 262 TB cases were in other locations. 63% of the respiratory system diseases were bacteriologically verified. In comparison with the year 1998, the number of newly notified TB patients was 9.6% lower, number of TB cases of the respiratory system which were bacteriologically verified was 12.3% lower, cases of microscopically positive TB were 17.4% less frequent. Among the notified TB patients there were 91 foreigners. TB relapse was identified in 61 patients. Among the notified TB cases, 987 (60.5%) were males and 644 (39.5%) were females. In both sexes patients over 65 predominated. Prevalence of TB cases higher than the average for the whole state was found in Prague, northern and western Bohemia. Groups with TB prevalence higher than 50/100,000 citizens were identified (the risk groups). They include homeless people, drug addicts, asylum applicants, and prisoners. Due to subjective troubles of patients TB was diagnosed in 70.2% cases, by active investigation in 13.9% patients. Late TB diagnosis at autopsy came in 6.8% cases. Decease due to TB was notified in 79 patients. In 77 of them TB had not been diagnosed premortally. 106 new cases and relapses of non-TB mycobacterial disease were notified in 1999. The case of tuberculosis in CR was in 1999 restrainable. In comparison with 1998 significant decrease of TB prevalence in individual subgroups of TB disease was described (10 to 17%). Also the decrease of the long-term trend (10 years) of newly notified TB patients and TB of the respiratory system was depicted. It is necessary to maintain the quality and extend of the TB control program in order to prevent the new outbreak of TB disease.

  4. CDC Warns of Dangers of Plastic Surgery in Dominican Republic

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_159884.html CDC Warns of Dangers of Plastic Surgery in Dominican Republic Report details cases of U.S. women who developed disfiguring infections after procedures there To ... health officials are warning about the dangers of "medical tourism" after at least 18 women ...

  5. Lifelong Learning in the People's Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Huiping; Ye, Qilian

    Despite the relative novelty of lifelong learning in the People's Republic of China (PRC), significant achievements have been made, and China's potential for economic development and personal enrichment remains undisputed. Economic and social change, as well as technological advancements, have profoundly influenced educational development and…

  6. Climate and the "Encounter" in the Dominican Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horst, Oscar H.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses teaching about the impact of weather and climate on societies and human activity. Suggests that this impact be demonstrated with study of the Dominican Republic during its formation. Presents several instructional strategies for consideration: focus on climate, historical events, and weather. Includes books to be used in each approach.…

  7. Factors Affecting Attitudinal Patterns Toward Education in the Dominican Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Bardin H.; And Others

    A sample of 380 urban, suburban, and rural persons living in the Province of Santiago, the Dominican Republic, were interviewed to determine their attitudes toward education. A 15 statement attitude instrument, using a Likert response scale, was developed. The major findings of the study were that attitudes toward education were significantly…

  8. Stockholm Recommendation 96: Viable in the Dominican Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Clinton L.; Roth, Robert E.

    1984-01-01

    The Dominican Republic has taken steps to develop and implement a comprehensive plan (called Plan Sierra) for national natural resources management. The plan (which includes an environmental education component) demonstrates a commitment to Stockholm Recommendation 96 in a way that could become a model for other Latin American nations. (JN)

  9. Exploration comes to life in sleepy Dominican Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, G.M.

    1996-06-01

    This paper reviews the exploration history of the Dominican Republic and describes two new exploration programs currently underway to drill in two of the regions sedimentary basins. Drilling is to occur in the Cibao and Azua-Bani basins based on a review of existing well logs and seismic data. The paper also briefly describes the regional setting and geology of these basins.

  10. Crisis in the Caribbean: Teacher Education in the Dominican Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sara Dawn

    1992-01-01

    In the Dominican Republic, poverty negatively affects education, including teacher education. Salaries fall, teachers lose prestige, and the quality of teaching candidates drops. The article examines the educational cycle of poverty, describes a K-12 teacher education project, and discusses a vision for the future. (SM)

  11. Scrub Typhus in the Republic of Palau, Micronesia

    PubMed Central

    Kuartei, Stevenson; Togamae, Ishmael; Sengebau, Maireng; Demma, Linda; Nicholson, William; O'Leary, Michael

    2004-01-01

    In October 2001, an outbreak of febrile illness began in the southwest islands group of the Republic of Palau. Through October 2003, a total of 15 southwest islanders experienced fever >39.5°C and abdominal distress, both lasting >7days. Orientia tsutsugamushi, the agent of scrub typhus, was subsequently identified as the cause. PMID:15504273

  12. Chinese Perspectives on Aging in the People's Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Jersey; And Others

    This document consists of the following three papers: (1) "Aging in the People's Republic of China" (Liang), including a 22-item bibliography; (2) "The Reform of China's Social Security System for the Elderly" (Chuanyi); and (3) "Developing Research on Aging in China" (Jihui). The first paper briefly outlines the history of gerontology in China,…

  13. Multinational cholera outbreak after wedding in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Mercedes Laura; Apostolou, Andria; Suarez, Alba Jazmin Palmera; Meyer, Luis; Hiciano, Salvador; Newton, Anna; Morgan, Oliver; Then, Cecilia; Pimentel, Raquel

    2011-11-01

    We conducted a case–control study of a cholera outbreak after a wedding in the Dominican Republic, January 22, 2011. Ill persons were more likely to report having consumed shrimp on ice (odds ratio 8.50) and ice cubes in beverages (odds ratio 3.62). Travelers to cholera affected areas should avoid consuming uncooked seafood and untreated water. PMID:22204039

  14. Administrator Preparation in the People's Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasher, James M.; Frasher, Ramona S.

    This document presents a comprehensive collage-style description of educational administration preparation programs in the People's Republic of China, covering a time span from Mao Zedong's normal college days to the present. The evolution of the current institutional specialization system, the basic composition of the programs, and some…

  15. Rural Library Service in the Republic of Kiribati.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, John; Etekiera, Kunei

    1990-01-01

    Describes attempts to develop library services in the island republic of Kiribati (the Gilbert, Phoenix, and Line islands). The development of rural library service in conjunction with school libraries is discussed, a postal library service is described, the establishment of village libraries is discussed, and constraints that have inhibited…

  16. The Foundation of Counseling in the Republic of Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert L.; Valarezo, Maria Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Counseling is at an early stage of development in the Republic of Ecuador. A turbulent history, poverty, and unemployment have affected the growth of mental health services and counselor preparation programs. Yet, this country experiences problems of addictions, domestic violence, depression, suicide, gender inequity, and drug trafficking. The…

  17. Increasing tuberculosis case detection: lessons from the Republic of Moldova.

    PubMed

    Soltan, Viorel; Henry, Asma Khalid; Crudu, Valeriu; Zatusevski, Irina

    2008-01-01

    The Republic of Moldova undertook reforms in tuberculosis (TB) control and health care consistent with international recommendations and advanced towards the global target for case detection. The number of TB cases notified increased overall by 50% during 2001-2005. Expansion of the DOTS strategy and full coverage coincided with a greater role for primary health care (PHC) in TB control and the advent of national insurance for TB diagnosis and treatment. These developments and improvements in laboratories, surveillance, medical personnel skills, and public awareness contributed to increased case detection. The Republic of Moldova addressed both demand and supply sides in these efforts. It increased effective demand for TB services by dispersing diagnostic capability, instituting financing mechanisms and saturating the public with information on symptoms, transmission and treatment. It increased the supply of TB services by upgrading the laboratory network, revamping surveillance and training practitioners. The Republic of Moldova's experience offers lessons for other countries: TB-PHC integration allowed more suspect cases to be diagnosed at nearby PHC clinics, contributing to more cases being notified. Innovative TB communications reached the general public, vulnerable groups, practitioners and the media. TB control projects built on each other and national coordination mechanisms served to identify funding for the most pressing needs. There are challenges remaining for TB control in the Republic of Moldova, not least the stable treatment success rate, but the country can list valuable lessons and achievements.

  18. Library Research in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Hans-Albrecht

    1984-01-01

    Report on current state of research in academic and research librarianship in Federal Republic of Germany highlights projects concerning acquisition of books; work procedure investigations; personnel requirements; cost accounting; investigations of library use (user research, user education); public relations work; librarianship; and subject…

  19. GLOBE in the Czech Republic: A Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincera, Jan; Maskova, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The article presents results of the evaluation of the GLOBE program (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) in the Czech Republic. The evaluation explores the implementation of the program in schools and its impact on research skills. Four hundred and sixty six pupils, aged 13, from 28 different schools participated in the…

  20. The Early Republic: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinhey, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides a list of teaching materials and general background information from the ERIC database on the Early Republic. Offers directions for obtaining the full text of the materials about "The Federalist Papers," the Bill of Rights, the Constitutional Convention, Thomas Jefferson, and other topics. (CMK)

  1. Timeliness of yellow fever surveillance, Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Rachas, Antoine; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Bouscaillou, Julie; Paireau, Juliette; Selekon, Benjamin; Senekian, Dominique; Fontanet, Arnaud; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2014-06-01

    During January 2007-July 2012, a total of 3,220 suspected yellow fever cases were reported in the Central African Republic; 55 were confirmed and 11 case-patients died. Mean delay between onset of jaundice and case confirmation was 16.6 days. Delay between disease onset and blood collection could be reduced by increasing awareness of the population.

  2. Rights of the Child in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacroix, Anne-Laurence

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The report's introduction points out that although OMCT welcomes Yugoslavia's efforts in…

  3. Universities and Adult Education in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savicevic, Dusan M.

    1996-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (which includes Serbia and Montenegro), universities are paying more attention to continuing professional education, which clashes with their traditional role. Andragogy has been strengthened as a teaching and research field, and young adult education researchers are being cultivated. (SK)

  4. Migration, National Identity and Cultural Policy in the Dominican Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Jose del; Murphy, Martin F.

    1987-01-01

    This overview of the changes in political control experienced in the Dominican Republic demonstrates the extensive contributions of people of various ethnic and racial backgrounds which have molded Dominican society. The present cultural policies are oriented toward Spanish ideology, but the country has also been influenced by France, Haiti, and…

  5. Cinema, and Film Training in the People's Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Robert W.

    1980-01-01

    Reports on the visit of five American filmmakers to the People's Republic of China in 1979. Includes their observations of film and television facilities and reviews their meetings with actors, writers, directors, producers, archivists, historians, teachers, technicians, and other film workers and students. (JMF)

  6. Educational Research in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitter, Wolfgang

    The Federal Republic of Germany's educational system became a matter of major national concern in the early 1960's, drawing new attention to the need for educational research. Sociological and economic questions joined the pedagogical and psychological concerns previously central to research; the character of the educational system was added to…

  7. Job Satisfaction among Fishers in the Dominican Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Victor

    2012-01-01

    This paper reflects on the results of a job satisfaction study of small-scale fishers in the Dominican Republic. The survey results suggest that, although fishers are generally satisfied with their occupations, they also have serious concerns. These concerns include anxieties about the level of earnings, the condition of marine resources and the…

  8. Language Planning for Romani in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Eva

    2015-01-01

    In the Czech Republic, Romani language planning has long been a controversial subject. The question informing the current research is whether the European Charter's goal of protecting, maintaining and invigorating Romani is attainable in a culture driven by standard language ideology, Czech society's aversion to multiculturalism and an…

  9. School Psychology in the Czech Republic: Development, Status and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavenská, Veronika; Smékalová, Eleonora; Šmahaj, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This intensive exploratory research maps the working conditions of school psychologists in the Czech Republic. An electronic questionnaire consisting of 71 questions (58 quantitative, 13 qualitative) from nine fields was used as a research tool. The respondent sample ("N"?=?63; 53 females, 10 males) indicate that they are largely…

  10. Vocational Training for the Disabled in Taiwan, Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Robert T. Y.

    For Taiwan, Republic of China, a nation with limited natural resources and a population of 22 million people in an area of only 36,000 square kilometers, the development and use of human resources plays a pivotal role in sustainable economic growth. Vocational education and training are two major human development methods. Since persons with…

  11. University Exceptional Admission during the Republic of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Li

    2014-01-01

    The stories of many universities' exceptive admission during the republic period of China were widely circulated. The typical example of these universities' exceptional admission was the very product of special historical condition, which had its own characteristics, but also conforms to the general rule, so it can be cited. To select special…

  12. Training and Further Training in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakleppa, Hans

    The Federal Republic of Germany uses its development aid policy to support the growth of manpower resources in developing countries by means of a broad spectrum of training and further training programs of foreign specialists. In planning these programs and arranging scholarships, Germany tries to orient itself toward the educational policy…

  13. Area Handbook for the People's Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Donald P.; Shinn, Rinn-Sup

    This volume on the People's Republic of China is one of a series of handbooks prepared by the Foreign Area Studies (FAS) of the American University, designed to be useful to military and other personnel who need a convenient compilation of basic facts about the social, economic, political, and military institutions and practices of various…

  14. Counseling in the Czech Republic: History, Status, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Jack D.; Hutchison, Brian; Bastecka, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the history and current status of counseling in the Czech Republic. Recommendations for advancement of the profession in a postcommunist era are offered, including the incorporation of social justice principals for the benefit of Gypsies and immigrants, collaboration between Czech and non-Czech counselors, and counseling…

  15. An American Social Worker in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul, Jr.

    This report resulted from a 14-day Study Tour for American Experts in Youth Work arranged and financed by the Federal Republic of Germany Ministry for Youth, Family and Health which provided American youth workers with an opportunity to study the youth services structure and culture of West Germany. The structure of the West German Ministry for…

  16. A concise history of forensic medicine in Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Hirt, Miroslav; Strejc, Premysl; Krajsa, Jan; Hejna, Petr; Cisarova, Olga; Dvorak, Miroslav; Hladik, Jiri; Sokol, Milos; Klir, Premysl; Beran, Michal; Fialka, Jiri; Kubista, Pavel; Vorel, Frantisek; Dvoracek, Igor; Machacek, Rudolf; Toupalik, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the most important historical facts about all forensic medicine workplaces in the Czech Republic since the beginning till present day, including a perspective on how to establish a new one. Each of the University Forensic Medicine Institutes or district Departments is covered by at least one author. The oldest institute is in Prague and in Brno, the youngest is in Pardubice.

  17. Assessment in the School Systems of the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strakova, Jana; Simonová, Jaroslava

    2013-01-01

    Student assessment in the Czech Republic is still rather traditional, with classroom practice continuing to focus on summative assessment. The country has regularly participated in international surveys, but the findings from these only started to influence educational policy during the past decade, when Czech students' performance fell…

  18. GHG emission mitigation measures and technologies in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Tichy, M.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents a short overview of main results in two fields: projection of GHG emission from energy sector in the Czech Republic and assessment of technologies and options for GHG mitigation. The last part presents an overview of measures that were prepared for potential inclusion to the Czech Climate Change Action Plan.

  19. NCI and the Republic of Peru Sign Statement of Intent

    Cancer.gov

    The U.S. National Cancer Institute and the Republic of Peru signed a statement of intent to share an interest in fostering collaborative biomedical research in oncology and a common goal in educating and training the next generation of cancer research sci

  20. Situation Report - El Salvador, Republic of Korea, and South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in three foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are El Salvador, Republic of Korea, and South Africa. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General background covers…

  1. Khomeini's Argument for His Islamic Republic: A Relationist Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matelski, Marilyn J.

    Noting that the terms used by the Western media in describing the establishment of the Islamic Republic in Iran by the Ayatollah Khomeini have created the impression that the Ayatollah is both irrational and inhumane, this paper argues from contemporary eclectic rhetorical theory--that "rationality" is a function of perspective--to demonstrate…

  2. Education - Key to the People's Republic of China's Industrial Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavich, Lawrence L.

    The work-education goals of the People's Republic of China, which are to expand educational opportunity, economic development, and value transformations, are presented first in a 1982 paper and then in a literature update of the paper. Since the death of Mao Tse-tung in 1976, educational policy has focused less on revolutionary committees and…

  3. Identifying and Developing Inventive Talent in the Republic of Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Seungmo

    2016-01-01

    In the 21st century, the need to develop creative potential through education is more critical than ever. Invention-gifted education is one approach that can both foster creativity and develop inventive talent. Invention-gifted education in the Republic of Korea is distinctive in its systematic approach to talent identification and talent…

  4. Human African Trypanosomiasis Transmission, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Diabakana, Philemon Mansinsa; Mesu, Victor Kande Betu Ku; Manzambi, Emile Zola; Ollivier, Gaelle; Asonganyi, Tazoacha; Cuny, Gerard; Grébaut, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2 entomologic surveys were conducted in 2005. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and human-blood meals were found in tsetse fly midguts, which suggested active disease transmission. Vector control should be used to improve human African trypanosomiasis control efforts. PMID:17326955

  5. Space Research in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preuss, Karl-Heinz, Ed.; Simen, Rolf H., Ed.

    The Federal Republic of Germany's space policy is designed to promote basic research, contribute to the development of space technology, and apply the findings in the public and private sectors. It is also aimed at enhancing the competitiveness of the West German space industry and helping countries of the Third World to solve their development…

  6. Influences on Political Education in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Susanne M.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses political education in the postwar Federal Republic of Germany. Describes a U.S. led reeducation program founded upon principles of denazification and democracy and examines German responses. Identifies the influence of the Soviet Union upon West German education. Analyzes the growth of political education in the 1960s, its maturation,…

  7. Industrial tracer application in People's Republic of China

    SciTech Connect

    Maoyi, S.

    1988-01-01

    A number of important applications of radioisotopes and their compounds used as tracers in petroleum industry, metallurgical industry, mechanical industry, chemical industry, electronic industry, hydrology and water conservancy in China are introduced in this paper. The tracer technique applied to entomology is also mentioned. The industrial tracer applications are successful and beneficial in People's Republic of China from the examples given.

  8. Seaside Resorts in the Dominican Republic: A Typology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer-Arendt, Klaus J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Addresses the beachfront urbanization of the Dominican Republic's coastline resulting from domestic and international tourism. Explains that the distribution of beach resorts reflects both quality and quantity of natural resources, proximity of urban centers, and intensity of development efforts. Describes five discrete types of coastal resorts.…

  9. Educational Expansion and Inequality in Taiwan and the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael; Tsai, Shu-Ling; Mateju, Petr; Huang, Min-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of educational inequality by family background and gender in Taiwan and the Czech Republic, which have both experienced substantial educational expansion in the last half-century under different educational systems. We highlight the specific institutional histories of both countries and examine the role…

  10. Bathymetry of the Republic of the Marshall Islands and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, James R.; Wong, Florence L.; Mosier, Dan L.

    1999-01-01

    The bathymetric map of the Republic of the Marshall Islands and vicinity is bounded by a window of latitude 3 to 17 degrees North, longitude 153 to 175 degrees East. The map was compiled from surveys conducted by the USGS, Korean Ocean Research and Development Institute, and published gridded data. In addition to national jurisdictions, island and atoll coastlines are indicated on the map.

  11. 76 FR 41857 - Petition Under Section 302 on Alleged Expropriations by the Dominican Republic; Decision Not To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Petition Under Section 302 on Alleged Expropriations by the Dominican Republic... adequate compensation by the Government of the Dominican Republic, resulting in an alleged breach of the Dominican Republic's obligations under the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free...

  12. 76 FR 30100 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Republic of Vietnam and the People's Republic of China, 75 FR 18154 (April 9, 2010). On February 14, 2011... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China... frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The review covers the...

  13. Molecular identification, morphological characterization and new insights into the ecology of larval Pseudoterranova cattani in fishes from the Argentine coast with its differentiation from the Antarctic species, P. decipiens sp. E (Nematoda: Anisakidae).

    PubMed

    Timi, Juan T; Paoletti, Michela; Cimmaruta, Roberta; Lanfranchi, Ana L; Alarcos, Ana J; Garbin, Lucas; George-Nascimento, Mario; Rodríguez, Diego H; Giardino, Gisela V; Mattiucci, Simonetta

    2014-01-17

    Larvae of the genus Pseudoterranova constitute a risk for human health when ingested through raw or undercooked fish. They can provoke pseudoterranovosis in humans, a fish-borne zoonotic disease whose pathogenicity varies with the species involved, making their correct specific identification a necessary step in the knowledge of this zoonosis. Larvae of Pseudoterranova decipiens s.l. have been reported in several fish species from off the Argentine coasts; however, there are no studies dealing with their specific identification in this region. Here, a genetic identification and morphological characterization of larval Pseudoterranova spp. from three fish species sampled from Argentine waters and from Notothenia coriiceps from Antarctic waters was carried out. Larvae were sequenced for their genetic/molecular identification, including the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (mtDNA cox2), the first (ITS-1) and the second (ITS-2) internal transcribed spacers of the nuclear ribosomal DNA, and compared with all species of the P. decipiens (sensu lato) species complex (sequences available in GenBank). Further, adults of Pseudoterranova spp. from the definitive host, the southern sea lion, Otaria flavescens, from Argentine and Chilean coasts were sequenced at the same genes. The sequences obtained at the ITS-1 and ITS-2 genes from all the larvae examined from fish of Argentine waters, as well as the adult worms, matched 100% the sequences for the species P. cattani. The sequences obtained at mtDNA cox2 gene for Antarctic larvae matched 99% those available in GenBank for the sibling P. decipiens sp. E. Both MP and BI phylogenetic trees strongly supported P. cattani and P. decipiens sp. E as two distinct phylogenetic lineages and depicted the species P. decipiens sp. E as sister taxon to the remaining taxa of the P. decipiens complex. Larval morphometry was similar between specimens of P. cattani from Argentina, but significantly different from those of P

  14. A comparative study of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in sylvatic mammals from a protected and a disturbed area in the Argentine Chaco.

    PubMed

    Orozco, M M; Enriquez, G F; Cardinal, M V; Piccinali, R V; Gürtler, R E

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the complex epidemiology of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles requires comparative studies in widely different environments. We assessed the occurrence of T. cruzi infection in sylvatic mammals, their infectiousness to the vector, and parasite genotypes in a protected area of the Argentine Chaco, and compared them with information obtained similarly in a nearby disturbed area. A total of 278 mammals from >23 species in the protected area were diagnosed for T. cruzi infection using xenodiagnosis, kDNA-PCR and nuclear satellite DNA-PCR (SAT) from blood samples. The relative abundance and species composition differed substantially between areas. Didelphis albiventris opossums were less abundant in the protected area; had a significantly lower body mass index, and a stage structure biased toward earlier stages. The capture of armadillos was lower in the protected area. The composite prevalence of T. cruzi infection across host species was significantly lower in the protected area (11.1%) than in the disturbed area (22.1%), and heterogeneous across species groups. The prevalence of infection in D. albiventris and Thylamys pusilla opossums was significantly lower in the protected area (nil for D. albiventris), whereas infection in sigmodontine rodents was three times higher in the protected area (17.5 versus 5.7%). Parasite isolates from the two xenodiagnosis-positive mammals (1 Dasypus novemcinctus and 1 Conepatus chinga) were typed as TcIII; both specimens were highly infectious to Triatoma infestans. Fat-tailed opossums, bats and rodents were kDNA-PCR-positive and xenodiagnosis-negative. Desmodus rotundus and Myotis bats were found infected with T. cruzi for the first time in the Gran Chaco. PMID:26708994

  15. A comparative study of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in sylvatic mammals from a protected and a disturbed area in the Argentine Chaco.

    PubMed

    Orozco, M M; Enriquez, G F; Cardinal, M V; Piccinali, R V; Gürtler, R E

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the complex epidemiology of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles requires comparative studies in widely different environments. We assessed the occurrence of T. cruzi infection in sylvatic mammals, their infectiousness to the vector, and parasite genotypes in a protected area of the Argentine Chaco, and compared them with information obtained similarly in a nearby disturbed area. A total of 278 mammals from >23 species in the protected area were diagnosed for T. cruzi infection using xenodiagnosis, kDNA-PCR and nuclear satellite DNA-PCR (SAT) from blood samples. The relative abundance and species composition differed substantially between areas. Didelphis albiventris opossums were less abundant in the protected area; had a significantly lower body mass index, and a stage structure biased toward earlier stages. The capture of armadillos was lower in the protected area. The composite prevalence of T. cruzi infection across host species was significantly lower in the protected area (11.1%) than in the disturbed area (22.1%), and heterogeneous across species groups. The prevalence of infection in D. albiventris and Thylamys pusilla opossums was significantly lower in the protected area (nil for D. albiventris), whereas infection in sigmodontine rodents was three times higher in the protected area (17.5 versus 5.7%). Parasite isolates from the two xenodiagnosis-positive mammals (1 Dasypus novemcinctus and 1 Conepatus chinga) were typed as TcIII; both specimens were highly infectious to Triatoma infestans. Fat-tailed opossums, bats and rodents were kDNA-PCR-positive and xenodiagnosis-negative. Desmodus rotundus and Myotis bats were found infected with T. cruzi for the first time in the Gran Chaco.

  16. Gravimetric determination of the continental-oceanic boundary of the Argentine continental margin (from 36°S to 50°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arecco, María Alejandra; Ruiz, Francisco; Pizarro, Guillermo; Giménez, Mario; Martínez, Patricia; Ramos, Víctor A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the gravimetric analysis together with seismic data as an integral application in order to identify the continental-oceanic crust boundary (COB) of the Argentine continental margin from 36°S to 50°S in a continuous way. The gravimetric and seismic data are made up of large grids of data obtained from satellite altimetry and marine research. The methodology consists of three distinct methods: (i) the application of enhancement techniques to gravimetric anomalies, (ii) the calculation of crustal thinning from 3-D gravity inversion modelling of the crust-mantle discontinuity and (iii) 2-D gravimetric modelling supported by multichannel reflection and refraction seismic profiles. In the first method, the analytic signal, Theta map, and tilt angle and its horizontal derivative were applied. In the second method, crustal thickness was obtained as the difference in the depths of the crystalline basement and the crust-mantle discontinuity; the latter was obtained via gravimetric inversion. Finally, 2-D modelling was performed from free-air anomalies in two representative sections by considering as restriction surfaces those coming from the interpretation of seismic data. The results of the joint application of enhancement techniques and 2-D and 3-D modelling have enabled continuous interpretation of the COB. In this study, the COB was determined continuously from the integration of 2-D profiles of the enhancement techniques, taking account of crustal thickness and performing 2-D gravimetric modelling. The modelling technique was complemented by regional studies integrated with multichannel seismic reflection and seismic refraction lines, resulting in consistent enhancement techniques.

  17. The Development of Low-Level Measurement Capabilities for Total and Isotopic Uranium in Environmental Samples at Brazilian and Argentine Laboratories by ABACC

    SciTech Connect

    Guidicini, Olga M.; Olsen, Khris B.; Hembree, Doyle M.; Carter, Joel A.; Whitaker, Michael; Hayes, Susan M.

    2005-07-01

    In June 1998, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC), with assistance from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), began a program to assess environmental sampling and analysis capabilities at laboratories in Argentina and Brazil. The program began with staff training conducted in South America and the United States by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Both laboratories are participating members of DOE’s Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL) that support IAEA’s environmental sampling program. During the initial planning meeting, representatives from ABACC and all the participating analytical laboratories supporting ABACC were briefed on how the first exercise would be managed and on key aspects necessary to analyze low-level environmental samples for uranium. Subsequent to this training, a laboratory evaluation exercise (Exercise 1) was conducted using standard swipe samples prepared for this exercise by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The results of Exercise 1 determined that sample contamination was a major factor in the analysis, and a thorough review of laboratory procedures was required to reduce the level of contamination to acceptable levels. Following modification of sample preparation procedures, the laboratories performed Exercise 2, an analysis of a National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1547, Peach Leaves. The results of Exercise 2 demonstrated that several laboratories were capable of accurately determining the total uranium and uranium isotopic distribution in the peach leaves. To build on these successes, Exercise 3 was performed using a series of standard swipe samples prepared by the IAEA and distributed to laboratories supporting ABACC and to PNNL and ORNL. The results of Exercise 3 demonstrate that ABACC now has support laboratories in both Argentina and Brazil, which are capable

  18. Effects of cigarette smoking on early arthritis: a cross-sectional study-data from the Argentine Consortium for Early Arthritis (CONAART).

    PubMed

    Haye Salinas, María Jezabel; Retamozo, Soledad; Alvarez, Ana Cecilia; Maldonado Ficco, Hernán; Dal Pra, Fernando; Citera, Gustavo; Benegas, Mariana; Chaparro del Moral, Rafael; Rillo, Oscar; Secco, Anastasia; Marino Claverie, Lucila; Catalan Pellet, Antonio; Marcos, Josefina; García, Mercedes Argentina; Marcos, Juan Carlos; Barbaglia, Ana; Bellomio, Verónica; Berman, Alberto; Quiroz, Cristian; Soriano, Enrique R; Ceccato, Federico; Paira, Sergio; Vazquez, Doralia; Juarez, Vicente Ricardo; Velozo, Edson Javier; Salvatierra, Gabriela; Caeiro, Francisco

    2015-05-01

    Our objective was to analyze the effects of cigarette smoking on disease activity, functional capacity, radiographic damage, serology and presence of extraarticular manifestations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and undifferentiated arthritis. This is a cross-sectional study of 1,305 patients (729 with rheumatoid arthritis and 576 with undifferentiated arthritis) from CONAART, the Argentine Consortium for Early Arthritis that includes patients older than 16 years with <2 years of disease. Sociodemographic data, clinical characteristics of the disease and smoking history were collected. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis the disease activity score of 28 joints was 5.4 ± 1.3 in current smokers, 5.2 ± 1.4 in former smokers and 5.1 ± 1.4 in never smokers (p = 0.011). The simple erosion narrowing score was higher in current smokers and former smokers than in never smokers (M 14.0, R Q 6.0-21.0; M 15.0, R Q 7.0-24.0; M 10.0, R Q 5.0-17.0; p = 0.006). Current smokers had higher rheumatoid factor titer (M 160.0, R Q 80.0-341.0) than former smokers (M 146.8, R Q 6.03-255.5) and never smokers (M 15.0, R Q 9.0-80.0) (p = 0.004). The variable independently associated with tobacco exposure was simple erosion narrowing score (OR = 1.03, 95 % CI 1.00-1.05; p = 0.012). In patients with undifferentiated arthritis, an association between smoking status and parameters of activity or radiographic damage was not observed. Neither was tobacco exposure related to the presence of extraarticular manifestations or to the degree of disability in any of the two groups of patients. No relation was found between disease activity and severity, and number of packs smoked per year. Tobacco.

  19. Favipiravir (T-705) Inhibits Junín Virus Infection and Reduces Mortality in a Guinea Pig Model of Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever

    PubMed Central

    Gowen, Brian B.; Juelich, Terry L.; Sefing, Eric J.; Brasel, Trevor; Smith, Jennifer K.; Zhang, Lihong; Tigabu, Bersabeh; Hill, Terence E.; Yun, Tatyana; Pietzsch, Colette; Furuta, Yousuke; Freiberg, Alexander N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Junín virus (JUNV), the etiologic agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF), is classified by the NIAID and CDC as a Category A priority pathogen. Presently, antiviral therapy for AHF is limited to immune plasma, which is readily available only in the endemic regions of Argentina. T-705 (favipiravir) is a broadly active small molecule RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor presently in clinical evaluation for the treatment of influenza. We have previously reported on the in vitro activity of favipiravir against several strains of JUNV and other pathogenic New World arenaviruses. Methodology/Principal Findings To evaluate the efficacy of favipiravir in vivo, guinea pigs were challenged with the pathogenic Romero strain of JUNV, and then treated twice daily for two weeks with oral or intraperitoneal (i.p.) favipiravir (300 mg/kg/day) starting 1–2 days post-infection. Although only 20% of animals treated orally with favipiravir survived the lethal challenge dose, those that succumbed survived considerably longer than guinea pigs treated with placebo. Consistent with pharmacokinetic analysis that showed greater plasma levels of favipiravir in animals dosed by i.p. injection, i.p. treatment resulted in a substantially higher level of protection (78% survival). Survival in guinea pigs treated with ribavirin was in the range of 33–40%. Favipiravir treatment resulted in undetectable levels of serum and tissue viral titers and prevented the prominent thrombocytopenia and leucopenia observed in placebo-treated animals during the acute phase of infection. Conclusions/Significance The remarkable protection afforded by i.p. favipiravir intervention beginning 2 days after challenge is the highest ever reported for a small molecule antiviral in the difficult to treat guinea pig JUNV challenge model. These findings support the continued development of favipiravir as a promising antiviral against JUNV and other related arenaviruses. PMID:24386500

  20. 77 FR 3440 - Utility Scale Wind Towers From the People's Republic of China and the Socialist Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... Republic of China, 66 FR 15400, 15400-01 (March 19, 2001) (where the Department did not make a... regarding product coverage. See Antidumping Duties; Countervailing Duties; Final Rule, 62 FR 27296, 27323...; Administrative Protective Order Procedures, 76 FR 39263 (July 6, 2011) for details of the Department's...

  1. 78 FR 45505 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods from India, the Republic of Korea, the Republic of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... petitioners state that the Department has long treated Vietnam as a non-market economy (NME) country.\\37\\ In... Vietnam, 77 FR 64483 (October 22, 2012). \\45\\ Id. Valuation of Factory Overhead, Selling, General and... Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations AGENCY: Import...

  2. Agreement between the government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics concerning scientific-technical cooperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An agreement between the government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics concerning scientific technical cooperation is disclosed. The parties to the treaty agree to promote scientific and technical cooperation on a basis of equality, reciprocity and mutual advantage.

  3. Situation Report--Ghana, Guyana, India, Japan, Kenya, Khmer Republic, Nepal, Niger, Republic of Vietnam, Senegal, Thailand, and Trinidad and Tobago.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Ghana, Guyana, India, Japan, Kenya, Khmer Republic, Nepal, Niger, Republic of Vietnam, Senegal, Thailand, and Trinidad and Tobago. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family…

  4. Warning against the dangers of wildfires in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozny, M.; Bares, D.; Virag, M.; Stalmacher, J.

    2009-04-01

    Many fire risk models have been developed for various temporal and spatial scales and application purposes. The integrated warning service in the Czech Republic is used for wildfire risk assessment model of FDI (Fire Danger Index). The FDI model is being developed in the Doksany observatory based on evaluation of weather conditions. FDI model describes danger of wildfire for vegetation covered countryside. There are five levels of danger: 1 - very low risk, 2 - low risk, 3 - moderate risk, 4 - high risk, 5 - very high risk. Simply say higher index value, reflects to higher risk of wildfire. As input data, the model uses measured values from the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute stations network as well as ALADIN's model predicted conditions. The modelling process computes upper soil profile moisture, surface moistening and the spreading speed of fire. Early warning system for wildfires prevention in the Czech Republic is used since 2006.

  5. Visiting the Republic of Cuba: An Experience to Remember.

    PubMed

    Brown, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    A few years ago, I was privileged to visit the Republic of Cuba as a summer vacation. Officially, this Spanish island is the largest island in the Caribbean, with more than 12 million people. It is only second as being most populous after Hispaniola with its people, culture and customs. Havana is the capital and Cuba's largest city. The United States lies to the immediate north only about 95 miles away, and the Bahamas and Mexico to the west, the Cayman Islands and Jamaica are on the southern end, and Haiti and the Dominion Republic are in the southeastern area. The history of this island is truly amazing. I was able to vist a hospital, and ride public transportation (bus). The trip was made at the time when Cuba was not open to travelers coming direct from the United States. I traveled to Montreal, Canada to board Cabana Arlines to Havana, Cuba.

  6. [The problem of human helminthiasis in the Republic of Bashkortostan].

    PubMed

    Tuĭgunov, M M; Lukmanov, M I; Fazlaev, R G; Lukmanova, G I

    2012-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to study trends in helminthiasis morbidity in the Republic of Bashkortostan in 2009-2011. A total of 1497 subjects who came to the Laboratory of the Department of Microbiology, Virology, and Immunology, Bashkir State Medical University, in 2009-2011, have been randomly selected for this investigation. IgG antibodies were identified in their blood. Enzyme immunoassay has revealed anti-helminth antibodies in 4.7, 4.9, and 4.6% of the examinees in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. Antibodies against Ascaris, Ecchinococcus, Opisthorchis, and Toxocara were most common in the examinees. According to the official statistics, the Republic of Bashkiria showed a 26.4% decrease in helminthiasis morbidity, alterations in the structure of morbidity, and a reduction in the proportion of helminths habiting the intestine, and an increase in the proportion of tissue helminthiases in the period 2006 to 2011.

  7. 53. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM THE CLARK AVENUE BRIDGE. REPUBLIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM THE CLARK AVENUE BRIDGE. REPUBLIC SPRAWLS ALONG 798 ACRES ON BOTH SIDES OF THE CUYAHOGA RIVER. IN THE DISTANCE, AT CENTER, BLAST FURNACES NOs. 5 AND 6 AND THE PLANT'S UPPER DOCK CAN BE SEEN. VERTICAL LEFT BRIDGE, IN FOREGROUND, CONNECTS BLAST FURNACES NOs. 1 AND 4 WITH THE STEEL FURNACE AND ROLLING MILL. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  8. C. N. Yang Discusses Physics in People's Republic of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chen Ning

    2013-05-01

    Before the cultural revolution started in 1966, high-energy theorists in the People's Republic of China were very active, according to Chen Ning Yang, who recently returned from a month-long visit there. He learned that in 1965 or 1966 Chinese theorists had developed a theory of "stration" (for strata) that very much parallels the quark theory, which was proposed by Murray Gell-Mann and by George Zweig in 1964...

  9. Contingency management in the people's republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Lamal, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    The behavioral contingencies that have been implemented in the attempt by the People's Republic of China to achieve two of its national goals are described. The goals are the modernization and increased productivity of industry and a significant decrease in the birth rate. Changes from past practices in the industrial sphere involving a shift from noncontingent to contingent consequences are outlined. The use of a variety of consequences as a means of reducing the birth rate is described. PMID:22478605

  10. Solar technology in the Federal Republic of Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A series of papers dealing with the status of solar research and development in the Federal Republic of Germany are presented at a conference in Greece with the object of promoting international cooperation in solar energy utilization. The reports focus on solar collector designs, solar systems, heat pumps, solar homes, solar cooling and refrigeration, desalination and electric power generation. Numerous examples of systems produced by German manufacturers are illustrated and described, and performance data are presented.

  11. Balneological Evaluation of the Tafadek Spring, Agadez Region, Niger Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nghargbu, K.; Latour, T.; Ponikowska, I.; Kurowska, E.

    2012-04-01

    West Africa, particularly Niger Republic is home to thousands of tourists annually. The vast Saharan desert and it's numerous oases in the northern parts of the Republic are a hot attraction on their own. However, in a recent survey of medicinal springs within the West African sub-region, the only hot spring in this country known locally for its therapeutic egress was analyzed. Located about 160km West of Agadez, the "Tafadek" spring with a yield of over 5l/s and temperature of about 50oC, rich in fluoride and silica is a specific water with capacity for application in balneotherapy for the treatment of orthopaedic, rheumatological, neurological, urinary tract infections, and osteoporosis. If the Tafadek spring is developed into a modern health resort promoting balneotherapy, health (balnear) tourism which is non-existent in Niger Republic today could kick start a new dawn in the health/economic development of the nation and the sub-region at large. Keywords: West Africa, Nigeria, Balneotherapy, Health tourism, Spring

  12. Implementing the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD): achievements, open questions and strategies for the way forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigozzi, Mary Joy

    2010-06-01

    This paper looks at the implementation of the DESD from a global perspective. It takes the position that quality education is fundamental for learning how to live sustainably, and that the DESD needs to be better positioned in the education landscape and conceived as a global social movement that must be fostered and nurtured for the well-being of humankind. It suggests that, while there has been progress, much remains to be achieved. Several key challenges are identified. With regard to overcoming these obstacles, it focuses on macro-level strategies that would allow the development of environments in which actions can take root and grow so that the work of the DESD endures beyond the decade itself. Finally, it suggests that there are some opportunities that can be seized to make the task ahead easier to accomplish.

  13. Exhumation of the Argentine Andes, 32°- 34° S: detrital (U-Th)/He and U-Pb zircon double dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhillips, D.; Hoke, G. D.; Van Soest, M. C.; Hodges, K. V.

    2014-12-01

    The central Argentine Andes exhibit variable morphology along-strike due to some combination of slab subduction angle, inherited crustal structure, and climate. Structural mapping and thermochronology has suggested minimal exhumation (~1 km), except perhaps along some major river valleys. However, few thermochronologic results have been reported. In order to better understand the variability of exhumation along-strike, we sampled 3 rivers for detrital zircon and measured both (U-Th)/He and U-Pb ages using laser ablation methods. The sample sites span the southern edge of flat-slab subduction. The northern- and southernmost watersheds each cover ~2000 km2 and include elements of both the Principal and Frontal Cordilleras. The central watershed (~200 km2) is largely restricted to the Frontal Cordillera. The geology of the Principal Cordillera is diverse, but the Frontal Cordillera is composed primarily of Permo-Triassic volcanic rocks of the Choiyoi Formation. Preliminary results (n = 27) from the smaller, central Arroyo Grande watershed show that zircons are almost always reset, in the sense that a given zircon's (U-Th)/He cooling age is significantly younger than its U-Pb crystallization age. Of these, 2 grains have cooling ages <5 Ma, and 7 have ages <25 Ma. To the south, in the larger Rio Tunuyan (n = 27) watershed, 13 reset zircons have cooling ages <5 Ma, and 6 of these have U-Pb ages that are characteristic of the Frontal Cordillera (ranging from 220 to 272 Ma). To the north, in the upper Río de los Patos catchment (n = 30), only 3 reset zircons have ages <25 Ma, and these zircons lack Frontal Cordilleran U-Pb ages (17, 43, and 323 Ma). The abundance of reset (U-Th)/He ages is notable in all 3 watersheds. Laser (U-Th)/He closure temperatures vary according to the geometry of the zircon, the geometry of the laser spot, and the cooling rate. For an average zircon among our samples, at an assumed cooling rate of 10° C/Myr, the closure temperature is

  14. Morphosedimentary and hydrographic features of the northern Argentine margin: The interplay between erosive, depositional and gravitational processes and its conceptual implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preu, Benedict; Hernández-Molina, F. Javier; Violante, Roberto; Piola, Alberto R.; Paterlini, C. Marcelo; Schwenk, Tilmann; Voigt, Ines; Krastel, Sebastian; Spiess, Volkhard

    2013-05-01

    Bottom currents and their margin-shaping character became a central aspect in the research field of sediment dynamics and paleoceanography during the last decades due to their potential to form large contourite depositional systems (CDS), consisting of both erosive and depositional features. A major CDS at the northern Argentine continental margin was studied off the Rio de la Plata River by means of seismo- and hydro-acoustic methods including conventional and high-resolution seismic, parametric echosounder and single and swath bathymetry. Additionally, hydrographic data were considered allowing jointly interpretation of morphosedimentary features and the oceanographic framework, which is dominated by the presence of the dynamic and highly variable Brazil-Malvinas Confluence. We focus on three regional contouritic terraces identified on the slope in the vicinity of the Mar del Plata Canyon. The shallowest one, the La Plata Terrace (˜500 m), is located at the Brazil Current/Antarctic Intermediate Water interface characterized by its deep and distinct thermocline. In ˜1200 m water depth the Ewing Terrace correlates with the Antarctic Intermediate Water/Upper Circumpolar Deep Water interface. At the foot of the slope in ˜3500 m the Necochea Terrace marks the transition between Lower Circumpolar Deep Water and Antarctic Bottom Water during glacial times. Based on these correlations, a comprehensive conceptual model is proposed, in which the onset and evolution of contourite terraces is controlled by short- and long-term variations of water mass interfaces. We suggest that the terrace genesis is strongly connected to the turbulent current pattern typical for water mass interfaces. Furthermore, the erosive processes necessary for terrace formation are probably enhanced due to internal waves, which are generated along strong density gradients typical for water mass interfaces. The terraces widen through time due to locally focused, partly helical currents along the

  15. The severe zonda wind event of 11 July 2006 east of the Andes Cordillera (Argentine): a case study using the BRAMS model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norte, Federico Augusto; Ulke, Ana Graciela; Simonelli, Silvia Carmen; Viale, Maximiliano

    2008-11-01

    The zonda is a wind that exhibits the so-called foehn effect: a warm, dry, strong wind related to adiabatic compression upon descending in the lee of the Andes. This phenomenon occurs mostly in winter and spring over the entire length of the extratropical Andes. It is frequently detected near the cities of Mendoza and San Juan, the most important urban regions of western Argentina. The aim of this work is to understand why a zonda wind event, occurring on 11 July 2006, reached and maintained the higher category Z4 during several hours. A secondary aim is to evaluate the ability of a Brazilian regional atmospheric modeling system (BRAMS) model to represent the features of this extreme episode and to explore if it can be used to predict a zonda event. The difference found with respect to other severe zonda wind episodes analyzed was that the wind registered the highest category (Z4) with extreme gusts during a long period. This condition was registered in particular on southern plain areas of San Juan province. The phenomenon had a great impact on the community, with residences and buildings being affected or destroyed, trees being felled, power supply and communications being shutdown, and several rural and urban fires being reported. The event was characterized through surface and upper-level information and model results. The synoptic surface and upper-air conditions were those typically associated with a severe zonda wind occurrence: a surface cold front approaching the region, driven by a 500 hPa trough, a strong upper-air jet stream, and a deep low-pressure surface system at higher latitudes over the Atlantic Ocean. The North West Argentine Low in central west Argentina during the following hours could be observed centered approximately at 31°S 66°W. in a few lower latitude than the location observed by National Center of Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis. On the other hand, it is the authors’ impression that the BRAMS model achieved an acceptable

  16. 76 FR 4290 - Uncovered Innerspring Units From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of First...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Republic of China: Preliminary Results of First Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 69055... materials or conversion to judicial protective order is hereby requested. Failure to comply with...

  17. 75 FR 48644 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import Administration, International... antidumping duty order on certain activated carbon from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') covering...

  18. 78 FR 8107 - Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Countervailing Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... Countervailing Duty Determination and Final Affirmative Critical Circumstances Determination, 77 FR 75973... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... order on certain steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam)....

  19. 77 FR 70993 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: 2011-2012 Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ... Order: Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 58111 (October 6, 2008). \\2... Bertrand, Program Manager, ``Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the People's Republic of China: New...

  20. 77 FR 27435 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the New Shipper Review AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration... order on certain frozen fish fillets (``frozen fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of...

  1. 78 FR 48415 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended..., International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce (``the... frozen fish fillets (``fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') to correct...

  2. Virulence genes of Helicobacter pylori in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Seiji; Cruz, Modesto; Abreu, José A Jiménez; Mitsui, Takahiro; Terao, Hideo; Disla, Mildre; Iwatani, Shun; Nagashima, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Miyuki; Uchida, Tomohisa; Tronilo, Lourdes; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2014-09-01

    Although the incidence of gastric cancer in the Dominican Republic is not high, the disease remains a significant health problem. We first conducted a detailed analysis of Helicobacter pylori status in the Dominican Republic. In total, 158 patients (103 females and 55 males; mean age 47.1±16.2 years) were recruited. The status of H. pylori infection was determined based on four tests: rapid urease test, culture test, histological test and immunohistochemistry. The status of cagA and vacA genotypes in H. pylori was examined using PCR and gene sequencing. The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was 58.9 %. No relationship was found between the H. pylori infection rate and the age range of 17-91 years. Even in the youngest group (patients aged <29 years), the H. pylori infection rate was 62.5 %. Peptic ulcer was found in 23 patients and gastric cancer was found in one patient. The H. pylori infection rate in patients with peptic ulcer was significantly higher than that in patients with gastritis (82.6 versus 54.5 %, P<0.01). The cagA-positive/vacA s1m1 genotype was the most prevalent (43/64, 67.2 %). Compared with H. pylori-negative patients, H. pylori-positive patients showed more severe gastritis. Furthermore, the presence of cagA was related to the presence of more severe gastritis. All CagA-positive strains had Western-type CagA. In conclusion, we found that H. pylori infection is a risk factor for peptic ulcer in the Dominican Republic. Patients with cagA-positive H. pylori could be at higher risk for severe inflammation and atrophy.

  3. Biomedical journals in Republic of Macedonia: the current state.

    PubMed

    Polenakovic, Momir; Danevska, Lenche

    2014-01-01

    Several biomedical journals in the Republic of Macedonia have succeeded in maintaining regular publication over the years, but only a few have a long-standing tradition. In this paper we present the basic characteristics of 18 biomedical journals that have been published without a break in the Republic of Macedonia. Of these, more details are given for 14 journals, a particular emphasis being on the journal Prilozi/Contributions of the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Section of Medical Sciences as one of the journals with a long-term publishing tradition and one of the journals included in the Medline/PubMed database. A brief or broad description is given for the following journals: Macedonian Medical Review, Acta Morphologica, Physioacta, MJMS-Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, International Medical Journal Medicus, Archives of Public Health, Epilepsy, Macedonian Orthopaedics and Traumatology Journal, BANTAO Journal, Macedonian Dental Review, Macedonian Pharmaceutical Bulletin, Macedonian Veterinary Review, Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation, Balkan Journal of Medical Genetics, Contributions of the Macedonian Scientific Society of Bitola, Vox Medici, Social Medicine: Professional Journal for Public Health, and Prilozi/Contributions of the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Journals from Macedonia should aim to be published regularly, should comply with the Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals, and with the recommendations of reliable organizations working in the field of publishing and research. These are the key prerequisites which Macedonian journals have to accomplish in order to be included in renowned international bibliographic databases. Thus the results of biomedical science from the Republic of Macedonia will be presented to the international scientific arena.

  4. Potential of energy farms in the Dominican Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, L.C.; Park, W.R.; Trehan, R.K.

    1980-12-01

    This report assesses the potential of biomass energy farms to supply feedstock for electrical energy needs in the Dominican Republic. That part of the dry forest area not used for agriculture production (1.3 million acres) is found to have a production potential of 200 MW to 1400 MW, depending upon the level of management and choice of species. A biomass energy farm design and conversion facility is described and the economics of operating a wood fired facility of 50 MW, 20 MW, 5 MW, and 2 MW is compared to 50 MW and 20 MW.

  5. Overview of healthcare system in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The healthcare system in the Czech Republic underwent and still is undergoing dramatic changes since the Velvet revolution in 1989. History of the Czech healthcare system, main healthcare laws, and the current status of healthcare documented in the main healthcare indicators is described based on the several main sources as well as delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in healthcare system. The material is based mainly on Czech Health Statistics 2009, and HiT Summary, Health Care Systems in Translation, 2005, public information of Ministry of Health CR. PMID:22738178

  6. Annotated checklist of the mosquitoes of the Republic of Moldova.

    PubMed

    Sulesco, Tatiana M; Toderas, Ion K; Toderas, Lidia G

    2013-06-01

    The mosquito fauna of the Republic of Moldova is poorly known. In an effort to understand the Culicidae fauna better, mosquito collections have been conducted between early April and middle November from 2008 to 2012. A total of 10,923 larval specimens and 8,246 adults were collected from 20 regions of Moldova. Altogether 36 species have been recorded during the recent study, bringing the total Moldovan mosquito fauna to 40 species in 9 genera and 11 subgenera. New state records include the following 7 species: Anopheles pseudopictus, An. melanoon, Aedes geminus, Culex torrentium, Culiseta longiareolata, Coquillettidia buxtoni, and Uranotaenia unguiculata.

  7. [The onco-epidemiologic situation in the Republic of Belarus].

    PubMed

    Zalutskiĭ, I V; Averkin, Iu I; Artemova, N A; Mashevskiĭ, A A

    2007-01-01

    The onco-epidemiologic situation in the Republic of Belarus over a 36-year period has been evaluated. An increase in the age-specific and age-adjusted cancer incidence rates is a clear indicator of an actual rise in morbidity. It is unrelated to aging and most probably depends on a number of environmental factors. Due to the similarity of the incidence patterns for a number of sites, it was suggested that a single or several factors might be responsible for neoplastic development. Distinct changes in malignant tumor incidence made it correlated with certain environmental changes and new approaches to primary tumor prevention were developed.

  8. History of Neurosurgery in Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Kee B; Roh, Young Han; Lee-Park, Owen; Park, Sophie

    2015-09-01

    Neurosurgery in Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) has undergone remarkable progress since its beginning in the 1950s. With the initial support from socialist countries of the Soviet bloc, especially Professor Constantin Arseni of Romania, the nation has consistently produced a number of its own neurosurgeons each year and fostered further advancement by establishing the Korean Neurosurgery Association (DPRK). Despite the recent international collaborative activity for North Korean neurosurgery-namely with Foundation for International Education in Neurological Surgery, World Federation of Neurological Surgeons, and Korean American Medical Association-the sparse exchange of information, knowledge, and surgical skills still remains largely inadequate.

  9. [Psychological impact on French soldiers in the Central African Republic].

    PubMed

    Le Pape, Erwan; de Montleau, Franck

    2015-01-01

    The many constraints and psychologically demanding situations to which French soldiers are subjected (living conditions, operational pace, scenes of exaction, hostile crowds, combat situations) have justified a psychiatrist being posted to the theatre of operation Sangaris, in the Central African Republic, soon after the military intervention began. While the psychiatrist's activity is typical of psychiatry in operational situations,.the configuration of the conflict- a civil war - and its impact on the psyche of the soldiers making up the task force have resulted in these practices being adapted and acknowledgement of the need to update skills. PMID:25975167

  10. MAP-oriented research in the People's Republic of China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, D.

    1985-01-01

    A brief accounting of MAP oriented research in the Republic of China is given. A stratosphere balloon launching facility and its capabilities are reviewed. Observations of the stratospheric aerosols with a balloon-borne aerosol computer were made. Long term monitoring of stratospheric aerosols induced by volcanic eruptions are made with a ruby lidar. The main parameters of an ST radar system are given. The ionospheric D region is investigated with the method of ionospheric absorption. And photochemical modeling and radiation parameterization of the middle atmosphere are made.

  11. 77 FR 1456 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 76 FR... Republic of China, 70 FR 329 (January 4, 2005). On August 26, 2011 and August 31, 2011, Marvin Furniture... Circumstances Review, and Determination To Revoke Order in Part, 71 FR 38621 (July 7, 2006). \\13\\ Cheval...

  12. 75 FR 9581 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ...'s Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping New Shipper Reviews, 74 FR 43096 (August 26, 2009... Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 75 FR 339 (January 5, 2010). The Department preliminary determines that... Antidumping Duty Order: Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China, 70 FR 329 (January...

  13. 76 FR 43981 - Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ...: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 17819 (March 31, 2011) (``Preliminary... of Final Determination: Coated Free Sheet Paper from the People's Republic of China, 72 FR 30758... Sheet Paper from the People's Republic of China, 72 FR 60632 (October 25, 2007). Surrogate Country...

  14. Retention and Attrition of Pacific School Teachers and Administrators (RAPSTA) Study: Republic of Palau. Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) works with 10 American-affiliated Pacific entities: American Samoa, the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap), Guam, Hawaii, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau. The survey raises awareness of the…

  15. Books, Not Bombs: Teaching Peace since the Dawn of the Republic. Peace Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howlett, Charles; Harris, Ian,

    2010-01-01

    "Books Not Bombs: Teaching Peace Since the Dawn of the Republic" is an important work relevant to peace scholars, practitioners, and students. This incisive book offers an exciting and comprehensive historical analysis of the origins and development of peace education from the creation of the New Republic at the end of the Eighteenth Century to…

  16. 77 FR 65361 - Xanthan Gum From Austria and the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... Austria and the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 77 FR 39210... Determination Deadlines Pursuant to the Tariff Act of 1930, as Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). This notice... International Trade Administration Xanthan Gum From Austria and the People's Republic of China: Postponement...

  17. Developing Inclusive Educational Practices for Refugee Children in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacakova, Marketa

    2011-01-01

    All children in the Czech Republic have the legal right to primary education, regardless of nationality and legal status. This article is based on a study of refugee children and their educational situation. The study reveals that refugee students in the Czech Republic are not benefiting fully from this fundamental right and that their educational…

  18. Schooling in the Dominican Republic. ERIC-CUE Urban Disadvantaged Series, Number 47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxworthy, Nancy M.

    Some of the schooling experiences of a rapidly expanding migrant population from the Dominican Republic are described in this paper. In doing this, the paper examines the societal and organizational context of the educational system in the Dominican Republic, and briefly outlines the organization of and practices in Dominican classrooms, the…

  19. 76 FR 32388 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Dominican Republic

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Dominican Republic Pursuant to Section 7086... requirements of Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to the Dominican Republic and I hereby waive...

  20. 78 FR 39435 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of the Dominican Republic

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of the Dominican Republic Pursuant to Section... Dominican Republic and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination and the accompanying...

  1. The Underdevelopment of Educational Achievement: Mathematics Achievement in the Dominican Republic Eighth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Eduardo; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes results from the study Teaching and Learning of Mathematics in the Dominican Republic (TLMDR) which evaluated eighth grade students' mathematics achievement during 1982-83. States students are not guaranteed an adequate level of mathematics instruction. Contends the Dominican Republic school system enhances and deepens social…

  2. 78 FR 25781 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of the Dominican Republic

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of the Dominican Republic Pursuant to Section... the requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to the Dominican Republic and I...

  3. 77 FR 37378 - Honey From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Preliminary Determination of Circumvention...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... Value and Antidumping Duty Order; Honey From the People's Republic of China, 66 FR 63670 (December 10... the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Anticircumvention Inquiry, 76 FR 239 (December 13, 2011...; and EPROMs Final. See Portable Electric Typewriters from Japan: Final Scope Ruling, 55 FR...

  4. 78 FR 33342 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... warmwater shrimp (frozen shrimp) from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam). The period of... Investigation The products covered by this investigation are certain frozen warmwater shrimp and prawns,...

  5. 76 FR 50718 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... Administrative Reviews, Requests for Revocation in Part, and Deferral of Administrative Review, 76 FR 17825... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China... frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The review covers the...

  6. 78 FR 56211 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ...: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005... Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Administrative Review, 77 FR... FR 55800 (September 11, 2012) (``AR6 VN Shrimp''). \\21\\ In AR5 VN Shrimp, the Department found...

  7. 78 FR 33346 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China... warmwater shrimp (frozen shrimp) from the People's Republic of China (PRC). The period of investigation (POI... are certain frozen warmwater shrimp and prawns, whether wild-caught (ocean harvested) or...

  8. 76 FR 65178 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... Administrative Review, 76 FR 17825 (March 31, 2011) (``Initiation Notice''). The preliminary results are... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') to January 30, 2012....

  9. Into the Future by Tradition: Higher Education in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gieseke, Ludwig

    1987-01-01

    Upon the occasion of the University of Heidelberg (the oldest higher education institution in the Federal Republic of Germany) celebration of its 600th anniversary in 1986, this historical overview and current review of higher education in the Federal Republic looks at a wide range of topics. Contents include: "The Historical Growth of Higher…

  10. 76 FR 80887 - Antidumping Order on Aluminum Extrusions from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Extrusions From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 76 FR... Correction to the Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 76 FR 20627 (April 13, ] 2011). As a... People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Order, 76 FR 30650 (May 26, 2011). On November 7, 2011,...

  11. 78 FR 51143 - Aluminum Extrusions From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Changed Circumstances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... Aluminum Extrusions from the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Order, 76 FR 30650 (May 26, 2011) and Aluminum Extrusions From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Order, 76 FR 30653... Circumstances Review, and Intent To Revoke Order in Part, 77 FR 42276 (July 18, 2012) (Pencils), unchanged...

  12. 75 FR 51243 - Aluminum Extrusions from the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ...: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation, 75 FR 22109 (April 27, 2010). On August 4, 2010, the Aluminum... International Trade Administration Aluminum Extrusions from the People's Republic of China: Postponement of... antidumping duty investigation on Aluminum Extrusions from the People's Republic of China.\\1\\ The notice...

  13. 75 FR 73041 - Aluminum Extrusions From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Final Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation, 75 FR 22109 (``Initiation... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, and Preliminary Determination of Targeted Dumping, 75 FR 69403... International Trade Administration Aluminum Extrusions From the People's Republic of China: Postponement...

  14. 78 FR 66895 - Aluminum Extrusions From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Changed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... Aluminum Extrusions from the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Order, 76 FR 30650 (May 26, 2011) and Aluminum Extrusions From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Order, 76 FR 30653... Reviews and Consideration of Revocation of the Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders in Part, 78...

  15. Mental Health Counseling in the Islamic Republic of Iran: A Marriage of Religion, Science, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priester, Paul E.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the state of mental health counseling in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Topics that are addressed include training of clinicians, theoretical developments in Islamic-based theories of psychology, and issues related to the practice of counseling. Counseling issues in the Islamic Republic of Iran are influenced by its unique…

  16. 76 FR 2336 - Dynamic Random Access Memory Semiconductors From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... Access Memory Semiconductors from the Republic of Korea, 68 FR 47546 (August 11, 2003) (``CVD Order... the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 55764..., 73 FR 57594 (October 3, 2008). As a result, CBP is no longer suspending liquidation for entries...

  17. 77 FR 27423 - Certain Stilbenic Optical Brightening Agents From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Stilbenic Optical Brightening Agents From the People's Republic of... order on certain stilbenic optical brightening agents (``stilbenic OBAs'') from the People's Republic of..., 2012, the ITC notified the Department of its affirmative determination of material injury to a...

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-51 - Shepherd's purse with roots from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... shepherd's purse with roots has been produced and inspected in accordance with the requirements of 7 CFR... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shepherd's purse with roots from the Republic of Korea... and Vegetables § 319.56-51 Shepherd's purse with roots from the Republic of Korea. Shepherd's...

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-51 - Shepherd's purse with roots from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... shepherd's purse with roots has been produced and inspected in accordance with the requirements of 7 CFR... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shepherd's purse with roots from the Republic of Korea... and Vegetables § 319.56-51 Shepherd's purse with roots from the Republic of Korea. Shepherd's...

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-51 - Shepherd's purse with roots from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... shepherd's purse with roots has been produced and inspected in accordance with the requirements of 7 CFR... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shepherd's purse with roots from the Republic of Korea... and Vegetables § 319.56-51 Shepherd's purse with roots from the Republic of Korea. Shepherd's...

  1. 75 FR 34974 - Drill Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Alignment of Final Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Countervailing Duty Investigation, 75 FR 4345 (January 27, 2010), and Drill Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation, 75 FR 4531 (January 28, 2010). The countervailing... People's Republic of China: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination, 75 FR 33245...

  2. 78 FR 20615 - Drill Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ...: Countervailing Duty Order, 76 FR 11758 (March 3, 2011) (CVD Order), remains dispositive. A full description of... International Trade Administration Drill Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of... review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on drill pipe from the People's Republic of China...

  3. 76 FR 19043 - Certain Tissue Paper Products From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... are coated in wax, paraffin, or polymers, of a kind used in floral and food service applications; (2...'s Republic of China, 70 FR 16223 (March 30, 2005) (PRC Tissue Paper Order). \\1\\ MFVN is a company... Republic of China: Notice of Initiation of Anti-circumvention Inquiry, 75 FR 64 (April 5, 2010)...

  4. 76 FR 8338 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... Republic of China, 75 FR 18154 (April 9, 2010) (``Initiation''). However, after accounting for duplicate... Republic of China: Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 42070 (July 20, 2010... Administrative Review, 75 FR 56988 (September 17, 2010). Scope of the Order The scope of the order...

  5. 77 FR 19620 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Republic of China, 64 FR 8308 (February 19, 1999). Pursuant to the requirements set forth in section 751(a... People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Reviews, 75 FR 72794...: Final Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Reviews, 76 FR 9747 (February 22, 2011). \\3\\ See...

  6. 78 FR 14964 - Small Diameter Graphite Electrodes From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 77 FR... International Trade Administration Small Diameter Graphite Electrodes From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and Partial Rescission; 2011-2012 AGENCY:...

  7. 75 FR 23670 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Countervailing Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Bags from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination, 75 FR..., 74 FR 45811 (September 4, 2009) (Preliminary Determination). Therefore, the Department will direct... International Trade Administration (C-552-805) Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from the Socialist Republic...

  8. 75 FR 34100 - Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ...: Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat from the People's Republic of China, 62 FR 48218 (September 15, 1997). On... Republic of China; Preliminary Results of New Shipper Review, 64 FR 8543 (February 22, 1999) (1999 Crawfish... Administration of Export Commodities. See 1999 Crawfish NSR Preliminary Results, 64 FR at 8544. Xiping...

  9. 75 FR 36632 - Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... Republic of Korea: Antidumping Duty Orders, 74 FR 57145 (November 4, 2009) (``Antidumping Duty Order''). On..., 71 FR 29303, (May 22, 2006) (``Final Determination''). Initiation of New Shipper Review Pursuant to... International Trade Administration A-570-900 Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof from the People's Republic...

  10. 76 FR 70957 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR... matter ``Chlorinated Isocyanurates from the People's Republic of China,'' dated October 14, 2011. Scope... (anhydrous) (NaCl 2 (NCO) 3 ). Chlorinated isos are available in powder, granular, and tableted forms....

  11. 78 FR 23222 - Lightweight Thermal Paper From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 77 FR 77017 (December 31, 2012). The review covers the... International Trade Administration Lightweight Thermal Paper From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of... administrative review of the countervailing duty order on lightweight thermal paper from the People's Republic...

  12. 77 FR 13618 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Register (76 FR 75893) on December 5, 2011, allowing for a 60- day comment period. One comment was received... Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua, (also known as CAFTA-DR.) The Agreement... Salvador (3/1/06), Honduras (4/1/ 06), Nicaragua (4/1/04), Guatemala (7/1/06), Dominican Republic (3/1/...

  13. 76 FR 92 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... Republic of China: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation, 75 FR 70719 (November 18, 2010..., As Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). Accordingly, the deadline for completion of the preliminary... International Trade Administration Multilayered Wood Flooring From the People's Republic of China:...

  14. 76 FR 26685 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From the People's Republic of China: Alignment of Final Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ...: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation, 75 FR 70719 (November 18, 2010) and Multilayered Wood Flooring From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation, 75 FR 70714... People's Republic of China: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination, 76 FR 19034...

  15. 31 CFR 585.418 - Vessels of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). 585.418 Section 585.418 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO) AND BOSNIAN SERB-CONTROLLED AREAS OF THE REPUBLIC OF BOSNIA... Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). Any vessel in which a majority or controlling interest is held by...

  16. 31 CFR 586.306 - Government of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). 586.306 Section 586.306 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.306 Government of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). The term Government of the...

  17. 78 FR 22765 - Presidential Determination on Eligibility of the Federal Republic of Somalia To Receive Defense...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... Federal Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, April 8, 2013 [FR Doc. 2013-09106 Filed... Eligibility of the Federal Republic of Somalia To Receive Defense Articles and Defense Services Under the... defense services to the Federal Republic of Somalia will strengthen the security of the United States...

  18. 75 FR 4528 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From the People's Republic of China: Alignment of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... Carbon Bricks from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation, 74 FR... Bricks From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Negative Countervailing Duty Determination, 74 FR... Mexico: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 74 FR 42852 (August 25, 2009). The...

  19. West Meets East in Central Asia: Competing Discourses on Secondary Education Reform in the Kyrgyz Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Young, Alan J.

    The Kyrgyz Republic--a remote mountainous region--is one of five former Soviet states in central Asia. This case study begins with a brief overview of the political and economic situation of the Kyrgyz Republic and its relation to aims of Soviet schooling in the 20th century. A critique of the Soviet schooling model by foreign academics before and…

  20. 76 FR 17836 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... Republic of China, 64 FR 8308 (February 19, 1999). Thus, the antidumping duty order on certain preserved... of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Reviews, 75 FR 72794 (November 26, 2010), unchanged in Wooden Bedroom Furniture from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Reviews, 76...

  1. 76 FR 28732 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 76 FR 17836... Revocation in Part, and Deferral of Administrative Review, 76 FR 17825 (March 31, 2011). Therefore, the... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China:...

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  6. 78 FR 63166 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of... conducting an administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks (kitchen racks) from the People's Republic of China (PRC). The period of review (POR)...

  7. 77 FR 61396 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ...: Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China, 74 FR 46973 (September... International Trade Administration Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of...'') is conducting an administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain kitchen...

  8. 77 FR 61385 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... Notice of Antidumping Duty Order, 74 ] FR 46971 (September 14, 2009), remains dispositive. PRC-Wide... International Trade Administration Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of... duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the People's Republic of China...

  9. [The main directions of public health reforms in the Republic of Uzbekistan].

    PubMed

    Ibragimov, A Iu; Asadov, D A; Menlikulov, P R

    2012-01-01

    The article covers the directive documents regulating the development of public health. The main directions of reforms of public health system of the Republic of Uzbekistan are covered too. The statistical data reflecting the structural changes in public health is presented. The purpose and tasks of reformation of the key public health issues in the Republic of Uzbekistan are explained. PMID:23373349

  10. 78 FR 12718 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Final Determination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative... concerning the antidumping duty order on certain steel threaded rod (``steel threaded rod'') from the People.... No other party filed comments. \\1\\ See Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of...

  11. 76 FR 23564 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... International Trade Administration Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of... concerning imports of galvanized steel wire from the People's Republic of China (PRC) filed in proper form by... Standard, LLC, and Oklahoma Steel & Wire Company, Inc. (Petitioners), domestic producers of...

  12. 75 FR 72794 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Furfuryl Alcohol From the People's Republic of China, 60 FR... Shipper Reviews, 75 FR 10214 (March 5, 2010) (``Initiation Notice''). The Department preliminarily... Duty Order: Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China, 70 FR 329 (January 4,...

  13. 76 FR 49443 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 76 FR... Order: Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China, 70 FR 329 (January 4, 2005). On... Circumstances Review, and Determination To Revoke Order in Part, 71 FR 38621 (July 7, 2006). \\18\\ Cheval...

  14. 76 FR 7534 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... at Less Than Fair Value: Furfuryl Alcohol From the People's Republic of China, 60 FR 22544, 22545... Investigation; Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 75 FR 1333 (January 11, 2010) (``Opportunity to... Furniture From the People's Republic of China, 75 FR 9869 (March 4, 2010) (``Initiation Notice''). \\1\\...

  15. 78 FR 18957 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The Department has determined that the request meets the... INFORMATION: Background The AD order on fish fillets from Vietnam was published on August 12, 2003.\\1\\...

  16. 76 FR 17837 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... Republic of Vietnam, 68 FR 47909 (August 12, 2003). On February 28, 2011, pursuant to section 751(a)(2)(B... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... Vietnam (``Vietnam''), received on February 28, 2011, meets the statutory and regulatory requirements...

  17. 75 FR 16434 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... Combination Rates in Antidumping Investigations involving Non-Market Economy Countries, 70 FR 17233 (April 5... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') are being, or are likely to be, sold in the United States...

  18. 77 FR 21536 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ..., 72 FR 948 (January 9, 2007). \\15\\ Metal furniture parts and unfinished furniture parts made of wood... Furniture from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Administrative Review, 77 FR 12235 (February 29... International Trade Administration Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China:...

  19. 77 FR 39683 - Aluminum Extrusions From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Changed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... People's Republic of China: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 76 FR 18524 (April 4... Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 76 FR 20627 (April 13, 2011). \\2\\ Id. \\3\\ See Aluminum Extrusions from the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Order, 76 FR 30650 (May 26,...

  20. 76 FR 17107 - Uncovered Innerspring Units From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... International Trade Administration Uncovered Innerspring Units From the People's Republic of China: Extension of... time limit for the preliminary results of the new shipper review of uncovered innerspring units... Uncovered Innerspring Units From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New...

  1. 77 FR 5773 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... Isocyanurates from the People's Republic of China, 70 FR 36561 (June 24, 2005). On December 30, 2011, the Department received a timely request for a new shipper review from Puyang Cleanway Chemicals Ltd. (Puyang... Isocyanurates From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Review, 76 FR 6399 (February...

  2. 77 FR 33405 - Small Diameter Graphite Electrodes From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... the People's Republic of China, 74 FR 8775 (February 26, 2009) (``SDGE Order''). DATES: Effective Date... Republic of China: Initiation of Anticircumvention Inquiry, 76 FR 14910, 14912, 14916-17 (March 18, 2011... Affirmative Preliminary Determination of Critical Circumstances, in Part, 73 FR 49408, 49412 (August 21,...

  3. 77 FR 37873 - Small Diameter Graphite Electrodes From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... Diameter Graphite Electrodes from the People's Republic of China, 74 FR 8775 (February 26, 2009) (SDGE... product at issue. See, e.g., CTL Plate from the PRC, 74 FR at 33992-33993. \\10\\ See, e.g., Affirmative... from the People's Republic of China, 74 FR 33991, 33992 (July 14, 2009) (CTL Plate from the...

  4. 75 FR 2858 - Negotiation of a Reciprocal Defense Procurement Memorandum of Understanding With the Czech Republic

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... Negotiation of a Reciprocal Defense Procurement Memorandum of Understanding With the Czech Republic AGENCY... Defense Procurement Memorandum of Understanding with the Czech Republic. DoD is requesting industry feedback regarding its experience in public defense procurements conducted by or on behalf of the...

  5. 76 FR 12704 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... subsidies. See, e.g., Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the ] People's Republic of China... Certain Non- Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the New... of China, 64 FR 8308 (February 19, 1999) (the Order). On February 1, 2010, the Department...

  6. Ubersichten: Overview of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Federal States. Social Studies Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen; Tinkler, D. William

    This series of lesson plans provides an overview of the Federal Republic of Germany. Transparencies and instructions are provided for each of the four lessons. Lesson 1 looks at "Culture and Perspective Taking on the Federal Republic of Germany" with five activities relating to: (1) "Impressions of Germany and Germans"; (2) "German National…

  7. 76 FR 50995 - Certain Steel Wheels From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... Antidumping Duty Investigation, 76 FR 23294 (April 26, 2011). On August 5, 2011, Accuride Corporation and... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Wheels From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of... investigation on certain steel wheels from the People's Republic of China.\\1\\ The notice of initiation...

  8. 76 FR 16384 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Shipper Review, 75 FR 60730 (October 1, 2010). The preliminary results of this review are currently due no... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The period of review...

  9. 75 FR 20563 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ..., 75 FR 3446 (January 21, 2010) (``Preliminary Rescission''). The final results of this review are... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). This review covers...

  10. 77 FR 30501 - Uncovered Innerspring Units From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Anticircumvention...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... People's Republic of China: Notice of Antidumping Duty Order, 74 FR 7661 (February 19, 2009) (``Order... the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 73 FR 4817 (January 28, 2008). \\3\\ Order, 74 FR at 7662. In the second administrative review of the Order,\\4\\...

  11. 77 FR 50464 - Honey From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Final Determination of Circumvention of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... and Antidumping Duty Order; Honey From the People's Republic of China, 66 FR 63670 (December 10, 2001... Preliminary Determination of Circumvention of the Antidumping Duty Order, 77 FR 37378 (June 21, 2012... International Trade Administration Honey From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Final Determination...

  12. 78 FR 21596 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... Countervailing Duty Determination, 78 FR 13017 (February 26, 2013). \\2\\ See Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks from... From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination, 77 FR... International Trade Administration Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of...

  13. 76 FR 23294 - Certain Steel Wheels From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... includes steel wheels, discs, and rims of carbon and/or alloy composition and clad wheels, discs, and rims... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Wheels From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of... steel wheels (``steel wheels'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') filed in proper form...

  14. 76 FR 31673 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Arab Republic of Egypt

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Arab Republic of Egypt Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the... Act with respect to the Arab Republic of Egypt and I hereby waive such restriction. This...

  15. Uncivil Speech: Invective and the Rhetorics of Democracy in the Early Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engels, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Robert Owen's "Declaration of Mental Independence," declaimed on the Fourth of July, 1826, was one of the most ill-received speeches in the early Republic. The attendant controversy provides an opportunity to theorize invective's role in democratic culture. Invective was useful in the early Republic, and continues to be useful today, because it is…

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-35 - Persimmons from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Persimmons from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-35... § 319.56-35 Persimmons from the Republic of Korea. Persimmons (fruit) (Disopyros khaki) may be imported... applicable provisions of this subpart. (a) The production site, which is an orchard, where the persimmons...

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-35 - Persimmons from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Persimmons from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-35... § 319.56-35 Persimmons from the Republic of Korea. Persimmons (fruit) (Disopyros khaki) may be imported... applicable provisions of this subpart. (a) The production site, which is an orchard, where the persimmons...

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-35 - Persimmons from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Persimmons from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-35... § 319.56-35 Persimmons from the Republic of Korea. Persimmons (fruit) (Disopyros khaki) may be imported... applicable provisions of this subpart. (a) The production site, which is an orchard, where the persimmons...

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-35 - Persimmons from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Persimmons from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-35... § 319.56-35 Persimmons from the Republic of Korea. Persimmons (fruit) (Disopyros khaki) may be imported... applicable provisions of this subpart. (a) The production site, which is an orchard, where the persimmons...

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-35 - Persimmons from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Persimmons from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-35... § 319.56-35 Persimmons from the Republic of Korea. Persimmons (fruit) (Disopyros khaki) may be imported... applicable provisions of this subpart. (a) The production site, which is an orchard, where the persimmons...